THE CRUISE INDUSTRY

THE CRUISE INDUSTRY The cruise industry is a highly profitable international activity, and the fastest growing sector of the travel, tourism and leisure industry. The cruise industry has gone through significant changes from the days of transoceanic transportation and tropical vacations only available to the domain of society¶s elite, to the modern multimillion tourism and leisure industry that offers an affordable vacation option and a level of comfort difficult to match for the average citizen, with a number of people cruising that seems to grow every year in the world. A relatively reduced number of cruise companies compete for world market shares in different ways, developing innovative commercial strategies and investing multi-million dollar budgets in the research and development of state-of-the-art vessels able to combine the elegance of high quality living spaces with the cutting-edge technological concepts needed to provide stability to these new floating hotels, pushing the boundaries of naval construction and design to the limits for exceptional navigation performance and liveboard comfort while maintaining the highest standards for safety and environmental management systems. The modern cruise industry offers an option for everyone, exceeding the expectations of its customers, with an also growing number of companies specializized in offering more choices and alternatives, including smaller cruise ships, yachts and sailing vessels that carry out from ten-thirty to a few hundred passengers to exotic and, sometimes, remote destinations and regulated ports, prohibited to larger liners because of the concerns about what the influx of thousands of travelers would have on the local environment. This section is dedicated to provide background information on diverse aspects related to the cruise industry and its significant contribution to the world economy in terms of investment and job creation, including also its positive and negative features, and a series of important unsolved economic, social and environmental issues; offering different subsections arranged by subject-heading topics according to the following index. A crisis-resistant industry with a diversified offer of airlift options and modernized port structures that have open up cruising as a vacation alternative available for an increasing, more affluent customer base, offering a exciting, eventful, relaxing and definitely enjoyable experience for millions of passengers from across the world each year. This dynamic sector is continuously expanding its offer of products and services, and developing new markets, with an average 8.5% annual growth in the last 20 years, and nearly 90 million passengers since 1980, 60% percent of whom have been generated in the past decade, in a tendency that shows no sign of slowing, with 13 and 13.5 million passengers in 2008 and 2009, compared with the 12,6 million in 2007, and that is expected to continue through the 21st century. In terms of capacity, the cruise industry has also experienced unprecedented development since the turn of the century. During the 1980s, around 40 new cruise ships were built and put in service, followed by other 80 vessels along the 1990s, and a 40% increase between 2000 and 2005 that will be completed by and additional 25% of new state-of-the-art units to replace ships that are expected to be withdrawn in the next years. A multimillion investment into new, more innovative and ever-bigger vessels capable of carrying up more than 3,000 passengers, offering lower fares and shorter cruises to benefit from economy of scale and onboard activities such as multi-story shopping centers, restaurants, cafés and pubs, nightclubs, discos, casinos, art galleries and museums, theatres and cinemas, libraries, personal care areas and spas, gyms, swimming pools, tennis courts, ice skating rings, and a long etcetera of amenities to meet the changing vacation patterns of today¶s market and exceed the expectations of its customers with practically a cruise option for everyone. A fleet compossed of several hundred large cruise ships carrying millions of passengers plies routes in all geographical areas in an expanding range of more than 500 destinations worldwide, with the Caribeean cruises as the favourite ones, followed by Mediterranean cruises and European itineraries that visit diverse popular ports and cities ± Barcelona, Venice, Nice, Athens and the Greek Islands, Monte Carlo, Istambul, London, Amsterdam, the Scandinavial Fjords, Helsinki, San Petersburg, etc. ±, including also the opportunity to enjoy places not included in the usual offer presented by other travel and tourism service providers, such as Artic and Antarctic regions. Indeed, the cruise industry has increased in popularity all around the world, serving an heterogeneus clientele with well-differentiated expectations and preferences in the Asian, European and North American markets. This phenomenal growth has also created the need for more efficient managerial, organizational and planning structures to best the increasing competition and deal with the many changing factors in an also evolving market that generates over $15 billion every year ± 79% of which corresponds to the North American and British markets ± and hundreds of thousands of direct and indirect jobs around the world, yielding an indirect multi-billion dollar annual benefit in diverse industrial sectors in all the world (nondurable and durable goods manufacturing, professional and technical services, travel services, financial services, airline and transportation, and wholesale trade). CRUISE INDUSTRY CONSOLIDATION In the other hand, the growth of the cruise industry has been severely conditioned by diverse events, such the Achille Lauro hijack in 1985, the Iraq and Kosovo wars, and especially the aftermath of the September 11 attacks, followed by an accentuated process of restructuration and consolidation in the sector. Renaissance Cruises was the first company to fill for bankrupcy on 25 September 2001, followed by American Classic Voyages and other four companies reflecting ten well-known brand names, ceasing operations and leaving the market wide open for the largest cruise companies ±

GENERAL ANALYSIS AND OVERVIEW General analysis and overview of the modern cruise industry and its development in the last decades. Over the last decades, the modern cruise industry has responded to extensive market and consumer research with the presentation of innovative naval design concepts, new ship lengths, ever more exotic destinations around the globe, and new on-board and on-shore activities and themes, developed to offer a vacation alternative that satisfies the expectatives of everyone. CRUISE INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT The cruise industry, which modern version dates from the 1970s with the development of the North American industry, has experienced an increasing process of popularization, becoming a major part of the tourism sector, and reaching a level of enormous significance worldwide as an economic factor. The modern cruise industry is also one of the most outstanding examples of globalization, with an increasing number of ports of call and destinations around the globe, a multinational clientele and onboard personnel from every continent, and a level of detachment from communities and nations never seen before in history, with important economic, legal, environmental and social implications.

