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ESSAY Chapter 6 1. Briefly distinguish between positive and negative reinforcement and provide a job-related example of each.

ANS: Behavior that is desirable can be elicited through issuing preferred consequences. If a pay increase (reward and positive consequence) follows exceptional job performance, the employee is likely to continue high-level performance in the future. A negative consequence is usually undesirable and can be used to change behavior from negative to positive. An employee who is frequently tardy can be disciplined by docking his/her pay, a negative consequence. The employee may come to work promptly in order to not lose pay. 2. How can schedules of reinforcement be used in the work situation? ANS: A weekly paycheck is a continuous schedule of reinforcement. Every time an employee meets or exceeds a production standard (on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis), a cash bonus can be given. This is a fixed ratio schedule. Periodically, an employee could be given a day off for outstanding performance. This is a variable interval schedule. After five to twenty or more successful sales, a sales representative could be given a small bonus, a variable ratio schedule. Once a month an attendance bonus can be given to those employees with perfect job attendance. This is a fixed internal schedule. 3. What are characteristics of effective goals? ANS: Goal characteristics that are likely to lead to increased performance include: difficult, specific, measurable and quantifiable, challenging, prioritized, and time-bound. 4. Why have many organizations found management by objectives to be an effective approach to improving and sustaining high levels of performance? ANS: Goal setting is an essential element of MBO programs. The goal setting takes place between supervisor and employee through a highly interactive and participative format. Following the development of a clear understanding of the employee's job, the two individuals formulate goals, set time frames and priorities for goal achievement, and evaluate performance (or results) against the goals. Goal achievement then leads to another round of goal setting. 5. Briefly define performance, indicate how performance can be evaluated, and mention attributes of a good performance appraisal system. ANS: Positive, or functional, work behavior is performance. Performance can be assessed through direct observation, counting units produced, reviewing goals accomplished, and/or by rating the functionality of employee behavior. A good performance appraisal system produces valid and reliable measures of performance, captures significant work behavior, assembles data for feedback to the employee, allows for employee input, and results in equitable rewards.