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(Code No. 086) Science plays a role in developing in children well-defined abilities in cognitive, affective and Psychomotor domains, It augments the spirit of enquiry, creativity, objectivity and aesthetic sensibility. A judicious combination of various methods of teaching may be adopted by the teacher in keeping with instructional objectives of a given chapter. The teacher may make effective use of a variety of teaching-learning materials in print and audio visual forms. He/she may gradually develop a resource base of teaching-learning materials by developing innovative demonstrations, scanning available software and surfing through internet. Objectives : The broad objectives of teaching of science and technology secondary stage are to help the learner to : • • • • • • • • • • • Understand the nature of science and technology; Understand the basic concepts, principles and laws of science; apply basic scientific principles in finding solutions to problems related to agriculture, energy, health, nutrition, etc. develop problem-solving and decision making skills; inclulcate values that underline science and technology; develop and understand various processes of environment and concern for its conservation and preservation. understand and appreciate the joint enterprise of science, technology society. develop rich and satisfying views of the universe; develop and attitude which would equip them to continue science and technology education throughout life: acquire process skills which form part of the attitude for developing a scientific temper; develop certain manipulative skills which are required in day-to-day situation.
Class X (THEORY) Time : Three Hours One Paper Unit I. II. III. IV. V. VI. Chemical Reactions and Some Important Chemical compounds Energy Life Processes Natural Resources Our Environment Exploring Space Total 17 17 14 03 03 60 Marks 06 Marks : 60
Syllabus for First Term Unit 1 – Chapter 1 Unit II Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Unit III Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chemical Reaction and some important Chemical Compound Rate of chemical reaction and chemical equilibrium
Energy Light : Reflection and Refraction Optical instrument Electricity, its heating and chemical effect.
Life Processes Nutrition and Respiration Transportation and Excretion. Control and Co-ordination
Unit IV – Natural Resources Chapter 14 Metals and Non-Metals
Syllabus for Second Term Unit 1 – Chemical Reaction and Some Important Chemical Compound. Chapter 2 Some important chemical compounds.
Unit II – Energy Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Magnetic effects of Electric Current. Sources of Energy Nuclear fission and fusion
Unit III – Life Processes Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Reproduction Heredity and Evoluation
Unit IV – Natural Resources Chapter 15 Carbon Compound
Unit V – Our Environment Chapter 16 Environment and Environmental Problem.
Unit VI – The Universe Chapter 17 The Universe
Marks 40 (20+20) A separate course on Practical exercises has been designed so as to help children include laboratory skills. Efforts have been make to include practical exercises from each theme to the maximum extent possible. It is envisaged that every student will carry out at least 15 exercises in one academic session. LIST OF EXPERIMENTS 1. To find the pH of the following samples by using pH paper/universal indicator. i) Dilute Hydrochloric acid ii) Dilute NaOH solution.
iii) Dilute Ethanoc acid solution. iv) Lemon juice v) Water vi) Dilute Sodium Bicarbonate Solution. 2. To Study the properties of acids and bases (Dil, HCl & Dil, NaOH) by their reaction with i) Litmus solution (Blue/Red) ii) Zinc metal iii) Solid Sodium Carbonate 3. To determine the focal length of i) Concave mirror ii) Convex lens by obtaining the image of distant object. 4. To trace the path of a ray of light passing through a rectangular glass slab different angles of incidence. Measure the angle of incidence, angle of refraction, angle of emergence and interpret the result. 5. To study the dependence of current (I) on the potential difference (V) across a resistor and determine its resistance. Also plot a graph between V and I. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. To determine the equivalent resistance of two resistors when connected in series. To determine the equivalent resistance of two resistors when connected in parallel. To prepare a temporary mount of a leaf peel to show stomata To prepare a temporary mount of a leaf peel to show stomata. To show experimentally that light is necessary for photosynthesis. To show experimentally that carbon dioxide is given out during respiration. To study(a) binary fission in Amoeba and (b) budding in yeast with the help of prepared slides. To determine the percentage of water absorbed by raisins. To prepare SO2 gas, observe its following properties and draw inferences in respect of i) odour