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these organizations. Nowadays. land-based resort hotels. videogames. such as Bingo and casino gambling. and their clientele comes mostly from these same areas. for instance. cruise ships offer an increasing range of shipboard stores and boutiques. and historical and cultural based tours. Liberia. The cruise ship industry has also shown an ability to establish and maintain effective relations with the land-based tourism industry. developed by Norwegian Cruise Lines and adopted by other companies operating mostly in Caribbean waters. with excursions to natural. etc. open and available round-theclock while the cruise ship is docked. is the undisputed leader in the sector and the most profitable leisure company in the world. labour laws and safety and environmental regulations. cruise passengers usually receive a map to illustrate about the most recommended itineraries. adventure tours. Moreover. competing and forced to undercut one another to successfully secure a contract with a cruise company. guided excursions and port lecturers. Cruise companies have also introduced diverse practices to attract customers to spend their money. In addition. around 65. the bargaining power and capability to take advantage of economies of scale present in the cruise industry are also affected by the size of the market in two different and contradictory ways: a) the presence of a few shipbuilders and techology developers in the industry forces the cruise companies to accept the prices and costs offered to them. Most of them provided and managed by concessionaires and subcontractors. ecological and biosphere reserves.THE CRUISE INDUSTRY Carnival Corporation. those same stores and business have had to pay an upfront fee or agreed to share a certain percentage of the passengers¶ purchases. including a monopolistic control over local stores and services. with the consequent additional benefit in the form of positive referrals to other potential customers. In the early 1990s. cruise passengers are also encouraged to take part in a growing number and variety of auxiliary onshore activities. UK).000 guests at any given time. and protected areas that include wildlife viewing. In the same way. cybercafés. with a strong educational component derived from the opportunity to visit museums and monumental heritages. cruise fares are currently just another element in the complex mosaic of commercial relations around the cruise activity. Marketing. Royal Caribbean Cruise Limited and Star Cruises ± to consolidate in a process of purchasing and merging of companies giving birth to enormous corporations that control about 80% of the cruise market worldwide. In 1990. CRUISE INDUSTRY REVENUE The main revenues in the cruise industry are generated for the most part from cruise ship passengers. In the other hand. Bemuda and Bahamas to obtain a series of benefits and advantages that allow a better economic balance and competitiveness derived from more favourable standards concerning taxation. and diverse revenue-generating schemes in passengers¶ cabins (interactive multimedia and TV. the increasing purchasing and bargaining power of cruise companies has a significant impact on the providers of these services. althought the corporate offices of the main cruise companies are located in the United States and Europe. approved by the cruise company on the grounds of good prices and guarantee of quality. Silversea and Raddisson Seaven Seas. The time when onboard shops provided a few items to complete passengers¶ luggage. Such a reduced number of companies allows them to watch closely for potential commercial threats in a constant competition for a clientele influenced by general economic conditions and with other vacation alternatives. fuel and food products allows them to bargain for the best prices. b) the large number of suppliers of equipment. are incorporated and have most of their fleet registered in Panama. etc.000 shipboard employees and 170. such sightseeing vacations. with a growing number of strategies for generating onboard revenue. However. there is an increasing offer of shipboard activities and services. As a result. Cruise-based tours of several hours while the ship is docked at a port of call or anchored a few miles offshore. in extra-tariff and alternative restaurants and bars. contracted with local concessionaires and local tour operators to be later sold to passengers onboard. etc. cruise companies began marketing a diversity of onshore activities and services. minibars. Never to return. which has a decisive influence on diverse aspects and strategies related to organizational and management issues. with important barriers both to entry and exit associated with the extremely high cost of purchasing or selling a single cruise ship. which offer different themes and exciting activities: sightseeing. headquartered in Miami (Florida. Carnival Corporation. and willing to pay for it.). including a buying guide that identifies a listing of stores and commercial establishments in the area. which allows the industry to obtain an additional income from the difference between purchasing and selling prices of such products and services. In the same way. Among the companies of more modest size in the market are Crystal (subsidiary of the Japanese NYK). On-shore excursions and visits to ports generally provide an extra income to cruise companies. with different economical benefits by providing an alternative to traditional congested ports. other customers are interested in participating in all sorts of activities and experiencing the destinations to the fullest. and the ability to attract and maintain a clientele is therefore essential to its financial success. innovation and brand image are therefore vital elements in such a competitive commercial environment. resulting in a division of the cruise industry into well-differentiated sectors or market niches ± luxury. Since then. quite far already from the relatively inexpensive or initial all-inclusive vacation packages offered in the 1970s. premium and contemporary ± that offer diversified and targeted cruise products and services to satisfy both mass consumer markets. and key factors to succeed in a sector in a constant effort to find new sources of income and new strategies to maximize economic performance and profit. theme nights. satellite telephone services. some souvenirs and duty-free products was left behind long ago. with 12 cruise brands in North America. culinary workshops. Europe and Australia that operates 89 cruise ships. adventure sports excursions and diverse activities in privileged natural environments. USA) and London (England. the cruise industry has other alternative means to improve their economic results: reduction in their costs by economies of scale and implementation of improved management 2 . A situation that has given place to diverse strategies and plans to identify and specialize in the specific areas within this business framework. Thus. while many people go on a cruise with the intention of doing nothing more than relaxing and unwinding. and the high investment needed to maintain and manage a cruise line. interested in budget packages. Not everyone knows that to be approved and included in the listings. photography departments and art auctions at prices that compete with land-based establishments. spa and personal care services. computers and virtual reality centres. which eliminates any competition and provides a controlled scenario that ensures a positive experience to their clientele. these strategies and policies were taken to a next level with the introduction of the concept of ³private island´. Leaving aside onboard revenue. adventure sports. CRUISE INDUSTRY COMPETITION The volume of the cruise ship market is relatively small. as an integrant part of the shipping industry. thematic parks. and a distinctive clientele seeking the exclusive environment onboard small ultra-luxury ships. have become the largest growing source of income for some cruise companies.

offering. the central element of cruising is the onboard accommodation and services.65 billion. and not the cruise ship as a mean of maritime transport. many economies and ports in all the world look at the cruise industry as a potential source of development and economic growth. the cruise industry is looking for new initiatives to increase its clientele while maintaining the current market share. and the cruise itinerary. Moreover. the new cruise ships coming within the next years.100 crewmembers. Therefore. equipped with a full set of luxurious amenities. and the passengers that may embark or disembark the cruise during the route. its operating margins and profitability. when many companies redesigned their itineraries and destinations closer to the United States. and many other unresolved subjects claim to be taken in an ethically responsible way if the cruise industry is to maintain its quality of service in a framework of sustainability and competitiveness in the next decades. including also the predictable appearance and development of new large-scale companies competing for the emerging Asian markets. However. but as part of a whole of services offered by leisure and holiday companies. In addition. there are two clearly divided onboard areas.2 million passengers by 2012. based on the actual cost difference with other alternative vacations. cruise line companies have been ordering new and innovative ships yearly. In the other hand. this definition excludes cruise ships with itineraries between different ports. 3 . For the last decades. and aggressive pricing models and discounts to lure potential travellers. cabins ± rooms. and each company has its own strategy for coping with new challenges. functioning and objectives. While not immune to the current economic situation. There are diverse questions concerning the very nature of the cruise experience. including a series of innovative shipboard amenities and facilities in the next years. safety and health. Following this trend. 