Every year during monsoon season, we face the menace of mosquitoes which come with its onset.

Monsoons are always welcome as they bring us pleasant relief from the scorching heat of the summer sun but along with they also bring us the mosquitoes which not only suck our blood, but also give us sleepless nights due to constant bites which produce rash and itching and fever. These little impish creatures keep themselves hidden during the day and show their presence at night everywhere. Every year hospitals throughout the country register millions of cases showing signs of fever due to mosquito bite. Mosquito bite may result in fever as they are vectors to various diseases like Dengue, Malaria and chikengunia. Fever may sometimes prove to be fatal as consequent to its out break it takes the shape of an epidemic. Therefore it is very important to protect ourselves from dengue or malaria fever by keeping the mosquitoes away. This can be most effectively done by preventing water to stagnate as this is an appropriate place for them to breed. Water should be removed from articles not in use like our coolers, water tray behind the fridge, flower pots, broken pitchers etc. Ponds and open spaces where water accumulates should be sprinkled with kerosene oil to prevent breeding of mosquitoes. Insecticides and pesticides should be sprayed in house regularly. Insect repellent creams or sprays or mosquito nets are very effective. But sprisingly the clever mosquito creeps in the nets also. It has also been found that mosquitoes have become resistant to any insecticide or repellent. They seem to enjoy the perfume of any killer or the sweet air either of a cooler or fan or AC. The best would be to keep all our body parts covered while sleeping with clothes covering our arms and legs so as to make our exposed skin less prone to mosquito bite, as less visible as possible. The dengue or malaria fever can be effectively averted and restricted if each one of us makes a small effort on our part. Health authorities can use fogging machines to eradicate this menace of mosquitoes. Over head tanks should be covered. Every nook and corner of the house should be kept clean and hygienic surroundings be maintained. Only then we can hope some relief from the increasing mosquito menace.

Mosquito control

Mosquito control manages the population of mosquitoes to reduce their damage to human health, economies, and enjoyment. Mosquito control is a vital public-health practice throughout the world and especially in the tropics because mosquitoes spread many diseases, such as malaria. Mosquito-control operations are targeted against three different problems: 1. Nuisance mosquitoes bother people around homes or in parks and recreational areas; 2. Economically important mosquitoes reduce real estate values, adversely affect tourism and related business interests, or negatively impact livestock orpoultry production; 3. Public health is the focus when mosquitoes are vectors, or transmitters, of infectious disease. Disease organisms transmitted by mosquitoes include West Nile virus, Saint Louis encephalitis virus, Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus, Everglades virus,Highlands J virus, La Crosse Encephalitis virus in the United States; dengue fever, yellow fever, Ilheus virus, malaria and filariasis in the American tropics; Rift

Monitoring larval mosquito populations is done by providing artificial breeding spots (ovitraps) Ovitrap and collecting and counting the developing larvae in fixed intervals. approximate total number of larvae and pupae. an inspector visits a set number of sites every day. this may not be possible[citation needed] in parts of . chikungunya. lactic acid. counting the number of adult female mosquitoes that land on a part of the body. and trapping. black/white contrasts) or chemical attractants that are normally given off by mosquito hosts (e. []Source reduction Since many mosquitoes breed in standing water. For landing rate counts. The mechanical traps use visual cues (light. biocontrol. The habitat. Monitoring larval mosquito populations involves collecting larvae from standing water with a dipper or a turkey baster. pesticide. This is something that homeowners can accomplish. These cues are often used in combination. and by filling or draining puddles. or adulticiding (control of adults) may be used to manage mosquito populations. carbon dioxide. or buckets. For example.g. homeowners can eliminate mosquito breeding grounds by removing unused plastic pools. and tree stumps. []Monitoring mosquito populations Adult mosquito populations may be monitored via landing rate counts.Valley fever. within a given time interval. by regularly changing water inbird baths. such as an arm or both legs. Mechanical traps use a fan to blow adult mosquitoes into a collection bag that is taken back to the laboratory for analysis of catch. old tires. Eliminating such mosquito breeding areas can be an extremely effective and permanent way to reduce mosquito populations without resorting to insecticides. biological-control agents. octenol) to attract adult female mosquitoes. larviciding (control of larvae). Wuchereria bancrofti. source reduction. []General methods Depending on the situation. These techniques are accomplished using habitat modification. or mechanical traps. and Murray Valley encephalitis in Australia. ammonia. source reduction can be as simple as emptying water from containers around the home. and species are noted for each collection. Japanese Encephalitis. swampy areas. malaria and filariasis in Africa and Asia.[1] However. by clearing clogged gutters and repairing leaks around faucets.

