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Subject: LORD ROBERT STEPHENSON SMYTH BADEN POWEL
By:Sarthak Class- VIth – B Roll No. 11 KV Vikaspuri
Thanks to my parents who permitted me to join SCOUTS Heartiest thank to Mr Kalicharana sir and Mr RP Sharma sir who taught me about SCOUT & GUIDE. Thanks to KV Vikaspuri where I got chance to learn about SCOUT.
Sarthak Class- VI-B Roll No. 11
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT CHAPTERS SCHEME
ROBERT STEPHENSON SMYTH BADEN POWEL SCOUT GUIDE BOER WAR
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LORD ROBERT STEPHENSON SMYTH BADEN POWEL
FOUDER OF SCOUT & GUIDES
Robert Baden-Powell (1857-1941), British soldier and founder of the Boy Scouts, was born in London, and completed his education at Charterhouse. His full name was Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell of Gilwell. He joined the 13th Hussars in India in 1876. From 1888 to 1895 he was stationed, successively, in India, Afghanistan, Zululand, and Ashanti. Before and during the Boer War, he served as chief staff officer during the British campaign in Matabeleland (1896-1897), colonel of Irregular Horse, South Africa, and lieutenant colonel of the 5th Dragoon Guards (1897-99). In recognition of his courageous defense of Mafeking (now Mafikeng), he was promoted to the rank of major general. He organized the South African Constabulary toward the end of the war and became inspector general of
cavalry in 1903. In 1908 he became a lieutenant general. Knighted in 1909, he retired from military service the following year. He started the Boy Scouts movement in 1907, and in 1910 he helped to found the Girl Guides, a similar organization for girls. During World War I he served in the British Intelligence Department. He wrote many books on the Boy Scout movement, including What Scouts Can Do (1921) and Scouting and Youth Movement (1929).
Boy Scouts, international movement dedicated to developing the character of
boys and youths and training them for the responsibilities of adult life. The movement was begun in England in 1907 by Robert Baden-Powell, who based his program on two already existing American organizations: Sons of Daniel Boone, founded by the American illustrator-naturalist Daniel Carter Beard, and Woodcraft Indians, started by the British-born Canadian writer Ernest Thompson Seton.
Scouting exists in more than 140 countries. The national organizations are autonomous but hold membership in the World Organization of the Scout Movement, which meets every two years. The World Scout Bureau in Geneva, Switzerland, serves as secretariat for the movement. International rallies, called jamborees, are held every four years.
BOY SCOUT FROM AMERICA
Boy Scouts of America (BSA) was incorporated in 1910. Each Scout takes the Scout Oath: “On my honor I will do my best to do my duty to God and my country and to obey the Scout Law; to help other people at all times; to keep myself physically strong, mentally awake, and morally straight.” The Scout Law calls upon all Scouts to be trustworthy, loyal, helpful, friendly, courteous, kind, obedient, cheerful, thrifty, brave, clean, and reverent. The movement is without military or political connection and is not affiliated with any particular religious organization. Although Scouting has no specific religious affiliation, the Boy Scouts of America bans from membership those who refuse to affirm a “duty to God” as part of the Scout Oath. The organization also excludes homosexuals. These restrictions came under legal challenges in the 1980s and 1990s. In 2000 the Supreme Court of the United States, by a 5 to 4 vote,
ruled that the Boy Scouts can bar homosexuals from serving as Scout leaders. The Court said the organization is a private group with a First Amendment right to choose leaders based on its expressed values (see Constitution of the United States: Amendment 1). Critics asserted the Boy Scouts’ policy violated antidiscrimination laws. The Boy Scouts organization encourages boys to participate in vigorous outdoor activities. Camping is a regular part of the scout program, which also includes conservation, forestry, farm work, and aid in community services. During World War II (1939-1945), for example, the Boy Scouts participated in a variety of civilian activities. The program also stresses the development of skill in woodcraft, swimming, first aid, signaling, and other activities. The Boy Scouts’ motto is “Be Prepared.” The Boy Scouts of America, with headquarters in Irving, Texas, is administered by a national council, which charters local councils. Local Scouting organizations are sponsored by churches, schools, civic groups, and other bodies, which are chartered by the local councils.
