History of Ford Motor Company

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Henry Ford (ca. 1919) Ford Motor Company is an American automaker and the world's fourth largest automaker based on worldwide vehicle sales. Based in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit, the automaker was founded by Henry Ford, and incorporated on June 16, 1903. Henry Ford was 40 years old when he founded the Ford Motor Company, which would go on to become one of the largest and most profitable companies in the world, as well as being one of the few to survive the Great Depression. The largest family-controlled company in the world, the Ford Motor Company has been in continuous family control for over 100 years. Ford now encompasses several brands, including Lincoln and Mercury.

Table of Contents 1 The founding of Ford Motor Company 2 Early developments and assembly line 3 History of the blue oval 4 Post-World War I developments 4. Lincoln Motor Company 1 4. Fordlândia 2 4. The Great Depression 3 4. Soviet Fords and the Gorki 4 4. World War II 5 5 Post-World War II developments 6 General corporate timeline 7 Criticisms 7. Alleged Nazi collaboration 1 7. Argentine "Dirty War" 2 7. Support for U.S. Backed Coups and Death Squads in Latin America 3 7. Ford Pinto 4 8 References

The founding of Ford Motor Company
Henry Ford's initial foray into automobile manufacturing was the Detroit Automobile Company, founded in 1899. The company floundered, and in 1901 was reorganized as the Henry Ford Company. Ford had a falling out with his financial backers, and in March 1902 left the company with the rights to his name and 900 dollars. The Henry Ford Company changed their name to Cadillac, brought in Henry M. Leland to manage the operation, and went on to be a successful manufacturer of automobiles.

lawyers John Anderson and Horace Rackham. and his position as Ford president was take over by Ford himself soon afterward. turned to his uncle John S. A dividend of 10% was paid that October. James Couzens (25 shares).000. 1903 of almost $37. and his own clerk James Couzens. so Gray reluctantly agreed.[1] However. Horace Rackham (50 shares). and in May sold his shares to Henry Ford. thinking that Gray's name would attract others to invest. John W. Gray. Ford Motor Company was immediately profitable. Malcomson put up the money to start the partnership "Ford and Malcomson" and the pair designed a car and began ordering parts. When the total stock ownership was tabulated.[1] John S. and James Couzens secretary.[1] Malcomson. Bennett of the Daisy Air Rifle Company. but Malcomson promised he could withdraw his share at any time. who had made parts for Ford and Malcomson. Charles T.Henry Ford himself turned to an acquaintance. Malcomson (255 shares). shares in the company were: Henry Ford (255 shares).[2] At the first stockholder meeting on June 18. had their own businesses to attend to. only Ford and Couzens worked full-time at the company. and wanted Gray to join the company. Bennett (50 shares).000.[1] Despite Gray's misgivings. John F. Woodall (10 shares). By early 1906 Malcomson was effectively frozen out of the Ford Motor Company. Ford and Malcomson had gone through more money than expected. Two dividends of 100% each in June and July 1905 brought the total investor profits to nearly 300% in just over 2 years. Malcomson. John S. and the manufacturing firm of John and Horace Dodge. Dodge (50 shares). both Malcomson and Gray included. to help finance another automobile company. constrained by his coal business demands. The issue came to a head when the principal stockholders. with 12 investors owning a total of 1000 shares. coal dealer Alexander Y. Ford and Malcomson together retained 51% of the new company in exchange for their earlier investments. Dodge (50 shares). Gray was at first uninterested. Gray (105 shares). with profits by October 1. an additional dividend of 20% a the beginning of 1904. 1903. there were internal frictions in the company that Gray was nominally in charge of. the Ford Motor Company was incorporated. 1905 total profits were almost $300. the president of the German-American Savings Bank and a good friend. Gray was elected president. and another 68% in June 1904. On the strength of Gray's name. Gray sided with Ford.[1] Early developments and assembly line . On June 16. Malcomson proposed incorporating Ford and Malcomson to bring in new investors. Alexander Y.[1] Malcomson also convinced the Dodges to accept stock in lieu of payment. Albert Strelow (50 shares). and Charles J. Fry (50 shares). Ford and Malcomson. Ford vicepresident. Gray died unexpectedly in 1906. Anderson (50 shares). Charles T. including local merchants Albert Strelow and Vernon Fry. Vernon C. Malcomson recruited other business acquaintances to invest. Horace E. Most of the investors. was demanding payment. However. by February 1903. quarreled over the future direction of the company.

