MCR3U

Exam Review
Math Study Guide U.1: Rational Expressions, Exponents, Factoring, Inequalities

1

Power of a product Power of a quotient Zero as an exponent Negative exponents 1.2 Rational Exponents Negative Rational Exponents Rational = Fraction Radical = Root 1.3 Solving Exponential Equations e.g. Solve for x. 9 x 2  8 ! 73 Add 8 to both sides. 9 x 2 ! 73  8 9 x 2 ! 9 2
Simplify.

(xy)a = xaya
an ¨a¸ © ¹ ! n ,b { 0 b ªbº 0 a !1 a m !
m
n

so rewrite them as powers using the same base.initial amount Factoring Review Factoring Polynomials To expand means to write a product of polynomials as a sum or a difference of terms.a ! a m n mv n 1 . t ¨ 1¸h Decay: AL ! A0 © ¹ ª2º A0 .a { 0 am a n ! n am ! n a apower/root = am/n (alphabetical!) x-m/n = 1/xm/n =1/ n¥xm x2 ! 2 x ! 22 x!4 9 x 2 ! 81 Note LS and RS are powers of 9. Don¶t forget to check your solution! Exponential Growth and Decay Population growth and radioactive decay can be modelled using exponential functions. Expanding . To factor means to write a sum or a difference of terms as a product of polynomials. Factoring is the inverse operation of expanding.

2 x  3 .

1 Exponent Rules Rule Product Quotient Power of a power Description a m v a n ! a mn a z a n ! a n Example 4 2 v 45 ! 4 7 54 z 5 2 ! 5 2 (2 x 3)2 = 22 x 32 35 ¨3¸ © ¹ ! 5 4 ª4º 0 7 !1 9 2 ! m 4 5 .3 x  7 ! 6 x 2  5 x  21 Factoring Product of polynomials Sum or difference of terms     1.

3 ! 3 2 4 8 1 92 .

27 3 ! 3 27 4 ! .

equate the exponents. Solve for x. LS ! 9 x 2  8 RS ! 73 ! 9 4 2  8 ! 81  8 ! 73 ! RS x ! 4 checks t ± time elapsed A L . 27 3 4 (25/4)-3/2= (4/25)3/2 = (43/2)/(253/2) = ¥43/¥253 =8/125 When the bases are the same.amount Left h ± half-life .

factor each B :1  6x  9x2  4 y 2 A : 4 mx  ny  4 nx  my ! 4 mx  4 nx  ny  my ! 4 x . e. Group 4mx ± 4nx and ny ± my. Factor. Factor. 2 Each term is divisible by 7 m n .MCR3U Exam Review 2 Types of factoring: Common Factors: factors that are common among each term.g.g. 35m3n 3  21m 2 n 2  56m 2 n ! 7m 2 n 5mn 2  3n  8 Factor by grouping: group terms to help in the factoring process. e.

m  n  y .

n  m group Recall n ± m = ±(m ± n) .

1+6x+9x2 is a perfect square trinomial ! 4 x .

m  n  y .

m  n Common factor ! .

4 x  y .

