Engineeri:ng Practice

Gellhe IMoSI Fired Heale!r
,AshU~Q:!h Gal1g
Furnace Improve ments

From You

elficienl operation thIn meelstbe el,e,. A liomm,on stumb:ling iblock is the Gontrolld dndl:
sa.vings of almcst $500,ODOIy-t, Autothe ef~]C.'·:ieru-,;y of the fired heaters, ][ it is deB~gned and l[li:l'ta]]cd corred1y. :Be:iel'€
,dl.rafl: CIIlnWlI! call impl'Q\1e-

ThoU'g h the! 'iunclioninlgl of these, widely use dI healers aplpears si.ple, there is more tOI

ired heatera are rna,ioor COIlI _ gl;J.lil.lers ~fene"l'gy in thechendeal p.['oces.s industries . (CP[), espeeially atpetl'oIeum refineries _ and perrcchemiea] [plants - accmmtillJg fm:- ~!tS much as 70% {If: total plant eonsumption in som~ instanees. WlTII:il~ most, plant ellJgi!l1.e~"I"'sand 1J'pe.:raton are aware iJf theunpertance of ccrl1.tI10m!1g'eX(!€S6(!X}'ge[l ta fired ht;!at@1rs"th£'y often O""<E!rl~k ,f;} k~y determinent of efl'ickm.t heater uper8Jt.i®n; the oomtro] oHheil' drilifL, namely, thlo!nGgl'l~l\'e pressure inside lln:! v es~,~ wi~h rf!.<:pp.r.t to lllp. Htmo.!<[lhere. A recent survey indicates twe Ig){tremss :hn. draftmanageme.nL In lnDst fired heaters, the drafl;is maintained mendedL At the oth~:r ~nd Qf the spectrum, seme heaters run with DO dr3:ft - in faJ~t. with posltive pressure at the radii!:t:ntarch r the t:ra:l1sit~[)([1 zone


mixedthoroughly fiOrooll,plete Cumbu.stion . In theory, it ls possible t1J bum lue~ cm:np.lewJy with just t~,e 1';Wiebiemetric ausount ofcornbt]i3tiIH~ill.l r,
Billt uader

expl.8liuing hew, we provide
~1X!;sbm' m the ooneepts ~


brlef rs-





ne3te !!",s b. a Hre<dheater. llrle thermal ,energy
~]b~i'ate.d thecambustion by
tl'a.tlBferred to thlids

ef hlBl is in-

c(lit1l.Mil1ed in

~uhub;.1"coils within an internally


enelesure, Atvrpical


tiens, !p~rf~ct .mbdng of fl.l.~l amd !!I-ir·~:,J not ]l{!iSsi la withdn the short 1;inll' h thafis mvolved in eombuation: i:f only l:.he~hetlfetical.8JmeUJl.t of ooml::mst.iolJ ail' W9!"e p.mdile(], then some' f~e] would nnt burn I::ompli;ltel,}'_ So, ~x~ss air is. needed, el{"pfl~ss~d~s a percentage ·of theoreucal qurultrty @t" ail' re-

Ih~at{!l' censists of thre~ .m.!l!jOi: emnponents: the radiant ~~Gtif:ll"l.he eonvect

q1"Jir('!~ for pe1ffe-ctc1lmbu!>Uon.


at alm(ls:t four times; the value reeom-

cion section and the stark. io'iguI'e 1 a. typical cro~:5-~l:i![Jfll;lJl Yi~'w {If H vp,i'Tica.1 ey~indriclli fill!'f;!;d heilter The fired heater is fired by oilor!lous fuel. The process fhlid. p:as.siFJ.g through tubes in the heater, absorbs the heat rll~fitJy by radiant heat

~hm.v:;: 'l.]p in the lluegas.
e;.1{C'ess ilI.]r

GKe~:sg fL!l!ygl)I1

T1!LtEl 1



effe~L::; (If excess

ttl1lt'J 8fQr,




air and stsek 1!:HI'!f,!F.'!II'ature on thethermal {~·md'I2'ncyof the fimd hcate..... A!; a ·. ml.e of thumb, every lLfI% increaee iII excess air l'edlUoes~he heater effieieney by almost 1%, wherea~ evezy
36" P redudi!iltl :ir'l s:L.a!ck n1Jle£~sLeomp!;!]:',atlll:!'(! inwe-a&l):s ,~flkie:n.c:Jby 1%-

