# SONIC LOGGING

(TECHING NOTES BY P.V.RAMANA RAO) Acoustic properties of matter: 1. Compressional and shear wave velocities:-for determination of porosity, lithology, and pore compressibility. 2. Compressional and shear wave attenuation :- for cement bond quality and fractures. 3. Amplitude of reflected waves:- for locating vugs, fractures and for casing inspection. Acoustic travel time or sonic travel time is the time taken by sound to travel through an interval of one foot of the medium. ∆t = 10 6/v microseconds per foot where v is the velocity in ft / sec. Compressional waves are also known as longitudinal waves or P waves. Compressional wave velocity is given by V p = [( K + 4/3 ) G/ ρ ]

1/2

= { (E /ρ )( 1-µ )/ [ ( 1-2µ ) ( 1+ µ )] } 1/2 Where K = Bulk modulus, G = Shear modulus E = Young’s modulus ρ = Density µ = Poisson’s ratio = transverse strain / longitudinal strain Further mathematical equations are G=E/2(1+µ ) and K = E / 3 ( 1-3µ ) Shear waves are also known as transverse waves. Shear wave velocity Vs is given by Vs = (G/ρ) 1/2 = [ ( E / ρ ) / 2 ( 1+ µ ) ] 1/2 The presence of shear waves requires the medium to possess shear strength and as such shear waves can propagate only in solids. TIME AVERAGE EQUATION : Subsurface formations are subjected to external overburden and internal pore pressures. Laboratory experiments have shown that the acoustic velocity V p is effected

5 50 170 to 60 66. temperature and pressure. The more compacted the rock . the higher its acoustic velocity is. but not by the individual values.5 to 51 47.5 186 192. it follows that sonic velocity depends on compaction.3 207 203.000 20. Further the sonic velocity depends also on the fluid density and the bulk modulus.by differential pressure ∆ p which is the difference between the external pressure and the internal pressure. salinity and pressure.500 21.000 to 23. 18.6 to 43.000 15. MATERIAL Sandstone Limestone Dolomite Anhydrite Shale Salt FLUIDS: Water 200kppm .5 43. 15 psia 150 kppm. 15 psia 100 kppm -doPure Mud cake Oil Methane 15 psia -doDrilling mud @ 20 0 c 5540 5375 5200 4380 4870 4980 4200 1600 180.7
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. Acoustic velocity in oil differs from that of water and has a lower value and depends on oil compaction.000 to 19. gas in solution. Because ∆ p determines the degree of rock compaction and its bulk modulus. Acoustic velocity in water depends on temperature.000 ∆ t ( µ sec/ft ) 55. The curves indicate that the velocity increases with the differential pressure.5 200.000 23.000 5900 to 17.8 238 626 Vp ft/sec.

1/Vb = Φ / Vf as read by log ) ∆ t log = ∆ tf. Acoustic waves from the transmitter reach the receiver in a complex manner in a borehole filled with the drilling fluid.∆ t ma )] . ( 1/Bcp ) where Bcp = ∆ t sh /100. multiple reflections between the borehole walls. If the complete wave train is recorded at the receiver it contains many components contributed by bore geometry. Lack of compaction is usually indicated when the travel time of adjacent shales ∆ t
sh
exceeds 100 µ sec.∆ t ma ) / ( ∆ t f . angles of incidence of sonic waves etc .
TIXIER suggested a compaction corrected expression Φ =[ ( ∆ t .Φ + ∆ t ma (1-Φ ) From which Φ = ( ∆ t. low velocity shales.Wyllie’s time average equation for a rock containing fluids is expressed as Total travel time = total travel time in liquid fraction + total travel time in rock matrix fraction.As far as the sonic log is concerned the arrival time of the first peak of the compressional wave is measured.∆ t ma )/( ∆ t f .∆ t ma ) UNCOMPACTED FORMATIONS: Application uncompacted of Wyllie’s where equation to formations differential + (1-Φ )/ Vma or ( V bulk or Vlog
pressures less than 4000 psia yields Φ values too high. ie.
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SIGNAL PATH IN THE BOREHOLE
FULL-WAVE ACOUSTIC SIGNAL AT RECEIVER
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Sonic paths in washouts can also be compensated and the log recorded by such a system is called the BOREHOLE COMPENSATED SONIC LOG. the travel time through the mud paths can be calculated and T 1 can be corrected.∆ t = ( T2 – T1) /2 In this configuration the mud paths are cancelled . and two receivers are placed at the middle with a receiver span of 2 ft. ∆ t = T1/L which includes twice the mud path and also assumes that the path in the formation is approximately equal to the span L between the transmitter and the receiver. from the transmitter. By increasing the number of transmitters and receivers a better averaged value of sonic travel time can be achieved. This is a ∆ laborious process and can be avoided by using another receiver at a distance of two ft. If the tool is centralized and the diameter of the bore hole remains constant throughout the span.
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. Two transmitters are kept apart by a distance of 8 ft.R2. These four transducers are designated as Tr1. If T1 is the time taken by the sound to reach the receiver from the transmitter. If T1 and T2 are the times taken by the sonic wave to reach R1 and R2 .In a single transmitter –receiver model the receiver is located at a distance of 3 ft.Centralizers are recommended to minimize the effects of borehole diameter and the tilts of the tool. below the first receiver. The distance between each transmitter and receiver being 3 ft.R1. and Tr2 and four samplings are done.

