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CHAPTER CHAPTER

3 STRESS AND STRAIN

Outline

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Stresses in Axially Loaded Members

3.3 Direct Shear Stress and Bearing Stress

3.4 Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels

3.5 Stress in Members in Torsion

3.6 Shear and Moment in Beams

3.7 Stresses in Beams

3.8 Design of Beams

3.9 Plane Stress

3.10 Combined Stresses

3.11 Plane Strain

3.12 Stress Concentration Factors

3.13 Importance of Stress Concentration Factors in Design

3.14 Contact Stress Distributions

*3.15 Maximum Stress in General Contact

3.16 Three-Dimensional Stress

*3.17 Variation of Stress Throughout a Member

3.18 Three-Dimensional Strain

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72 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

3.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter provides a review and insight into the stress and strain analyses. Expressions

for both stresses and deﬂections in mechanical elements are developed throughout the text

as the subject unfolds, after examining their function and general geometric behavior. With

the exception of Sections 3.12 through 3.18, we employ mechanics of materials approach,

simplifying the assumptions related to the deformation pattern so that strain distributions

for a cross section of a member can be determined. Afundamental assumption is that plane

sections remain plane. This hypothesis can be shown to be exact for axially loaded elastic

prismatic bars and circular torsion members and for slender beams, plates, and shells sub-

jected to pure bending. The assumption is approximate for other stress analysis problems.

Note, however, that there are many cases where applications of the basic formulas of me-

chanics of materials, so-called elementary formulas for stress and displacement, lead to

useful results for slender members under any type of loading.

Our coverage presumes a knowledge of mechanics of materials procedures for deter-

mining stresses and strains in a homogeneous and an isotropic bar, shaft, and beam. In

Sections 3.2 through 3.9, we introduce the basic formulas, the main emphasis being on the

underlying assumptions used in their derivations. Next to be treated are the transformation

of stress and strain at a point. Then attention focuses on stresses arising from various com-

binations of fundamental loads applied to members and the stress concentrations. The

chapter concludes with discussions on contact stresses in typical members referring to the

solutions obtained by the methods of the theory of elasticity and the general states of stress

and strain.

In the treatment presented here, the study of complex stress patterns at the supports or

locations of concentrated load is not included. According to Saint-Venant’s Principle

(Section 1.4), the actual stress distribution closely approximates that given by the formulas

of the mechanics of materials, except near the restraints and geometric discontinuities in

the members. For further details, see texts on solid mechanics and theory of elasticity; for

example, References 1 through 3.

3.2 STRESSES IN AXIALLY LOADED MEMBERS

Axially loaded members are structural and machine elements having straight longitudinal

axes and supporting only axial forces (tensile or compressive). Figure 3.1a shows a homo-

geneous prismatic bar loaded by tensile forces P at the ends. To determine the normal

stress, we make an imaginary cut (section a-a) through the member at right angles to its

P P

x

A

L

a

a

(a) (b)

x

P

Figure 3.1 Prismatic bar in tension.

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CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 73

axis (x). Afree-body diagram of the isolated part is shown in Figure 3.1b. Here the stress is

substituted on the cut section as a replacement for the effect of the removed part.

Assuming that the stress has a uniform distribution over the cross section, the equilib-

rium of the axial forces, the ﬁrst of Eqs. (1.4), yields P =

σ

x

dA or P = Aσ

x

. The

normal stress is therefore

σ

x

=

P

A

(3.1)

where A is the cross-sectional area of the bar. The remaining conditions of Eqs. (1.4) are

also satisﬁed by the stress distribution pattern shown in Figure 3.1b. When the member is

being stretched as depicted in the ﬁgure, the resulting stress is a uniaxial tensile stress; if

the direction of the forces is reversed, the bar is in compression and uniaxial compressive

stress occurs. Equation (3.1) is applicable to tension members and chunky, short compres-

sion bars. For slender members, the approaches discussed in Chapter 6 must be used.

Stress due to the restriction of thermal expansion or contraction of a body is called

thermal stress, σ

t

. Using Hooke’s law and Eq. (1.21), we have

σ

t

= α(T)E (3.2)

The quantity T represents a temperature change. We observe that a high modulus of elas-

ticity E and high coefﬁcient of expansion α for the material increase the stress.

DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS

Tension members are found in bridges, roof trusses, bracing systems, and mechanisms.

They are used as tie rods, cables, angles, channels, or combinations of these. Of special

concern is the design of prismatic tension members for strength under static loading. In this

case, a rational design procedure (see Section 1.6) may be brieﬂy described as follows:

1. Evaluate the mode of possible failure. Usually the normal stress is taken to be the

quantity most closely associated with failure. This assumption applies regardless of

the type of failure that may actually occur on a plane of the bar.

2. Determine the relationships between load and stress. This important value of the nor-

mal stress is deﬁned by σ = P/A.

3. Determine the maximum usable value of stress. The maximum usable value of σ with-

out failure, σ

max

, is the yield strength S

y

or the ultimate strength S

u

. Use this value in

connection with equation found in step 2, if needed, in any expression of failure crite-

ria, discussed in Chapter 7.

4. Select the factor of safety. Asafety factor n is applied to σ

max

to determine the allow-

able stress σ

all

= σ

max

/n. The required cross-sectional area of the member is therefore

(3.3)

If the bar contains an abrupt change of cross-sectional area, the foregoing procedure is

repeated, using a stress concentration factor to ﬁnd the normal stress (step 2).

A =

P

σ

all

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74 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

EXAMPLE 3.1 Design of a Hoist

Apin-connected two-bar assembly or hoist is supported and loaded as shown in Figure 3.2a. Deter-

mine the cross-sectional area of the round aluminum eyebar AC and the square wood post BC.

Given: The required load is P = 50 kN. The maximum usable stresses in aluminum and wood are

480 and 60 MPa, respectively.

Assumptions: The load acts in the plane of the hoist. Weights of members are insigniﬁcant com-

pared to the applied load and omitted. Friction in pin joints and the possibility of member BC buck-

ling are ignored.

Design Decision: Use a factor of safety of n = 2.4.

Solution: Members AC and BC carry axial loading. Applying equations of statics to the free-body

diagram of Figure 3.2b, we have

¸

M

B

= −40(2.5) −30(2.5) +

5

13

F

A

(3.5) = 0 F

A

= 130 kN

¸

M

A

= −40(2.5) −30(6) +

1

√

2

F

B

(3.5) = 0 F

B

= 113.1 kN

Note, as a check, that

¸

F

x

= 0.

The allowable stress, from design procedure steps 3 and 4,

(σ

all

)

AC

=

480

2.4

= 200 MPa, (σ

all

)

BC

=

60

2.4

= 25 MPa

By Eq. (3.3), the required cross-sectional areas of the bars,

A

AC

=

130(10

3

)

200

= 650 mm

2

, A

BC

=

113.1(10

3

)

25

= 4524 mm

2

Comment: A29-mm diameter aluminum eyebar and a 68 mm ×68 mm wood post should be used.

(a)

40 kN

30 kN

13

5 1

2

12 1

A

B

C

F

B

F

A

(b)

3.5 m

A B

C

P

2.5 m

2.5 m

4

3

Figure 3.2 Example 3.1.

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CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 75

3.3 DIRECT SHEAR STRESS AND BEARING STRESS

A shear stress is produced whenever the applied forces cause one section of a body to

tend to slide past its adjacent section. As an example consider the connection shown in

Figure 3.3a. This joint consists of a bracket, a clevis, and a pin that passes through holes in

the bracket and clevis. The pin resists the shear across the two cross-sectional areas at b-b

and c-c; hence, it is said to be in double shear. At each cut section, a shear force V equiva-

lent to P/2 (Figure 3.3b) must be developed. Thus, the shear occurs over an area parallel

to the applied load. This condition is termed direct shear.

The distribution of shear stress τ across a section cannot be taken as uniform. Divid-

ing the total shear force V by the cross-sectional area A over which it acts, we can obtain

the average shear stress in the section:

(3.4)

The average shear stress in the pin of the connection shown in the ﬁgure is therefore

τ

avg

= (P/2)/(πd

2

/4) = 2P/πd

2

. Direct shear arises in the design of bolts, rivets, welds,

glued joints, as well as in pins. In each case, the shear stress is created by a direct action of

the forces in trying to cut through the material. Shear stress also arises in an indirect man-

ner when members are subjected to tension, torsion, and bending, as discussed in the fol-

lowing sections.

Note that, under the action of the applied force, the bracket and the clevis press against

the pin in bearing and a nonuniform pressure develops against the pin (Figure 3.3b). The

τ

avg

=

V

A

d

b

P

t

Pin

Bracket

Bracket

bearing area

Clevis

(a)

b c

c

(b)

V

b

b

c

c

P͞td

V ϭ

P

2

P

Figure 3.3 (a) A clevis-pin connection, with the

bracket bearing area depicted; (b) portion of pin

subjected to direct shear stresses and bearing

stress.

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76 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

average value of this pressure is determined by dividing the force P transmitted by the pro-

jected area A

p

of the pin into the bracket (or clevis). This is called the bearing stress:

(3.5)

Therefore, bearing stress in the bracket against the pin is σ

b

= P/t d, where t and d repre-

sent the thickness of bracket and diameter of the pin, respectively. Similarly, the bearing

stress in the clevis against the pin may be obtained.

σ

b

=

P

A

p

EXAMPLE 3.2 Design of a Monoplane Wing Rod

(b)

1.8 m

C D

A

F

BC

2 m

10 ϫ 3.6 ϭ 36 kN

2

1

(a)

2 m

10 kN/m

1 m

A

B

C

D

1.6 m

Figure 3.4 Example 3.2.

The wing of a monoplane is approximated by a pin-connected structure of beam AD and bar BC, as

depicted in Figure 3.4a. Determine

(a) The shear stress in the pin at hinge C.

(b) The diameter of the rod BC.

Given: The pin at C has a diameter of 15 mm and is in double shear.

Assumptions: Friction in pin joints is omitted. The air load is distributed uniformly along the

span of the wing. Only rod BC is under tension. Around 2014-T6 aluminum alloy bar (see Table B.1)

is used for rod BC with an allowable axial stress of 210 MPa.

Solution: Referring to the free-body diagram of the wing ACD (Figure 3.4b),

¸

M

A

= 36(1.8) − F

BC

1

√

5

(2) = 0 F

BC

= 72.45 kN

(a) Through the use of Eq. (3.4),

τ

avg

=

F

BC

2A

=

72,450

2[π(0.0075)

2

]

= 205 MPa

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CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 77

(b) Applying Eq. (3.1), we have

σ

BC

=

F

BC

A

BC

, 210(10

6

) =

72,450

A

BC

Solving

A

BC

= 3.45(10

−4

) m

2

= 345 mm

2

Hence,

345 =

πd

2

4

, d = 20.96 mm

Comments: A 21-mm diameter rod should be used. Note that, for steady inverted ﬂight, the rod

BC would be a compression member.

3.4 THIN-WALLED PRESSURE VESSELS

Pressure vessels are closed structures that contain liquids or gases under pressure. Com-

mon examples include tanks for compressed air, steam boilers, and pressurized water stor-

age tanks. Although pressure vessels exist in a variety of different shapes (see Sections

16.10 through 16.14), only thin-walled cylindrical and spherical vessels are considered

here. A vessel having a wall thickness less than about

1

10

of inner radius is called thin

walled. For this case, we can take r

i

≈ r

o

≈ r, where r

i

, r

o

, and r refer to inner, outer, and

mean radii, respectively. The contents of the pressure vessel exert internal pressure, which

produces small stretching deformations in the membranelike walls of an inﬂated balloon.

In some cases external pressures cause contractions of a vessel wall. With either internal or

external pressure, stresses termed membrane stresses arise in the vessel walls.

Section 16.11 shows that application of the equilibrium conditions to an appropriate

portion of a thin-walled tank sufﬁces to determine membrane stresses. Consider a thin-

walled cylindrical vessel with closed ends and internal pressure p (Figure 3.5a). The longi-

tudinal or axial stress σ

a

and circumferential or tangential stress σ

θ

acting on the side faces

r

t

(b) (a)

a

r

t

Figure 3.5 Thin-walled pressure vessels: (a) cylindrical; and (b) spherical.

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78 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

of a stress element shown in the ﬁgure are principal stresses from Eqs. (16.74):

(3.6a)

(3.6b)

The circumferential strain as a function of the change in radius δ

c

is ε

θ

=

[2π(r +δ

c

) −2πr]/2πr = δ

c

/r. Using Hooke’s law, we have ε

θ

= (σ

θ

−νσ

a

)/E, where

ν and E represent Poisson’s ratio and modulus of elasticity, respectively. The extension of

the radius of the cylinder, δ

c

= ε

θ

r , under the action of the stresses given by Eqs. (3.6) is

therefore

δ

c

=

pr

2

2Et

(2 −ν) (3.7)

The tangential stresses σ act in the plane of the wall of a spherical vessel and are the

same in any section that passes through the center under internal pressure p (Figure 3.5b).

Sphere stress is given by Eq. (16.71):

(3.8)

They are half the magnitude of the tangential stresses of the cylinder. Thus, sphere is an op-

timum shape for an internally pressurized closed vessel. The radial extension of the sphere,

δ

s

= εr , applying Hooke’s law ε = (σ −νσ)/E is then

δ

s

=

pr

2

2Et

(1 −ν) (3.9)

Note that the stress acting in the radial direction on the wall of a cylinder or sphere

varies from −p at the inner surface of the vessel to 0 at the outer surface. For thin-walled

vessels, radial stress σ

r

is much smaller than the membrane stresses and is usually omitted.

The state of stress in the wall of a vessel is therefore considered biaxial. To conclude, we

mention that a pressure vessel design is essentially governed by ASME Pressure Vessel

Design Codes, discussed in Section 16.13.

Thick-walled cylinders are often used as vessels or pipe lines. Some applications

involve air or hydraulic cylinders, gun barrels, and various mechanical components. Equa-

tions for exact elastic and plastic stresses and displacements for these members are devel-

oped in Chapter 16.* Composite thick-walled cylinders under pressure, thermal, and dy-

namic loading are discussed in detail. Numerous illustrative examples also are given.

σ =

pr

2t

σ

θ

=

pr

t

σ

a

=

pr

2t

*Within this chapter, some readers may prefer to study Section 16.3.

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CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 79

Design of Spherical Pressure Vessel EXAMPLE 3.3

Aspherical vessel of radius r is subjected to an internal pressure p. Determine the critical wall thick-

ness t and the corresponding diametral extension.

Assumption: Asafety factor n against bursting is used.

Given: r = 2.5 ft, p = 1.5 ksi, S

u

= 60 ksi, E = 30 ×10

6

psi, ν = 0.3, n = 3.

Solution: We have r = 2.5 ×12 = 30 in. and σ = S

u

/n. Applying Eq. (3.8),

t =

pr

2S

u

/n

=

1.5(30)

2(60/3)

= 1.125 in.

Then, Eq. (3.9) results in

δ

s

=

pr

2

(1 −ν)

2Et

=

1500(30)

2

(0.7)

2(30 ×10

6

)(1.125)

= 0.014 in.

The diametral extension is therefore 2δ

s

= 0.028 in.

3.5 STRESS IN MEMBERS IN TORSION

In this section, attention is directed toward stress in prismatic bars subject to equal and op-

posite end torques. These members are assumed free of end constraints. Both circular and

rectangular bars are treated. Torsion refers to twisting a structural member when it is loaded

by couples that cause rotation about its longitudinal axis. Recall from Section 1.8 that, for

convenience, we often show the moment of a couple or torque by a vector in the form of a

double-headed arrow.

CIRCULAR CROSS SECTIONS

Torsion of circular bars or shafts produced by a torque T results in a shear stress τ and an

angle of twist or angular deformation φ, as shown in Figure 3.6a. The basic assumptions of

the formulations on the torsional loading of a circular prismatic bar are as follows:

1. A plane section perpendicular to the axis of the bar remains plane and undisturbed

after the torques are applied.

2. Shear strain γ varies linearly from 0 at the center to a maximum on the outer surface.

3. The material is homogeneous and obeys Hooke’s law; hence, the magnitude of the

maximum shear angle γ

max

must be less than the yield angle.

The maximum shear stress occurs at the points most remote from the center of the bar

and is designated τ

max

. For a linear stress variation, at any point at a distance r from center,

the shear stress is τ = (r/c)τ

max

, where c represents the radius of the bar. On a cross

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80 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

(a)

z

x

zx

max

xz

(b)

T

L

T

r

dA

␥

max

max

max

c

Figure 3.6 (a) Circular bar in pure torsion. (b) Shear stresses on transverse (xz) and axial (zx) planes

in a circular shaft segment in torsion.

section of the shaft the resisting torque caused by the stress, distribution must be equal to

the applied torque T. Hence,

T =

r

r

c

τ

max

dA

The preceding relationship may be written in the form

T =

τ

max

c

r

2

dA

By deﬁnition, the polar moment of inertia J of the cross-sectional area is

J =

r

2

dA (a)

For a solid shaft, J = πc

4

/2. In the case of a circular tube of inner radius b and outer radius

c, J = π(c

4

−b

4

)/2.

Shear stress varies with the radius and is largest at the points most remote from the

shaft center. This stress distribution leaves the external cylindrical surface of the bar free of

stress distribution, as it should. Note that the representation shown in Figure 3.6a is purely

schematic. The maximum shear stress on a cross section of a circular shaft, either solid or

hollow, is given by the torsion formula:

(3.10)

The shear stress at distance r from the center of a section is

(3.11) τ =

Tr

J

τ

max

=

Tc

J

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CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 81

The transverse shear stress found by Eq. (3.10) or (3.11) is accompanied by an axial shear

stress of equal value, that is, τ = τ

xz

= τ

zx

(Figure 3.6b), to satisfy the conditions of static

equilibrium of an element. Since the shear stress in a solid circular bar is maximum at the

outer boundary of the cross section and 0 at the center, most of the material in a solid shaft

is stressed signiﬁcantly below the maximum shear stress level. When weight reduction and

savings of material are important, it is advisable to use hollow shafts (see also Example 3.4).

NONCIRCULAR CROSS SECTIONS

In treating torsion of noncircular prismatic bars, cross sections initially plane experience

out-of-plane deformation or warping, and the ﬁrst two assumptions stated previously are no

longer appropriate. Figure 3.7 depicts the nature of distortion occurring in a rectangular sec-

tion. The mathematical solution of the problem is complicated. For cases that cannot be con-

veniently solved by applying the theory of elasticity, the governing equations are used in

conjunction with the experimental techniques. The ﬁnite element analysis is also very efﬁ-

cient for this purpose. Torsional stress (and displacement) equations for a number of noncir-

cular sections are summarized in references such as [2, 4]. Table 3.1 lists the “exact” solu-

tions of the maximum shear stress and the angle of twist φ for a few common cross sections.

Note that the values of coefﬁcients α and β depend on the ratio of the side lengths a and b

of a rectangular section. For thin sections (a b), the values of α and β approach

1

3

.

The following approximate formula for the maximum shear stress in a rectangular

member is of interest:

(3.12)

As in Table 3.1, a and b represent the lengths of the long and short sides of a rectangular

cross section, respectively. The stress occurs along the centerline of the wider face of the

bar. For a thin section, where a is much greater than b, the second term may be neglected.

Equation (3.12) is also valid for equal-leg angles; these can be considered as two rectan-

gles, each of which is capable of carrying half the torque.

τ

max

=

T

ab

2

3 +1.8

b

a

(a)

T

T

(b)

Figure 3.7 Rectangular bar

(a) before and (b) after a torque is

applied.

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Table 3.1 Expressions for stress and deformation in some cross-section shapes in torsion

Maximum Angle of twist

Cross section shearing stress per unit length

τ

A

=

2T

πab

2

φ =

(a

2

+b

2

)T

πa

3

b

3

G

τ

A

=

20T

a

3

φ =

46.2T

a

4

G

τ

A

=

T

αab

2

φ =

T

βab

3

G

a/b α β

1.0 0.208 0.141

1.5 0.231 0.196

2.0 0.246 0.229

2.5 0.256 0.249

3.0 0.267 0.263

4.0 0.282 0.281

5.0 0.292 0.291

10.0 0.312 0.312

∞ 0.333 0.333

τ

A

=

T

2abt

1

φ =

(at +bt

1

)T

2t t

1

a

2

b

2

G

τ

B

=

T

2abt

τA =

T

2πabt

φ =

2(a

2

+b

2

)T

4πa

2

b

2

t G

τ

A

=

5.7T

a

3

φ =

8.8T

a

4

G

Hexagon

A

a

t

A

2b

2a

Hollow ellipse

For hollow circle: a ϭ b

b

a

A

B

t

t

1

Hollow rectangle

Equilateral triangle

A

a

2a

A

2b

Ellipse

For circle: a ϭ b

82 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

a

b

A

Rectangle

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CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 83

Torque Transmission Efﬁciency of Hollow and Solid Shafts EXAMPLE 3.4

Ahollow shaft and a solid shaft (Figure 3.8) are twisted about their longitudinal axes with torques T

h

and T

s

, respectively. Determine the ratio of the largest torques that can be applied to the shafts.

c

b

a

max

max

min

Figure 3.8 Example 3.4.

Given: c = 1.15b.

Assumptions: Both shafts are made of the same material with allowable stress and both have the

same cross-sectional area.

Solution: The maximum shear stress τ

max

equals τ

all

. Since the cross-sectional areas of both shafts

are identical, π(c

2

−b

2

) = πa

2

:

a

2

= c

2

−b

2

For the hollow shaft, using Eq. (3.10),

T

h

=

π

2c

(c

4

−b

4

)τ

all

Likewise, for the solid shaft,

T

s

=

π

2

a

3

τ

all

We therefore have

T

h

T

s

=

c

4

−b

4

ca

3

=

c

4

−b

4

c(c

2

−b

2

)

3

2

(3.13)

Substituting c = 1.15b, this quotient gives

T

h

T

s

= 3.56

Comments: The result shows that, hollow shafts are more efﬁcient in transmitting torque than

solid shafts. Interestingly, thin shafts are also useful for creating an essentially uniform shear

(i.e., τ

min

≈ τ

max

). However, to avoid buckling (see Section 6.2), the wall thickness cannot be

excessively thin.

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84 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

3.6 SHEAR AND MOMENT IN BEAMS

In beams loaded by transverse loads in their planes, only two components of stress resul-

tants occur: the shear force and bending moment. These loading effects are sometimes re-

ferred to as shear and moment in beams. To determine the magnitude and sense of shearing

force and bending moment at any section of a beam, the method of sections is applied. The

sign conventions adopted for internal forces and moments (see Section 1.8) are associated

with the deformations of a member. To illustrate this, consider the positive and negative

shear forces V and bending moments Macting on segments of a beam cut out between two

cross sections (Figure 3.9). We see that a positive shear force tends to raise the left-hand

face relative to the right-hand face of the segment, and a positive bending moment tends to

bend the segment concave upward, so it “retains water.” Likewise, a positive moment

compresses the upper part of the segment and elongates the lower part.

LOAD, SHEAR, AND MOMENT RELATIONSHIPS

Consider the free-body diagram of an element of length dx, cut from a loaded beam

(Figure 3.10a). Note that the distributed load w per unit length, the shears, and the bending

moments are shown as positive (Figure 3.10b). The changes in V and Mfrom position x to

x +dx are denoted by dV and dM, respectively. In addition, the resultant of the distributed

load (w dx) is indicated by the dashed line in the ﬁgure. Although w is not uniform, this is

permissible substitution for a very small distance dx.

Equilibrium of the vertical forces acting on the element of Figure 3.10b,

¸

F

x

= 0,

results in V+ w dx = V +dV. Therefore,

(3.14a)

dV

dx

= w

ϩV ϪV ϩM ϪM

Figure 3.9 Sign convention for beams:

deﬁnitions of positive and negative shear

and moment.

(a) (b)

x

y

V

M

w

O

dx

w dx

dx͞2

V ϩ dV

M ϩ dM

x dx

A O

w

B

y

x

Figure 3.10 Beam and an element isolated from it.

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CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 85

This states that, at any section of the beam, the slope of the shear curve is equal to w. Inte-

gration of Eq. (3.14a) between points A and B on the beam axis gives

(3.14b)

Clearly, Eq. (3.14a) is not valid at the point of application of a concentrated load. Similarly,

Eq. (3.14b) cannot be used when concentrated loads are applied between A and B. For

equilibrium, the sum of moments about O must also be 0:

¸

M

O

= 0 or M +dM −

(V +dV) dx − M = 0. If second-order differentials are considered as negligible com-

pared with differentials, this yields

(3.15a)

The foregoing relationship indicates that the slope of the moment curve is equal to V.

Therefore the shear force is inseparably linked with a change in the bending moment along

the length of the beam. Note that the maximum value of the moment occurs at the point

where V (and hence dM/dx) is 0. Integrating Eq. (3.15a) between A and B, we have

(3.15b)

The differential equations of equilibrium, Eqs. (3.14a) and (3.15a), show that the shear

and moment curves, respectively, always are 1 and 2 degrees higher than the load curve.

We note that Eq. (3.15a) is not valid at the point of application of a concentrated load.

Equation (3.15b) can be used even when concentrated loads act between A and B, but the

relation is not valid if a couple is applied at a point between A and B.

SHEAR AND MOMENT DIAGRAMS

When designing a beam, it is useful to have a graphical visualization of the shear force and

moment variations along the length of a beam. Ashear diagram is a graph where the shear-

ing force is plotted against the horizontal distance (x) along a beam. Similarly, a graph

showing the bending moment plotted against the x axis is the bending-moment diagram.

The signs for shear V and moment M follow the general convention deﬁned in Figure 3.9.

It is convenient to place the shear and bending moment diagrams directly below the free-

body, or load, diagram of the beam. The maximum and other signiﬁcant values are gener-

ally marked on the diagrams.

We use the so-called summation method of constructing shear and moment diagrams.

The procedure of this semigraphical approach is as follows:

1. Determine the reactions from free-body diagram of the entire beam.

2. Determine the value of the shear, successively summing from the left end of the beam

the vertical external forces or using Eq. (3.14b). Draw the shear diagram obtaining the

shape from Eq. (3.14a). Plot a positive V upward and a negative V downward.

M

B

− M

A

=

B

A

Vdx = area of shear diagram between A and B

dM

dx

= V

V

B

− V

A

=

B

A

wdx = area of load diagram between A and B

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86 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

3. Determine the values of moment, either continuously summing the external moments

from the left end of the beam or using Eq. (3.15b), whichever is more appropriate. Draw

the moment diagram. The shape of the diagram is obtained from Eq. (3.15a).

Acheck on the accuracy of the shear and moment diagrams can be made by noting whether

or not they close. Closure of these diagrams demonstrates that the sum of the shear forces

and moments acting on the beam are 0, as they must be for equilibrium. When any diagram

fails to close, you know that there is a construction error or an error in calculation of the

reactions. The following example illustrates the procedure.

EXAMPLE 3.5 Shear and Moment Diagrams for a Simply Supported Beam by Summation Method

Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam loaded as shown in Figure 3.11a.

(a) (b)

(c)

(d)

4 kN͞m

4x͞1.5

10 kN

R

A

ϭ 6.4 kN R

B

ϭ 9.6 kN

3 kN

E C

D A x B

4 kN͞m 10 kN 3 kN

1.5 m 1.5 m 1 m 1 m

E C

D A B

1.5

3.6

3

M, kNؒm

x

3.4 3

3

6.6

V, kN

x

Figure 3.11 Example 3.5: (a) An overhanging beam; (b) free-body or load diagram;

(c) shear diagram; and (d) moment diagram.

Assumptions: All forces are coplanar and two dimensional.

Solution: Applying the equations of statics to the free-body diagram of the entire beam, we have

(Figure 3.11b):

R

A

= 6.4 kN, R

B

= 9.6 kN

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CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 87

In the shear diagram (Figure 3.11c), the shear at end C is V

C

= 0. Equation (3.14b) yields

V

A

− V

C

=

1

2

w(1.5) =

1

2

(−4)(1.5) = −3, V

A

= −3 kN

the upward force near to the left of A. From C to A, the load increases linearly, hence the shear curve

is parabolic, which has a negative and increasing slope. In the regions AD, DB, and BE, the slope of

the shear curve is 0 or the shear is constant. At A, the 6.4 kN upward reaction force increases the shear

to 3.4 kN. The shear remains constant up to D where it decreases by a 10 kN downward force to

−6.6 kN. Likewise, the value of the shear rises to 3 kN at B. No change in the shear occurs until

point E, where the downward 3 kN force closes the diagram. The maximum shear V

max

= −6.6 kN

occurs in region BD.

In the moment diagram (Figure 3.11d), the moment at end C is M

C

= 0. Equation (3.15b) gives

M

A

− M

C

= −

1.5

0

1

2

4x

1.5

x

dx M

A

= −1.5 N · m

M

D

− M

A

= 3.4(1.5) M

D

= 3.6 kN· m

M

B

− M

D

= −6.6(1) M

B

= −3 kN· m

M

E

− M

B

= 3(1) M

E

= 0

Since M

E

is known to be 0, a check on the calculations is provided. We ﬁnd that, from C to A, the di-

agram takes the shape of a cubic curve concave downward with 0 slope at C. This is in accordance

with dM/dx = V. Here V, prescribing the slope of the moment diagram, is negative and increases to

the right. In the regions AD, DB, and BE, the diagram forms straight lines. The maximum moment,

M

max

= 3.6 kN· m, occurs at D.

A procedure identical to the preceding one applies to axially loaded bars and twisted

shafts. The applied axial forces and torques are positive if their vectors are in the direction

of a positive coordinate axis. When a bar is subjected to loads at several points along its

length, the internal axial forces and twisting moments vary from section to section. Agraph

showing the variation of the axial force along the bar axis is called an axial-force diagram.

A similar graph for the torque is referred to as a torque diagram. We note that the axial

force and torque diagrams are not used as commonly as shear and moment diagrams.

3.7 STRESSES IN BEAMS

Abeam is a bar supporting loads applied laterally or transversely to its (longitudinal) axis.

This ﬂexure member is commonly used in structures and machines. Examples include the

main members supporting ﬂoors of buildings, automobile axles, and leaf springs. We see in

Sections 4.10 and 4.11 that the following formulas for stresses and deﬂections of beams

can readily be reduced from those of rectangular plates.

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88 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

ASSUMPTIONS OF BEAMTHEORY

The basic assumptions of the technical or engineering theory for slender beams are based

on geometry of deformation. They can be summarized as follows [1]:

1. The deﬂection of the beam axis is small compared with the depth and span of the beam.

2. The slope of the deﬂection curve is very small and its square is negligible in compari-

son with unity.

3. Plane sections through a beam taken normal to its axis remain plane after the beam is

subjected to bending. This is the fundamental hypothesis of the ﬂexure theory.

4. The effect of shear stress τ

xy

on the distribution of bending stress σ

x

is omitted. The

stress normal to the neutral surface, σ

y

, may be disregarded.

Ageneralization of the preceding presuppositions forms the basis for the theories of plates

and shells [5].

When treating the bending problem of beams, it is frequently necessary to distinguish

between pure bending and nonuniform bending. The former is the ﬂexure of a beam sub-

jected to a constant bending moment; the latter refers to ﬂexure in the presence of shear

forces. We discuss the stresses in beams in both cases of bending.

NORMAL STRESS

Consider a linearly elastic beam having the y axis as a vertical axis of symmetry

(Figure 3.12a). Based on assumptions 3 and 4, the normal stress σ

x

over the cross section

(such as A-B, Figure 3.12b) varies linearly with y and the remaining stress components are 0:

σ

x

= ky σ

y

= τ

xy

= 0 (a)

Here k is a constant, and y = 0 contains the neutral surface. The intersection of the neutral

surface and the cross section locates the neutral axis (abbreviated N.A.). Figure 3.12c

depicts the linear stress ﬁeld in the section A-B.

(b) (c)

y

A

y

C

N.A.

Centroid

of A*

b

y

1

M

V

B

x z

c

y

y

y

x

x

A

B

(a)

y

A

N.A.

B

x z

y

Figure 3.12 (a) A beam subjected to transverse loading; (b) segment of beam;

(c) distribution of bending stress in a beam.

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CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 89

Conditions of equilibrium require that the resultant normal force produced by the

stresses σ

x

be 0 and the moments of the stresses about the axis be equal to the bending mo-

ment acting on the section. Hence,

A

σ

x

dA = 0, −

A

(σ

x

dA)y = M (b)

in which A represents the cross-sectional area. The negative sign in the second expression

indicates that a positive moment M is one that produces compressive (negative) stress at

points of positive y. Carrying Eq. (a) into Eqs. (b),

k

A

y dA = 0 (c)

−k

A

y

2

dA = M (d)

Since k = 0, Eq. (c) shows that the ﬁrst moment of cross-sectional area about the neutral

axis is 0. This requires that the neutral and centroidal axes of the cross section coincide. It

should be mentioned that the symmetry of the cross section about the y axis means that the

y and z axes are principal centroidal axes. The integral in Eq. (d) deﬁnes the moment of in-

ertia, I =

y

2

dA, of the cross section about the z axis of the beam cross section. It follows

that

k = −

M

I

(e)

An expression for the normal stress, known as the elastic ﬂexure formula applicable to

initially straight beams, can now be written by combining Eqs. (a) and (e):

(3.16)

Here y represents the distance from the neutral axis to the point at which the stress is cal-

culated. It is common practice to recast the ﬂexure formula to yield the maximum normal

stress σ

max

and denote the value of |y

max

| by c, where c represents the distance from the

neutral axis to the outermost ﬁber of the beam. On this basis, the ﬂexure formula becomes

(3.17)

The quantity S = I /c is known as the section modulus of the cross-sectional area. Note

that the ﬂexure formula also applies to a beam of unsymmetrical cross-sectional area, pro-

vided I is a principal moment of inertia and Mis a moment around a principal axis [1].

Curved Beam of a Rectangular Cross Section

Many machine and structural components loaded as beams, however, are not straight. When

beams with initial curvature are subjected to bending moments, the stress distribution is not

linear on either side of the neutral axis but increases more rapidly on the inner side. The

σ

max

=

Mc

I

=

M

S

σ

x

= −

My

I

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90 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

*Some readers may prefer to study Section 16.8.