[10] Turnover meant delays and extra costs of training. In its first full year of production.000 between August 1914 and August 1915.The first Ford factory on Bagley Street. Ford solved the employee turnover problem by doubling pay to $5 a day. Michigan.[10] by 1920. which reduced chassis assembly time from 12½ hours in October to 2 hours 40 minutes (and ultimately 1 hour 33 minutes).[4] by contrast. the company produced a range of vehicles designated.[5] the Colt Runabout US$1500. the Enger 40 was priced at US$2000. the company moved production to the much larger Highland Park Plant. cutting shifts from nine hours to an eight hour day for a 5 day work week (which also increased sales. including disabled people considered unemployable by other firms. while increased productivity actually reduced labor demand. and in 1911.[11] sales in 1914 reached 308. During its early years. from the Ford Model A (1903) to the Model K and Model S (Ford's last right-hand steering model)[3] of 1907. the cost per vehicle plummeted. Ford's first six-cylinder model. about 18. and with it. As demand for the car grew.[6] the high-volume Oldsmobile Runabout[7] US$650. and sold for US$2800. 1909. and turnover of workers was very high.462 in 1915.162. with groups of two or three men working on each car from components made to order by other companies (what would come to be called an "assembled car"). Earlier models were produced at a rate of only a few a day at a rented factory on Mack Avenue in Detroit. was known as "the gentleman's roadster" and "the silent cyclone". Ford cut prices again and again and invented the system of franchised dealers who were loyal to his brand name. The first Model Ts were built at the Piquette Road Manufacturing Plant. These innovations were hard on employees. the first company-owned factory. a line worker could buy a T with less than four months' pay). and use of slow workers. Ford introduced the world's first moving assembly line that year. Wall Street had criticized Ford's generous labor practices when he began paying workers enough to buy the products they made.[7] The next year. 69.762[9] Model Ts were produced. Western's Gale Model A US$500. Henry Ford introduced the Model T. the company had developed all of the basic techniques of the assembly line and mass production. chronologically.211 in 1912. production would exceed one million a year.[10] By 1913. Detroit. and 501.667 units that year[10] After a Ford ad promised profit-sharing if sales hit 300. productivity soared. with 170.[4] The K. around that time.000 Model Ts were built.[10] Employee turnover plunged. In January 1914. the first year of operation there.[8] and the Success hit the amazingly low US$250.[10] and instituting hiring practices that identified the best workers.[12] .[10] and boosted annual output to 202.

and not until Duco lacquer appeared in 1926 would other colors reappear on the T. Ford was producing 50 percent of all cars in the United States. Austria (1925). companies without it risked bankruptcy." Before the assembly line. This canvas on wood frame model was used extensively by the British & French as well as the American Expeditionary Force in World War I. produced by a 4 cylinder water cooled engine It also transformed technology. Ts had been available in a variety of colors.)[10] The assembly line transformed the industry. but not black. and 40% of all British ones. were Model Ts.[10] Ford 1916 Model T Field Ambulance.S. By the end of 1919. half of all cars in the U. Henry Ford is reported to have said. only Japan Black dried quickly enough. paint had become a production bottleneck.[10] . and green. blue. with the opening of assembly plants in Ireland (1917). followed by Denmark (1923). car makers in 1920. Now. Its top speed was 45 mph (72 km/h). only 17 were left in 1940. soon. England and France.[10] and Argentina (1925). including red.[10] by 1920. (The low price also killed the cyclecar in the U.S. it was in 1911 the company began to rapidly expand overseas.Ford assembly line (1913) While Ford attained international status in 1904 with the founding of Ford of Canada. Germany (1925).[13] and also in South Africa (1924)[14] and Australia (1925) as subsidiaries of Ford of Canada due to preferential tariff rules for Commonwealth countries.S. "Any customer can have a car painted any color that he wants so long as it is black. Of 200 U.

Lincoln Motor Company On February 4. While prices were kept low through highly efficient engineering. The current Centennial Oval was introduced on June 17. while less wealthy people purchased used Model Ts. Abraham Lincoln's chair would be displayed . He created a script in 1903 based on the one he used for his business cards. The Henry Ford.[10] they did not appear on a Ford until 1927. but Henry M. so consumers could buy these expensive automobiles with monthly payments.In 1915. Chevrolet waited until 1928.[16] Ford Motor Company built the largest museum of American History in 1928. like the Ford 3-Ton M1918 tank. So. History of the blue oval The Ford oval trademark was first introduced in 1907. Ford would subsequently go on to support the war effort with the Model T becoming the underpinnings for Allied military vehicles. Ford initially resisted this approach. the company used an old-fashioned personalized management system. which he was assassinated in. Today. Ford eventually relented and started offering the same terms in December 1927. Leland had named the company in 1917. and retired the Model T after producing 15 million units. Edsel Ford succeeded his father as president of the company. insisting such debts would ultimately hurt the consumer and the general economy. as these and other domestic and foreign competitors began offering fresher automobiles with more innovative features and luxury options. This led to an increase in his personal popularity. joining other pacifists in efforts to stop World War I. and neglected consumer demand for improved vehicles. The competitors also opened up new markets by extending credit for purchases. Henry Ford went on a peace mission to Europe aboard a ship. and the 1916 ambulance. the oval has evolved into a perfect oval with a width-to-height ratio of 8:3. tapping all price points in the spectrum. when Ford unveiled the redesigned Model A. from the owners of the Ford Theatre.)[10] Ford steadily lost market share to GM and Chrysler. The dark blue background of the oval is known to designers as Pantone 294C. 1922 Ford expanded its reach into the luxury auto market through its acquisition of the Lincoln Motor Company. while four wheel brakes were invented by Arrol-Johnson (and were used on the 1909 Argyll).[15] Post-World War I developments In 1919. GM had a range of models from relatively cheap to luxury. Henry Ford would go on to acquire Abraham Lincoln's chair. The Mercury division was established in 1938 to serve the mid-price auto market. The Ford script is credited to Childe Harold Wills. The 1928 Model A was the first vehicle to sport an early version of the Ford script in the oval badge. (To be fair. named for Abraham Lincoln whom Henry Ford admired. Ford's first chief engineer and designer. 2003 as part of the 100th anniversary of Ford Motor Company. although Henry still kept a hand in management.