220. In the other hand. which would include. etc. more luxurious and innovative ships ever to be constructed. competing to offer a more intimate environment. more innovation in the entertainment offerings. with as many options as any land-based resort. with a cost of $1. the rising of fuel prices. Thus. which provide their passengers with a sensational environment and fully equipped leisure facilities. Thus.000 GT and a capacity for 5. these economic adjustments and changes will not have significant effects on consumers and their access to high quality cruise services. and cruises must not be considered as a mere travel between origin and destination. We consider that there are two main elements when trying to define the exact nature of the cruise experience: the onboard services and facilities. have placed orders for the largest. were ordered when the dollar had a more favourable exchange rate. Obviously. Nevertheless. DEFINITION AND CONCEPTUALIZATION The modern cruise experience must be defined and conceptualized on the basis of diverse interpretative criteria. multigenerational family travel. progressive concentration in the sector is expected to continue increasing. In a similar way. priority berthing and a percentage of port charges. Thus. and participation in the economic benefits of ports and port-related activities. also offer prospects for long-term growth. the current economic situation has made the companies in the sector reconsider their business plans. valued in more than 20 billion dollars to bring additional 85. In the same sense. including coastal and river cruises. modern cruise are compared to floating hotels. and which usually outnumbers the navigation and technical staff. threatening the survival of regional companies not specialized in a concrete market niche. meals and entertainment in the final price. Nevertheless. The Cambridge Dictionary (2005) defines a cruise ship as a large ship. and many cruise options from more than 30 domestic ports just in the United States and Canada. included in the Genesis-class vessels. including transport. In the same way. with a wide range of personnel in charge of hotel operations. with more and more holidaymakers interested in buying a cruise vacation every year. and some companies are already cutting back their fleet and revising their order plans downward past that date.400 passengers and around 2. new onboard activities. providing leisure and recreation services to its passengers.). For Cartwright and Baird (1999). and many companies have already announced plans to add new ports of call to existing and new itineraries. cruise vacations are more affordable than other land-based alternatives. environmental issues and concerns regarding living and working conditions onboard cruise ships. the current economic crisis and diverse armed conflicts and political instability that affect diverse parts of the world are taking their toll on this sector. accommodation. controlling costs and reducing part their staff. Amazon and Brazil. The growing demand for cruise services includes an also increasing number of tourist that appear to be choosing for new destinations and longer stays in the ports of call. the services. other companies cruise companies. most cruise companies and travel agents are expressing optimism for the economic outlook of the sector when looking ahead over the next years. the nautical nomenclature has been replaced by hospitality terms and expressions (decks ± floors. the definition focuses on the motivation. which have given place to different definitions and interpretations of the realities and aspects around the cruise industry and its services. the industry has to deal with diverse problems and challenges that adversely affect the demand for cruise vacations alternative and. Douglas & Douglas (2004) understand the cruise as a type of sea voyage in which the vessel travels from and to the same place. together with the design and construction of boutique-sized ships with a few hundred berths. infrastructure and personnel organization aboard cruise ships are key elements to understand this industry as a part of the maritime sector. and the consequent saving in airfare. there have been many initiatives from cruise companies to help economically in the building or improvement of port facilities and infrastructures in return for a future revenue-sharing formula. for instance. Nevertheless. In any case. which includes diverse and important particularities resulting from its special structure. which opened a market for diverse Caribbean cities willing to offer a reduction in their port charges or a bounty for each passenger to attract cruise ships to their ports. in some cases. the possible lack of new large cruise ships after 2012 is already been compensated by many companies in the framework of ambitious refurbishing programs to keep their fleets equipped with innovative onboard offerings to deliver a memorable experience to their passengers. providing a better road accessibility to the embarkation ports. the importance of routes and destinations that comprise a cruise itinerary should not be underestimated. In any case.THE CRUISE INDUSTRY systems (already mentioned above). consequently. For Butler (2003). Port charges have become an interesting source of income for the cruise companies since the 9/11 attacks. on which people travel on for pleasure. newer markets in Europe and the Middle East. onboard safety. more specialization in the offer of services. many cruise executives are convinced that the current situation involves a certain beneficial effect on the industry. PREVISION On a short-time basis. and in spite of the potential growth of the cruise industry and its capability to move ships and switch itineraries so as to adapt to the evolving demand. while smaller.480 berths into the market with estimated 4. Greenland and the Antarctic regions. as Royal Caribbean International. like a hotel.

etc. y Consequently. and even for those who consider themselves seasoned travellers. providing them with an excellent opportunity to promote and develop new projects and ideas to allure cruise passengers arriving yearly at their installations. with also different preferences and expectations. relaxing itineraries to remote sities and areas with less population density. In spite of the multiple and varied possibilities and combinations offered by the nearly 2. avoiding places and situations that are known to cause fear and anxiety among passengers (crime. cruise lines conduct surveys and studies focused on the experiences. aspects such as the physical structure and design of port facilities are examined to determine their compliance with international port security and safety standards. Cruising. y Innovation. views and degree of satisfaction of previous and current customers to determine preferences and objectives in their potential clientele. interested in more extensive. is dependent on an exact combination of already known options and destinations. wildlife viewing and adventure sports. preferences vary among passengers on budget. more than most vacation and travel experiences. In the other hand. choosing the right cruise itinerary or destination fitting the particular vacation expectations in each market segment can be a challenging task.). there are several factors and questions to be considered when designing a cruise itinerary: y The homeport and its accessibility as an embarkation point in terms of travel costs and hassles for passengers. formulating several hypothetical itineraries that will be carefully analysed. Thus. ITINERARIES AND DESTINATIONS Itineraries and destinations available onboard cruise ships.000 ports capable of receiving cruise ships around the world. diversification and variety of ports of call and destinations. with much more experienced and exacting passengers looking for unique. repeat cruisers are pushed by the desire to visit new destinations with innovative offers. in some cases. as a result of a general perception on multi-destination vacations as more beneficial in terms of saving time and money associated with the travel. To design a new itinerary. surround areas are an element to be considered in the case of cruises offering expedition travels. and veteran cruisers looking for longer itineraries to faraway places and experiences. which includes first-time passengers interested in short cruises to sample a holiday at sea because of the uncertainty of a new experience. In any case. y Surveys consistently find that the majority of cruise travellers search for a balance between the traditional tourist offers and new. and experienced clientele. y In the same way. premium and luxury cruise ships. although interrelated. is an exposure to new destinations and itineraries that offer the opportunity to experience and enjoy exotic places. there is a clear preference on visiting exotic. Europe and South Pacific. while the onboard facilities and recreation amenities are a very important part of the service provided by cruise companies. PLANNING Identification and evaluation of aspects to be considered in the planning and development of cruise itineraries. as well as longer stays at ports of call. fear of becoming lost. aspects of a same reality that conditions the efforts of a industry in a constant development and evolution to provide its clientele with larger and more specialized fleets able to respond to a growing demand for new cruise services around the world. there is a significant difference between first-time cruise passengers. entering or already established in the cruise market. activities and attractions that provide innovation and new experiencies. y In the other hand. which satisfy both individual and collective preferences.THE CRUISE INDUSTRY which has made itinerary planners to identify new and more attractive destinations to maintain and stimulate the interest of their potential customers. Asia. local political and social conflicts. and that includes experienced travellers and new customers. y First of all. remote destinations around the world. In the same way. site visits and consultation with local experts. and itinerary. we can define the difference between destination. Therefore. by visiting different places. innovative programs offering unusual and unique experiences. y The port and onshore facilities. with a demand for intensive itineraries and a variety of shore excursions and services. play a main role when considering a destination as a viable option within an itinerary. the cruise industry has updated its services by offering more flexible itineraries and trip options to attract and satisfy a much broader market segment. cultures and people in a fascinating way to see the world. forcing the executives in the sector to consider the target markets for each particular itinerary so as to achieve a balance between the number of cruise days and ports of call along it. An important part of the cruise offer and a crucial issue to develop and maintain a clientele. which offer the opportunity to explore interesting and remote destinations and geographical areas. which is accentuated in the case of luxury cruises. As a consequence. which can be especially challenging if we consider the fact that large cruise ships transport people of diverse origen and condition. An international economic activity with many implications that affect. including stops in countries and ports throughout the Americas. both onboard and onshore. unknown local languages and cultural practices. a successful itinerary planning to meet the different expectations of such a diversified market. In a first approach to the content of this section. To start with. Two different. 4 . Such a diversity in the demand for this kind of services has a decisive influence on planning strategies developed and implemented by the companies and operators in the cruise industry. ports and land-based tourism companies. terrorism. relating both the vessel and the passengers. some studies on destination demand show that a majority of tourists choose to visit more than one destination in their vacation trips. and minimization of the risk and uncertainty derived from the visit to a single and unknown destination. Therefore. with a diversity of possibilities. y The length and duration of the cruise. the opportunity to enjoy new more stimulating itineraries must be therefore considered as an integral part of the overall cruise experience. with multitude of options all around the world. covering multiple destinations grouped together by a cruise line. exclusive destinations. tourists accumulate more and more diversified experiences. and in the case of luxury cruises. which are the port of call scheduled to be visited by a cruise ship. infrastructures and services in each destination as an essential part of the final value of the cruise in terms of quality service and customer satisfaction. activities related to nature. including. which will influence the number of ports visited by the ship and the duration of the stay in each of them. among others. tourism experiences and strategies to satisfy the variable demand of an heterogeneous clientele. y Cruise companies are keen to provide the suitable variety of recreational and leisure services and facilities in an environment as controlled and safe as possible when ashore. which stimulates diverse forms of collaboration with port and local authorities in terms of investment in the more adequate infrastructures and services.