ﬂexure and displacement formulas for these axisymmetrically loaded members are devel-

oped in the later chapters, using energy, elasticity, or exact, approximate technical theories.*

Here, the general equation for stress in curved members is adapted to the rectangular

cross section shown in Figure 3.13. Therefore, for pure bending loads, the normal stress σ

in a curved beam of a rectangular cross section, from Eq. (16.55):

(3.18)

The curved beam factor Z by Table 16.1 is

(3.19)

In the foregoing expressions, we have

A = cross-sectional area

h = depth of beam

R = radius of curvature to the neutral axis

M = bending moment, positive when directed toward the concave side, as shown

in the ﬁgure

y = distance measured from the neutral axis to the point at which stress is calcu-

lated, positive toward the convex side, as indicated in the ﬁgure

r

i

, r

o

= radii of the curvature of the inner and outer surfaces, respectively.

Accordingly, a positive value obtained from Eq. (3.18) means tensile stress.

Z = −1 +

R

h

ln

r

o

r

i

σ =

M

AR

¸

1 +

y

Z(R + y)

¸

r

i

r

o

R

M

Stress

distribution

Centroidal

axis

Neutral

axis

M

e

y

C

h͞2

h

b

y

Figure 3.13 Curved bar in pure bending.

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CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 91

The neutral axis shifts toward the center of curvature by distance e from the centroidal

axis (y = 0), as shown in Figure 3.13. By Eq. (16.57), we have e = −Z R/(Z +1).

Expression for Z and e for many common cross-sectional shapes can be found referring to

Table 16.1. Combined stresses in curved beams is presented in Chapter 16. Adetailed com-

parison of the results obtained by various methods is illustrated in Example 16.7.

Deﬂections of curved members due to bending, shear, and normal loads are discussed in

Section 5.6.

SHEAR STRESS

We now consider the distribution of shear stress τ in a beam associated with the shear

force V. The vertical shear stress τ

xy

at any point on the cross section is numerically equal

to the horizontal shear stress at the same point (see Section 1.13). Shear stresses as well as

the normal stresses are taken to be uniform across the width of the beam. The shear stress

τ

xy

= τ

yx

at any point of a cross section (Figure 3.12b) is given by the shear formula:

(3.20)

Here

V = the shearing force at the section

b = the width of the section measured at the point in question

Q = the ﬁrst moment with respect to the neutral axis of the area A* beyond the point

at which the shear stress is required; that is,

(3.21)

By deﬁnition, the area A* represents the area of the part of the section below the point in

question and y is the distance from the neutral axis to the centroid of A*. Clearly, if y is

measured above the neutral axis, Q represents the ﬁrst moment of the area above the level

where the shear stress is to be found. Obviously, shear stress varies in accordance with the

shape of the cross section.

Rectangular Cross Section

To ascertain how the shear stress varies, we must examine how Q varies, because V, I, and

b are constants for a rectangular cross section. In so doing, we ﬁnd that the distribution of

the shear stress on a cross section of a rectangular beam is parabolic. The stress is 0 at the

top and bottom of the section (y

1

= ±h/2) and has its maximum value at the neutral axis

(y

1

= 0) as shown in Figure 3.14. Therefore,

(3.22) τ

max

=

V

I b

A

∗

y =

V

(bh

3

/12)b

bh

2

h

4

=

3

2

V

A

Q =

A

∗

y dA = y A

∗

τ

xy

=

V Q

I b

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92 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

where A = bh is the cross-sectional area of a beam having depth h and width b. For nar-

row beams with sides parallel to the y axis, Eq. (3.20) gives solutions in good agreement

with the “exact” stress distribution obtained by the methods of the theory of elasticity.

Equation (3.22) is particularly useful, since beams of rectangular-sectional form are often

employed in practice. Stresses in a wide beam and plate are discussed in Section 4.10 after

derivation of the strain-curvature relations.

The shear force acting across the width of the beam per unit length along the beam axis

may be found by multiplying τ

xy

in Eq. (3.22) by b (Figure 3.12b). This quantity is denoted

by q, known as the shear ﬂow,

(3.23)

The foregoing equation is valid for any beam having a cross section that is symmetrical

about the y axis. It is very useful in the analysis of built-up beams. A beam of this type is

fabricated by joining two or more pieces of material. Built-up beams are generally de-

signed on the basis of the assumption that the parts are adequately connected so that the

beam acts as a single member. Structural connections are taken up in Chapter 15.

q =

V Q

I

EXAMPLE 3.6 Determining Stresses in a Simply Supported Beam

Asimple beam of T-shaped cross section is loaded as shown in Figure 3.15a. Determine

(a) The maximum shear stress.

(b) The shear ﬂow q

j

and the shear stress τ

j

in the joint between the ﬂange and the web.

(c) The maximum bending stress.

Given: P = 4 kN and L = 3 m

Assumptions: All forces are coplanar and two dimensional.

y

y

1

b

V

N.A.

h͞2

h͞2

z

y

x

max

ϭ

3

2

V

A

Figure 3.14 Shear stresses in a beam of rectangular cross

section.

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CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 93

y

A

C

B

P

x

L

2

L

2

P

2

P

2

V

x P

2

ϭ 2 kN

P

2

(a)

z

y

60 mm

N.A.

60 mm

y¯ ϭ 50 mm

20 mm

20 mm

A

1

A

2

(b)

(c)

(d)

M

x

ϭ 3 kN ؒ m

PL

4

Figure 3.15 Example 3.6.

Solution: The distance y to the centroid is determined as follows (Figure 3.15b):

y =

A

1

y

1

+ A

2

y

2

A

1

+ A

2

=

20(60)70 +60(20)30

20(60) +60(20)

= 50 mm

The moment of inertia I about the neutral axis is found using the parallel axis theorem:

I =

1

12

(60)(20)

3

+20(60)(20)

2

+

1

12

(20)(60)

3

+20(60)(20)

2

= 136 ×10

4

mm

4

The shear and moment diagrams (Figures 3.15c and 3.15d) are drawn using the method of

sections.

(a) The maximum shearing stress in the beam occurs at the neutral axis on the cross section

supporting the largest shear force V. Hence,

Q

N.A.

= 50(20)25 = 25 ×10

3

mm

3

Since the shear force equals 2 kN on all cross sections of the beam (Figure 3.12c), we have

τ

max

=

V

max

Q

N.A.

I b

=

2 ×10

3

(25 ×10

−6

)

136 ×10

−8

(0.02)

= 1.84 MPa

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94 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

(b) The ﬁrst moment of the area of the ﬂange about the neutral axis is

Q

f

= 20(60)20 = 24 ×10

3

mm

3

Applying Eqs. (3.23) and (3.20),

q

j

=

V Q

f

I

=

2 ×10

3

(24 ×10

−6

)

136 ×10

−8

= 35.3 kN/m

τ

j

=

V Q

f

I b

=

35.3(10

3

)

0.02

= 1.76 MPa

(c) The largest moment occurs at midspan, as shown in Figure 3.15d. Therefore, from

Eq. (3.19), we obtain

σ

max

=

Mc

I

=

3 ×10

3

(0.05)

136 ×10

−8

= 110.3 MPa

3.8 DESIGN OF BEAMS

We are here concerned with the elastic design of beams for strength. Beams made of single

and two different materials are discussed. We note that some beams must be selected based

on allowable deﬂections. This topic is taken up in Chapters 4 and 5. Occasionally, beam de-

sign relies on plastic moment capacity, the so-called limit design [1].

PRISMATIC BEAMS

We select the dimensions of a beam section so that it supports safely applied loads without

exceeding the allowable stresses in both ﬂexure and shear. Therefore, the design of the

member is controlled by the largest normal and shear stresses developed at the critical

section, where the maximum value of the bending moment and shear force occur. Shear

and bending-moment diagrams are very helpful for locating these critical sections. In heav-

ily loaded short beams, the design is usually governed by shear stress, while in slender

beams, the ﬂexure stress generally predominates. Shearing is more important in wood than

steel beams, as wood has relatively low shear strength parallel to the grain.

Application of the rational procedure in design, outlined in Section 3.2, to a beam of

ordinary proportions often includes the following steps:

1. It is assumed that failure results from yielding or fracture, and ﬂexure stress is consid-

ered to be most closely associated with structural damage.

2. The signiﬁcant value of bending stress is σ = M

max

/S.

3. The maximum usable value of σ without failure, σ

max

, is the yield strength S

y

or the

ultimate strength S

u

.

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CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 95

4. Afactor of safety n is applied to σ

max

to obtain the allowable stress: σ

all

= σ

max

/n. The

required section modulus of a beam is then

(3.24)

There are generally several different beam sizes with the required value of S. We select the

one with the lightest weight per unit length or the smallest sectional area from tables of

beam properties. When the allowable stress is the same in tension and compression, a dou-

bly symmetric section (i.e., section symmetric about the y and z axes) should be chosen. If

σ

all

is different in tension and compression, a singly symmetric section (for example a

T beam) should be selected so that the distances to the extreme ﬁbers in tension and com-

pression are in a ratio nearly the same as the respective σ

all

ratios.

We now check the shear-resistance requirement of beam tentatively selected. After

substituting the suitable data for Q, I, b, and V

max

into Eqs. (3.20), we determine the maxi-

mum shear stress in the beam from the formula

(3.25)

When the value obtained for τ

max

is smaller than the allowable shearing stress τ

all

, the beam

is acceptable; otherwise, a stronger beam should be chosen and the process repeated.

τ

max

=

V

max

Q

I b

S =

M

max

σ

all

Design of a Beam of Doubly Symmetric Section EXAMPLE 3.7

Select a wide-ﬂange steel beam to support the loads shown in Figure 3.16a.

Given: The allowable bending and shear stresses are 160 and 90 MPa, respectively.

Solution: Shear and bending-moment diagrams (Figures 3.16b and 3.16c) show that M

max

=

110 kN· m and V

max

= 40 kN. Therefore, Eq. (3.24) gives

S =

110 ×10

3

160(10

6

)

= 688 ×10

3

mm

3

Using Table A.6, we select the lightest member that has a section modulus larger than this value of S:

a 200-mm W beam weighing 71 kg/m (S = 709 ×10

3

mm

3

). Since the weight of the beam

(71 ×9.81 ×10 = 6.97 kN) is small compared with the applied load (80 kN), it is neglected.

The approximate or average maximum shear stress in beams with ﬂanges may be obtained by

dividing the shear force V by the web area:

(3.26) τ

avg

=

V

A

web

=

V

ht

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96 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

In this relationship, h and t represent the beam depth and web thickness, respectively. From

Table A.6, the area of the web of a W 200 ×71 section is 216 ×10.2 = 2.203(10

3

) mm

2

. We

therefore have

τ

avg

=

40 ×10

3

2.203(10

−3

)

= 18.16 MPa

Comment: Inasmuch as this stress is well within the allowable limit of 90 MPa, the beam is

acceptable.

BEAMS OF CONSTANT STRENGTH

When a beam is stressed to a uniform allowable stress, σ

all

, throughout, then it is clear that

the beam material is used to its greatest capacity. For a prescribed material, such a design

is of minimum weight. At any cross section, the required section modulus S is given by

(3.27)

where Mpresents the bending moment on an arbitrary section. Tapered beams designed in

this manner are called beams of constant strength. Note that shear stress at those beam lo-

cations where the moment is small controls the design.

S =

M

σ

all

2 m 2 m 3 m 3 m

30 kN

A B

30 kN 20 kN

40

40

10

10

V

(kN)

x

110

80 80

M

(kN ؒ m)

x

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 3.16 Example 3.7.

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CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 97

Beams of uniform strength are exempliﬁed by leaf springs and certain forged or cast ma-

chine components (see Section 14.10). For a structural member, fabrication and design con-

straints make it impractical to produce a beam of constant stress. So, welded cover plates are

often used for parts of prismatic beams where the moment is large; for instance, in a bridge

girder. If the angle between the sides of a tapered beam is small, the ﬂexure formula allows

little error. On the other hand, the results obtained by using the shear stress formula may not

be sufﬁciently accurate for nonprismatic beams. Usually, a modiﬁed form of this formula is

used for design purposes. The exact distribution in a rectangular wedge is obtained by the the-

ory of elasticity [2].

Design of a Constant Strength Beam EXAMPLE 3.8

Acantilever beam of uniform strength and rectangular cross section is to support a concentrated load

P at the free end (Figure 3.17a). Determine the required cross-sectional area, for two cases: (a) the

width b is constant; (b) the height h is constant.

L

P

x

h

1

h

B

P

x

b

1

b

A

P

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 3.17 Example 3.8.

(a) Uniform strength cantilever;

(b) side view; (c) top view.

Solution:

(a) At a distance x from A, M = Px and S = bh

2

/6. Through the use of Eq. (3.27), we write

bh

2

6

=

Px

σ

all

(a)

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98 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

Similarly, at a ﬁxed end (x = L and h = h

1

),

bh

2

1

6

=

PL

σ

all

Dividing Eq. (a) by the preceeding relationship results in

h = h

1

x

L

(b)

Therefore, the depth of the beam varies parabolically from the free end (Figure 3.17b).

(b) Equation (a) now yields

b =

6P

h

2

σ

all

x =

b

1

L

x (c)

Comments: In Eq. (c), the expression in parentheses represents a constant and set equal to b

1

/L so

that when x =L the width is b

1

(Figure 3.17c). In both cases, obviously the cross section of the beam

near end A must be designed to resist the shear force, as shown by the dashed lines in the ﬁgure.

COMPOSITE BEAMS

Beams fabricated of two or more materials having different moduli of elasticity are called

composite beams. The advantage of this type construction is that large quantities of

low-modulus material can be used in regions of low stress, and small quantities of high-

modulus materials can be used in regions of high stress. Two common examples are

wooden beams whose bending strength is bolstered by metal strips, either along its sides or

along its top or bottom, and reinforced concrete beams. The assumptions of the technical

theory of homogenous beams, discussed in Section 3.7, are valid for a beam of more than

one material. We use the common transformed-section method to ascertain the stresses in

a composite beam. In this approach, the cross section of several materials is transformed

into an equivalent cross section of one material in that the resisting forces are the same as

on the original section. The ﬂexure formula is then applied to the transformed section.

To demonstrate the method, a typical beam with symmetrical cross section built of two

different materials is considered (Figure 3.18a). The moduli of elasticity of materials are

denoted by E

1

and E

2

. We deﬁne the modular ratio, n, as follows

n =

E

2

E

1

(d)

Although n >1 in Eq. (d), the choice is arbitrary; the technique applies well for n <1. The

transformed section is composed of only material 1 (Figure 3.18b). The moment of inertia

of the entire transformed area about the neutral axis is then denoted by I

t

. It can be

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 98

CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 99

(a)

z

y

A

1

, E

1

A

2

, E

2

b

z'

y'

1

2 y

y

1

y

2

(b)

z

y

nb

C

1

2

N.A.

E

1

, nA

2

y

Figure 3.18 Beam of two materials: (a) Cross

section; (b) equivalent section.

shown [1] that, the ﬂexure formulas for a composite beam are in the forms

(3.28)

where σ

x1

and σ

x2

are the stresses in materials 1 and 2, respectively. Obviously, when

E

1

= E

2

= E, this equation reduces to the ﬂexure formula for a beam of homogeneous ma-

terial, as expected. The following sample problems illustrate the use of Eqs. (3.28).

σ

x2

= −

nMy

I

t

σ

x1

= −

My

I

t

,

Determination of Stress in a Composite Beam EXAMPLE 3.9

A composite beam is made of wood and steel having the cross-sectional dimensions shown in

Figure 3.19a. The beam is subjected to a bending moment M

z

=25 kN· m. Calculate the maximum

stresses in each material.

Given: The modulus of elasticity of wood and steel are E

w

=10 GPa and E

s

= 210 GPa,

respectively.

Figure 3.19 Example 3.9: (a) Composite beam and (b) equivalent section.

150 mm

200 mm

12 mm

Wood

Steel

z

y

150 mm

N.A.

159.1 mm

y ϭ 52.9 mm

21 ϫ 150 ϭ 3150 mm

z

z'

y'

y

C

(a) (b)

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100 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

Solution: The modular ratio n = E

s

/E

w

= 21. We use a transformed section of wood (Fig-

ure 3.19b). The centroid and the moment of inertia about the neutral axis of this section are

y =

150(200)(112) +3150(12)(6)

150(200) +3150(12)

= 52.9 mm

I

t

=

1

12

(150)(200)

3

+150(200)(59.1)

2

+

1

12

(3150)(12)

3

+3150(12)(46.9)

2

= 288 ×10

6

mm

4

The maximum stress in the wood and steel portions are therefore

σ

w,max

=

Mc

I

t

=

25(10

3

)(0.1591)

288(10

−6

)

= 13.81 MPa

σ

s,max

=

nMc

I

t

=

21(25 ×10

3

)(0.0529)

288(10

−6

)

= 96.43 MPa

At the juncture of the two parts, we have

σ

w,min

=

Mc

I

t

=

25(10

3

)(0.0409)

288(10

−6

)

= 3.55 MPa

σ

s,min

= n(σ

w,min

)

= 21(3.55) = 74.56 MPa

Stress at any other location may be determined likewise.

EXAMPLE 3.10 Design of Steel Reinforced Concrete Beam

A concrete beam of width b and effective depth d is reinforced with three steel bars of diameter d

s

(Figure 3.20a). Note that it is usual to use a = 50-mm allowance to protect the steel from corrosion

or ﬁre. Determine the maximum stresses in the materials produced by a positive bending moment of

50 kN· m.

Figure 3.20 Example 3.10. Reinforced concrete beam.

b

d

a

z

d

s

(a)

N.A.

kd ϭ 150.2 mm

d(1 Ϫ k) ϭ 229.8 mm

b

z

y

nA

s

ϭ 14,726 mm

2

(b)

c, max

x

y

M

M

s

n

(c)

y

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CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 101

Given: b = 300 mm, d = 380 mm, and d

s

= 25 mm.

Assumptions: The modular ratio will be n = E

s

/E

c

= 10. The steel is uniformly stressed. Con-

crete resists only compression.

Solution: The portion of the cross section located a distance kd above the neutral axis is used in

the transformed section (Figure 3.20b). The transformed area of the steel

nA

s

= 10[3(π ×25

2

/4)] = 14,726 mm

2

This is located by a single dimension from the neutral axis to its centroid. The compressive stress in

the concrete is taken to vary linearly from the neutral axis. The ﬁrst moment of the transformed sec-

tion with respect to the neutral axis must be 0. Therefore,

b(kd)

kd

2

−nA

s

(d −kd) = 0

from which

(3.29)

Introducing the required numerical values, Eq. (3.29) becomes

(kd)

2

+98.17(kd) −37.31 ×10

3

= 0

Solving, kd = 150.2 mm, and hence k = 0.395. The moment of inertia of the transformed cross

section about the neutral axis is

I

t

=

1

12

(0.3)(0.1502)

3

+0.3(0.1502)(0.0751)

2

+0 +14.73 ×10

−3

(0.2298)

2

= 1116.5 ×10

−6

m

4

The peak compressive stress in the concrete and tensile stress in the steel are

σ

c,max

=

Mc

I

t

=

50 ×10

3

(0.1502)

1116.5 ×10

−6

= 6.73 MPa

σ

s

=

nMc

I

t

=

10(50 ×10

3

)(0.2298)

1116.5 ×10

−6

= 102.9 MPa

These stresses act as shown in Figure 3.20c.

Comments: Often an alternative method of solution is used to estimate readily the stresses in re-

inforced concrete [6]. We note that, inasmuch as concrete is very weak in tension, the beam depicted

in Figure 3.20 would become practically useless, should the bending moments act in the opposite di-

rection. For balanced reinforcement, the beam must be designed so that stresses in concrete and steel

are at their allowable levels simultaneously.

(kd)

2

+(kd)

2nA

s

b

−

2nA

s

b

d = 0

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102 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

3.9 PLANE STRESS

The stresses and strains treated thus far have been found on sections perpendicular to the

coordinates used to describe a member. This section deals with the states of stress at

points located on inclined planes. In other words, we wish to obtain the stresses acting on

the sides of a stress element oriented in any desired direction. This process is termed a

stress transformation. The discussion that follows is limited to two-dimensional, or plane,

stress. A two-dimensional state of stress exists when the stresses are independent of one

of the coordinate axes, here taken as z. The plane stress is therefore speciﬁed

by σ

z

= τ

yz

= τ

xz

= 0, where σ

x

, σ

y

, and τ

xy

have nonzero values. Examples include

the stresses arising on inclined sections of an axially loaded bar, a shaft in torsion, a

beam with transversely applied force, and a member subjected to more than one load

simultaneously.

Consider the stress components σ

x

, σ

y

, τ

xy

at a point in a body represented by a two-

dimensional stress element (Figure 3.21a). To portray the stresses acting on an inclined sec-

tion, an inﬁnitesimal wedge is isolated from this element and depicted in Figure 3.21b. The

angle θ, locating the x

**axis or the unit normal n to the plane AB, is assumed positive when
**

measured from the x axis in a counterclockwise direction. Note that, according to the sign

convention (see Section 1.13), the stresses are indicated as positive values. It can be shown

that equilibrium of the forces caused by stresses acting on the wedge-shaped element gives

the following transformation equations for plane stress [1–3]:

σ

x

= σ

x

cos

2

θ +σ

y

sin

2

θ +2τ

xy

sin θ cos θ

τ

x

y

= τ

xy

(cos

2

θ −sin

2

θ) +(σ

y

−σ

x

) sin θ cos θ

The stress σ

y

may readily be obtained by replacing θ in Eq. (3.30a) by θ +π/2

(Figure 3.21c). This gives

σ

y

= σ

x

sin

2

θ +σ

y

cos

2

θ −2τ

xy

sin θ cos θ (3.30c)

(3.30a)

(3.30b)

y

y'

x O

y

x

xy

x'

(a)

y'

O

y'

x'

x

x'

x'y'

(c)

y' x'

y

x

B

A

O

x'

n

y

x

x'y'

xy

xy

(b)

Figure 3.21 Elements in plane stress.

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CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 103

Using the double-angle relationships, the foregoing equations can be expressed in the fol-

lowing useful alternative form:

For design purposes, the largest stresses are usually needed. The two perpendicular di-

rections (θ

p

and θ

p

) of planes on which the shear stress vanishes and the normal stress has

extreme values can be found from

(3.32)

The angle θ

p

deﬁnes the orientation of the principal planes (Figure 3.22). The in-plane

principal stresses can be obtained by substituting each of the two values of θ

p

from

Eq. (3.32) into Eqs. (3.31a and c) as follows:

(3.33)

The plus sign gives the algebraically larger maximum principal stress σ

1

. The minus sign

results in the minimum principal stress σ

2

. It is necessary to substitute θ

p

into Eq. (3.31a)

to learn which of the two corresponds to σ

1

.

σ

max,min

= σ

1,2

=

σ

x

+σ

y

2

±

σ

x

−σ

y

2

2

+τ

2

xy

tan 2θ

p

=

2τ

xy

σ

x

−σ

y

(3.31a)

(3.31b)

(3.31c)

σ

x

=

1

2

(σ

x

+σ

y

) +

1

2

(σ

x

−σ

y

) cos 2θ +τ

xy

sin 2θ

τ

x

y

= −

1

2

(σ

x

−σ

y

) sin 2θ +τ

xy

cos 2θ

σ

y

=

1

2

(σ

x

+σ

y

) −

1

2

(σ

x

−σ

y

) cos 2θ −τ

xy

sin 2θ

y'

2

x'

x

1

'

p

(a)

x'

2

x

1

"

p

y'

(b)

Figure 3.22 Planes of principal stresses.

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104 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

Weld

A

(a)

2

ϭ 20p

1

ϭ 40p

5.13 ksi

14.5 ksi

y

x

yЈ

xЈ

55°

35°

A

(b)

Figure 3.23 Example 3.11.

EXAMPLE 3.11 Finding Stresses in a Cylindrical Pressure Vessel Welded along a Helical Seam

Figure 3.23a depicts a cylindrical pressure vessel constructed with a helical weld that makes an angle

ψ with the longitudinal axis. Determine

(a) The maximum internal pressure p.

(b) The shear stress in the weld.

Given: r = 10 in., t =

1

4

in., and ψ = 55

◦

. Allowable tensile strength of the weld is 14.5 ksi.

Assumptions: Stresses are at a point A on the wall away from the ends. Vessel is a thin-walled

cylinder.

Solution: The principal stresses in axial and tangential directions are, respectively,

σ

a

=

pr

2t

=

p(10)

2

1

4

= 20p = σ

2

, σ

θ

= 2σ

a

= 40p = σ

1

The state of stress is shown on the element of Figure 3.23b. We take the x

**axis perpendicular to the
**

plane of the weld. This axis is rotated θ = 35

◦

clockwise with respect to the x axis.

(a) Through the use of Eq. (3.31a), the tensile stress in the weld:

σ

x

=

σ

2

+σ

1

2

+

σ

2

−σ

1

2

cos 2(−35

◦

)

= 30p −10p cos(−70

◦

) ≤ 14,500

from which p

max

= 546 psi .

(b) Applying Eq. (3.31b), the shear stress in the weld corresponding to the foregoing value of

pressure is

τ

x

y

= −

σ

2

−σ

1

2

sin 2(−35

◦

)

= 10p sin(−70

◦

) = −5.13 ksi

The answer is presented in Figure 3.23b.

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CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 105

MOHR’S CIRCLE FOR STRESS

Transformation equations for plane stress, Eqs. (3.31), can be represented with σ and τ as

coordinate axes in a graphical form known as Mohr’s circle (Figure 3.24b). This represen-

tation is very useful in visualizing the relationships between normal and shear stresses act-

ing on various inclined planes at a point in a stressed member. Also, with the aid of this

graphical construction, a quicker solution of stress-transformation problem can be facili-

tated. The coordinates for point A on the circle correspond to the stresses on the x face or

plane of the element shown in Figure 3.24a. Similarly, the coordinates of a point A

on

Mohr’s circle are to be interpreted representing the stress components σ

x

and τ

x

y

that act

on x

plane. The center is at (σ

**, 0) and the circle radius r equals the length CA. In Mohr’s
**

circle representation the normal stresses obey the sign convention of Section 1.13. How-

ever, for the purposes of only constructing and reading values of stress from a Mohr’s cir-

cle, the shear stresses on the y planes of the element are taken to be positive (as before) but

those on the x faces are now negative, Figure 3.24c.

The magnitude of the maximum shear stress is equal to the radius r of the circle. From

the geometry of Figure 3.24b, we obtain

(3.34)

Mohr’s circle shows the planes of maximum shear are always oriented at 45

◦

from planes

of principal stress (Figure 3.25). Note that a diagonal of a stress element along which the

algebraically larger principal stress acts is called the shear diagonal. The maximum shear

stress acts toward the shear diagonal. The normal stress occurring on planes of maximum

shear stress is

(3.35) σ

= σ

avg

=

1

2

(σ

x

+σ

y

)

τ

max

=

σ

x

−σ

y

2

2

+τ

2

xy

O

D

C

r

A'

B'

B

1

A

1

1

E

x

y

A(

x

, Ϫ

xy

)

B(

y

,

xy

)

2

x'

y'

2

'ϭ

avg

max

(b) (a)

y

x

y

x

xy

x'

(c)

Figure 3.24 (a) Stress element; (b) Mohr’s circle of stress; (c) interpretation of

positive shear stress.

45°

x

2

1

avg

'

p

max

avg

S

h

e

a

r

d

ia

g

o

n

a

l

Figure 3.25 Planes

of principal and

maximum shear

stresses.

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106 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

It can readily be veriﬁed using Mohr’s circle that, on any mutually perpendicular planes,

I

1

= σ

x

+σ

y

= σ

x

+σ

y

I

2

= σ

x

σ

y

−τ

2

xy

= σ

x

σ

y

−τ

2

x

y

(3.36)

The quantities I

1

and I

2

are known as two-dimensional stress invariants, because they do

not change in value when the axes are rotated positions. Equations (3.36) are particularly

useful in checking numerical results of stress transformation.

Note that, in the case of triaxial stresses σ

1

, σ

2

, and σ

3

, a Mohr’s circle is drawn corre-

sponding to each projection of a three-dimensional element. The three-circle cluster

represents Mohr’s circle for triaxial stress (see Figure 3.28). The general state of stress at a

point is discussed in some detail in the later sections of this chapter. Mohr’s circle con-

struction is of fundamental importance because it applies to all (second-rank) tensor quan-

tities; that is, Mohr’s circle may be used to determine strains, moments of inertia, and nat-

ural frequencies of vibration [7]. It is customary to draw for Mohr’s circle only a rough

sketch; distances and angles are determined with the help of trigonometry. Mohr’s circle

provides a convenient means of obtaining the results for the stresses under the following

two common loadings.

Axial Loading

In this case, we have σ

x

= σ

1

= P/A, σ

y

= 0, and τ

xy

= 0, where A is the cross-sectional

area of the bar. The corresponding points A and B deﬁne a circle of radius r = P/2A that

passes through the origin of coordinates (Figure 3.26b). Points D and E yield the orienta-

tion of the planes of the maximum shear stress (Figure 3.26a), as well as the values of τ

max

and the corresponding normal stress σ

:

τ

max

= σ

= r =

P

2A

(a)

Observe that the normal stress is either maximum or minimum on planes for which shear-

ing stress is 0.

Torsion

Now we have σ

x

= σ

y

= 0 and τ

xy

= τ

max

= Tc/J, where J is the polar moment of inertia

of cross-sectional area of the bar. Points D and E are located on the τ axis, and Mohr’s

Ј

D

C B

1

A

1

E

2

x

ϭ

P

A

(b) (a)

ϭ 45°

x

P

Ј

max

P

Figure 3.26 (a) Maximum shear stress acting on an element of an

axially loaded bar; (b) Mohr’s circle for uniaxial loading.

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 106

CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 107

circle is a circle of radius r = Tc/J centered at the origin (Figure 3.27b). Points A

1

and B

1

deﬁne the principal stresses:

σ

1,2

= ±r = ±

Tc

J

(b)

So, it becomes evident that, for a material such as cast iron that is weaker in tension than in

shear, failure occurs in tension along a helix indicated by the dashed lines in Figure 3.27a.

Fracture of a bar that behaves in a brittle manner in torsion is depicted in Figure 3.27c; or-

dinary chalk behaves this way. Shafts made of materials weak in shear strength (for exam-

ple, structural steel) break along a line perpendicular to the axis. Experiments show that a

very thin-walled hollow shaft buckles or wrinkles in the direction of maximum compres-

sion while, in the direction of maximum tension, tearing occurs.

x'

x

y'

max

D

r

C B

1

A

1

E

2

(b)

45°

x

y

x'

1

2

max

Ductile material

failure plane

Brittle material

failure surface

T

T

c

(a)

(c)

Figure 3.27 (a) Stress acting on a surface element of a twisted shaft;

(b) Mohr’s circle for torsional loading; (c) brittle material fractured in

torsion.

Stress Analysis of Cylindrical Pressure Vessel Using Mohr’s Circle EXAMPLE 3.12

Redo Example 3.11 using Mohr’s circle. Also determine maximum in-plane and absolute shear

stresses at a point on the wall of the vessel.

Solution: Mohr’s circle, Figure 3.28, constructed referring to Figure 3.23 and Example 3.11, de-

scribes the state of stress. The x

axis is rotated 2θ = 70

◦

on the circle with respect to x axis.

(a) From the geometry of Figure 3.28, we have σ

x

= 30p −10p cos 70

◦

≤ 14,500. This

results in p

max

= 546 psi .

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 107

108 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

2

ϭ 20p

3

ϭ 0

' ϭ 30p

40p ϭ

1

r ϭ 10p

D'

EЈ

x'

y'

E

C

x

y

D

(

x'

,

x'y'

)

70°

Figure 3.28 Example 3.12.

(b) For the preceding value of pressure the shear stress in the weld is

τ

x

y

= ±10(546) sin 70

◦

= ±5.13 ksi

The largest in-plane shear stresses are given by points D and E on the circle. Hence,

τ = ±

1

2

(40p −20p) = ±10(546) = ±5.46 ksi

The third principal stress in the radial direction is 0, σ

3

= 0. The three principal stress circles are

shown in the ﬁgure. The absolute maximum shear stresses are associated with points D

and E

on

the major principal circle. Therefore,

τ

max

= ±

1

2

(40p −0) = ±20(546) = ±10.92 ksi

3.10 COMBINED STRESSES

Basic formulas of mechanics of materials for determining the state of stress in elastic

members are developed in Sections 3.2 through 3.7. Often these formulas give either a nor-

mal stress or a shear stress caused by a single load component being axially, centric, or

lying in one plane. Note that each formula leads to stress as directly proportional to the

magnitude of the applied load. When a component is acted on simultaneously by two or

more loads, causing various internal-force resultants on a section, it is assumed that each

load produces the stress as if it were the only load acting on the member. The ﬁnal or com-

bined stress is then found by superposition of several states of stress. As we see throughout

the text, under combined loading, the critical points may not be readily located. Therefore,

it may be necessary to examine the stress distribution in some detail.

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 108

CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 109

Consider, for example, a solid circular cantilevered bar subjected to a transverse force P,

a torque T, and a centric load F at its free end (Figure 3.29a). Every section experiences an

axial force F, torque T, a bending moment M, and a shear force P = V. The corresponding

stresses may be obtained using the applicable relationships:

σ

x

=

F

A

, τ

t

= −

Tc

J

, σ

x

= −

Mc

I

, τ

d

= −

V Q

I b

Here τ

t

and τ

d

are the torsional and direct shear stresses, respectively. In Figures 3.29b and

3.29c, the stresses shown are those acting on an element B at the top of the bar and on an

element A on the side of the bar at the neutral axis. Clearly, B (when located at the support)

and A represent the critical points at which most severe stresses occur. The principal

stresses and maximum shearing stress at a critical point can now be ascertained as dis-

cussed in the preceding section.

The following examples illustrate the general approach to problems involving com-

bined loadings. Any number of critical locations in the components can be analyzed. These

either conﬁrm the adequacy of the design or, if the stresses are too large (or too small), in-

dicate the design changes required. This is used in a seemingly endless variety of practical

situations, so it is often not worthwhile to develop speciﬁc formulas for most design use.

