This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
spectrum. SPECTRUM The speed of light in a vacuum is approximately ________ meters per 3X108 mps second. Infrared radiation has ______ wavelength than visible radiation. LONGER The quantum theory assumes that light is composed of tiny energy PHOTON packets called. Does a photon of ultraviolet radiation posses more or less energy than YES a photon of infrared radiation? When light is reflected from a surface, what is the relationship between THEY ARE the angle of incidence and the angle of reflection? EQUAL The bending of light ray as it passes into a region of different density is REFRACTION cause by______. List the two factors that cause energy loss when light passes through a REFRACTION window pane. and REFLECTION Light reflect differently from a smooth surface SPECULAR REFLECTION FOR SMOOTH than from a rough surface. Name these two SURFACE, AND DIFFUSE REFLECTION types of reflection. FOR ROUGH SURFACES) When light is travelling from a dense medium to a less dense medium, CRITICAL ANGLE the incident angle that produces an angle of refraction of 90o is called the _________ angle. ______ is the intelligence in an optical fiber. LIGHT Range in wavelength if the optical spectrum. 1x10-3 to 1x10-8 m The vibratory rate of electromagnetic waves can be expresses, either in FREQUENCY or terms of its ______ or its ______. its WAVELENGTH Optical frequencies are expressed in terms of _________ rather than WAVELENGTH frequency. The units commonly used to identify optical wavelengths micron (10-6), the angstrom are the. _________________ (10-10) and the nanometer (10-9). Range of Infrared in optical spectrum 1000 microns to 770 nm Range of visible light in optical spectrum. 770 nm to 390 nm Range of ultraviolet in optical spectrum. 390nm to 10 nm Colours in visible light spectrum are __________ Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue respectively. and Violet _________ is the science devoted to light. OPTICS _________ acknowledges that light has wave-like characteristics, but it QUANTUM also states that a light wave behaves as if it consists of many tiny THEORY particles. Optical science is made up of two related branches; _________ and Physical Optics _________. and Geometric Optics _________ is based upon the concept that light is composed of rays, Geometric radiating in various directions from a source. Optics _________ Treats light as a wave phenomenon, light propagation is Physical Optics studied by wave fronts rather than by rays. _________ represents the oldest branch of optics, dating back many Geometric hundreds of years. It deals with the geometric response of light to Optics matter. _________ applies whenever light strikes an interface, or boundary, SNELL’S LAW OF
between two unlike media. REFLECTION) Light propagates slightly slower in other media. The more dense the SLOWER material, the _________ light travels. The principle which optical fibers, lasers and LEDs TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION relies on. The containment of light within an optic fiber depends TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION entirely on. Surface reflection is also known as ________. Fresnell Loss Optical components are _________. MIRRORS, LENSES AND PRISMS ___________ are the most common of all optical components. Mirrors household mirrors are known as _________ surface REAR SURFACE MIRROR mirrors. Front surface mirrors are not subject to _________ or _________ REFRACTION OR problems. DISPERSION Plane front surface mirrors are often used in optical systems BEAM STEERING for _________. A wide-angle rear view mirror is one application for a _________ mirror. Vehicular rear view Mirrors used to focus collimated beams have a _________ curvature. Inside Lenses that have a primarily ________ shape tend to converge light rays convex to a common focal point To diverge a collimated beam, you would use a __________ lens. Concave To compress a laser beam from one diameter to a smaller diameter, Biconvex, you would use a ________ lens followed by a __________ lens. biconcave A cylindrical lens could be used to convert a spot of light to a ________ of Elliptical beam light. A cube-type beam splitter is made up of two _______ prisms bonded Identical right together at the hypotenuse. angle Multiple cube-type beam splitters can be combined to form a ________. Single beam Advantage of rear surface mirrors The glass substrate protects the reflective surface Rear surface mirrors are also subject to another phenomenon called as Dispersion ________ Means one color or one wavelength Monochromatic Natural sunlight is a composite of all visible wavelengths, as well as White light infrared and ultraviolet radiation, this is known as ___________. ________ are used for redirecting light in optical systems. Front surface mirrors The have the reflective coating applied to the front surface of a Front surface substrate material mirrors One disadvantage of front surface mirrors is ______. Very susceptible to damage Flat mirrors are also known as ______. Plane mirrors ________ has its reflective surface on the inside of a curved Concave mirrors section ________ has its reflective surface on the outside of a curved Convex mirrors section. What does snell’s law states? The angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence. Applications of convex mirrors, are Anti shoplifting devices and vehicular rear view mirrors Convex mirrors have few application in fiber optics due to the _______ Diverging effect on the light beams ______ are used widely in lens assembly of LEDs to converge and Concave