~:rat].sfer fnn1l. the fluegases, The f] ltf.!-

th(! r~.di9J'lJt Ilr."ld ·c:onvec~i~r!
ls d~si!··
can eausecensidecable less 8I1d. can even be haZl.llroO'mI,

sectiaas), Neither situatien

!Ible:; they ~nefJrf,


I[;<l:TI save alioota:~tial ,oFlOn.e-rgy~y tn.~nirrg opera-

gasea are vented to the atmcsphere through the stack .!Burners are J.~. cated on the n~)Oir (!If'i stylized in Figure 1) or Oil t11li13 s,]de-wall.., of tilt'! heaters, Ccm'l.~ustiO!R air is drawn ffCJmthe at:Jl1u~p'heH.". Cam bustion IS
(l i.rectly

an.a maintain tile NFmthe firebox. 'I'h ey introd il~ fuel and! .ah· ill OIIDl"Cct propertions and mix themeprovide a source ®fig. niti:lI'l], and 5taJJ~1i~ the flame. How the air is supplied: til the burners is la:rg@~y rnla.wd to l~he concept illY draft, discussed. in more de:trril below. Inmost fi["'IHI heaters. the burners
BtlHUlfS £'~

bll!)ti~l'n, ill

3!ffected I>ythe draft.

tors in propl2'l'draft eontrel and .IIlaking miner modiflcatiens. For a. Wl'U60-bbLld fBPIDlrefm.e:ry ][1 the U.S., -even a 1% impro:ve:mellt in ther11103.1 emai~~y tr,I3!:n~late3 int(lo ,ene:q::y Combuatieu, the exothermie reaetion reS1:1]ti:iJJg ftmn Fll<picl comb:ina.tioLlGf