We develop design formulas under combined loading of common mechanical components,

such as shafts, shrink or press ﬁts, ﬂywheels, and pressure vessels in Chapters 9 and 16.

y

z

T

F

P

A

d

L

a

B

C

x

C

(a)

t

'

x

ϩ "

x

(c)

A

d

ϩ

t

(b)

'

x

B

Figure 3.29 Combined stresses owing to torsion, tension, and direct shear.

Determining the Allowable Combined Loading in a Cantilever Bar EXAMPLE 3.13

Around cantilever bar is loaded as shown in Figure 3.29a. Determine the largest value of the load P.

Given: diameter d = 60 mm, T = 0.1P N · m, and F = 10P N.

Assumptions: Allowable stresses are 100 MPa in tension and 60 MPa in shear on a section at

a = 120 mm from the free end.

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 109

Solution: The normal stress at all points of the bar is

σ

x

=

F

A

=

10P

π(0.03)

2

= 3536.8P (a)

The torsional stress at the outer ﬁbers of the bar is

τ

t

= −

Tc

J

= −

0.1P(0.03)

π(0.03)

4

/2

= −2357.9P (b)

The largest tensile bending stress occurs at point B of the section considered. Therefore, for

a = 120 mm, we obtain

σ

x

=

Mc

I

=

0.12P(0.03)

π(0.03)

4

/4

= 5658.8P

Since Q = Ay = (πc

2

/2)(4c/3π) = 2c

3

/3 and b =2c, the largest direct shearing stress at point A is

τ

d

= −

V Q

I b

= −

4V

3A

= −

4P

3π(0.03)

2

= −471.57P (c)

The maximum principal stress and the maximum shearing stress at point A (Figure 3.29b),

applying Eqs. (3.33) and (3.34) with σ

y

= 0, Eqs. (a), (b), and (c) are

(σ

1

)

A

=

σ

x

2

+

¸

σ

x

2

2

+(τ

d

+τ

t

)

2

¸

1/2

=

3536.8P

2

+

¸

3536.8P

2

2

+(−2829.5P)

2

¸

1/2

= 1768.4P +3336.7P = 5105.1P

(τ

max

)

A

= 3336.7P

Likewise, at point B (Figure 3.29c),

(σ

1

)

B

=

σ

x

+σ

x

2

+

¸

σ

x

+σ

x

2

2

+τ

2

t

¸

1/2

=

9195.6P

2

+

¸

9195.6P

2

2

+(−2357.9P)

2

¸

1/2

= 4597.8P +5167.2P = 9765P

(τ

max

)

B

= 5167.2P

It is observed that the stresses at B are more severe than those at A. Inserting the given data into

the foregoing, we obtain

100(10

6

) = 9765P or P = 10.24 kN

60(10

6

) = 5167.2P or P = 11.61 kN

110 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 110

CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 111

Comment: The magnitude of the largest allowable transverse, axial, and torsional loads that can

be carried by the bar are P = 10.24 kN, F = 102.4 kN, and T = 1.024 kN · m, respectively.

Determination of Maximum Allowable Pressure in a Pipe under Combined Loading EXAMPLE 3.14

A cylindrical pipe subjected to internal pressure p is simultaneously compressed by an axial load P

through the rigid end plates, as shown in Figure 3.30a. Calculate the largest value of p that can be ap-

plied to the pipe.

P

p

P

(a)

Ј

x

ϩ Љ

x

(b)

Figure 3.30 Example 3.14.

Given: The pipe diameter d = 120 mm, thickness t = 5 mm, and P = 60 kN. Allowable in-plane

shear stress in the wall is 80 MPa.

Assumption: The critical stress is at a point on cylinder wall away from the ends.

Solution: The cross-sectional area of this thin-walled shell is A = πdt . Combined axial and tan-

gential stresses act at a critical point on an element in the wall of the pipe (Figure 3.30b). We have

σ

x

= −

P

πdt

= −

60(10

3

)

π(0.12 ×0.005)

= −31.83 MPa

σ

x

=

pr

2t

=

p(60)

2(5)

= 6p

σ

θ

=

pr

t

= 12p

Applying Eq. (3.34),

τ

max

=

1

2

[σ

θ

−(σ

x

+σ

x

)] =

1

2

[12p −(6p −31.83)]

= 3p

max

+15.915 ≤ 80

from which

p

max

= 21.36 MPa

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 111

112 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

Case Study 3-1 WINCH CRANE FRAME STRESS ANALYSIS

y

D

z

x

C

Weight per length

w ϭ 130 N/m

L

1

ϭ 1.5 m

b ϭ 50 mm

P ϭ 3 kN

h ϭ 100 mm

t ϭ 6 mm

N.A.

Figure 3.31 Part CD of the crane frame shown in

Figure 1.4.

The frame of a winch crane is represented schematically

in Figure 1.5. Determine the maximum stress and the fac-

tor of safety against yielding.

Given: The geometry and loading are known from

Case Study 1-1. The frame is made of ASTM-A36 struc-

tural steel tubing. From Table B.1:

S

y

= 250 MPa E = 200 GPa

Assumptions: The loading is static. The displace-

ments of welded joint C are negligibly small, hence part

CD of the frame is considered a cantilever beam.

Solution: See Figures 1.5 and 3.31 and Table B.1.

We observe from Figure 1.5 that the maximum

bending moment occurs at points B and C and M

B

= M

C

.

Since two vertical beams resist moment at B, the critical

section is at C of cantilever CD carrying its own weight

per unit length w and concentrated load P at the free end

(Figure 3.31).

The bending moment M

C

and shear force V

C

at the

cross section through the point C, from static equilibrium,

have the following values:

M

C

= PL

1

+

1

2

wL

2

1

= 3000(1.5) +

1

2

(130)(1.5)

2

= 4646 N · m

V

C

= 3 kN

The cross-sectional area properties of the tubular beam are

A = bh −(b −2t )(h −2t )

= 50 ×100 −38 ×88 = 1.66(10

−3

) m

2

I =

1

12

bh

3

−

1

12

(b −2t )(h −2t )

3

=

1

12

[(50 ×100

3

) −(38)(88)

3

] = 2.01(10

−6

) m

4

where I represents the moment of inertia about the neutral

axis.

Therefore, the maximum bending stress at point C

equals

σ

C

=

Mc

I

=

4646(0.05)

2.01(10

−6

)

= 115.6 MPa

The highest value of the shear stress occurs at the neutral

axis. Referring to Figure 3.31, the ﬁrst moment of the area

about the N.A. is

Q

max

= b

h

2

h

4

−(b −2t )

h

2

−t

h/2 −t

2

= 50(50)(25) −(38)(44)(22) = 25.716(10

−6

) m

3

Hence,

τ

C

=

V

C

Q

max

I b

=

3000(25.716)

2.01(2 ×0.006)

= 3.199 MPa

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 112

CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 113

We obtain the largest principal stress σ

1

= σ

max

from

Eq. (3.33), which in this case reduces to

σ

max

=

σ

C

2

+

σ

C

2

2

+τ

2

C

=

115.6

2

+

¸

115.6

2

2

+(3.199)

2

1/2

= 115.7 MPa

The factor of safety against yielding is then

n =

S

y

σ

max

=

250

115.7

= 2.16

This is satisfactory because the frame is made of average

material operated in ordinary environment and subjected

to known loads.

Comments: At joint C, as well as at B, a thin (about

6-mm) steel gusset should be added at each side (not

shown in the ﬁgure). These enlarge the weld area of the

joints and help reduce stress in the welds. Case Study 15-2

illustrates the design analysis of the welded joint at C.

Case Study (CONCLUDED)

Case Study 3-2 BOLT CUTTER STRESS ANALYSIS

A bolt cutting tool is shown in Figure 1.6. Determine the

stresses in the members.

Given: The geometry and forces are known from Case

Study 1-2. Material of all parts is AISI 1080 HR steel.

Dimensions are in inches. We have

S

y

= 60.9 ksi (Table B.3), S

ys

= 0.5S

y

= 30.45 ksi,

E = 30 ×10

6

psi

Assumptions:

1. The loading is taken to be static. The material is duc-

tile, and stress concentration factors can be disre-

garded under steady loading.

2. The most likely failure points are in link 3, the hole

where pins are inserted, the connecting pins in shear,

and jaw 2 in bending.

3. Member 2 can be approximated as a simple beam

with an overhang.

Solution: See Figures 1.6 and 3.32.

The largest force on any pin in the assembly is at

joint A.

Member 3 is a pin-ended tensile link. The force on a

pin is 128 lb, as shown in Figure 3.32a. The normal stress

is therefore

σ =

F

A

(w

3

−d)t

3

=

128

3

8

−

1

8

1

8

= 4.096 ksi

For the bearing stress in the joint A, using Eq. (3.5), we

have

σ

b

=

F

A

dt

3

=

128

1

8

1

8

= 8.192 ksi

The link and other members have ample material around

holes to prevent tearout. The

1

8

-in. diameter pins are in

single shear. The worst-case direct shear stress, from

Eq. (3.4),

τ =

4F

A

πd

2

=

4(128)

π

1

8

2

= 10.43 ksi

(continued)

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 113

114 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

3.11 PLANE STRAIN

In the case of two-dimensional, or plane, strain, all points in the body before and after the

application of the load remain in the same plane. Therefore, in the xy plane the strain com-

ponents ε

x

, ε

y

, and γ

xy

may have nonzero values. The normal and shear strains at a point in

a member vary with direction in a way analogous to that for stress. We brieﬂy discuss ex-

pressions that give the strains in the inclined directions. These in-plane strain transforma-

tion equations are particularly signiﬁcant in experimental investigations, where strains are

measured by means of strain gages. The site at www.measurementsgroup.com includes

general information on strain gages as well as instrumentation.

Mathematically, in every respect, the transformation of strain is the same as the stress

transformation. It can be shown that [2] transformation expressions of stress are converted

b ϭ 3 a ϭ 1

Q ϭ 96 lb

F

A

ϭ 128 lb

A B

D

t

2

ϭ

3

16

d ϭ

1

8

h

2

ϭ

3

8

F

B

ϭ 32 lb

2

A

A

d ϭ

1

8

t

3

ϭ

1

8

w

3

ϭ

3

8

F

A

ϭ 128 lb

F

A

3

1

1

4

ϭ L

3

(a) (b)

Figure 3.32 Some free-body diagrams of bolt cutter shown in Figure 1.6: (a) link 3; (b) jaw 2.

Member 2, the jaw, is supported and loaded as shown

in Figure 3.32b. The moment of inertia of the cross-

sectional area is

I =

t

2

12

h

3

2

−d

3

=

3/16

12

¸

3

8

3

−

1

8

3

= 0.793(10

−3

) in.

4

The maximum moment, that occurs at point A of the jaw,

equals M = F

B

b = 32(3) = 96 lb · in. The bending stress

is then

σ

C

=

Mc

I

=

96

3

16

0.793 ×10

−3

= 22.7 ksi

It can readily be shown that, the shear stress is negligibly

small in the jaw.

Member 1, the handle, has an irregular geometry and

is relatively massive compared to the other components of

the assembly. Accurate values of stresses as well as de-

ﬂections in the handle may be obtained by the ﬁnite ele-

ment analysis.

Comment: The results show that the maximum

stresses in members are well under the yield strength of

the material.

Case Study (CONCLUDED)

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 114

into strain relationships by substitution:

(a)

These replacements can be made in all the analogous two- and three-dimensional transfor-

mation relations. Therefore, the principal strain directions are obtained from Eq. (3.32) in

the form, for example,

(3.37)

Using Eq. (3.33), the magnitudes of the in-plane principal strains are

(3.38)

In a like manner, the in-plane transformation of strain in an arbitrary direction proceeds

from Eqs. (3.31):

An expression for the maximum shear strain may also be found from Eq. (3.34). Similarly,

the transformation equations of three-dimensional strain may be deduced from the corre-

sponding stress relations, given in Section 3.18.

In Mohr’s circle for strain, the normal strain ε is plotted on the horizontal axis, posi-

tive to the right. The vertical axis is measured in terms of γ/2. The center of the circle is at

(ε

x

+ε

y

)/2. When the shear strain is positive, the point representing the x axis strain is

plotted a distance γ/2 belowthe axis and vice versa when shear strain is negative. Note that

this convention for shearing strain, used only in constructing and reading values from

Mohr’s circle, agrees with the convention used for stress in Section 3.9.

(3.39a)

(3.39b)

(3.39c)

ε

x

=

1

2

(ε

x

+ε

y

) +

1

2

(ε

x

−ε

y

) cos 2θ +

γ

xy

2

sin 2θ

γ

x

y

= −(ε

x

−ε

y

) sin 2θ +γ

xy

cos 2θ

ε

y

=

1

2

(ε

x

+ε

y

) −

1

2

(ε

x

−ε

y

) cos 2θ −

γ

xy

2

sin 2θ

ε

1,2

=

ε

x

+ε

y

2

±

ε

x

−ε

y

2

2

+

γ

xy

2

2

tan 2θ

p

=

γ

xy

ε

x

−ε

y

σ →ε and τ →γ/2

CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 115

Determination of Principal Strains Using Mohr’s Circle EXAMPLE 3.15

It is observed that an element of a structural component elongates 450µ along the x axis, contracts

120µ in the y direction, and distorts through an angle of −360µ (see Section 1.14). Calculate

(a) The principal strains.

(b) The maximum shear strains.

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 115

116 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

Ј ϭ 165

() B

1

A

1

E

O C

x

y

D

B(Ϫ120, Ϫ180)

A(450, 180)

2Ј

p

␥

2

()

Figure 3.33 Example 3.15.

Given: ε

x

= 450µ, ε

y

= −120µ, γ

x y

= −360µ

Assumption: Element is in a state of plane strain.

Solution: Asketch of Mohr’s circle is shown in Figure 3.33, constructed by ﬁnding the position of

point C at ε

= (ε

x

+ε

y

)/2 = 165µ on the horizontal axis and of point A at (ε

x

, −γ

x y

/2) =

(450µ, 180µ) from the origin O.

(a) The in-plane principal strains are represented by points A and B. Hence,

ε

1,2

= 165µ ±

¸

450 +120

2

2

+(−180)

2

1/2

ε

1

= 502µ ε

2

= −172µ

Note, as a check, that ε

x

+ε

y

= ε

1

+ε

2

= 330µ. From geometry,

θ

p

=

1

2

tan

−1

180

285

= 16.14

◦

It is seen from the circle that θ

p

locates the ε

1

direction.

(b) The maximum shear strains are given by points D and E. Hence,

γ

max

= ±(ε

1

−ε

2

) = ±674µ

Comments: Mohr’s circle depicts that the axes of maximum shear strain make an angle of 45°

with respect to principal axes. In the directions of maximum shear strain, the normal strains are equal

to ε

= 165µ.

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 116

CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 117

3.12 STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTORS

The condition where high localized stresses are produced as a result of an abrupt change in

geometry is called the stress concentration. The abrupt change in form or discontinuity

occurs in such frequently encountered stress raisers as holes, notches, keyways, threads,

grooves, and ﬁllets. Note that the stress concentration is a primary cause of fatigue failure

and static failure in brittle materials, discussed in the next section. The formulas of

mechanics of materials apply as long as the material remains linearly elastic and shape

variations are gradual. In some cases, the stress and accompanying deformation near a dis-

continuity can be analyzed by applying the theory of elasticity. In those instances that do

not yield to analytical methods, it is more usual to rely on experimental techniques or the

ﬁnite element method (see Case Study 17-4). In fact, much research centers on determin-

ing stress concentration effects for combined stress.

Ageometric or theoretical stress concentration factor K

t

is used to relate the maximum

stress at the discontinuity to the nominal stress. The factor is deﬁned by

or (3.40)

Here the nominal stresses are stresses that would occur if the abrupt change in the cross

section did not exist or had no inﬂuence on stress distribution. It is important to note that

a stress concentration factor is applied to the stress computed for the net or reduced cross

section. Stress concentration factors for several types of conﬁguration and loading are

available in technical literature [8–13].

The stress concentration factors for a variety of geometries, provided in Appendix C,

are useful in the design of machine parts. Curves in the Appendix C ﬁgures are plotted on

the basis of dimensionless ratios: the shape, but not the size, of the member is involved.

Observe that all these graphs indicate the advisability of streamlining junctures and transi-

tions of portions that make up a member; that is, stress concentration can be reduced in in-

tensity by properly proportioning the parts. Large ﬁllet radii help at reentrant corners.

The values shown in Figures C.1, C.2, and C.7 through C.9 are for ﬁllets of radius r that

join a part of depth (or diameter) d to the one of larger depth (or diameter) Dat a step or shoul-

der in a member (see Figure 3.34). Afull ﬁllet is a 90° arc with radius r = (D −d

f

)/2. The

stress concentration factor decreases with increases in r/d or d/D. Also, results for the axial

tension pertain equally to cases of axial compression. However, the stresses obtained are valid

only if the loading is not signiﬁcant relative to that which would cause failure by buckling.

K

t

=

τ

max

τ

nom

K

t

=

σ

max

σ

nom

d

h

d

f

r

D

P

t

Figure 3.34 A ﬂat bar with ﬁllets and a centric

hole under axial loading.

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 117

118 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

EXAMPLE 3.16 Design of Axially Loaded Thick Plate with a Hole and Fillets

A ﬁlleted plate of thickness t supports an axial load P (Figure 3.34). Determine the radius r of the

ﬁllets so that the same stress occurs at the hole and the ﬁllets.

Given: P = 50 kN, D = 100 mm, d

f

= 66 mm, d

h

= 20 mm, t = 10 mm

Design Decisions: The plate will be made of a relatively brittle metallic alloy; we must consider

stress concentration.

Solution: For the circular hole,

d

h

D

=

20

100

= 0.2, A = (D −d

h

)t = (100 −20)10 = 800 mm

2

Using the lower curve in Figure C.5, we ﬁnd that K

t

= 2.44 corresponding to d

h

/D = 0.2. Hence,

σ

max

= K

t

P

A

= 2.44

50 ×10

3

800(10

−6

)

= 152.5 MPa

For ﬁllets,

σ

max

= K

t

P

A

= K

t

50 ×10

3

660(10

−6

)

= 75.8K

t

MPa

The requirement that the maximum stress for the hole and ﬁllets be identical is satisﬁed by

152.5 = 75.8K

t

or K

t

= 2.01

From the curve in Figure C.1, for D/d

f

= 100/66 = 1.52, we ﬁnd that r/d

f

= 0.12 corresponding

to K

t

= 2.01. The necessary ﬁllet radius is therefore

r = 0.12 ×66 = 7.9 mm

3.13 IMPORTANCE OF STRESS CONCENTRATION

FACTORS IN DESIGN

Under certain conditions, a normally ductile material behaves in a brittle manner and vice

versa. So, for a speciﬁc application, the distinction between ductile and brittle materials

must be inferred from the discussion of Section 2.9. Also remember that the determination

of stress concentration factors is based on the use of Hooke’s law.

FATIGUE LOADING

Most engineering materials may fail as a result of propagation of cracks originating at the

point of high dynamic stress. The presence of stress concentration in the case of ﬂuctuating

(and impact) loading, as found in some machine elements, must be considered, regardless

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 118

of whether the material response is brittle or ductile. In machine design, then, fatigue stress

concentrations are of paramount importance. However, its effect on the nominal stress is

not as large, as indicated by the theoretical factors (see Section 8.7).

STATIC LOADING

For static loading, stress concentration is important only for brittle material. However, for

some brittle materials having internal irregularities, such as cast iron, stress raisers usually

have little effect, regardless of the nature of loading. Hence, the use of a stress concentra-

tion factor appears to be unnecessary for cast iron. Customarily, stress concentration is

ignored in static loading of ductile materials. The explanation for this restriction is quite

simple. For ductile materials slowly and steadily loaded beyond the yield point, the stress

concentration factors decrease to a value approaching unity because of the redistribution of

stress around a discontinuity.

To illustrate the foregoing inelastic action, consider the behavior of a mild-steel ﬂat

bar that contains a hole and is subjected to a gradually increasing load P (Figure 3.35).

When σ

max

reaches the yield strength S

y

, stress distribution in the material is of the form of

curve mn, and yielding impends at A. Some ﬁbers are stressed in the plastic range but

enough others remain elastic, and the member can carry additional load. We observe that

the area under stress distribution curve is equal to the load P. This area increases as over-

load P increases, and a contained plastic ﬂow occurs in the material [14]. Therefore, with

the increase in the value of P, the stress-distribution curve assumes forms such as those

shown by line mp and ﬁnally mq. That is, the effect of an abrupt change in geometry is nul-

liﬁed and σ

max

= σ

nom

, or K

t

= 1; prior to necking, a nearly uniform stress distribution

across the net section occurs. Hence, for most practical purposes, the bar containing a hole

carries the same static load as the bar with no hole.

The effect of ductility on the strength of the shafts and beams with stress raisers is sim-

ilar to that of axially loaded bars. That is, localized inelastic deformations enable these

members to support high stress concentrations. Interestingly, material ductility introduces

a certain element of forgiveness in analysis while producing acceptable design results; for

example, rivets can carry equal loads in a riveted connection (see Section 15.13).

When a member is yielded nonuniformly throughout a cross section, residual stresses

remain in this cross section after the load is removed. An overload produces residual

stresses favorable to future loads in the same direction and unfavorable to future loads in

the opposite direction. Based on the idealized stress-strain curve, the increase in load

CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 119

P P

A

m

S

y

max

ϭ

nom

q p

n

Figure 3.35 Redistribution of stress in a ﬂat bar of

mild steel.

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 119

120 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

capacity in one direction is the same as the decrease in load capacity in the opposite direc-

tion. Note that coil springs in compression are good candidates for favorable residual

stresses caused by yielding.

3.14 CONTACT STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS

The application of a load over a small area of contact results in unusually high stresses.

Situations of this nature are found on a microscopic scale whenever force is transmitted

through bodies in contact. The original analysis of elastic contact stresses, by H. Hertz, was

published in 1881. In his honor, the stresses at the mating surfaces of curved bodies in com-

pression are called Hertz contact stresses. The Hertz problem relates to the stresses owing

to the contact surface of a sphere on a plane, a sphere on a sphere, a cylinder on a cylinder,

and the like. In addition to rolling bearings, the problem is of importance to cams, push rod

mechanisms, locomotive wheels, valve tappets, gear teeth, and pin joints in linkages.

Consider the contact without deﬂection of two bodies having curved surfaces of dif-

ferent radii (r

1

and r

2

), in the vicinity of contact. If a collinear pair of forces (F) presses the

bodies together, deﬂection occurs and the point of contact is replaced by a small area of

contact. The ﬁrst steps taken toward the solution of this problem are the determination of

the size and shape of the contact area as well as the distribution of normal pressure acting

on the area. The deﬂections and subsurface stresses resulting from the contact pressure are

then evaluated. The following basic assumptions are generally made in the solution of the

Hertz problem:

1. The contacting bodies are isotropic, homogeneous, and elastic.

2. The contact areas are essentially ﬂat and small relative to the radii of curvature of the

undeﬂected bodies in the vicinity of the interface.

3. The contacting bodies are perfectly smooth, therefore friction forces need not be taken

into account.

The foregoing set of presuppositions enables elastic analysis by theory of elasticity. With-

out going into the rather complex derivations, in this section, we introduce some of the re-

sults for both cylinders and spheres. The next section concerns the contact of two bodies of

any general curvature. Contact problems of rolling bearings and gear teeth are discussed in

the later chapters.*

SPHERICAL AND CYLINDRICAL SURFACES IN CONTACT

Figure 3.36 illustrates the contact area and corresponding stress distribution between two

spheres, loaded with force F. Similarly, two parallel cylindrical rollers compressed by forces

F is shown in Figure 3.37. We observe from the ﬁgures that, in each case, the maximum

contact pressure exist on the load axis. The area of contact is deﬁned by dimension a for the

spheres and a and L for the cylinders. The relationships between the force of contact F,

*A summary and complete list of references dealing with contact stress problems are given by References [2, 4,

15–17].

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 120

CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 121

y

p

o

y

z

x

O

a

a

Contact

area

(a) (b)

O

r

1

r

2

E

1

p

o

E

2

F

F

z

2a

Figure 3.36 (a) Spherical surfaces of two members held in

contact by force F. (b) Contact stress distribution. Note: The

contact area is a circle of radius a.

maximum pressure p

o

, and the deﬂection δ in the point of contact are given in Table 3.2.

Obviously, the δ represents the relative displacement of the centers of the two bodies,

owing to local deformation. The contact pressure within each sphere or cylinder has a semi-

elliptical distribution; it varies from 0 at the side of the contact area to a maximum value p

o

at its center, as shown in the ﬁgures. For spheres, a is the radius of the circular contact area

(πa

2

). But, for cylinders, a represents the half-width of the rectangular contact area (2aL),

where L is the length of the cylinder. Poisson’s ratio ν in the formulas is taken as 0.3.

The material along the axis compressed in the z direction tends to expand in the x and

y directions. However, the surrounding material does not permit this expansion; hence, the

compressive stresses are produced in the x and y directions. The maximum stresses occur

along the load axis z, and they are principal stresses (Figure 3.38). These and the resulting

maximum shear stresses are given in terms of the maximum contact pressure p

o

by the

equations to follow [3, 16].

Two Spheres in Contact (Figure 3.36)

σ

x

= σ

y

= −p

o

¸

1 −

z

a

tan

−1

1

z/a

(1 +ν) −

1

2[1 +(z/a)

2

]

¸

(3.41a)

σ

z

= −

p

o

1 +(z/a)

2

(3.41b)

Therefore, we have τ

xy

= 0 and

τ

yz

= τ

xz

=

1

2

(σ

x

−σ

z

) (3.41c)

Aplot of these equations is shown in Figure 3.39a.

r

1

r

2

E

1

p

o

E

2

F

F

z

y x

L

2a

F

F

z

Figure 3.37 Two cylinders held in

contact by force F uniformly distributed

along cylinder length L. Note: The contact

area is a narrow rectangle of 2a × L.

z

y

x

z

y

x

Figure 3.38

Principal stress below

the surface along the

load axis z.

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 121

122 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

Two Cylinders in Contact (Figure 3.37)

σ

x

= −2νp

o

¸

¸

¸

1 +

z

a

2

−

z

a

(3.42a)

σ

y

= −p

o

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

2 −

1

1 +(z/a)

2

¸

1 +

z

a

2

−2

z

a

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

(3.42b)

Table 3.2 Maximum pressure p

o

and deflection δ of two bodies in point of contact

Configuration Spheres: p

o

= 1.5

F

πa

2

Cylinders: p

o

=

2

π

F

aL

A. Sphere on a Flat Surface Cylinder on a Flat Surface

a = 0.880

3

Fr

1

a = 1.076

F

L

r

1

δ = 0.775

3

F

2

2

r

1

For E

1

= E

2

= E:

δ =

0.579F

EL

1

3

+ln

2r

1

a

**B. Two Spherical Balls Two Cylindrical Rollers
**

a = 0.880

3

F

m

a = 1.076

F

Lm

δ = 0.775

3

F

2

2

m

C. Sphere on a Spherical Seat Cylinder on a Cylindrical Seat

a = 0.880

3

F

n

a = 1.076

F

Ln

δ = 0.775

3

F

2

2

n

Note: =

1

E1

+

1

E2

, m =

1

r1

+

1

r2

, n =

1

r1

−

1

r2

where the modulus of elasticity (E) and radius (r ) are for the contacting members, 1 and 2. The L represents

the length of the cylinder (Figure 3.37). The total force pressing two spheres or cylinders is F.

z

y

a

F

F

r

2

r

1

z

y

a

F

F

r

1

r

2

z

y

a

F

F

r

1

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 122

CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 123

σ

z

= −

p

o

1 +(z/a)

2

(3.42c)

τ

xy

=

1

2

(σ

x

−σ

y

), τ

yz

=

1

2

(σ

y

−σ

z

), τ

xz

=

1

2

(σ

x

−σ

z

) (3.42d)

Equations (3.42a–3.42c) and the second of Eqs. (3.42d) are plotted in Figure 3.39b. For

each case, Figure 3.39 illustrates how principal stresses diminish below the surface. It also

shows how the shear stress reaches a maximum value slightly below the surface and

diminishes. The maximum shear stresses act on the planes bisecting the planes of maxi-

mum and minimum principal stresses.

The subsurface shear stresses is believed to be responsible for the surface fatigue fail-

ure of contacting bodies (see Section 8.15). The explanation is that minute cracks originate

at the point of maximum shear stress below the surface and propagate to the surface to per-

mit small bits of material to separate from the surface. As already noted, all stresses con-

sidered in this section exist along the load axis z. The states of stress off the z axis are not

required for design purposes, because the maxima occur on the z axis.

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

R

a

t

i

o

o

f

s

t

r

e

s

s

t

o

p

o

0.5a 1.5a 2a 2.5a 3a a

Distance from contact surface

,

max

x

,

y

z

z

(a)

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

R

a

t

i

o

o

f

s

t

r

e

s

s

t

o

p

o

0.5a 1.5a 2a 2.5a 3a a

Distance from contact surface

,

yz

x

y

z

z

(b)

Figure 3.39 Stresses below the surface along the load axis (for ν = 0.3): (a) two spheres; (b) two

parallel cylinders. Note: All normal stresses are compressive stresses.

Determining Maximum Contact Pressure between a Cylindrical Rod and a Beam EXAMPLE 3.17

Aconcentrated load F at the center of a narrow, deep beam is applied through a rod of diameter d laid

across the beam width of width b. Determine

(a) The contact area between rod and beam surface.

(b) The maximum contact stress.

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 123

124 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

Case Study 3-3 CAM AND FOLLOWER STRESS ANALYSIS

OF AN INTERMITTENT-MOTION MECHANISM

Figure 3.40 shows a camshaft and follower of an

intermittent-motion mechanism. For the position indi-

cated, the cam exerts a force P

max

on the follower. What

are the maximum stress at the contact line between the

cam and follower and the deﬂection?

D

c

D

f

Cam

Follower

P

max

P

max

L

3

L

1

L

5

D

s

L

6

L

4

L

2

L

3

D

s

A B

E

F

r r

Bearing

Shaft

Shaft

rotation

r

c

Figure 3.40 Layout of camshaft and follower of an intermittent-motion mechanism.

Given: F = 4 kN, d = 12 mm, b = 125 mm

Assumptions: Both the beam and the rod are made of steel having E = 200 GPa and ν = 0.3.

Solution: We use the equations on the second column of case Ain Table 3.2.

(a) Since E

1

= E

2

= E or = 2/E, the half-width of contact area is

a = 1.076

F

L

r

1

= 1.076

4(10

3

)

0.125

(0.006)2

200(10

9

)

= 0.0471 mm

The rectangular contact area equals

2aL = 2(0.0471)(125) = 11.775 mm

2

(b) The maximum contact pressure is therefore

p

o

=

2

π

F

aL

=

2

π

4(10

3

)

5.888(10

−6

)

= 432.5 MPa

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 124

CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 125

Given: The shapes of the contacting surfaces are

known. The material of all parts is AISI 1095, carburized

on the surfaces, oil quenched and tempered (Q&T) at

650°C.

Data:

P

max

= 1.6 kips, r

c

= 1.5 in., D

f

= L

4

= 1.5 in.,

E = 29 ×10

6

psi, S

y

= 80 ksi,

Assumptions: Frictional forces can be neglected. The

rotational speed is slow so that the loading is considered

static.

Solution: See Figure 3.40, Tables 3.2, B.1, and B.4.

Equations on the second column of case A of

Table 3.2 apply. We ﬁrst determine the half-width a of the

contact patch. Since E

1

= E

2

= E and = 2/E, we

have

a = 1.076

P

max

L

4

r

c

**Substitution of the given data yield
**

a = 1.076

¸

1600

1.5

(1.5)

2

30 ×10

6

¸

1/2

= 11.113(10

−3

) in.

The rectangular patch area:

2aL = 2(11.113 ×10

−3

)(1.5) = 33.34(10

−3

) in.

2

Maximum contact pressure is then

p

o

=

2

π

P

max

aL

4

=

2

π

1600

(11.113 ×10

−3

)(1.5)

= 61.11 ksi

The deﬂection δ of the cam and follower at the line of

contact is obtained as follows

δ =

0.579P

max

EL

4

1

3

+ln

2r

c

a

**Introducing the numerical values,
**

δ =

0.579(1600)

30 ×10

6

(1.5)

1

3

+ln

2 ×1.5

11.113 ×10

−3

= 0.122(10

−3

) in.

Comments: The contact stress is determined to be less

than the yield strength and the design is satisfactory. The

calculated deﬂection between the cam and the follower is

very small and does not effect the system performance.

*3.15 MAXIMUM STRESS IN GENERAL CONTACT

In this section, we introduce some formulas for the determination of the maximum contact

stress or pressure p

o

between the two contacting bodies that have any general curvature

[2,15]. Since the radius of curvature of each member in contact is different in every direc-

tion, the equations for the stress given here are more complex than those presented in the

preceding section. A brief discussion on factors affecting the contact pressure is given in

Section 8.15.

Consider two rigid bodies of equal elastic modulus E, compressed by F, as shown in

Figure 3.41. The load lies along the axis passing through the centers of the bodies and

through the point of contact and is perpendicular to the plane tangent to both bodies at the

point of contact. The minimum and maximum radii of curvature of the surface of the upper

body are r

1

and r

1

; those of the lower body are r

2

and r

2

at the point of contact. Therefore,

Case Study (CONCLUDED)

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 125

126 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

r

2

r

1

ϭ r'

1

r'

2

F

F

Figure 3.42

Contact load in a

single-row ball

bearing.

1/r

1

, 1/r

1

, 1/r

2

, and 1/r

2

are the principal curvatures. The sign convention of the curva-

ture is such that it is positive if the corresponding center of curvature is inside the body; if

the center of the curvature is outside the body, the curvature is negative. (For instance, in

Figure 3.42, r

1

, r

1

are positive, while r

2

, r

2

are negative.)

Let θ be the angle between the normal planes in which radii r

1

and r

2

lie (Figure 3.41).

