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3 High power density machines

In the last three decades of the 20th century, the following types of high power density electrical machines have been developed: PM transverse ux motor (TFM); PM brushless disc type motors; PM brushless machines with non-overlapping concentrated coils; motors for refrigeration compressors; motors with cryogenic cooling system.

3.1 Permanent magnet transverse ux motors


The electromagnetic power density of an a.c. machine is proportional to the magnetic (air gap ux density Bg ) and electric (stator line current density A) loadings. At constant armature current and diameter, the line current density A of a TFM increases with the number of poles [68]. As it is known, the higher the frequency, the higher the power density of an electrical machine. Since the number of pole pairs is large (p = 24 to 144 and sometimes more), the TFM is an excellent machine for direct conversion of high input frequency into low speed or vice versa. Recent interest in TFMs is due to larger shear stresses p = Bg A than in classical longitudinal ux motors. The TFM can be designed as a single sided (Fig. 3.1a) or double sided machine (Fig. 3.1b). Single-sided machines are easier to manufacture and have better prospects for practical applications. TFMs have a simple winding consisting of one ringshaped coil per phase. A computer generated image of a single phase unit of a TFM with inner stator and outer rotor is shown in Fig. 3.2. A single coil winding is embraced by U shaped ferromagnetic cores. The rotor consists of large number of PMs. In the case of surface conguration of PMs, the number of PMs per phase is equal to the number of poles 2p. The magnetic ux in perpendicular (transverse) to

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3 High power density machines

(a)
2 7 3

i
N S N N S `

(b)
7

3 4 1

N S N N s
2 i
`

6 1

Fig. 3.1. PM transverse ux motor (spread at): (a) single sided, (b) double sided. 1 PM, 2 stator core, 3 stator winding, 4 stator current, 5 rotor yoke, 6 mild steel poles shoes, 7 magnetic ux.

the armature current and direction of the electromagnetic torque. Polyphase motors are assembled of single-phase modules (Fig. 3.3). Fig. 3.4 shows a three-phase, single sided TFM rated at 7.5 kW and 600 rpm. The machine is naturally air cooled without any fan. The number of pole pairs p = 18, the air gap is 1 mm and the average air gap diameter is 207 mm. A double sided, 150 kW, water-cooled TFM for hybrid buses is shown in Fig. 3.5. The maximum speed is 2400 rpm, rated torque 1800 Nm, breakdown torque 2750 Nm and power density 0.8 kW/kg. The water cooling system is located in aluminum parts below the winding. There are two stators: inner and outer stator. The drum-shaped rotor with PMs rotates between the poles of outer and inner stator.

3.1 Permanent magnet transverse ux motors

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(a)

(b)

Fig. 3.2. Computer generated image of a single-phase TFM with p = 24: (a) stator; (b) magnetic eld excited by rotor PMs. Authors simulation.

(a)

(b)

Fig. 3.3. Three phase TFMs: (a) with inner stator; (b) with outer stator.

TFMs have several advantages over standard PM brushless motors, i.e., [68], i.e., (a) better utilization of active materials than in standard (longitudinal ux) PM brushless motors for the same cooling system, i.e., higher torque density or higher power density;

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3 High power density machines

(a)

(b)

Fig. 3.4. Three-phase TFM with inner stator and outer rotor: (a) stator; (b) rotor [71].

Fig. 3.5. Double-sided 150-kW TFM for hybrid buses. 1 PM, 2 rotor lamination pack, 3 coil, 4 soft ferromagnetic element, 5 stator pack of laminations, 6 soft ferromagnetic yoke, 7 resolver. Courtesy of Voith Turbo GmbH , Heidenheim, Germany.

3.1 Permanent magnet transverse ux motors

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Fig. 3.6. Double-sided disc type PM brushless servo motor with the stator ferromagnetic core and built-in brake. Photo courtesy of Mavilor Motors S.A., Barcelona, Spain.

(b) less winding and ferromagnetic core materials for the same torque; (c) simple stator winding consisting of a single ring-shaped coil (cost eective stator winding, no end connection); (d) unity winding factor (product of distribution and pitch factor); (e) the more the poles, the higher the torque density, higher power factor and less the torque ripple; (f) a three phase motor can be built of three (or multiples of three) identical single-phase units; (g) a three phase TFM can be fed from a standard three phase inverter for PMBMs using a standard encoder; (h) motor fed with higher than utility frequency can operate with low speed, and low speed generator can deliver high frequency output current. Although the stator winding is simple, the motor consists of a large number of pole pairs (p 24). There is a double saliency (on the stator and rotor) and each salient pole has a separate transverse ux magnetic circuit. Careful attention must be given to the following problems: (a) to avoid a large number of components, it is necessary to use radial laminations (perpendicular to the magnetic ux paths in some portions of the magnetic circuit), sintered powders or hybrid magnetic circuits (laminations and sintered powders); (b) the motor external diameter is smaller in the so-called reversed design, i.e., with external PM rotor and internal stator (Fig. 3.3a);

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3 High power density machines

(a)

(b)

Fig. 3.7. MonoSpaceT M elevator: (a) elevator propulsion EcoDiscTM motor. Courtesy of Kone, Hyvinkaa, Finland.

system;

(b)

(c) the TFM uses more PM material than an equivalent standard PM brushless motor; (d) the power factor decreases as the load increases and special measures must be taken to improve the power factor; (e) as each stator pole faces the rotor pole and the number of stator and rotor pole pairs is the same, special measures must be taken to minimize the cogging torque.