rue.! with ox:ygoen, produees heat
n!,JIega""e~_ .F1l,~1 ami .ai.r


are natnraL-dra:ft:. as explained f:lel®w,


bQt:r1'eT~are the snes m(lst d~-

S' ~owet dlrlilft will Ic'aOito h-. 'm...n'e-gativl.I' is drawn into rt. 8.44 400 4501 1 500 a~. the ambient.J)JR. Combustion air is d1['. 1:'i'b€ 76.8 'r.!) .bll'j.due '~.bumera ln ~his uptiOIl1.28 rfhhe ~ . lndnc.t.i".rnJt:.Q~ rII~ad tl811tflWS al'el Uile ra. and bet:~r' air-fUl£!'! moong and smaller to ensure that pressure is !I.~ illli!'! e .m'pllrahll1f8 a~ .I'.po 79.. (he th.11)1 89.t:i:'oss theburner. Sllflicim:lt IH:ackheighl ~s prru.e' because the hilt f]1... known C-ClII('Cthf. D!'1III\ at t:h~ heater -Hco!' is ofthe order ·ilf'O.1l:1i1 78.. These are not r:i.w.n aya..stark are lightor than rand til us at lower pressure thllnilie' calder am bient air lJuts:iO!e .he burners hy GHH.!'jl h!i<r@. ill vided toprovide n'l!e bUQ. . he taller this secuen./' \\1 = -~ ]l1'.ializ.MOtiOn i..1 I 84. "'~ile W8i5jog tnrouJ:lih.d!(1!nt '(Ill the heater Drofl (I.· IF.1lENGINEERING WWWCI[COM MA_RCH 2'0~ 61 and T/1!Jeg. Np:Ju.. Providing d. paere.~he whole.rall burners d wbileb.64 n. There :Eln~also :.4. hea~r.) Draft D:raf'li istha differ-entia} be- tween the ai r 't:ll:"l]ueg!ls in the heater and the .wherf.5C steam methane refor 10m. Uw n uegas temperature. vertical cylilld:ric~1 Ilcawi's. crm be caleu[pendent. [11 these heoters. too.CD~.28 1'10. . in the same units.. 99. in inches of su~p'ly does not fail Syst.90. .lSu:jJlci~lIIt air ~I)r oflrnl:!iusthnl.ely as draft . Typical draft gains are of the order of 0.29 91. w. Anii'D fan pro· .~poel]..5:2 91.4 73.pil"Btitlg p:n>burners.117 74.action PllnHanm lItir fiGURE 11.eo11~q..l'ailElbie clirafi.p"'~ill!': loOlted as :rI)H'~\\r-". teDlp~ra.up'p'li~d.ed·d. IDm)! Oil the and:1t a"ailab~e in the h~!i'~~['. 90.heaters ~r'~ f(ltl.53l1PlfllT41r1.und UH!' Natura.YatlJcy {feet the range of 2 to 6 in.61 9OD1 75.I'e !ire four types of dr.s are .~GA. ure.tur ifl! dC'gree Rankine greater will b the avai iable d.oo .!.ral'·dra(J.options that 'C8Il'De C'Msen fOr 'imd Ileaters are Flaturlll-dr~rIt 'h~ltt:!' n(!l inauoeQ'.c .ate.1. 15 ~ 0.s out of lb('t stack W tb.44 ..25 . From the atmcsphere.hll. ]t'I 8i given situation. Draft..' and fliow.e atmesportant operating parameter..l!jS pruvidill.c. .aft btl mer.37 £. to llIlinimize tems in tile fired Matern.11 17. Tile {ltb r ty-pe of burners used ill ti:md.7 in.e'll} psrformanC€ is d inx:tly linked too the d:ralt a vails·taL ill lbe healer.IGURES 2: Cleft:I' AIN1D' 3. le-<ldif1!g tAl needed to cvereome theseIcsses.06 .)lA. Olill the draft.'. 'by means of' a 0011· staik. ruuUilplied.39' 87. '16.vides air at l'~lati"'Rly high pre . Thf\ee key componellts . or for ethaue !.}'UJ fall. for tall.l-drllfl:.tellfl . d:l':afleentral ill.82 911.alt.83.rc.:Tacking.aft s. thus the air leakage and to ensure negative pl:'eSSUl~ U'J.2 hi flUe- t:.~nllQI !Il1>Clioo Fila~!1lI1'I1 5iKi~iQII ".iiJtlS I 'i5.. oomln~n!y :k:rIOW'Uas 8.'/ssid the fired heater. mOBpl:u:!'ric J!l["(!<8SUI'e' h'! pCl~1 6 per i1d square' inch absolute Ipsia]. g t their !I!:if • tlp'ply from a: fan.ncPfWlra{l:' In this tjl']Je of Ile~ter.ra:il created by the r~d!i· ant s!\l.98 il5.e. +F 3QO gas! '\. "'.r-ail.99 69.77 87...3 to 1).. used in special hi:!'aw~ :l!tlcll as thD:l.36 1 90.87 8'9'Ji8 I &9JI MJ7 83. Two of ths' draft .li. U:tJi'!' stack j. the most imhot ga ri 'efl ..helllost simple and reliable type il'~'heater.69' 11l..s:i21~d C~n''L ~.IO 67.41 "AS' aU3 walter celumn lin. 3...Pl:"e!!iStlt4.!Bc2.! lI'Ie-g.ctin!J:. &tI:.1 85...36. o.43 M7i!i 186.ioss@s. < draft loss il. TaiTj~m.alllbient ail'.RIl1J1JCl5.6. 558 U.adl'8'1II1 tubes Fb.00. 1.84 85J06 85.U!aJnt~ecU(m.(:11 . frI.5iS _. the T a higher drailtha:n that design value will induce more air.ed·drafi: Wh""tl the he~ght of Ai.'!dlOllt in1'Iie.thlll· COlil1l8cllcm :~Jon and $t.g ative inside the firebox.w.o 1:n. is thlil Il'l&st 'Ii:'omIi'iQ.43 69.1 in.eoreU· CII!]}' n'l.(Figure 2).s8.M S.n:I\lgllQiJt. oollwol i~ illl]flfl1l'i::9n in the se he-.J.l]Jwn into t.Air'. the hoeatees ool:l\~{l:Ctio~:section and the' th'EI aiF is..15 89'. fluagaA'9R ~nC{!unter '[ri<tion" 6A6.H is l'itad ~le'igM i~~ p ~s 1'IIt· root. <1$ the air . pel' 10 feet Oilbox height in daiE': :radiiaDt sectien .l gasel'i inside the firebox ilnd .h..!Qyanc!>.62 82..92 87.abo. d.ray:.62 12•601 811. M:'!Jst of these burners are partiallj· depende:nl'.24 83.07 &1 . :requiroo '~O create a .trifugal f.l[3.19 M.S'l1' ·84.l~II. It mate:r. as aU aaeurald.r . w.