and eventually became victims of Stalin's Great Terror. However. After considerable labor unrest. Fordlândia Main article: Fordlândia In 1928. the Soviets agreed to purchase $13 million worth of automobiles and parts. Ford attempted to cultivate rubber for use in the company's automobiles. By 1932. social experimentation. either shot[19] or exiled to Soviet gulags. When the protesters responded by throwing rocks. This led to Detroit's Unemployed Council organizing the Ford Hunger March. the violence escalated rapidly and culminated in the police and plant security guards firing live rounds through the gates of the plant at the unarmed protesters. the unemployment rate in Detroit had risen to 30%[17] with thousands of families facing real hardship. Many American engineers and skilled auto workers moved to the Soviet Union to work on the plant and its production lines. Henry Ford angered many by making public statements that the unemployed should do more to find work for themselves. The police fired tear gas into the crowd and fire trucks were used to soak the protesters with icy water.[20] In 1933. Ford in common with other manufacturers. responded to the collapse in motor sales by reducing the scale of their operations and laying off workers. Henry Ford negotiated a deal with the government of Brazil for a plot of land in the Amazon Rainforest. known today as The Henry Ford. Four men were killed outright and a fifth died later in hospital. or Gorki Automotive Plant in 1932. and a failure to produce rubber. the settlement was sold in 1945 and abandoned.000 unemployed workers assembled in West Detroit to march on Ford's River Rouge plant to deliver a petition demanding more support.000 . Although Ford did assist a small number of distressed families with loans and parcels of land to work. and after the invention of synthetic rubber. Kennedy's limousine was leased to the White House by Ford. Kennedy's Lincoln limousine in the Henry Ford Museum & Greenfield Village in Dearborn.5. Under its terms. The Great Depression During the great depression. the majority of the thousands of unskilled workers who were laid off were left to cope on their own.along with John F. Up to 60 more were seriously injured. A few American workers stayed on after the plant's completion. As the march moved up Miller Road and approached Gate 3 the protest turned ugly. 1932 some 3. On March 7. the Soviets completed construction on a production line for the Ford . while Ford agreed to give technical assistance until 1938 to construct an integrated automobile-manufacturing plant at Nizhny Novgorod.[18] Soviet Fords and the Gorki In May 1929 the Soviet Union signed an agreement with the Ford Motor Company. which was named Gorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod (GAZ). There.

With Europe under siege.500. Henry Ford personally vetoed a plan to build airplane engines for the Allies. after France had fallen to the Wehrmacht. since Germany did not seize ownership through nationalization.000-90. prompting his grieving father to resume day-today control of Ford. Robert Schmidt. the Grand Cross of the German Eagle medal from the Nazi government. However. Ford negotiated a resource-sharing agreement that allowed the German military to access scarce supplies. were produced by Ford. The Treasury Department also investigated Ford for alleged collaboration with German-run Ford plants in occupied . Ford established a close collaboration with Germany's Nazi government before the war—so close. In June 1940. under severe stress. However. With its original Forddesigned vehicles supplemented by imports and domestic copies of imported equipment. particularly rubber. and did not want to profit from it. When Consolidated Aircraft could at most build one B-24 Liberator a day. with over 3. Those were tense times for American companies doing business in Europe. At the time. Both these Ford models were immediately adopted for military use. During this same period. As a pacifist.[24] The situation changed after Pearl Harbor.000 m2) under one roof.Model-A passenger car. Ford could no longer communicate directly with its factories in Germany. in fact. Edsel Ford.000 "Russian Ford" vehicles per year. In the spring of 1939. Ford was hesitant to participate in the Allied military effort. These efforts benefited the Allies as well as the Axis. Ford's Dearborn headquarters continued to maintain 52% ownership over the factories. in July 1938. the Gorki operations eventually produced a range of automobiles. Many pilots slept on cots waiting for takeoff as B-24s rolled off the line.[26] After the US declared war in December 1941. and a light truck. the Nazi manager of the Cologne Ford plant."[21][22] The Ford Motor Company played a pivotal role in the allied victory during World War I and World War II. trucks. died in the Spring of 1943 of stomach cancer. indirect communications continued. which played a crucial role in Germany's blitzkrieg strategy. in at least one case. Henry Ford's genius would be turned to mass production for the war effort.[25] Ford production was important to Nazi forces as well: roughly one-third of the German Army's trucks. called the GAZ-A. the GAZ-AA. After Bantam invented the Jeep. it was the largest assembly line in the world. the Nazi government assumed day to day control of Ford factories in Germany. Ford factories contributed significantly to the buildup of Germany's armed forces. Henry Ford had said war was a waste of time. The specially-designed Willow Run plant broke ground in April 1941.[12][23] He was concerned the Nazis during the 1930s might nationalize Ford factories in Germany. Ford would show the world how to produce one an hour. the US War Department handed production over to Ford and Willys. Mass production of the B-24 began by August 1943. and military vehicles. By the late 1930s production at Gorki was 80. World War II President Franklin Roosevelt referred to Detroit as the "Arsenal of Democracy.000 square feet (330. traveled to Portugal in 1943 in order to consult with Ford officials there. at a peak of 600 per month in 24 hour shifts. that Henry Ford received.