There are several types of biological control including the direct introduction of parasites. []Biocontrol Gambusia affinis (Mosquitofish). a natural mosquito predator. Gates in the culverts are used to permit fish. Effective biocontrol agents include predatory fish that feed on mosquito larvae such asmosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) and some cyprinids (carps and minnows) and killifish.the developing world where water cannot be readily replaced due to irregular[citation needed] water supply. Water is pumped into the marsh in the late spring and summer to prevent the female mosquito from laying her eggs on the soil. and early spring. Tilapia will also consume mosquito larvae. pathogens and predators to target mosquitoes. to create a network of water flow within marshes and to connect the marsh to a pond or canal. crustaceans. The network of ditches drains the mosquito habitat and lets in fish which will feed on mosquito larvae. and other marsh organisms to enter and exit the marsh. winter. about 4 feet (1. Simply giving the predators access to the mosquito larvae can result in long-term mosquito control.61 m) deep. Rotational impoundment management (RIM) involves the use of large pumps and culverts with gates to control the water level within an impounded marsh. The marsh is allowed to drain in the fall. Biological control or "biocontrol" is the use of natural enemies to manage mosquito populations. This reduces the need for other control methods such as pesticides.[2] Open-water marsh management is used on both the eastern and western coasts of the United States.[3] . Rotational impoundment management is used to a great extent on the east coast of Florida. Open water marsh management (OWMM) involves the use of shallow ditches.2 m) wide and 2 feet (0. RIM allows the mosquito-control goals to be met while at the same time reducing the need for pesticide use within the marsh. RIM allows mosquito control to occur while still permitting the marsh to function in a state as close to its natural condition as possible.

[7] A chemical commonly used in the United States is methoprene. growth regulators. in order to determine the species composition. which eat adult mosquitoes. BTI is used to interfere in the digestion systems of larvae. which consume mosquito larvae in the breeding waters. Like all animals. lizards and frogs. and biological agents such as fungi. and adult dragonflies. protozoa. mosquitoes have their own set of diseases. and fish.[6] []Larviciding Control of larvae can be accomplished through use of contact poisons. preventing development. which mimics and interferes with natural growth hormones in mosquito larvae. BTI is no longer effective after the larvae turn into pupae. especially Bt israelensis (BTI).[5] Some public agencies also employ other predators such as birds. bacteria.Other predators include dragonfly naiads. Microbial pathogens of mosquitoes include viruses. because they stop eating. but evidence of effectiveness of these agents is only anecdotal. nematodes. surface films. West Nile virus and Encephalitis are spread by mosquitoes and they continue to be a problem in the United States. Invertebrate pathologists study these diseases in the hope that some of them can be utilized for mosquito management. and only then are the best and most effective methods of control utilized. Methoprene is frequently distributed in time-release briquette form in breeding areas. fungi. Integrated pest management (IPM) is the use of the most environmentally appropriate method or combination of methods to control pest populations. and seasonal distribution of adult and larval mosquitoes. . stomach poisons (including bacterial agents). and microsproidia (Davidson 1981. and fungi. Jahn 1986) Also used as biological control agent are the dead spores of varieties of the natural soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Typical mosquito-control programs using IPM first conduct larval and adult surveys. bats. relative abundance.[4]nematodes. Some other biocontrol agents that have had lesser degrees of success include the predator mosquito Toxorhynchites and predator crustaceans³ Mesocyclops copepods. nematodes. copepods. It can be dispersed by hand or dropped by helicopter in large areas. considered slightly toxic to larger animals.

