Film Management

-

Guided By

Prof. Pratiksha Khedekar

Presented by:
Bhavini Pandya [24] Riddhi Rupani [33] Jyoti Sharma [38]

Acknowledgement

Apart from the efforts of me, the success of this project depends largely on the encouragement and guidelines of many others. I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to the people who have been instrumental in the successful completion of this project. I would like to show my greatest appreciation to Prof. Pratiksha Khedekar & BMS Dept of Vartak College. I can’t say thank you enough for his tremendous support and help. I feel motivated and encouraged every time I attend his meeting. Without his encouragement and guidance this project would not have materialized. The guidance and support received from Prof Pratiksha Khedekar who guided us to complete this project, was vital for the success of the project. I am grateful for their constant support and help.

Contents:

1. Introduction to Film 2. Definitions 3. History Of films in India 4. Journey of Indian Cinemas since 1990’s 5. Change in the phase of Indian Cinema since 1990’s 6. Importance of Film marketing 7. Production Process
a.

Pre Production Phase 1. Screenplay/ script writing 2. Storyboard 3. Film budgeting 4. Film insurance

b.

Production Phase

1. Directing 2. Assembling Cast & Crew 3. Acting
c.

Post Production Phase

8. Film Promotion & Publicity

9. Film Certification 10. 11.
Box Office Coverage Negative Factor of Film Industry

Introduction
What is film?
A film, also called a movie or motion picture, is a story conveyed with moving images. It is produced by recording photographic images with cameras, or by creating images using animation techniques or visual effects. The process of filmmaking has developed into an art form and industry. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, which reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment and a powerful method for educating — or indoctrinating — citizens. The visual elements of cinema give motion pictures a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions by using dubbing or subtitles that translate the dialogue. Films are made up of a series of individual images called frames. When these images are shown rapidly in succession, a viewer has the illusion that motion is occurring. The viewer cannot see the flickering between frames due to an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after the source has been removed. Viewers perceive motion due to a psychological effect called beta movement.

the silver screen. the field of film as an art form. and marketing. picture show. Definition: “Film encompasses individual motion pictures. screenwriting. casting. while in Europe the term cinema is preferred. Additional terms for the field in general include the big screen. including picture. photo-play and flick. A common name for film in the United States is movie. and the motion picture industry. editing.” History of films in India: .The origin of the name "film" comes from the fact that photographic film (also called film stock) has historically been the primary medium for recording and displaying motion pictures.” Definition of Film Management: “Filmmaking is the art and science of bringing a movie from an idea to a viewer. distribution. Films (also referred to as movies or motion pictures) are produced by recording images from the world with cameras. moving picture. Many other terms exist for an individual motion picture. shooting. the cinema and the movies. Filmmaking includes the smallest independent films to the largest Hollywood movies. Filmmaking includes storyboarding. or by creating images using animation techniques or visual effects.

Mumbai (Bombay). This was one of the major milestone in Indian Cinema. and scores. Singing and Dancing' productions to be hurriedly put into production. production. Many new companies and film makers came up during that period. Bangalore and Hyderabad are the main film production centers. in 1913. the Indian film industry turn out more than 1000 films a year to hugely appreciative audiences around the world. It's phenomenal success all over India lead to other 'Talking. actors. Harishchandra Bhatvadekar made India's first short film. Throughout the first two decades. The most remarkable thing that happened in Indian film industry was in 1931. storyboards. Chennai (Madras). such as mise en scene (roughly. Much terminology later used in film theory and criticism applied. With more than12000 cinema halls. sets. Kolkata (Calcutta). direction. Dubbed into Hindi and Urdu. Dhundiraj Govind Phalke who was generally known as Dada Saheb Phalke produced India's first full length silent film. 'Raja Harishchandra'. The first talkie . He laid the foundation for the beginning of a regular feature film industry in India. technically and stylistically. plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts. when India's first talkie. it marked the beginning of the Talkie era in South Indian film industries also. 'Alam Ara'.Preceding film by thousands of years. audiences. The history of Indian Cinema can be traced back to 1896 when the famous Lumiere Brothers' of France demonstrated six soundless short films in Bombay. the film was a smash hit and a new revolution began in the Indian film industry. directed by Ardeshir Irani was released. At the same time. The 1930s saw sweeping changes to the industry. the trend continued with filmmakers. Moving visual and aural images were not recorded for replaying as in film. the entire visual picture at any one time). By 1899. costumes. By 1920 there was a regular industry bringing out films starting with 27 per year and reaching 207 films in 1931.

Ritwik Ghatak and others made internationally acclaimed movies. They are known as the founding fathers of the new cinema in India. her sister Asha Bhonsle. Muhammed Rafi. Bimal Roy's 'Do Bigha . around the same time India also had a kind of popular cinema with social themes . The 1940s and 1950s also saw the emergence of the 'playback singing'. blessed with talented directors and artistes who could stamp their individuality in their work. Ritwik Ghatak.made by commercial film-makers like Bimal Roy. Guru Dutt etc. While. The 50's was a unique time in Indian cinema. Of these centres. eg. In the 30's three major film centres developed which were based in Bombay (Mumbai). Now music became an important ingredient in Indian cinema. the films with their concentration on vibrant song and dance. Mrinal Sen.films in Bengali (Jumai Shasthi). Many of these films no doubt broke records at the box office. the off-camera voice that performs the songs that the actors and actresses subsequently mime to. Apart from Ray. International recognition came to it with the Cannes award for the best human document. Aravindan. Raj Kapoor. followed by foreign and national awards. Calcutta (Kolkata) and Madras (Chennai). were for many. Bombay was known for the making of films geared for national distribution. The 30's is recognized as the decade of social protest in the history of India films. while Madras and Calcutta were known for their regional films. Mehboob Khan. The big turning point came in 1953 with the arrival of Bengali director Satyajit Ray and his classic 'Pather Panchali'. Lata Mangeshkar. From the 1940's to the late 1950's. the most memorable in Indian film history. particularly in Hindi .again. Mrinal Sen. Satyajit Ray. Rituparna Ghosh were pioneering the nation's art cinema. Telugu (Bhakta Prahlad) and Tamil (Kalidass) were released in the same year 1931.. Kishore Kumar etc are the singers who dominated the Hindi film industry.