Schmidt and other Nazi-era managers kept their jobs with Ford's German division. His mental state was also questionable. Paul's Cathedral in the rain with 600 inside. In 1943. The Roosevelt Administration had a contingency plan in place to nationalize Ford if need be so that they wouldn't lose vital military production. Ford's wife and daughter-in-law intervened and demanded that he turn control over to his grandson[27] Henry Ford II. and the Mustang. Ford built a new factory in Trafford Park. Paul in Detroit on Thursday April 9. a despondent Edsel Ford died of stomach cancer. The funeral service for Henry Ford was held at the Cathedral Church of St." assumed command. and there was a very real possibility that the company would collapse if he died or became incapacitated.France. who came to be called affectionately "Hank the Deuce.000 units. They threatened to sell off their stock (amounting to half the company's total shares) if he refused.000 people stood outside St. behind only the F-150.[29] At the funeral service.[24] In the United Kingdom. After the war. but did not find conclusive evidence. Henry was infuriated. In its 21 year lifespan. it sold 7.[29] while the funeral had attracted national attention as an estimated seven million people had mourned his passing (according to A&E Biography). 20.000. Manchester during WWII where over 34. but this proved a very poor idea as he was 78 years old and suffering from heart problems and atherosclerosis. It is the 4th best selling car in Ford's history. one of Ford's best-selling models. 1947.[28] Henry Ford died of a brain hemorrhage on April 7. When Henry II.000 each hour at the public viewing on Wednesday of that week at Greenfield Village in Dearborn. . the Company was losing US$9 million a month and in financial chaos. At this point.000 Rolls-Royce Merlin aero engines were completed by a workforce trained from scratch. and so he gave in. 1947. but there was nothing he could do. Post-World War II developments A Ford Taurus. the Model T. Mourners passed by at a rate of 5. Henry decided then to resume direct control of the company.

head of Bendix Aviation. Motor Trend awarded the company its "Car of the Year" award. he accepted Kennedy's invitation to join his cabinet. Ford of Europe was established. which he returned to profitability during the 1980s. Also in 1956. In 1956.Ernest R. and had aided in Ford's expansion and success in the postwar period. The corporation bounced back from the failure of the Edsel by introducing its compact Falcon in 1960 and the Mustang in 1964. McNamara had gained the favor of Henry Ford II. Lee Iacocca was involved with the design of several successful Ford automobiles. He promoted other ideas which did not reach the marketplace as Ford products. Alex Trotman was Chairman and CEO from 1993–1998. He advanced rapidly through a series of top-level management positions to the presidency of Ford on 9 November 1960.2 billion profit for the year.[32] . when he named Alan Mulally from Boeing as his successor. Breech. most notably the Mustang. is the company's current Chairman of the Board and was CEO until September 5. through a series of Special Class B preferred stocks. Chrysler soon hired Iacocca. The first company head selected outside the Ford family. Eventually. following a US$250 million dollar research and marketing campaign.[30] In 1946. and as Chairman and CEO from 1960–1980. he was fired by Henry Ford II. Less than five weeks after becoming president at Ford. By 1967. In 1979 Philip Caldwell became Chairman. following its emphasis on safety improvements in new models. Henry Ford's great-grandson. one day after John F. on July 13. Ford introduced the iconic Thunderbird in 1955 and the Edsel brand automobile line in 1958. 1978. 2006. Ford became a publicly traded corporation. As of 2006. as Secretary of Defense. but clashed with "Bunkie" Knudsen as well as Henry II and ultimately." as one court put it. succeeded in 1985 by Donald Petersen. and Jacques Nasser served at the helm from 19992001. behind the notorious Pinto. Robert McNamara joined Ford as manager of planning and financial analysis. he became the president of the company. which had failed to ask questions crucial for the marque's success. despite the company's having earned a $2. then Board Chairman in 1955. He was also the "moving force.. and became first Executive Vice President. Harold Poling served as Chairman and CEO from 1990-1993. William Clay Ford Jr.[31] The Edsel was cancelled after less than 27 months in the marketplace in November 1960. Kennedy's election. The Ford family maintains about 40% controlling interest in the company.[28] was hired in 1946. Henry II served as President from 1945–1960. the Ford family owns about 5% of Company shares outstanding.