safety and services. In the same way. etc. nightclubs and discos. among others. oceans. business incentive cruises. The rapid growth and specialization process experienced by the cruise industry in the last decades has also affected the design and general aesthetics. every continent and region on Earth can be visited onboard a cruise or recreational ship. A cruise ship is a passenger ship used for recreational and leisure voyages. ports or archipelagos that would not support larger vessels. from problems to find a suitable date to meet the demands to stay at popular port. Thus.000 passengers. usually sail powered and generally equipped with luxury features. designed to provide specific services (ecotourism. Specific weather conditions in each geographical area. Mega ships are a new class of cruise vessel. with some units that routinely serve more than 5. MEGA CRUISE SHIP Cruise companies have answered the increasing world demand for this kind of services with the design and building of ever-bigger cruise ships able to accommodate more than 3. which include inflatable motor boats and. SMALL CRUISE SHIP Cruise ships ranging from motor or sail powered yacht-like vessels to medium-sized classic cruise ships with a capacity up to a few hundred passengers onboard. providing the same level of comfort and the basic amenities as that of mainstream cruise vessels. marketed by most of the companies in the sector as floating resorts designed and equipped to suit the needs of the majority of cruise passengers. libraries. personal care areas with gyms and spas. offering more intimate and relaxing experiences than the larger mass-market vessels in less familiar destinations.THE CRUISE INDUSTRY y y y y Congestion in ports of call visited by the cruise.000 passengers. who demands the most diversified services with assurance of satisfaction and excellence. such as fuel consumption and port charges and taxes. operated by specialized companies to offer their customers an exclusive experience in remote destinations and waterways. and the next step in terms of capacity and onboard services. small inlets. activities and entertainment options are integrant part of the cruise experience. galleries and museums. and for instance. and along the last years. currently the largest and more sophisticated vessels in the world. These vessels have a capacity for 850 ± 3. equipment and amenities of modern cruise ships and recreational vessels to satisfy a clientele more and more numerous and sensitive to quality. even helicopters for expedition trips and shore landings. and include all sorts of standard resort features. Marketed to a very specific sector of clientele. with substantially more solid designs and more resistant structures to withstand the especially harsh conditions of ocean voyages in long and world cruises. a good number of vessels managed by companies and organizations unrelated to the cruise industry have been redesigned or adapted to offer cruise services to passengers looking for unconventional experiences. sea sports. shopping areas. adventure cruise ships are far smaller than mainstream vessels. conventions at sea. frequent problem in the case of destinations with small population density. single cruises. which becomes a very serious. Cost-related factors associated to the length of the itinerary. the Caribbean can be affected by hurricanes. OCEAN CRUISE SHIP A type of cruise ship built to more exacting standards than more conventional vessels. ADVENTURE CRUISE SHIP Cruise ships designed and equipped to provide services that include visits of remote destinations. including the most exotic. 5 . attractions. bars and pubs. and the Alaskan glaciers can be only visited during summer months. such as restaurants. in which the journey itself and the onboard amenities. from June through November. This section is dedicated to show the different types of vessels and ships designed to provide cruise and excursion services in seas. variables and conditions that have to be individually evaluated during the development process to ensure the safety and profitability of each cruise project before its startup date. Nowaydays.) or as the only way to navigate through waters. TYPES OF CRUISE SHIPS Types of cruise ships and recreational vessels designed to satisfy the most varied preferences and expectations. with many implications and difficulties. culture or history cruises. faraway places and secluded destinations. high standard features and luxurious comforts to meet the special demands of an exclusive clientele looking for longer itineraries and more exotic destinations around the world. sometimes. in what can be seen more than private expeditions than conventional cruises onboard vessels with an adequate level of comfort. rivers and lakes all around the world. size and overall onboard functionalities. Local regulations and bureaucracy. A main challenge for cruise planners. or in luxury and smaller cruises with the most exacting passengers on board. or adapted research or icebreaker vessels. to difficulties to find a berth. theatres and cinemas. senior cruises. such as the Arctic and Antarctic regions or coastal areas in ecological and biosphere reserves. most commonly out-of-the-way or inaccessible to larger vessels. materials. Specially designed ships. amenities and services.000 persons. casinos. the visited destinations and the time spent in each port. EXPEDITION CRUISES SHIP A wide diversity of interrelated subjects. LUXURY CRUISE SHIP Motor or sail powered cruise ships equipped with the most sophisticated and technologically advanced nautical systems. MAINSTREAM CRUISE SHIP It is the most common and popularly known type of cruise ship. swimming pools and other sport facilities. while providing solutions to the growing concerns about the cruise industry¶s environmental impact on marine and coastal communities and ecosystems.