big budget films as well as off-beat films increased.Zamin'. Now. Pakistan. UK and virtually every other place where Indians live. The popular Hindi films of this period were: Kamal Amrohi's Pakeeza. Raja. Indian Cinema especially. Another factor that encouraged truly good Indian cinema was the establishment of National Film Awards. Raj Kapoor's 'Shree 420' and 'Awara'. Today. Indian cinema has reached many a mile stone with advanced technologies using new digital projectors. Monsoon Wedding was the all-time top 10 foreign box-office hits in America. . Jo Jeeta Wohi Sikander. Hum Apake Hai Kaun. Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge. Krantiveer. The first International Film Festival in 1952 held at Bombay. converting digital format etc. Salaam Bombay and Monsoon Wedding making the international market sit up and take notice definitely indicate that India is poised for bigger things as far as Cinema goes. musical love stories become a new trend in the late eighties and nineties. Kabhi Kabhi. India. Mehboob Khan's 'Mother India'. Rangeela were some of the popular Hindi films of the last decade. But in Hindi commercial cinema. Raj Kapoor's Bobby. the National Film Archives of India and the Film and Television Institute of India. Main Pyar Kiya. Guru Dutt's 'Pyasa' etc. Ramesh Sippy's Sholay. and Muqaddar ka Sikandar. Chennai. Hum Kisise Kum Nahin. Amar Akbar Anthony. Qayamat se Qayamat Tak. Films like Lagaan. Tezaab. Introduction to international films left a deep impact on Indian film makers. Mr. Chandini . Delhi and Calcutta had great impact on Indian Cinema. the Film Finance Corporations. In the sixties and seventies. Baazigar. Hum Hain Rahi Pyarke. Hindi cinema is not only popular in India but in parts of the Middle East.

After 4 years in 2013 Hindi cinema will be celebrating its Golden Jubilee. In 1957 Mother India directed by Mehboob khan which was nominated by Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film at Oscars and K Asif’s Mughal-eAzam wrote a new history in the field of cinema. By 30’s film factory was producing close to 200 films per annum.Legend Filmmakers Satyajit Ray and Guru Dutt were known as best Asian film makers and movie like Pyaasa(1957)by Dutt and The Apu Trilogy by Ray featured in Time magazine’s “All-TIME” 100 best . By 50’s Hindi movies were recognized at Cannes film festival . After 6 years of black and white production director of Alam Ara Ardeshir Irani. If there are two things which people relate to India abroad it is Bollywood and Taj Mahal.1931 saw a revolutionized change as Alam Ara . Hindi Cinema better known as Bollywood across the globe started its journey with the production of Raja Harish Chandra which is the first silent feature film made in India in 1913 directed and produced by Dadasaheb Phalke. first Indian sound film was produced and was a major hit commercially.Journey of Indian cinema since 1990’s Bollywood has come of age and has matured in last few decades. once again gave a important gift to film industry by producing first colored Hindi feature film. Kisan Kanya but the color concept became popular after 1955.

Parallel cinema also emerged with Satyajit Ray and Shyam Benegal as main contributors. It was featured at the various Interntational film festivals.Actors like Dilip Kumar and Raj Kapoor had a huge fan following at that time.movies . Frozen is an epitome of Indian cinema’s maturity. It would be unfair if we talk about Hindi Cinema and don’t mention icons like Amitabh Bachchan and Shah Rukh Khan which took Bollywood to new heights. which won the Camera d’Or at the 1988 Cannes Film Festival and was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. Bollywood produces around 300 out of a total of 1200 films produced under the umbrella of Indian cinema. In 21st century Directors like Nandita Das. India. Anurag Kashyap and Madhur Bhandarkar are continuing the legacy of realistic cinema with movies like Fire. including the 2007 London Film . Gulaal and Page3. Once again we’re at same place with Frozen as the first Black and white film after a millennium by Shivajee Chandrabhushan filmed at Ladakh. The most internationally-acclaimed Hindi film of the 1980s was Mira Nair’s Salaam Bombay! (1988). Actresses like Aishwarya Rai Bachchan made a huge impact overseas by her work and films like Slumdog Millionaire gave a new meaning and life to Hindi Film Industry which is expected to cross a turnover of 4 billion$.

ridden by piracy. releasing almost 700 films a year and employing 5 million people. The Bollywood of today is the most prolific films producing Industry across the world. What changed the game for the Indian film industry in the early 1990’s. one led by the producer fraternity and the other led by exhibitor fraternity. that could garner as much money in theatrical revenues alone. In terms of the number of tickets sold – it’s the absolute highest. It has won awards at Durban Film festival for best cinematography and was nominated for other prestigious global awards and now it has been released in India recently.6* billion tickets a year vs.Festival. As audience accepting Indian films abroad with open arms its time Indian cinema should start making a more of meaningful cinema apart from making commercial and Masala flicks. Two significant changes happened at that time. 2. the well heeled family audiences shied away from visiting poor quality theatres preferring instead to watch movies at home on newly launched Japanese VCRs. Now it is very usual for a movie producer to launch their movies abroad and host a special screening in different parts of the world after all collection from overseas Box office is making them more and more rich. with the gap widening every passing year. This thriving industry of today was on a verge of collapse in late eighties/early nineties. It has films with budgets running into 20 to 30 million $.6* billion in the US (2002* figures). selling 3. under-world influence (due to lack of organized financing) and poor exhibitor infrastructure. which changed the face of the Indian film industry . poor law enforcement meant rampant piracy and lack of organized financing meant producers could either look up to the underworld guys for financing or approach private money lenders charging exorbitant interest rates.

known for ‘clean family entertainers’ produced a gem of movie which tugged at the hearts of a billion Indians. foresight and impeccable understanding of the changing Urban Indian consumer.. the film did not feature any ‘star’ actors. showed a lot of vision. these two events would serve as points of inflection to the business of making films in India. soon there were multiplexes in every city of the country helping movies garner theatrical revenues in excess of 20 to 30 million dollars. which completely redefined movie experience for the consumer. significantly improved the business as the consumer was willing to pay Rs 100 (2$) for a ticket which was till recently bought for Rs 25. In starting the first multiplex the company PVR ltd. seating and air conditioning. and their understanding of their consumer needs. This movie was released in only a handful of cinema halls with good infrastructure. screenplay and music and was an instant hit. with an offer to release in more cinemas if they improved their infrastructure – sound system. The other significant change was the coming up of the first multiplex in India in Delhi (early 90s). who was ready to embrace the best the world had to offer and had the wallet to match.One of the leading production houses called Rajshri Pictures. Big bucks attracted organized players from Sony to Warner brothers and helped the industry wriggle out (though still not completely!) from the clutches of the underworld. Both in terms of product and service which ensured they win in both the first and the second moment of truth. This simply catalyzed the business of cinema as the overall turnover value skyrocketed upwards. The one big learning in this was the conviction of the production house on their product. story line. If I look back at the Indian film industry’s evolution over the last two decades. had good production values. .

