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Assignment 3: Towards Austral-Asian Futures
Essay: Explore the architecture of resort hotels in tropical parts of the region. In particular analyse the extent to which they are works of regionally appropriate architecture and how they relate (or not) to the real building needs of their societies.
Martin Didzys - 800448541
and how it is similar or different to that of traditional Baline se architecture.I have chosen to write about the significance of tropical resort architecture in Bali. pXXIV. 1937. The idea is to evoke the perceived romanticism and pace of the local lifestyle without any of its inconveniences´2. 2000. which towers over the island of Bali and is believed to be the place of the Gods. Architecture Bali. p20. the global spread and rapid growth of tourism since the 1960¶s is threatening to exploit cultures like that of the Balinese throughout the tropics of South East Asia. Singapore. 3 Miguel Covarrubias. However. Being an island. New York. Page 2 of 8 Martin Didzys . Page One Publishing. Singapore. This view originated from the Gunung Agung volcano. comparing and contrasting them against each other and also local styles. which have been preserved to th is day. Tropical Resorts. body and buildings. 1995. a lightweight structure of posts. for mass consumption. Tropical resorts are particularly attractive to foreign tourists as they ³combine ultimate luxury with sensitive use of local materials. wall structure and roof. This is believed to be the place of bad spirits and evil influences. Balinese culture differs from that of other parts of South East Asia and even that of other Indonesian islands. TROPICAL RESORTS IN BALI The Indonesian island of Bali is blessed with hundreds of years of local culture and architectural traditions. birth of the tropical boutique resort. which they apply to the earth. p186. Traditionally. the Balinese settled in the stable middle ground between these two forces. which have been reshaping the face of the island for the last half-century. The local people have a unique tripartite view of the world. torso and feet) and this is further applied to the three parts of a building ± the base. and a hovering 1 2 Tan Hock Beng. Tuttle Publishing. Bali exemplifies the architectural trends of resort design in South East Asia with its many varied tropical resorts. 4 Philip Goad. Indonesia. Tropical Resorts. However. Mexican artist Miguel Covarrubias predicted that Balinese culture was ³doomed to disappear under the merciless onslaught of modern commercializa tion and standardization´ 3. ensuring the vernacular architecture of the island is preserved and thus benefitting the local people. Resorts are building types that are precisely tailored to fulfil this need´ 1. Island of Bali. ³These three essentials of a heavy base. p9. Balinese culture splits the human body into three parts also (head. in the hinterland of the island . Whether or not the spread of resorts is in any way degrading Balinese culture is debateable. Page One Publishing. 1995. I will examine and discuss the architectural styles of several key resorts. entrepreneurs and tour operators often use traditions and heritage. North Clarendon. orienting their villages on an axis known as µkaja-kelod¶4 (mountain-sea) in order to constantly reflect on these conflicting forces.800448541 . Tan Hock Beng. Alfred A Knopf. both authentic and manufactured. ³To attract the ever-increasing number of tourists. Bali is also surrounded by sea. As early as 1937. many modern Balinese resorts successfully acknowledge and blend traditional Balinese ideas and forms. I will also briefly cover the advantages of growing tourism in the region for the local people.