g. The degree of the polynomial is determined by the value of the highest exponent of the variable in the polynomial. Factor. ! 4(25 x 2  20 xy  4 y 2 ) ! 4(5 x  2 y )(5 x  2 y ) 2 Difference of squares a  b 2 ! ( a  b)( a  b) e. then it is called linear. A polynomial with 2 terms is called a binomial.4 +.g. 9 x 2  4 y 2 ! (3 x  2 y )(3 x  2 y ) 1. If the degree is 2. 3 x 2  9 . 7 x . if the degree is 0.g. If the degree is 3. For polynomials with one variable. Factor.g. . X. 3x 2  7 x  9 . We can add and subtract polynomials by collecting like terms. : 3 x 2  7 xy  6 y 2 A : y 2  9 y  14 Product = 14 = 2(7) ¡ ! 3x 2  9 xy  2 xy  6 y 2 ! y 2  7 y  2 y  14 Sum = 9 = 2 + 7 ! 3x ( x  3 y )  2 y ( x  3 y ) ! y ( y  7 )  2( y  7 ) ! (3 x  2 y )( x  3 y ) ! ( y  2)( y  7) Sometimes polynomials can be factored using special patterns. A polynomial with 3 terms is called a trinomial. That is. If the degree is 1. Perfect square trinomial a 2  2 ab  b 2 ! ( a  b )(a  b ) or a 2  2 ab  b 2 ! ( a  b)(a  b) e. A polynomial with 1 term is called a monomial. Polynomials A polynomial is an algebraic expression with real coefficients and non-negative integer exponents.g. e. you multiply each term by ±1. Factor by grouping. then it is called a constant. e. then it is called quadratic. then it is called cubic. The negative in front of the brackets applies to every term inside the brackets. Factor. Simplify. degree is 2. Find two numbers that multiply to ac and add to b. 3x 2  7 x  9 . e.m  n Difference of squares ! (1  3x )2  4 y 2 ! [(1  3 x)  2 y ][(1  3x )  2 y ] ! (1  3x  2 y )(1  3x  2 y ) Factoring ax 2  bx  c Find the product of ac. .. A : 4 p 2  12 p  9 : 100 x 2  80 xy  16 y 2 ! (2 p  3) 2 ¢ Product = 3(±6) = ±18 = ±9(2) Sum = ± 7 = ±9 + 2 Decompose middle term ±7xy into ±9xy + 2xy.

MCR3U Exam Review 3 .

5x 4  x 2  2  x 4  2 x3  3x 2  5 4 2 4 3 2 .

e. . multiply each term in the first polynomial by each term in the second. ! 5 x  x  2  x  2 x  3x  5 ! 5 x 4  x 4  2 x 3  x 2  3x 2  2  5 ! 4x4  2x3  4x2  3 To multiply polynomials. Expand and simplify.g.

x 2  4 x2  2 x  3 .

6 Multiplying and Dividing Rational Expressions e. ¤ ¥ 1. x2  7x x2  3x  2 A: 2 v 2 x  1 x  14 x  49 x ( x  7) ( x  1)( x  2) Factor.5 Rational Expressions For polynomials F and G. m 3 (m  3)(m  3) (m  3)(m  3) m 3 . ( x  1) ¦ . ( x  3)( x  3) ( x  4)( x  1) ! v Simplify.8 Adding and Subtracting Rational Expressions Note that after addition or subtraction it may be possible to factor the numerator and simplify the expression further. 1. s 1. x 4. Simplify and state the restrictions.7 and 1. ( x  1)( x  7) : x2  9 x2  4x  3 z 2 x2  5x  4 x  5x  4 ( x  3)( x  3) ( x  1)( x  3) Factor. ( x  3)( x  3) ( x  4)( x  1) Invert and multiply. State the restrictions. a rational expression is formed when e. Simplify and state the restrictions. G { 0. (m  3)(m  3) Factor the numerator and denominator. G 3x  7 21x  14 x  9 Simplifying Rational Expressions e.g.g. Always reduce the answer to lowest terms. m 3 ! m3 ! £ Simplify. ! x 4  2 x 3  3 x 2  4 x 2  8 x  12 ! x 4  2 x 3  7 x 2  8 x  12 1.  7 State restrictions. 3 State restrictions. ! v ( x  4)( x  1) ( x  1)( x  3) Note any new restrictions. m2  9 ! 2 m  6m  9 (m  3)( m  3) Note the restrictions. x { s1. ( x  4)( x  1) ( x  1)( x  3) ( x  3) ! . ! z ( x  4)( x  1) ( x  4)( x  1) Note restrictions. ! v Note restrictions. 2 F . ( x  1)( x  1) ( x  7 )( x  7 ) x ( x  2) ! . ( x  1)( x  1) ( x  7 )( x  7 ) x ( x  7) ( x  1)( x  2) ! v Simplify.g.