as the company expects to burn through $17 billion in cash before turning a profit. Jr. MI . office property. The action was unprecedented in the company's 103 year history.[33][dead link] [34] General corporate timeline Henry Ford and the Quadricycle 1896 Quadricycle at The Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn.Current Ford CEO Alan Mulally. The secured credit line is expected to finance product development during the restructuring through 2009. and its stakes in subsidiaries. to raise $23. who was hired by William Clay Ford. intellectual property (patents and blue oval trademarks). including factories and equipment.4 billion in cash. Ford announced it would mortgage all assets. to restructure the company. In December 2006.

ca 1908 1930 Model A Fordor The Ford Australia plant under construction in Geelong. two and a half years later it is dissolved.1903 Model A Ford Model T ad . 1898: Ford creates the Detroit Automobile Company. 1926 Mustang Serial #1 .The First Mustang • • • • 1896: Henry Ford builds his first vehicle – the Quadricycle – on a buggy frame with 4 bicycle wheels. Mi 1901: The Henry Ford Company is incorporated but discontinued the following year only to be reinvigorated by Henry Leland as the Cadillac Motor Company . 1901: Ford wins high-profile car race in Grosse Pointe. Victoria. Australia.

1922: Ford purchases Lincoln Motor Company for US $8 million ($105 million. making Model T production 8 times faster. or as it was marketed Model Y. There is some evidence Ford had Nazi sympathies. tanks. 1932: Ford introduces the one-piece cast V8 block. 1929: Ford regains production crown. 1904: Ford Motor Company of Canada incorporated in Walkerville. The Model A "Fordmobile" is introduced . 1921: Ford production exceeds 1 million cars per year. 1943: Edsel Ford dies of cancer at the age of 49. The first of a long line of small European Fords. with 8. Victoria. Henry Ford resumes presidency. with annual production peaking at 1. . the highest medal Nazi Germany could bestow on a foreigner. 1942: Production of civilian vehicles halted.the next biggest selling brand. 1909: Ford Motor Company (England) established. 1913: The moving assembly line is introduced at Highland Park assembly plant. 1945: Henry Ford II becomes president.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1903: Ford Motor Company incorporated with 11 original investors. 1939: Mercury division is formed to fill the gap between economical Fords and luxury Lincolns. 1908: Model T is introduced.1. It makes the Model 18 the first low-priced V8-powered car. adjusted for inflation).5 million cars 1931: Ford and Chevy brands begin to alternate as U. 1919: Edsel Ford succeeds Henry as Company President. Ford introduces the next generation Model A. and other products for the war effort. in battle for automobile sales during the Great Depression.S. Operated as a division at Ford until 1945 1941: The Lincoln Continental is introduced. and was active in anti-semitic efforts. production leaders. He may have financed some Nazi activities. First labor agreement with UAW-CIO covers North American employees. 1925: Ford introduces Ford Tri-Motor airplane for airline services 1926: Ford Australia is founded in Geelong. otherwise referred to as Ford of Britain 1911: Ford opens first factory outside North America – in Manchester.[35] 1936: Lincoln-Zephyr is introduced. 1938: The German consul at Cleveland awards Henry Ford the Grand Cross of the German Eagle. from the Rouge complex. diverting factory capacity to producing B-24 Liberator bombers. are introduced February 19. 1913: Ford opens second world branch in Argentina as Ford Motor Argentina 1914: Ford introduces $5 ($109. nearly 10 times more than Chevrolet . In London Royal Albert Hall the Model 19. at least before World War II. Australia. Ontario 1904: Henry Ford teams up with Harvey Firestone of Firestone Tires 1906: Ford becomes the top selling brand in the US.708 cars are produced. Ford begins building general purpose "jeep" for the military.729 cars produced. 1927: Model T production ends. adjusted for inflation) workday minimum wage – double the existing rate. 15 million are produced through 1927. England. 1918: Construction of the Rouge assembly complex begins.