p18. Tuttle Publishing. birth of the tropical boutique resort. Tuttle Publishing. and a view to the beach of Sanur´ 10. birth of the tropical boutique resort. was originally planned as a house only. Tuttle Publishing. p18. 2000. p136. Thankfully. p16. 2000. North Clarendon. which features a terrace overlooking the sea and a pair of gold leaf doors copied from a palace in Gianyar. This was a monument to post-war modernism and. Tuttle Publishing. ³In 1973. Balinese furniture. 5 Philip Goad. The Hyatt combined local construction techniques in the ³public areas of the hotel: the porte -cochere. ³every hotel built since was to never be higher than a coconut palm´ 7. birth of the tropical boutique resort. 1995. Architecture Bali. This hotel set a precedent for others. Tuttle Publishing. birth of the tropical boutique resort. North Clarendon. architecture. Its centrepiece is the original residence. Page 3 of 8 Martin Didzys . North Clarendon. Architecture Bali. just fans. such a space was a revelation for an international hotel. 2000.roof maintain the harmony and interchangeability of man. North Clarendon.´ and it demonstrated convincingly ³how the arch itecture of a large hotel can assume an unobtrusive but complementary role in the landscape´ 11. Had it not been for Balinese authorities immediately setting strict new building regulations. which was a complete opposite to the original Hotel Bali Beach. Tropical Resorts. With no consultation with local authorities. bar and main restaurant were de signed using traditional Balinese materials´9 and contrasted these with the Western style off-form concrete construction employed in the three residential blocks of the hotel. but was modified to include five guest bungalows. Architecture Bali. Architecture Bali. and landscape´ 5. 8 Philip Goad. birth of the tropical boutique resort. 2000. and eventually remodelled into a 75-room hotel. The next hotel to rise in Bali was the Bali Hyatt. Singapore. now the hotel¶s lobby. p11. a tower whose ³undeniably alien silhouette´ 6 blocked the sacred view from the volcano to the sea rose from the ground and shocked the locals. which was a time when hotels began to spread worldwide and when the Hotel Bali Beach was constructed. The hotel was designed with an open-air lobby as its traditional Balinese µbale agung¶ (meeting house). 6 Philip Goad. 9 Philip Goad. which followed soon after. This style of vernacular architecture is all that existed on the entire island until the mid 1960¶s. The Bali Hyatt hotel was celebrated for its ³authenticity and its unique Balinese ambience. the building towered over everything around it. which had coconut timber columns and beams and a traditional alang alang (thatched grass) roof embodying the principles of the traditional Balinese three -tiered building. The first major Balinese hotel after the Bali Beach ³was never planned as an integrated design from the start and has been remodelled ever since´ 8. p9. 2000. 2000. 11 Tan Hock Beng. birth of the tropical boutique resort. Page One Publishing. 10 Philip Goad. There was no air-conditioning and instead. at 9 storeys high. The Bali Oberoi (originally Kayu Aya Hotel). North Clarendon. lobby. Miguel Covarrubias¶ prediction of modern Bali made 30 years earlier would today surely be a reality. Architecture Bali. Architecture Bali. North Clarendon. Tuttle Publishing.800448541 . 7 Philip Goad. p11.
at Amandari. Tuttle Publishing. 15 Philip Goad. designed according to the ideological Balinese house structure of heavy base and lightweight walls topped with an alang alang roof. However. did share resemblance to Balinese houses. 13 Philip Goad. 30 villas were scattered away from the public areas and were hidden behind high . North Clarendon. Each villa was. Amanusa in 1992 and Amankila in 1993. North Clarendon. ³this is an unusual phenomenon because traditionally. It was a bare and simple compound of freestanding pavilions. set new standards in hotel design.e. North Clarendon. emphasising the importance of landscape in the Balinese hotel experience. was found in the ruins of the grand water palace built by the last raja of Karangasem. birth of the tropical boutique resort. the Balinese house h ad no garden to speak of. and ³in its form and layout Amankila echoes the modest grandeur of a Balinese palace´15. 05. 2000. Inside. 12 Philip Goad. contrasting the lightweight structures of traditional Balinese buildings. Amandari featured a rice-paddy terrace shaped pooled su rrounded by public facilities topped with Balinese style alang alang roof s.07. Tuttle Publishing. imitating the terracing of Bali¶s rice paddies. rice storage). however. 2000. Following the success of the Bali Hyatt. Both the Hyatt and the Obero i hotel buildings were set amongst lavish gardens and. p23. the villas were different: ³Unlike the Balinese house compo und where there are a number of separate bale (pavilions) for different functions (e.The Hyatt¶s lobby shared greater similarity to a Balinese village bale agung than to lobbies of other major hotels around the world. believed that ³there is no need to force the analogy between Amanusa¶s villa¶s with the traditional Balinese house compound. as did the use of paras stone columns in the lobby. p20. birth of the tropical boutique resort. although the architect himself. however.800448541 . The residential villas at Amanusa. to retain soil. p67. Amankila. 14 Philip Goad. Page 4 of 8 Martin Didzys . The hotel featured three tiered pools. Sleeping. Large monumental staircases built to allow access from the lobby and other facilities on the upper level to the pool below added to the grandeur of the design . instead of the traditional coconut wood. The sloping site required massive stone walls. not a garden at all´12. and a neatly swept ground with one or two isolated trees such as a frangipani« It is a working space. Interview with Kerry Hill. paras stone walls. the family temple. Architecture Bali.g. as such. birth of the tropical boutique resort. His architecture is about the placement of consciously restrained modern buildings in a Balinese landscape´ 14 Inspiration for the design of the third Aman hotel. The design for Amanusa strayed further from Balinese tradition than Amandari. kitchen. a series of three boutique hotels were planned and constructed under the µAman¶ brand: Amandari in 1988. 2000.2000. Kerry Hill. Architecture Bali. Tuttle Publishing. only one single building] ´13. similar to typical Balinese house compounds. Architecture Bali. Such monumentality in stone is unusual in Balinese architecture. though. there is a single or double level guest villa within each courtyard [i.