THE CRUISE INDUSTRY RIVER CRUISE SHIP Always smaller than seagoing cruise ships. and newlyweds. the cruise experience consistently receives top marks from customers on a wide range of important vacation attributes. married.000. and people who have already experienced this service consider it as providing the best value for their leisure money. Within the last years. Typical. and environmental issues associated with it is not unique to this sector. Alaska. mostly through the attraction of budget holidays. 97% of cruisers are 25 years or older. and 7% to 8% have done so within the last three years. Hawaii. and 24% of postgraduates. around 15% of the total US population has cruised ever. with 65% of college graduates. y A cruise trip each three years among other three types of yearly vacations. and with annual earnings over USD40. the demographic profile of the average cruise passenger would correspond to a 55-year-old university-educated person. and the most of people frequently name the Caribbean. adventure. y Around 46 years old (down from 49 in 2006). y Travel agents (14%). with a 29% (2008) of people travelling with kids under 18 years old (from 13% in 2002). and around 25% interested in repeating the experience in the future. Europe and emerging Asian markets interested in spending their income in enjoying luxurious vacations. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Environmental issues are of key importance when considering the cruise industry and its impact. y 58% work full-time. CRUISE PASSENGER ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOUR According to statistics published by CLIA. relaxation and entertainment to passengers from across the world. Although the cruise industry represents just a small portion of the international maritime activity. with a 45% claiming the highest "Extremely Satisfying" ranking. with bigger and more luxurious ships designed to meet the also growing demand for cruising as a holiday option that offers beauty. usually with spouses or boyfriends/girlfriends (80%). The cruise ship industry has experienced an enormous growth in terms of popularity.000. Bahamas. the average age of cruise passengers has dropped of those potential customers of this service from North America. Details of the average cruiser in other countries are scarce due to the lack of research and data on this subject. Europe and the Mediterranean Sea as their favourite options. and many more in all the world. Mississippi. with important consequences and implications from the demographic point of view. attitude and behaviour of a younger and and increasingly more active clientele. There are several sources with a variable influence on vacationers when considering the idea of taking a cruise: y Word of mouth (45%). This means that 85% of US citizens have never taken a cruise. Nile. and a 25% enjoying this sort of offer in the companionship of friends. CRUISE PASSENGER PROFILE The demographic of the cruise market have changed with the new demands of a rapidly evolving world and social network. these vessels are specially designed to navigate rivers and inland waterways. y Magazine advertisements (10%). The proximity of embarkation ports are a considerable inducement to future cruising for around 70% of potential user of these services. Siene. people interested in taking a cruise generally plan their vacation four or six months out.000+. And. y Internet advertisement (10%). cruise ships and their passengers and crews generate a more significant volume of waste and pollutant 6 . which represents a remarkable upside potential for this sector. Long-considered idea of cruising (37%). as a result of the saving of money and hassles derived from not having to fly to embarkation points. and with a capacity for no more than a few hundred passengers. offering from exciting experiences onboard ultra high-tech units. y Travel magazines (13%). In 2008. There is also a high level of repeat cruise passengers. y Well-educated. and a 80% of them convinced that taking a cruise trip is an excellent opportunity to sample destinations and geographical areas before visiting them on a future land-based vacation. y Direct mail (5%). to nostalgic trips on paddleboats ships in rivers such as Amazon. What was traditionally a market for an elite class. Destination is one of the most influential aspects when choosing a vacation aboard a cruise ship. and based on a study conducted in the United States and the United Kingdom. The expansion and stiff competition in the cruise industry has make this vacation option into a more affordable product. and around 60% are very or extremely satisfied with their service. In any case. in accordance with this same study. CLIA offered the following profile of the average cruise vacationer: y Predominantly white/Caucasian (93%) person. DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILES Determination of the demographic profiles of the average person interested in taking a cruise as a holiday option. y Average household income of around USD90. y 83% are married. Once taken the decision. The 80% of cruise passengers book some of their vacation through local travel agents. seniors and retirees with stable income. Cruise prospects recognized the high value of cruise vacations. so the future of the cruise industry depends on and is inextricably linked to environmental performance and compliance. reflected in a series of changes in the composition. with more and more people interested in this offer in a growing tide that underpin the optimism that the cruise industry will maintain an increasing occupancy rate and future profitability. Yangtse. Nearly 42% of respondents say that travel agents provide a high-quality service. there are distinct information sources to be considered when planning the vacation: y Cruise websites (26%). and whether a first-time or frequent cruiser. Rhine. has become a luxurious travel and holiday option available for the family market. cruise passengers travel in pairs. The splendour of tourist destinations and their natural beauty are essential to maintain such demand. According to statistics provided by the Cruise Lines International Association (CLIA) in 2004. Volga. employed and with an annual income over USD75. with an increasing number of people indicating the intent to purchase a cruise. in a segment that represents about 44% of the total US population. y y y Spouse¶s desire (38%). Destination websites (38%). size and variety of destinations in the last years. with around 50% of customers taking a cruise yearly. Around 95% of all cruisers rate their experience as satisfying. On a comparative basis versus other tourism categories.

in some cases environmental incidents is accidental. which include viral and bacterial epidemics. from tons of oil and solid garbage to drops of oilbased paint that spilled into the water during painting of a ship¶s hull. etc. as required by operational procedures and allowed by regulations. reactivity and toxicity. especial attention must by paid to the pressure from coastal localities and areas without large commercial port infrastructures. These wastes represent a significant source of pathogens and toxic substances that. it is distinct from blackwater in the presence and concentration of faeces and toxins as determinant biological and chemical contaminants. chemical nutrients. there have been companies involved in discharges that were judged to be intentional. environmental damage is caused in circumstances that cannot be determined from the available information. etc. non-industrial processes. coliform bacteria and some medical and dental waste. including a number of cases in which cruise companies pled guilty to the wilful.000 gallons (794. resulting from mere human or mechanical error. indicating the need for more strict monitoring of waste discharges. and it is typically the largest source of liquid waste produced by a cruise ship (around 50-80%). and pressing the industry to adhere to a new ethical and procedural code in the application of more advanced waste treatment technologies meeting more rigorous environmental control standards and procedures. discharges from most cruise ships usually exceed the water quality standards established by national authorities and international associations and organisms in relation to concentration of bacteria. no enforcement and no recourse for local authorities if cruise companies violate the existing pollution standards. use of bypass pipes allowing employees to avoid pollution control devices and discharge liquid waste from the ship without first processing it. There are different pollutants and waste derived from diverse activities and processes aboard cruise ships. promoting the development and implementation of diverse monitoring programs for cleaner air emissions and water and waste effluent from 2. galley taps. and an aggressive effort to legislate compliance to environmental regulations. both while underway and docked in port. Environmental Protection Agency estimated that. including disturbance and destruction of fishing grounds and precious marine ecosystems such as coral reefs. it has been suggested that cruise ships constitute about 77% of the marine pollution worldwide. Under certain conditions. metals. Regarding the causes. laundry facilities. is a term used to describe water containing fecal matter and urine. 