Film-marketing. has these days become a made phenomenon whether films are sold/ marketed or not. others are very dicey and skeptic about its aim and result. one needs to take a stock-taking of the entire process raising the eternal flutter . Rupa Ganguly said. It is good that we could be united in the matter with a singular aim. and had left a lot of promise and optimism to be covered. the permanent Chairman of the Forum. commented. Tarun Majumder. headed by Soumitra Chatterjee. Foreign filmmakers and delegates took part in it as did the National Film Development Corporation (NFDC). the noted filmmaker. at the just concluded 9th Kolkata film festival is no departure either. as a part of any International film festival. Over the years. This time the filmmarketing section was inaugurated by Rupa Ganguly.Is Film marketing useful? Film-marketing. who has sustained the Bengali film industry for many years with his superhit films. “Marketing of films is as important as its promotion across the country.is film-marketing useful? Well. West Bengal Film Development (WBFDC).” But after the festival is over. we need to focus our attention on the aspect of film-marketing as a natural activity of film promotion. while many among film distributors and producers are still hopeful. Others who took part in the filmmarketing included Surinder Films. Countrymen Film and Net Guru and sundry other distributors. the noted actress and Secretary of Artistes’ Forum. our film-marketing section was not offered the due stress it required. “Definitely every director wants his film to get a wide market and good business since filmmaking . But with changing times and tastes of viewers. producer of Rituparno Ghosh-directed Choker Bali. and Sree Venkatesh Films.

” Eminent Polish director Krszyszt of Zanssis. a platform to sell films.process is very expensive. a habit is to be formed. Immediate returns are not visible though yet we believe film-market one day will open new horizons for Indian films. A film minus a market is like a bird without its wings.” Hana Fisher who usually brings film packages to India every year from her country Canada said: “Our focus is on package deals of films from Canada to be shown all over India. “Last year. we need to sustain this process from festival to festival. holds a different view.” Pradip De of EIMPA said. Given the proper exposure and opening. He is one pioneer who could see a rising graph in film-marketing section where international parties rake up good business of Indian films. said. the Managing Director of NFDC. an attitude built up for film deals in market. Whatever the result. We are interested in Indian films no doubt but we don’t have any policy to make deals of Indian films right at the moment. I do believe in filmmarketing. Besides. we did some business of course. we can no more neglect the issue of filmmarketing. But . but we are not sure to what extent film-marketing brings rewards for the distributors and producers. But now the picture has totally changed. who was present during Kolkata film festival. I think. Therefore. an ideal venue of opening good options for Indian films for foreign markets. you cannot sell your films and a director and his producer surely do need their films to be sold in the international markets. “The very issue of film-marketing was ignored in our country over the years. who has seen much of film-marketing during International Film Festival of India (IFFI) for the last few years.” Deepankar Mukhopadhyay. He said. It is true the thrust we need to offer to film-market is still not there. “Yes. It has to be there and must be provided more teeth to make a dent in selling one’s wares. There cannot be two opinions about the usefulness of film-marketing. For without a proper marketing platform. we could discover a large market of India films abroad through filmmarketing. These days we hear so much of filmmarketing.

The columns are arranged in the most logical and economical shooting order. He or she may buy clothing. or have it created. I stand by the film-market concept which can break ground for film producers in the world market. the director of photography operates the camera himself. thus helping to determine the number of shooting days. Sometimes. and the wardrobe designer to create scenarios that reflect the personalities and lives of the characters. the screenplay provides information about the characters. stunts. camera angles. the designers . The director is instrumental in selecting actors and much of the technical crew. a first assistant. In particular. The director of photography hires the camera crew. vehicles. The wardrobe designer often conducts extensive research to assure that the clothing is accurate for the time period and social setting. often a camera operator. The director visualizes each scene as shots taken from different camera angles. special effects. In addition to containing the dialogue for the actors. and extras. which consists of one vertical column for every scene. special equipment. and a second assistant. The director also works with the actors to create memorable characters. sound effects. locations. music. This information is entered onto breakdown sheets that the production manager uses to compose a production board. and lighting. rent it.surely. animals. The production designer works with set dressers. The director of photography translates the director’s vision into images by choice of lenses. wardrobe. If a film requires special effects. makeup/hair. Production Stages: Pre Preproduction: The screenplay is a blueprint for the production and is used to calculate the budget. the production designer works with the wardrobe designer to assure that the textures and colors of the wardrobe and the set complement each other. prop runners.

Many variables. Once locations are selected. or sets might be built on a sound stage. designer. medium shots. light rigging. and close-ups. and as you browse the following material you may notice the words 'don't'. determine the amount of rehearsal that takes place during the preproduction phase. quietness. Advances in screenwriting software now save the hours you would previously have spent learning how to write a screenplay in professional Hollywood format can now be allocated to polishing your plot.' unless you are directing the . planning to write a screenplay or script of any kind.. Script writing/ Screenplay: If you are new to screenwriting. The director previsualizes what action will be covered in long shots.and builders are brought in so they can begin sketching designs for those effects. the location manager arranges necessary permits and permissions. Most films use a combination of these two options. and length called a 'script. the director. honing your dialogue. the good news is that writing in screenplay format is easier and more intuitive today than at any time since first Lanier Word Processing Machine. privacy. or learning screenplay structure. A film might be shot at actual locations. such as actor availability and budget. For a location production. and the ability to block traffic. security.. sun angle. and director of photography scout locations with an eye toward the general look as well as to practical concerns about freedom to redress the location. Some think screenplay writing is eclipsing the pursuit of the Great American Novel but it certainly isn't any easier. 'avoid' and '. notation.' This overview will begin acquaint you with the screenplay format writing rules and screenwriting etiquette you'll need to know about. The director and actors work on performance and movements. At any rate the making of movies is a collaborative process which demands that those in screenwriting produce a document in particular format.