whilst there is a resemblance between these residential buildings and their traditional counterparts. Similar to the Serai. Architecture Bali. one each for sleeping. Tropical Resorts. 2000. those at the Four Seasons reflect more accurately the type of family compounds typical in Balinese architecture. Despite its size though. North Clarendon. Architecture Bali. opts for a different approach in its design. this is most obvious through the typical roof design only. Tuttle Publishing. rather than strictly conforming to the theoretical principles. 18 Philip Goad. which had been derived from traditional Balinese buildings and applied to villa design s in earlier hotels. to explore a Balinese village type layout in its design. but each with its own Town Square and public facilities. the functional requirement for a greater number of rooms meant that the heavy base contained suites with large openings to the outside in addition to the rooms contained in the timber-framed upper floor. Page 5 of 8 Martin Didzys . and appropriately for Bali. birth of the tropical boutique resort. Unlike the private villas of Amandari. instead of just one. Philip Goad. the ³consciously picturesque setting and planning ensure that the lobby and restaurant spaces at the Four Seasons are intimate. However. It ³does not use traditional forms of architecture for its 16 17 Tan Hock Beng. with 147 private villas. thatched alang alang grass. The only feature that relates the Chedi¶s buildings to traditional Balinese architecture is the thatched roof. It is a large resort. similar to the Chedi Hotel. complete with streets. Tan Hock Beng suggests. The Serai brings together its 56 suites into four residential buildings. 1995. Singapore. ³The abstract monumentalism of the guestroom blocks negates the overall reading as a Balinese pavilion´ 16 Indeed. The Serai and Chedi Hotels both combine ³modern buildings in a traditional landscape«The design strategy has been one of abstraction rather than emulation of traditional Balinese formal typologies´ 17. were now adapted to the much larger scale of these residential blocks. containing multiple bales (pavilions). an ambience of gracious humility rather than opulence prevails´ 18. Traditional Balinese ideas have been interpreted and applied to the specific requirements of each project. The Chedi hotel is the first. a city wall. the Chedi Hotel in Ubud also featured two storey residential blocks. The Four Seasons Hotel at Jimbaran Bay is another Balinese resort featuring luxury villa accommodation. the Four Seasons Hotel in Sayan. Its location on a hilltop is not unlike that of a typical Balinese hill -town. The roof was. Page One Publishing. 2000. Bali. of course. but it moved away from the villa type residential suites used in the more luxurious hotels that preceded it.The Serai Hotel was next to be developed in Bali. In complete contrast to the Four Seasons at Jimbaran Bay and most other Balinese resorts. The typical three-tiered architectural principles. North Clarendon. marketplace and commercial centre. The courtyard surrounding the pavilion is entered through traditional gates. birth of the tropical boutique resort. p31. bathing and living/dining. p35. however. which are grouped into 7 separate village layouts. Tuttle Publishing. however these did not even attempt to follow the principle of traditional Balinese forms. which apparently is enough to instil a foreign tou rist with a sense of authenticity. p162.800448541 .