x { 0.g. x { s2 State restrictions. 29 . 3 5 Factor.MCR3U Exam Review 4 e. y { 0 State restrictions. Simplify and state the restrictions. 4x > 20 is an inequality of the first degree.  3 5 Same order. and a is called the radicand. is called the radical sign. 2y 3x ( x  2)( x  2) ( x  2)( x  2) using LCD. xy ( x  y ) 5x  7 ! . Answer = x > 4 Figure 1 Note: On a number line. a. 3 8 is a radical of order 3. then: EX. 5 7 Different order Different radicands 5. Like radicals: 5. y . 2 Unlike radicals: 3. 2 Simplify if possible. n is the index of the radical. ( x  2)( x  2) 1. like radicands Mixed radicals: 4 2 . which is often called a linear inequality. 2 y  3x ( x  2)( x  2) ! .2: Quadratics and Radicals 2. Recall that: y the same number can be subtracted from both sides of an inequality y the same number can be added to both sides of an inequality y both sides of an inequality can be multiplied (or divided) by the same positive number y if an inequality is multiplied (or divided) by the same negative number.  A: 2 Note restrictions. 16 . Subtract.g.g. x 4 x2 B: 2  Simplify if possible.9 Linear inequalities are also called first degree inequalities E. Factor. Write all terms x( x  y ) y ( x  y ) 3 5( x  2) Write all terms !  using LCD. 3 is said to be a radical of order 2. 2 5. 3 Entire radicals: 8 . a closed dot means including the end point and an opened dot means excluding the end point U. !  Find LCD. !  xy ( x  y ) xy ( x  y ) 3  5 x  10 ! Add. 3 5.4 Radicals n e. 2 3 Note restrictions. x  xy xy  y 3 5 !  2 3 ( x  2)( x  2) x  2 Find LCD.

a 1 ! Not simplest form 5 The index of a radical must be as small as possible. a u 0.MCR3U A radical in simplest form meets the following conditions: For a radical of order n. the radicand has no factor that is the nth power of an integer.g. b u 0 . 4 1 a 1 a v a a a a2 a a Simplest form 32 ! ! 3 32 ! ! ! Simplest form Addition and Subtraction of Radicals To add or subtract radicals. 2 12  5 27  3 40 ! 2 4 v 3  5 Expresseach4 v 10 in simplest form. Simplify. you add or subtract the coefficients of each radical. 3 3 2 ! v 2 2 2 ! ! ! 6 22 6 22 6 2 Simplest form Exam Review The radicand contains no factors with negative exponents. e. The radicand contains no fractions. 9 v 3 3 radical ! 2 2 3  5 3 3  3 2 10 8 ! 4v 2 ! 22 v 2 !2 2 ! 4 3  15 3  6 10 ! 11 3  6 10 Multiplying Radicals a v b ! ab .

.

.

Collect like radicals. e. Simplify.g. Add and subtract. 2 2 3 2 3 3 ! .

.

.

2 2  .

2 3 3  .

2 3 2  .

2 3 3 3 .

.

.

.

! 2  3 6  2 6  6.

3 ! 2  18  3 6  2 6 ! 16  6 Use the distributive property to expand Multiply coefficients together. Express in simplest form. Multiply radicands together. Conjugates . Collect like terms.

a Opposite signs b  c d and a b  c d are called conjugates. Same terms Same terms .

Find the product. e. When conjugates are multiplied the result is a rational expression (no radicals). .g.

5  3 2 5  3 2 ! .

5  .

2 .

3 ! 5  9( 2) ! 5  18 ! 13 2 2 .

k ) . a u 0. 2 2 f ( x) ! 2 x 2  12 x  7 Factor the coefficient of x form the terms with x and x. maximum When a " 0 the parabola opens up. Vertex Form: f ( x ) ! a ( x  h) 2  k a<0 The vertex is ( h. f ( x) ! ax 2  bx  c . The maximum or minimum value is k. Complete the square to change the standard form to vertex form.g.MCR3U Exam Review Dividing Radicals e. b u 0 b 4 a>0 2. a .2 and 2. The y-intercept is c. 2 -5 -2 -4 5 . 2 10  3 30 2 10 3 30 !  5 5 5 6 a ! b a . minimum ! 2 2 3 6 is a parabola. e. The axis of symmetry is y = h. b  R .g.3 10 30 !2 3 Quadratic Functions 5 5 The graph of the quadratic function. Standard Form: f ( x ) ! ax 2  bx  c Factored Form: f ( x ) ! a ( x  p)( x  q ) The zeroes are x ! p and x ! q . Simplify. When a 0 the parabola opens down.

f ( x) ! 2.

x f ( x) ! 2.