The audience viewing a movie not only wants to be interested in and care about the people they see on the screen. You must learn to write a screenplay VISUALLY. behavioral. but the discipline of screenplay writing is how to show it on a screen. whether they like them . in the world of screenwriting. That's life. who captivated your emotions.movie. So just write the pictures. notation. You don't tell your audience your story. Why "outlines"? Because film is a highly collaborative medium and the director. What Exactly Is a Script? A script is a document that outlines every aural. often improvised on the movie set. visual. it may be just done with a look. margins. When it happens. and other conventions. They may consult you. It is crucial to remember that film is a VISUAL medium. You might love your characters and know what they are thinking. The movies you loved most featured characters that swept you up.' Take that advice to heart. or they may not. and lingual element required to tell a story. and speeches. based on your "outline". But because so many people are involved in the making of a film. As you become more familiar with the world of screenwriting you'll understand why but for now the scope of this document prohibits a deeper explanation. This document is intended to overview the typical elements used screenplay writing. cast. sounds. Other writers may be brought in or you may be asked to re-write the entire thing. and leave the rest for the filmmakers. they want to be PASSIONATE about them. editor. a script must conform to standards that all involved parties understand and thus has a specific format or layout. What Makes Good Story? Let's hazard a guess. you SHOW them. Write what they will SEE and what they will HEAR. interpret your story their way when it is filmed. and production crew will. got you involved.

Not just something someone wants. the obstacles can be common to both the hero and villain. no matter what the risk. the protagonist will also have an inner obstacle. something that must be acquired. There are always obstacles. A popular Hollywood term is a "high concept. Both of them have promised their son. At times." while others call in a "wound." You need a hook. which provide that catchword that actors love so much -Conflict. Some people call this inner demon a "ghost." A better idea might be a simple "What if?" In Galaxy Quest. Conflict and obstacles can be physical or emotional. and they must not fail. some mental or even spiritual problem. that will be resolved by the time s/he reaches the outward. the concept is "What if the washed-up actors from the crew of a cancelled but still popular sci-fi TV show are pressed into a real war in space by aliens who think the TV show broadcasts they received were documentaries?" A good enough "what if?" will set your script . physical goal of the story. In most good stories. Sometimes it can be an intangible thing. and the ultimate goal a laudable one for both parties. All these things drive the character's quest.or not. It can be something personal (romance) or for the good of all (saving the world from aliens) but it must be powerful and grow more desperate as the story unfolds. like the small black statue in The Maltese Falcon. This is the heart of drama. Someone wants something and people and things keep getting in the way of them achieving the goal. In that film. for example. like the freedom of a people in Lawrence of Arabia or Gandhi. great villains make us want to jump into the screen! There is always something at stake in a good movie. Arnold Schwarzenegger and Sinbad battle to achieve the same goal--the acquisition of the last popular action figure for sale that Christmas season. Great heroes and heroines inspire us. Or something highly desired by as many main characters as possible. That's a songwriting term that describes that thing that catches the public's attention. even gives the hero superhuman strength. as in Indiana Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Ark. as in Jingle All The Way. But they have to be in your story or you don't really have a story.

Agents. and producers are drawn to and specialize in specific genres so approaching them with something they can recognize is a good idea.S. the people you'll need to work with will be accustomed to standard formats. 'stay out of the way of the collaborative process'! The do's and don'ts you'll see here will reflect this philosophy. unless you're independently wealthy and plan to finance. The scriptwriter has to adhere to conventions covering everything from how many pages to what font (Courier 12 pitch in the U. it often goes through a series of rewrites before it is put into production. Successful stories have a fresh face but are identifiable. I recommend you follow those rules. on the speculative hope that it will be sold. but can you describe it quickly to others? Is it a fast-paced thriller. You must present your work like an insider. If you don't know the game they won't play. Once that happens. action adventure? Scripts have to look a certain way. the script becomes a 'Shooting Script' or Production Script. All the scenes and shots of a shooting script are numbered and each scene and shot are broken down into all the component pieces . and that's just the beginning. You know what makes your idea unique. It is why people will leave the comfort of their homes and plunk down their hard-earned bucks at the local cineplex. and direct your movie.apart from the pack. This is a script written without being commissioned or bought. Shooting Scripts: Once a script is purchased. however. produce.). Hollywood buys genres. I can't stress this point enough. This overview will favor the philosophies of spec script writing which is to say. Submission Scripts AKA a Spec Script. Even then. The sheer volume of submissions makes it so that if ANYTHING about your script looks strange it's headed for the circular file. romantic comedy. managers.

etc). Later. Shooting at night requires powerful/expensive lighting and the payment of nighttime rates to the crew. The production assistants and director can then arrange the order in which the scenes will be shot for the most efficient use of stage. This document. ONE set of margins. for example. A budget is typically divided into four sections: above-the-line (creative talent).required to film it. the Golden Gate Bridge. During preproduction. post-production (editing. All the software program formats and measurements fall within this range. we will begin by exploring that layout. A general comment about script formatting: Although a certain format has become more and more standardized in recent years. etc). Shooting a scene on. is used to secure financing for the film. During script development. cast. ONE style. below-the-line (direct production costs). there isn't ONE way. Film budgeting Film budgeting refers to managing the budget for a film during its production phase. a rough budget is produced by filmmakers in order to convince film producers and film studios to give them a greenlight for production. completion bond. Many directors choose to use the 'day for night' technique. building on what we've discovered here. which could be over 150 pages long. and other (insurance. Avoid location filming in famous or commercial areas. Multiple drafts of the budget may be required to whittle down costs. a much more detailed film budget is produced. Broken Arrow cut costs by millions of dollars by getting rid of the night scenes from the script. Tacts for cutting costs: • • Eliminate night scenes. visual effects. . we'll discuss the other formats. There is a RANGE OF CORRECTNESS. and location resources. Since feature screenplay format is the most popular form of script today.

