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Growth of Transgenic Crops
Growth of Transgenic Crops
Percent GE crops
40 All GE Corn Varieties 20 All GE Cotton Varieties All GE Soybean Varieties 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Impact of 6 GMO Trait and Crop Combinations
still working out terms of trade re GMO ---Randall Fortenbery. a big customer for US soybeans.Soybeans are different • Non-GMO soybeans are getting to be hard to find • Europe buys its Soybean from Brazil which SAYS it is a non-GMO producer • Much of Brazil’s Soybean production is GMO in reality • China. UW-Madison Ag Econ 5 .
In crops. called “Bt” – Bt specific for corn borers – Bt specific for rootworms • Herbicide resistant genes – Resistance to the herbicide “Roundup” – Resistance to the herbicide “Liberty” 6 . two main kinds of genes have been commercialized • Insect resistance genes.
Growth of Transgenic Crops by Trait 7 .
The genetic manipulation of herbicide resistance 8 .
weeds can – prevent establishment of a good crop stand – compete with the crop for: • water and nutrients in the soil • sunlight limiting the photosynthetic activity of the crop. Without control. – harbor pathogens in some circumstances 9 .Weed Weed control is essential to modern crop production practices.
use of fossil fuel. compaction of soil and soil erosion • using physical barriers – use of black plastic mulch in vegetable production – shredded bark or wood chips in lanscape applications • currently there is interest in developing cover crops.How can weeds be controlled in crops? • by cultivation and tillage – this has a number of disadvantages including being labor intensive. 10 .
Herbicides are now the most widely used • Herbicides are undoubtedly very effective • They do not require large amounts of labor for application • They are quite cost effective 11 .
Herbicides function • interfere with various pathways of amino acid biosynthesis • disrupt photosynthesis • interfere with lipid biosynthesis • block synthesis of carotenoid pigments • affect cell division • interact with other metabolic pathways 12 .
What makes a "good" herbicide? • must have herbicidal activity. kill plants • compound must be readily taken up by the plant • chemistry to synthesize the compound must be adaptable to large scale production at an economic cost • the compound must have low toxicity to non-targets. applicators and other organisms 13 . including farmers.
preemergent herbicides block processes essential to seed germination or early seedling development. – Broad spectrum herbicides are effective on essentially anything that is green. – In a cropping system. herbicides must be selective.Herbicides can be classified in a number of ways • When they are effective – Before the weeds emerge from the soil. – After weeds have emerged. having a minimal effect on the crop plant while controlling the majority of the weeds. post-emergent herbicides can affect many metabolic processes that are essential to plant growth. • What plants are killed by the herbicide. 14 .
Herbicide-resistant crops 15 .
16 . get across the cuticle and absorbed into cells 2. The herbicide must be transported throughout the plant (not necessary for 'contact' herbicides) 3. The herbicide must remain in its active form in the plant 4. The herbicide must be taken up by the plant. The herbicide must finally inhibit the metabolic target within the plant cells.What the herbicide must do in order to be effective? 1.
Herbicide-resistant plants • • Herbicides are generally non-selective (killing both weeds and crop plants) and must be applied before the crop plants germinate Four potential ways to engineer herbicide resistant plants Inhibit uptake of the herbicide Overproduce the herbicide-sensitive target protein Reduce the ability of the herbicide-sensitive target to bind to the herbicide Give plants the ability to inactivate the herbicide 17 1) 2) 3) 4) .
as little as one day – Higher cost 18 . Liberty) that controls most weeds without damage to the crop.Herbicide Tolerant Crops • Herbicide tolerant crops can be treated with a nonselective herbicide (e.g. • Conventional weed control requires: – Two or more herbicides – Narrow application window. Roundup.
Growth of Herbicide Tolerant Traits 19 .
The Roundup Ready Story • Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide • Active ingredient in Roundup herbicide • Kills all plants it come in contact with • Inhibits a key enzyme (EPSP synthase) in an amino acid pathway • Plants die because they lack the key amino acids • A resistant EPSP synthase gene allows crops to survive spraying 20 .
Roundup Sensitive Plants Shikimic acid + Phosphoenol pyruvate + Glyphosate Plant EPSP synthase X 3-Enolpyruvyl shikimic acid-5-phosphate (EPSP) Without amino acids. plant dies X X X Aromatic amino acids 21 .
where it is metabolized by soil microorganisms • the enzyme that is inhibited by glyphosate is not present in animals .Why glyphosate is such an effective and relatively safe herbicide? • all plants (and microbes) possess this enzyme and pathway to synthesize aromatic amino acids. • glyphosate is not metabolised very quickly by plants. 22 . therefore all plants are susceptible to glyphosate.animals do not have a shikimate pathway but obtain aromatic amino acids in their diet. • glyphosate is quickly immobilized in soil.