birth of the tropical boutique resort.181. Ethnicity. 22 Margaret Huffadine. ³The gardens around the villas are planted with rice. Nation-Building. New York. Resort Design: Planning. and the State in Asian and Pacific Societies. vegetables. herbs and spices. and a lotus pond exists on the roof. Instead of damaging the local Balinese culture as feared by Miguel Covarrubias. ³Cultural Tourism. Tuttle Publishing. Bali provides an excellent case study of how resort culture can be integrated successfully into the local community in a way that benefits everyone. Local crafts. Honolulu. such as a community produce market. New York. McGraw-Hill. in Michel Picard and Robert E Wood. 21 Margaret Huffadine. University of Hawai¶i Press. p14. 2000. The site chosen for the development contained in its centre a temple. p51. a ccording to Michel Picard.800448541 . tourism has in fact encouraged it to flourish. North Clarendon. Architecture and Interiors. it was agreed that the resort could be built if the temple remained and further facilities for the local Balinese . a higher standard of living. 23 Michel Picard. Staying in one of the villas at Four Seasons Sayan creates a truly authentic experience. and Regional Culture: The Making of a Balinese Identity´. Resort Design: Planning. resulting in higher living standards´. The architects of Balinese resorts ³have shown a deep respect for the traditional forms´ of the local architecture and. 2000. ³These solutions have not only provided an outlet for local industries and crafts. One specific example arose during the planning of the Grand Hyatt Hotel. 24 Philip Goad. Architecture Bali. McGraw-Hill. 20 Philip Goad. which are similar to those seen in the village like streets of the Chedi Hotel. Architecture Bali. Tourism in a region usually leads to a ³substantial benefit to the community because employment opportunities increase . Page 6 of 8 Martin Didzys . by employing the ³fundamental formal types and construction techniques particular to Balinese architecture. ³Tourism has provided the Balinese with an incentive to nurture their cultural heritage´ 23. The buildings of Balinese resorts ³are skilfully and highly resolved exercises in appealing to the most profound wants in 19 Philip Goad. After negotiations. chillies. 2000. fruits. Tuttle Publishing. which was actively used by local residents. p91. birth of the tropical boutique resort. were developed. To stay here is to live in a productive landscape and then bathe in the river like a local villager´ 20. North Clarendon. corn. and improved infrastructure ´22. Tuttle Publishing. The lower parts of the building create narrow pathways. but have enabled visitors to come in close contact with colourful Balinese culture and ceremonies´ 21. p41. North Clarendon. which enabled the residents to maintain their values while at the s ame time benefiting from the most rewarding aspects of the tourist industry« increased employment. which ³has a tradition of community participation through religious practises and traditional groupings. have often been included in the designs of resorts and. This is most certainly the case in Bali. 2000. adja cent to the existing Bali Hyatt. p91. birth of the tropical boutique resort. which must be crossed via a footbridge in order to enter the building below. 1997. Architecture and Interiors.´19 rather the central buildings are elliptical in the shape of a lotus flower. 2000.architectural inspiration. Tourism. P. Architecture Bali. such as carvings in stone and commissioned sculptures.´ have been able to satisfy the ³Western fascination for t he exotic and the authenticity of the vernacular´24.
Page 7 of 8 Martin Didzys . and the pleasures of simply being in another highly sensitised state. 25 Philip Goad.Western society¶s eyes ± the pleasures of the thresholds. birth of the tropical boutique resort. p37. Architecture Bali. North Clarendon. island of the Gods´25. 2000. Tuttle Publishing.800448541 . the pleasures of the perception of an exotic µother¶. and in what better place than Bali.
Ethnicity. Tuttle Publishing. 2000. 136. Resort Design: Planning. Michel Picard. Tan Hock Beng. Philip Goad. 51. 37. 14. pp. Tropical Resorts. in Michel Picard and Robert E Wood. 1937. McGraw-Hill.2000. P. and Regional Culture: The Making of a Balinese Identity´. Architecture and Interiors. birth of the tropical boutique resort. 18. New York. 11.41. 2003.181.07. Honolulu. Page 8 of 8 Martin Didzys . Alfred A Knopf. Nation-Building. 67. Island of Bali. ³Cultural Tourism. 186. pXXIV. 23. 20. and the State in Asian and Pacific Societies. Tourism. Asian Resorts. Visual Resource Only. 1997. 35. Singapore. 162.16. North Clarendon. Singapore. 1995. New York. Interview with Kerry Hill. 9. 2000. Page One Publishing. Page One Publishing. pp. University of Hawai¶i Press. Architecture Bali. 05.BIBLIOGRAPHY Margaret Huffadine.800448541 . pp. Tan Hock Beng. 91. Miguel Covarrubias. 20. 31. Philip Goad.
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