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Zog Trim : For identification, our spaceplane is named Zog Trim which means the valiant bird.

The words Zog Trim were taken from the Albanian language. Our spaceplane is built more economically than other spaceplane. Our goal is to provide transport for travel to sub-orbital, low-cost spaceplane, and provide opportunities for the public to go to the sub-orbit. Our design concept is based on airplanes that has jet engines and rockets, and can carry passengers with the maximum number of four . Passenger : Zog Trim is able to accommodate up to three passengers and a pilot. Which means the maximum number of passengers is four while, the minimum number is only two people. The cabin space can accommodate up to two people and the cockpit can only accommodate two people. Jet Engine and Rocket Power : We are using two jets engine and two rockets (air-breathing rocket). The jets engine and rocket engines are capable of carrying high loads to the sub-orbital. Jets engine and rockets are used during take off and only the jet engines are used during landing. We are not using liquid oxidiser for rocket because it is too heavy. Instead, we use air-breathing rocket technology whereby oxygen is extracted from atmosphere, compressed in a tank and mixed with liquid fuel to produce thrust. With this, the overall weight of spaceplane can be reduced up to 40% and also save cost. The oxygen conductor ducts are equipped with valves. When the oxidiser gas tank is full, the valves will close automatically to prevent further air entry. Rockets and jet engines are controlled by an electronic system where they can be turned on and off whenever neccessary. Each rocket engine has two chambers and use liquid fuel, gas oxidiser and hydrogen as a propellant. We prefer to use liquid fuel because it can be controlled and can be restarted and it also produces a lot of thrust. With this, Zog Trim is able to reach the sub-orbit. The basic principles of the jet engines are similar like the others: the outside air is drawn into the jet, which is compressed then mixed with fuel, burned and exhausted at high speed with producing thrust. Turbo-fans add an additional set of spinning blades in front of the compressor. Much of that air bypasses the engine core, adding plenty of extra thrust without using more fuel. This causes the jet engine and rocket to propel Zog Trim with high speed. Even if it is carrying a heavy load, it still can achieve its maximum speed. Maximum Altitude : The maximum altitude that can achieved by Zog Trim is 110 km from the sea level. It is the place that called sub-orbital. It is parallel with our aim of building the Zog Trim. Take-off Method : We will use horizontal method to take-off. The take-off of Zog Trim will be at International Airport. Firstly, the jet engines will accelerate up to 350 miles per hour on the airport runway before take-off. When it reaches 350 mph, it will take-off to the sky. As the weight of Zog Trim has been reduced up to 40% due to no liquid oxidiser, the take-off will more economical as less energy is needed during take-off. During the flight in the air, oxygen is extracted from the atmosphere and compressed into the oxygen tank that has been provided at the tail of Zog Trim. After a jet engines drives the Zog Trim to a height of about 10km from the sea level, the main wings will immediately rotate 60 degrees anti-clockwise for the left wing, 60 degrees clockwise for the right wing when viewed from above. Over 40 percent of the original size of the wings will be shortened. This can reduce the frictional force when Zog Trim in space. Then rocket engines will be ignited and the liquid fuel mixed with hydrogen and produce a powerful blast and strong thrust and drive Zog Trim to a height of 30km and then fuel stops mixing with hydrogen but mixes with the gas oxidiser that extracted from atmosphere. At 70km altitude,the rocket propulsion system is then slowed down as the planes inertia carries it on to over 110km, enabling passengers hover weightlessly for some minutes and to witness the most spectacular view of Earth via the window and panoramic sunroof. Landing Method : After several minutes of hovering in the sub-orbit, the pilot will drive Zog Trim back to earth. Automatically the power will be increased so that the rockets speeds up to 7000 meters per second until it reaches an altitude of 20 km. At a height of 20 km from the sea level, rocket engines will turned off and Zog Trim will driven by using the jet engines until it lands at the airport runway. When Zog Trim enters the air space of the earth, immediately the first parachute will opened and the wings will be expanded to original size to increase the frictional force to slow Zog Trim down. At the moment, the all aeliron of both wings will be extended to increase frictional force. At 10 km altitude, the first parachute is released. At 800 meters altitude, the second parachute will open, the wheeled landing gear is released and Zog Trim will land safely. Uniqueness : The main wing can change its size and shape which can by expanding and reducing its size. The wide wings are suitable in air traffic and during landing while the short wings are suitable in space. The wide wings are used to increase the level of friction in order to reduce the impact on the earth's surface during landing. Other than that, the technology that we used, air-breathing rocket also one of the uniqueness. This not only a new technology but able to reduce overall weight and energy required during take-off. Zog Trim also has panoramic sunroof whereby allow passenger to view the beautifulness of the sub-orbit.

Britol Members Picture Name/identity card Puan Azlena bte Rabu 690221-01-5136 Picture Name/identity card Hairul Shameen bt. Ismail 940512-05-5436

Mohd Rethauddin bin Rejab 940914-05-5455

Nur Faizatul Syafika bt. Mohd Fauzi 940723-03-5398

Muhamad Noor Hakimi bin Mohamed Rozali 940615-14-5311

Fong Keng Hong 940406-10-5049

Nur Diyana Aznur bt. Mohd Azhar 940103-05-5312

Nor Nia Farah binti Mohd Sharif 940405-05-5422

Noor Nadia bt. Kamarudin 940910-05-5546

Nur Atikah bt Lokman 941013-14-5490

Muhammad Safwan bin Shariff 940113-08-5507

Britol Group Britol Group is guided by Puan Azlena bte Rabu. She is a responsible chemistry teacher. Britol Group consist of ten members and lead by Mohd Rethauddin bin Rejab. We are representatives of Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Seri Pagi.We all are form five student. We work in a team as well to ensure that we do the best and our teacher, Puan Azlena always gives us encouragement and say we can success. For identification, our spaceplane is named Zog Trim which means the valiant bird. Zog Trim words taken from the Albanian language. As we already know, research on spacecraft to take tourists into sub-orbital being conducted. Tourism into space is to become a profitable industry billions of dollars once the spacecraft is safe and economical construction. Apart from the NASA Space Shuttle and Russian Soyuz, no other vehicle capable of flying leaves the atmosphere and return safely. Shuttle is a very expensive purchase. Therefore, we have been designing spacecraft, named ZogTrim for a spacecraft for travel to sub-orbital. Our goal is to provide transport for travel to sub-orbital, low-costspacecraft, and provide opportunities for the public to board