Subsequent to the loading, the area of contact will be an ellipse with semiaxes a and b. The

maximum contact pressure is

(3.43)

where

a = c

a

3

Fm

n

b = c

b

3

Fm

n

(3.44)

In these formulas, we have

m =

4

1

r1

+

1

r

1

+

1

r2

+

1

r

2

n =

4E

3(1 −ν

2

)

(3.45)

The constants c

a

and c

b

are given in Table 3.3 corresponding to the value of α calculated

from the formula

cos α =

B

A

(3.46)

Here

A =

2

m

, B =±

1

2

¸

1

r

1

−

1

r

1

2

+

1

r

2

−

1

r

2

2

+ 2

1

r

1

−

1

r

1

1

r

2

−

1

r

2

cos 2θ

1/2

(3.47)

The proper sign in B must be chosen so that its values are positive.

p

o

= 1.5

F

πab

Table 3.3 Factors for use in Equation (3.44)

α α

(degrees) c

a

c

b

(degrees) c

a

c

b

20 3.778 0.408 60 1.486 0.717

30 2.731 0.493 65 1.378 0.759

35 2.397 0.530 70 1.284 0.802

40 2.136 0.567 75 1.202 0.846

45 1.926 0.604 80 1.128 0.893

50 1.754 0.641 85 1.061 0.944

55 1.611 0.678 90 1.000 1.000

r

1

r

2

r'

1

F

F

r'

2

Figure 3.41

Curved surfaces of

different radii of

two bodies

compressed by

forces F.

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 126

CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 127

Using Eq. (3.43), many problems of practical importance may be solved. These

include contact stresses in rolling bearings (Figure 3.42), contact stresses in cam and push-

rod mechanisms (see Problem P3.42), and contact stresses between a cylindrical wheel and

rail (see Problem P3.44).

Ball Bearing Capacity Analysis EXAMPLE 3.18

Asingle-row ball bearing supports a radial load F as shown in Figure 3.42. Calculate

(a) The maximum pressure at the contact point between the outer race and a ball.

(b) The factor of safety, if the ultimate strength is the maximum usable stress.

Given: F = 1.2 kN, E = 200 GPa, ν = 0.3, and S

u

= 1900 MPa. Ball diameter is 12 mm; the

radius of the groove, 6.2 mm; and the diameter of the outer race is 80 mm.

Assumptions: The basic assumptions listed in Section 3.14 apply. The loading is static.

Solution: See Figure 3.42 and Table 3.3.

For the situation described r

1

= r

1

= 0.006 m, r

2

= −0.0062 m, and r

2

= −0.04 m.

(a) Substituting the given data into Eqs. (3.45) and (3.47), we have

m =

4

2

0.006

−

1

0.0062

−

1

0.04

= 0.0272, n =

4(200 ×10

9

)

3(0.91)

= 293.0403 ×10

9

A =

2

0.0272

= 73.5294, B =

1

2

[(0)

2

+(−136.2903)

2

+2(0)

2

]

1/2

= 68.1452

Using Eq. (3.46),

cos α = ±

68.1452

73.5294

= 0.9268, α = 22.06

◦

Corresponding to this value of α, interpolating in Table 3.3, we obtain c

a

= 3.5623

and c

b

= 0.4255. The semiaxes of the ellipsoidal contact area are found by using

Eq. (3.44):

a = 3.5623

¸

1200 ×0.0272

293.0403 ×10

9

¸

1/3

= 1.7140 mm

b = 0.4255

¸

1200 ×0.0272

293.0403 ×10

9

¸

1/3

= 0.2047 mm

The maximum contact pressure is then

p

o

= 1.5

1200

π(1.7140 ×0.2047)

= 1633 MPa

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 127

128 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

(b) Since contact stresses are not linearly related to load F, the safety factor is deﬁned by

Eq. (1.1):

n =

F

u

F

(a)

in which F

u

is the ultimate loading. The maximum principal stress theory of failure gives

S

u

=

1.5F

u

πab

=

1.5F

u

πc

a

c

b

3

(F

u

m/n)

2

This may be written as

S

u

=

1.5

3

√

F

u

πc

a

c

b

(m/n)

2/3

(3.48)

Introducing the numerical values into the preceding expression, we have

1900(10

6

) =

1.5

3

√

F

u

π(3.5623 ×0.4255)

0.0272

293.0403 ×10

9

2/3

Solving, F

u

= 1891 N. Equation (a) gives then

n =

1891

1200

= 1.58

Comments: In this example, the magnitude of the contact stress obtained is quite large in com-

parison with the values of the stress usually found in direct tension, bending, and torsion. In all con-

tact problems, three-dimensional compressive stresses occur at the point, and hence a material is ca-

pable of resisting higher stress levels.

3.16 THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRESS

In the most general case of three-dimensional stress, an element is subjected to stresses on

the orthogonal x, y, and z planes, as shown in Figure 1.10. Consider a tetrahedron, isolated

from this element and represented in Figure 3.43. Components of stress on the perpendic-

ular planes (intersecting at the origin O) can be related to the normal and shear stresses on

the oblique plane ABC, by using an approach identical to that employed for the two-

dimensional state of stress.

Orientation of plane ABC may be deﬁned in terms of the direction cosines, associated

with the angles between a unit normal n to the plane and the x, y, z coordinate axes:

cos(n, x) = l, cos(n, y) = m, cos(n, z) = n (3.49)

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 128

CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 129

The sum of the squares of these quantities is unity:

(3.50)

Consider now a new coordinate system x

, y

, z

, where x

coincides with n and y

, z

lie on

an oblique plane. It can readily be shown that [2] the normal stress acting on the oblique

x

**plane shown in Figure 3.43 is expressed in the form
**

(3.51)

where l, m, and n are direction cosines of angles between x

**and the x, y, z axes, respec-
**

tively. The shear stresses τ

x

y

and τ

x

z

may be written similarly. The stresses on the three

mutually perpendicular planes are required to specify the stress at a point. One of these

planes is the oblique (x

**) plane in question. The other stress components σ
**

y

, σ

z

, and τ

y

z

are obtained by considering those (y

and z

**) planes perpendicular to the oblique plane.
**

In so doing, the resulting six expressions represent transformation equations for three-

dimensional stress.

PRINCIPAL STRESSES IN THREE DIMENSIONS

For the three-dimensional case, three mutually perpendicular planes of zero shear exist;

and on these planes, the normal stresses have maximum or minimum values. The fore-

going normal stresses are called principal stresses σ

1

, σ

2

, and σ

3

. The algebraically

largest stress is represented by σ

1

and the smallest by σ

3

. Of particular importance are the

direction cosines of the plane on which σ

x

has a maximum value, determined from the

equations:

¸

σ

x

−σ

i

τ

xy

τ

xz

τ

xy

σ

y

−σ

i

τ

yz

τ

xz

τ

yz

σ

z

−σ

i

¸

l

i

m

i

n

i

¸

= 0, (i = 1, 2, 3) (3.52)

σ

x

= σ

x

l

2

+σ

y

m

2

+σ

z

n

2

+2(τ

xy

lm +τ

yz

mn +τ

xz

ln)

l

2

+m

2

+n

2

= 1

y

B

C

A

z

x

n

x'y'

x'z'

x'

O

Figure 3.43 Components of stress on a

tetrahedron.

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 129

130 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

A nontrivial solution for the direction cosines requires that the characteristic determinant

vanishes. Thus

σ

x

−σ

i

τ

xy

τ

xz

τ

xy

σ

y

−σ

i

τ

yz

τ

xz

τ

yz

σ

z

−σ

i

= 0 (3.53)

Expanding Eq. (3.53), we obtain the following stress cubic equation:

(3.54)

where

I

1

= σ

x

+σ

y

+σ

z

I

2

= σ

x

σ

y

+σ

x

σ

z

+σ

y

σ

z

−τ

2

xy

−τ

2

yz

−τ

2

xz

I

3

= σ

x

σ

y

σ

z

+2τ

xy

τ

yz

τ

xz

−σ

x

τ

2

yz

−σ

y

τ

2

xz

−σ

z

τ

2

xy

(3.55)

The quantities I

1

, I

2

, and I

3

represent invariants of the three-dimensional stress. For a given

state of stress, Eq. (3.54) may be solved for its three roots, σ

1

, σ

2

, and σ

3

. Introducing each

of these principal stresses into Eq. (3.52) and using l

2

i

+m

2

i

+n

2

i

= 1, we can obtain three

sets of direction cosines for three principal planes. Note that the direction cosines of the

principal stresses are occasionally required to predict the behavior of members. A conve-

nient way of determining the roots of the stress cubic equation and solving for the direction

cosines is given in Appendix D.

After obtaining the three-dimensional principal stresses, we can readily determine the

maximum shear stresses. Since no shear stress acts on the principal planes, it follows that

an element oriented parallel to the principal directions is in a state of triaxial stress (Figure

3.44). Therefore,

(3.56)

The maximum shear stress acts on the planes that bisect the planes of the maximum and

minimum principal stresses as shown in the ﬁgure.

τ

max

=

1

2

(σ

1

−σ

3

)

σ

3

i

− I

1

σ

2

i

+ I

2

σ

i

− I

3

= 0

2

3

1

45°

Figure 3.44 Planes of

maximum three-dimensional

shear stress.

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 130

CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 131

Three-Dimensional State of Stress in a Member EXAMPLE 3.19

At a critical point in a loaded machine component, the stresses relative to x, y, z coordinate system

are given by

¸

¸

60 20 20

20 0 40

20 40 0

MPa (a)

Determine the principal stresses σ

1

, σ

2

, σ

3

, and the orientation of σ

1

with respect to the original co-

ordinate axes.

Solution: Substitution of Eq. (a) into Eq. (3.54) gives

σ

3

i

−60σ

2

i

−2400σ

i

+64,000 = 0, (i = 1, 2, 3)

The three principal stresses representing the roots of this equation are

σ

1

= 80 MPa, σ

2

= 20 MPa, σ

3

= −40 MPa

Introducing σ

1

into Eq. (3.52), we have

¸

¸

60 −80 20 20

20 0 −80 40

20 40 0 −80

¸

¸

l

1

m

1

n

1

¸

¸

¸

= 0 (b)

Here l

1

, m

1

, and n

1

represent the direction cosines for the orientation of the plane on which σ

1

acts.

It can be shown that only two of Eqs. (b) are independent. From these expressions, together with

l

2

1

+m

2

1

+n

2

1

= 1, we obtain

l

1

=

2

√

6

= 0.8165, m

1

=

1

√

6

= 0.4082, n

1

=

1

√

6

= 0.4082

The direction cosines for σ

2

and σ

3

are ascertained in a like manner. The foregoing computations may

readily be performed by using the formulas given in Appendix D.

SIMPLIFIED TRANSFORMATION FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRESS

Often we need the normal and shear stresses acting on an arbitrary oblique plane of a tetra-

hedron in terms of the principal stresses acting on perpendicular planes (Figure 3.45). In

this case, the x, y, and z coordinate axes are parallel to the principal axes: σ

x

= σ, σ

x

= σ

1

,

τ

xy

= τ

xz

= 0, and so on, as depicted in the ﬁgure. Let l, m, and n denote the direction

cosines of oblique plane ABC. The normal stress σ on the oblique plane, from Eq. (3.51), is

(3.57a)

σ = σ

1

l

2

+σ

2

m

2

+σ

3

n

2

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 131

132 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

It can be veriﬁed that, the shear stress τ on this plane may be expressed in the convenient

form:

(3.57b)

The preceding expressions are the simpliﬁed transformation equations for three-dimensional

state of stress.

OCTAHEDRAL STRESSES

Let us consider an oblique plane that forms equal angles with each of the principal

stresses, represented by face ABC in Figure 3.45 with OA = OB = OC. Thus, the normal

n to this plane has equal direction cosines relative to the principal axes. Inasmuch as

l

2

+m

2

+n

2

= 1, we have

l = m = n =

1

√

3

There are eight such plane or octahedral planes, all of which have the same intensity of nor-

mal and shear stresses at a point O (Figure 3.46). Substitution of the preceding equation

into Eqs. (3.57) results in, the magnitudes of the octahedral normal stress and octahedral

shear stress, in the following forms:

(3.58a)

(3.58b)

Equation (3.58a) indicates that the normal stress acting on an octahedral plane is the mean

of the principal stresses. The octahedral stresses play an important role in certain failure

criteria, discussed in Sections 5.3 and 7.8.

σ

oct

=

1

3

(σ

1

+σ

2

+σ

3

)

τ

oct

=

1

3

[(σ

1

−σ

2

)

2

+(σ

2

−σ

3

)

2

+(σ

3

−σ

1

)

2

]

1/2

τ = [(σ

1

−σ

2

)

2

l

2

m

2

+(σ

2

−σ

3

)

2

m

2

n

2

+(σ

3

−σ

1

)

2

n

2

l

2

]

1/2

y

B

C A

z x

O

n

3

1

2

Figure 3.45 Triaxial stress

on a tetrahedron.

Octahedral

plane

B

C

O

A

2

oct

oct

1

3

Figure 3.46 Stresses on a

octahedron.

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CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 133

Determining Principal Stresses Using Mohr’s Circle EXAMPLE 3.20

Figure 3.47a depicts a point in a loaded machine base subjected to the three-dimensional stresses.

Determine at the point

(a) The principal planes and principal stresses.

(b) The maximum shear stress.

(c) The octahedral stresses.

x

C

B

O

y

A

1

C

1

B

1

r

2'

p

' ϭ 47.5

(MPa)

(MPa)

A(60, Ϫ30)

80

15 Ϫ25

(b) (c)

'

p

ϭ 33.7°

15 MPa

80 MPa

25 MPa

y'

x'

x

z

(a)

35 MPa

30 MPa

60 MPa

25 MPa

y

x

z

Figure 3.47 Example 3.20.

Solution: We construct Mohr’s circle for the transformation of stress in the xy plane as indicated

by the solid lines in Figure 3.47b. The radius of the circle is r = (12.5

2

+30

2

)

1/2

= 32.5 MPa.

(a) The principal stresses in the plane are represented by points A and B:

σ

1

= 47.5 +32.5 = 80 MPa

σ

2

= 47.5 −32.5 = 15 MPa

The z faces of the element deﬁne one of the principal stresses: σ

3

= −25 MPa. The planes

of the maximum principal stress are deﬁned by θ

p

, the angle through which the element

should rotate about the z axis:

θ

p

=

1

2

tan

−1

30

12.5

= 33.7

◦

The result is shown on a sketch of the rotated element (Figure 3.47c).

(b) We now draw circles of diameters C

1

B

1

and C

1

A

1

, which correspond, respectively, to the

projections in the y

z

and x

z

**planes of the element (Figure 3.47b). The maximum shear-
**

ing stress, the radius of the circle of diameter C

1

A

1

, is therefore

τ

max

=

1

2

(75 +25) = 50 MPa

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 133

134 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

Planes of the maximum shear stress are inclined at 45° with respect to the x

and z faces of

the element of Figure 3.47c.

(c) Through the use of Eqs. (3.58), we have

σ

oct

=

1

3

(80 +15 −25) = 23.3 MPa

τ

oct

=

1

3

[(80 −15)

2

+(15 +25)

2

+(−25 −80)

2

]

1/2

= 43.3 MPa

y

x

F

y

dy

dx

F

x

x

y

xy

yx

y

ϩ dy

Ѩ

y

Ѩy

x

ϩ dx

Ѩ

x

Ѩx

xy

ϩ dx

Ѩ

xy

Ѩx

yx

ϩ dy

Ѩ

yx

Ѩy

Figure 3.48 Stresses and body

forces on an element.

*3.17 VARIATION OF STRESS THROUGHOUT

A MEMBER

As noted earlier, the components of stress generally vary from point to point in a loaded

member. Such variations of stress, accounted for by the theory of elasticity, are governed

by the equations of statics. Satisfying these conditions, the differential equations of

equilibrium are obtained. To be physically possible, a stress ﬁeld must satisfy these equa-

tions at every point in a load carrying component.

For the two-dimensional case, the stresses acting on an element of sides dx, dy, and of

unit thickness are depicted in Figure 3.48. The body forces per unit volume acting on the

element, F

x

and F

y

, are independent of z, and the component of the body force F

z

= 0. In

general, stresses are functions of the coordinates (x, y). For example, from the lower-left

corner to the upper-right corner of the element, one stress component, say, σ

x

, changes in

value: σ

x

+(∂σ

x

/∂x) dx. The components σ

y

and τ

xy

change in a like manner. The stress

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CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 135

element must satisfy the equilibrium condition

¸

M

z

= 0. Hence,

∂σ

y

∂

y

dx dy

dx

2

−

∂σ

x

∂x

dx dy

dy

2

+

τ

xy

+

∂τ

xy

∂x

dx

dx dy

−

τ

yx

+

∂τ

yx

∂

y

dy

dx dy + F

y

dx dy

dx

2

− F

x

dx dy

dy

2

= 0

After neglecting the triple products involving dx and dy, this equation results in τ

xy

= τ

yx

.

Similarly, for a general state of stress, it can be shown that τ

yz

= τ

zy

and τ

xz

= τ

zx

. Hence,

the shear stresses in mutually perpendicular planes of the element are equal.

The equilibrium condition that x-directed forces must sum to 0,

¸

F

x

= 0. Therefore,

referring to Figure 3.48,

σ

x

+

∂σ

x

∂x

dx

dy −σ

x

dy +

τ

xy

+

∂τ

xy

∂y

dy

dx −τ

xy

dx + F

x

dx dy = 0

Summation of the forces in the y direction yields an analogous result. After reduction, we

obtain the differential equations of equilibrium for a two-dimensional stress in the form [2]

∂σ

x

∂x

+

∂τ

xy

∂y

+ F

x

= 0

∂σ

y

∂y

+

∂τ

xy

∂x

+ F

y

= 0

(3.59a)

In the general case of an element under three-dimensional stresses, it can be shown that the

differential equations of equilibrium are given by

∂σ

x

∂x

+

∂τ

xy

∂y

+

∂τ

xz

∂z

+ F

x

= 0

∂σ

y

∂y

+

∂τ

xy

∂x

+

∂τ

yz

∂z

+ F

y

= 0

∂σ

z

∂z

+

∂τ

xz

∂x

+

∂τ

yz

∂y

+ F

z

= 0

(3.59b)

Note that, in many practical applications, the weight of the member is only body force. If

we take the y axis as upward and designate by ρ the mass density per unit volume of the

member and by g the gravitational acceleration, then F

x

= F

z

= 0 and F

y

= −ρg in the

foregoing equations.

We observe that two relations of Eqs. (3.59a) involve the three unknowns (σ

x

, σ

y

, τ

xy

)

and the three relations of Eqs. (3.59b) contain the six unknown stress components. There-

fore, problems in stress analysis are internally statically indeterminate. In the mechanics of

materials method, this indeterminacy is eliminated by introducing simplifying assumptions

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 135

136 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

y

u

x

A

B

B'

D'

C'

AЈ

D

C

dy

dx

u ϩ dx

Ѩu

Ѩx dy

Ѩu

Ѩy

v ϩ dy

Ѩv

Ѩy

dx

Ѩv

Ѩx v

dy

dx

A'

(a) (b)

Figure 3.49 Deformations of a two-dimensional element:

(a) normal strain; (b) shear strain.

regarding the stresses and considering the equilibrium of the ﬁnite segments of a load-

carrying component.

3.18 THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRAIN

If deformation is distributed uniformly over the original length, the normal strain may be

written ε

x

= δ/L, where L and δ are the original length and the change in length of the

member, respectively (see Figure 1.12a). However, the strains generally vary from point to

point in a member. Hence, the expression for strain must relate to a line of length dx which

elongates by an amount du under the axial load. The deﬁnition of normal strain is therefore

ε

x

=

du

dx

(3.60)

This represents the strain at a point.

As noted earlier, in the case of two-dimensional or plane strain, all points in the body,

before and after application of load, remain in the same plane. Therefore, the deformation

of an element of dimensions dx, dy, and of unit thickness can contain normal strain

(Figure 3.49a) and a shear strain (Figure 3.49b). Note that the partial derivative notation

is used, since the displacement u or v is function of x and y. Recalling the basis of

Eqs. (3.60) and (1.22), an examination of Figure 3.49 yields

ε

x

=

∂u

∂x

, ε

y

=

∂v

∂y

, γ

xy

=

∂v

∂x

+

∂u

∂y

(3.61a)

Obviously, γ

xy

is the shear strain between the x and y axes (or y and x axes), hence,

γ

xy

= γ

yx

. Along prismatic member subjected to a lateral load (e.g., a cylinder under pres-

sure) exempliﬁes the state of plane strain.

In an analogous manner, the strains at a point in a rectangular prismatic element of

sides dx, dy, and dz are found in terms of the displacements u, v, and w. It can be shown that

these three-dimensional strain components are ε

x

, ε

y

, γ

xy

, and

ε

z

=

∂w

∂z

, γ

yz

=

∂w

∂z

+

∂v

∂z

, γ

xz

=

∂w

∂x

+

∂u

∂z

(3.61b)

where γ

yz

= γ

zy

and γ

xz

= γ

zx

. Equations (3.61) represent the components of strain tensor,

which is similar to the stress tensor discussed in Section 1.13.

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CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 137

PROBLEMS IN ELASTICITY

In many problems of practical importance, the stress or strain condition is one of plane

stress or plane strain. These two-dimensional problems in elasticity are simpler than those

involving three-dimensions. A ﬁnite element solution of two-dimensional problems is

taken up in Chapter 17. In examining Eqs. (3.61), we see that the six strain components

depend linearly on the derivatives of the three displacement components. Therefore, the

strains cannot be independent of one another. Six equations, referred to as the conditions of

compatibility, can be developed showing the relationships among ε

x

, ε

y

, ε

z

, γ

xy

, γ

yz

, and

γ

xz

[2]. The number of such equations reduce to one for a two-dimensional problem. The

conditions of compatibility assert that the displacements are continuous. Physically, this

means that the body must be pieced together.

To conclude, the theory of elasticity is based on the following requirements: strain

compatibility, stress equilibrium (Eqs. 3.59), general relationships between the stresses and

strains (Eqs. 2.8), and boundary conditions for a given problem. In Chapter 16, we discuss

various axisymmetrical problems using the elasticity approaches. In the method of me-

chanics of materials, simplifying assumptions are made with regard to the distribution of

strains in the body as a whole or the ﬁnite portion of the member. Thus, the difﬁcult task of

solving the conditions of compatibility and the differential equations of equilibrium are

avoided.

REFERENCES

1. Ugural, A. C. Mechanics of Materials. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991.

2. Ugural, A. C., and S. K. Fenster. Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity, 4th ed. Upper Saddle

River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2003.

3. Timoshenko, S. P., and J. N. Goodier. Theory of Elasticity, 3rd ed. New York:

McGraw-Hill, 1970.

4. Young, W. C., and R. C. Budynas. Roark’s Formulas for Stress and Strain, 7th ed. New York:

McGraw-Hill, 2001.

5. Ugural, A. C. Stresses in Plates and Shells, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999.

6. McCormac, L. C. Design of Reinforced Concrete. New York: Harper and Row, 1978.

7. Chen, F. Y. “Mohr’s Circle and Its Application in Engineering Design.” ASME Paper 76-DET-

99, 1976.

8. Peterson, R. E. Stress Concentration Factors. New York: Wiley, 1974.

9. Peterson, R. E. Stress Concentration Design Factors. New York: Wiley, 1953.

10. Peterson, R. E. “Design Factors for Stress Concentration, Parts 1 to 5.” Machine Design,

February–July 1951.

11. Juvinall, R. C. Engineering Consideration of Stress, Strain and Strength. New York: McGraw-

Hill, 1967.

12. Norton, R. E. Machine Design—An Integrated Approach, 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ:

Prentice Hall, 2000.

13. Juvinall, R. E., and K. M. Marshek. Fundamentals of Machine Component Design, 3rd ed.

NewYork: Wiley, 2000.

14. Frocht, M. M. “Photoelastic Studies in Stress Concentration.” Mechanical Engineering,

August 1936, pp. 485–489.

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 137

138 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

2 in.

1 in.

0.847 in.

7

16

in.

in. 1

1

32

in.

1

2

Figure P3.1

15. Boresi, A. P., and R. J. Schmidt. Advanced Mechanics of Materials, 6th ed. New York: Wiley,

2003.

16. Shigley, J. E., and C. R. Mishke. Mechanical Engineering Design, 6th ed. New York:

McGraw-Hill, 2001.

17. Rothbart, H. A., ed. Mechanical Design and Systems Handbook, 2nd ed. New York:

McGraw-Hill, 1985.

PROBLEMS

Sections 3.1 through 3.8

3.1 Two plates are fastened by a bolt and nut as shown in Figure P3.1. Calculate

(a) The normal stress in the bolt shank.

(b) The average shear stress in the head of the bolt.

(c) The shear stress in the threads.

(d) The bearing stress between the head of the bolt and the plate.

Assumption: The nut is tightened to produce a tensile load in the shank of the bolt of 10 kips.

3.2 Ashort steel pipe of yield strength S

y

is to support an axial compressive load P with factor of

safety of n against yielding. Determine the minimum required inside radius a.

Given: S

y

= 280 MPa, P = 1.2 MN, and n = 2.2.

Assumption: The thickness t of the pipe is to be one-fourth of its inside radius a.

3.3 The landing gear of an aircraft is depicted in Figure P3.3. What are the required pin diameters

at A and B.

Given: Maximum usable stress of 28 ksi in shear.

Assumption: Pins act in double shear.

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 138

CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 139

16 in.

16 in.

4 in.

15°

10 kips

16 in.

A B

C

D

Figure P3.3

1 m

1 m

1.5 m

2 m

C

P

E

D

A

B

Figure P3.4

P

A

B

L

␣

C

Figure P3.5

3.4 The frame of Figure P3.4 supports a concentrated load P. Calculate

(a) The normal stress in the member BD if it has a cross-sectional area A

BD

.

(b) The shearing stress in the pin at A if it has a diameter of 25 mm and is in double shear.

Given: P = 5 kN, A

B D

= 8 ×10

3

mm

2

.

3.5 Two bars AC and BC are connected by pins to form a structure for supporting a vertical load P

at C (Figure P3.5). Determine the angle α if the structure is to be of minimum weight.

Assumption: The normal stresses in both bars are to be the same.

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140 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

y

z

b

c

C

t

h

2

h

1

Figure P3.9

3.6 Two beams AC and BD are supported as shown in Figure P3.6. Aroller ﬁts snugly between the

two beams at point B. Draw the shear and moment diagrams of the lower beam AC.

4 kN/m

8 kN/m

2 m 2 m 4 m 2 m

A C

B

D

Figure P3.6

3.7 Design the cross section (determine h) of the simply supported beam loaded at two locations

as shown in Figure P3.7.

Assumption: The beam will be made of timber of σ

all

= 1.8 ksi and τ

all

= 100 psi.

3.8 Arectangular beam is to be cut from a circular bar of diameter d (Figure P3.8). Determine the

dimensions b and h so that the beam will resist the largest bending moment.

3 ft 3 ft 3 ft

600 lb 900 lb

A

B

h

2 in.

Figure P3.7

y

z C

h d

b

Figure P3.8

3.9 The T-beam, whose cross section is shown in Figure P3.9, is subjected to a shear force V.

Calculate the maximum shear stress in the web of the beam.

Given: b = 200 mm, t = 15 mm, h

1

= 175 mm, h

2

= 150 mm, V = 22 kN.

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 140

CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 141

50 mm

50 mm

200 mm

200 mm

Figure P3.10

1.2 m

b

A B

2b

2 kN/m

Figure P3.11

w ϭ w

o

x͞L

w

o

h

1

A

h

B

x

L

Figure P3.13

B A

x

w

h h

1

L͞2 L͞2

Figure P3.14

3.10 A box beam is made of four 50-mm × 200-mm planks, nailed together as shown in

Figure P3.10. Determine the maximum allowable shear force V.

Given: The longitudinal spacing of the nails, s = 100 mm; the allowable load per nail,

F = 15 kN.

3.11 For the beam and loading shown in Figure P3.11, design the cross section of the beam for

σ

all

= 12 MPa and τ

all

= 810 kPa.

3.12 Select the S shape of a simply supported 6-m long beam subjected a uniform load of intensity

50 kN/m, for σ

all

= 170 MPa and τ

all

= 100 MPa.

3.13 and 3.14 The beam AB has the rectangular cross section of constant width b and variable depth

h (Figures P3.13 and P3.14). Derive an expression for h in terms of x, L, and h

1

, as required.

Assumption: The beam is to be of constant strength.

3.15 Awooden beam 8 in. wide × 12 in. deep is reinforced on both top and bottom by steel plates

0.5 in. thick (Figure P3.15). Calculate the maximum bending moment Mabout the z axis.

Design Assumptions: The allowable bending stresses in the wood and steel are 1.05 ksi and

18 ksi, respectively. Use n = E

s

/E

w

= 20.

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142 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

120 mm

z

y

25 mm

100 mm

Brass

Steel

Figure P3.17

y

z

Brass

25 mm

25 mm

15 mm 15 mm

15 mm

Steel

Figure P3.18

3.16 Asimply supported beam of span length 8 ft carries a uniformly distributed load of 2.5 kip/ft.

Determine the required thickness t of the steel plates.

Given: The cross section of the beam is a hollow box with wood ﬂanges (E

w

= 1.5 ×10

6

psi)

and steel (E

s

= 30 ×10

6

psi), as shown in Figure P3.16.

Assumptions: The allowable stresses are 19 ksi for the steel and 1.1 ksi for the wood.

8 in.

12 in.

0.5 in.

0.5 in.

z

y

Figure P3.15

z

y

t

2.5 in.

9 in.

2.5 in.

3 in.

Figure P3.16

3.17 and 3.18 For the composite beam with cross section as shown (Figures P3.17 and P3.18), de-

termine the maximum permissible value of the bending moment Mabout the z axis.

Given: (σ

b

)

all

= 120 MPa (σ

s

)

all

= 140 MPa

E

b

= 100 GPa E

s

= 200 GPa

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CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 143

d

d͞2

Brass

Aluminum

Figure P3.19

x

y

a

a

25 MPa

15°

10 MPa

15 MPa

Figure P3.20

3.19 Around brass tube of outside diameter d and an aluminum core of diameter d/2 are bonded to-

gether to form a composite beam (Figure P3.19). Determine the maximum bending moment M

that can be carried by the beam, in terms of E

b

, E

s

, σ

b

, and d, as required. What is the value of

Mfor E

b

= 15 ×10

6

psi, E

a

= 10 ×10

6

psi, σ

b

= 50 ksi, and d = 2 in.?

Design Requirement: The allowable stress in the brass is σ

b

.

Sections 3.9 through 3.13

3.20 The state of stress at a point in a loaded machine component is represented in Figure P3.20.

Determine

(a) The normal and shear stresses acting on the indicated inclined plane a-a.

(b) The principal stresses.

Sketch results on properly oriented elements.

3.21 At a point A on the upstream face of a dam (Figure P3.21), the water pressure is −70 kPa and

a measured tensile stress parallel to this surface is 30 kPa. Calculate

(a) The stress components σ

x

, σ

y

, and τ

x y

.

(b) The maximum shear stress.

Sketch the results on a properly oriented element.

A

55°

Figure P3.21

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144 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

30°

B C

A D

20 ksi

10 ksi

Figure P3.24

35°

60°

A D

C B

a

a

50 MPa

50 MPa

Figure P3.22

3.23 Athin skewed plate is depicted in Figure P3.22. Calculate the change in length of

(a) The edge AB.

(b) The diagonal AC.

Given: E = 200 GPa, ν = 0.3, AB = 40 mm, and BC = 60 mm.

3.24 The stresses acting uniformly at the edges of a thin skewed plate are shown in Figure P3.24.

Determine

(a) The stress components σ

x

, σ

y

, and τ

x y

.

(b) The maximum principal stresses and their orientations.

Sketch the results on properly oriented elements.

3.25 For the thin skewed plate shown in Figure P3.24, determine the change in length of the diago-

nal BD.

Given: E = 30 ×10

6

psi, ν =

1

4

, AB = 2 in., and BC = 3 in.

3.26 The stresses acting uniformly at the edges of a wall panel of a ﬂight structure are depicted in

Figure P3.26. Calculate the stress components on planes parallel and perpendicular to a-a.

Sketch the results on a properly oriented element.

3.22 The stress acting uniformly over the sides of a skewed plate is shown in Figure P3.22.

Determine

(a) The stress components on a plane parallel to a-a.

(b) The magnitude and orientation of principal stresses.

Sketch the results on properly oriented elements.

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CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 145 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 145

a

a

45°

50°

100 MPa

Figure P3.26

40°

50 MPa

25 MPa

40 MPa

B C

A D

a

x

y

a

Figure P3.27

15 ft

3 ft

5 ft

A

B

C

Figure P3.29

3.27 A rectangular plate is subjected to uniformly distributed stresses acting along its edges

(Figure P3.27). Determine

(a) The normal and shear stresses on planes parallel and perpendicular to a-a.

(b) The maximum shear stress.

Sketch the results on properly oriented elements.

3.28 For the plate shown in Figure P3.27, calculate the change in the diagonals AC and BD.

Given: E = 210 GPa, ν = 0.3, AB = 50 mm, and BC = 75 mm.

3.29 Acylindrical pressure vessel of diameter d = 3 ft and wall thickness t =

1

8

in. is simply sup-

ported by two cradles as depicted in Figure P3.29. Calculate, at points A and C on the surface

of the vessel,

(a) The principal stresses.

(b) The maximum shear stress.

Given: The vessel and its contents weigh 84 lb per ft of length, and the contents exert a uni-

form internal pressure of p = 6 psi on the vessel.

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146 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

10 mm

120 mm

45°

T T

Figure P3.33

3.30 Redo Problem 3.29, considering point B on the surface of the vessel.

3.31 Calculate and sketch the normal stress acting perpendicular and shear stress acting parallel to

the helical weld of the hollow cylinder loaded as depicted in Figure P3.31.

2 in.

Weld

25 kips

20 kip ؒ in.

1 in.

50°

Figure P3.31

0.12 m

0.25 m 10 mm

40 mm

A

0.2 m

P

4

3

Figure P3.32

3.32 A40-mm wide × 120-mm deep bracket supports a load of P = 30 kN (Figure P3.32). Deter-

mine the principal stresses and maximum shear stress at point A. Show the results on a prop-

erly oriented element.

3.33 A pipe of 120-mm outside diameter and 10-mm thickness is constructed with a helical weld

making an angle of 45

◦

with the longitudinal axis, as shown in Figure P3.33. What is the

largest torque T that may be applied to the pipe?

