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RACHEL ANNE BARLAO Legend: Location/ Specimen <> - Note - Examples Tissues - group of cells that are similar

lar in structure and function


- may be derived from the 3 germ layers

c.

Simple Columnar

4 Types: 1. Epithelial 2. Connective 3. Nervous 4. Muscular 1. Epithelial


- derived from the 3 germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm - highly cellular - few amount of intercellular substance/ extracellular material - avascular, nourished by means of diffusion - may or may not have a basement membrane - cells in one or more layers, arranges in continuous sheets - known as lining or covering tissues - forms glands - with own nerve supply - has high capacity for cell division (regenerative)

Single layer of ovoid, upright cells, all close to basement mem Elongated nucleus Presence of villi that aid in absorption May have ciliated distal cells With goblet cells for mucus secretion X-section of small intestine (digestive tract), respiratory tract < jejunum: microvilli are present instead of cilia to increase the surface of cells thereby increasing absorptive capacity> Fallopian tube/ unrinary bladder <ciliated, propels egg cells towards uterine mucosa>

d.
-

Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar

Cells Present:
-

1. Squamous 2. Cuboidal

Flattened, mononucleated cells Plate-like cells Cube-shaped cells As tall as they are wide

Pseudo meaning false, merely appears to be stratified Cilia + Goblet cells Tend to flatten and overlap due to pressure (necessary to hold the cells together) Nucleus appear at various levels Cellular composition: (columnar cells) + columnar with bifid/ forked ends + spheroidal + fusiform or spindleshaped Cross section of trachea <trachea is lined with C-shaped cartilages (incomplete rings) to prevent it from collapsing during inhalation> Epididymis, vas deferens (nonciliated) Apical Modifications: y Microvilli o Thicker but not longer o Absorption Absorptive surface of the small intestine Kidneys y Cilia o Longer but not wider o Movement Fallopian Tubes Uterus y Stereocilia o Short as microvilli and as wide as cilia o Movement Ducts of male genitalia Ducts of internal ear

3. Columnar
Cells that are taller than they are wide 4. Transitional forms:-Tall Cuboidal -Low Columnar -Tall Columnar -Low Cuboidal <intermediate in size bet, basic cells> Anchored onto the basement membrane <source of epithelial nourishment>

Classification: (Basis of Nomenclature)

- Types of Cells Present: - squamous (flat) (outermost) - cuboidal - columnar

- Number of Layers: -simple (cellular arrangement) - stratified - Specialization - keratinization - presence of cilia -presence of microvilli Major Categories of Epithelium: - Epithelial Membrane - Epithelial Glands I. Epithelial Membrane A. Simple
 Single layer of cells

B. Stratified
 Several layers of cells but outermost are mostly flattened  May or may not be keratinized  Normally intended for protection (wear & tear areas) Esophagus, Vagina, Skin

a.

Stratified Squamous
i. Keratinized Stratified Squamous With keratin <protects surfaces from abrasion> Skin, tongue Cellular composition: (surface) Keratin Non-nucleated cells Flattened squamous cells Polyhedral cells (many layers) Columnar/ Cuboidal cells (basement)

a.

Simple Squamous

One layer of flattened cells Flat nucleus Classification: endothelium lines blood vessels mesothelium lines body cavities Inner cheek scrapings, bowmans capsule, pulmonary alveoli

b.

Simple Cuboidal

1 layer of square-shaped cells with inconspicuous borders Round nucleus Cross section of kidney tubules

ii. Non-Keratinized Stratified Squamous Cross section of esophagus, vagina

- Cellular composition: (surface) Flattened squamous cells Polyhedral cells (many layers) Columnar/ Cuboidal cells (basement)

mammary glands Holocrine entire secretory unit is destroyed sebaceous glands

2. Connective Tissues
- Connect and bind parts together - Most abundant, found between other tissues - Derived from the mesodermal layer (mesenchymal in origin) <miltipotent, can become different specialized cells> - More matrix than cells - Much diverse, different in appearance and function, not merely morphology - Richly vascularised except cartilage mucous < parenchyma functional unit (epithelium) stroma support (connective >

b.