• "How come these organisms are now able to survive this herbicide?". 23 . all (or nearly all) plants are killed by this herbicide. • one approach is to identify or select organisms with increased resistance to glyphosate.How could we make glyphosate resistant plants? • as glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide.
What is the reason for their resistance? • They produce more of the target enzyme. 24 . The enzyme is still inhibited by glyphosate. EPSP synthase. but producing more of the enzyme allows the plant cells to still make amino acids in the presence of glyphosate.
CaMV 35S promoter).How can we make plants that produce more EPSP synthase? • isolate an EPSP synthase gene from a plant (petunia) • modify the promoter to give higher level of expression (use the 35S promoter from cauliflower mosaic virus. and then more EPSP synthase. • produce transgenic plants containing this modified EPSP synthase gene • analyze glyphosate resistance of transgenic plants 25 . A highly active promoter will result in more mRNA for EPSP synthase.
such as using the CaMV 35S promoter • produce transgenic plants that express this gene • study their tolerance to glyphosate 26 .How can we make plants that produce more EPSP synthase? • isolate the mutant EPSP synthase gene from Salmonella • replace the bacterial promoter with regulatory elements that would give high level expression in transgenic plants.
27 . the level of tolerance was not sufficient for this glyphosate resistance gene to be used in crops.How can we make plants that produce more EPSP synthase? • Both of the approaches outlined above were successful in that the transgenic plants were more tolerant of glyphosate than the untransformed plants • However.
Features • high level of expression of a plant EPSP synthase • an enzyme that was insensitive to glyphosate. like the bacterial EPSP synthase • correct targeting of this protein to the chloroplast 28 .
in this case a modified form of the CaMV 35S promoter 29 . a strain of Agrobacterium (CP4) was identified that contained a suitable EPSP synthase. to target the protein to the chloroplast – a highly expressed promoter that is expressed in essentially all cells. The gene was cloned and sequenced. From this a chimeric gene was assembled from the following components: – the open reading frame for EPSP synthase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain CP4 – the coding sequence for a chloroplast transit peptide.The last approach In screening through bacterial collections.
Roundup Resistant Plants Shikimic acid + Phosphoenol pyruvate + Glyphosate Bacterial EPSP synthase RoundUp has no effect. enzyme is resistant to herbicide 3-enolpyruvyl shikimic acid-5-phosphate (EPSP) With amino acids. plant lives Aromatic amino acids 30 .
Market penetration of Roundup Ready in US Soybeans 31 .
Because this enzymatic reaction utilizes ammonia. • This is another broad spectrum herbicide. 32 . when the pathway is blocked by the herbicide it results in the accumulation of ammonia to toxic levels that kill the plant.Resistance to Glufosinate • This herbicide blocks this synthesis of glutamine.
primarily by altering the promoter • plants were then transformed with this gene by a variety of methods • transformed plants were evaluated for tolerance to glufosinate 34 .Strategy • the gene encoding this detoxifying enzyme was cloned • the gene was modified so that it would be expressed in plants.
Benefits and Advantages of Herbicide Tolerant Crops • • • • • • • • Increased yields Reduced input costs Improved net returns Reduced herbicide use and environmental impact Performance – excellent weed control Simplicity – single product Rotation crop flexibility Fewer weather and timing problems 35 .
• Garst is planning to introduce corn with multiple herbicide resistances.• Approximately 100 seed companies are in the process of developing. • Canola varieties with resistance to Roundup. 36 . Liberty or imidazolinones were introduced in Canada in 1997. but the technology will be licensed to other seed companies for release the following year. LibertyLink corn. • Liberty-Link soybeans will be available in 1998. This will be available only through Dekalb in 1998. which is resistant to glufosinate. • Asgrow will introduce soybeans with resistance to Roundup and sulfonylureas in 1998. the manufcturer of Liberty. • Roundup Ready corn will be available in 1998. providing some competition for Roundup Ready beans. and in some cases already have marketed. • Roundup Ready cotton was introduced in 1997. This is in collaboration with AgrEvo. to imidazolinones and glufosinate. in the near future.
Biotechnology Research Platforms CRW = corn rootworm.Roundup Ready. LL = Liberty Link. RR. IR = Insect resistant 37 .