Standard form: e.  9) . x!4 evaluate f ( 4) . f ( x) ! 2( x  3) 2  2(9)  7 f ( x) ! 2( x  3) 2  25 Maximum and Minimum Values Simplify. Because a is positive ( a ! 1 ). Square this number. g ( x) ! 2 x ( x  5) x ! 0. f ( 4) ! ( 4  1)(4  7 ) f ( 4) ! 3( 3) f ( 4) !  9 The vertex is ( 4.5.5) ! 2( 2.5) ! 22. x f ( x) ! 2 x 2  6 x  7 2 2 Divide the coefficient of x by 2. To find the y-coordinate of the vertex. g ( x) ! 2 x 2  10 x is a vertical translation of f ( x) ! 2 x 2  10 x  10 with y-intercept of 0. zeroes.5 x ! 2.g. Factor the perfect square trinomial inside the brackets. x! 2 The x-coordinate of the vertex is 4. Factored form: e. To find the ycoordinate for f(x) simply evaluate f(x) using The y-coordinate of vertex f ( 2. Determine the maximum or minimum value of f ( x) ! ( x  1)( x  7) . The minimum value is ±9. Add and subtract it. 2  6x  3  3  7  6 x  32  2(32 )  7 2 Bring the last term inside the bracket outside the brackets.5)  10 coordinates for the vertex. is 22.g. It is a maximum . Both 2 f (x ) and g (x ) will have the same xf ( 2. maximum/minimum value is k.5 is the x-coordinate of vertex. The axis of symmetry passes through the vertex. Determine the maximum or minimum value of f ( x) ! 2 x 2  10 x  10 without completing the square. The zeroes are x ! 1 and x ! 7 . then find the axis of symmetry. 2 Factor g ( x) ! 2 x  10 x to determine 05 x! ! 2. The zeroes of f (x ) are equidistant from the axis of symmetry.  5 are the zeroes.5) 2  10( 2.5 the same x-coordinate. 1 7 The axis of symmetry is x = 4. the graph opens up. Vertex form.

( 4. Zeroes To determine the number of zeroes of a quadratic function consider the form of the function. y  R} 4 2 a table x y 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 3 C: y ! x  5 What value of x will make x ± 5 = 0? x = 5 The radicand cannot be less than zero. Looking at the graph we A: {(1. 3. If a and k have the same sign there are no zeroes (0 roots). 1. Range = {2. 8} Domain = R Range = { y | y u 0. ( 4. y ! s x is not a function because for every value of x there are two values of y.MCR3U Exam Review 7 because the graph opens down.1 Functions A relation is a set of any ordered pairs. then the relation is a function. 8)} function notation f ( x) ! x 2  3x The domain of a relation is the set of possible input values (x values). 2).g. so Domain = {x | x u 5. y ! x  7 and y ! x 2  15 are examples of functions. f ( x) ! a( x  p ) Standard form: Check discriminant. The zero is x = p. The zeroes are x ! p and x ! q . ax 2  bx  c ! 0 use x !  b s b 2  4ac to solve for x. To determine the zeroes of from the standard form use the quadratic formula. x  R} Range = { y y u 0. For . y  R} A function is a special type of relation in which no two ordered pairs have the same x value. The range is the set of possible output values (y values). If D ! 0 there is 1 zero. 4} below 0. If a vertical line can be passed along the entire length of the graph and it never touches more than one point at a time. so this relation fails the vertical . 8)} B: can see that y does not go Domain = {0. A: 4 This passes the vertical B: 4 2 2 The line passes through more than one point.g. Relations can be described using: an equation a graph 2 y ! 3x  7 2 in words ³output is three more than input´ -2 a set of ordered pairs {(1. 2a U. 2 zeroes. If k = 0 there is one zero (1 root). 2). Thus. 3). The vertical line test is used to determine if a graph of a relation is a function. ( 0. Vertex form: If a and k have opposite signs there are 2 zeroes (2 roots). Factored form: f ( x ) ! a ( x  p)( x  q ) 2 1 zero. e. If D " 0 there are 2 zeroes. 3). State the domain and range. D ! b 2  4ac If D 0 there are no zeroes.3: Functions 3. ( 0. e.