Some locations are more willing to allow filming than others . ''gross profits is customarily defined as the profits remaining after production and distribution expenses are subtracted from revenues. As well. Film in another region.S. actors. Ask above-the-line talent to defer their salaries. These "runaway productions" enjoy lower labour costs. In exchange for dropping their large upfront salaries. Film action scenes early on Sunday morning. Disagreements over accounting methods can lead to audits and even litigation. For example. Stopping traffic for a car chase scene is easier in the early hours of Sunday morning. directors and producers can receive a large share of the film's gross profits.000.• • • • • requires stopping traffic with a resultant drop in revenue to the city of San Francisco. Use unknown cast members rather than stars.S. as recently happened between Peter Jackson and New Line Cinema over dividing up the profits from the hugelysuccessful Lord of the Rings film trilogy. Some producers of low-budget features avoid paying location fees and seek to capture shots by subterfuge. Use a non-union crew. cities are shot in Canada. The Czech . they take advantage of federal and provincial subsidies designed to grow and sustain the film and television industries in the area. subject to fluctuating exchange rates. states have responded with tax incentives of their own. Using an inexperienced crew has its own disadvantages. which grossed over 2 billion USD. Not an option for studios that have signed contracts with the unions—the Directors Guild of America (DGA).commercial enterprises such as hotels and nightclubs. This has the disadvantage of cutting the financier's eventual takings. though. Many U. when traffic is at its lightest. Shifting the location to the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge for closeups could save hundreds of thousands of dollars in location fees. and Screen Actors Guild (SAG). Filming such a scene for Interview with the Vampire cost Warner Bros. It has the further disadvantage of ambiguity. $500. many Hollywood movies set in U. Writers Guild of America (WGA).

Now with the churn. “But this is a temporary phenomenon. film budgets had moved up with contracts offering sumptuous payments to actors and the technical staff. however. the bank sanctioned loans worth Rs 600 . “The timing of release is important. For these movies. and New Zealand are other countries in which Hollywood movies are often filmed. IDBI Bank and Exim Bank – two of the most active film financiers in the country – have decided to go slow on disbursal of loans for the movie-making business. In the case of IDBI Bank. officials said that there were problems in the distribution of two-three films to which the bank had some financial exposure. While a senior official at the government-owned Export Import (Exim) Bank of India said that banks are now taking extra steps to screen proposals and monitor the payment flows. the budgets have come down too. If this is missed. then the movie has to wait for the next opportune occasion.” IDBI Bank’s Deputy Managing Director J Balakrishnan said.Republic. we have become cautious in lending to this sector. Overall. which the official did not name. Film Financing Banks in India: With the Indian film industry running into rough weather due to the economic downturn. In FY09. “The industry is facing some effects of the slowdown.” an IDBI Bank official said. Earlier. He. Australia. even if it’s sold. did not disclose the extent of funding that the bank has done as it is yet to declare its audited results for 2008-09. Hence. IDBI Bank’s exposure (to film financing) has grown from Rs 100 crore about six years ago to Rs 530 crore at the end of March 2009. producers would have to find an apt time for release. Payments will happen. but there will a change in payment schedules.

the Indian media and entertainment industry stood at Rs 58. while disbursement was close to Rs 480 crore. Over the next five years. with the size of the industry estimated at about Rs 16. the industry is projected to grow at a CAGR of 12. along with a greater need for accountability. especially in the last quarter of 2008. a growth of 12. This pace of growth is now expected to moderate to 9.5 per cent to Rs 1. term loans for fixed assets finance and term financing for export market development.860 crore.” the source said. The financing to films can take various forms.7 per cent.4 per cent over the previous year.crore. Some of the producers are facing liquidity problems and there is correction underway currently.1 per cent for the period up to 2013.200 crore by 2013. 5 Most High Budget Films of Bollywood: . According to a FICCI-KPMG report on the Indian media and entertainment industry. the market environment has become increasingly challenging for this sector due to the economic slowdown.05. cash flow financing for film distribution/exhibition in overseas markets. the report said.690 crore in 2005 to Rs 10. The film industry has grown from Rs 6. indicating a recessionary trend. showing a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 17. The four areas where assistance is generally provided are cash flow financing for film production.400 crore in 2008. Altogether. FICCI officials said that there has not been a single blockbuster after Ghajini. increased complexities have emerged on account of greater fragmentation of audiences across media and distribution platforms. For an individual player.930 crore in 2008.

Shivaji-The boss -Rs. Shankar Music : A. Murugadoss Music : A. Love Story 2050 . 60 Crores (Rs 600 Million) Cast : Hrithik Roshan .1.R.Josh Katz Directed by : Harry Baweja Music : Anu Malik Producers : Pammi Baweja 4.Aishwarya Rai Bachchan Directed by : Ashutosh Gowariker’s Music : A. Ghajini – Rs. Directed By: Anthony D’Souza 2. 65 crores Cast : Amir Khan. Saravanan/M.R. Shriya.Harman Baweja .Boman Irani . Rahman . Lara Datta.Archana Puran Singh .S. Blue Rs.R. Vivek. Katrina Kaif and Zayed Khan. Guhan 3. Jodhaa Akbar .Asin. Nayantara Directed by : S.RS. Rahman 5. Above 100 crores (Above 1 Billion) Cast: Akshay Kumar.80 Crores Cast : Priyanka Chopra .R. Sanjay Dutt. Rahman Producers : M. 80 Crores Cast: Super Star Rajinikanth.Jiah Khan Directed by : A.

Destiny has it different for him and he lands up in underworld's net. Made with a very low budget this Anurag Basu movie was critically appreciated and did well in the screens. Black Friday Based on the Bombay Bomb Blasts of 1993. Pavan Malhotra and Aditya Srivastava in its star cast showed the underworld like no other film had done before. We take a look at some of these movies yielded high returns for their producers Bheja Fry A Rajat Kapoor and Vinay Pathak starer out and out Gen X comedy produced at a budget of under Rs 1 crore. Supported well by Milind Soman and Ranvir Shorey. These so called low budget movies stood up against their big budget commutators and gave them a run for their money. Mithya Starring Ranvir Shorey and Naseeruddin Shah its story revolved around a young man who comes to Mumbai aspiring to make it big in life. Bheja Fry grossed about 10 times its production cost which would make any producer proud. The entire movie talks about the story of one night and makes you burst out with laughter with its incidents.5Low Budget Films of Bollywood In this day of competitiveness in the entertainment industry where a huge chunk of money is spent in promotion there are a few movies whose budget did not allow promotion or rather they did not need promotion at all. this movie was released in the country after a delay of three years. . The movie was appreciated by the critics and did brisk business at the box office in the first few weeks of its release recovering its production cost. With Kay Kay Menon.