38 . such as forestry or golf courses. so there is essentially no room to increase this figure. – 97% of agronomic production acreage is already treated with herbicides. where herbicides are not currently used.Controversies surrounding the development of herbicide tolerant crops HTCs will result in an increase in the acreage that is treated with herbicides by farmers and growers. unless herbicides can be applied in situations.
precautionary strategy that is currently in use 39 . It unlikely that farmers will incur extra costs for the sake of a really clean field. However. – if the HTCs are extremely tolerant. reducing potential profit.Controversies surrounding the development of herbicide tolerant crops HTCs will lead to increased use of herbicides. this development might actually decrease overall herbicide use. safe in the knowledge that his/her transgenic crops are extremely resistant and will not suffer any stress from repeated application of the herbicide. – on the other hand. The farmer could plant without using any pre-emergence herbicide. and take a wait-and-see position to see where and when weeds will grow. each herbicide application is an additional expense. Herbicides might only need to be applied to selected areas rather than throughout the field in the preemptive. the farmer might be encouraged to use herbicides more frequently.
This indicates that there may be a need for greater planning and selection of appropriate crop rotations.a weed is any plant that is growing in the wrong place at the wrong time. there are some special circumstances created here that are worthy of comment. 40 . so you have to find an alternative herbicide just to control the volunteer corn. from the grower's point of view. There is always some carryover of seed from year to year in a field. what happens in the next year when you plant Roundup Ready soybeans? The volunteer corn comes up but cannot be controlled with Roundup. You have all seen "volunteer corn" in a field of soybeans. – It is interesting that this concern has not been raised previously with non-engineered crops. If that corn was Roundup Ready and resistant to glyphosate. However.Controversies surrounding the development of herbicide tolerant crops HTCs will become weeds .
a chemical method to control pests like parasitic weeds. for the first time. but it does depend on how HTCs are accepted. the share of the market they take. – HTCs may allow. or failure to develop alternative techniques. 41 . and the pressures (or lack of them) to move away from pesticide use.Controversies surrounding the development of herbicide tolerant crops HTCs will lead to a reliance on herbicides for weed control and abandonment. it is not the development of HTCs that have led to this situation. There may be problems with a reliance on herbicides for weed control. – this is certainly possible. where at the moment killing the weed would also kill the host.
42 . Correct management of these combinations could also lead to development of methods to reduce the chances that weeds will develop resistance. – however. – this is obviously the hope of Monsanto for glyphosate.Controversies surrounding the development of herbicide tolerant crops There will be increased use of particular herbicides on HTCs. HTCs will also allow new combinations of crops and herbicides to be tested. and similarly for other herbicide companies. by rotating herbicide use.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Department of Agriculture (USDA) regulations.Controversies surrounding the development of herbicide tolerant crops Some HTCs may be developed for herbicides that are regarded as more damaging to the environment. herbicides will still be regulated by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 43 . It is unlikely that herbicides that are more toxic than those currently in use would be developed as a result of HTC developments. and is being pursued for some crops. – while this is certainly possible.
– a possible problem is that weeds that. for whatever reason.Controversies surrounding the development of herbicide tolerant crops HTCs will reduce the level of biological diversity. HTCs might provide new niches for new weeds to fill. – whenever cultural practices are changed. 44 . survive herbicide treatment will have greatly reduced competition and be able to rapidly propagate. without any other plants growing in the field. to produce a field of corn. – after all. there is the potential for new weed species to develop and endure. whatever. soybean. that is the whole point of using herbicides.
If sorghum was developed with resistance to glyphosate. 45 .Controversies surrounding the development of herbicide tolerant crops Herbicide resistance genes will be transferred from HTCs to wild relatives of the crops – potential to develop "superweeds". it is almost certain that the resistance gene would be transferred to the wild shattercane weed. This would lead to shattercane that could no longer be controlled with glyphosate. and the two are quite cross-fertile. This is the same species as sorghum. One of the most widely quoted examples is shattercane.
introduction of any new pesticide. perhaps with more than one application per year. 46 . Almost without exception. will accelerate the development of resistant weeds. or a small number of. Continual use of the same herbicide in the same location.. etc. has eventually led to the development of resistance to that pesticide. herbicide is that this will promote development of herbicide resistance in weed populations. for weeds.Controversies surrounding the development of herbicide tolerant crops HTCs will result in the development of new varieties of herbicide resistant weeds – the most serious threat of increasing use of one. insects.