The Scouting movement in the United States is open to boys and youths beginning in the first grade or between 7 and 20 years of age. The movement has three main divisions: Cub Scouting (including Tiger Cubs, Cub Scouts, and Webelos), Boy Scouting, and Venturing, each designed
Cub Scouting is for boys in the first through fifth grades. The programs offer boys participation in family-centered activities, community service, and camping. Boys belong to a den, usually a group of six to eight boys. The dens form a pack that meets monthly. Tiger Cubs is a Cub Scouting program for boys in the first grade (or who are age seven). Each boy has an adult partner. The Tiger Cub, working with the adult, completes a series of 15 indoor and outdoor activities to earn a Tiger Cub badge. Tiger Cubs wear a blue uniform with a blue-and-orange cap and neckerchief. After the first grade, boys in the Cub Scouts advance through the ranks of Bobcat, Wolf, and Bear. The programs emphasize activities in and around the boys' homes, with an increasing emphasis on outdoor activities as the boys grow older. The uniform for Bobcats and Wolves is blue with a
yellow cap and neckerchief. Bears wear the same uniform with a blue cap and neckerchief. Webelos (short for “We’ll Be Loyal Scouts”) are boys who are in the fourth or fifth grade. Webelos may wear either the blue Cub Scout uniform or the tan-and-olive Boy Scout uniform with an olive-and-plaid cap. After achieving Webelos rank, boys can earn the Arrow of Light Award, the highest rank in Cub Scouting.
Boy Scouting is available to boys who have finished the fifth grade, or who are at least 10 years old, until they reach the age of 17. Boy Scouts are grouped into troops, and each troop is divided into patrols of six to eight boys. Troops are led by Scoutmasters, who can be male or female and must be at least 21 years old. A boy who lives in an area without a Boy Scout troop can become a Lone Cub Scout or Lone Boy Scout and coordinate his activity with larger scout units by mail. A Boy Scout starts as a Scout and can move through the ranks of Tenderfoot, Second Class, First Class, Star, Life, and Eagle Scout by completing increasingly challenging requirements. The Boy Scout uniform consists of a tan shirt and olive pants.
The Venturing program is for young men and women aged 14 through 20. Venturing crews are organized by businesses and various community groups. Each crew provides Scouts with learning experiences and leadership skills in a career, hobby, sport, or outdoor program. Participants, called Venturers, usually wear forest green uniforms.
PUBLICATION AND MEMBERSHIP
The Boy Scouts of America publishes handbooks; pamphlets on specific subjects; brochures; a bimonthly magazine for adult leaders, Scouting; and a monthly magazine for all boys, Boys’ Life. In the United States there are about 3.2 million youths and 1.2 million adults involved in Boy Scout organizations.
The Girl Scouts help girls build skills. Those skills have changed with the times. The first achievement badge—Child Nurse—was awarded in 1912. It was given to girls who showed they could care for children. Today, Girl Scouts earn badges for achievements in many areas, including math, science, arts, sports, and managing money. They can even earn awards online for exploring computers and cyberspace.
WHO ARE THE GIRL SCOUTS?
There are about 3 million members of the Girl Scouts of the United States of America. Girls of all backgrounds are welcome to join. Scouts range in age from 5 to 17. There are five age levels of Girl Scouts. These levels are Daisy (ages 5 and 6), Brownie (ages 6 to 8), Junior (ages 8 to 11), and Girl Scout (ages 11 to 17).
Scouts are guided by the Girl Scout Promise and the Girl Scout Law. The Promise states, “On my honor, I will try to serve God and my country, to help people at all times, and to live by the Girl Scout Law.” The Girl Scout Law states the qualities Scouts should strive for. These qualities include honesty, helpfulness, responsibility, fairness, and courage. The Girl Scouts also trains girls to be leaders.
WHAT DO GIRLS SCOUTS DO?