There’s a fundamental order in the film production universe. you’ll always know where you are and what lies ahead. and you’ll be prepared to deal with it all. Khosla Ka Ghosla A comedy starring Anupam Kher. and locations will suddenly become unavailable hours before your scheduled to be on the set. This also marked the entry of Shreyas Talpade in Bollywood and earned him the Critics Best Actors Award.Iqbal Who says Chak De India first movie about condition of spots in India. from the smallest low budget feature to the big budget Hollywood blockbuster. The movie was critically well appreciated and did well all across the country. If you know the process. Equipment will break. Boman Irani and Ranvir Shorey. The key to maintaining your sanity through it all is to have a good understanding of the production process. . all the planning in the world can’t prepare you for everything that will go wrong during production. As any producer with feature film production experience knows. Coming from the stable of Nagesh Kukunoor this film talked about an underdog who aspired to play for the Indian cricket team. actors will forget to show up. props will disappear. Khosla Ka Ghosla threw light on the land mafia's in the country. Although made on a very small budget it stormed the box office for some time. Backed up well by the superb acting of Naseeruddin Shah this movie recovered its cost within a week.

Another reason for the move towards insurance is that Film production was given `industry` status in 2000. Lakshya etc. her shooting schedules were disturbed and a set that was put up had to be brought down. and Post Production (everything that happens after the production wraps and the camera gets put away. In the future with more uncertainties in the film market such as Bharat Shah`s arrest and fancy for cocaine by some of our stars. Ganga Jal. and RBI allowed banks to lend to film production. Asambhav. Dil Chahta Hai. Chalte Chalte. Now the insurance of the film is a pre-requisite for bank loans for Hindi films. like Mohabatein.5 million as premium for the film valued at Rs 110 million.The production process is generally broken down into three sections: Pre Production (anything that happens before the camera is rolling.) Production. Ek Aur Ek Gayarah. Main Hoon Na. Ashoka.5 million from United India Insurance when Aishwarya Rai had an accident. It was arrest of Sanjay Dutt during `Khalnayak` which prompted Subhash Ghai to insure his next movie `Taal` for which he paid Rs 1. more and more producers will move towards . Kuch Na Kaho and Deewaar. (which is only insurance company to provide for film insurance in India) has insured more than 40 films and hoping to double this figure within one year. Apart from the above-mentioned movies some other movies were also insured such as Saathiya. Therefore anyone who wants loan from bank for filmmaking has to take insurance on his film. Taj Mahal. Ever since Taal was insured. Joggers Park. Producer Yash Chopra claimed a compensation of Rs. Kal Ho Na Ho. more and more producers have rushed to insure their movies.) Film insurance: Initially insurance was considered as one more burden to film`s budget and the producers were very hesitant in taking insurance policies. Kabhi Khushi Kabhi Gham. Lagaan. Khel. 3. Till now United Insurance India Ltd.

Insurance Coverage: Leading insurance companies have agreed to compensate for delays and losses due to cyclones. acts of kidnap. The merits of being insured and instances of disbursements against claims have helped the industry`s interest in getting films insured. Depending on the type of policy one takes. . natural calamity. or accidents arising out of participation in hazardous stunts or conditions like pregnancy etc. accident/illness involving hospitalization. United India`s list of insured films has grown to 42 by the end of June 2003. Negatives etc: Coverage in such cases is due to losses arising out of fire. interrogation etc. Since opening its film insurance account with the movie Taal in 1998.death. Production Equipments. adverse weather conditions and traffic interruptions as well as harm to individuals involved in film-making. riot/strike/civil commotion/curfew like situation prohibiting the cast from reaching the site of shoot. Further.insuring their films. detention. 1. death in immediate family. strikes. Sets. many big banner productions such as Ram Gopal Varma`s Company preferred to go uninsured. Important Support Cast. However no cover can be claimed if the cancellation has taken place if the person is an accused criminal under arrest. 2. Technicians etc: Coverage in such cases can be claimed due to non-appearance which may arise due to . But amenable candidates are still only a handful. re-shooting expenses and losses due to expenses on account of cancellation/postponement etc. Properties. murder etc Insurer`s liability is restricted to reimbursement of lost remuneration in event of above events. flood. attempts to get South Indian films insured are yet to yield dividend. bandhs (closures). insurance in Hindi films can be grouped under the following broad heads. Directors. United India`s business is even today confined to Bollywood. complete breakdown of transport system. Named Artistes such as the Main Cast.

legal costs and expenses incurred with Insurer`s consent in the successful defense of suits/writs/summons brought against to prevent the film being shot further or being released.200. Money Insurance: Coverage in this case is cash in transit between shoot locations or cash kept at the shoot site (under lock and key) or cash embezzled by the authorized person of the insured but detected within 48 hours of the occurrence. irrevocably lost insured expenses on account of cancellation/postponement etc. punitive damages or liability assumed by virtue of an agreement which are explicitly excluded. Workmen Insurance: Coverage includes bodily injury resulting in death/disability to the workman arising out of and during the course of employment onshoot locations. or terrorism/theft/burglary/dacoity or risks of transit Insurer`s liability is limited to material damage. Major Exclusions are due to objects of art unless valued and declared or wear & tear/inherent defects electrical and mechanical breakdown of equipments or inventory losses or deterioration of negatives because of humidity and other atmospheric conditions. Major Exclusions include personal cash of any nature or unattended cash or loss arising out of use of duplicate key whilst the cash is kept in the premises outside business hours. 5.storm or any other acts of God or natural calamities or accidents due to main cast. 000 per incident of loss with an overall limit of Rs 600. additional expenses on account of bringing back things to normal. Insurers Liability is Rs. Public Liability: Coverage is due to injury/loss to members of public and their property which can include indemnity for court or fees.000 during the period of the policy. 3. For example Kaun Banega Crorepati had taken this type of Insurance against PIL (Public Interest Litigation). advocate`s fees. 4. be it accidental/external means or acts of riot/strike/ civil commotion etc. Insurer`s liability is as per the provisions of the . Major exclusions exist in this case are fines. penalties.