Ford is top selling brand. 1959: Ford withdraws the 1960 model Edsels from the market in November 1959. Ford establishes Asia Pacific operations. Ford goes public with common stock shares. Kennedy. 1965: Ford brand US sales exceed 2 million units.[citation needed] 1946: The Whiz Kids. 1965: Ford Galaxie 500 LTD debuts. Maverick continues . Ford GT40 challenges Ferrari and Porsche at LeMans. and wins compensation. former US Army Air Force officers. 1967: Ford of Europe is established by merging the operations of Ford of Britain and Ford of Germany. 1960: Ford Galaxie and compact Ford Falcon introduced. advertised as quieter than a Rolls Royce 1966: Ford Bronco sport utility vehicle introduced.35 million vehicles produced.[30] 1957: Ford launches the Edsel brand of automobiles in the fall of 1957 as 1958 models. 1946: Ford sues the allies for damages done to his factories in Dresden during the infamous bombing. earns the company Motor Trend's "Car of the Year" award. Ford of Europe launches first generation Ford Escort. Henry Ford II becomes new chairman. 1960: Ford President Robert McNamara appointed Secretary of Defense by President elect John F. 1975: Ford Granada and Mercury Monarch introduced.7 thousand. It would dominate the mid-size family segment in Europe for the next 20 years. 1970: Ford Maverick are introduced. 1972: Retractable seat belts introduced. Ford's emphasis on safety with is Lifeguard option package. 1949: The '49 Ford introduces all-new post-war era cars.000 ($81.68 million automobiles produced. 1967: Ford opens Talbotville car plant in St. Ford begins crash testing. 1974: Ford Mustang II debuts as a smaller more economical pony car. 1960: Robert Mcnamara is appointed President of Ford by Chairman Henry Ford II.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1945: Lincoln and Mercury are combined into a single division. Automobile production resumes. 1964: Ford Mustang the car that started the "pony car" class. including seat belts and dash padding. Ford of Germany and Ford of Britain jointly launch the first generation Ford Transit range of panel vans. 1947: Henry Ford dies of cerebral hemorrhage at the age of 83. The "Woody" station wagon is introduced. 1953 Ford Canada Headquarters and Car Plant opens in Oakville. 1948: F-1 Truck introduced. adjusted for inflation) Lincoln Continental Mark II introduced. and opens Arizona Proving Grounds. 1973: Ford US brand sales reaches an all time high of 2. 1962: Ford of Britain launches first generation of the Ford Cortina. Lincoln Continental is introduced. Ontario 1968: Lincoln Mark Series is introduced as the company's first personal luxury car to compete with the Cadillac Eldorado. Ontario 1954: Thunderbird introduced as a personal luxury car with a V8. 1956: $10. Thomas. 1959: Ford Credit Corporation formed to provide automotive financing. with 1. are hired to revitalize the company.

1984: Ford Tempo and Mercury Topaz are introduced. the 4. Continental Mark V and Thunderbird available with "Diamond Jubilee Edition" packages. 1980: Ford of Europe launches the third generation Escort. 1985: Purchases First Nationwide Financial Corporation. 1985: Merkur brand launched to market the European Ford Sierra and Ford Scorpio models in North America. 1991: Ford Explorer is introduced. 1990: Ford Aerostar is Motor Trend's Truck Of The Year. 1995: New front wheel drive Ford Windstar minivan is introduced. Third generation Fiesta is launched in Europe . a finance company. . displacing the Honda Accord. 1986: Ford of Europe launches the second generation of the Transit van family. Fiesta is imported from Europe as an entry into the economy segment. 1995: Ford's first front wheel drive V8 sedan is introduced. it is spun-off to Ford shareholders. a savings and loan. Ford Mondeo announced in Europe. while Lincoln Town Car is Motor Trend's Car Of The Year. ending production of the stalwart Cortina/Taunus after 20 years and four generations. Redesigned Ford Explorer released. Sold in 1994 after large losses. Ford of Europe launches fourth generation Escort. turning the traditionally rural and recreational SUV into a popular family vehicle. 1996: Ford certifies all plants in 26 countries to ISO 9000 quality and ISO 14001 environmental standards. 1981: The Lincoln Town Car and Ford Escort are introduced. along with Ford Aerostar minivan. 1982: Ford of Europe introduce the Ford Sierra.based on the European Ford Mondeo. built in Korea by Kia is introduced. becoming the first car in its class to offer standard dual air bags and optional 4-wheel ABS.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1975: Ford of Europe launches the second generation Escort. Fiesta discontinued in North America. Mazda MX-5 Miata is unveiled. 1988: Ford Festiva. now with standard safety features such as dual air bags. 1979: Ford acquires 25% stake in Mazda. 4-wheel ABS as standard equipment. The V12-powered Jaguar XJS is discontinued. 1994: Ford Aspire replaces Festiva. In 1998.replaced by Ford Contour and Mercury Mystique . 1989: Ford acquires Jaguar. 1976: Ford of Europe launches the first generation Ford Fiesta 1978: Ford Motor Company celebrates 75th anniversary. 1990: Merkur brand of automobiles production discontinued. 1987: Ford acquires Aston Martin Lagonda and Hertz Rent-a-Car. it is voted European Car of the Year for 1981.and establishes itself as the fastest selling generation of Fiesta to date . 1989: Acquires Associates First Capital Corporation. Aerostar remains in production. 1992: Ford Taurus becomes America's top selling car. 1985: Ford Taurus introduced with dramatic "aero design" styling.1 million units in less than two years.6L V8-powered Lincoln Continental. 1994: Ford Tempo and Mercury Topaz are discontinued .