Given: Allowable tensile stress in the weld, σ

all

= 80 MPa.

3.34 The strains at a point on a loaded shell has components ε

x

= 500µ, ε

y

= 800µ, ε

z

= 0, and

γ

x y

= 350µ. Determine

(a) The principal strains.

(b) The maximum shear stress at the point.

Given: E = 70 GPa and ν = 0.3.

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CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 147

y

C

x

A

15

16

in.

9

16

in.

Figure P3.35

P P

Weld

40°

Figure P3.37

3.35 Athin rectangular steel plate shown in Figure P3.35 is acted on by a stress distribution, result-

ing in the uniform strains ε

x

= 200µ, ε

y

= 600µ, and γ

x y

= 400µ. Calculate

(a) The maximum shear strain.

(b) The change in length of diagonal AC.

3.36 The strains at a point in a loaded bracket has components ε

x

= 50µ, ε

y

= 250µ, and

γ

x y

= −150µ. Determine the principal stresses.

Assumptions: The bracket is made of a steel of E = 210 GPa and ν = 0.3.

3.W Review the website at www.measurementsgroup.com. Search and identify

(a) Websites of three strain gage manufacturers.

(b) Three grid conﬁgurations of typical foil electrical resistance strain gages.

3.37 Athin-walled cylindrical tank of 500-mm radius and 10-mm wall thickness has a welded seam

making an angle of 40

◦

with respect to the axial axis (Figure P3.37). What is the allowable

value of p?

Given: The tank carries an internal pressure of p and an axial compressive load of P = 20π kN.

Assumption: The normal and shear stresses acting simultaneously in the plane of welding are

not to exceed 50 and 20 MPa, respectively.

3.38 The 15-mm thick metal bar is to support an axial tensile load of 25 kN as shown in

Figure P3.38 with a factor of safety of n = 1.9 (see Appendix C). Design the bar for minimum

allowable width h.

Assumption: The bar is made of a relatively brittle metal having S

y

= 150 MPa.

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148 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

F F

Tappet

Cam

r

1

r

2 r'

2

w

Figure P3.42

3.39 Calculate the largest load P that may be carried by a relatively brittle ﬂat bar consisting of two

portions, both 12-mm thick, and respectively 30-mm and 45-mm wide, connected by ﬁllets of

radius r = 6 mm (see Appendix C).

Given: S

y

= 210 MPa and a factor of safety of n = 1.5.

Sections 3.14 through 3.18

3.40 Two identical 300-mm diameter balls of a rolling mill are pressed together with a force of

500 N. Determine

(a) The width of contact.

(b) The maximum contact pressure.

(c) The maximum principal stresses and shear stress in the center of the contact area.

Assumption: Both balls are made of steel of E = 210 GPa and ν = 0.3.

3.41 A14-mm diameter cylindrical roller runs on the inside of a ring of inner diameter 90 mm (see

Figure 10.21a). Calculate

(a) The half-width a of the contact area.

(b) The value of the maximum contact pressure p

o

.

Given: The roller load is F = 200 kN per meter of axial length.

Assumption: Both roller and ring are made of steel having E = 210 GPa and ν = 0.3.

3.42 A spherical-faced (mushroom) follower or valve tappet is operated by a cylindrical cam

(Figure P3.42). Determine the maximum contact pressure p

o

.

50 mm

25 kN

r

h

25 kN

Figure P3.38

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 148

Given: r

2

= r

2

= 10 in., r

1

=

3

8

in., and contact force F = 500 lb.

Assumptions: Both members are made of steel of E = 30 ×10

6

psi and ν = 0.3.

3.43 Resolve Problem 3.42, for the case in which the follower is ﬂat faced.

Given: w =

1

4

in.

3.44 Determine the maximum contact pressure p

o

between a wheel of radius r

1

= 500 mm and a rail

of crown radius of the head r

2

= 350 mm (Figure P3.44).

Given: Contact force F = 5 kN.

Assumptions: Both wheel and rail are made of steel of E = 206 GPa and ν = 0.3.

CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 149

F

r

1

r

2

Railroad

rail

Wheel

Figure P3.44

3.45 Redo Example 3.18 for a double-row ball bearing having r

1

= r

1

= 5 mm, r

2

= −5.2 mm,

r

2

= −30 mm, F = 600 N, and S

y

= 1500 MPa.

Assumptions: The remaining data are unchanged. The factor of safety is based on the yield

strength.

3.46 At a point in a structural member, stresses with respect to an x, y, z coordinate system are

¸

¸

−10 0 −8

0 2 0

−8 0 2

ksi

Calculate

(a) The magnitude and direction of the maximum principal stress.

(b) The maximum shear stress.

(c) The octahedral stresses.

3.47 The state of stress at a point in a member relative to an x, y, z coordinate system is

¸

¸

9 0 0

0 12 0

0 0 −18

ksi

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 149

Determine

(a) The maximum shear stress.

(b) The octahedral stresses.

3.48 At a critical point in a loaded component, the stresses with respect to an x, y, z coordinate sys-

tem are

¸

¸

42.5 0 0

0 5.26 0

0 0 −7.82

MPa

Determine the normal stress σ and the shear stress τ on a plane whose outer normal is oriented

at angles of 40

◦

, 60

◦

, and 66.2

◦

relative to the x, y, and z axes, respectively.

150 PART I FUNDAMENTALS

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 150

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:11 PM Page 72

72

PART I

FUNDAMENTALS

3.1

INTRODUCTION

This chapter provides a review and insight into the stress and strain analyses. Expressions for both stresses and deﬂections in mechanical elements are developed throughout the text as the subject unfolds, after examining their function and general geometric behavior. With the exception of Sections 3.12 through 3.18, we employ mechanics of materials approach, simplifying the assumptions related to the deformation pattern so that strain distributions for a cross section of a member can be determined. A fundamental assumption is that plane sections remain plane. This hypothesis can be shown to be exact for axially loaded elastic prismatic bars and circular torsion members and for slender beams, plates, and shells subjected to pure bending. The assumption is approximate for other stress analysis problems. Note, however, that there are many cases where applications of the basic formulas of mechanics of materials, so-called elementary formulas for stress and displacement, lead to useful results for slender members under any type of loading. Our coverage presumes a knowledge of mechanics of materials procedures for determining stresses and strains in a homogeneous and an isotropic bar, shaft, and beam. In Sections 3.2 through 3.9, we introduce the basic formulas, the main emphasis being on the underlying assumptions used in their derivations. Next to be treated are the transformation of stress and strain at a point. Then attention focuses on stresses arising from various combinations of fundamental loads applied to members and the stress concentrations. The chapter concludes with discussions on contact stresses in typical members referring to the solutions obtained by the methods of the theory of elasticity and the general states of stress and strain. In the treatment presented here, the study of complex stress patterns at the supports or locations of concentrated load is not included. According to Saint-Venant’s Principle (Section 1.4), the actual stress distribution closely approximates that given by the formulas of the mechanics of materials, except near the restraints and geometric discontinuities in the members. For further details, see texts on solid mechanics and theory of elasticity; for example, References 1 through 3.

3.2

STRESSES IN AXIALLY LOADED MEMBERS

Axially loaded members are structural and machine elements having straight longitudinal axes and supporting only axial forces (tensile or compressive). Figure 3.1a shows a homogeneous prismatic bar loaded by tensile forces P at the ends. To determine the normal stress, we make an imaginary cut (section a-a) through the member at right angles to its

a P L (a) Figure 3.1 Prismatic bar in tension. a A (b) P x

x

P

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CHAPTER 3

STRESS AND STRAIN

73

axis (x). A free-body diagram of the isolated part is shown in Figure 3.1b. Here the stress is substituted on the cut section as a replacement for the effect of the removed part. Assuming that the stress has a uniform distribution over the cross section, the equilibrium of the axial forces, the ﬁrst of Eqs. (1.4), yields P = σx dA or P = Aσx . The normal stress is therefore σx = P A

(3.1)

where A is the cross-sectional area of the bar. The remaining conditions of Eqs. (1.4) are also satisﬁed by the stress distribution pattern shown in Figure 3.1b. When the member is being stretched as depicted in the ﬁgure, the resulting stress is a uniaxial tensile stress; if the direction of the forces is reversed, the bar is in compression and uniaxial compressive stress occurs. Equation (3.1) is applicable to tension members and chunky, short compression bars. For slender members, the approaches discussed in Chapter 6 must be used. Stress due to the restriction of thermal expansion or contraction of a body is called thermal stress, σt . Using Hooke’s law and Eq. (1.21), we have σt = α( T )E

(3.2)

The quantity T represents a temperature change. We observe that a high modulus of elasticity E and high coefﬁcient of expansion α for the material increase the stress.

**DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
**

Tension members are found in bridges, roof trusses, bracing systems, and mechanisms. They are used as tie rods, cables, angles, channels, or combinations of these. Of special concern is the design of prismatic tension members for strength under static loading. In this case, a rational design procedure (see Section 1.6) may be brieﬂy described as follows: 1. Evaluate the mode of possible failure. Usually the normal stress is taken to be the quantity most closely associated with failure. This assumption applies regardless of the type of failure that may actually occur on a plane of the bar. Determine the relationships between load and stress. This important value of the normal stress is deﬁned by σ = P/A. Determine the maximum usable value of stress. The maximum usable value of σ without failure, σmax , is the yield strength Sy or the ultimate strength Su. Use this value in connection with equation found in step 2, if needed, in any expression of failure criteria, discussed in Chapter 7. Select the factor of safety. A safety factor n is applied to σmax to determine the allowable stress σall = σmax /n. The required cross-sectional area of the member is therefore A= P σall

(3.3)

2. 3.

4.

If the bar contains an abrupt change of cross-sectional area, the foregoing procedure is repeated, using a stress concentration factor to ﬁnd the normal stress (step 2).

ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:11 PM Page 74

74

PART I

FUNDAMENTALS

EXAMPLE 3.1

Design of a Hoist

A pin-connected two-bar assembly or hoist is supported and loaded as shown in Figure 3.2a. Determine the cross-sectional area of the round aluminum eyebar AC and the square wood post BC.

C 3 4 P 2.5 m 5 A 3.5 m B 2.5 m (a) Figure 3.2 Example 3.1. FA A

C 12 13 FB (b) 1 B 1 2 40 kN 30 kN

Given: The required load is P = 50 kN. The maximum usable stresses in aluminum and wood are 480 and 60 MPa, respectively. Assumptions: The load acts in the plane of the hoist. Weights of members are insigniﬁcant compared to the applied load and omitted. Friction in pin joints and the possibility of member BC buckling are ignored. Design Decision: Use a factor of safety of n = 2.4. Solution: Members AC and BC carry axial loading. Applying equations of statics to the free-body diagram of Figure 3.2b, we have M B = −40(2.5) − 30(2.5) + 5 FA (3.5) = 0 13 FA = 130 kN FB = 113.1 kN

1 M A = −40(2.5) − 30(6) + √ FB (3.5) = 0 2

Fx = 0. Note, as a check, that The allowable stress, from design procedure steps 3 and 4, (σall ) AC = 480 = 200 MPa, 2.4 (σall ) B C = 60 = 25 MPa 2.4

By Eq. (3.3), the required cross-sectional areas of the bars, A AC = 130(103 ) = 650 mm2 , 200 ABC = 113.1(103 ) = 4524 mm2 25

Comment: A 29-mm diameter aluminum eyebar and a 68 mm × 68 mm wood post should be used.

ugu2155X_ch03. (b) portion of pin subjected to direct shear stresses and bearing stress.3 (a) A clevis-pin connection.3a. . the shear occurs over an area parallel to the applied load.3 DIRECT SHEAR STRESS AND BEARING STRESS A shear stress is produced whenever the applied forces cause one section of a body to tend to slide past its adjacent section. The P Bracket t b d b c Clevis c Pin P b V b P td (a) (b) c V c P 2 Bracket bearing area Figure 3. welds. glued joints. At each cut section. a shear force V equivalent to P/2 (Figure 3. This condition is termed direct shear. In each case. Thus. As an example consider the connection shown in Figure 3. Direct shear arises in the design of bolts. the shear stress is created by a direct action of the forces in trying to cut through the material.4) The average shear stress in the pin of the connection shown in the ﬁgure is therefore τavg = (P/2)/(πd 2 /4) = 2P/πd 2 . and a pin that passes through holes in the bracket and clevis. The pin resists the shear across the two cross-sectional areas at b-b and c-c. with the bracket bearing area depicted. the bracket and the clevis press against the pin in bearing and a nonuniform pressure develops against the pin (Figure 3. as discussed in the following sections. This joint consists of a bracket. we can obtain the average shear stress in the section: τavg = V A (3. hence. torsion. and bending. rivets. it is said to be in double shear.qxd 3/7/03 12:11 PM Page 75 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 75 3. Shear stress also arises in an indirect manner when members are subjected to tension. Dividing the total shear force V by the cross-sectional area A over which it acts.3b) must be developed. as well as in pins. a clevis. The distribution of shear stress τ across a section cannot be taken as uniform.3b). Note that. under the action of the applied force.

bearing stress in the bracket against the pin is σb = P/td.450 = = 205 MPa 2A 2[π(0.0075)2 ] FB C = 72. Similarly.4 Example 3. Assumptions: Friction in pin joints is omitted. where t and d represent the thickness of bracket and diameter of the pin.4a.4b). as depicted in Figure 3. C D FBC 2m (b) 2 1 C D 3. This is called the bearing stress: σb = P Ap (3.2. 1 M A = 36(1.4). the bearing stress in the clevis against the pin may be obtained.qxd 3/7/03 12:11 PM Page 76 76 PART I FUNDAMENTALS average value of this pressure is determined by dividing the force P transmitted by the projected area Ap of the pin into the bracket (or clevis). Determine (a) The shear stress in the pin at hinge C. (3. 2m 10 kN/m 1. The air load is distributed uniformly along the span of the wing.6 36 kN Given: The pin at C has a diameter of 15 mm and is in double shear. τavg = FB C 72. EXAMPLE 3.2 Design of a Monoplane Wing Rod The wing of a monoplane is approximated by a pin-connected structure of beam AD and bar BC. (b) The diameter of the rod BC.1) is used for rod BC with an allowable axial stress of 210 MPa.8 m A 1m A B (a) Figure 3.45 kN .ugu2155X_ch03.5) Therefore. Solution: Referring to the free-body diagram of the wing ACD (Figure 3.6 m 10 1.8) − FB C √ (2) = 0 5 (a) Through the use of Eq. A round 2014-T6 aluminum alloy bar (see Table B. Only rod BC is under tension. respectively.

Consider a thinwalled cylindrical vessel with closed ends and internal pressure p (Figure 3. we can take ri ≈ ro ≈ r. Common examples include tanks for compressed air. outer.450 ABC Comments: A 21-mm diameter rod should be used. we have σB C = Solving A B C = 3. stresses termed membrane stresses arise in the vessel walls.4 THIN-WALLED PRESSURE VESSELS Pressure vessels are closed structures that contain liquids or gases under pressure. where ri.5a). and r refer to inner. the rod BC would be a compression member. steam boilers. only thin-walled cylindrical and spherical vessels are considered 1 here. and pressurized water storage tanks. and mean radii. 4 d = 20.96 mm FB C . 345 = πd 2 . Section 16. Note that. In some cases external pressures cause contractions of a vessel wall.45(10−4 ) m2 = 345 mm2 Hence.14). which produces small stretching deformations in the membranelike walls of an inﬂated balloon. respectively.qxd 3/7/03 12:11 PM Page 77 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 77 (b) Applying Eq.1). ABC 210(106 ) = 72.11 shows that application of the equilibrium conditions to an appropriate portion of a thin-walled tank sufﬁces to determine membrane stresses. Although pressure vessels exist in a variety of different shapes (see Sections 16. A vessel having a wall thickness less than about 10 of inner radius is called thin walled. ro. The contents of the pressure vessel exert internal pressure. and (b) spherical. With either internal or external pressure. 3. The longitudinal or axial stress σa and circumferential or tangential stress σθ acting on the side faces t r a r t (a) Figure 3. for steady inverted ﬂight.ugu2155X_ch03. For this case.5 (b) Thin-walled pressure vessels: (a) cylindrical.10 through 16. (3. .

* Composite thick-walled cylinders under pressure. we mention that a pressure vessel design is essentially governed by ASME Pressure Vessel Design Codes. discussed in Section 16.6a) σθ = (3. *Within this chapter.ugu2155X_ch03. The state of stress in the wall of a vessel is therefore considered biaxial. gun barrels. Some applications involve air or hydraulic cylinders. applying Hooke’s law ε = (σ − νσ )/E is then δs = pr 2 (1 − ν) 2Et (3. (3. Using Hooke’s law. The extension of the radius of the cylinder.5b). sphere is an optimum shape for an internally pressurized closed vessel. . For thin-walled vessels.8) They are half the magnitude of the tangential stresses of the cylinder. Sphere stress is given by Eq.71): σ = pr 2t (3. δc = εθ r . δs = εr . under the action of the stresses given by Eqs. radial stress σr is much smaller than the membrane stresses and is usually omitted.74): σa = pr 2t pr t (3.6b) The circumferential strain as a function of the change in radius δc is εθ = [2π(r + δc ) − 2πr]/2πr = δc /r. some readers may prefer to study Section 16. The radial extension of the sphere.qxd 3/7/03 12:11 PM Page 78 78 PART I FUNDAMENTALS of a stress element shown in the ﬁgure are principal stresses from Eqs.9) Note that the stress acting in the radial direction on the wall of a cylinder or sphere varies from −p at the inner surface of the vessel to 0 at the outer surface. Numerous illustrative examples also are given. (16. Thus. respectively.7) The tangential stresses σ act in the plane of the wall of a spherical vessel and are the same in any section that passes through the center under internal pressure p (Figure 3. Thick-walled cylinders are often used as vessels or pipe lines. we have εθ = (σθ − νσa )/E . and various mechanical components. To conclude. where ν and E represent Poisson’s ratio and modulus of elasticity. Equations for exact elastic and plastic stresses and displacements for these members are developed in Chapter 16.13. thermal.3. (16.6) is therefore δc = pr 2 (2 − ν) 2Et (3. and dynamic loading are discussed in detail.

the shear stress is τ = (r/c)τmax . at any point at a distance r from center. On a cross .ugu2155X_ch03. 3. A plane section perpendicular to the axis of the bar remains plane and undisturbed after the torques are applied. Both circular and rectangular bars are treated. as shown in Figure 3. Solution: We have r = 2.9) results in δs = pr 2 (1 − ν) 1500(30)2 (0. Applying Eq. hence. CIRCULAR CROSS SECTIONS Torsion of circular bars or shafts produced by a torque T results in a shear stress τ and an angle of twist or angular deformation φ . Determine the critical wall thickness t and the corresponding diametral extension. (3. Su = 60 ksi.8 that.7) = = 0.125 in. Assumption: A safety factor n against bursting is used. where c represents the radius of the bar.014 in. t= pr 1. the magnitude of the maximum shear angle γmax must be less than the yield angle. attention is directed toward stress in prismatic bars subject to equal and opposite end torques. The material is homogeneous and obeys Hooke’s law.6a. Given: r = 2. E = 30 × 106 psi. The basic assumptions of the formulations on the torsional loading of a circular prismatic bar are as follows: 1. For a linear stress variation.028 in. p = 1. 2Su /n 2(60/3) Then. and σ = Su /n. These members are assumed free of end constraints. n = 3.5 × 12 = 30 in. (3.5(30) = = 1. we often show the moment of a couple or torque by a vector in the form of a double-headed arrow. 2. 3. Shear strain γ varies linearly from 0 at the center to a maximum on the outer surface.5 ft. 2Et 2(30 × 106 )(1. Recall from Section 1.5 ksi.5 STRESS IN MEMBERS IN TORSION In this section.qxd 3/7/03 12:11 PM Page 79 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN EXAMPLE 3. ν = 0. Torsion refers to twisting a structural member when it is loaded by couples that cause rotation about its longitudinal axis.125) The diametral extension is therefore 2δs = 0. for convenience. Eq.8). The maximum shear stress occurs at the points most remote from the center of the bar and is designated τmax .3 79 Design of Spherical Pressure Vessel A spherical vessel of radius r is subjected to an internal pressure p.3.

J = πc4 /2. as it should. This stress distribution leaves the external cylindrical surface of the bar free of stress distribution. The maximum shear stress on a cross section of a circular shaft.6a is purely schematic. section of the shaft the resisting torque caused by the stress. Note that the representation shown in Figure 3. the polar moment of inertia J of the cross-sectional area is J= r 2 dA (a) For a solid shaft. T = r r τmax dA c The preceding relationship may be written in the form T = τmax c r 2 dA By deﬁnition.6 (a) Circular bar in pure torsion. distribution must be equal to the applied torque T. is given by the torsion formula: τmax = Tc J (3. either solid or hollow. Hence.ugu2155X_ch03. J = π(c4 − b4 )/2.qxd 3/7/03 12:11 PM Page 80 80 PART I FUNDAMENTALS max max T max zx xz c max dA r T z x L (a) (b) Figure 3. (b) Shear stresses on transverse (xz) and axial (zx) planes in a circular shaft segment in torsion. Shear stress varies with the radius and is largest at the points most remote from the shaft center.10) The shear stress at distance r from the center of a section is τ= Tr J (3. In the case of a circular tube of inner radius b and outer radius c.11) .

Table 3.8 b a (3. a and b represent the lengths of the long and short sides of a rectangular cross section. τ = τx z = τzx (Figure 3.qxd 3/7/03 12:11 PM Page 81 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 81 The transverse shear stress found by Eq. Torsional stress (and displacement) equations for a number of noncircular sections are summarized in references such as [2. Since the shear stress in a solid circular bar is maximum at the outer boundary of the cross section and 0 at the center. 4].6b). NONCIRCULAR CROSS SECTIONS In treating torsion of noncircular prismatic bars. most of the material in a solid shaft is stressed signiﬁcantly below the maximum shear stress level. The mathematical solution of the problem is complicated. Figure 3.10) or (3. The stress occurs along the centerline of the wider face of the bar. cross sections initially plane experience out-of-plane deformation or warping. respectively. For a thin section. Equation (3. the second term may be neglected. each of which is capable of carrying half the torque.12) is also valid for equal-leg angles. the governing equations are used in conjunction with the experimental techniques. (a) T T (b) Figure 3.4).7 Rectangular bar (a) before and (b) after a torque is applied.11) is accompanied by an axial shear stress of equal value. to satisfy the conditions of static equilibrium of an element. that is. where a is much greater than b. the values of α and β approach 1 . of a rectangular section. The ﬁnite element analysis is also very efﬁcient for this purpose. it is advisable to use hollow shafts (see also Example 3. For cases that cannot be conveniently solved by applying the theory of elasticity.1.1 lists the “exact” solutions of the maximum shear stress and the angle of twist φ for a few common cross sections.ugu2155X_ch03. these can be considered as two rectangles. and the ﬁrst two assumptions stated previously are no longer appropriate. For thin sections (a 3 The following approximate formula for the maximum shear stress in a rectangular member is of interest: τmax = T ab2 3 + 1. When weight reduction and savings of material are important.7 depicts the nature of distortion occurring in a rectangular section.12) As in Table 3. (3. Note that the values of coefﬁcients α and β depend on the ratio of the side lengths a and b b). .

229 0.291 0.141 0.0 1.0 4.8T a4 G .1 Cross section 2a 2b A Ellipse For circle: a A a τA = b 2T πab2 φ= τA = Equilateral triangle τA = a/b 1.246 0.281 0.282 0.256 0.0 2.5 2.7T a3 φ= 8.292 0.196 0.2T a4 G T βab3 G φ= a b A Rectangle α 0.333 t1 B t A b τA = φ= a Hollow rectangle t A 2b 2a Hollow ellipse For hollow circle: a A Hexagon T τB = 2abt (at + bt1 )T 2tt1 a 2 b2 G τA = T 2πabt φ= 2(a 2 + b2 )T 4πa 2 b2 t G b a τA = 5.333 T 2abt1 β 0.0 ∞ 20T a3 T αab2 φ= 46.0 5.208 0.231 0.qxd 3/7/03 12:11 PM Page 82 82 PART I FUNDAMENTALS Expressions for stress and deformation in some cross-section shapes in torsion Maximum shearing stress Angle of twist per unit length (a 2 + b2 )T πa 3 b3 G Table 3.5 3.249 0.312 0.267 0.263 0.0 10.312 0.ugu2155X_ch03.

for the solid shaft. this quotient gives Th = 3.15b. Solution: The maximum shear stress τmax equals τall .15b.8) are twisted about their longitudinal axes with torques Th and Ts. the wall thickness cannot be excessively thin.8 Example 3. Since the cross-sectional areas of both shafts are identical. Given: c = 1. Assumptions: Both shafts are made of the same material with allowable stress and both have the same cross-sectional area. (3. Determine the ratio of the largest torques that can be applied to the shafts.2). Ts = π 3 a τall 2 We therefore have Th c4 − b4 c4 − b4 = = 3 Ts ca 3 c(c2 − b2 ) 2 Substituting c = 1. c b min max max a Figure 3. thin shafts are also useful for creating an essentially uniform shear (i. using Eq. τmin ≈ τmax).4. respectively. Interestingly.4 83 Torque Transmission Efﬁciency of Hollow and Solid Shafts A hollow shaft and a solid shaft (Figure 3.qxd 3/7/03 12:11 PM Page 83 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN EXAMPLE 3. hollow shafts are more efﬁcient in transmitting torque than solid shafts..e. However. (3.ugu2155X_ch03.13) . π(c2 − b2 ) = πa 2 : a 2 = c2 − b2 For the hollow shaft. to avoid buckling (see Section 6. Th = π 4 (c − b4 )τall 2c Likewise.56 Ts Comments: The result shows that.10).

LOAD. .qxd 3/7/03 12:11 PM Page 84 84 PART I FUNDAMENTALS 3. Although w is not uniform. so it “retains water. the shears. In addition. respectively. consider the positive and negative shear forces V and bending moments M acting on segments of a beam cut out between two cross sections (Figure 3. Therefore. Note that the distributed load w per unit length. SHEAR.10 Beam and an element isolated from it. The sign conventions adopted for internal forces and moments (see Section 1. a positive moment compresses the upper part of the segment and elongates the lower part. this is permissible substitution for a very small distance dx. results in V + w dx = V + dV .” Likewise. We see that a positive shear force tends to raise the left-hand face relative to the right-hand face of the segment. To determine the magnitude and sense of shearing force and bending moment at any section of a beam.9). Fx = 0.10b.ugu2155X_ch03. These loading effects are sometimes referred to as shear and moment in beams. Equilibrium of the vertical forces acting on the element of Figure 3.8) are associated with the deformations of a member.9 Sign convention for beams: deﬁnitions of positive and negative shear and moment.10a). w dx y dx 2 w y A x O B dx x V dx (b) M O V dV w M dM x (a) Figure 3. only two components of stress resultants occur: the shear force and bending moment.6 SHEAR AND MOMENT IN BEAMS In beams loaded by transverse loads in their planes. the method of sections is applied. and the bending moments are shown as positive (Figure 3. dV =w dx (3. and a positive bending moment tends to bend the segment concave upward. the resultant of the distributed load (w dx) is indicated by the dashed line in the ﬁgure. The changes in V and M from position x to x + dx are denoted by dV and dM. cut from a loaded beam (Figure 3.10b). AND MOMENT RELATIONSHIPS Consider the free-body diagram of an element of length dx.14a) V V M M Figure 3. To illustrate this.

The procedure of this semigraphical approach is as follows: 1.15a) between A and B. . It is convenient to place the shear and bending moment diagrams directly below the freebody.14a) is not valid at the point of application of a concentrated load. For M O = 0 or M + dM − equilibrium.14a). at any section of the beam. Plot a positive V upward and a negative V downward.15a). (3.15a) The foregoing relationship indicates that the slope of the moment curve is equal to V. (3. always are 1 and 2 degrees higher than the load curve. Determine the reactions from free-body diagram of the entire beam. it is useful to have a graphical visualization of the shear force and moment variations along the length of a beam. but the relation is not valid if a couple is applied at a point between A and B. The maximum and other signiﬁcant values are generally marked on the diagrams. (3.14b) cannot be used when concentrated loads are applied between A and B. Integration of Eq. Similarly. Similarly. Draw the shear diagram obtaining the shape from Eq.15b) can be used even when concentrated loads act between A and B.14a) and (3. If second-order differentials are considered as negligible compared with differentials.15a) is not valid at the point of application of a concentrated load.14b) Clearly. SHEAR AND MOMENT DIAGRAMS When designing a beam. (3. this yields dM =V dx (3.15b) The differential equations of equilibrium. (3.9.qxd 3/7/03 12:11 PM Page 85 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 85 This states that. a graph showing the bending moment plotted against the x axis is the bending-moment diagram. We use the so-called summation method of constructing shear and moment diagrams. Eqs. Therefore the shear force is inseparably linked with a change in the bending moment along the length of the beam. Note that the maximum value of the moment occurs at the point where V (and hence dM/dx) is 0. The signs for shear V and moment M follow the general convention deﬁned in Figure 3. (3. Equation (3. A shear diagram is a graph where the shearing force is plotted against the horizontal distance (x) along a beam. show that the shear and moment curves.14a) between points A and B on the beam axis gives VB − V A = A B w dx = area of load diagram between A and B (3. or load.ugu2155X_ch03. successively summing from the left end of the beam the vertical external forces or using Eq. Eq.14b). we have MB − MA = A B V dx = area of shear diagram between A and B (3. 2. the sum of moments about O must also be 0: (V + dV ) dx − M = 0. diagram of the beam. Integrating Eq. the slope of the shear curve is equal to w. (3. respectively. (3. We note that Eq. Eq. Determine the value of the shear.

either continuously summing the external moments from the left end of the beam or using Eq. (3.5: (a) An overhanging beam.15a). Solution: Applying the equations of statics to the free-body diagram of the entire beam. The following example illustrates the procedure.11b): R A = 6. (c) shear diagram. as they must be for equilibrium. and (d) moment diagram.15b). Determine the values of moment. (3. you know that there is a construction error or an error in calculation of the reactions. Draw the moment diagram.5 m 1.4 kN (b) RB B 9.6 kN . When any diagram fails to close. kN m 1. A check on the accuracy of the shear and moment diagrams can be made by noting whether or not they close. Closure of these diagrams demonstrates that the sum of the shear forces and moments acting on the beam are 0.6 x 3 (d) Figure 3. The shape of the diagram is obtained from Eq. whichever is more appropriate. kN 3.qxd 3/7/03 12:11 PM Page 86 86 PART I FUNDAMENTALS 3. 4 kN m C 10 kN 3 kN E C 4x 1.6 6.11a.4 3 x 3 (c) M.ugu2155X_ch03. (b) free-body or load diagram. R B = 9.6 kN V.5 3.4 kN. EXAMPLE 3.5 A 4 kN m 10 kN 3 kN E A 1.11 Example 3. we have (Figure 3.5 m (a) D 1m B 1m x RA D 6. Assumptions: All forces are coplanar and two dimensional.5 Shear and Moment Diagrams for a Simply Supported Beam by Summation Method Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam loaded as shown in Figure 3.

From C to A.5 M A = −1. The maximum shear Vmax = −6. the value of the shear rises to 3 kN at B.4 kN upward reaction force increases the shear to 3.14b) yields V A − VC = 1 1 w(1. the 6. We see in Sections 4. where the downward 3 kN force closes the diagram. the diagram forms straight lines. Here V. a check on the calculations is provided.15b) gives M A − MC = − 0 1. Equation (3. This ﬂexure member is commonly used in structures and machines. In the regions AD.5) = (−4)(1. Mmax = 3. No change in the shear occurs until point E.5) M B − M D = −6.qxd 3/7/03 12:11 PM Page 87 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 87 In the shear diagram (Figure 3.10 and 4. which has a negative and increasing slope.6(1) M E − M B = 3(1) Since ME is known to be 0. The applied axial forces and torques are positive if their vectors are in the direction of a positive coordinate axis. automobile axles. The shear remains constant up to D where it decreases by a 10 kN downward force to −6. the moment at end C is MC = 0. 2 2 V A = −3 kN the upward force near to the left of A.4 kN. DB. and leaf springs. We note that the axial force and torque diagrams are not used as commonly as shear and moment diagrams. A procedure identical to the preceding one applies to axially loaded bars and twisted shafts.4(1.5) = −3.6 kN · m M B = −3 kN · m ME = 0 M D − M A = 3.5 1 4x x dx 2 1. and BE. In the regions AD. We ﬁnd that. DB.11c). When a bar is subjected to loads at several points along its length.ugu2155X_ch03. from C to A. A graph showing the variation of the axial force along the bar axis is called an axial-force diagram. A similar graph for the torque is referred to as a torque diagram.5 N · m M D = 3. . occurs at D.6 kN. and BE. the internal axial forces and twisting moments vary from section to section. At A. the shear at end C is VC = 0. The maximum moment.6 kN occurs in region BD. Examples include the main members supporting ﬂoors of buildings.11d). the slope of the shear curve is 0 or the shear is constant. the load increases linearly.6 kN · m. the diagram takes the shape of a cubic curve concave downward with 0 slope at C. 3. In the moment diagram (Figure 3. Equation (3.11 that the following formulas for stresses and deﬂections of beams can readily be reduced from those of rectangular plates. hence the shear curve is parabolic. prescribing the slope of the moment diagram. This is in accordance with dM/dx = V. is negative and increases to the right. Likewise.7 STRESSES IN BEAMS A beam is a bar supporting loads applied laterally or transversely to its (longitudinal) axis.