150 gallons (568 L) of hazardous wastes. depending on factors of ignitability. depending on many factors such as planned itinerary. BLACKWATER Blackwater. one million gallons (3. Formerly. including drainage from dishwasher. The most worrying aspect of this whole situation is that cruise ship waste disposal is highly unregulated. regular and routine discharge of hazardous waste into the water.999. the repeated public exposés of environmental abuses committed by cruise companies.000. Greywater is usually kept separate from blackwater to reduce the amount of water that gets heavily polluted. U. and waste can be dumped just few short miles off shore (returning later to coasts by ocean currents) rather than installing appropriate onboard treatment systems. bath and washbasin drains. in addition to the progressive accumulation of hundreds of pollution violations. Although the cruise industry unabashedly promotes itself as environmentally friend. showers. This wastewater receives its definition from both its own appearance and from the fact that it cannot be considered neither fresh water. GREYWATER Greywater is wastewater generated from domestic. there was no monitoring. they also produce more waste. if not properly treated and disposed of. As cruise ships get larger and more luxurious. food waste.000 gallons (95. use of permanent piping that allowed oily waste to be discharged directly overboard. seeking all kinds of concessions and non-regulation by lobbying and local regulators. foul water or sewage. In this regard. resulting in a general contamination of the food chain and a risk to human health by transmitting infectious diseases such as typhoid fever. some of which are also harmful for human life. a large cruise ship with capacity for 3. suspended solids. infectious hepatitis. which also varies widely. with different environmental repercussions.850 L) of sewage stream. garbage and other toxic waste into coastal and international waters. failure to keep of records of waste discharges. Nevertheless. In fact. including oil and some organic compounds.785 million L) of greywater. Greywater can contain a wide variety of pollutant substances at different strengths. discharged overboard through multiple ports below the ship¶s waterline by motordriven centrifugal pumps. are a serious problem that have caused these organizations severe embarrassment and lawsuits. nor heavily polluted wastewater. such as phosphorus and nitrogen. we can mention the acknowledgment of guilt by Royal Caribbean executives for several episodes of disposal of toxic waste into the Alaska's Inland Passage waters in 1. there are a series of chemical nutrients in sewage. Finally. hydrocarbons and plastics. As an example.000 L) of oily bilge water. gastroenteritis or dysentery.000 passengers and crewmembers can produce around 210. during a one-week voyage. causing excessive algal blooms. Blackwater is a harmful waste that must be adequately treated before being disposed of into marine waters. Blackwater is wastewater collected by toilets and medical sinks and facilities. 8 tons of solid waste and a difficult-tocalculate quantity of air pollutants. Recently. In other case. In many cases. presentation of false record books during environmental pollution investigation procedures. such as many fuel-related discharge cases involving cruise ships loading fuel in port. can have a serious effect on human health. Nevertheless.S. with an also more important effect on the subset of ports and coastal areas along cruise routes. hydrocarbons. corrosive potential. the reality is that there is a long history of breaking the law. intestine parasites. which must be multiplied by the more than 200 cruise ships currently plying the world¶s waterways 365 days a year.THE CRUISE INDUSTRY emissions. In some cases they are classified as a hazardous waste according to current national and international pollution prevention regulations. In the other hand. which complain about air quality problems derived from gas emissions produced by shipboard diesel engines and incinerators while in port. These cases have involved both small and large cruise companies in a diversity of surrounding circumstances and volume of discharge. which unleashed a flurry of activity among citizen-based environmental organizations. which can contains hazardous pathogens. Graywater is collected in tanks aboard cruise ships and. also known as brown water. which have resulted in higher-level enforcement actions and the payment of millions of dollars in environmental fines for illegally dumping water waste. which can degrade aquatic habitats by reducing light levels and producing certain toxins. it can cause a serious contamination of fisheries and shellfish beds. ship location or waste generation rate. metals. including faecal coliform bacteria. 7 . detergents and grease. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES POLLUTANTS Pollutants and waste derived from activities aboard cruise ships. 25. viral agents and chemical nutrients that need to decompose before being released into environment. these compounds fuel eutrophication. In other cases.

It is difficult to determine the amount of solid waste generated by the cruise industry worldwide. deplete native populations and deprive them of food. refrigeration equipment and many other onboard functions are a significant source of air pollution. Thus. AIR POLLUTION Although the cruise industry contributes the least to total nitrogen and sulphur emissions in relation to the whole maritime sector. An average cruise ship generates around 3.4% of the total annual garbage produced by the whole U. Ecological damage from the accumulation of solid waste. BALLAST WATER Ballast water is carried in unladen ships to provide stability. such as engines. water-lubricated shaft seals. including respiratory diseases. and cetaceans.5 kilograms of solid waste per passenger and crewmember everyday. Management of shipboard generated waste is an important issue for all maritime companies. gasoline. even in minute quantities. the National Research Council estimated that such quantity amounted only to 19% of the total. which may cause serious health problems. which require complex and sophisticated equipment for its extraction. Oily bilge water contain a wide range of pollutants and oxygendemanding agents. propulsion system cooling. dry cleaning sludge. with 5% and 6% respectively. furans and heavy metals that are released into the air. and provided the ship is not in a special area where all discharge of this type is prohibited. a cruise ship produces roughly the equivalent in exhaust emissions of 12. batteries. with a diversity of effects and consequences: y Aesthetic degradation of surface waters and coastal areas. fluorescent lamps. In other case. Nevertheless. posing a real threat to aquatic ecosystems and human life. thus posing public health and environmental risks. with important discrepancies in the calculation of even an approximate quantity. some medical waste and outdated pharmaceuticals. Nutrient pollution derived from continued disposal of food wastes in restricted areas. such figures represent the amount of solid waste generated on board. water mixes with oil. y y y The cruise industry manages this problem by a variable combination of waste minimization. Thus. metal shavings. grass and cleaning agents and a diversity of by-products from the biological breakdown of hydrocarbons on board. and determine a general increase in mortality rate even at low concentrations. for example to offset the weight of fuel consumed during the voyage. diverse metallic waste (mostly aluminium and steel cans). etc. retention. which includes. photofinishing chemicals and other expired chemicals. All ships are required to have equipment installed onboard that limits the discharge of bilge water into the oceans to concentrations between 10 and 15 parts per million when a ship is en route. the amount of solid waste and garbage generated in a single day can be massive.S. and have various chronic physiological effects. many of them survive and become pests that smother local fauna. when small plastic particles are ingested by zooplankton after mistaking them for fish eggs or other nutrients. either floating in large ³rafts´. Nevertheless. turtles. with extinction of native species.THE CRUISE INDUSTRY OILY BILGE WATER The area of the ship at the very bottom of the hull is known as the bilge. y y y Entanglement of sea birds. and hazardous byproducts of combustion. During the voyage. systems to power lights. such as the emission of unburned gases and metals. restricted current flow or specific current flows can cause the aggregation and collection of solid wastes. Combustion of high sulphur content fuel produces nitrogen oxide. or sunken. evaporators and other ancillary and maintenance machinery. Bilge spaces should be periodically pumped dry to maintain ship stability and eliminate potential hazardous conditions derived from such substances and their respective interaction. rags. birth defects or cancer. with may result in serious injury or even death by ingestion or asphyxiation. A large cruise ship can generate several tons of bilge water in a day. Ballast water is taken on at port in one region and discharged in another in a process involving the discharge of up to 1. such as dioxins. In this area. treatment and reuse or discharge in compliance with regional and international environmental regulations. INCINERATOR ASH Ash generated in the incineration of waste is not normally a hazardous waste if items that would cause