[8] In 1958. especially in tropics due to mutations. these mutations can rapidly spread over vast areas if pesticides are applied indiscriminately (Chevillon et al. there is also genuine disagreement amongst experts about the costs and benefits of using DDT[dubious ² discuss]. and hence malaria. . which claim that the public-health cost of switching to other control methods would exceed the harm caused by using DDT. Generally modern mosquito-control programs in developed countries use low-volume applications of pesticides. the National Malaria Eradication Program implemented the wide-scale use of DDT for mosquito control. The role of DDT in combating mosquitoes has been the subject of considerable controversy. 1999). limited circumstances where it is most effective. although some programs may still use thermal fogging. DDT-resistant mosquitoes have started to increase in numbers. It is accomplished by ground-based applications or via aerial application of chemical pesticides. reducing the effectiveness of this chemical.It is believed by some researchers that the larvae of Anopheles gambiae (important vectors of malaria) can survive for several days on moist mud. and that treatments should therefore include mud and soil several meters from puddles. others argue that DDT is the most effective weapon in combating mosquitoes. Notwithstanding. While some of this disagreement is based on differences in the extent to which disease control is valued as opposed to the value of biodiversity[citation needed]. DDT remains in common use in many developing countries. []Use of DDT Main article: DDT DDT was formerly used throughout the world for large area mosquito control. While some[weasel words] argue that DDT deeply damages biodiversity. such as application to Controversially walls. It is sometimes approved for use only in specific. . but it is now banned in most developed countries. []Adulticiding Control of adult mosquitoes is the most familiar aspect of mosquito control to most of the public.

warmth. the trap draws female mosquitoes toward it. thus generating carbon dioxide. water vapor and sounds." but their effectiveness in any particular case will depend on a number of factors such as the size and species of the mosquito population and the type and location of the breeding habitat. They are useful in specimen collection studies to determine the types of mosquitoes prevalent in an area but are typically far too inefficient to be useful in reducing mosquito populations. A newer approach to killing mosquitoes in a non-toxic way is to use a device that burns propane. The latest approach is the automatic lethal ovitrap which works like a traditional ovitrap but automates all steps needed to provide the breeding spots and to destroy the developing larvae. A traditional approach in control mosquito populations is the use of lethal Ovitrap by providing artificial breeding spots for the mosquitoes but destroying the developing larvae. warmth. trap and kill measurable numbers of mosquitoes. These three elements. and water vapor.[]Other methods A light trap that attracts and captures mosquitos. often coupled with a chemical attractant heated in this process. indeed.[citation needed] Source: http://www. draws the mosquitoes toward the propane flame. where they are then sucked into a net or holder where they collect. The advantage of non-toxic methods of control is they can be used in Conservation Areas. According to the American Mosquito Control Association. Some newer mosquito traps or known mosquito attractants emit a plume of carbon dioxide together with other mosquito attractants such as sugary scents. lactic acid.[9] By mimicking a mammal·s scent and outputs.com/books/children-and-youth/1729898-mosquitomenace/#ixzz1ToCym3sZ .[10] "these devices will. where they are typically sucked into a net or holder by an electric fan where they are collected.shvoong. octenol.

Mosquito A female mosquito Culiseta longiareolata. see Mosquito (disambiguation).Mosquito From Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia For other uses. Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta .

a natural reservoir on a plant. or an artificial water container such as a plastic bucket. Adult females lay their eggs in standing water. pupa. and adult or imago.[6]Mosquitoes resemble crane flies (family Tipulidae) and chironomid flies (family Chironomidae). depending on the species and the ambient temperature. a lake. The adult mosquito emerges from the pupa as it floats at the water surface. 1830 [1] Subfamilies Anophelinae Culicinae Toxorhynchitinae Diversity 41 genera See: List of mosquito genera Mosquito (from the Spanish and Portuguese word for little fly)[2][3][4][5] is a common insect in the family Culicidae (from the Latin culex meaning midge or gnat).Order: Diptera Suborder: Nematocera Infraorder: Culicomorpha Superfamily: Culicoidea Family: Culicidae Meigen. eggs hatch to become larvae. which can be a salt-marsh. a puddle. then pupae. Mosquitoes go through four stages in their life-cycle: egg. Adults live for 4²8 weeks. The first three stages are aquatic and last 5²14 days. larva.[7] . with which they are sometimes confused by the casual observer.

Mosquitoes have mouthparts that are adapted for piercing the skin of plants and animals. In some species of mosquito. and are therefore vectors for a number of infectious diseases affecting millions of people per year. While males typically feed on nectar and plant juices.3 Adult 2 Feeding habits of adults o o 2.[10] Contents [hide] 1 Life cycle o o o 1.3 Repellents 6 Evolution 7 References o 7.2 Egg development and blood digestion 3 Distribution o 3.1 Natural predators 5.1 Larva 1. the female needs to obtain nutrients from a "blood meal" before she can produce eggs.[8][9] Some scientists believe that eradicating mosquitoes would not have serious consequences for any ecosystems.2 Mosquito bites and treatment 5.1 Sources 8 External links []Life cycle .1 Means of dispersal 4 Disease 5 Control o o o 5.500 species of mosquitoes found throughout the world.2 Pupa 1. There are about 3.1 Saliva 2. the females feed on humans.