ii) solubility in water iii) effect on litmus paper iv) action on acidified potassium dichromate solution. 14. a) To observe the action of Zn, Fe, Cu and Al metals on following salt solutions. i) ZnSO4(aq) ii) FeSO4(aq.) iii) Cu SO4(aq.) iv) Al2(SO4)3(aq.) b) Arrange Zn, Fe, Cu and Al metals in the decresing order of reactivity based on the above result. 15. To study the following properties of acetic acid (ethanoic acid) : i) Odour ii) solubility in water iii) effect on litmus iv) reaction with sodium bicarbonate SCHEME OF EVALUATION: External Examination (to be conducted by the Board through written test) School-based evaluation 20 Marks 20 Marks
Class X-2006-2007 (Physics)
Month April Week 3-8 April No. of Period 2 Period Topic L-3 LIGHT : Nature of light, reflection of light - laws of reflection plane & curved 10-15 April 17-22 April 24-29 April 1-7 July 2 Period 3 Period 2 Period 3 Period surfaces. Mirror- Plane, concave and convex, Sign convention (Without Derivation) mirror formula,
Practical on reflection of light. Magnification, Practical reflection of light REFRACTION OF LIGHT : Laws of refraction, Refraction through a rectangular slab. Image formation by concave and convex lens, Lens formula (without derivation) Sign conventions, power of lens Some optical phenomenon in nature (Twinkling of stars, Mirage) Defects of vision and their correction. Dispersion of white light by a glass prism, composition of white light, colour of objects and pigment, superposition of light of primary colours. Practical on refraction of light. L-4 OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS : (construction and working of compound and simple micropscope. construction and working astronomical telescope). L-5 ELECTRICITY AND ITS EFFECTS : Potential and potential difference, electric charges Electric current, ohm’s law, resistance and resistivity, Practical on Electricity Combination of resistance in series and parallel, heating effect of electric current and its applications
7-12 August 14-19 August
2 Period 2 Period
Power, commercial unit of electrical energy
28-31 August 3 Period September 1-2 Sept. 4-9 Sept. 11-16 Sept. 18-22 Sept. 23-02 Sept. 3-6 October 2 Period 3 Period — — 2 Period
CHEMICAL EFFECTS OF CURRENT : Electrolysis, faraday’s laws of electrolysis (excluding equation) Electroplating Electro-chemical cells
Practical Revision for Ist Term Examination Ist Term Examination AUTUMN BREAK L-6 MAGNETIC EFFECT OF CURRENT : Magnetic field due to current carrying conductor straight coil, solenoid. Electromagnetic induction, electric motor and generator (D.C) DC and AC (qualitative idea) Domestic electric circuits, safety measures in using Electricity L-7 SOURCES OF ENERGY : Renewable and nonrenewable sources, solar energy (Solar cooker, solar water heater, solar cell) Wind energy, Hydro energy (Tidal, ocean) Hydro energy (thermal, hydro electricity) Geothermal energy, wood, Biogass Hydrogen and Alcohol. Fossil fuels (Coal, petroleum, natural gas) condition (combustion of fuels, Ideal fuel, ignition temperature calorific value of fuels
16-20 October 23-28 October
2 Period 2 Period
30-31 October 1-4 Nov. 6-10 Nov.
2 Period 2 Period
L-8 NUCLEAR FUSION AND FISSION : chain reaction, nuclear reactor (basic Principle and safety measures) advantages and hazards of using nuclear energy, Judicious use of energy L-17 THE UNIVERSE
SPACE : (Solar system Planets, asteroids, comets, and meteors, Earth evolution and structure, star, constellation), Night sky, milky way, galaxy, structure of universe and 27-30 Nov. 2 Period its theories. Space exploration artificial satellites (A in brief history),
Elementary idea about SLV, Types of communication, weather monitoring, remote sensing, space December 01-08 Dec. 13-24 Dec. — — programme in India (an overview) Revision IInd Term Examination
Class X-2006-2007 (Chemistry)
Month April Week 3-8 April No. of Period 2 Period Topic L-1 “Rate of chemical Reaction and chemical Equilibrium” SUBTOPICS : Elementary idea of rate of reaction, slow and fast reaction, average and instantaneous reaction rate reversible and irreversible reactions. 10-15 April 2 Period Factors affecting rate of reaction, chemical Equilibrium (dynamic nature only) Law of chemical equilibrium. 17-22 April 3 Period Acids and bases, dissociation of electrolyte Practical Reaction between Zn and HCL (Conc) for exothermic and endothermic reactions. 24-28 April 2 Period P.H. Scale and numericals based on P.H. Scale PRACTICAL : To find the PH of given samples July 1-8 July 3 Period L-14 “ Metals and Nonmetals” SUBTOPICS : Metals and strategic metals, Physical and chemical Properties of metals, activity series of metals PRACTICAL : To arrange the given metal according to their reactivity. 10-15 July 2 Period Minerals, ores, steps of metallurgy, Refining of iron
Refining of aluminium from its ore (bauxite) Alloys, components, properties, and uses of steel, stainless steel, brass, magnelium, Alloying of gold
properties) Prep, Prop of Hydrogen.. August 1 -5 August 2 Period L-14 “ Metals and Non Metals” Manufacture of ammonia (reactions only) its properties and uses. 7-12 August 2 Period Sulphur, occurence and extraction by Frasch process. properties of sulphur (allotropy and effect of heat) 14-19 August 21-26 August 1 Period 3 Period PRACTICAL : refining of impure Cu. Properties and uses of SO2 manufacture of
Prop of H2SO4, uses of H2SO4
28-30 August 2 Period September 1-2 Sep.