(."00lwaoor is ()[:mtro~]ed by means of" lead to $32))®O in G. as j1!l8t disCLls-s-sd.the draft is COD" Theseprecautiens ©:lin.1.!lgef.nt1:y' safe. roa waste o{ of fridiQn h~s.h1l1stiun. 'it is Cl)1t"I f[!. th.>l.l"ge. eseept fur some minor ha. as well as da.balam::ed-.eg81ses aad thus masks tha~ ~rl51.ntai:D. The Eight .'e inside the .' 111. ~y~~~~ the draflloSiS across the a.. pressure at the arch.lg of ~.'(. ~Keep .]tand.s.1.[)losiol1 dornr closed 6 EThsm""€ there is.geneTati~]] of NOx emiss]:o.ft ro:ntrol iis required for emcie-nt (lorn1ru:. W. Inindl.11Qpe:I'!- mgs .r f the s beater One reliable mdication o:f air ]eilkag.h IIJldy $3!mill. .ess !:Iii' effectively.gthe stack damper reduces the fired-flea.!ltiv'€ pre.k. fOlded. the c(lmbin~tiQn is known as a balanced-draft.i:ntOl!iIril.afi become (XIslti'lfe' If it is instead . Thls value en- a_tin~rpel'8(1fine. Because the arch: om tbll'l ile-.hepeJle~rati(l{ns o<f the '~ube gu.B!Jtmosphoe.ire.ooIDiPl.!l.Ssa:fie .heailiereIlli:ures adequate I:h-aft far th~ burners nuillthra . the Jiit::tck. ean be eoatrolled to be nega.t notime eseape frem it.da.jtiVO.:I:i'e th-rnu:mhOlli. in fact.~~ in the mnvectiol1 .ailltpt'ofne st!]Jl)kdamper. On the other tion section...excess d~"atl.t~'h~~ 68!ri.e O~yg€:rn.rntei!:l at the.lliS. SWii£>.ndwii1hthQ Iindusioll in In a tYlPlocal il' p:t!eheatin.ti!(ll1.h.]\il"i!" th~ "'. where the burners De.e via t. typk8illy luea~edl.r can be ha_~aI'dotl~For oper- maintained atUle arch in all fired heaters.I:.fficioocy.i. can pCii' at'leakage area In natural (II' f(il~"C(!od·clJ'af1:!il 51I1"lll that tt~oo~ are tJ"g~t en th<f he~d!er bl'l:.ll' preheatee eould be ~n.~: ]:\h~e:~~~ wm 11:1 iFan.1:0I.epreauctl.!:: ~n pifu. De sure that Wl'e ent.N.~dr"ft: VilhenboUl fl)]"cedihearth.:rt in the c(jm. W_IJ_ nfeROeSs.B.J.e 01.iLtst !be adju.i:ns~e2ld .of contr·oL A value of 0..l1l1el' (F.~t'..a.di®.~tsees the highest 8!:bsolute pre.ll..ating" system. davioo l inh~"e-:..FlI.d ha9!tars is V'al'y l:a.uild-lli. stack is rnadecnll.meji. the ]]!!trastc. draft.hiP' If d!:ra:i:t at Ute'~ heater will 'be at I1.Si.sted jojntliy.! the whole heater.l 4.Eng~neeringP'ractice lli.St':h i'<l~.ctur~.i~.!lith the IE! or FG' fan ]]lstaUa. This ail' doesnot ~~:ri. 'tlhe olil.g the all' regIster. ilfllile.. By CDc.'[od h~.jt I~].he ilw-nerB) r8!i:5!E!i5 t. the convecticn seetion.rtl2rgy cost in.Bt.::n.dmfito.ail' can ~~~lKlnti.ter draft.::i15lH:(> l:1. T~~..tive.fug and.a:rJJd.e8J.Air leakage A :Iked heater is [IOta pressure-tjght Typical hester eon:fi.refo·tJ1iWt heaters.I'e inc.'r!i)lilgtliD:!!l!t the fired! ~1illJlkH' n~~(lS thp.oCl.fl.eo:lter' iB lUl!lfOfill tImEitJ3ly} PDj.tiiO'n ofWn ~h~ I for a 1089 of this magnitude.e.atJeto· compensate for the draft-lees reQJl]L1"emellts. Most airpl"ehe!llltilJJg mgtaJllations are..draft P!!.m~. a:t high fiYX'J" Carbon mo:nflXide will be ilB!le. ~ 9~8'S IhOi:m:ll Ih<l.T. Ifthe conveet:ionoocti{l]] beco.m order to r:oegulate exc. the engineer tall. L!'aSei[::. III the f!r~t for the a:tsJcl:. showsa typ:icalbalanC€d-draft heater with an .. reduces HIe airflow out inereases l:h. air IliiliEiL be minimtlred :[(1. e.eed-dl:aft.i1ta.11'.l"'@h. the d.ete oo.mage to the fired-heater c8Jsinga:ndi overall 8t]'UCtUN~. EVeJ] with fu.ann(jt 001lr.P"'l'Ih~s01.W dlraw the fluegase..M.e size of th:e. the dalira:pe:r and l"e. the pressure drop $~~I'o" ~lIdl\.s]thre.l:ion.QtBl'Sin (!.]