3.2 Permanent magnet disc type motors


Disc type PMBMs have at stator and rotor systems in which magnetic ux lines cross the air gap in axial direction (Fig. 3.6). Disc type PMBMs are suitable for electrical vehicles, because they can easily be integrated with wheels or other components of the electromechanical drive system [74]. Low-speed disc type PMBMs are also well suited to gearless elevators, e.g., EcoDiscTM , Kone, Hyvinkaa, Finland (Fig. 3.7)[77]. At present time, the highest power density for a 750 kW, 3600 rpm disc type PMBMs with liquid cooling system exceeds 2.2 kW/kg (DRS, Parsippany, NJ, U.S.A.) [74].

3.3 Permanent magnet motors with concentrated non-overlapping coils

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The highest eciencytomass ratio can be achieved with totally iron free disc type PMBMs described in Section 5.5, provided that PMs are arranged in the so-called Halbach array (Section 2.5.3).

3.3 Permanent magnet motors with concentrated non-overlapping coils


A compact power train of an EV can be designed at minimum costs if a PMBM is designed with concentrated non-overlapping coils. The stator winding coil span is equal to one tooth pitch instead of one pole pitch (Fig. 3.8). Such a winding is similar to the salient pole winding. Owing to very short end connections, the winding losses are reduced, resulting in the increased motor eciency as compared with a standard PMBM [68, 74].

18
17
16

3
4

S
N

S
15

S
13

12

8
11

10

Fig. 3.8. PM brushless machine with concentrated stator coils (stator winding with one slot coil pitch). The stator core is divided into one tooth pitch segments.

The number of armature coils is Nc and the number of poles is 2p in a three phase machine must meet the condition Nc /GCD(Nc , 2p) = 3k, where GCD is the greatest common divider of Nc and 2p and k is an integer [200]. For example, the following number of coils and poles can be designed: Nc = 9, 2p = 6; Nc = 12, 2p = 8, Nc = 18, 2p = 12, etc. The distribution factor of a single layer non-overlapping winding is always unity, while the pitch factor is aected by the circumferential thickness of the coil [74].

6
N

14

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3 High power density machines

Fig. 3.9. Two-pole, 65 MW, 3600 rpm synchronous motor for LNG plant compressor [102]. Photo courtesy of Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany.
100 90 80 70 rated power, MW 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 rated speed, rpm 2-pole solid steel rotors 4-pole laminated rotors

Fig. 3.10. Theoretical limit curves for rating two-pole and four-pole synchronous motors for compressor drives according to Siemens AG [102].

3.4 Motors for refrigeration compressors


Refrigeration turbo compressors in modern liqueed natural gas (LNG) plants are traditionally driven by industrial heavy duty gas turbines. With an ongoing industry trend towards larger power train sizes, higher energy eciency and lower greenhouse gas emissions, the use of very large electric motors to

3.5 Induction motors with cryogenic cooling system

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drive the compressors becomes of increasing interest [102]. Gas turbines have the following inherent limitations as compared to equivalent electric motors [102]: high thermal and mechanical stresses, which result in lifetime reductions and frequent service requirements of certain components; very tight clearances and tolerances between stationary and rotating parts and consequently complexity and sensitivity of turbines; relatively poor eciency and high greenhouse gas emissions; no self-starting and acceleration of loaded compressor capability; reduced power output at high ambient temperatures; poor eciency at partial load; available only as type-tested standardized products with given output ratings and limited speed range; limited number of vendors. Variable speed drives (VSD) with large-power electric motors of equivalent rating do not have the above drawbacks. Siemens has built and load-tested refrigeration compressor VSDs rated at 32 to 80 MW and 3600 rpm for LNG plants since 2003 [102]. Fig. 3.9 shows a two-pole cylindrical rotor synchronous motor with brushless exciters for propulsion of a refrigeration compressor. Totally enclosed horizontal water-air cooled (TEWAC) motors are typically used for compressor applications. In some cases, if no cooling water is available on site, totally enclosed air-air cooled motors can be used [102]. Fig. 3.10 shows theoretical limit curves for rating two-pole compressor drive synchronous motors [102]. Installation and operating costs of electric motor VSDs are signicantly lower than those of gas turbines. Electric motor drives require very little maintenance and can operate with no power reduction at elevated temperatures.

3.5 Induction motors with cryogenic cooling system


Over the years, various methods of transferring LNG from ship to tank storage or transfer directly from ship into a regasication or send-out system have been studied [163]. Application of a submerged electric motor pumps (SEMP) for these types of services is technically and economically justied. For LNG pumps, submerged IMs with cryogenic cooling system rated up to 2.3 MW are used (Fig. 3.11). The temperature of LNG used as a cooling medium is 112K = 1610 C. The starting current required is approximately 6.5 times the full load current [163]. It is dicult to reduce this value because of the amount of torque required for starting a cryogenic motor. The rotor, stator core and windings are immersed in LNG. Therefore, the motor is cooled very eectively. Its characteristic feature is large current density at rated load [104]. Active parts (ferromagnetic core and windings) have mass about two times smaller than an

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LNG

LNG

LNG

LNG

Fig. 3.11. Submerged cage IM with pump. 1 pump, 2 shaft, 3 rotor, 4 stator [104].

equivalent classical motor of the same rating. To minimize the starting current, soft starters, autotransformers and solid state VFDs can be used with SEMPs. See also Figs 8.22, 8.23 and 8.24.