or through a siphon. bacteria. or instars. or by jerky movements of the entire body. after which they metamorphose into pupae. about 8 mm long []Larva Mosquito larvae have a well-developed head with mouth brushes used for feeding. Larvae develop through four stages. a large thorax with no legs and a segmented abdomen. Larvae breathe through spiracles located on the eighth abdominal segment. []Pupa . and therefore must come to the surface frequently. They dive below the surface only when disturbed. At the end of each instar. the larvae molt. Larvae swim either throughpropulsion with the mouth brushes.Anatomy of a Culex larva Anopheles larva from southern Germany. The larvae spend most of their time feeding on algae. shedding their skin to allow for further growth. and other micro-organisms in the surface microlayer. giving them the common name of "wigglers" or "wrigglers".

The male on the left. as in Anopheles when viewed from the side. The pupa is less active than larva.[citation needed] []Adult Adults of the yellow fever mosquitoAedes aegypti. the pupa rises to the water surface. pupae must come to the surface frequently to breathe. the dorsal surface of the cephalothorax splits and the adult mosquito emerges. which they do through a pair of respiratory trumpets on the cephalothorax.Anatomy of an adult mosquito. The head and thorax are merged into acephalothorax with the abdomen circling around underneath. females on the right. . a typical member of the subfamily Culicinae. After a few days. The pupa is comma-shaped. As with the larvae. and is commonly called a "tumbler". pupae do not feed during this stage. However. Note the bushy antennae and longer palps in the male.

6 in). thorax and abdomen. feeding on nectar and other sources of sugar. the female lays them and resumes host seeking. The antennae are important for detecting host odors as well as odors of breeding sites where females lay eggs.The duration from egg to adult varies among species and is strongly influenced by ambient temperature. Their lifespan depends on temperature. the males form large swarms. the female will rest for a few days while the blood is digested and eggs are developed. After obtaining a full blood meal. but usually take 40 ² 42 days in tropical conditions. during the first phase of growth. The variation of the body size in adult mosquitoes depends on the density of the larval population and food supply within the breeding water. Mosquitoes can develop from egg to adult in as little as five days. and also their ability to successfully obtain a blood meal while avoiding host defenses and predators.[13] New ommatidia are added in semicircular rows at the rear of the eye. but later in development they become hexagonal. The compound eyes are distinctly separated from one another. The head contains the eyes and a pair of long. this leads to individual ommatidia being square. the antennae of the males in comparison to the females are noticeably bushier and contain auditory receptors to detect the characteristic whine of the female. The cycle repeats itself until the female dies.[11] and weight up to 2. The females are the only ones who actually use blood as a meal. Adult mosquitoes usually mate within a few days after emerging from the pupal stage. many-segmented antennae. While females can live longer than a month in captivity. Once the eggs are fully developed. and the females fly into the swarms to mate. In most species. Their larvae only possess a pit-eye ocellus.04 grains). Adult flying mosquitoes frequently rest in a tunnel that they build right below the roots of the grass. most do not live longer than 1²2 weeks in nature. Length of the adult varies but is rarely greater than 16 mm (0. The compound eyes of adults develop in a separate region of the head. but they feed on nectar as well. In all mosquito species. All mosquitoes have slender bodies with three sections: head. Males beat their wings between 450 and 600 times per second[12] The head is specialized for acquiring sensory information and for feeding. The hexagonal pattern will only become visible when the carapace of the . usually around dusk. Males live for about a week. humidity. This process depends on the temperature but usually takes 2²3 days in tropical conditions.5 milligrams (0.