along with a refreshed Ford Taurus and Mercury Sable. Mark VIII is in its final year.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1996: Controversially redesigned "Ovoid" Ford Taurus and Mercury Sable are introduced. Mercury Cougar. Jaguar XType is introduced (first AWD Jaguar). 1999: Ford splits its full-sized pick-ups into two distinct models (the first to do so) with the introduction of the Ford F-Series Super Duty (F-250 . 2000: Ford purchases Land Rover brand from BMW. Escort is discontinued in Europe. with Jackie Stewart at the helm. 1997: Sculpted redesign of Ford's top-selling F-150 pickup. Ford Transit Connect production begins at Ford-Otosan in Turkey. 2004: Jaguar Racing team sold to Red Bull GmbH. replacing Jacques Nasser. replacing the Ford Windstar and Mercury Villager. Third generation Transit platform is launched in Europe. 2001: Retro-styled Ford Thunderbird is introduced. Ranger sales decline. 2003: Ford Motor Company's 100th Anniversary. Redesigned Ford Escort and Mercury Tracer also introduced. 1998: Lincoln Navigator creates domestic luxury SUV class. 1999: Jaguar Racing Formula One team is formed. Major redesign of the Ford F-150 and introduction of the Lincoln Mark LT.Mercury Mountaineer introduced. The Ford GT is released. and Ford Aspire. marking the end of the Escort name after a 24-year production run. 1996: Ford increases investment stake in a troubled Mazda Corporation to a controlling interest of 33. along with limited Centennial editions of some Ford vehicles. 1999: A smaller sporty Mercury Cougar is reintroduced with front wheel drive. the first gasolineelectric hybrid SUV. based on the Lincoln LS/Jaguar S-Type DEW98 platform. Ford Freestar and Mercury Monterey minivans are introduced. 1999: Ford acquires Volvo car division from Volvo. losing the title as top-selling compact pickup. Escort van production ends in Europe. Ford Thunderbird. Mazda MX-6. 1997: Full size 4-door SUV Ford Expedition introduced replace the Ford Bronco. 1998: The Focus replaces the ageing Escort in Europe and quickly becomes one of the best-selling cars of the segment. Ford Excursion (based on Super Duty) is introduced. 1997: Ford Aerostar production ends. The Lincoln LS becomes the 2000 Motor Trend Car of the Year. . Exit of Chevrolet Caprice leaves full size fleet market to Ford Crown Victoria.4%. and has the distinction of being the largest SUV sold anywhere. along with Ford Probe. overcomes controversy to set sales records. Is launched in North America for the 2000 model year. without immediate replacement. Bill Ford becomes Chairman of the Board. The similar Mazda B-series pickup is withdrawn from the US market. and is also named Motor Trend Car of the Year for 2002. 2002: Lincoln Continental is discontinued after a roughly fifty year run. introduces HID-headlamps. is introduced. The Ford Escape Hybrid. Lincoln LS and Jaguar SType are introduced.F-550).

4 billion cash in secured credit lines. followed by the sixth-generation Ford Fiesta subcompact. Ford unveils the Ford Interceptor and Lincoln MKR concept cars. the Toyota Camry and Honda Accord. and a pre-production Lincoln MKS is introduced. and Ford Freestyle are introduced. The Ford Five Hundred. Ford Fusion. The Turkish-built Transit Connect compact panel van is the first exponent of this strategy. Bill Ford steps down as CEO. Automobile Production Figures • • • 2009 Ford announces that it will leverage more of its European line-up for the North American market. The Battle of the Overpass Throughout its history. remains as Executive Chairman.[36] 2007: Ford sells Aston Martin to a British consortium led by Prodrive chairman David Richards. and Mercury Sable nameplates.[33][dead link] According to J. 2010 Ford sells Volvo Cars to Geely Automobile.S. 2006: Ford Taurus ends production after a 20-year run. Mercury Sable production ends. Ford Freestyle and Mercury Montego nameplates are dropped and replaced with the previously retired Ford Taurus. The Lincoln Zephyr is replaced with the Lincoln MKZ.as with the first generation car. Power and Associates quality surveys. Sources: General Timeline (through 2002): Ford Motor Company 2002 Annual Report • Production figures: U. and Ford has been . Mercury Milan. D. Mercury Montego. and other fleet sales. Ford announces major restructuring program The Way Forward. which includes plans to shut unprofitable factories.[37] and announces plans to sell Jaguar and Land Rover. in order to finance product development during restructuring through 2009. Criticisms Further information: Firestone and Ford tire controversy. Ford Edge and Lincoln MKX introduced. and Ford Taurus production is limited to rental car. the Ford Fusion is rated higher in quality than its chief rivals. A redesigned Ford Expedition (including the longer wheelbase "EL" version) and Lincoln Navigator are introduced.will be released in North America as a 2012 model.[citation needed] 2007: Ford reports losses of $12. it will return to using a single platform for all markets . Ford mortgages all assets to raise $23. Some have accused the early Fordist model of production of being exploitative. 2008: Ford sells Jaguar and Land Rover to Tata Motors.7 billion for 2006. The Ford Five Hundred. taxi. Ford Freestar and Mercury Monterey minivans are discontinued without replacement. and Lincoln Zephyr introduced. Ford Taurus X.• • • • • 2005: Ford Mustang redesigned with retro styling reminiscent of the 1960s models. the company has faced a wide range of criticisms. Third generation Ford Focus unveilied . Alan Mulally elected President and CEO.