Girl Scouts meet in small groups called troops with adult leaders. The troops and their leaders meet about once a month. They work on crafts or projects. They also plan activities to help their communities. For example, Scouts might distribute food for the homeless or raise money for a scholarship fund. Girl Scouts also go on trips. These can be overnight camping trips at a nearby state park. Or they can be longer trips that might involve a tour of historic ruins or backpacking in a wilderness area. Girl Scouts earn badges, patches, and pins for achievements in different areas. Girls might choose to work for these awards in fitness, pet care, community service, reading, sports, arts, and many other activities.
Brownies win Try-Its for trying different activities. Girl Scouts can even create their own club as part of a program called Studio 2B that enables teens to set their own goals.
SELLING GIRL SCOUT COOKIES
In 1917, the Girl Scouts started selling cookies to pay for troop activities. Back then, the Scouts—with their mothers—baked the cookies at home. Today, there are companies that bake the special cookies.
Girl Scouts Girl Scouts of the United States is the largest
organization for girls in the world. Girl Scouts do all kinds of activities, including hiking, arts and crafts, and volunteering. They are also famous for selling cookies! More than 170 million boxes of Girl Scout cookies are sold every year. Thin Mints are the most popular kind.
HOW THE GIRL SCOUTS BEGAN
The Girl Scouts were founded in 1912 by Juliette Gordon Low. Low called a meeting in Savannah, Georgia, where she lived. Eighteen girls attended the first meeting. Low got the idea for the Girl Scouts from friends she had met in England, Robert Baden-Powell and his sister Agnes. Robert had started the Boy Scouts in England, and Agnes had started a group for girls called Girl Guides. Low liked the idea of bringing girls from all backgrounds together. She believed that girls should know their way around the great outdoors as well as how to cook and sew. She wanted to prepare girls for lives as homemakers. She also wanted them to be ready to join the business world, if that’s what they chose to do. Low traveled and set up Girl Scout troops across the United States. She also established a national organization. The Girl Scouts expanded rapidly
Helping the Community The Girl Scouts offers girls ages 5 to 17 a variety of activity that emphasize fun, friendship, and the benefits of helping others. These Girl Scouts plant trees during a community service project.
The Girl Scouts were founded in 1912 by American youth leader Juliette Low, center. Today, there are more than 3 million Girl Scouts across the United States. T
Boer War (1899-1902), conflict in southern Africa between Britain and the allied, Afrikaner-populated Transvaal (or South African Republic) and Orange Free State, in what is now South Africa; also known as the South African War.
TENSIONS LEADING TO WAR
Throughout the 19th century, after Britain had acquired the Cape of Good Hope in 1814 and expanded its possessions in southern Africa, ill feeling mounted between the Dutchdescended population, called Afrikaners, or Boers, and British settlers. This resulted in the Afrikaner migration called the Great Trek (1835-1843?) and the consequent establishment of the Afrikaner republics: Natal, Orange Free State, and the South African Republic. Natal became a British colony in 1843, but Britain granted independence to
the Transvaal territories in 1852 and to the Orange Free State in 1854. In the late 1850s, the Transvaal territories formed the South African Republic. The British annexed the South African Republic in 1877, but an Afrikaner revolt restored the republic’s independence in 1881. The stage for war was set in 1884, when gold was discovered in the Witwatersrand, a region then encompassing parts of the southern Transvaal. The discovery lured thousands of British miners and prospectors to settle in the area, the influx being so great that the city of Johannesburg was created almost overnight. The Afrikaners, primarily farmers, resented the newcomers, whom they called Uitlanders (“foreigners”), and in token of their feeling, taxed them heavily and denied them voting rights. The resentment on both sides grew, ultimately leading to a revolt by the Uitlanders in
Johannesburg against the Afrikaner government. This revolt was instigated by the British colonial statesman and financier Cecil Rhodes, then prime minister of the Cape Colony, who desired to bring all of southern Africa into the
British Empire. In December 1895, Leander Starr Jameson, a friend of Rhodes, led a band of 600 British armed men in an unauthorized attempt to support the rebellious Uitlanders in the South African Republic. Called the Jameson Raid, the venture resulted in Jameson’s capture and imprisonment and in Rhodes’s resignation. Jameson later served as premier of the Cape Colony from 1904 to 1908. Direct negotiations to solve the South African problem
proved unfruitful, and hostility between the Afrikaners and the Uitlanders continued unabated. The president of the South African Republic, Paul Kruger, was unyielding in his opposition to the Uitlanders. In 1899 the recently appointed British governor of Cape Colony, Alfred Milner, who strongly resented the Afrikaners’ treatment of British subjects, issued orders to build up the 12,000-man British army contingent then in southern Africa. The force eventually grew to include 500,000 men. On October 9, 1899, Kruger demanded the withdrawal of all British troops from the Transvaal frontiers within 48 hours, with the alternative of formal war.