They can be summarized as follows [1]: 1.12a). may be disregarded. NORMAL STRESS Consider a linearly elastic beam having the y axis as a vertical axis of symmetry (Figure 3.A. Based on assumptions 3 and 4. (c) distribution of bending stress in a beam. The intersection of the neutral surface and the cross section locates the neutral axis (abbreviated N.12 (a) A beam subjected to transverse loading. y A y x y N.qxd 3/7/03 12:11 PM Page 88 88 PART I FUNDAMENTALS ASSUMPTIONS OF BEAM THEORY The basic assumptions of the technical or engineering theory for slender beams are based on geometry of deformation.ugu2155X_ch03.A.A. The deﬂection of the beam axis is small compared with the depth and span of the beam. Plane sections through a beam taken normal to its axis remain plane after the beam is subjected to bending.12c depicts the linear stress ﬁeld in the section A-B. The slope of the deﬂection curve is very small and its square is negligible in comparison with unity. the latter refers to ﬂexure in the presence of shear forces. The stress normal to the neutral surface. σ y . (b) segment of beam. This is the fundamental hypothesis of the ﬂexure theory. Figure 3. .).12b) varies linearly with y and the remaining stress components are 0: σx = ky σ y = τx y = 0 (a) Here k is a constant. The former is the ﬂexure of a beam subjected to a constant bending moment. z x Figure 3. Figure 3. y A x B (a) y A M y x V B (b) b (c) B z c C y Centroid of A* y1 N. A generalization of the preceding presuppositions forms the basis for the theories of plates and shells [5]. and y = 0 contains the neutral surface. When treating the bending problem of beams. The effect of shear stress τx y on the distribution of bending stress σx is omitted. the normal stress σx over the cross section (such as A-B. it is frequently necessary to distinguish between pure bending and nonuniform bending. 3. 4. 2. We discuss the stresses in beams in both cases of bending.

ugu2155X_ch03. It is common practice to recast the ﬂexure formula to yield the maximum normal stress σmax and denote the value of |ymax | by c. On this basis. however. known as the elastic ﬂexure formula applicable to initially straight beams. (c) shows that the ﬁrst moment of cross-sectional area about the neutral axis is 0. A − A (σx dA)y = M (b) in which A represents the cross-sectional area. I = y 2 dA.16) Here y represents the distance from the neutral axis to the point at which the stress is calculated. of the cross section about the z axis of the beam cross section. where c represents the distance from the neutral axis to the outermost ﬁber of the beam. The negative sign in the second expression indicates that a positive moment M is one that produces compressive (negative) stress at points of positive y.qxd 3/7/03 12:11 PM Page 89 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 89 Conditions of equilibrium require that the resultant normal force produced by the stresses σx be 0 and the moments of the stresses about the axis be equal to the bending moment acting on the section. the stress distribution is not linear on either side of the neutral axis but increases more rapidly on the inner side. Curved Beam of a Rectangular Cross Section Many machine and structural components loaded as beams. (d) deﬁnes the moment of inertia. k A y dA = 0 y 2 dA = M A (c) −k (d) Since k = 0. can now be written by combining Eqs. The . Note that the ﬂexure formula also applies to a beam of unsymmetrical cross-sectional area. The integral in Eq. This requires that the neutral and centroidal axes of the cross section coincide. (b). Eq. σx dA = 0. It should be mentioned that the symmetry of the cross section about the y axis means that the y and z axes are principal centroidal axes. the ﬂexure formula becomes σmax = Mc M = I S (3. Hence. (a) into Eqs. provided I is a principal moment of inertia and M is a moment around a principal axis [1]. Carrying Eq. When beams with initial curvature are subjected to bending moments.17) The quantity S = I /c is known as the section modulus of the cross-sectional area. It follows that k=− M I (e) An expression for the normal stress. (a) and (e): σx = − My I (3. are not straight.

approximate technical theories. (3. elasticity.* Here. Accordingly.18) means tensile stress.55): σ = M AR 1+ y Z (R + y) (3.8.ugu2155X_ch03.13 Curved bar in pure bending. as indicated in the ﬁgure ri .13. the normal stress σ in a curved beam of a rectangular cross section. using energy. we have A = cross-sectional area h = depth of beam R = radius of curvature to the neutral axis M = bending moment. positive toward the convex side. (16.qxd 3/7/03 12:11 PM Page 90 90 PART I FUNDAMENTALS Stress distribution Centroidal axis Neutral axis e y C b y h 2 h M ro ri R M Figure 3. as shown in the ﬁgure y = distance measured from the neutral axis to the point at which stress is calculated. ﬂexure and displacement formulas for these axisymmetrically loaded members are developed in the later chapters. respectively.19) . Therefore. ro = radii of the curvature of the inner and outer surfaces. from Eq. for pure bending loads. positive when directed toward the concave side.1 is Z = −1 + In the foregoing expressions. the general equation for stress in curved members is adapted to the rectangular cross section shown in Figure 3. a positive value obtained from Eq. *Some readers may prefer to study Section 16.18) The curved beam factor Z by Table 16. R ro ln h ri (3. or exact.

I. τmax = V ∗ V bh h 3 V A y= = 3 /12)b 2 4 Ib (bh 2 A (3.7. and b are constants for a rectangular cross section. By Eq. we ﬁnd that the distribution of the shear stress on a cross section of a rectangular beam is parabolic. we must examine how Q varies. shear. Shear stresses as well as the normal stresses are taken to be uniform across the width of the beam.22) . The stress is 0 at the top and bottom of the section (y1 = ±h/2) and has its maximum value at the neutral axis (y1 = 0) as shown in Figure 3. as shown in Figure 3. that is. the area A* represents the area of the part of the section below the point in question and y is the distance from the neutral axis to the centroid of A*.qxd 3/7/03 12:11 PM Page 91 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 91 The neutral axis shifts toward the center of curvature by distance e from the centroidal axis (y = 0).21) VQ Ib (3.13).6. The shear stress τx y = τ yx at any point of a cross section (Figure 3. Q represents the ﬁrst moment of the area above the level where the shear stress is to be found. A detailed comparison of the results obtained by various methods is illustrated in Example 16. In so doing.57). we have e = −Z R/(Z + 1).1. Rectangular Cross Section To ascertain how the shear stress varies. (16. shear stress varies in accordance with the shape of the cross section. SHEAR STRESS We now consider the distribution of shear stress τ in a beam associated with the shear force V. Obviously. Therefore. Expression for Z and e for many common cross-sectional shapes can be found referring to Table 16. Deﬂections of curved members due to bending. Q= y dA = y A∗ (3.ugu2155X_ch03. because V. The vertical shear stress τx y at any point on the cross section is numerically equal to the horizontal shear stress at the same point (see Section 1. and normal loads are discussed in Section 5.14. if y is measured above the neutral axis.20) A∗ By deﬁnition. Combined stresses in curved beams is presented in Chapter 16. Clearly.13.12b) is given by the shear formula: τx y = Here V = the shearing force at the section b = the width of the section measured at the point in question Q = the ﬁrst moment with respect to the neutral axis of the area A* beyond the point at which the shear stress is required.

The shear force acting across the width of the beam per unit length along the beam axis may be found by multiplying τx y in Eq.12b).14 section.6 Determining Stresses in a Simply Supported Beam A simple beam of T-shaped cross section is loaded as shown in Figure 3. Determine (a) (c) Given: The maximum shear stress. Built-up beams are generally designed on the basis of the assumption that the parts are adequately connected so that the beam acts as a single member.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 92 92 PART I FUNDAMENTALS y h 2 h 2 b x max y y1 z V N.15a. (3. A beam of this type is fabricated by joining two or more pieces of material.A.10 after derivation of the strain-curvature relations. The maximum bending stress. Stresses in a wide beam and plate are discussed in Section 4. Equation (3. For narrow beams with sides parallel to the y axis. .22) is particularly useful. q= VQ I (3. 3V 2A Figure 3. (3.22) by b (Figure 3. since beams of rectangular-sectional form are often employed in practice. It is very useful in the analysis of built-up beams. This quantity is denoted by q. known as the shear ﬂow.ugu2155X_ch03. EXAMPLE 3. Shear stresses in a beam of rectangular cross where A = bh is the cross-sectional area of a beam having depth h and width b. P = 4 kN and L = 3 m (b) The shear ﬂow qj and the shear stress τ j in the joint between the ﬂange and the web.23) The foregoing equation is valid for any beam having a cross section that is symmetrical about the y axis. Eq.20) gives solutions in good agreement with the “exact” stress distribution obtained by the methods of the theory of elasticity. Structural connections are taken up in Chapter 15. Assumptions: All forces are coplanar and two dimensional.

A.84 MPa Ib 136 × 10−8 (0.12c). 50 mm Solution: The distance y to the centroid is determined as follows (Figure 3. = 50(20)25 = 25 × 103 mm3 Since the shear force equals 2 kN on all cross sections of the beam (Figure 3. Q N.A.ugu2155X_ch03.A.15c and 3.6. (a) The maximum shearing stress in the beam occurs at the neutral axis on the cross section supporting the largest shear force V.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 93 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 93 60 mm y y A P 2 L 2 (a) V P 2 P 2 (c) M PL 4 3 kN m x (d ) Figure 3. 2 × 103 (25 × 10−6 ) = = 1. Hence. we have τmax = Vmax Q N. 2 kN x P 20 mm C L 2 B P 2 x z 60 mm A1 ¯ A2 y 20 mm (b) N.02) .15b): y= A1 y 1 + A2 y 2 20(60)70 + 60(20)30 = = 50 mm A1 + A2 20(60) + 60(20) The moment of inertia I about the neutral axis is found using the parallel axis theorem: I = 1 1 (60)(20)3 + 20(60)(20)2 + (20)(60)3 + 20(60)(20)2 = 136 × 104 mm4 12 12 The shear and moment diagrams (Figures 3.15d) are drawn using the method of sections.15 Example 3.

15d.3 MPa = I 136 × 10−8 3.8 DESIGN OF BEAMS We are here concerned with the elastic design of beams for strength. 2.20). we obtain σmax = Mc 3 × 103 (0.3(103 ) = = 1. the design of the member is controlled by the largest normal and shear stresses developed at the critical section. where the maximum value of the bending moment and shear force occur.23) and (3. is the yield strength Sy or the ultimate strength Su. as wood has relatively low shear strength parallel to the grain.76 MPa Ib 0.02 (c) The largest moment occurs at midspan. Shearing is more important in wood than steel beams. to a beam of ordinary proportions often includes the following steps: 1. qj = τj = V Qf 2 × 103 (24 × 10−6 ) = 35. the ﬂexure stress generally predominates. the so-called limit design [1]. In heavily loaded short beams. Application of the rational procedure in design. It is assumed that failure results from yielding or fracture.ugu2155X_ch03. 3. as shown in Figure 3.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 94 94 PART I FUNDAMENTALS (b) The ﬁrst moment of the area of the ﬂange about the neutral axis is Q f = 20(60)20 = 24 × 103 mm3 Applying Eqs. outlined in Section 3.3 kN/m = I 136 × 10−8 V Qf 35. Shear and bending-moment diagrams are very helpful for locating these critical sections.19).05) = 110. Therefore. and ﬂexure stress is considered to be most closely associated with structural damage. beam design relies on plastic moment capacity. σmax. Beams made of single and two different materials are discussed. PRISMATIC BEAMS We select the dimensions of a beam section so that it supports safely applied loads without exceeding the allowable stresses in both ﬂexure and shear. We note that some beams must be selected based on allowable deﬂections. the design is usually governed by shear stress. Therefore. Occasionally. The signiﬁcant value of bending stress is σ = Mmax /S. . (3. while in slender beams.2. (3. This topic is taken up in Chapters 4 and 5. The maximum usable value of σ without failure. from Eq.

Eq. we determine the maximum shear stress in the beam from the formula τmax = Vmax Q Ib (3.97 kN) is small compared with the applied load (80 kN).24) There are generally several different beam sizes with the required value of S. the beam is acceptable.16a.ugu2155X_ch03.24) gives S= 110 × 103 = 688 × 103 mm3 160(106 ) EXAMPLE 3. Solution: Shear and bending-moment diagrams (Figures 3.25) When the value obtained for τmax is smaller than the allowable shearing stress τall . Since the weight of the beam (71 × 9. The required section modulus of a beam is then S= Mmax σall (3. I. We select the one with the lightest weight per unit length or the smallest sectional area from tables of beam properties. section symmetric about the y and z axes) should be chosen. and Vmax into Eqs. (3. Design of a Beam of Doubly Symmetric Section Select a wide-ﬂange steel beam to support the loads shown in Figure 3. b. we select the lightest member that has a section modulus larger than this value of S: a 200-mm W beam weighing 71 kg/m (S = 709 × 103 mm3 ).e.16b and 3.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 95 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 95 4. After substituting the suitable data for Q.20). respectively.16c) show that Mmax = 110 kN · m and Vmax = 40 kN. a singly symmetric section (for example a T beam) should be selected so that the distances to the extreme ﬁbers in tension and compression are in a ratio nearly the same as the respective σall ratios.. it is neglected. a stronger beam should be chosen and the process repeated. When the allowable stress is the same in tension and compression. If σall is different in tension and compression. A factor of safety n is applied to σmax to obtain the allowable stress: σall = σmax /n. Therefore. We now check the shear-resistance requirement of beam tentatively selected.81 × 10 = 6. a doubly symmetric section (i. The approximate or average maximum shear stress in beams with ﬂanges may be obtained by dividing the shear force V by the web area: τavg = V V = Aweb ht (3. Given: The allowable bending and shear stresses are 160 and 90 MPa. (3. otherwise.7 Using Table A.26) .6.

throughout. From Table A.27) where M presents the bending moment on an arbitrary section.2 = 2. Note that shear stress at those beam locations where the moment is small controls the design.6.7. such a design is of minimum weight.203(10−3 ) Inasmuch as this stress is well within the allowable limit of 90 MPa. . We therefore have τavg = Comment: acceptable. the beam is BEAMS OF CONSTANT STRENGTH When a beam is stressed to a uniform allowable stress. the area of the web of a W 200 × 71 section is 216 × 10. Tapered beams designed in this manner are called beams of constant strength. At any cross section.ugu2155X_ch03. then it is clear that the beam material is used to its greatest capacity.16 Example 3. the required section modulus S is given by S= M σall (3. For a prescribed material.203(103 ) mm2 . σall .16 MPa 2. respectively.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 96 96 PART I FUNDAMENTALS 30 kN 20 kN 30 kN A B 2m 3m (a) 3m 2m V (kN) 40 10 10 40 (b) x M (kN m) 80 110 80 x (c) Figure 3. In this relationship. h and t represent the beam depth and web thickness. 40 × 103 = 18.

On the other hand.10). welded cover plates are often used for parts of prismatic beams where the moment is large. For a structural member.17a). Design of a Constant Strength Beam A cantilever beam of uniform strength and rectangular cross section is to support a concentrated load P at the free end (Figure 3. fabrication and design constraints make it impractical to produce a beam of constant stress. The exact distribution in a rectangular wedge is obtained by the theory of elasticity [2]. Usually. in a bridge girder. we write bh 2 Px = 6 σall (a) .8. Determine the required cross-sectional area. Solution: (a) At a distance x from A. EXAMPLE 3. If the angle between the sides of a tapered beam is small.17 Example 3. (b) the height h is constant. for two cases: (a) the width b is constant. the ﬂexure formula allows little error.8 P L (a) P A x (b) h B h1 P x b b1 (c) Figure 3. the results obtained by using the shear stress formula may not be sufﬁciently accurate for nonprismatic beams. a modiﬁed form of this formula is used for design purposes.27). (3.ugu2155X_ch03. (b) side view.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 97 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 97 Beams of uniform strength are exempliﬁed by leaf springs and certain forged or cast machine components (see Section 14. M = Px and S = bh2/6. So. Through the use of Eq. (c) top view. for instance. (a) Uniform strength cantilever.

either along its sides or along its top or bottom. the expression in parentheses represents a constant and set equal to b1/L so that when x = L the width is b1 (Figure 3. The ﬂexure formula is then applied to the transformed section. as shown by the dashed lines in the ﬁgure. To demonstrate the method. obviously the cross section of the beam near end A must be designed to resist the shear force.18b).17c). The moment of inertia of the entire transformed area about the neutral axis is then denoted by It. a typical beam with symmetrical cross section built of two different materials is considered (Figure 3. (b) Equation (a) now yields b= 6P h 2 σall x= b1 x L (c) Comments: In Eq. and small quantities of highmodulus materials can be used in regions of high stress. We deﬁne the modular ratio. COMPOSITE BEAMS Beams fabricated of two or more materials having different moduli of elasticity are called composite beams. as follows n= E2 E1 (d) Although n > 1 in Eq.7. The moduli of elasticity of materials are denoted by E1 and E2. are valid for a beam of more than one material. (c).18a).17b). discussed in Section 3. n. (a) by the preceeding relationship results in h = h1 x L (b) Therefore. The assumptions of the technical theory of homogenous beams. We use the common transformed-section method to ascertain the stresses in a composite beam. The advantage of this type construction is that large quantities of low-modulus material can be used in regions of low stress. Two common examples are wooden beams whose bending strength is bolstered by metal strips. and reinforced concrete beams. bh 2 PL 1 = 6 σall Dividing Eq. The transformed section is composed of only material 1 (Figure 3.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 98 98 PART I FUNDAMENTALS Similarly. In this approach. In both cases.ugu2155X_ch03. at a ﬁxed end (x = L and h = h1). the choice is arbitrary. the cross section of several materials is transformed into an equivalent cross section of one material in that the resisting forces are the same as on the original section. the depth of the beam varies parabolically from the free end (Figure 3. the technique applies well for n < 1. (d). It can be .

as expected.28) where σx1 and σx2 are the stresses in materials 1 and 2. (3.28). the ﬂexure formulas for a composite beam are in the forms σx 1 = − My .18 Beam of two materials: (a) Cross section.19a. respectively. The following sample problems illustrate the use of Eqs.9: (a) Composite beam and (b) equivalent section. respectively. E1 y y 1 C 2 E1.1 mm y 52.9 mm . 159. 150 mm y 150 mm y EXAMPLE 3. It σx2 = − nMy It (3.A. z y z' A2.ugu2155X_ch03. nA2 nb (b) N. Determination of Stress in a Composite Beam A composite beam is made of wood and steel having the cross-sectional dimensions shown in Figure 3. Obviously. when E1 = E2 = E. (b) equivalent section. shown [1] that. The beam is subjected to a bending moment Mz = 25 kN · m.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 99 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 99 y 1 A1.19 z 12 mm z' 21 150 (b) Example 3. this equation reduces to the ﬂexure formula for a beam of homogeneous material.9 200 mm z Wood Steel (a) Figure 3.A. Given: The modulus of elasticity of wood and steel are Ew = 10 GPa and Es = 210 GPa. E2 b (a) 2 y' y2 y1 z Figure 3. 3150 mm C y' N. Calculate the maximum stresses in each material.

55 MPa It 288(10−6 ) σs.10 Design of Steel Reinforced Concrete Beam A concrete beam of width b and effective depth d is reinforced with three steel bars of diameter ds (Figure 3.19b).ugu2155X_ch03. Determine the maximum stresses in the materials produced by a positive bending moment of 50 kN · m. EXAMPLE 3.A. The centroid and the moment of inertia about the neutral axis of this section are y= It = 150(200)(112) + 3150(12)(6) = 52.1591) = = 13.2 mm x 229.43 MPa It 288(10−6 ) At the juncture of the two parts.1)2 + (3150)(12)3 + 3150(12)(46.10. b y y kd z d z 150.0409) = = 3. we have σ w.max = σs. max M ds (a) Figure 3. We use a transformed section of wood (Figure 3.min = n(σ w. Reinforced concrete beam.55) = 74.9)2 12 12 = 288 × 106 mm4 The maximum stress in the wood and steel portions are therefore σ w. Note that it is usual to use a = 50-mm allowance to protect the steel from corrosion or ﬁre.20 a nAs 14.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 100 100 PART I FUNDAMENTALS Solution: The modular ratio n = Es/Ew = 21.56 MPa Stress at any other location may be determined likewise.8 mm b y M N.0529) = = 96.20a).81 MPa It 288(10−6 ) n Mc 21(25 × 103 )(0.9 mm 150(200) + 3150(12) 1 1 (150)(200)3 + 150(200)(59.726 mm2 (b) s n (c) Example 3. d(1 k) c.min) = 21(3.min = Mc 25(103 )(0. .max = Mc 25(103 )(0.

We note that.2298)2 12 = 1116. should the bending moments act in the opposite direction.395. (3.5 × 10−6 n Mc 10(50 × 103 )(0.31 × 103 = 0 Solving.5 × 10−6 σs = These stresses act as shown in Figure 3. the beam must be designed so that stresses in concrete and steel are at their allowable levels simultaneously.1502)3 + 0.2298) = = 102. b(kd) kd − n As (d − kd) = 0 2 from which (kd)2 + (kd) 2n As 2n As − d=0 b b (3. d = 380 mm. The moment of inertia of the transformed cross section about the neutral axis is It = 1 (0.3(0.3)(0. The compressive stress in the concrete is taken to vary linearly from the neutral axis. Eq. .20b).1502)(0. Solution: The portion of the cross section located a distance kd above the neutral axis is used in the transformed section (Figure 3.726 mm2 This is located by a single dimension from the neutral axis to its centroid.20c.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 101 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 101 Given: b = 300 mm.ugu2155X_ch03.1502) = = 6. and ds = 25 mm.20 would become practically useless.max = Mc 50 × 103 (0. kd = 150.29) Introducing the required numerical values.0751)2 + 0 + 14.29) becomes (kd)2 + 98.17(kd) − 37. For balanced reinforcement. Therefore. Assumptions: The modular ratio will be n = Es/Ec = 10.9 MPa It 1116. and hence k = 0. The steel is uniformly stressed. Concrete resists only compression. inasmuch as concrete is very weak in tension.5 × 10−6 m4 The peak compressive stress in the concrete and tensile stress in the steel are σc. The transformed area of the steel n As = 10[3(π × 252/4)] = 14.73 × 10−3 (0.2 mm. Comments: Often an alternative method of solution is used to estimate readily the stresses in reinforced concrete [6]. the beam depicted in Figure 3. The ﬁrst moment of the transformed section with respect to the neutral axis must be 0.73 MPa It 1116.

Note that. is assumed positive when measured from the x axis in a counterclockwise direction. It can be shown that equilibrium of the forces caused by stresses acting on the wedge-shaped element gives the following transformation equations for plane stress [1–3]: σx = σx cos2 θ + σ y sin2 θ + 2τx y sin θ cos θ τx y = τx y (cos2 θ − sin2 θ) + (σ y − σx ) sin θ cos θ (3. a shaft in torsion. σ y . Examples include the stresses arising on inclined sections of an axially loaded bar. according to the sign convention (see Section 1. where σx .30a) (3. The plane stress is therefore speciﬁed by σz = τ yz = τx z = 0. To portray the stresses acting on an inclined section. and τx y have nonzero values. locating the x axis or the unit normal n to the plane AB.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 102 102 PART I FUNDAMENTALS 3.30b) The stress σ y may readily be obtained by replacing θ in Eq. This gives σ y = σx sin2 θ + σ y cos2 θ − 2τx y sin θ cos θ (3.21b. and a member subjected to more than one load simultaneously. we wish to obtain the stresses acting on the sides of a stress element oriented in any desired direction.21c). the stresses are indicated as positive values. Consider the stress components σx . This section deals with the states of stress at points located on inclined planes.21 x y xy x xy x x'y' x' y' x'y' x' y' n y' O y xy x' B x O (c) x' x (b) Elements in plane stress. (3. σ y .21a).ugu2155X_ch03.13). The angle θ. In other words.30c) y A y y' x' O (a) Figure 3.30a) by θ + π/2 (Figure 3. stress.9 PLANE STRESS The stresses and strains treated thus far have been found on sections perpendicular to the coordinates used to describe a member. This process is termed a stress transformation. The discussion that follows is limited to two-dimensional. . τx y at a point in a body represented by a twodimensional stress element (Figure 3. an inﬁnitesimal wedge is isolated from this element and depicted in Figure 3. here taken as z. or plane. a beam with transversely applied force. A two-dimensional state of stress exists when the stresses are independent of one of the coordinate axes.

31b) (3. The two perpendicular directions (θ p and θ p ) of planes on which the shear stress vanishes and the normal stress has extreme values can be found from tan 2θ p = 2τx y σx − σ y (3.31a) 1 τx y = − (σx − σ y ) sin 2θ + τx y cos 2θ 2 σy = 1 1 (σx + σ y ) − (σx − σ y ) cos 2θ − τx y sin 2θ 2 2 (3.2 = (3.min = σ1. 1 " p x Figure 3. It is necessary to substitute θ p into Eq. the foregoing equations can be expressed in the following useful alternative form: σx = 1 1 (σx + σ y ) + (σx − σ y ) cos 2θ + τx y sin 2θ 2 2 (3.33) The plus sign gives the algebraically larger maximum principal stress σ1 .31a) to learn which of the two corresponds to σ1 .32) into Eqs.32) The angle θ p deﬁnes the orientation of the principal planes (Figure 3. (3.22).qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 103 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 103 Using the double-angle relationships. the largest stresses are usually needed.31c) For design purposes. (3.22 .31a and c) as follows: σx + σ y ± 2 σx − σ y 2 2 2 + τx y σmax.ugu2155X_ch03. The minus sign results in the minimum principal stress σ2 . The in-plane principal stresses can be obtained by substituting each of the two values of θ p from Eq. 2 x' 1 2 y' x' ' p x y' (a) (b) Planes of principal stresses. (3.

Assumptions: Stresses are at a point A on the wall away from the ends.13 ksi (a) Figure 3. 1 4 (b) Given: r = 10 in. We take the x axis perpendicular to the plane of the weld. (a) Through the use of Eq.13 ksi The answer is presented in Figure 3. the tensile stress in the weld: σx = σ2 + σ1 σ2 − σ1 + cos 2(−35◦ ) 2 2 = 30 p − 10 p cos(−70◦ ) ≤ 14.11.5 ksi Weld 5..23a depicts a cylindrical pressure vessel constructed with a helical weld that makes an angle ψ with the longitudinal axis. Allowable tensile strength of the weld is 14. This axis is rotated θ = 35◦ clockwise with respect to the x axis. (3. (3.5 ksi.31a).. t = in.11 Finding Stresses in a Cylindrical Pressure Vessel Welded along a Helical Seam Figure 3. Vessel is a thin-walled cylinder. respectively. (b) The shear stress in the weld. Determine (a) The maximum internal pressure p.31b).23 Example 3. Solution: The principal stresses in axial and tangential directions are.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 104 104 PART I FUNDAMENTALS EXAMPLE 3.500 from which pmax = 546 psi . 1 40p y A y A 2 20p 55° 35° x x 14. (b) Applying Eq. σa = pr p(10) = 20 p = σ2 .23b. = 2t 2 1 4 σθ = 2σa = 40 p = σ1 The state of stress is shown on the element of Figure 3.23b. . and ψ = 55◦ . the shear stress in the weld corresponding to the foregoing value of pressure is τx y =− σ2 − σ1 sin 2(−35◦ ) 2 = 10 p sin(−70◦ ) = −5.ugu2155X_ch03.

Eqs.13. (b) Mohr’s circle of stress. In Mohr’s circle representation the normal stresses obey the sign convention of Section 1. (3. the coordinates of a point A on Mohr’s circle are to be interpreted representing the stress components σx and τx y that act on x plane. The coordinates for point A on the circle correspond to the stresses on the x face or plane of the element shown in Figure 3.24 (a) Stress element.24c. The center is at (σ . The maximum shear stress acts toward the shear diagonal. The normal stress occurring on planes of maximum shear stress is σ = σavg = 1 (σx + σ y ) 2 (3. Similarly. Note that a diagonal of a stress element along which the algebraically larger principal stress acts is called the shear diagonal.25). xy) B' E 1 ar She nal o iag d 1 45° avg ' p x x (a) (b) (c) Figure 3.24b).34) Mohr’s circle shows the planes of maximum shear are always oriented at 45◦ from planes of principal stress (Figure 3. . 0) and the circle radius r equals the length CA. a quicker solution of stress-transformation problem can be facilitated.24b. From the geometry of Figure 3. (c) interpretation of positive shear stress.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 105 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 105 MOHR’S CIRCLE FOR STRESS Transformation equations for plane stress. The magnitude of the maximum shear stress is equal to the radius r of the circle. can be represented with σ and τ as coordinate axes in a graphical form known as Mohr’s circle (Figure 3.35) ' y y xy avg y B( y. This representation is very useful in visualizing the relationships between normal and shear stresses acting on various inclined planes at a point in a stressed member. the shear stresses on the y planes of the element are taken to be positive (as before) but those on the x faces are now negative.ugu2155X_ch03. x 2 xy) D A' max 2 avg max x' x r B1 C 2 x' O y' A1 A( x. However. Also. we obtain τmax = σx − σ y 2 2 2 + τx y (3.31). for the purposes of only constructing and reading values of stress from a Mohr’s circle.25 Planes of principal and maximum shear stresses. with the aid of this graphical construction. Figure 3. Figure 3.24a.

where J is the polar moment of inertia of cross-sectional area of the bar. Mohr’s circle provides a convenient means of obtaining the results for the stresses under the following two common loadings.26b). . Torsion Now we have σx = σ y = 0 and τx y = τmax = T c/J. Mohr’s circle may be used to determine strains. Note that. Mohr’s circle construction is of fundamental importance because it applies to all (second-rank) tensor quantities. because they do not change in value when the axes are rotated positions. and natural frequencies of vibration [7].36) The quantities I1 and I2 are known as two-dimensional stress invariants. σ y = 0. that is. Axial Loading In this case. in the case of triaxial stresses σ1 . σ2 .28).26 (a) Maximum shear stress acting on an element of an axially loaded bar. on any mutually perpendicular planes. and σ3 . distances and angles are determined with the help of trigonometry.ugu2155X_ch03.26a). Points D and E are located on the τ axis. moments of inertia. and τx y = 0. (b) Mohr’s circle for uniaxial loading. The three-circle cluster represents Mohr’s circle for triaxial stress (see Figure 3. where A is the cross-sectional area of the bar. It is customary to draw for Mohr’s circle only a rough sketch. The corresponding points A and B deﬁne a circle of radius r = P/2A that passes through the origin of coordinates (Figure 3.36) are particularly useful in checking numerical results of stress transformation. and Mohr’s 45° x max D 2 x A1 E P A (b) P P B1 C (a) Figure 3.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 106 106 PART I FUNDAMENTALS It can readily be veriﬁed using Mohr’s circle that. a Mohr’s circle is drawn corresponding to each projection of a three-dimensional element. as well as the values of τmax and the corresponding normal stress σ : τmax = σ = r = P 2A (a) Observe that the normal stress is either maximum or minimum on planes for which shearing stress is 0. I1 = σ x + σ y = σ x + σ y 2 2 I2 = σ x σ y − τ x y = σ x σ y − τ x y (3. Equations (3. Points D and E yield the orientation of the planes of the maximum shear stress (Figure 3. we have σx = σ1 = P/A. The general state of stress at a point is discussed in some detail in the later sections of this chapter.

Also determine maximum in-plane and absolute shear stresses at a point on the wall of the vessel. (b) Mohr’s circle for torsional loading.ugu2155X_ch03.2 = ±r = ± Tc J (b) So. Fracture of a bar that behaves in a brittle manner in torsion is depicted in Figure 3. tearing occurs. Experiments show that a very thin-walled hollow shaft buckles or wrinkles in the direction of maximum compression while. (a) From the geometry of Figure 3. we have σx = 30 p − 10 p cos 70◦ ≤ 14.12 .11. ordinary chalk behaves this way.11 using Mohr’s circle.27a.27 (a) Stress acting on a surface element of a twisted shaft. Solution: Mohr’s circle.27c.23 and Example 3. The x axis is rotated 2θ = 70◦ on the circle with respect to x axis. constructed referring to Figure 3. Points A1 and B1 deﬁne the principal stresses: σ1.27b).28. This results in pmax = 546 psi . failure occurs in tension along a helix indicated by the dashed lines in Figure 3. EXAMPLE 3.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 107 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 107 Ductile material failure plane y x max x' 2 1 T 45° c y' B1 D r C E 2 x (b) A1 x' max T Brittle material failure surface (a) (c) Figure 3.28. Shafts made of materials weak in shear strength (for example. it becomes evident that. Figure 3. circle is a circle of radius r = T c/J centered at the origin (Figure 3. structural steel) break along a line perpendicular to the axis. describes the state of stress. Stress Analysis of Cylindrical Pressure Vessel Using Mohr’s Circle Redo Example 3.500 . in the direction of maximum tension. (c) brittle material fractured in torsion. for a material such as cast iron that is weaker in tension than in shear.

σ3 = 0. 1 τ = ± (40 p − 20 p) = ±10(546) = ±5. Therefore. The ﬁnal or combined stress is then found by superposition of several states of stress. causing various internal-force resultants on a section. x'y') x' D y 40p E y' E r 10p 1 3 0 2 x 70° 20p C ' Figure 3.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 108 108 PART I FUNDAMENTALS D' ( x'.13 ksi The largest in-plane shear stresses are given by points D and E on the circle.7. When a component is acted on simultaneously by two or more loads. Hence. Note that each formula leads to stress as directly proportional to the magnitude of the applied load.10 COMBINED STRESSES Basic formulas of mechanics of materials for determining the state of stress in elastic members are developed in Sections 3. the critical points may not be readily located. centric. it is assumed that each load produces the stress as if it were the only load acting on the member.28 30p Example 3. Often these formulas give either a normal stress or a shear stress caused by a single load component being axially. Therefore. The three principal stress circles are shown in the ﬁgure.ugu2155X_ch03. As we see throughout the text. it may be necessary to examine the stress distribution in some detail. . The absolute maximum shear stresses are associated with points D and E on the major principal circle. or lying in one plane.12.46 ksi 2 The third principal stress in the radial direction is 0. 1 τmax = ± (40 p − 0) = ±20(546) = ±10. under combined loading. (b) For the preceding value of pressure the shear stress in the weld is τx y = ±10(546) sin 70◦ = ±5.2 through 3.92 ksi 2 3.

and a centric load F at its free end (Figure 3. Every section experiences an axial force F. Given: diameter d = 60 mm. such as shafts.29b and 3. T = 0.1P N · m. Consider. ﬂywheels. for example. These either conﬁrm the adequacy of the design or. This is used in a seemingly endless variety of practical situations. torque T. EXAMPLE 3. a solid circular cantilevered bar subjected to a transverse force P. Clearly.29 a P (b) (c) Combined stresses owing to torsion. the stresses shown are those acting on an element B at the top of the bar and on an element A on the side of the bar at the neutral axis. if the stresses are too large (or too small).ugu2155X_ch03. respectively.13 . In Figures 3. J σx = − Mc . We develop design formulas under combined loading of common mechanical components. Any number of critical locations in the components can be analyzed.29a). and a shear force P = V. The following examples illustrate the general approach to problems involving combined loadings. a torque T. and direct shear. A τt = − Tc . Determine the largest value of the load P. The corresponding stresses may be obtained using the applicable relationships: σx = F . B (when located at the support) and A represent the critical points at which most severe stresses occur. indicate the design changes required. so it is often not worthwhile to develop speciﬁc formulas for most design use.29c. The principal stresses and maximum shearing stress at a critical point can now be ascertained as discussed in the preceding section. a bending moment M.29a.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 109 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 109 y x z d A B C T C F ' x A d t B t ' x " x L (a) Figure 3. shrink or press ﬁts. and F = 10P N. tension. I τd = − VQ Ib Here τt and τd are the torsional and direct shear stresses. and pressure vessels in Chapters 9 and 16. Determining the Allowable Combined Loading in a Cantilever Bar A round cantilever bar is loaded as shown in Figure 3. Assumptions: Allowable stresses are 100 MPa in tension and 60 MPa in shear on a section at a = 120 mm from the free end.