intensify the emitted radiation in a given direction reflectors Types of lenses Plano-concave, biconcave, concave-convex, plano-convex, biconvex, convex-concave Lenses that are primarily convex are called ______ Converging lenses Lenses that are primarily concave are called _______ Diverging lenses Parameters that determine the focal lengths Curvature radii of the two surfaces, both biconvex and biconcave lenses are refractive index of the lens material, thickness of the lens One important function of lenses in fiber optic systems is Beam expansion or _________ compression A _________ is a transparent piece of optical material with at Prism least two polished plane surfaces The most commonly recognized prisms is the ___________ Equilateral or dispersion prism ______________ are often used as dispersing devices to break Equilateral prism white light into its constituent colours or wavelengths Equilateral prisms are widely used in Spectroscopes, refraction experiments, ________ but limited application in fiber classroom demonstrations optics systems Prisms in fiber optic systems are usually used as Beam splitters and beam mixers Lateral offset and the ghost image can be reduced to Pellicles negligible proportion by making the plate thin as possible, this devices are called ________ ______ are preferred for most general applications on beam Cube-type twin-prism splitters Beam splitters can also be used as _________ Beam mixers Optical energy can be measured by one of two systems Radiometry or ______ or _______. Photometry The optical measurement system that is referenced to Photometric human eye response is the _____ system. Solid angles are measured in what units? Steredians When viewing an emitting surface, the apparent intensity is Cosine equal to what function of the viewing angle? The ratio of flux to projected area of emitting surface is know Incidence as Energy having a wavelength of 700 nm will cause the human Red eye to perceive the color __________. If a given surface area is moved twice as far away from a light 1/square of the source, the amount of flux incident upon the surface will be distance from the light reduced by a factor of ______. source The unit of measurement of radiant flux is the _______. Watts Luminous flux is measured in _______ units. Lumens The symbol for radiant intensity is Ie. Both the term “radiant” Radiometric and the subscript “e” should tell you that this quantity is referenced to the ____ system of optical measurement. Is the system measurement system that laymen probably Radiant energy understand the least The system that deals with the measurement of all radiant Radiometry energy, both visible and nonvisible Is only concerned with radiant energy whose wavelength falls Photometry within the visible spectrum
Referenced to physical constants, as are electrical measurements Based upon the response of the human eye to radiant power at various wavelengths The electromagnetic energy travelling from a source The rate at which energy is passing to, from, or through a surface or other geometrical entity. Flux, per unit of area, falling upon a surface. Flux, per unit of area, leaving a surface A ratio of the area on the surface of a sphere to the square of the radius of the sphere.
Radiometric measurements Photometric measurements (Q) Energy (O) Flux (E) Incidence (M) Exitance (w) Solid Angle, expressed in Steradians (sr) Steradian
A solid angle, subtending an area on the surface of a sphere, equal to the square of the radius of that sphere. Flux per unit of solid angle, radiating from a sphere. (I) Intensity Intensity, per unit area, of a source (L) Sterance Inverse square law The amount of power incident upon a surface is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source. Cosine Law The power incident upon a given area is a function of the cosine of the angle between the surface normal and the direction of the incident flux. What is the equivalent of one watt One joule per second ______ is used to describe the amount of brightness sensation Lumen unit created in the human eye by electromagnetic radiation What does CIE stands for? International Commission of Illumination The ____ is merely the amount of luminous flux incident upon a Lux, lux is equal to 1 surface. lumen Is the unit of luminous intensity, is the measure of luminous flux Candela per unit of solid angle in photometry One lumen of flux per steradian is equal to One candela
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.