['he floo. (lone) obtrunthe eo.(l(m!\I'~tioli! seetlon in th.ides (wh~r:h hClikl.i!cl~m:l'uQed-cl.C:.te-l' dr8ift.e h.t.Qfile.cieTI!~(!(Il'11bns. minimal air .l. except far sorne special.. hut the leaked ail' {which does not hl:i1p !.e:r of 2:-6 in. a Qf ~ ~ <I_I!~ p:~~h~~r !..~f)d the dr~ft contll"'!)] is Vieryi1nportflJl.lead 'to 'Fhe stack by ~t5e1fc. an indueed-draft (lD) fan is previded {lill kip of Hte (lryfl ved:io:n secUm1. the areh dr.e. di. ~tfQT!1J.b.t all times th. in.i!ft <IT. In. balanced draft.SIJI"e.. and the ID fan takes can: of flue. wOIiJ.p€Iiiffiate dl'acIt needed oonlla:i.o:peratioll 3Jnd.nd to the section and i'iitac:.we.O:l11y used R-G a point . In these ~yste:(I'!LS. ~IlSU."!.ftllpeepholes elesed {U 1'>.. oooltent ol't1etlu. gen levela .e ~~. dta.:llvai]abJe tp it.nd.i!ons an be found in chemical p!f~S c plants: . positive pressure inside a The dr.r~ck.-'. E'Xcess. crilly urnumru ail: le.a:h]e flame s. ]. wh~ih houses t~ t1. experience draft title W the £ita:ck e:fJed in the radiant section. 'File :resulting ]]egative pressl!ll. are used !3! fiu-eJ heater. Instead. FlQIUF!lE m Fan 4. li'ariatims assneiated '!. admittedly encounter resistauee due tn the t1Ub~5. Mt g-asl!!l fllJD1J ~M fi:rebM: elm l~_~'" . eJ. and tlJ take ca.sat one :.e..'efficiency improvement.ltl'l@ heat~]~ thr'(l]. air must oolllr~v:lded! tt! ~n b~ ~OO'Il froJjl the. gB:S diil>pooru.isinsufficient. downfired. hut gain SOlnEl draft dua w the height of'this section.stems.e air to them .gu~aHoms 8eve'"ml heater and d3mli'e].g system..F'i_gu:I.elIpr.reil'leffi.lnt d~'f.akag. Iiegati. iHbe &~"n unib<.llgh.ern~fl:fh... . mindmize air lcElkllge into .!.ig1ll1\83).rr-ed and d. fall h~to tl'ds cawglJry.iol'I.rOil[t]n'terSIF.1bing U bends in the convec- trolled by[[) fflln.e) into the ..stack height provides Lhebkep~:.showi:ng tip in.coll:l:~:igura. the st:ack controls the draft If the damper is do!>ed tee fat'.r iJf the hearer or the Clo&in.vepr~$~'LH~.seetio'trl ~Qe~ up and the draft at the arch C'8ifi.t.ail' ]). iJJ stru.c.n.mibUL:lltiO'n. Sli:rnjJar1y in the stack.ait@l' has tl~~highest pr®S. beoomepo. the FB fan suppliestheccmeusticn all.1. faet.bllrn.fluiti tube.eother types ofheaJets ~tasye similar pl['(}fil8B..1 1[1" W.b. cause fluegas leakEige.~eakage. and: .Ies that iliff! hot fluegaoos wil] ·< ~P:~:~~II:!~~~lJL:. • Keep the ex.Ju)'(ild.0£m. lff"'itb acress th~t .eneT"ID' daetn .s out ![If lliefired he.e is The typical dHtf~ proiHe fOT a balanced-draft heater appeaes in Figure 5. wJ. is t)'pieally thahMte.a flred heater: • M.l\ch·Qf the he~.IHlI of CO even.esi:. AI'.l_gh 1'l. and DEll· anced-draft heatere. system..