29c). (3.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 110 110 PART I FUNDAMENTALS Solution: The normal stress at all points of the bar is σx = F 10P = 3536.7P Likewise.8P 2 2 1/2 3536.2P 6 or or P = 10. applying Eqs.8P + 5167.12P(0. (a).24 kN P = 11.6P 2 2 1/2 + τt2 2 1/2 + (−2357. Therefore.8P I π(0. we obtain σx = Mc 0.9P)2 = 4597.ugu2155X_ch03.57P =− =− Ib 3A 3π(0. Inserting the given data into the foregoing.2P It is observed that the stresses at B are more severe than those at A.4P + 3336.9P J π(0.2P = 9765P (τmax ) B = 5167.7P = 5105.03)2 (a) The torsional stress at the outer ﬁbers of the bar is τt = − Tc 0.03) = = 5658.1P (τmax ) A = 3336.34) with σ y = 0.5P)2 = 1768. we obtain 100(106 ) = 9765P 60(10 ) = 5167.33) and (3. and (c) are (σ1 ) A = = σx + 2 σx 2 2 1/2 + (τd + τt )2 3536. Eqs.8P + 2 + (−2829. (σ1 ) B = = σx + σx + 2 9195.6P + 2 σx + σx 2 9195. for a = 120 mm.8P = A π(0. (b).03)4 /2 (b) The largest tensile bending stress occurs at point B of the section considered. the largest direct shearing stress at point A is τd = − VQ 4V 4P = −471. at point B (Figure 3.03)2 (c) The maximum principal stress and the maximum shearing stress at point A (Figure 3.29b).03)4 /4 Since Q = Ay = (πc2 /2)(4c/3π) = 2c3 /3 and b = 2c.1P(0.61 kN .03) =− = −2357.

as shown in Figure 3.36 MPa . (b) Given: The pipe diameter d = 120 mm. and P = 60 kN.4 kN.12 × 0. and torsional loads that can be carried by the bar are P = 10. thickness t = 5 mm.83 MPa πdt π(0.34).14 p P P x x (a) Figure 3.ugu2155X_ch03. Combined axial and tangential stresses act at a critical point on an element in the wall of the pipe (Figure 3.30b).83)] 2 2 = 3 pmax + 15. We have σx = − σx = σθ = P 60(103 ) =− = −31.915 ≤ 80 from which pmax = 21. Allowable in-plane shear stress in the wall is 80 MPa. F = 102.30 Example 3. respectively. (3.30a. Solution: The cross-sectional area of this thin-walled shell is A = πdt . EXAMPLE 3. τmax = 1 1 [σθ − (σx + σx )] = [12 p − (6 p − 31. Assumption: The critical stress is at a point on cylinder wall away from the ends.005) pr p(60) = = 6p 2t 2(5) pr = 12 p t Applying Eq.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 111 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 111 Comment: The magnitude of the largest allowable transverse. Determination of Maximum Allowable Pressure in a Pipe under Combined Loading A cylindrical pipe subjected to internal pressure p is simultaneously compressed by an axial load P through the rigid end plates.14.024 kN · m.24 kN. Calculate the largest value of p that can be applied to the pipe. and T = 1. axial.

100 mm 50 mm The highest value of the shear stress occurs at the neutral axis.716) = 3.31). The displacements of welded joint C are negligibly small.ugu2155X_ch03.01(10−6 ) L1 C 1. Solution: See Figures 1.1.5 and 3. is Q max = b h 2 h 4 − (b − 2t) h −t 2 h/2 − t 2 = 50(50)(25) − (38)(44)(22) = 25. We observe from Figure 1. from static equilibrium.A.5)2 = 4646 N · m 2 VC = 3 kN The cross-sectional area properties of the tubular beam are The frame of a winch crane is represented schematically in Figure 1. Therefore. Given: The geometry and loading are known from Case Study 1-1. The frame is made of ASTM-A36 structural steel tubing. From Table B.006) Figure 3. the critical section is at C of cantilever CD carrying its own weight per unit length w and concentrated load P at the free end (Figure 3.01(10−6 ) m4 12 where I represents the moment of inertia about the neutral axis. Determine the maximum stress and the factor of safety against yielding.31 Figure 1.6 MPa I 2.5. A = bh − (b − 2t)(h − 2t) = 50 × 100 − 38 × 88 = 1.A.05) = = 115. = . hence part CD of the frame is considered a cantilever beam.5 m Weight per length w 130 N/m y b x z t 6 mm P 3 kN h D N.716(10−6 ) m3 Hence.199 MPa 2. the ﬁrst moment of the area about the N. Since two vertical beams resist moment at B. the maximum bending stress at point C equals σC = Mc 4646(0.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 112 112 PART I FUNDAMENTALS Case Study 3-1 WINCH CRANE FRAME STRESS ANALYSIS have the following values: 1 MC = P L 1 + wL 2 2 1 1 = 3000(1. Part CD of the crane frame shown in The bending moment MC and shear force VC at the cross section through the point C.4.01(2 × 0.5 that the maximum bending moment occurs at points B and C and MB = MC. Referring to Figure 3. τC = VC Q max Ib 3000(25.66(10−3 ) m2 I = = 1 3 1 bh − (b − 2t)(h − 2t)3 12 12 1 [(50 × 1003 ) − (38)(88)3 ] = 2.31.5) + (130)(1.31 and Table B.1: Sy = 250 MPa E = 200 GPa Assumptions: The loading is static.

The loading is taken to be static.199)2 = 115. (3. τ= 4(128) 4FA = = 10.7 Case Study 3-2 BOLT CUTTER STRESS ANALYSIS Solution: See Figures 1. The most likely failure points are in link 3. and jaw 2 in bending. as shown in Figure 3.6. the hole where pins are inserted. Material of all parts is AISI 1080 HR steel. Given: The geometry and forces are known from Case Study 1-2. the connecting pins in shear. and stress concentration factors can be disregarded under steady loading. The 1 -in.32. The force on a pin is 128 lb. Case Study 15-2 illustrates the design analysis of the welded joint at C. E = 30 × 106 psi Assumptions: 1. Member 2 can be approximated as a simple beam with an overhang.16 σmax 115.43 ksi 2 πd 2 π 1 8 (continued) 3. We obtain the largest principal stress σ1 = σmax from Eq. as well as at B.32a.ugu2155X_ch03. Sys = 0. (3. 128 −1 8 1 8 = 4. .6 2 2 1/2 + (3.096 ksi For the bearing stress in the joint A. from Eq. Dimensions are in inches.7 MPa The factor of safety against yielding is then n= Sy 250 = = 2. Determine the stresses in the members.5Sy = 30.45 ksi. The material is ductile. Member 3 is a pin-ended tensile link. These enlarge the weld area of the joints and help reduce stress in the welds. Comments: At joint C.192 ksi 2. which in this case reduces to σmax = σC + 2 115. (3.4). The largest force on any pin in the assembly is at joint A. a thin (about 6-mm) steel gusset should be added at each side (not shown in the ﬁgure).5).3). we have σb = FA = dt3 128 1 8 1 8 = 8.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 113 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 113 Case Study (CONCLUDED) This is satisfactory because the frame is made of average material operated in ordinary environment and subjected to known loads.9 ksi (Table B. The normal stress is therefore σ = FA = (w3 − d)t3 3 8 A bolt cutting tool is shown in Figure 1. using Eq. diameter pins are in 8 single shear. We have Sy = 60. The worst-case direct shear stress.33).6 and 3.6 + 2 σC 2 2 2 + τC = 115. The link and other members have ample material around holes to prevent tearout.

ε y .ugu2155X_ch03. We brieﬂy discuss expressions that give the strains in the inclined directions.32b. is supported and loaded as shown in Figure 3. equals M = FB b = 32(3) = 96 lb · in.32 Member 2.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 114 114 PART I FUNDAMENTALS Case Study FA A 1 14 (CONCLUDED) 128 lb a d t3 L3 3 w3 A FA (a) (b) Some free-body diagrams of bolt cutter shown in Figure 1. where strains are measured by means of strain gages. The normal and shear strains at a point in a member vary with direction in a way analogous to that for stress. These in-plane strain transformation equations are particularly signiﬁcant in experimental investigations. Therefore. the transformation of strain is the same as the stress transformation. the shear stress is negligibly small in the jaw. The moment of inertia of the crosssectional area is t2 3 I = h − d3 12 2 = 3/16 12 3 8 3 − 1 8 3 = 0.793(10−3 ) in.4 It can readily be shown that.6: (a) link 3. in the xy plane the strain components εx . the jaw. Mathematically.11 PLANE STRAIN In the case of two-dimensional. Member 1. The maximum moment.com includes general information on strain gages as well as instrumentation.measurementsgroup. (b) jaw 2. in every respect. Comment: The results show that the maximum stresses in members are well under the yield strength of the material. The site at www.7 ksi σC = = I 0. 1 8 3 8 1 8 1 d 1 8 b 3 3 8 D A 2 t2 3 16 B h2 Q 96 lb FA 128 lb FB 32 lb Figure 3. that occurs at point A of the jaw. has an irregular geometry and is relatively massive compared to the other components of the assembly. It can be shown that [2] transformation expressions of stress are converted . strain. Accurate values of stresses as well as deﬂections in the handle may be obtained by the ﬁnite element analysis. The bending stress is then 3 96 16 Mc = 22.793 × 10−3 3. all points in the body before and after the application of the load remain in the same plane. the handle. and γx y may have nonzero values. or plane.

.37) Using Eq. (3. (3. The vertical axis is measured in terms of γ /2.ugu2155X_ch03. given in Section 3. the in-plane transformation of strain in an arbitrary direction proceeds from Eqs.9. used only in constructing and reading values from Mohr’s circle. The center of the circle is at (εx + ε y )/2.31): εx = γx y 1 1 (εx + ε y ) + (εx − ε y ) cos 2θ + sin 2θ 2 2 2 (3.14).18.39c) γx y = −(εx − ε y ) sin 2θ + γx y cos 2θ εy = γx y 1 1 (εx + ε y ) − (εx − ε y ) cos 2θ − sin 2θ 2 2 2 An expression for the maximum shear strain may also be found from Eq.32) in the form. and distorts through an angle of −360µ (see Section 1. EXAMPLE 3. agrees with the convention used for stress in Section 3.39a) (3.34). Determination of Principal Strains Using Mohr’s Circle It is observed that an element of a structural component elongates 450µ along the x axis.2 = εx + ε y ± 2 εx − ε y 2 2 + γx y 2 2 (3.33). for example.and three-dimensional transformation relations.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 115 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 115 into strain relationships by substitution: σ →ε and τ → γ /2 (a) These replacements can be made in all the analogous two. the principal strain directions are obtained from Eq. the magnitudes of the in-plane principal strains are ε1. contracts 120µ in the y direction. In Mohr’s circle for strain.15 (b) The maximum shear strains.38) In a like manner. tan 2θ p = γx y εx − ε y (3. Therefore. positive to the right. the normal strain ε is plotted on the horizontal axis. Similarly. the transformation equations of three-dimensional strain may be deduced from the corresponding stress relations.39b) (3. the point representing the x axis strain is plotted a distance γ /2 below the axis and vice versa when shear strain is negative. (3. Note that this convention for shearing strain. Calculate (a) The principal strains. (3. When the shear strain is positive.

33. (a) The in-plane principal strains are represented by points A and B. ε y = −120µ.2 = 165µ ± ε1 = 502µ 450 + 120 2 ε2 = −172µ 2 1/2 + (−180)2 Note. the normal strains are equal to ε = 165µ.ugu2155X_ch03. In the directions of maximum shear strain. constructed by ﬁnding the position of point C at ε = (εx + ε y )/2 = 165µ on the horizontal axis and of point A at (εx . that εx + ε y = ε1 + ε2 = 330µ.15. Solution: A sketch of Mohr’s circle is shown in Figure 3. 180µ) from the origin O. 180) 2 p B1 B( 120. Hence. θp = 180 1 tan−1 = 16. .qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 116 116 PART I FUNDAMENTALS Given: εx = 450µ. ε1. From geometry. (b) The maximum shear strains are given by points D and E. −γx y /2) = (450µ. γmax = ±(ε1 − ε2 ) = ±674µ Comments: Mohr’s circle depicts that the axes of maximum shear strain make an angle of 45° with respect to principal axes. 180) y O C A1 ( ) E Figure 3. γx y = −360µ Assumption: Element is in a state of plane strain.14◦ 2 285 It is seen from the circle that θ p locates the ε1 direction. 2 ( ) 165 D x A(450. as a check.33 Example 3. Hence.

2. It is important to note that a stress concentration factor is applied to the stress computed for the net or reduced cross section. Stress concentration factors for several types of conﬁguration and loading are available in technical literature [8–13]. the stress and accompanying deformation near a discontinuity can be analyzed by applying the theory of elasticity. it is more usual to rely on experimental techniques or the ﬁnite element method (see Case Study 17-4). The abrupt change in form or discontinuity occurs in such frequently encountered stress raisers as holes. and C. but not the size. C. of the member is involved. provided in Appendix C.9 are for ﬁllets of radius r that join a part of depth (or diameter) d to the one of larger depth (or diameter) D at a step or shoulder in a member (see Figure 3. keyways. The values shown in Figures C. The factor is deﬁned by Kt = σmax σnom or Kt = τmax τnom (3. A geometric or theoretical stress concentration factor Kt is used to relate the maximum stress at the discontinuity to the nominal stress. In those instances that do not yield to analytical methods. discussed in the next section.1.34).40) Here the nominal stresses are stresses that would occur if the abrupt change in the cross section did not exist or had no inﬂuence on stress distribution. In some cases. A full ﬁllet is a 90° arc with radius r = (D − d f )/2.7 through C. Observe that all these graphs indicate the advisability of streamlining junctures and transitions of portions that make up a member. that is. grooves.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 117 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 117 3. The formulas of mechanics of materials apply as long as the material remains linearly elastic and shape variations are gradual. notches. However. Note that the stress concentration is a primary cause of fatigue failure and static failure in brittle materials. threads.ugu2155X_ch03. are useful in the design of machine parts. and ﬁllets. .12 STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTORS The condition where high localized stresses are produced as a result of an abrupt change in geometry is called the stress concentration. Large ﬁllet radii help at reentrant corners. t D dh r df P Figure 3. The stress concentration factors for a variety of geometries. much research centers on determining stress concentration effects for combined stress. the stresses obtained are valid only if the loading is not signiﬁcant relative to that which would cause failure by buckling.34 A ﬂat bar with ﬁllets and a centric hole under axial loading. stress concentration can be reduced in intensity by properly proportioning the parts. In fact. The stress concentration factor decreases with increases in r/d or d/D. Also. results for the axial tension pertain equally to cases of axial compression. Curves in the Appendix C ﬁgures are plotted on the basis of dimensionless ratios: the shape.

44 corresponding to dh /D = 0.01. D 100 A = (D − dh )t = (100 − 20)10 = 800 mm2 Using the lower curve in Figure C.44 = 152. we ﬁnd that K t = 2.8K t MPa A 660(10−6 ) P 50 × 103 = 2. the distinction between ductile and brittle materials must be inferred from the discussion of Section 2.8K t or K t = 2. σmax = K t For ﬁllets. The presence of stress concentration in the case of ﬂuctuating (and impact) loading.5. regardless . for D/d f = 100/66 = 1. t = 10 mm Design Decisions: The plate will be made of a relatively brittle metallic alloy. as found in some machine elements. we must consider stress concentration. Solution: For the circular hole.12 corresponding to K t = 2.ugu2155X_ch03. σmax = K t P 50 × 103 = Kt = 75. D = 100 mm. Determine the radius r of the ﬁllets so that the same stress occurs at the hole and the ﬁllets.34).52. a normally ductile material behaves in a brittle manner and vice versa.5 = 75. The necessary ﬁllet radius is therefore r = 0.01 From the curve in Figure C.9 mm 3. FATIGUE LOADING Most engineering materials may fail as a result of propagation of cracks originating at the point of high dynamic stress.5 MPa A 800(10−6 ) The requirement that the maximum stress for the hole and ﬁllets be identical is satisﬁed by 152. for a speciﬁc application.1. must be considered. Also remember that the determination of stress concentration factors is based on the use of Hooke’s law.12 × 66 = 7.9.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 118 118 PART I FUNDAMENTALS EXAMPLE 3. we ﬁnd that r/d f = 0. d f = 66 mm. Given: P = 50 kN.16 Design of Axially Loaded Thick Plate with a Hole and Fillets A ﬁlleted plate of thickness t supports an axial load P (Figure 3.2.2.13 IMPORTANCE OF STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTORS IN DESIGN Under certain conditions. dh = 20 mm. So. dh 20 = = 0. Hence.

Hence. a nearly uniform stress distribution across the net section occurs. for some brittle materials having internal irregularities. with the increase in the value of P. rivets can carry equal loads in a riveted connection (see Section 15.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 119 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 119 of whether the material response is brittle or ductile. That is. Redistribution of stress in a ﬂat bar of .35 mild steel.13). the effect of an abrupt change in geometry is nulliﬁed and σmax = σnom . material ductility introduces a certain element of forgiveness in analysis while producing acceptable design results. When a member is yielded nonuniformly throughout a cross section. stress concentration is ignored in static loading of ductile materials.7). the increase in load q m P max p n A Sy nom P Figure 3. its effect on the nominal stress is not as large. That is. the stress-distribution curve assumes forms such as those shown by line mp and ﬁnally mq. Therefore. We observe that the area under stress distribution curve is equal to the load P. The effect of ductility on the strength of the shafts and beams with stress raisers is similar to that of axially loaded bars. Interestingly. However. Based on the idealized stress-strain curve. The explanation for this restriction is quite simple. consider the behavior of a mild-steel ﬂat bar that contains a hole and is subjected to a gradually increasing load P (Figure 3. and a contained plastic ﬂow occurs in the material [14]. then. fatigue stress concentrations are of paramount importance. stress concentration is important only for brittle material. the stress concentration factors decrease to a value approaching unity because of the redistribution of stress around a discontinuity. Some ﬁbers are stressed in the plastic range but enough others remain elastic. STATIC LOADING For static loading. When σmax reaches the yield strength Sy. Customarily. This area increases as overload P increases. and the member can carry additional load. regardless of the nature of loading. To illustrate the foregoing inelastic action. However. For ductile materials slowly and steadily loaded beyond the yield point. as indicated by the theoretical factors (see Section 8. for most practical purposes. the bar containing a hole carries the same static load as the bar with no hole.ugu2155X_ch03. residual stresses remain in this cross section after the load is removed.35). or K t = 1. Hence. for example. stress raisers usually have little effect. In machine design. stress distribution in the material is of the form of curve mn. such as cast iron. localized inelastic deformations enable these members to support high stress concentrations. and yielding impends at A. prior to necking. the use of a stress concentration factor appears to be unnecessary for cast iron. An overload produces residual stresses favorable to future loads in the same direction and unfavorable to future loads in the opposite direction.

Situations of this nature are found on a microscopic scale whenever force is transmitted through bodies in contact.36 illustrates the contact area and corresponding stress distribution between two spheres. Contact problems of rolling bearings and gear teeth are discussed in the later chapters. and elastic. The Hertz problem relates to the stresses owing to the contact surface of a sphere on a plane. and the like.37. locomotive wheels. the problem is of importance to cams.ugu2155X_ch03. Consider the contact without deﬂection of two bodies having curved surfaces of different radii (r1 and r2). The original analysis of elastic contact stresses. The area of contact is deﬁned by dimension a for the spheres and a and L for the cylinders. Note that coil springs in compression are good candidates for favorable residual stresses caused by yielding. push rod mechanisms. gear teeth. 15–17]. valve tappets. the maximum contact pressure exist on the load axis. In addition to rolling bearings.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 120 120 PART I FUNDAMENTALS capacity in one direction is the same as the decrease in load capacity in the opposite direction. The following basic assumptions are generally made in the solution of the Hertz problem: 1. Hertz. a cylinder on a cylinder. was published in 1881. Similarly. The contacting bodies are perfectly smooth. two parallel cylindrical rollers compressed by forces F is shown in Figure 3. deﬂection occurs and the point of contact is replaced by a small area of contact. 2. We observe from the ﬁgures that. Without going into the rather complex derivations. The relationships between the force of contact F. a sphere on a sphere. 3. If a collinear pair of forces (F ) presses the bodies together. The contacting bodies are isotropic.* SPHERICAL AND CYLINDRICAL SURFACES IN CONTACT Figure 3. the stresses at the mating surfaces of curved bodies in compression are called Hertz contact stresses. . in this section. in each case. and pin joints in linkages. The deﬂections and subsurface stresses resulting from the contact pressure are then evaluated. therefore friction forces need not be taken into account. 3. In his honor. The contact areas are essentially ﬂat and small relative to the radii of curvature of the undeﬂected bodies in the vicinity of the interface. The next section concerns the contact of two bodies of any general curvature. 4. by H. *A summary and complete list of references dealing with contact stress problems are given by References [2. The ﬁrst steps taken toward the solution of this problem are the determination of the size and shape of the contact area as well as the distribution of normal pressure acting on the area. homogeneous. loaded with force F. in the vicinity of contact.14 CONTACT STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS The application of a load over a small area of contact results in unusually high stresses. we introduce some of the results for both cylinders and spheres. The foregoing set of presuppositions enables elastic analysis by theory of elasticity.

39a.ugu2155X_ch03. Figure 3. the compressive stresses are produced in the x and y directions. Two Spheres in Contact (Figure 3. Obviously. a is the radius of the circular contact area (πa 2 ). (b) Contact stress distribution.41b) Therefore. for cylinders. . (3. the δ represents the relative displacement of the centers of the two bodies. The maximum stresses occur along the load axis z. However. The contact pressure within each sphere or cylinder has a semielliptical distribution. hence. These and the resulting maximum shear stresses are given in terms of the maximum contact pressure po by the equations to follow [3.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 121 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN z z F F 121 z z F r1 O 2a E2 x F (a) a (b) a y E1 po y O r2 po Contact area po 2a r1 E1 y r2 E2 L F F x Figure 3.36) σx = σ y = − po σz = − po 1 + (z/a)2 1− z 1 tan−1 a z/a (1 + ν) − 1 2[1 + (z/a)2 ] (3.38 Principal stress below the surface along the load axis z.41c) A plot of these equations is shown in Figure 3. and the deﬂection δ in the point of contact are given in Table 3. Poisson’s ratio ν in the formulas is taken as 0. where L is the length of the cylinder.36 (a) Spherical surfaces of two members held in contact by force F. But. we have τx y = 0 and τ yz = τx z = 1 (σx − σz ) 2 (3. 16]. Note: The contact area is a narrow rectangle of 2a × L. and they are principal stresses (Figure 3.2.3. as shown in the ﬁgures. owing to local deformation.37 Two cylinders held in contact by force F uniformly distributed along cylinder length L. a represents the half-width of the rectangular contact area (2a L). maximum pressure po. Note: The contact area is a circle of radius a.38). The material along the axis compressed in the z direction tends to expand in the x and y directions.41a) z z y y x x Figure 3. it varies from 0 at the side of the contact area to a maximum value po at its center. For spheres. the surrounding material does not permit this expansion.

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122

PART I

FUNDAMENTALS

Maximum pressure po and deflection δ of two bodies in point of contact Spheres: po = 1.5 F πa 2 Cylinders: po = 2 F π aL

Table 3.2 Configuration A. z

**Sphere on a Flat Surface F a = 0.880 r1
**

3

Cylinder on a Flat Surface a = 1.076 F r1 L

Fr1

2

For E 1 = E 2 = E: δ= 0.579F EL 1 2r1 + ln 3 a

a F z B. F r1 a r2 F C. z F r2 y

y

δ = 0.775

3

F2

r1

Two Spherical Balls

Two Cylindrical Rollers

a = 0.880 δ = 0.775

3

F

m

2m

a = 1.076

3

F2

F Lm

Sphere on a Spherical Seat

Cylinder on a Cylindrical Seat

r1 a F

Note: = 1 1 + , E1 E2 m= 1 1 + , r1 r2

a = 0.880 y δ = 0.775

3

F

n

2n

a = 1.076

F Ln

3

F2

n=

1 1 − r1 r2

where the modulus of elasticity (E ) and radius (r ) are for the contacting members, 1 and 2. The L represents the length of the cylinder (Figure 3.37). The total force pressing two spheres or cylinders is F.

**Two Cylinders in Contact (Figure 3.37)
**

σx = −2νpo 1 + z a

2

z a

2

−

(3.42a)

1 2− σ y = − po 1 + (z/a)2

1+

z a

z −2 a

(3.42b)

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CHAPTER 3

STRESS AND STRAIN

123

, 1.0 0.8 0.6

x, y z max

, 1.0 0.8

y

Ratio of stress to po

Ratio of stress to po

0.6 0.4 0.2

x

z

0.4 0.2

yz

0

0.5a a 1.5a 2a 2.5a Distance from contact surface (a)

3a z

0

0.5a a 1.5a 2a 2.5a Distance from contact surface (b)

3a z

Figure 3.39 Stresses below the surface along the load axis (for ν = 0.3): (a) two spheres; (b) two parallel cylinders. Note: All normal stresses are compressive stresses.

σz = − τx y =

po 1 + (z/a)2 τ yz = 1 (σ y − σz ), 2 τx z = 1 (σx − σz ) 2

(3.42c)

1 (σx − σ y ), 2

(3.42d)

Equations (3.42a–3.42c) and the second of Eqs. (3.42d) are plotted in Figure 3.39b. For each case, Figure 3.39 illustrates how principal stresses diminish below the surface. It also shows how the shear stress reaches a maximum value slightly below the surface and diminishes. The maximum shear stresses act on the planes bisecting the planes of maximum and minimum principal stresses. The subsurface shear stresses is believed to be responsible for the surface fatigue failure of contacting bodies (see Section 8.15). The explanation is that minute cracks originate at the point of maximum shear stress below the surface and propagate to the surface to permit small bits of material to separate from the surface. As already noted, all stresses considered in this section exist along the load axis z. The states of stress off the z axis are not required for design purposes, because the maxima occur on the z axis.

**Determining Maximum Contact Pressure between a Cylindrical Rod and a Beam
**

A concentrated load F at the center of a narrow, deep beam is applied through a rod of diameter d laid across the beam width of width b. Determine (a) The contact area between rod and beam surface.

EXAMPLE 3.17

(b) The maximum contact stress.

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124

PART I

FUNDAMENTALS F = 4 kN, d = 12 mm, b = 125 mm

Given:

Assumptions:

Both the beam and the rod are made of steel having E = 200 GPa and ν = 0.3.

Solution: We use the equations on the second column of case A in Table 3.2. (a) Since E 1 = E 2 = E or a = 1.076 = 1.076 F r1 L 4(103 ) (0.006)2 = 0.0471 mm 0.125 200(109 ) = 2/E, the half-width of contact area is

The rectangular contact area equals 2a L = 2(0.0471)(125) = 11.775 mm2 (b) The maximum contact pressure is therefore po = 2 F 2 4(103 ) = = 432.5 MPa π aL π 5.888(10−6 )

Case Study 3-3

**CAM AND FOLLOWER STRESS ANALYSIS OF AN INTERMITTENT-MOTION MECHANISM
**

are the maximum stress at the contact line between the cam and follower and the deﬂection?

Figure 3.40 shows a camshaft and follower of an intermittent-motion mechanism. For the position indicated, the cam exerts a force Pmax on the follower. What

Pmax

Follower Df Cam rc Ds A Dc Figure 3.40 Bearing L5 L3 L1 r L4

Pmax

L2 r E Ds F Shaft L6

L3 Shaft rotation

B

Layout of camshaft and follower of an intermittent-motion mechanism.

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CHAPTER 3

STRESS AND STRAIN

125

Case Study

(CONCLUDED)

The rectangular patch area: 2a L = 2(11.113 × 10−3 )(1.5) = 33.34(10−3 ) in.2 Maximum contact pressure is then po = 2 Pmax π a L4 2 1600 = = 61.11 ksi π (11.113 × 10−3 )(1.5)

Given: The shapes of the contacting surfaces are known. The material of all parts is AISI 1095, carburized on the surfaces, oil quenched and tempered (Q&T) at 650°C. Data: Pmax = 1.6 kips, rc = 1.5 in., E = 29 × 106 psi, D f = L 4 = 1.5 in.,

Sy = 80 ksi,

Assumptions: Frictional forces can be neglected. The rotational speed is slow so that the loading is considered static.

The deﬂection δ of the cam and follower at the line of contact is obtained as follows δ= 0.579Pmax E L4 1 2rc + ln 3 a

Solution: See Figure 3.40, Tables 3.2, B.1, and B.4. Equations on the second column of case A of Table 3.2 apply. We ﬁrst determine the half-width a of the = 2/E, we contact patch. Since E 1 = E 2 = E and have a = 1.076 Pmax rc L4

Introducing the numerical values, δ= 0.579(1600) 30 × 106 (1.5) 1 2 × 1.5 + ln 3 11.113 × 10−3

= 0.122(10−3 ) in.

**Substitution of the given data yield 1600 2 a = 1.076 (1.5) 1.5 30 × 106 = 11.113(10−3 ) in.
**

1/2

Comments: The contact stress is determined to be less than the yield strength and the design is satisfactory. The calculated deﬂection between the cam and the follower is very small and does not effect the system performance.

*3.15

MAXIMUM STRESS IN GENERAL CONTACT

In this section, we introduce some formulas for the determination of the maximum contact stress or pressure po between the two contacting bodies that have any general curvature [2,15]. Since the radius of curvature of each member in contact is different in every direction, the equations for the stress given here are more complex than those presented in the preceding section. A brief discussion on factors affecting the contact pressure is given in Section 8.15. Consider two rigid bodies of equal elastic modulus E, compressed by F, as shown in Figure 3.41. The load lies along the axis passing through the centers of the bodies and through the point of contact and is perpendicular to the plane tangent to both bodies at the point of contact. The minimum and maximum radii of curvature of the surface of the upper body are r1 and r1 ; those of the lower body are r2 and r2 at the point of contact. Therefore,

202 1.44) α (degrees) 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 ca 3.493 0.5 where a = ca 3 F πab (3.43) Fm n b = cb 3 Fm n (3. r1 . (For instance.641 0. r2 are negative.061 1.778 2. if the center of the curvature is outside the body.567 0.44) F Figure 3. F r2 r1 r' 1 r' 2 F In these formulas.284 1.42. in Figure 3.) Let θ be the angle between the normal planes in which radii r1 and r2 lie (Figure 3.611 cb 0.893 0. m B =± 1 2 1 1 − r1 r1 2 B A + 1 1 − r2 r2 2 (3. The maximum contact pressure is po = 1. Subsequent to the loading.678 ca 1.3 corresponding to the value of α calculated from the formula cos α = Here A= 2 .41 Curved surfaces of different radii of two bodies compressed by forces F.486 1. the area of contact will be an ellipse with semiaxes a and b.731 2.47) cos 2θ The proper sign in B must be chosen so that its values are positive. r1 are positive.000 cb 0.41).3 α (degrees) 20 30 35 40 45 50 55 Factors for use in Equation (3. while r2 .45) The constants ca and cb are given in Table 3.717 0.46) 1 1 +2 − r1 r1 1 1 − r2 r2 1/2 (3.759 0.754 1.604 0.ugu2155X_ch03. Table 3. and 1/r2 are the principal curvatures.846 0.397 2.000 . The sign convention of the curvature is such that it is positive if the corresponding center of curvature is inside the body.128 1.378 1. we have m= 1 r1 + 1 r1 4 + 1 r2 + 1 r2 n= 4E 3(1 − ν 2 ) (3.530 0. Figure 3.944 1. 1/r2 .136 1.926 1.42 Contact load in a single-row ball bearing.408 0. the curvature is negative. 1/r1 .802 0.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 126 126 F PART I FUNDAMENTALS r' 1 r1 r2 r' 2 1/r1 .