before you graph the reciprocal. moves up. You could sketch the graph of f ( x) ! x 2  4 x to see where the function increases and decreases. f ( x) You may find it helpful to sketch the graph of y ! f (x) first. The vertical asymptotes will be at x = 0. its an illegal operation). and if it is negative <0. is defined as . As f (x ) decreases.g. and x = 4. moves left *Note: this doesn¶t stretch. For f ( x ) 0 . To help you graph y ! f ( x) f use the following: 1 The vertical asymptotes of y ! will occur where f ( x) ! 0 f ( x) 1 1 As f (x ) increases. f . in -f(x). you should The reciprocal function of a function. f ( x ) ! x( x  4) . increases. The zeroes are x = 0. f ( x) f ( x) 1 The graph of y ! always passes through the points where f ( x) ! 1 or f ( x ) ! 1 . Same with f(-x) except for y axis. the function y = 1/x is not defined when x = 0 (rmr restrictions? Denominator can never = 0. y ! x  4x x  4x 2 Look at the function f ( x) ! x  4 x . And for -f(-x). ** invariant points = points that are unaltered by a transformation.3 TRANSLATIONS OF FUNCTIONS Vertical asymptotes Vertical: y = f(x) + k if k is positive >0. any points that already lie on the x axis will be UNAFFECTED.2 More Function Notes ** = asymptote = a line that a curve approaches more and more closely. Use the information above to help you sketch the reciprocal.MCR3U Exam Review 8 3. can trick you!). 0. when it reflects on the x axis. where f ( x ) ! 1 or ±1. For f ( x) " 0 . only translates! -4 . 1 y! 4 2 2 5 -2 -4 4 2 x2  4 x 5 -2 3. i. The line x=0 is a ~ of the graph y =1/x. if negative.e. 1 e. and x = 4. decreases. f ( x) f ( x) 1 1 " 0 . only the origin (0. moves down Horizontal: y = f(x-h) if h is positive >0.0) will be unaffected Reciprocal functions 1 1 . Therefore the graph for this is said to be discontinuous at x = 0. moves right (WATCH THE NEGATIVE SIGN IN FRONT OF THE H THOUGH. Factor it. Sketch the graph of y ! 2 .

5 Evaluate 3 f ( 2)  1 Evaluate f (3) .g. if ( a. a)  f 1 . then (b. replace all x¶s with 2.MCR3U Exam Review 9 3. Reflect the graph in the line y = x. Sketch the graph of the inverse of the given function y ! f (x ) . f . 4 4 4 y ! f 1 ( x ) 2 2 2 Draw the line y = x.y)) *=A function and its reflection are still the same shape: still CONGRUENT 3. maps each output of the original relation back onto the corresponding input value. x! Solve for y. Evaluate. Given f ( x) ! .5 Inverse Functions The inverse. Using f ( x) . of a relation. Evaluate. and the range of the inverse is the domain of the function. b)  f .4 REFLECTIONS OF FUNCTIONS Y = -f(x) the negative in front of the function causes a reflection in the x axis (becomes (x. -2 -2 y ! f (x ) -2 -4 -4 -4 . The graph of y ! f 1 ( x) is the reflection of the graph y ! f (x ) in the line y ! x . f 1 . 3x 1 e.  9 1 f (3) ! 5  10 f (3) ! 5 f (3) ! 2 f (3) ! Determine f 1 ( x) . f 1 ( x ) do so. 3(3)  1 Replace all 5 x¶s with ±3.g. The domain of the inverse is the range of the function. 1 @ f 1 ( x) ! 5x  1 3 e. That is. 3x  1 y! 3x  1 Rewrite f (x ) as y ! 5 5 3 y 1 Interchange x and y. 5 5x ! 3 y  1 3 y ! 5x  1 y! 5x  1 3 « 3(2)  1» 1 3 f (2)  1 ! 3¬ ­ 5 ¼ ½ « 6  1» ! 3¬ 1 ­ 5 ¼ ½ ¨5¸ ! 3© ¹  1 ª5º ! 3(1)  1 3 f ( 2)  1 ! 4 Evaluate f 1 ( 2) f 1 ( x ) ! 5x  1 3 5( 2)  1 f 1 ( 2) ! 3 10  1 ! 3 11 f 1 ( 2) ! 3 If you have not already determined You want to find the value of the expression 3 f ( 2)  1 .-y)) Y = f(-x) the negative in side of the function in front of the x causes a reflection in the y axis (becomes (-x. You are not solving for f ( 2) .