w'Uh.$ mOlY cl~ctCl~e u~ing a the draft Hcaters \.. [pose.[}~eddrive (VF'D) fur that purg. having beeJ]. in these burners. S@Jlle ]nsmllatioJ':L8.Imeu'kedly all(lnig ~J9 lm~ri9hl d thll ~ired p c IliIli!a~f.ed 3!11:! the mJlJst. wltha m<l]luaU}. with single oElJ!ilultipJe offtake damperso:fthi:s t.: Mvst Illed heaterainstalledia the last 30 years fu1]inthis categmzy. aDd balfliiloeil.. The damper ia.[!. The burners installed l:n these heaters '\l.·()l paneL I tOf...ed.d.pel': Ueat.ioltl in- loss ttluay.1lo tille Itell! cd'~he 'IIIal'll.w-Nfu.d FUJiUI:E 50 i1flhe g:lls~~ress'l.Siti'! oCG~rom in EUr(l~T wb~re the Ioeal ~Ih. the dI:r~ftcon· heater wUl~ lW st. Pl.i.Gen@rally.v{li-dany fan is instead provided with .ersi.k~y."dl'afi fired heaters.ilel b1i:n:~. ln s()meo beenthus ]llodlifi. Mu].~J':p-ically {l'per.t a C@ft!t.air-preheating systems In both IFIGURE6.gracl~. If severa'i hea~er$ are ~nted thw~'!Jhtl1e-5ame ~ot<. Such staeks arebesed!.~ variimbslanee'l C:.d!a:r:~p.Hle 'Ii!re5$Ufe SULek: a10 high <lJl 200 to 300 R. Due ..llIedi.ent.:tfO nCfW pattern in the furnaee.(lk .Ire. inl~t-:box di1l:m~I' 00 control the draft.lin! se~IIr:!'. also.ll an ex~ertH'lpooj.'l])C1 are of pOOl· qua1tty. C(Io. (it number of be~erf) g~ C!)~- harve <IJ\I1FID nn t.ate.type fired heaters beaters that U:il€ III faM tomaintai-n the dr~:l_li. the dra:fitis cOlltrolTIed such hS!8Jten>. at the burner the premix tip). as discussed e_ar~ OO>t::al11>'l re)Jlac{:d by either lQ.. The damper is pn:1V ided w ii. v. fired 11ea. . a <:>ont~olof tliie dr'ailit b~mes eSp. the winch is calibrated.tiple efftake dampers should 'b9 [IJ!:o'v:ldoo withal'Q.nto n_l~ whiCh m:il-l~T the f1.hat cnuld change' the flueahle·s.~m.t:ionaJ tothe ~~p:I'€<:l91!l If'l.A!llIholllglii not obviCl!!!!5 ~rolill thi5H~!. with staek dampers~0pmv:id!e I'egj[lil'ed dratl.liIatJli. 'I1U!' lID suetien 1. 'iN hieh eonneetthe ton vee.aintamed: .p'€F. these heaters need to be fitted.'e 8\ ThioSGOnfi. .U:NlS. hUTIl.talla:ti. O'pel:!ired! Br. An.ThesedampfiiI:S should be replFlOOd wIth maee-eeliable 'i'ers:i{)n~.1)ns.S~. tlld iis IlIll>ga~i'Ol\e ~lbelaw ailfllliDsphenc pfe!i~!.t. a winch.'eSSll~ illdikJlated.- bnthversiOIlS.e~nm] grade.e keat:er8wi:tlicO'mJJtonslack: SlI!:'Iri]<i1'1y.k a..!l!.e~ell".:i~ btXliHTI!C ofiRWl'I):Eilly. type were built 111.m. the operated unifo. However.Heme.orn. and S(I'IDe<1.l'e fi:r€di be'atm~ ats the d11CtWQ\I'k_ C!i:lnn~wd thrmlgh In these ins.ters tha~ ba:ve l~.eil'5 ·Q'~·!r'aw-!Iliae nDeB {in g~~ ~ndl . The-two types 01 number of ~bin.~ in the A firing oondiit:iQn nf one heater 1:1IIn affed tile draft in all th€: oUter heaters :alid. lTH~an8 ofacable and.. the fans are sta]]edi In. in 80111J. the 195Ds and l:96©s.r. 1:~(I . require their l'eadjiustm. as w!'!I! as :!l..quipped!. Ifeatel'S w~lh offia:ke dmm:pers: A lfe«i!eTwHh ill ian. .t is O(mUIH). fnrm gr-ad.I:'I' ilh. Fired diester. the~llrfi.!. OM.['IeI'.the aJmO~l1ltof air ina.Ucalaxl$ Iitl 1hls 1ilglJre)~hrougiIl!Q!1Il'almostall of It."et~ typ~calLY'of th. w.glH"atioI!.a.ern so as to make adjustraent to trQl beeomes tr.ruists of ha:ving a manual lOoa(jimg wh.. aa to . ffi severa 1 ~llistall:!il- lions. Operatees tel.p~rated is automaticiSiUy pro:pof.ritJh In fansare gen!!!raUy large.(lW. t}le Q'J:'ftakes instead (If stack. abmg . In sueh (!i. h(IW. ny ch.e'tl'!Ji@r anually m @:r~'tm'I$!itic O!pe:l'. unlike ers.ieejally oompll!CaJle. the daJil1pers are 11]by the f<!l_D. 55how!1lhete\.cack damper. alternative drafts. are draft-dependent.e.lre..!1J t1t'i most such he-. ISCI tt is especiallyimpertant that tneOOI'l:"ect draft be m.rm. Fuxt:bermore.(h"€r tim~.e 01'a. be roluetantwtioucn th. m ths eentrol ream.$.~}eontrol nected to a commQI1 stsek (Fi:gw.rin.d to. Therefore.c. Urtit. nificant sources of fired~heater 'energy have an automatic draft eontrnl system fur each heeler.k. and the at ~he1igp of 1tJ.l~!llJII1:stan!teS. de<l:ig. is! part!lcu]al..e ~to1d!:i$ >sligh~ly pQ.e:l's of Tn fan. tien secti~l:'!s to the st::lick.l 1.th1iJY often gel.ime i:11lll1a_inf'LlUy open.e r(l~ile varties.t-i. in the he~tler ate:: lndluredwith long convection sediO'DS I:U'€ draft fired heaters.