91) A= 2 = 73.04 m.42. ν = 0. and the diameter of the outer race is 80 mm.2047 mm The maximum contact pressure is then po = 1. (3.2903)2 + 2(0)2 ]1/2 = 68.4255.5294. if the ultimate strength is the maximum usable stress.0062 m.3. Solution: See Figure 3. The semiaxes of the ellipsoidal contact area are found by using Eq.ugu2155X_ch03. (3.47). n= 4(200 × 109 ) = 293.0403 × 109 1200 × 0.0272 B= 1 [(0)2 + (−136.0403 × 109 3(0.0272.14 apply.04 = 0.1452 = 0.5 1200 = 1633 MPa π(1.3. we obtain ca = 3. 6.44): a = 3.1452 2 Using Eq. E = 200 GPa.42). the radius of the groove. we have m= 4 2 0.9268.7140 × 0.0272 293.3.45) and (3.5623 and cb = 0.0062 − 1 0.18 (b) The factor of safety. cos α = ± 68. and contact stresses between a cylindrical wheel and rail (see Problem P3. The loading is static.7140 mm 1/3 = 0.5294 α = 22.43). 73. 0.42). EXAMPLE 3.2 kN. Assumptions: The basic assumptions listed in Section 3.006 − 1 0. Ball diameter is 12 mm.2047) .0403 × 109 1/3 = 1.5623 b = 0. many problems of practical importance may be solved. r2 = −0.44). These include contact stresses in rolling bearings (Figure 3. contact stresses in cam and pushrod mechanisms (see Problem P3. Ball Bearing Capacity Analysis A single-row ball bearing supports a radial load F as shown in Figure 3. (3.4255 1200 × 0.0272 293.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 127 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 127 Using Eq.2 mm. For the situation described r1 = r1 = 0. interpolating in Table 3.006 m. Calculate (a) The maximum pressure at the contact point between the outer race and a ball. (a) Substituting the given data into Eqs. Given: F = 1.42 and Table 3.46). and r2 = −0. (3. and Su = 1900 MPa.06◦ Corresponding to this value of α.

and hence a material is capable of resisting higher stress levels. Orientation of plane ABC may be deﬁned in terms of the direction cosines. y) = m. the safety factor is deﬁned by Eq. cos(n.5Fu 1. z) = n (3. isolated from this element and represented in Figure 3. by using an approach identical to that employed for the twodimensional state of stress.4255) 0.0272 293 . y.1): n= Fu F (a) in which Fu is the ultimate loading.10.16 THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRESS In the most general case of three-dimensional stress.5 3 Fu πca cb (m/n)2/3 Introducing the numerical values into the preceding expression.48) Solving. (1. x) = l. Components of stress on the perpendicular planes (intersecting at the origin O) can be related to the normal and shear stresses on the oblique plane ABC. and torsion.5 3 Fu π(3. an element is subjected to stresses on the orthogonal x. Equation (a) gives then n= 1891 = 1.58 1200 Comments: In this example. In all contact problems. Consider a tetrahedron. y. we have 1900(106 ) = √ 1.5Fu = πab πca cb 3 (Fu m/n)2 This may be written as Su = √ 1.0403 ×10 9 2/3 (3. the magnitude of the contact stress obtained is quite large in comparison with the values of the stress usually found in direct tension. associated with the angles between a unit normal n to the plane and the x.5623 × 0. z coordinate axes: cos(n.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 128 128 PART I FUNDAMENTALS (b) Since contact stresses are not linearly related to load F.49) . bending.ugu2155X_ch03. Fu = 1891 N. The maximum principal stress theory of failure gives Su = 1. 3.43. cos(n. and z planes. as shown in Figure 1. three-dimensional compressive stresses occur at the point.

The shear stresses τx y and τx z may be written similarly. where x coincides with n and y .43 tetrahedron. the resulting six expressions represent transformation equations for threedimensional stress. Of particular importance are the direction cosines of the plane on which σx has a maximum value. The other stress components σ y . and τ y z are obtained by considering those (y and z ) planes perpendicular to the oblique plane. and on these planes. The foregoing normal stresses are called principal stresses σ1 . and n are direction cosines of angles between x and the x. determined from the equations: σx − σi τx y τx z li (i = 1. Components of stress on a The sum of the squares of these quantities is unity: l 2 + m 2 + n2 = 1 (3. PRINCIPAL STRESSES IN THREE DIMENSIONS For the three-dimensional case.52) τx z τ yz σz − σi ni . m. It can readily be shown that [2] the normal stress acting on the oblique x plane shown in Figure 3. respectively.50) Consider now a new coordinate system x . 3) τx y σ y − σi τ yz m i = 0. z lie on an oblique plane.43 is expressed in the form σx = σx l 2 + σ y m 2 + σz n 2 + 2(τx y lm + τ yz mn + τx z ln) (3.ugu2155X_ch03. σ2 . The algebraically largest stress is represented by σ1 and the smallest by σ3 . One of these planes is the oblique (x ) plane in question. z .qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 129 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 129 y B x'y' x' n C x O x'z' A z Figure 3. z axes. σz .51) where l. y. In so doing. 2. the normal stresses have maximum or minimum values. and σ3 . three mutually perpendicular planes of zero shear exist. The stresses on the three mutually perpendicular planes are required to specify the stress at a point. y . (3.

54) may be solved for its three roots. and I3 represent invariants of the three-dimensional stress. and σ3 .52) and using li2 + m i2 + n i2 = 1.53). For a given state of stress. σ1 . A convenient way of determining the roots of the stress cubic equation and solving for the direction cosines is given in Appendix D. .44 Planes of maximum three-dimensional shear stress. it follows that an element oriented parallel to the principal directions is in a state of triaxial stress (Figure 3. After obtaining the three-dimensional principal stresses.56) The maximum shear stress acts on the planes that bisect the planes of the maximum and minimum principal stresses as shown in the ﬁgure.53) τx z τ yz σz − σi Expanding Eq. (3. Introducing each of these principal stresses into Eq. Since no shear stress acts on the principal planes. Eq. τmax = 1 (σ1 − σ3 ) 2 (3. we obtain the following stress cubic equation: σi3 − I1 σi2 + I2 σi − I3 = 0 where I1 = σ x + σ y + σz 2 2 2 I2 = σx σ y + σx σz + σ y σz − τx y − τ yz − τx z 2 2 2 I3 = σx σ y σz + 2τx y τ yz τx z − σx τ yz − σ y τx z − σz τx y (3. (3. σ2 . 2 45° 1 3 Figure 3.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 130 130 PART I FUNDAMENTALS A nontrivial solution for the direction cosines requires that the characteristic determinant vanishes. Therefore. I2. we can obtain three sets of direction cosines for three principal planes.ugu2155X_ch03. Note that the direction cosines of the principal stresses are occasionally required to predict the behavior of members.44).54) (3. (3.55) The quantities I1. Thus σx − σi τx y τx z =0 τx y σ y − σi τ yz (3. we can readily determine the maximum shear stresses.

and z coordinate axes are parallel to the principal axes: σx = σ. The foregoing computations may readily be performed by using the formulas given in Appendix D.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 131 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 131 Three-Dimensional State of Stress in a Member At a critical point in a loaded machine component. It can be shown that only two of Eqs. (3. σ2 = 20 MPa.52). and n denote the direction cosines of oblique plane ABC. m. (3. σ3 = −40 MPa Introducing σ1 into Eq. SIMPLIFIED TRANSFORMATION FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRESS Often we need the normal and shear stresses acting on an arbitrary oblique plane of a tetrahedron in terms of the principal stresses acting on perpendicular planes (Figure 3. From these expressions.ugu2155X_ch03. and so on. Solution: Substitution of Eq. 6 1 n 1 = √ = 0. σ3 . (3. 2. m1. we have 60 − 80 20 20 l1 20 40 m 1 = 0 0 − 80 n1 20 40 0 − 80 (b) Here l1. σx = σ1 . 3) The three principal stresses representing the roots of this equation are σ1 = 80 MPa. y. is σ = σ1l 2 + σ2 m 2 + σ3 n 2 (3. z coordinate system are given by 60 20 20 20 0 40 MPa 20 40 0 EXAMPLE 3.4082. τx y = τx z = 0. In this case.19 (a) Determine the principal stresses σ1 . and n1 represent the direction cosines for the orientation of the plane on which σ1 acts. y. (i = 1. The normal stress σ on the oblique plane.57a) . (b) are independent. Let l.000 = 0.8165. we obtain 1 1 2 l1 = √ = 0. together with 2 l1 + m 2 + n 2 = 1. as depicted in the ﬁgure. (a) into Eq. the x.51).54) gives σi3 − 60σi2 − 2400σi + 64. the stresses relative to x. and the orientation of σ1 with respect to the original coordinate axes.4082 6 The direction cosines for σ2 and σ3 are ascertained in a like manner. 6 1 m 1 = √ = 0.45). σ2 . from Eq.

ugu2155X_ch03.46). we have 1 l=m=n= √ 3 There are eight such plane or octahedral planes. in the following forms: σoct = τoct = 1 (σ1 + σ2 + σ3 ) 3 1 [(σ1 − σ2 )2 + (σ2 − σ3 )2 + (σ3 − σ1 )2 ]1/2 3 (3. the magnitudes of the octahedral normal stress and octahedral shear stress.45 with OA = OB = OC . OCTAHEDRAL STRESSES Let us consider an oblique plane that forms equal angles with each of the principal stresses. represented by face ABC in Figure 3. the shear stress τ on this plane may be expressed in the convenient form: τ = [(σ1 − σ2 )2l 2 m 2 + (σ2 − σ3 )2 m 2 n 2 + (σ3 − σ1 )2 n 2l 2 ]1/2 (3. discussed in Sections 5.58a) (3.57b) The preceding expressions are the simpliﬁed transformation equations for three-dimensional state of stress. Stresses on a It can be veriﬁed that. (3. all of which have the same intensity of normal and shear stresses at a point O (Figure 3. Inasmuch as l 2 + m 2 + n 2 = 1.58b) Equation (3. Thus. The octahedral stresses play an important role in certain failure criteria.46 octahedron.58a) indicates that the normal stress acting on an octahedral plane is the mean of the principal stresses.45 Triaxial stress on a tetrahedron.3 and 7.8.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 132 132 PART I FUNDAMENTALS y B B n oct oct 2 C 1 3 1 O O A z 2 Octahedral plane A 3 C x Figure 3. the normal n to this plane has equal direction cosines relative to the principal axes.57) results in. . Substitution of the preceding equation into Eqs. Figure 3.

47b.20 (b) The maximum shear stress. which correspond.ugu2155X_ch03.5 15 MPa y' B r 80 ' p C 2 ' p A1 A(60.5 + 32. to the projections in the y z and x z planes of the element (Figure 3. (b) We now draw circles of diameters C1B1 and C1A1. The radius of the circle is r = (12.52 + 302 )1/2 = 32. the radius of the circle of diameter C1A1. (MPa) y 35 MPa ' y 47. (a) The principal stresses in the plane are represented by points A and B: σ1 = 47.7° 30 MPa 60 MPa x 25 MPa 25 C1 O B1 15 z 30) z (a) Figure 3.47b). The maximum shearing stress.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 133 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 133 Determining Principal Stresses Using Mohr’s Circle Figure 3. the angle through which the element should rotate about the z axis: θp = 30 1 tan−1 = 33.47 Example 3.5 = 15 MPa The z faces of the element deﬁne one of the principal stresses: σ3 = −25 MPa.5 = 80 MPa σ2 = 47.5 MPa. The octahedral stresses.47c). Determine at the point (a) (c) The principal planes and principal stresses. The planes of the maximum principal stress are deﬁned by θ p .5 − 32.5 The result is shown on a sketch of the rotated element (Figure 3.7◦ 2 12.47a depicts a point in a loaded machine base subjected to the three-dimensional stresses. is therefore τmax = 1 (75 + 25) = 50 MPa 2 . x (MPa) 25 MPa x 80 MPa x' 33. (b) (c) Solution: We construct Mohr’s circle for the transformation of stress in the xy plane as indicated by the solid lines in Figure 3. respectively. EXAMPLE 3.20.

changes in value: σx + (∂σx /∂ x) dx .17 VARIATION OF STRESS THROUGHOUT A MEMBER As noted earlier. the components of stress generally vary from point to point in a loaded member.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 134 134 PART I FUNDAMENTALS Planes of the maximum shear stress are inclined at 45° with respect to the x and z faces of the element of Figure 3. one stress component. and of unit thickness are depicted in Figure 3. The stress y y y yx y dy yx y xy dy xy Fy x xy x x dx x dy dx yx Fx x y x dx Figure 3. . For example. For the two-dimensional case. from the lower-left corner to the upper-right corner of the element. To be physically possible. Satisfying these conditions. In general. we have σoct = τoct = 1 (80 + 15 − 25) = 23. The components σ y and τx y change in a like manner. The body forces per unit volume acting on the element.47c. stresses are functions of the coordinates (x. (3.3 MPa 3 *3.ugu2155X_ch03. a stress ﬁeld must satisfy these equations at every point in a load carrying component.3 MPa 3 1 [(80 − 15)2 + (15 + 25)2 + (−25 − 80)2 ]1/2 = 43.58). σx .48. Fx and Fy. and the component of the body force Fz = 0.48 Stresses and body forces on an element. are independent of z. say. accounted for by the theory of elasticity. are governed by the equations of statics. the stresses acting on an element of sides dx. dy. Such variations of stress. (c) Through the use of Eqs. the differential equations of equilibrium are obtained. y).

in many practical applications.59b) . Therefore. this indeterminacy is eliminated by introducing simplifying assumptions (3. The equilibrium condition that x-directed forces must sum to 0. then Fx = Fz = 0 and Fy = −ρg in the foregoing equations. If we take the y axis as upward and designate by ρ the mass density per unit volume of the member and by g the gravitational acceleration.59a) involve the three unknowns (σx . Hence. it can be shown that the differential equations of equilibrium are given by ∂τx y ∂σx ∂τx z + + + Fx = 0 ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂τx y ∂τ yz ∂σ y + + + Fy = 0 ∂y ∂x ∂z ∂τ yz ∂σz ∂τx z + + + Fz = 0 ∂z ∂x ∂y Note that. the shear stresses in mutually perpendicular planes of the element are equal. Hence.ugu2155X_ch03. σx + ∂τx y ∂σx dx dy − σx dy + τx y + dy dx − τx y dx + Fx dx dy = 0 ∂x ∂y Summation of the forces in the y direction yields an analogous result.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 135 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 135 element must satisfy the equilibrium condition ∂σ y dx dy ∂y − τ yx + dx − 2 ∂σx dx dy ∂x Mz = 0. (3. σ y . ∂τx y dy + τx y + dx dx dy 2 ∂x ∂τ yx dx dy − Fx dx dy =0 dy dx dy + Fy dx dy ∂y 2 2 After neglecting the triple products involving dx and dy. referring to Figure 3. it can be shown that τ yz = τzy and τx z = τzx . we obtain the differential equations of equilibrium for a two-dimensional stress in the form [2] ∂τx y ∂σx + + Fx = 0 ∂x ∂y ∂τx y ∂σ y + + Fy = 0 ∂y ∂x (3. the weight of the member is only body force.59b) contain the six unknown stress components. Fx = 0. this equation results in τx y = τ yx . Therefore.48. Similarly. problems in stress analysis are internally statically indeterminate. We observe that two relations of Eqs. τx y ) and the three relations of Eqs. After reduction. (3. In the mechanics of materials method.59a) In the general case of an element under three-dimensional stresses. for a general state of stress.

However..qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 136 136 PART I FUNDAMENTALS regarding the stresses and considering the equilibrium of the ﬁnite segments of a loadcarrying component.ugu2155X_ch03.49a) and a shear strain (Figure 3. the strains generally vary from point to point in a member. which is similar to the stress tensor discussed in Section 1.49 Deformations of a two-dimensional element: (a) normal strain. ε y . and of unit thickness can contain normal strain (Figure 3. .g.13. γx y is the shear strain between the x and y axes (or y and x axes).49b). hence. εy = . before and after application of load. v. 3. γx y = γ yx . the deformation of an element of dimensions dx. and dz are found in terms of the displacements u. γx z = + (3. γx y . (3. an examination of Figure 3.61a) ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y Obviously. and ∂w ∂w ∂v ∂w ∂u εz = . since the displacement u or v is function of x and y.18 THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRAIN If deformation is distributed uniformly over the original length. dy. In an analogous manner. where L and δ are the original length and the change in length of the member. the strains at a point in a rectangular prismatic element of sides dx. and w. in the case of two-dimensional or plane strain. Equations (3. γx y = + (3.61b) ∂z ∂z ∂z ∂x ∂z where γ yz = γzy and γx z = γzx . It can be shown that these three-dimensional strain components are εx . respectively (see Figure 1. As noted earlier. dy.12a).49 yields ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂u εx = . y u u u dx x v v dy y v dx (a) x u dy y B dy A A' A dx (b) D B' C D' C' v dx x dy Figure 3. the expression for strain must relate to a line of length dx which elongates by an amount du under the axial load. A long prismatic member subjected to a lateral load (e. the normal strain may be written εx = δ/L . all points in the body. Note that the partial derivative notation is used.60) and (1.61) represent the components of strain tensor. Recalling the basis of Eqs. a cylinder under pressure) exempliﬁes the state of plane strain. remain in the same plane. Hence. Therefore. γ yz = + . (b) shear strain.22).60) This represents the strain at a point. The deﬁnition of normal strain is therefore εx = du dx (3.

2. Parts 1 to 5. 1976. McCormac. Roark’s Formulas for Stress and Strain. and boundary conditions for a given problem. C. . Therefore. 1953. A. Peterson. Theory of Elasticity. 8. 3rd ed. R. A. we discuss various axisymmetrical problems using the elasticity approaches. E. 485–489. Physically. Stresses in Plates and Shells. To conclude. and R. Goodier.59). (3. Fundamentals of Machine Component Design. In the method of mechanics of materials. the strains cannot be independent of one another. C. W. Engineering Consideration of Stress. 1978. K. ε y . R. 1974. Thus. L. F. the stress or strain condition is one of plane stress or plane strain. general relationships between the stresses and strains (Eqs. Six equations. R. and γx z [2]. New York: Wiley. and K. Upper Saddle River. Juvinall. 6. 10. Norton. and J. NJ: Prentice Hall. Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity. Timoshenko. 2nd ed.. stress equilibrium (Eqs. Mechanics of Materials. Ugural. R. C.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 137 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 137 PROBLEMS IN ELASTICITY In many problems of practical importance. C. Juvinall. Strain and Strength. simplifying assumptions are made with regard to the distribution of strains in the body as a whole or the ﬁnite portion of the member. New York: McGraw-Hill. Ugural. E. 11. S. Frocht. 1967. New York: Wiley. 3rd ed. E. New York: McGraw-Hill. γx y . New York: Wiley. 12. 3. 9. Machine Design—An Integrated Approach. γ yz . Stress Concentration Design Factors. referred to as the conditions of compatibility. February–July 1951. P. M. A ﬁnite element solution of two-dimensional problems is taken up in Chapter 17.. 2000. Peterson. New York: McGraw-Hill. R. Young. REFERENCES 1. Ugural. Design of Reinforced Concrete. pp. 3. C.” Machine Design. The conditions of compatibility assert that the displacements are continuous. M.ugu2155X_ch03. N. the difﬁcult task of solving the conditions of compatibility and the differential equations of equilibrium are avoided. 2nd ed.. Fenster. Budynas. These two-dimensional problems in elasticity are simpler than those involving three-dimensions. 14. Stress Concentration Factors.” ASME Paper 76-DET99. Upper Saddle River. In examining Eqs. 13. 2000. “Mohr’s Circle and Its Application in Engineering Design. E. New York: McGrawHill. 2001. Peterson. Y. εz .61). Marshek. NJ: Prentice Hall. The number of such equations reduce to one for a two-dimensional problem. 4. New York: McGraw-Hill. C. we see that the six strain components depend linearly on the derivatives of the three displacement components. 1991. 7th ed.8).” Mechanical Engineering. R.. 2003. M. can be developed showing the relationships among εx . this means that the body must be pieced together. 4th ed. and S. the theory of elasticity is based on the following requirements: strain compatibility. “Design Factors for Stress Concentration. A. E. 1970. In Chapter 16. 5. August 1936. 1999. 2. “Photoelastic Studies in Stress Concentration. New York: Harper and Row. 7. Chen. C.

1 Two plates are fastened by a bolt and nut as shown in Figure P3. 16.2. Mechanical Design and Systems Handbook. Rothbart.847 in. P. New York: Wiley. Mechanical Engineering Design. New York: McGraw-Hill. Mishke. 1 32 in. 1 2 in. Given: Sy = 280 MPa. J. 1985. .3 The landing gear of an aircraft is depicted in Figure P3. and n = 2. Boresi. 6th ed. A. Advanced Mechanics of Materials. 2003.3. (b) The average shear stress in the head of the bolt. 1 in. H. Determine the minimum required inside radius a. (c) The shear stress in the threads. 0. 7 16 1 in. 3. and R. A. P = 1.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 138 138 PART I FUNDAMENTALS 15. 2nd ed. Shigley. 2001.1 3. New York: McGraw-Hill.. Assumption: The thickness t of the pipe is to be one-fourth of its inside radius a. R. Calculate (a) The normal stress in the bolt shank. What are the required pin diameters at A and B. 17. Assumption: The nut is tightened to produce a tensile load in the shank of the bolt of 10 kips.2 MN. PROBLEMS Sections 3.ugu2155X_ch03.8 3. ed.. J..1. Given: Maximum usable stress of 28 ksi in shear. (d ) The bearing stress between the head of the bolt and the plate. 2 in.2 A short steel pipe of yield strength Sy is to support an axial compressive load P with factor of safety of n against yielding. Figure P3. E. Schmidt. 6th ed.1 through 3. and C. Assumption: Pins act in double shear.

5 m B E 2m C D Figure P3.5). A 4 in. 3.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 139 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 139 16 in.3 16 in. B 16 in. Given: P = 5 kN.4 The frame of Figure P3.5 Two bars AC and BC are connected by pins to form a structure for supporting a vertical load P at C (Figure P3.4 supports a concentrated load P. P 1m A 1.5 . Determine the angle α if the structure is to be of minimum weight. Assumption: The normal stresses in both bars are to be the same. A B D = 8 × 103 mm2.4 1m 3. C 15° D 10 kips Figure P3. Calculate (a) The normal stress in the member BD if it has a cross-sectional area ABD.ugu2155X_ch03. (b) The shearing stress in the pin at A if it has a diameter of 25 mm and is in double shear. A B C L P Figure P3.

qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 140 140 PART I FUNDAMENTALS 3. Assumption: The beam will be made of timber of σall = 1.6. Calculate the maximum shear stress in the web of the beam. 3. V = 22 kN. Determine the dimensions b and h so that the beam will resist the largest bending moment. h 1 = 175 mm. 8 kN/m 4 kN/m B A 2m Figure P3. whose cross section is shown in Figure P3.7.7 3 ft 3 ft B 2 in.8 3.6 4m C 2m 2m D 3.8 ksi and τall = 100 psi. A roller ﬁts snugly between the two beams at point B. t = 15 mm. 600 lb 900 lb h A 3 ft Figure P3.8 A rectangular beam is to be cut from a circular bar of diameter d (Figure P3. is subjected to a shear force V. h 2 = 150 mm. Given: b = 200 mm. Draw the shear and moment diagrams of the lower beam AC.9 .8). y b z c C t h2 h1 Figure P3.9 The T-beam.6 Two beams AC and BD are supported as shown in Figure P3.7 Design the cross section (determine h) of the simply supported beam loaded at two locations as shown in Figure P3.ugu2155X_ch03.9. y z C b h d Figure P3.

wide × 12 in.14 The beam AB has the rectangular cross section of constant width b and variable depth h (Figures P3.14).10 A box beam is made of four 50-mm × 200-mm planks. for σall = 170 MPa and τall = 100 MPa.13 B w A wo x L w h1 A x L 2 Figure P3. design the cross section of the beam for σall = 12 MPa and τall = 810 kPa. as required. Calculate the maximum bending moment M about the z axis.10.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 141 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 141 3.11. and h1. the allowable load per nail. F = 15 kN. s = 100 mm.5 in.ugu2155X_ch03.13 and P3.14 L 2 h h1 B 3. 3. thick (Figure P3.15). .13 and 3. L.10 3. Design Assumptions: The allowable bending stresses in the wood and steel are 1.2 m Figure P3.11 3. respectively. nailed together as shown in Figure P3.05 ksi and 18 ksi. Determine the maximum allowable shear force V. Use n = E s /E w = 20. wo h x L Figure P3. deep is reinforced on both top and bottom by steel plates 0. Assumption: The beam is to be of constant strength. Derive an expression for h in terms of x. 50 mm 200 mm 50 mm 200 mm Figure P3. Given: The longitudinal spacing of the nails.12 Select the S shape of a simply supported 6-m long beam subjected a uniform load of intensity 50 kN/m. b 2b A 2 kN/m B 1.15 A wooden beam 8 in.11 For the beam and loading shown in Figure P3.

9 in.16 A simply supported beam of span length 8 ft carries a uniformly distributed load of 2. t 3 in. Determine the required thickness t of the steel plates.5 in.5 in. as shown in Figure P3.18 For the composite beam with cross section as shown (Figures P3. Assumptions: The allowable stresses are 19 ksi for the steel and 1. 3. Figure P3. z 12 in.5 kip/ft. determine the maximum permissible value of the bending moment M about the z axis. Given: (σb )all = 120 MPa E b = 100 GPa (σs )all = 140 MPa E s = 200 GPa y y 15 mm 120 mm z z Steel Brass 100 mm Figure P3. Figure P3.17 25 mm Steel 15 mm Figure P3. z 2.18 15 mm 25 mm Brass 25 mm .15 0.5 × 106 psi) and steel (E s = 30 × 106 psi).1 ksi for the wood. y 2. Given: The cross section of the beam is a hollow box with wood ﬂanges (Ew = 1.ugu2155X_ch03.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 142 142 PART I FUNDAMENTALS y 0.17 and 3. 8 in.16.16 3.18).17 and P3.5 in.5 in.

Calculate (a) The stress components σx . Sketch results on properly oriented elements. A 55° Figure P3. Aluminum Brass d 2 d Figure P3.19 Sections 3.? Design Requirement: The allowable stress in the brass is σb . Es. Determine the maximum bending moment M that can be carried by the beam.19). Determine (a) The normal and shear stresses acting on the indicated inclined plane a-a. Sketch the results on a properly oriented element.21 At a point A on the upstream face of a dam (Figure P3.20.9 through 3. σb .20 The state of stress at a point in a loaded machine component is represented in Figure P3. y 15 MPa a 15° 25 MPa x 10 MPa Figure P3.21).qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 143 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 143 3. E a = 10 × 106 psi. (b) The maximum shear stress. σb = 50 ksi. σ y .19 A round brass tube of outside diameter d and an aluminum core of diameter d/2 are bonded together to form a composite beam (Figure P3. the water pressure is −70 kPa and a measured tensile stress parallel to this surface is 30 kPa. and d = 2 in. and d. and τx y .21 .20 a 3. What is the value of M for E b = 15 × 106 psi. as required.13 3. (b) The principal stresses.ugu2155X_ch03. in terms of Eb .

22.24 The stresses acting uniformly at the edges of a thin skewed plate are shown in Figure P3. (b) The magnitude and orientation of principal stresses. Calculate the change in length of (a) The edge AB. and BC = 60 mm.3. 3. (b) The diagonal AC. Determine (a) The stress components σx . Sketch the results on properly oriented elements. 4 3. σ y . AB = 40 mm. AB = 2 in. Calculate the stress components on planes parallel and perpendicular to a-a.26 The stresses acting uniformly at the edges of a wall panel of a ﬂight structure are depicted in Figure P3.25 For the thin skewed plate shown in Figure P3.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 144 144 PART I FUNDAMENTALS 3. Given: E = 200 GPa. ν = 0. determine the change in length of the diagonal BD.22 The stress acting uniformly over the sides of a skewed plate is shown in Figure P3.22 60° D 50 MPa C 50 MPa 3.22. Determine (a) The stress components on a plane parallel to a-a. Given: E = 30 × 106 psi.24 3. .24.26. 10 ksi B C 20 ksi D 30° A Figure P3. and BC = 3 in. (b) The maximum principal stresses and their orientations.23 A thin skewed plate is depicted in Figure P3. ν = 1 ..ugu2155X_ch03. Sketch the results on properly oriented elements. Sketch the results on a properly oriented element. a B 35° a A Figure P3. and τx y .24.

Given: The vessel and its contents weigh 84 lb per ft of length.27). Given: E = 210 GPa. calculate the change in the diagonals AC and BD. (b) The maximum shear stress.27. Determine (a) The normal and shear stresses on planes parallel and perpendicular to a-a. is simply sup8 ported by two cradles as depicted in Figure P3.29 .29. ν = 0. (b) The maximum shear stress. AB = 50 mm.28 For the plate shown in Figure P3.3. and the contents exert a uniform internal pressure of p = 6 psi on the vessel.26 3. 3.27 3. Sketch the results on properly oriented elements. 5 ft A B C 15 ft 3 ft Figure P3. (a) The principal stresses. Calculate. and BC = 75 mm.ugu2155X_ch03.27 A rectangular plate is subjected to uniformly distributed stresses acting along its edges (Figure P3.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 145 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 145 100 MPa 45° a 50° a Figure P3. at points A and C on the surface of the vessel.29 A cylindrical pressure vessel of diameter d = 3 ft and wall thickness t = 1 in. y 40 MPa B a 25 MPa D x C 50 MPa a A 40° Figure P3.

3. Determine the principal stresses and maximum shear stress at point A.32 A 40-mm wide × 120-mm deep bracket supports a load of P = 30 kN (Figure P3. Show the results on a properly oriented element.ugu2155X_ch03.29.31 Weld 3.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 146 146 PART I FUNDAMENTALS 3. 2 in.30 Redo Problem 3. Given: E = 70 GPa and ν = 0. 3. and γx y = 350µ. What is the largest torque T that may be applied to the pipe? Given: Allowable tensile stress in the weld.31. as shown in Figure P3. 10 mm A 0.2 m P 3.33 A pipe of 120-mm outside diameter and 10-mm thickness is constructed with a helical weld making an angle of 45◦ with the longitudinal axis. considering point B on the surface of the vessel.12 m 40 mm 3 4 Figure P3.32 0. ε y = 800µ.31 Calculate and sketch the normal stress acting perpendicular and shear stress acting parallel to the helical weld of the hollow cylinder loaded as depicted in Figure P3.25 m 0. εz = 0. Figure P3.34 The strains at a point on a loaded shell has components εx = 500µ.33.33 T 3. . (b) The maximum shear stress at the point. 50° 25 kips 1 in.32). σall = 80 MPa. 120 mm 45° T 10 mm Figure P3. 20 kip in. Determine (a) The principal strains.

x C Figure P3. 3.35 is acted on by a stress distribution.38 The 15-mm thick metal bar is to support an axial tensile load of 25 kN as shown in Figure P3.9 (see Appendix C).37 P 3. (b) Three grid conﬁgurations of typical foil electrical resistance strain gages. What is the allowable value of p? Given: The tank carries an internal pressure of p and an axial compressive load of P = 20π kN. ε y = 600µ. and γx y = 400µ. A 9 16 in. and γx y = −150µ.37). respectively. Design the bar for minimum allowable width h. Assumption: The normal and shear stresses acting simultaneously in the plane of welding are not to exceed 50 and 20 MPa.38 with a factor of safety of n = 1.W Review the website at www. y 15 16 in.36 The strains at a point in a loaded bracket has components εx = 50µ. (b) The change in length of diagonal AC.ugu2155X_ch03.measurementsgroup.35 3.37 A thin-walled cylindrical tank of 500-mm radius and 10-mm wall thickness has a welded seam making an angle of 40◦ with respect to the axial axis (Figure P3. resulting in the uniform strains εx = 200µ. .35 A thin rectangular steel plate shown in Figure P3.com. Determine the principal stresses. 3. Assumption: The bar is made of a relatively brittle metal having Sy = 150 MPa.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 147 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 147 3. Calculate (a) The maximum shear strain. Assumptions: The bracket is made of a steel of E = 210 GPa and ν = 0. Search and identify (a) Websites of three strain gage manufacturers. 40° P Weld Figure P3.3. ε y = 250µ.

42). (b) The maximum contact pressure.40 Two identical 300-mm diameter balls of a rolling mill are pressed together with a force of 500 N. Calculate (a) The half-width a of the contact area. Assumption: Both balls are made of steel of E = 210 GPa and ν = 0. Given: The roller load is F = 200 kN per meter of axial length.3.42 . Assumption: Both roller and ring are made of steel having E = 210 GPa and ν = 0.14 through 3. Sections 3. both 12-mm thick.ugu2155X_ch03.38 h 25 kN 3.5. and respectively 30-mm and 45-mm wide. 3. (c) The maximum principal stresses and shear stress in the center of the contact area.39 Calculate the largest load P that may be carried by a relatively brittle ﬂat bar consisting of two portions. Given: Sy = 210 MPa and a factor of safety of n = 1. Determine (a) The width of contact.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 148 148 PART I FUNDAMENTALS r 25 kN 50 mm Figure P3.3.42 A spherical-faced (mushroom) follower or valve tappet is operated by a cylindrical cam (Figure P3.21a). (b) The value of the maximum contact pressure po. 3. F r2 Tappet r' 2 F r1 Cam w Figure P3. connected by ﬁllets of radius r = 6 mm (see Appendix C). Determine the maximum contact pressure po.18 3.41 A 14-mm diameter cylindrical roller runs on the inside of a ring of inner diameter 90 mm (see Figure 10.

Given: w = 1 4 in.3. for the case in which the follower is ﬂat faced.. F = 600 N. 3.43 Resolve Problem 3.44 3. stresses with respect to an x. Assumptions: Both wheel and rail are made of steel of E = 206 GPa and ν = 0. 8 Assumptions: Both members are made of steel of E = 30 × 106 psi and ν = 0. (c) The octahedral stresses.ugu2155X_ch03. r2 = −5. The factor of safety is based on the yield strength. y.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 149 CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND STRAIN 149 Given: r2 = r2 = 10 in.18 for a double-row ball bearing having r1 = r1 = 5 mm. r2 = −30 mm. y. z coordinate system is 9 0 0 0 12 0 ksi 0 0 −18 .47 The state of stress at a point in a member relative to an x. and Sy = 1500 MPa.46 At a point in a structural member. 3.44 Determine the maximum contact pressure po between a wheel of radius r1 = 500 mm and a rail of crown radius of the head r2 = 350 mm (Figure P3. r1 = 3 in.45 Redo Example 3. Assumptions: The remaining data are unchanged.44). and contact force F = 500 lb. 3. (b) The maximum shear stress. Given: Contact force F = 5 kN.3. Wheel F r1 Railroad rail r2 Figure P3. z coordinate system are −10 0 −8 0 2 0 ksi −8 0 2 Calculate (a) The magnitude and direction of the maximum principal stress.42..2 mm. 3.

the stresses with respect to an x.5 0 0 0 5.82 Determine the normal stress σ and the shear stress τ on a plane whose outer normal is oriented at angles of 40◦ .ugu2155X_ch03. (b) The octahedral stresses. y. y. and 66. 3.26 0 MPa 0 0 −7. . and z axes. z coordinate system are 42. respectively. 60◦ .48 At a critical point in a loaded component.qxd 3/7/03 12:12 PM Page 150 150 PART I FUNDAMENTALS Determine (a) The maximum shear stress.2◦ relative to the x.

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