The blood is digested over time serving as a source of protein for the production of eggs. This segmented body part expands considerably when a female takes a blood meal. The preferential victim's sweat simply smells better than others because of the . but the females of many species are also capable of drinking blood from many mammals. The thorax is specialized for locomotion.) As with many members of the mosquito family. The Anopheles mosquito can fly for up to four hours continuously at 1 to 2 kilometres per hour (0.6²1 mph)[14] travelling up to 12 kilometres (7.stage with square eyes is molted. Mosquitoes prefer some people over others. With regard to host location. and two sensory palps. The abdomen is specialized for food digestion and egg development. the female is equipped with an elongated proboscis that she uses to collect blood to feed her eggs.[13] The head also has an elongated. the abdomen of a mosquito can hold three times its own weight in blood[15]. The maxillary palps of the males are longer than their proboscis whereas the females· maxillary palps are much shorter. (This is typical for representatives of subfamilies. which gradually fill the abdomen. []Feeding habits of adults Aedes aegypti vector of dengue feverand yellow fever Both male and female mosquitoes are nectar feeders.5 mi) in a night. but they do need supplemental substances such as proteins and iron to develop eggs. Three pairs of legs and a pair of wings are attached to the thorax. Females do not require blood for their own survival. female mosquitoes hunt their blood host by detecting organic substances such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and 1-octen-3-ol produced from the host and through optical recognition. forwardprojecting "stinger-like" proboscis used for feeding. The insect wing is an outgrowth of the exoskeleton.

During the heat of the day most mosquitoes rest in a cool place and wait for the evenings. although they may still bite if disturbed.[21] This genus includes the largest extant mosquitoes. or olfactory system. First. Mosquitoes of the genus Toxorhynchites never drink blood.proportions of the carbon dioxide. the female mosquito's proboscis would quickly become clogged with blood clots.[16] The powerful semiochemical that triggers the mosquito's keen sense of smell is nonanal.[citation needed] Prior to and during blood feeding.[citation needed] Both male and female are nectar feeders. Of 72 types of odor receptor on its antennae. like Asian tiger mosquito. are known to fly and feed during daytime. they inject saliva into the bodies of their source(s) of blood. [20] Some species. octenol and other compounds that make up body odor.[17] A large part of the mosquito·s sense of smell.[22] []Saliva . These mosquito eaters have been used in the past as mosquito control agents. with varying success. Mosquitoes are adept at infiltration and have been known to find their way into residences via deactivated air conditioning units.[19] Most mosquito species are crepuscular (dawn or dusk) feeders.[18] In Aedes the search for a host takes place in two phases. is devoted to sniffing out blood sources. at least 27 are tuned to detect chemicals found in perspiration. This saliva serves as an anticoagulant: without it. the mosquito exhibits a nonspecific searching behavior until the perception of host stimulants then it follows a targeted approach. the larvae of which prey on the larvae of other mosquitoes.

[23] Universally. mosquitoes have an ability to modulate the immune response of the animals (hosts) they feed on. angiogenesis and immunity and creates inflammation. The mosquito. one anti-platelet. as with all bloodfeeding arthropods. Mosquito saliva also contains enzymes that aid in sugar feeding[24] and antimicrobial agents to control bacterial growth in the sugar meal. while the cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 are unaffected by mosquito saliva. pipiens mosquitoes produce markedly higher levels of IL-4 and IL-10 concurrent with suppressed IFN. The mechanism for mosquito saliva-induced alteration of the host immune response is unclear.production.[23] The presence of this activity in vector saliva is a reflection of the inherent overlapping and interconnected nature of the host hemostatic and inflammatory/immunological responses and the intrinsic need to prevent these host defenses from disrupting successful feeding. aegypti or Cx. from activated mast cells. Early work described a factor in saliva that directly suppresses TNF.[26] One promising application is the development of anti-clotting drugs based on saliva molecules. (1994) demonstrated that the inclusion of Ae. because they are more user-friendly blood clotting inhibitors and capillary dilators. and.[26] Despite the great strides in knowledge of these molecules and their role in bloodfeeding achieved recently.[27] It is now well recognized that the feeding ticks.[29] Cellular proliferation in response to IL-2 is clearly reduced by prior treatment of cells with SGE.[28] Experiments by Cross et al.[29] Correspondingly.release. this shift in cytokine expression is observed in splenocytes up to 10 days after mosquito . scientists still cannot ascribe functions to more than half of the molecules found in arthropod saliva.[25] The composition of mosquito saliva is relatively simple as it usually contains fewer than 20 dominant proteins.production. more recently. platelet aggregation. and one vasodilatory substance. which contains a mixture of secreted proteins. aegypti mosquito saliva into naïve cultures led to a suppression of interleukin (IL)-2 and IFN. but not antigeninduced histamine secretion. blood clotting. which might be useful for approaching heart-related disease. Mosquito saliva negatively affects vascular constriction.In order for the mosquito to obtain a blood meal it must circumvent the vertebrate physiological responses. but the data has become increasingly convincing that such an effect occurs. sandflies. hematophagous arthropod saliva contains at least one anticlotting.[30] Unexpectedly. has mechanisms to effectively block the hemostasis system with their saliva. activated splenocytes isolated from mice fed upon by either Ae.