Stratified Cuboidal

Rare, only cuboidal cells are present Glandular ducts

c.
-

Stratified Columnar

Rare, contains columnar (outer) and irregularly shaped polyhedral cells seminiferous tubule Portions of the esophageal gland

d.

Transitional

2 Major Categories:

May be comprised of squamous or columnar Found in organs subjected to contraction and stretching Urinary Bladder, seminiferous tubule <Cells shift in shape depending on the amount of bladder content: Filled flattened squamous Empty columnar> Urothelium: transitional epithelium in the urinary tract Cellular composition: (surface) Balloon/ Dome/ Umbrella-shaped cells Pyriform-/ Pear-shaped cells Polyhedral cells (many layers) Cuboidal cells (basement)

3 Basic Elements:

-General -loose variety CT proper -dense variety -Special -cartilage -bone/osseous -blood/vascular -CT cells -fixed -wandering/mobile -CT fibers extracellular matrix -Ground substance

Types of CT cells:
i. Fixed remain attached to the matrix fibroblasts adipocytes fat/adipose cells, store glycerides for energy and protection undifferentiated mesenchymal ; reticular cells ii. Wandering present in the blood stream macrophage, mast;blood;plasma& lymphoid cells

II. Glandular Epithelium 3 dimensional


Unlike membrane epithelium, growth of cell is inwards Generally in plants Ovarian follicles Classification: o Structure  Coiled or straight, branched or compound o Secretion  Mucous, serous or mucus-serous 2 Types: - Endocrine - Exocrine a) Endocrine Glands o Detach from epithelial tissue where they originated from o Directly pour out secretions into the blood stream (hormones) o Includes major glands (thyroid, pituitary, etc) b) Exocrine Glands o Remains attached to epithelial tissue of origin o Develops ductal system for product release o Different types of Exocring Glands  According to Morphology y Tubular, alveolar, acinar  According to Type of Secretion y Serous (watery), mucous(viscuous) Integrity of secretory units: o Merocrine integrity remains intact upon secretion some sweat glands, pancreas o Apocrine portion of the cytoplasm is removed/ destroyed after secretion -

CT cells vary with Tissue type:  fibroblasts secretes fibers & ground substance  macrophage from monocytes, engulf bacteria anf cell debris
by phagocytosis

 plasma cells make antibodies Functions:


i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. Synthesis of fibers in the matrix fibroblast, chondroblast, osteoblast Metabolism and storage of fat (& minerals) adipocytes Defense WBC, phagocytes, masts, plasma cells Binding tissues and organs Mechanical support Repair and healing of wounds Lec

Lab

Types of CT Fibers:
a)      b)     Collagenous Responsible for tensile strength Very strong and flexible Most dominant fiber Do not branch, dense, wavy course Dull and opaque appearance Elastic Consists of elastin Smaller, stretches and returns to original length Branches but do not form bundles Can be pulled to a certain degree

 c)       

Yellowish and highly retractile Reticular Consists of reticulin Provides support and strength (in basement membrane) and organ support Delicate fibers forming delicate networks Organophylic fibers due to argentin affinity (turns brown with silver) Non-branching individual fibers Considered as young collagenous fibers Very fine anastomose (joined) fibers

- dominant fibroblast cells - dominant elastic fibers skin dermis, elastic arteries of aorta, non-lactating breasts