the policy will be heavy on insurance for properties and sets whereas for a movie like Kaun which is shot in just one room this kind of insurance can be completely avoided.Workmen Compensation Act. The premium was fixed at 1. that one can apply for either one or all of the above coverage`s as a part of the policy. Advertisement films Coverage: With the advent of new technologies and increasing consumerism new concepts and ideas are coming in the area of advertisement films also. This kind of advancement makes ad films more expansive and risky. Coverage can be claimed for bodily injury resulting from accidents caused directly and solely by external. it depends on the type of film that is in the making.10 per cent of the film`s . Accident Insurance: This coverage is for all members of the production team onlocation and/or off-location at a predetermined rate. 6. For example in a movie like Devdas where large sets have to be put in Film City. Types of Policy: For a typical movie various covers as mentioned above typically exist. An advertisement film. has become the first domestic advertising film to get insured. visible means during the policy period. Also in a movie like Khiladi 420 where a great number of stunts have to be performed by the actor. That inturn demands for more expanses and even stunt seen like films are now being pasteurized in advertisement films. extra insurance may be taken whereas in a movie like Aastitva this may not be required. featuring actress Hema Malini promoting Rahat Rooh Oil. which demands for insurance. violent. However. Therefore not only feature films but advertisement films are also showing keen interest in insurance and first ever insurance of an advertisement film is an evident example of this.

At the start of each shot. takes eight weeks. the camera operator films a slate. details of the camera and actor movement. The audio recorder. and the tape player automatically locates the portion of sound tape with the matching numbers. to select and position lighting instruments. The picture and sound remain in synchronization to the end of the shot. The director of photography works with the “gaffer. This process is repeated for each shot. which “grips” help to rig. on average. the number advance stops briefly. For each shot. The location sound mixer operates the audio recording machine and works with a boom operator. a shot is filmed more than once to improve on either a technical element or the performance. So the ambit of insurance is expending to even the areas like advertisement films also. and comments. Usually. When the hinged bar on the slate is closed. The director and actors rehearse on the set. Film is being produced by Lehar Communications and insured by United India Insurance Company Ltd. on an inaudible track. The director chooses the camera angles to be used for each shot. He or she also indicates which takes will be printed at the film . he or she locates the frame with the first frozen slate number. When the assistant editor synchronizes the sound to the picture. and thousands of shots are filmed before the completion of a film. which is a board that has digital numbers that allow every frame of film to be uniquely identified at twenty-four frames per second. The boom operator positions the microphone close to the actors while being careful to keep the microphone out of the picture.” or chief lighting person. which. Production: Production involves the actual shooting. records corresponding numerical information. These are the indication that now Indian Entertainment Industry is ready to recognize the concept of film insurance and willing to insure against any expected or unexpected event.budget. the film`s budget is Rs 15 lakh. time length of the take. the script supervisor notes the lens that is used.

generally recorded on 1/4-inch audiotape. monitors the effectiveness of the lighting and camera movements. and sound transferring. Even when a film is edited digitally (as opposed to the physical film being edited on a flatbed editor that runs picture and sound in synchronization at the projection speed of twentyfour frames per second). He or she is the creative force that pulls a film together. Once an acceptable take is made. along with the director of photography. the film and sound are sent to a laboratory for processing. Actors. the crew sets up and rehearses the next shot.” Directing: The director's vision shapes the look and feel of a film. At the end of each day. responsible for turning the words of a script into images on the screen. or “dailies. is either transferred to 35-mm magnetic stock or digitized into a computer for editing. The production sound. The Director's Vision Imagine you're being considered to direct a Hollywood film. and editors orbit around the director like planets around the Sun. You're handed a screenplay that has been "green lighted" (given approval for production) by a major studio. Despite the director's pivotal role. The key crewmembers then screen the footage of the previous day’s shoot. most Hollywood movies are designed to pull you into the story without being aware of the director's hand. As you read through it. cinematographers. The director assesses performances and. writers. it is common to have a film work print made for the daily screenings. Even a simple scene might be covered in four different angles. Many talented film directors with long lists of feature film credits are so skilled at being "invisible" that they are little known by the movie-going public. allowing for creative choices in the editing process. work printing.laboratory. .

the director plays an important role in shaping the way the story is told. you ask yourself some key questions. If you are hired as the director of this film. and there's an enormous amount of work ahead. the production designer is the . Feeling connected and committed to the story will help you do your best work. but even the best one may need to be developed or molded to work well on the big screen. A production designer is responsible for the believability of a film's scenery and sets. the director may work with the writer early on to help develop a script from its infancy. Assembling the Cast and Crew: The people you work with. A good script is the foundation for a good film. What is the main idea or theme of the screenplay? What does the story say about the human condition in general? You also think about the script cinematically. the planning for a film is often underway before there is a script. you may need to help shape the script for the screen. but the director will have input into crucial hires such as lead actors. are crucial to the film's success.you begin to imagine how it might play out on screen. The right people will understand and respect your vision. both the actors and the crew who will make things work behind the scenes. You envision the lighting and hear the sound. In essence. When you're done reading the script. Whatever the route from script to screen. How will the script translate to the visual language of the screen? Who is the audience? As the director. You are absorbed in the world of the story until you see the script's final words: Fade Out. You see the characters coming to life. and bring their own unique gifts to the filmmaking process. Sometimes the producer will develop a script and then hand it over to the director. Nowadays. work well with one another. The film's producer normally hires the crew. A director or producer purchases the rights to a story and then hires a screenwriter. In other cases. you must feel passionate about this soon-to-be film.