If k k < 0 then the graph is also reflected in the y-axis. as well.MCR3U Exam Review 10 The inverse of a function is not necessarily going to be a function. the inverse will only be a function if we restrict the domain to {x x u 0. The graph y ! f (x) is stretched horizontally by a factor of . 4 q ± determines the vertical translation. p ± determines the horizontal translation. If q > 0 the graph shifts up by q units. The graph y ! f (x) is stretched vertically by a factor of a. If a < 0 then the graph is reflected in the x-axis. you may have to restrict the domain or range of the original function. For the example above.7 Transformations of Functions To graph y ! af [ k ( x  p )]  q from the graph y ! f (x) consider: a ± determines the vertical stretch. When applying transformations to a graph the stretches and reflections should be applied before any translations. x  R} . 3. 1 k ± determines the horizontal stretch. x  R} or { x x e 0. If p > 0 the graph shifts to the right by p units. If q < 0 then the graph shifts down by q units. If you would like the inverse to also be a function. If p < 0 then the graph shifts left by p units. 2 -2 -4 .

y ! 3 f . The graph of y ! f (x) is transformed into y ! 3 f ( 2 x  4) .MCR3U Exam Review 11 e. factor inside the brackets to determine the values of k and p. First.g. Describe the transformations.

2.

p ! 2 There is a vertical stretch of 3.g. 1 A horizontal stretch of .x  2 a ! 3. e. k ! 2. Given the graph of y ! f (x ) sketch the graph of y ! 2 f . 2 The graph will be shifted 2 units to the right.

 .

2 y ! f (x ) -2 -2 -4 -4 4 4 Shift to the right by 2.x  2  1 4 4 Stretch vertically by a factor of 2. 2 Reflect in y-axis. Shift up by 1. 2 2 -2 -2 This is the graph of y ! 2 f .

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4: Trig 4. -4 -4 .x  2  1 U.1 Trigonometry Given a right angle triangle we can use the following ratios Primary Trigonometric Ratios H O A O sin U ! cos U ! tan U ! O H H A Reciprocal Trigonometric Ratios U r 1 x 1 r 1 A cscU ! ! cot U ! ! sec U ! ! y sin U y tan U x cos U Angles of Depression/Elevation he angle of elevation of an object as seen by an observer is the angle between the horizontal and the line from the object to the observer's eye (the line of sight).

The r variable represents the distance from the origin. The x and y variables are the values of the x and y coordinates. All functions will be positive in this region. When negative or obtuse angles are used in trigonometric functions. the line r is in the A quadrant.3 Trigonometry of Oblique Triangles Sine Law C a B b A c .2 For angles that are obtuse (angle is greater than 90°) or negative. they will sometimes produce negative values. The CAST graph to the left will help you to remember the signs of trigonometric functions for different angles. we use the following trigonometric ratios. then the angle between the horizontal and the observer's line of sight is called the angle of depression. This value can be found using the Pythagorean theorem. All other functions will be negative. NOTE: Math teachers expect you not to use rounded values if you don¶t have to IN A TRIG RATIO 4. For example. The functions will be negative in all quadrants except those that indicate that the function is positive.y). When the angle is between 90° and 180° (pi/2 and pi radians). respectively.MCR3U Exam Review 12 If the object is below the level of the observer. the line is in the S quadrant. *CAST 4. to the point (x. When the angle is between 0° and 90° (0 and pi/2 radians). This means that only the sine function is positive.

To convert a measurement from radians to degrees (or vice versa) we use the following relationship: This relationship gives the following two equations: Note: By convention.4 C When you know sides and any contained angle it is considered the ambiguous case. Examples: .MCR3U Exam Review 13 a b c ! ! sin A sin B sin C When you know 2 angles and a side OR 2 sides and an angle OPPOSITE one of these sides Cosine Law a 2 ! b 2  c 2  2bc cos A cosA = (and etc. for b and c) When you know all 3 sides OR 2 sides and any contained angle AMBIGUOUS CASE! 4. most angles are expressed in radian measure. unless otherwise stated.1 Angles can be expressed in degrees or radians. Angle Conditions # of b a Triangles b sinA 0 ’A 90 Q a b sin A a ! b sin A 1 A B C a " b sin A 2 0 a ’A " 90 Q a e b b 1 a"b A B    **height of a triangle = bsinA 5.