PRACTICAL : To prepare SO2 in laboratory and study its properties. Some important topics of the lesson to be revised again. L-15 “ Carbon compounds” Various formula. functional groups and their
4 –9 Sep. 11-16 Sep. 18 –22 Sep. 23 Sep-2 Oct.
2 Period 3 Period — —
Name of compounds with given functional groups Revision for Ist Terminal Examination FIRST TERMINAL EXAMINATION AUTUMN BREAK
L-15 “Carbon Compounds” Compounds with functional groups containing O2. Prep, Properties and uses of ethanol C2H5OH
9 –13 October
Fermentation and its impotance, Aldehydes and Ketones, PRACTICAL : To study physical, chemical. properties of CH3COOH
Prep., Properties and uses of methanal (HCHO) and propanone
Carboxylic acid, Prep, properties and uses of ethanoic acid, esterification
1 -4 Nov.
Soaps and synthetic detergents and their cleaning action 6 –10 Nov. 2 Period Revision of important chemical reaction of L-15 eg. fermentation, esterification, saponification 13-18 Nov. 3 Period L-2 “ Some important chemical
compounds,” soda, baking soda 20-25 Nov. 1 Period
(outline only) Prop and uses of washing
Prep, property and uses of bleaching Powder, Plaster of Paris
Manufacture and Prop of building materialLime, cement, glass, steel.
01-08 Dec. 13-24 Dec.
Revision IInd Term Examination
Class X-2006-2007 (Biology)
Month April Week 3-8 April No of Period 2 Period Topic L-9 “ Nutrition and Respiration” SUBTOPICS : Modes of nutrition (autotrophic, heterotropic Saprophytic, Holozoic and parasitic 10-15 April 2 Period Nutrition in plants, photosynthesis and factors affecting photo synthesis. Nutrition amoeba (Phagocytosis) 17-22 April 2 Period Nutrition in grasshopper, Human digestive system. 24-28 April 2 Period Breathing and respiration, aerobic and anaerobic respiration. exchange of gases in plants through roots, stem, leaves (stomata) July 1-8 July 2 period L-9 “ Nutrition and Respiration” Respiration through skin (earthworm), gills (Fish), air tube (insects) human respiratory system & mechanism of respiration PRACTICAL : To show that CO2 is 10-15 July 2 Period
evolved during respiration. L-10 “ Transportation and Excretion” SUBTOPICS : Transportation of water, minerals and foods in plants. Composition of blood and its function, blood clotting, blood groups, blood transfusion.
system, excretion in humans, amoeba and 24-29 July August 1 -5 August 3 Period 2 Period Excretion in humans, osmoregulation. Renal failure and technology for survival (i.e dialysis ) PRACTICAL plants. 7-12 August 2 Period L-11 “ Control and Co-ordination” Control and Co-ordination in plants by phytoharmones nervous system in hydra PRACTICAL : To show that CO2 is necessary for photosynthesis 14-19 August 2 Period Nervous system in insects, Nervous : To show transpiration in
systems of human beings. 21-26 August 2 Period Structure of human brain, control centres brain Reflex action and reflex arc, Harmones 2 Period secreted by endocrine glands. PRACTICAL : Absorption of water by Rasin L-12 “ Reproduction 4-9 Sept. 2 Period SUBTOPICS : Types of reproductionasexual and sexual, asexual reproduction by fisssion, budding, regeneration Revision for first terminal Examination 11-16 Sept. 3 Period
28-31 August September 1-2 Sept.
18-22 Sept. 23 Sep-2 Oct. 3-7 October
FIRST TERMINAL EXAMINATION AUTUMN BREAK Vegetative propagation in plants by cutting, layering, grafting, parthanogenesis, sexual repro. in plants, pollination fertilization PRACTICAL : Studying binary fission and budding from slides
9 –14 October
Human reproductive system, sexual cycles in human (females) fertilisation of egg & sperms, population control.
transmitted diseases with special reference to AIDS and general awareness. PRACTICAL To show that O2 is released during photosynthesis. L-13 “ Heredity and Evolution” Subtopics- Heredity and variation, Physical basis of heredity. 30-31 October 1 -4 Nov. Chromosomes, genes, D.N.A. Structure of D.N.A. (Elementary idea only) genetic engineering, sex determination, organic evolution. Homologous & Vestigial organs 6 –11 Nov. 2 Period L-16 “ Our environment” SUBTOPICS : control of air Causes prevention and pollution, soil erosion,
Ways of controlling air pollution, water pollution PRACTICAL : To show presence of stomata by preparing slides of leaves
Harmful effects of water pollution, and ways of checking it. Biodegradable & non biodegradable development. materials, sustainable
environment, efforts for conservation and protection of environment.
01-08 Dec. 13-24 Dec.
Revision IInd Term Examination