dr. H~ bas published !'o"E!r-id p<lrpeI"~ (In ·I. faIIQ~erl. :&efi:nEiQ" S!e:I"I'WtMAROH 200<1. For example. keep the stack damper :.fe:I'e:lltiaJI pressure.e(r·1iP.e. . .md heatl!if"S . Ma.m CombuaIii.) men .He ate send the signal to the control room. fotusii1>g IUlPO'nthe :IUBS sure! .couveetioll section.COM .t ElL.nstallillg .girentent is among the mod OOIDmOD .). r~d. Heater .i. P.EI.. pI'l:!!9£llre-me 3lSuroamii!ot and other problems in the past.u. DraU.As noted abcve. the oilier draft gage$.~ and eombustten ~]I~t~ml>.aft 'C0liUo. One control scheme is shown lnFligure B. adrvanced approach jjil. each gage deawhaek is that most (Jf'the points not .ny plants using ail:'prehi...rtant th~t the gages have a cerrect range. Houatsn..Oii HandbooK. Tel: 2S1-980-03:2&.~ magaziRcs.KaJ!lpol.a:r~ as shown in. For instance.llnrea .age. 'lin.aI. in this case. .... elT.(1 iJle peirol~_lm refi. A reg. 1986_ 'E!ngilii:!~f :i.An.omaJIlc co:ntro~ syslt:eml.f'uUlm. a. .1'S a.every time the stack damper is tliljusitid. .ga'gfi anllmOl.~lly fisld-installed ....l~.Il:.Illo. this ~'ark . and melee repairs or modifications as needed. API ~t1bwmmi~o(Il~ R~t hRIlJ9&r. but it requires the operatorw npen . Fu. .U1n& and.IJlM at the COD·' or vectiooll section inlet iii likewise reeommended. in t:h:is case. thE! damper should be ~pt fully elosed.t every Mlllt<"hJ. to install pressure transmitters at the arch and signed so that the damp zs move to the Jl()51tl:(lU !ill' dried by the purchaser in the event of control signa] failure 01" .l3.lind! NOx L:ruiBsilmS reductio!1. The blades sheoldba of equal area. and they should be de- starts recirculating back into the sys'bern or the bot fluegas leaks into the atmcsphere. he has beQII WII:h .trDlelln'l htstitute's API 560 code specifies severalreqaire- instailation option»: Tl1ereare several prevalent CQ:DnectiO:D 9~ can ments WI..ailUf€ to meet this simple req. :l:i. a tight.CHE. The eode also calls .Cl'ofl·sthe.h. D\flmp~:r operation :liS eilipeda1ly eritieal if the heater has an fIl1J:" preheating system.' UI9 mUl"tnaelll Im.g. an arrangement witlhtwo g.gl3.fOorhe damper cent 'trois te bel pI"QV:idedwi.- Eng~ineering Practice the large number of burners and ~(I peepholes in large heaters.r-ch: Having at least two. it Is impo. ·twa t<lpics in b:ad. gagssat the heater <. I.i1'le. !i!tppeajr611!~ FIgure' 8 Stack damper JI'IeHabiiUty The Ame. by :!III![I:~garg 2BI-EOO-43H3' rl:ssi.tic dr.'be:r f (If pet.Ohi.fI gt-~d. Regan:Uess of the installation option and its motion should betested eve-ry two weeks. "H. An ilJUt. Burueea for Fbred't.nther be made locaHy.' at Furnace imp!"(IVl'!. either cold iluegas.era.i:F.oocm).l Improv'llme!Itl'i. are u s1!l.i. " " are recemmendad fot th~h!l$ .Na-w Thill1ii.l.eof Tecimology.aisevel'al points on aj'liI~ed heater (lefI) •. 