In the mosquito Anopheles stephensi Liston. and subsequently   / during early mosquito-borne virus infection.[36] as well as other mosquito-transmitted viruses. suggesting that natural feeding of mosquitoes can have a profound.[33] A recent study suggests that mosquito saliva can also decrease expression of interferon type I interferons (IFN) in recovery from infection with viruses has been demonstrated in vivo by the therapeutic and prophylactic effects of administration of IFN-inducers or IFN.[30] T cell populations are decidedly susceptible to the suppressive effect of mosquito saliva. the midgut of the female synthesizes proteolytic enzymes that hydrolyze the blood proteins into free amino acids. enduring. showing enhanced mortality and decreased division rates.[35] and recent research suggests that mosquito saliva exacerbatesWest Nile virus infection. (2005) observed a suppression of antibody-specific T cell responses mediated by mosquito saliva and dependent on mast cells and IL-10 expression.[37] []Egg development and blood digestion A Mosquito feeding on blood Two important events in the life of female mosquitoes are egg development and blood digestion.exposure. and systemic effect on the immune response. (2004) demonstrated that T.[34] The contribution of .[31] Parallel work by Wasserman et al.and B-cell proliferation was inhibited in a dose dependent manner with concentrations as low as 1/7 of the saliva in a single mosquito. No trypsin activity occurs before the blood meal. After taking a blood meal. These are used as building blocks for the synthesis of egg yolk proteins. trypsin activity is restricted entirely to the posterior midgut lumen. but activity increases continuously up to 30 hours after feeding.[32] Depinay et al.

Aminopeptidase activity is also luminal in the posterior midgut. proteases are active only in the posterior midgut. whereas the subsequent decline in activity is less predictable. showing no significant variation with time after feeding. Trypsin is the major primary hydrolytic protease and is secreted into the posterior midgut lumen without activation in the posterior midgut epithelium. activity rises from a baseline of approximately 3 enzyme units (EU) per midgut to a maximum of 12 EU at 30 hours after the blood meal. All posterior midgut activity is restricted to the posterior midgut lumen. alpha-glucosidase activity increases slowly up to 18 hours after the blood meal. but cellular aminopeptidases are required for peptide processing in both anterior and posterior midguts.[38] []Distribution Female Ochlerotatus notoscriptusfeeding on a human arm. In whole midgut homogenates. Aminopeptidase is active in the anterior and posterior midgut regions before and after feeding. alphaglucosidase is active in anterior and posterior midguts before and at all times after feeding. Australia . In the whole midgut. Depending upon the time after feeding. Tasmania. Alpha-glucosidase activity is elevated in the posterior midgut after feeding in response to the blood meal. whereas activity in the anterior midgut is consistent with a nectar-processing role for this midgut region. whereas aminopeptidase in the posterior midgut epithelium decreases in activity during digestion. Aminopeptidase in the anterior midgut is maintained at a constant low level. A similar cycle of activity occurs in the posterior midgut and posterior midgut lumen. greater than 25% of the total midgut activity of alphaglucosidase is located in the anterior midgut.returns to baseline levels by 60 hours. subsequently falling to baseline levels by 60 hours. then rises rapidly to a maximum at 30 hours after the blood meal. After blood meal ingestion.

While many species are native to tropical and subtropical regions.[42] .[41] []Means of dispersal Over large distances the worldwide distribution is carried out primarily through sea routes.[39][40] They can even tolerate snow and sub-zero temperatures. the transport of mosquitoes in personal vehicles. Eggs from strains in the temperate zones are more tolerant to the cold than ones from warmer regions. in which the eggs. As with sea transport. delivery trucks. Though originally a public health concern. transmitted mostly by the Aedes aegypti. adults can survive throughout winter in suitable microhabitats. some genera such as Aedes have successfully adapted to cooler regions. In addition. in temperate regions they hibernate over winter. In the warm and humid tropical regions. and pupae in combination with water-filled used tires and cut flowers are transported around. The principal mosquito borne diseases are the viral diseases yellow fever. they are active the entire year long. and malariacarried by the genus Anopheles. []Disease Anopheles albimanus mosquito feeding on a human arm. and trains plays an important role. however. Main articles: mosquito-borne disease and life-threatening disease Mosquitoes are a vector agent that carries diseasecausing viruses and parasites from person to person without exhibiting symptoms themselves. This mosquito is a vector ofmalaria and mosquito control is a very effective way of reducing the incidence of malaria. larvae. HIV is now thought to be almost impossible for mosquitoes to transmit. dengue fever and Chikungunya.