The Dearborn Independent. according to court records. including his newspaper.. and ships used by a fascist regime. Although Ford's initial motivations were anti-war. Although Firestone received most of the blame. and quickly gained a reputation of using violence against union organizers and sympathizers.criticized as being willing to collaborate with dictatorships or hire mobs to intimidate union leaders and increase their profits through unethical means. Fordwerke. . which advised customers to under-inflate the tires in order to reduce the risk of vehicle rollovers. had been taken over by the Nazi government after it rose to power. some blame fell on Ford. intimidation. which published The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. The German Ford company used slave labor in Cologne between 1941 and 1945 and it had produced military vehicles such as jeeps. The lawsuit was dismissed in 1999 because the judge concluded "the issues.. and Mazda Navajos. Defenders of the company argue that the Ford German division. which caused many crashes during the late 1990s and early 2000s. No result was proven and the company denied the allegations. the company was heavily involved in the United States Allied war effort after the outbreak of war. with the Ford Service Department being set up as an internal security. planes."[40][41] Detractors point to Henry Ford's outspoken anti-semitism. It is estimated that over 250 deaths and more than 3. and espionage unit within the company.000 serious injuries resulted from these failures.concerned international treaties between nations and foreign policy and were thus in the realm of the executive branch. though Henry Ford. Ford refused to allow collective bargaining until 1941. actively helping in the political repression of intellectuals and dissidents that was pursued by said government. Mercury Mountaineers. claiming that it was not under the company's control. did stay in touch with the company.[38][39] Ford was also criticized for tread separation and tire disintegration of many Firestone tires installed on Ford Explorers. Many of these allegations were made in a series of United States lawsuits in 1998. Alleged Nazi collaboration Further information: Henry Ford Other accusations were that the company collaborated with the German Nazi regime and relied on Germany.[41] Argentine "Dirty War" Further information: Dirty War Ford's Argentine subsidiary was accused of collaborating with the Argentine 1976-1983 military dictatorship.

funding campaigns of friendly Latin American politicians. DuPont. organized themselves into the Business Group for Latin America. worked with the CIA to foment coups. [49][50][51] Ford Pinto Further information: Ford Pinto In September 1971 the Ford Motor Company launched the Pinto for the North American market. Steel.000-page report.In a lawsuit initiated in 1996 by relatives of some of the estimated 600 Spanish citizens who disappeared in Argentina during the "Dirty War". [46] [47][48] Some went further. tortured and murdered workers—at times allegedly within the plants themselves. a report brought by the CTA. and providing financial guidance to cooperative regimes. When lobbying proved insufficient.S. [45] The idea was both to influence Washington's hemispheric policy and to apply direct pressue at the source. evidence was presented to support the allegation that much of this repression was directed by Ford and the other major industrial firms. coordinated the group's activities and served as its liaison with the White House. and the testimonies of former Ford workers themselves. members of the group. either individually or in concert.S. executives from 37 corporations. and that management allowed the military to set up its own bunker inside the plant. David Rockefeller. including Ford. helping allies hold down prices. Ford executives drew up lists of "subversive" workers and handed them over to the military task-forces which were allowed to operate within the factories. claimed that the company's Argentine factory was used between 1976 and 1978 as a detention center.[42][43][44] Support for U. including Ford. Through early production of this model it emerged that design flaws could result in fuel tank explosions when the vehicle was subject to a rear-end collision. A number of multinational corporations. a major scandal followed with the leaking to San Francisco magazine Mother Jones of the notorious "Ford Pinto Memo". The group also included delegates from U. United Fruit. Some sources even allege this safety data was available to Ford prior to production. Coca-Cola. an internal Ford cost-benefit analysis showing that the cost of implementing design changes to the . Del Monte. Anaconda Copper.[52] Either way. but was ignored for economic reasons. and Mercedes-Benz have been accused in recent years of working closely with Latin American death squads--responsible for hundreds of thousands of killings throughout the hemisphere in the 1970's and 1980's--to counter labor organizing. According to a 5. International Telephone and Telegraph. The company denied the allegations. These groups allegedly kidnapped. The company denied the allegations. whose family had extensive holdings in Latin America going back to the 19th Century. as they did in Brazil in 1964 and Chile in 1973. In a second trial. and Chase Manhattan Bank. Backed Coups and Death Squads in Latin America In the mid-1960's. Standard Oil.

.. In the related Ford Pinto product liability case Grimshaw v. Of the two plaintiffs.[52] with the lowest figures being allegedly in line with comparable fatality statistics for other car models.5 million against Ford.5 million and punitive damages of $3. was badly burned and scarred for life. 1981) the California Court of Appeal for the Fourth Appellate District reviewed Ford's conduct and upheld compensatory damages of $2. one was killed in the collision that caused her Pinto to explode. Subsequently some have played down[53] the importance of this case. 3d 757 (4th Dist. as Pinto explosion fatality estimates range widely from 27 to 900.subcompact's fuel system was greater than the economic cost of the burn injuries and deaths that could be prevented by doing so. 13-year old Richard Grimshaw. Ford Motor Co. 119 Cal. and her passenger. App.

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