In washout sections the tool tends to read borehole fluid velocities. and ∆ t2 = (T 4-T2 ) / 2. Compaction corrections as mentioned earlier are to be applied for unconsolidated formations while computing the porosities and for this purpose the adjacent shale
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.R1----------T4. The log is recorded on the second and third tracks with the sonic travel times increasing from right left (40 microseconds to 200 microseconds). Borehole diameter is to be taken into cognizance while noting the travel times. Against gas bearing and highly fractured zones the phenomenon of cycle skipping is observed with increased travel times as the first arrivals are attenuated. The resolution of the tool increases with decreased span but this cannot be reduced beyond certain design limitations to avoid direct coupling between the transmitter and the receiver.R2-------T3 ∆ t1 = ( T3-T1 )/2
Tr2 – R2---------T2 Tr2.Tr1 – R1-----. The tool can be run in combination with other resistivity and porosity tools.T1 Tr1 .
Generally sonic tools have a top spring centralizer and a bottom two arm caliper and a gamma ray tool can be assembled on the top.
∆ t = ( ∆ t1 + ∆ t2 ) / 2 = 1 / 2 [ ( T3-T1)/2 + (T4-T2 )/2 ] =[( T3 + T4) –( T1 + T2)] /4 This system also compensates for tool tilts and washouts. ∆ t = [( T3 + T4 error ) – ( T1 error + T2 )] / 4.

Acoustic imaging has got some relative advantages over resistivity imaging. The sonic travel times over the entire depth of the well can be integrated and this integrated travel time can effectively be used in correcting the seismic sections. The travel times are effected by the type and mode of distribution of shale
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.Elastic modulii can be computed from compressional and shear wave velocities and density measured by sonic and density logs respectively. Lithology 3. Measurement of internal diameter and thickness of the casing. ( Φ d-Φ s ). Even over very large distances the sonic log correlates well between wells. and circumferential acoustic scanning tools are some of the latest generation tools which can investigate deeper into the formations and image the borehole wall respectively. 5. Cross plots with other porosity logs yield good results in determining the lithology. applications are1. Porosity determination 2. Since the sonic wave propagation through fluids is delayed the log response is primarily due to the rock matrix and the primary porosity. dipole sonic tools. Correlation of wells 4. Knowledge of elastic modulii ( mechanical properties of the rock ) is essential while carrying out hydro-fracturing jobs. Seismic calibrations and synthetic seismograms. By comparing with the resistivity logs tight formations/ sections within the same sand body can easily be identified. Ultra long spaced sonic tools. Acoustic imaging of the borehole and acoustic coring by circumferential scanning 7. Substraction of sonic porosity from density porosity gives a satisfactory value of vugular porosity within a reservoir rock. Sonic amplitude measurement has got wider applications in cement evaluation and fracture identification . Further the acoustic impedance which is a product of travel time and density (∆ t x ρ) in a continuous mode called the synthetic seismogram is being extensively used for seismic calibrations and correlations. To sum up sonic log . Cement sheath evaluation by amplitude measurement 6.velocities are taken as reference The log is extensively used for resistivity-sonic cross plots for finding the water saturations.