MCR3U Exam Review 14 Arc Length The arc length formula defines the relationship between arc length a. pi/4 and pi/6. . The arc length formula does not hold for angles measured in degrees. These triangles can be constructed quite easily and provide a simple way of remembering the trigonometric ratios. 5. Use the conversion relationship above to convert your angles from degrees to radians. we can find the exact trigonometric ratios for angles of pi/3. radius r and the angle (in radians).2 Special Triangles II) I) Using the "special" triangles above. Note: Make sure that your angles are measured in radians. The table below lists some of the more common angles (in both radians and degrees) and their exact trigonometric ratios.

In quadarnt two sin is positive therefore we get: U. The amplitude is the magnitude of the vertical distance from the axis of the curve to the . The equation is max value  min value y! . Step #4: Use the CAST principal to determine if the trigonometric ratio should be positive or negative. 2 The period is the length of the cycle. Trig Functions and trig identities 5. The axis of the curve is a horizontal line that is midway between the maximum and minimum values of the graph.MCR3U Exam Review 15 Step #1: Draw the given angle in standard position. The cycle is the smallest complete repeating pattern.3 Periodic Functions A periodic function has a repeating pattern.5: Periodic Functions. Step #3: Use the 60 degree special triangle to calculate the sin 120. Step #2: Find the reference angle.

6 Transformations of Trigonometric Functions Transformations apply to trig functions as they do to any other function. 1 The value of k determines the horizontal stretch.5 Period = 360Û Amplitude = 1 Zeroes = 0Û. The value of a determines the vertical stretch. known as the phase shift. The graph is stretched by a factor of . It also tells whether the curve is reflected in the U -axis.g. k > 0. 180Û. The value of d determines the vertical translation. The graphs of y ! a sin k (U  b)  d and y ! a cos k (U  b )  d are transformations of the graphs y ! sin U and y ! cos U respectively. 270Û« -1 5. e.5 y ! cos U 300 350 50 -0. k > 0. 360Û« -5 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 -1 1 y ! cos U 0. The period of y ! sin kU or y ! cos kU is k k The value of b determines the horizontal translation.g. y ! cos U .5 y ! sin U 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 5 -0. y ! sin U y ! tan U 1 0. 180Û. The equation is Sin Cos Tan Graphs Trigonometric Functions The graphs of y ! sin U . and y ! tan U are shown below. 360Q 180Q . 270Û« y ! tan U Period = 180Û Zeroes = 0Û. e. 1 y ! sin . 360Û« Vertical asymptotes = 90Û. y ! d is the equation of the axis of the curve. called the amplitude. We can use k this value to determine the period of the transformation of y ! sin U or y ! cos U . The period of y ! tan kU is .5 100 150 200 250 Period = 360Û Amplitude = 1 Zeroes = 90Û.MCR3U Exam Review a! max value  min value 2 16 maximum or minimum value.

 45Q U y ! cos 2U  1 2 2 g.

x = cos.

5 0. 5 -1 f.0.2 ™x +1 1 1.0.5 0.5 10 0 15 0 20 0 25 0 30 0 35 0 40 0 .5 50 10 0 15 0 20 0 25 0 30 0 50 .

x = cos .

x -1 5.7 Trigonometric Identities Pythagorean Identity: sin 2 U  cos 2 U ! 1 OR sin 2 U ! 1  cos 2 U § § 1 g.

x = 0 .5 ™si .

x+45 35 0 40 0 f.

x = si .

x .