the ash to be hazardous are previously separated from the waste stream and handled according to accepted hazardous waste regulations. Ecological damage at a planktonic level. with a risk of death from starvation or intestinal blockage. temperature differential and other factors in the ballast water kill many of these organisms. considering that one-third of these emissions occur while the ship is docked. a certain percentage is incinerated onboard and the ash discharged at sea. where water collects from diverse mechianical processes. neurological damage. an amount of garbage is retained onboard and landed onshore for recycling in processing plants. paint. as well as significant economic cost to diverse industries. an study carried out in the United States in 1995 showed that cruise ships generated the 51.000 automobiles or an average power plant by onboard diesel engines. fish. Thus. With thousands of passengers and crewmembers aboard a single ship. recycling and incineration. (b) harm to sea birds. carbon monoxide and dioxide.000 cars and trucks driving in one year. which includes a myriad of undesirable passengers. fisheries and aquaculture. ancillary equipment and incineration units. pumps. paper and plastic. not the amount of waste disposed of in compliance with waste disposal regulations and protocols. paint waste and thinners. sulphur dioxide and other harmful hydrocarbons that contribute to a wide range of atmospheric pollutant phenomena. Diesel emissions from cruise ships are particularly worrying while at port. incineration generates several forms of waste itself. The potential impact from pollution by solid waste on the open ocean and coastal environment can be significant. glass. which would remain intact for years in the right conditions. HAZARDOUS WASTE A cruise ship can produce around 15 gallons of hazardous waste every day. Physical injuries to humans. GARBAGE AND SOLID WASTE Solid waste and garbage include cardboard. and some solid waste (food and other organic waste) is also disposed of into the ocean. maritime sector. including cancer-causing ones. In any case. Auxiliary diesel machinery. turtles and certain mammals feeding upon this debris. resulting in: (a) contamination of habitats with nonindigenous invasive species. and few years later. many miles away from their original ecosystem. and especially significant for coastal communities and surrounding areas. This type of waste dumped to the ocean may become marine debris and a threat to the ecosystem and coastal communities.000 metric tons of water. among others. Ecological damage resulting from the interference of plastics and other synthetical substances with gas exchange between surface and deeper waters. and it has been estimated that a large cruise ship visiting port can pump out as much air pollutants as 2. 8 . invasive species as a top threat to biodiversity.

If not properly handled and disposed of. living and working onboard a cruise ship presents a series of particularities that must to be taken into account by any person interested in this labour sector. filter materials. etc. lead or zinc. and get a better understanding about global problems and people from around the world and their culture and way of life. lead-acid batteries are a classified hazardous waste that can endanger human health and the environment if not properly disposed of. such as cobalt. in order to prevent possible doubts and uncertainties. Nickel-Cadmium (NiCd) Batteries: This type of battery is also rechargeable. The potassium hydroxide is corrosive. Lithium Batteries: This batteries are used in a wide variety of both scientific equipment and personal electrical devices. lint traps and other parts of these units. However. Lithium is a mildly toxic chemical. tin. containing a sponge lead anode. but not a listed or characteristic toxic hazardous waste. it is lethal to the test animals and harmful to human health. very difficult to compare to a land job. and produce a small volume of waste from contaminated sludge. poisonous and may potentially generate explosive hydrogen gas upon contact with aluminium. there are more rigorous regulations with requirements that include bioassay. depending on the season and number of passengers on board. they are composed of a positive pole (anode) that contains zinc. Life on a cruise ship is really a unique and unforgettable experience. cleaner and printing solvents. Print Shop Waste Increased use of laser and photo copying equipment onboard cruise ships results in the generation of waste toner material and printing/copying cartridges that can contain hazardous chemical components. and must be therefore handled in an environmentally safe manner. classified as a renal and hepatic toxin. you¶ll become a well-rounded and worldly person. Few jobs offer the chance to see so many places in the world. after such experience. Fluorescent and Mercury Vapour Lamp Bulbs Fluorescent lamps contain phosphor powder. detoxified and undergo removal of silver and other heavy metals before it can be landed it ashore or discharged in accordance with diverse national and international pollution prevention regulations. requirements. and because the batteries do not meet the required definitions to be a corrosive waste. Silver compounds and other chemical waste must be neutralized. Potassium hydroxide electrolyte. a lead dioxide cathode and sulphuric acid electrolyte. Both these two types of lamps could potentially be hazardous to the environment and the human health. Cadmium is a characteristic hazardous waste and accumulative poison. Dry-Cleaning Waste Fluids and Contaminated Materials Shipboard dry cleaning facilities use a chlorinated solvent called perchlorethylene as a cleaning fluid. certainly. which imposes the necessity of properly trained technical personnel for the correct use and disposal of these chemicals in accordance with all safety procedures. Photographic fixer removes the unexposed silver compounds from the film during the developing process. and contain wet or dry potassium hydroxide as electrolyte. ON A CRUISE SHIP Living and working conditions. and sulphuric acid is one of the most corrosive chemicals. heavy metals and diverse chemical combinations that can be harmful to aquatic ecosystems and human life. Nevertheless. chlorinated hydrocarbons and heavy metals. They are all potentially hazardous. is also contained within the cells of alkaline batteries. 9 . which includes spent fixer. Batteries Batteries are a very common power source for both onboard equipment and for passenger¶s devices. chlorinated hydrocarbons. Nevertheless. spent solvent. In fact. Waste lithium batteries can be considered a reactive hazardous waste if there is a significant amount of unconsumed or unreacted lithium remaining in the spent battery. Unused and Outdated Pharmaceuticals Health and medical departments aboard large cruise ships manage a wide range and amount of pharmaceuticals in an inventory based on their itinerary and other variables. Therefore. classified as hazardous waste. and a negative pole (cathode) that contains manganese dioxide. and mercury vapour lamps contain mercury. Added mercury has been eliminated from alkaline batteries since 1990s. Once these batteries are fully or mostly discharged. this waste may contain hazardous fluid waste. we are going to expose some essential aspects of the life on board. some regulations include all types of batteries as special waste. silver flake. Lead has been linked to serious effects on human health. such as inks. experiences.THE CRUISE INDUSTRY These materials contain a wide diversity of harmful substances and compounds that can pose serious health and environmental hazards. alkaline batteries may be regulated as universal wastes and subject to less stringent requirements than other hazardous wastes and can be disposed of as general trash. There are four basic types of batteries: Lead-Acid Batteries: Used in standby generators and other auxiliary equipment. which is carcinogenic. Each cruise ship utilizing these cleaning units produces a variable amount of this waste material. Therefore. such as hydrocarbons. Because alkaline batteries do not exhibit the characteristics to be classified as a reactive or ignitable waste. particularities and opportunities for people working onboard a cruise ship. which content hydrocarbons. they can be disposed of as non-hazardous waste. DAY-TO-DAY ROUTINE ON A CRUISE SHIP First of all. from over-the-counter products to specific prescription drugs and specialty medications. which require a safe management and disposal. In addition. lithium batteries may content other elements. internal elements of recovery stills. a strong alkali agent. if the extracted leachate from an alkaline battery is diluted with water and used to conduct a bioassay. expired film. the only way to know if you like it is to try it. Alkaline Batteries: Also known as primary or non-rechargeable batteries. with neurotoxic effects and a osteoporosis-causing agent. Photo Processing and X-Ray Development Fluid Waste Used photographic and X-Ray development fluids may be assumed to be a hazardous waste. these batteries are the oldest type of rechargeable battery. Obviously. with a concentration of around 2000-3000 parts per million of residual silver particles (hazardous if its level exceeds 5 ppm). spent batteries may pose a serious environmental risk and a threat to human health. exotic views and meet so many people from so different countries.