with insecticides. nets and repellents.[44] Gambusia. Although bats and Purple Martins can be prodigious consumers of insects.[43] []Control Larvae in stagnant water Main article: Mosquito control There are many methods used for mosquito control. eat mosquito larvae and can be introduced into ponds[citation needed]..Mosquitoes are estimated to transmit disease to more than 700 million people annually in Africa. source reduction (e. using prophylactic drugs and developing vaccines and prevention of mosquito bites. less than 1% of their diet typically consists of mosquitoes. disease prevention. Russia and much of Asia with millions of resulting deaths. Methods used to prevent the spread of disease. biocontrol (e. Central America. scientists have suggested focusing on these to avoid the evolution of resistance. []Natural predators The dragonfly nymph eats mosquitoes at all stages of development and is quite effective in controlling populations. many of which are pests. South America. removing stagnant water). Since most such diseases are carried by "elderly" females. Neither . importing natural predators such as dragonflies). and/or insecticides to kill larvae or adults may be used. also called Mosquitofish.g. At least 2 million people annually die of these diseases. Mexico.g. or to protect individuals in areas where disease is endemic include Vector control aimed at mosquito eradication. Depending on the situation. trapping.

bluegill. the western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis). irritating bites are due to an immune response from the binding of IgG and IgE antibodies to antigens in the mosquito's saliva. fathead minnows. catfish. whereas others are specific to certain species. organic debris (Steffan & Evenhuis.[45] Some cyclopoid copepods are predators on first instar larvae. However. Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis has also been used to control them as a biological agent. Focks. 1982).[46] Larval Toxorhynchites mosquitoes are known as natural predators of other Culicidae. . 2000).000 larvae of the first instar (L1) or 300 fourth instar larvae (L4) (Steffan & Evenhuis. Toxorhynchites can consume all types of prey.bats nor Purple Martins are known to control or even significantly reduce mosquito populations. Some of the sensitizing antigens are common to all mosquito species. There are both immediate hypersensitivity reactions (Types I & III) and delayed hypersensitivity reactions (Type IV) to mosquito bites (see Clements. Each larva can eat an average of 10 to 20 mosquito larvae per day. including bass. A number of fish are also known to consume mosquito larvae. goldfish. guppies. and killifish. []Mosquito bites and treatment A mosquito tortured back Visible. piranha. killing up to 40 Aedes larvae per day. a Toxorhynchites larva can consume an equivalent of 5. During its entire development. 1981). or even exhibit cannibalistic behavior. 1981.

[51] Other CDCrecommended repellents are Picaridin.[54] Genetic analyses indicate that the Culicinae and Anophelinae clades may have diverged about 150 million years ago. reducing itching.[53] An older sister species with more primitive features was found in amber that is 90 to 100 million years old. By using a brush to scratch the area surrounding the bite and running hot water (around 49 °C or 120 °F) over it can alleviate itching for several hours by reducing histamine-induced skin blood flow.[49] Tea tree oil has been shown to be an effective anti-inflammatory. Oil of Eucalyptus (PMD) and IR3535.[47] Plain household sudsy ammonia is also a good treatment. yet effective remedy can be achieved by applying a piece of adhesive tape over the affected area. especially as a first wash option if applied immediately after multibite exposure. or by sucking it with a drinking straw. creating enough counter tension on the surface of the skin to alleviate the itch.[55] .[50] []Repellents Main article: Insect repellent The chemical DEET repels some mosquitoes and other insects.There are several commercially available anti-itch medications.[52] []Evolution The oldest known mosquito with an anatomy similar to modern species was found in 79-million-year-old Canadian amber from the Cretaceous.[55] The Old and New World Anopheles species are believed to have subsequently diverged about 95 million years ago. or topically applied antihistamines and. including those taken orally. ammonia being the main ingredient in Tender's AfterBite remedy. A paste of meat tenderizer containing papain and water breaks down the proteins in the mosquito saliva. such as Benadryl. corticosteroids such as hydrocortisone and triamcinolone. for more severe cases.[48] A simple.

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