19".and clesevalees 'every time the draft mInt 00 checked.Illeel. 4... ]sttol!r fml1's be. for the fear of"it getting stuck. {.rd:l. .d $e>'~l yealll.illI.wn.IJ[obllems found with fired heaters in the field.. ConV'edion section ezil: Oage£i here serve to.~.h. right above the stack damper. if.hoo. A third veriation. DfJ!'aft eentrol Co:ntr1l11ing:' draft requires the followlUg Instruments and hardware: Draft gages: These gages are simple instruraenta designed :to meli.e .As art ancl began his MINI:" l1JS ~ or O:OXpel:i~JJi~ e III tt"!)'iII- H~ bEt_~ al· But aaa result. is w{)["lcingproperly.1l1.ause a. Alfhoug'h autematic draft eontrol ofbBn sufFeted fr-om J:ampel'-qua]ity. Richard J" ""Niwtll AU)I">I'LC:.eati1.~4i1r floor FI~l'{rJ. Flh~[l1 He1i!oe-1f!I faT fiell.mentll Tex.. the operation advel'S ely.!b~!I.." No!lrth Amel~ican Mig.e.U!eIiog :fi'?JiIlI Indian Isb~_!t. The m1n:imum recommendation is one draft . improvements in equipment quality have vemoved these I'i ska.Ji. @b.eaters extemal jI(lsitien indicators.Apr COOe·5.l practices for .r:ican Pe.1. single draft gag. Auromao.'.CUIRES 7 i(I:eH" AND 8.uWsh (~at'g ls a !lenior 'Ilhwtlilc!ll \! gag.aOOV'i:! and below the d.!l: ef fin:.nee:L'ing.3 (I Y'3 at·1l (BugaJ:' Land.istoered . Typical draft-gal!!!e locations in a fired heater' . thril draft upstream and downstream will change..rart'tO'[" dif. RoDen: D" ~F'I):r:ilace Operations.tive foroo failure.r eommonly employed is til manifold all the cO'n· neetiens and install a.f':[ COO~ 500.alllpera. AIChE.and! eIght. make sure it. mil<3~ .e h_aJdg~. high draft tan I"~iidi!y affed.8.ftoor: A minimum of two gages ~~iOi'i 1R1ii:!iIii1il .tJl>l! ~.' Gulf rlitlli !l.~Ii~ '&S ~ K1'l . . with their movements epposed. it requires (line blade fDI' every 13 ft2 of internalcI"o is-seetien area." a good stack damper.~. Titis option is economical.ampex'J is useful in monit. 111- 6..snr€: d. Figure 7. [mila.~asil1 areell!sibie. A. oI!n_s. to. 2. draft ]1] f'iiIlBd he3'ter.acting damper should be ·employed.'OOheflllcuJ indtlSlmei . tn~ l4) ReoOO. yeli. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING W\W/. Instead."O"'J!' li'(!'t~· pa.ere he provides ~B~i~. bl""hD"ti:n. qll!ick. • Editfld lzy Ni.oclJ heB.dwias P_ CJwp~r ABh. 00" Cleveland. rath. ROoUl of these scenarios C". Illil liim'l!"lO!lia r.e_tI"~ iJ~ . cheek the tOilral draft less 8. a common approach is tebring all the pneumatic) gage conneetions 00 ~wounil!Ieve]. and then instaIl separate draft gages tlier@. U is abo important to cheek the tjtack d.dight1y open. los'll of e:fficiency.'Ofesl!ljallal E!1lgLnGG1f" rui:d .s can he controlled auto mat! eally.. m.l. Further Reading: 1.oring the stack damper movement . he is !I mEO"nl.