nightlife. almost everything is free. because the proper maintenance of personal relationship is as important as the maintenance of the vessel. engine officers. they have their own mess hall and food preparation personnel. new employees are required to pay a trip deposit (between $400 and $500). Privacy limitation is commonplace. in which case it will be used to pay the return ticket.THE CRUISE INDUSTRY THE CABINS OF THE CREW These cabins. Any drug will be confiscated and the crewmember that was using it will be discharged. by nationalities. A security box available for the crewmembers. Everybody must fulfil all of his orders and instructions. You can keep it with you aboard the ship and open a saving account in port. Issues such as order and cleanness. after some time working aboard. and the proper comfort are to be guaranteed. fax or telex. it is a responsibility that belongs to each member of the company. POSSIBLE EXPENSES Depending on the company and the contract. 10 . Anyway. crewmembers eat the same food as the passengers. SAFETY AND GENERAL EMERGENCY TRAINING AND DRILLS Due to government and fleet regulations. The sheets. there are a series of requirements and economic costs to be considered. which are usually small. shared by several members of the crew. This is the only mayor issue on the cruise ships. Normally. some large companies don¶t demand this deposit. it is necessary a VISA (except American and Canadian citizens). crewmembers are expected to take part in constant safety and general emergency drills. On some ships. POSSIBLE EXPENSES Except for the money you could expend when you go ashore. are more expensive than on land. but if you don¶t mind having a roommate. although. The human relationships between the roommates are an important issue. The personnel have to get familiar with the different ranks of the officers (deck officers. the air ticket may be paid for by the shipping company or the employment agency. ACCESS TO THE SHIP Before embarking as a crewmember onboard a cruise ship. which can be rather noisy due to vibration and hum of the engine room and the splash water. Only if this system fails. employees are separated by departments and. So. cleanness and proper maintenance of the cabins. and some of them. DRUGS They are not tolerated aboard the ship. OFFICERS There is a ranking presided over by the Captain or Master of the ship. y y y An international money order. sometimes. you will be paid twice a month and there are several alternatives to secure the money: y You can send the money home by traditional mail service in port. TIME OFF During the time off. which is very easy. disembarked and surrendered to the local police authorities. Besides. if the safety. All food and beverages are free. DOCUMENTATION NEEDED TO WORK ON A SHIP Depending on the shipping company and the country. who is the supreme authority on board. which is indispensable in this kind of business. INTERNATIONAL WORK ENVIRONMENT The personnel come from dozens of countries around the world. The successful operation of the ship depends on cooperation of all the members of the crew. ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE PASSENGERS It must be considered that passengers expect to live a unique and pleasant experience while on board. And. It is recommended to make it after the shipping company has sent you the contract. The confrontations and grudges must be avoided. under the water line. Everybody must know each other and cooperate to solve any personal problems. PERSONAL ASPECTS OF THE WORK ON BOARD The correct operation of the cruise ship demands a perfect coordination of all the crewmembers. so it is necessary for them to speak some English. you could be promoted and get your own cabin. On the larger cruise ships. you¶ll enjoy a cabin with a bathroom inside. the employee lives in. the persons involved have to go to the manager or supervisor. The companionship and the team spirit must be a priority for everybody on board. such as telephone. The authorities of the ship regularly inspect the cabins to check them and make sure of the respect for the rules. crewmembers must maintain a smiling and positive attitude towards them. Any other place around the world will depend on the local legal system. save traditional mail. on the large vessels. finally. COMMUNICATIONS WITH LAND On a ship. MEALS It will depend on the cruise ship. there are frequent drug tests carried out to detect their use. if the ship is on port. The possible individual differences require changes in the lifestyles and a high team spirit. The crewmembers are responsible for the care. Passport is needed and it is recommended that you bring a birth certificate. must be solved friendly. This deposit won¶t be refunded in the event of resignation or dismissal. blankets and pillow are provided by the shipping company. and they must keep it in due order as well. In case the person should work on a ship operating around USA or Canada. FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE IN A SHIP Absolute order and discipline must preside over the life and work on a cruise ship. etc. which can be obtained in any American Consulate. being smoker or non-smoker. The beds are bunk style. Chances are you won¶t be spending too much time in your cabin. Electronic mail is not always available for the crewmembers on board. Communication systems. There are posts that allow having a private cabin. but usually it is not that way and the new employee is demanded to pay these expenses. However. The small places increase possible personal differences. On smaller ships. there are certain aspects that may be complicated and quite different from anything you have known on land. new employees who are heading into an entry-level position must share a cabin with somebody. etc. everything is free. BANK OPERATIONS Normally. Just the time to sleep. the members of the crew can go ashore. there is no problem at all. but on other ones you¶ll have to content with communal bathrooms. are located in decks under the passenger areas.) on board and the new employees will be well informed about it during their training period. And. that will be reimbursed when the contract is finished.

once you are in. dizziness. They are allowed to go to public areas and even socialize with passengers. Working onboard a cruise ship offers a series of advantages and inconveniences that must be taken into account and evaluated before deciding to search for a job in this sector. entertaining programs. at least. ADVANTAGES AND INCONVENIENCES Advantages and inconveniences relating to living and working conditions to be specifically considered before applying for any job onboard cruise ships. the employee is expected to be ready to work twenty-four hours a day. This category of employees cannot go to public areas while working. INCONVENIENCES y y y y Long shifts and extensive working days (12-14 hours a day and 7 days a week). which demands mutual understanding and coordination. Opportunity to travel the world and see exotic places continuously and for free. because you don¶t have to spend any money in lodging and feeding. shared by. very far from the amenities of the life at home. Although there is a time off. The personnel are always on. and to visit the exotic ports of call all around the world as if you were on holiday. shops. 11 .THE CRUISE INDUSTRY CREW They are in charge of diverse tasks in the engineering. deck and food and beverages departments. in some cases. gym and spa. ADMINISTRATIVE PERSONNEL This section includes employees responsible for a variety of services and activities on board. two persons. which. Chance to meet very different people from all around the world. Possible promotions. there are plenty of opportunities to find another job. Small and very modest lodging. ADVANTAGES y y y y y y Very profitable conditions coming from the combination of interesting earnings and the lack of expenses. is part of their job. Time off to enjoy a ship designated with the luxury and amenities of a five stars hotel. such as the casino. etc). You could suffer from seasickness (nausea. The cruise ship industry is so wide that. etc.

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