and cosecant.g. two of the solutions to the problem are and U. ! cos 2 U ! RS Since LS=RS then sin 2 U  2 cos 2 U  1 ! cos 2 U is true for all values of U . Ex.MCR3U Exam Review 17 sin 2 U sin U 2 tan U ! Quotient Identity: tan U ! cos U OR cos 2 U Also cscU = 1/sinU secU = 1/cosU cotU = 1/tanU e. like x = cos x. secant. simplify or split terms up. 1. tn = 1-2n is the same as f(n) = 1-2n 6. tangent. since 16 is the first number in the list. Sequences can have a certain "rule" by which terms progress. S ! sin 2 U  2 cos 2 U  1 ¨ ! sin 2 U  cos 2 U  cos 2 U  1 ! 1  cos 2 U  1 Look for the quotient or Pythagorean identities.16« a sequence of the perfect squares starting from 1. but they can also be completely random.72 is a sequence. 33«.2. The is also equal to Therefore.8 Trig Equations A trigonometric equation is one that involves one or more of the six functions sine. You may need to factor.3 Geometric sequences also start with any number a (though usually a is nonzero here). An example of such a sequence would be 5. When you are done. 7 is the second. can be solved only numerically. sin 2 U  2 cos 2 U  1 ! cos 2 U Work with each side separately. etc.1 A sequence is a list of numbers that has a certain order.4. For example. 16. 5. Prove the identity. The sine function is positive in quadrants I and II. 12. cotangent. Some trigonometric equations.888. 19.we multiply a . Decreasing arithmetic sequences have . 26. but this time we are not adding an extra d value each time.0.6: Sequences and the Binomial Theorem 6. where and .e.7. and in which every term can be written as tn .9. where d is any number. write a concluding statement. This is an increasing arithmetic sequence.2 Arithmetic sequences are sequences that start with any number a. But a great many can be solved in closed form. and this page shows you how to do it in five steps. t1 = term 1 t2 = term 2 and so on tn = nth term or the general term *Sequences can also appear as functions i. as the terms are increasing. 6. cosine.

Thus. the starting value for a1. like this: Then you get the next row of numbers by adding the pairs of numbers from above.4« then my series would be 1. if my sequence is 1. and that the terms counted up from zero to n. 6.6. when r is positive and the terms are moving in one direction.1+2. A recursive formula always has two parts: 1. the recursion equation for an as a function of an-1 (the term before it. depending on n.) Recursive formula: Same recursive formula: 6. or 1. .) Keep going.3. (Where there is only one number above..4 Recursion is the process of choosing a starting term and repeatedly applying the same process to each term to arrive at the following term.. you just carry down the 1. For example. The numbers in the row will be your coefficients The powers on each term in the expansion always added up to whatever n was.. always adding pairs of numbers from the previous row.. Geometric sequences can either be monotonic.3. Recursion requires that you know the value of the term immediately before the term you are trying to find.1+2+3. Arithmetic Series Formula: 6.10«. the term is tn . you start with a pyramid of three 1's.6 Geometric Series Formula: Binomial Theorem Pascal's Triangle".MCR3U Exam Review 18 by a factor of r.. the power of the binomial is the row that you want to look at.5 A series is a sequence of numbers that represent partial sums for another sequence. To make the triangle. 2. where and the terms alternate between positive and negative values.2. or alternating.

180 e. 3 60 6 10 2 3 2 5 e. Expand (x2 + 3)6 Exam Review 19 (1)(x12)(1) + (6)(x10)(3) + (15)(x8)(9) + (20)(x6)(27) + (15)(x4)(81) + (6)(x2)(243) + (1)(1)(729) *Coefficients are from P¶s Triangle = x12 + 18x10 + 135x8 + 540x6 + 1215x4 + 1458x2 + 729 Prime Factorization Factor a number into its prime factors using the tree diagram method.g. Evaluate.g.MCR3U Ex. 180 ! 2 2 32 .

Simplify.5 e. 2 .g.

.

.

3 0 3 2 2 ! .

© f. Power of a product. Evaluate brackets first.1  9 ! 10 2 1 ! 2 10 1 ! 100 Follow the order of operations. ¨ b3 ¸ © 3 ¹ © 2a ¹ ª º 2 ! ! b 3(  2 ) ( 2 a 3 ) 2 Power of a quotient. x  R . y ! a x or f ( x ) ! a x . Transformations apply to exponential functions the same way they do to all other functions. the exponential function is defined by the equation. a " 0. b6 2 2 a 3 ( 2 ) 22 b6 ! a6 4 ! 6 6 ab Exponential Functions In general.

x = 2x 6 f.

+3 6 4 4 2 2 Compound Interest Calculating the future amount: A ! P (1  i ) n Calculating the present amount: P ! A(1  i )  n A ± future amount P ± present (initial) amount i ± interest rate per conversion period n ± number of conversion periods .x = 2x.