British noncompliance with Kruger’s demands brought
immediate action, and an alliance of the South African Republic and the Orange Free State declared war on October 12, 1899. The Afrikaner forces were initially successful, invading Natal and Cape Colony. Within days they succeeded in surrounding British forces at Ladysmith, Natal, and at Mafeking (now Mafikeng) and Kimberley, Cape Colony. In December the British commander in chief Sir Redvers H. Buller sent fresh troops to relieve besieged British forces in three areas of the war zone: Colenso, Natal; the hills of Magersfontein on the Orange Free State and Cape Colony borders; and the mountain range of Stormberge in the Cape Colony. Within a week’s time, referred to as Black Week by the British, each of the new units had been defeated by Afrikaner forces. On January 10, 1900, the British general Frederick S. Roberts was sent to replace Buller as commander in chief. (Buller,
however, remained to fight throughout the war.) Early in February, Roberts ordered the British commander John D. P. French north to relieve the city of Kimberley; French’s objective was attained four days later. Simultaneously, Roberts undertook a northeastward march from Cape Colony into the Orange Free State. Attacked by the Afrikaner general Piet Cronje on February 27, Roberts fought back successfully and forced the surrender of Cronje and his troops, altogether about 4000 men. On March 13, Roberts entered Bloemfontein, capital of the Orange Free State. Two months later, on May 17, besieged Mafeking, defended by troops under the command of the British soldier Robert Baden-Powell, was relieved. Roberts captured Johannesburg on May 31 and Pretoria, the capital of the South African Republic, on June 5. Upon these defeats, President Kruger fled to Europe, and Roberts, believing the war to be won, returned to England in January 1901.
British satisfaction proved short-lived. Boer leaders, among them such soldiers and future statesmen as Louis Botha and Jan Christiaan Smuts, launched extensive and well-planned guerrilla warfare against the occupying British troops. The fighting thus continued for the next year and was finally quelled only through the severe tactics of the new British commander in chief, Lord Horatio Herbert Kitchener. He exhausted the enemy by devastating the Afrikaner farms that sustained and sheltered the guerrillas, placing black African and Afrikaner women and children in concentration camps, and building a strategic chain of formidable iron blockhouses for his troops.
TREETY OF VEREENING
Negotiations for peace began on March 23, 1902, and on May 31 Afrikaner leaders signed the Treaty of Vereeniging. The settlement provided for the end of hostilities and eventual self-government to the Transvaal and the Orange
Free State as colonies of the British Empire. Britain agreed in turn to pay a £3 million indemnity for rehabilitation, and granted amnesty and repatriation to Afrikaner soldiers who pledged their loyalty to the British monarch. In the course of the Afrikaner War, British losses totaled
about 28,000 men. Afrikaner losses were about 4000 men, plus more than 20,000 civilians who died from disease in concentration camps. Thousands of black Africans also died in the camps. The Treaty of Vereeniging brought peace and political unification to South Africa but did not erase the underlying causes that had triggered the conflict. Even after the establishment of the Union of South Africa in 1910, the Afrikaners, by and large, kept themselves culturally and
Reference: 1. 2. 3. Internet AIDS to Scouting. Encarta encyclopedia.
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