II. Special Connective Tissues


Cartilage typical binding structures of articular structures or joints mesenchymal in origin dense, firm but pliable tissue Composition: - collagen and elastic fibers - chondroitin (amorphous matrix) - chondroblast (young, mesenchymal cells) chondrocytes (mature) - avascular - covered and supported by perichondrium - classified according to present fibers and matrix A. Hyaline - most common - gives rise to short/long bones of the skeletal system - glass- appearance of the matrix, elastic - presence of chondrocyte cells - with lacunae containing 2-3 chodrocytes (cell nest/ isogenous group) - perichondrium: -outer fibrous layer covering Hyaline C -comprised of dense CT with fibroblasts -inner chondrogenetic layer (site of appositional growth of cartilage) - collagen fibers and chondroblasts - 3 sub-types: 1 adult 2 articular 3 fetal B. Elastic - abundant in elastic fibers - with chondrocytes in lacunae (larger, but no cell nests) - yellowish, greater opacity, flexibility and elasticity - with perichondrium auricle of the ear, auditory Eustachian tube, epiglottis, corniculate and cuneiform cartilages C. Fibrocartilage - collagenous fibers - no perichondrium - supports the vertebral column > binding material of intervertebral discs - with lacunae arranged in parallel rows - with small chondrocytes - connects two joints intervertebral discs ii. Bone or Osseous Plastic tissue that undergoes constant internal reconstruction in order to adapt to new stresses Avasular Calcified/ mineralized ground substance Highly differentiated With osteoblasts (responsible for bone matrix, bone-forming cells) osteocyte (mature osteoblasts, bone cells) osteoclasts (destroys matrix of old bone cells) osteon( haversian system): - haversian canal - concentric lamellae - canaliculi - empty lacunae (very sensitive, originally occupied by osteocytes) Functions: internal support Muscle and tendon attachment i. -

Extracellular Matrix
Fluid, gel, or solid with protein fibers Ground substance found in between cells and fibers o Types of Ground substance: i. Glycosaminoglycans (GAG) - Hyaluronic acid: dominant subset of the GAG in the loose variety of CT - Chondroitin sulfate: in bones and cartilages ii. Prosteoglycans iii. Adhesion molecules

I. General Connective Tissues/ Connective Tissue Proper


i. Loose - few fibers that are randomly/ haphazardly arranged A. Areolar CT - consists of elatic, reticular and collagenous fibers - arranged in a loose manner - prototype of connective tissues - widely distributed throughout the body - functions as sponges/ cushion - Cellular composition: fibroblasts (responsible for matrix production), plasma cells, mast cells, macrophages in (cellular matrix)

B. Adipose CT - special areolar tissues containing fat cells - comprosed mainly of collagenous and elastic fibers - predominant adipocyte cells > clusters separated by trabeculae bundles <adipose cells appear like signet rings but if in clusters, they appear like chicken wire> beneath subcutaneous tissue C. Reticular CT - predominant reticular fibers - embryonal CT basement membrane and lymphoid organs * Young forms of Connective Tissues: 1. embryonal CT mesenchyme comprised of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells + reticular fibers 2. mucous CT - whartons jelly of umbilical cord ii. Dense abundant fibers, organized in different planes and direction A. Regular - dense fibrous tissue - orientation of collagen fibers are in one direction - comprised of fibroblast cells tendons B. Irregular - fibers arranged in different planes and direction

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Protection Homopoeisis Mineral storage

iii. Blood or Vascular - CT with fluid matrix (plasma) - Mesenchymal in origin - Specialized as it lacks fibrous element - Circulates through closed tubes, the blood vessels - Parts: A. Formed/ cellular elements: 1) RBC (Oxygen carriers; with hemoglobin) 2) WBC (Classified as either granulocyte or with granules in cytoplasm, o aganulocyte; no hemoglobin) 3) Platelets B. Intercellular substance 1) plasma (liquid portion of unclotted blood, with fibrinogen) 2) serum (liquid portion of clotted blood, without fibrinogen) * Lymph - With fluid matrix (lymph) but with less protein than plasma <Lymph: colorless fluid from outward blood diffusion> - With lymphocytes (cells) lymph vessels

4 Different Types of Membrane:


1. Mucous - body cavities - lined by epithelium tissues - secretes mucous - exposed to external environment - epithelium tissue lining cavities that are closed - serous fluid prevents friction between membranes between visceral and parietal layers - lined by connective tissues - secretes fluid that reduces friction

2. Serous

3. Synovial

4. Cutaneous - covers the surface of the body - composed of epithelium layer over a layer of connective tissues