The final stages of pre-production include weeks of rehearsal. Often a casting director or producer will help you select the cast. Filming and Post-production: After months or even years of development. and rewrites. and designer. a reality. During this phase. or director of photography. The cinematographer. the final script is set and the film goes into pre-production. the film is planned from beginning to end on paper. as director. set construction. scenes are planned and designed. director of photography. Your casting decisions will be based on such factors as availability and whether or not an actor is suitable for lead or ensemble acting. The production designer also works closely with the art director and set decorator. The actors you choose will bring your story to life. Often. Storyboards— visual representations of every shot—are prepared by a storyboard artist in consultation with the director. budgets are detailed. making certain all the visual details are accurate and the style and period of the film reflect your wishes. scene by scene. Before a single frame is shot. and location scouting. working to make your vision. cinematographers are artists with experience in painting and photography. helps to translate your vision to film. and a shooting schedule is prepared. Their job is to create and capture the images that best tell the story. as well as on a healthy dose of intuition. Once shooting begins. This flexibility can make the difference between an acceptable . You'll also need to be able to improvise on the set and troubleshoot if necessary. planning shots and supervising camera operators. delays.architect of the film. you'll need to continue to communicate your vision of the film to the actors and crew.

you will be able to complete filming for about three script pages per day. Days or weeks of shooting result in only a few minutes of screen time. The film's producers may decide to cut certain scenes or use a different film clip for a certain effect. A camera angle during shoots . the final step in the difficult work of bringing your vision to life. On average.Close up’s and long shots: Imagine you are directing a science-fiction movie about a monster that is threatening Paris. How can you make this threat seem real to the film's viewers? How can you communicate your vision on the screen? . With your guidance.production and an exceptional one. Editing is a collaborative process. You picture the large monster stomping among the buildings of the city. Your "director's cut" of the film (the one you work with the editor to create) may not be the final one the audience sees. frightening citizens and wreaking havoc. In the editing room. Once the shoot is over. the film and sound editor will complete the detailed technical work required at this stage. hundreds of thousands of feet of film need to be assembled into a coherent story. or the equivalent of about three minutes of screen time. your vision will either come to life or perish.

A medium shot of two characters discussing a plan. The storyboards on this page show how these shots could be used in your science-fiction film to create different effects. Shooting your movie monster from far away.THE STORYBOARDS As a director. Establishing shot A shot. A close-up of a frightened passerby. or other qualities to achieve certain effects. One powerful way to communicate your vision is through camera angles. most likely one that shows the Eiffel Tower. and closeup. over-the-shoulder shot. . In your science-fiction movie. An establishing shot of the city of Paris. for example. A long shot of the monster stopping traffic. normally taken from a great distance or from a "bird's eye view. This will communicate to the audience that the action takes place in Paris. During the planning stages of a film. the director and possibly the director of photography may meet with a storyboard artist to illustrate the flow of shots that will best tell the story. The most common of these are the establishing shot." that establishes where the action is about to occur. An over-theshoulder shot of a character in conversation. There are a number of camera angles that a director has at his or her disposal. lighting. You can vary a shot's perspective. medium shot. location. will achieve a very different look than if you were to shoot it up close. long shot. you have many tools and techniques that can shape the look and feel of a film. you will probably need an establishing shot of the Paris skyline.

or to direct the audience to some other important element of the film. A long shot is used to stress the environment or setting of a scene. or decide to zoom in on a frightened passerby to illustrate his or her fear. In your monster movie. Actors are essential for conveying emotions to an audience. or some other object. sometimes only inches away from an actor's face. for example. you might use a long shot to show the monster causing traffic jams and panicked crowds. normally from the waist up. Acting No cinematographer or film editor. no matter how gifted. Close-up A shot taken at close range. or embrace. In filming your sciencefiction movie." for bringing the words and ideas in a script to life. to give significance to a certain object. Filming over an actor's shoulder focuses the audience's attention on one actor at a time in a conversation. a prop. such as a struggle. "There is no The right actor can give a screenwriter's words teacher like exciting new depth and dimensions. you might use a close-up of the monster's teeth or claws to show how ferocious it is. can turn a terrible performance into a great one. An over-the-shoulder shot is used when two characters are interacting face-to-face. Medium shot A shot that frames actors. debate. —Ed Asner . The close-up is designed to focus attention on an actor's expression. The medium shot can be used to focus attention on an interaction between two actors. rather than on both. Over-the-shoulder shot A shot of one actor taken from over the shoulder of another actor.Long shot A shot that shows a scene from a distance (but not as great a distance as the establishing shot). performing.

The editor is then able to organize the selected shots by using the computer keyboard and mouse. but substantial enough that if you do well..e. While an assembly of the entire film may be completed within one to two weeks after the principal photography has been finished. Digital editing requires that the picture and sound dailies be transferred to videotape. It's a minor part. If the director has gone over the allotted time for the production process. Imagine that you are an actor. Once you're lucky enough to secure an agent. you are sent on interviews where you meet casting directors and read for parts. you will enjoy more work and exposure. You pack your bags and head to Hollywood. it will be anywhere from two weeks to two months more before the director’s cut is ready. . your body. you are cast in a film. Over the course of two months.Even animated characters rely on the personalities of behind-thescenes performers. you meet other actors and enroll in workshops to continually hone your instruments: your voice. and your imagination. Assistants synchronize and prepare dailies. Postproduction: An editorial team that includes a picture editor and several assistants and apprentices usually works from the first day of shooting. In Hollywood. an accelerated postproduction schedule is required. cuts scenes as they are shot. You've worked primarily in New York theatre. which is then digitized (i. Finally. but have decided to try your hand at working in film. you try out for 23 roles and are chosen for none of them. you begin to prepare. After the shock wears off. converted from an analog format to a digital format) for use on a computer. You seek out an agent and have some publicity photos taken. with a nonlinear computer system such as Avid. The editor. rather than physically cutting and taping together bits of film.

Documentary Filmmaking . The supervising sound editor. The music editor helps devise a temporary musical score based on preexisting music. The editor spends countless hours in fine tuning the length of a shot down to an individual frame. Individual shots must be located in minutes. After rehearsal. One method of organization is to enter shot information into a computer so an editor can locate shots using key words or numbers. A music editor is hired when the editor’s assembly cut is near completion. the actor watches the picture while listening over headphones to the original production recording. a supervising sound editor oversees a team of sound recordists. editors. Despite judicious microphone selection and placement. To re-record lines. with each time employing picture recuts and other editorial changes. the actor performs the lines. such as music emanating from car radios or stereos. along with each specialty editor. usually one or two at a time. The ADR process may also include adding or changing lines. The filmstrip or the digitized computer image is coded with a set of numbers that identify each of the millions of frames. The re-recorded lines. and a composer. The music supervisor aids in selecting source music. known as loop lines. while watching the picture. often by trimming out pauses or sections of words. are meticulously edited to fit the mouth movements on the picture. Once recuts are complete. Automated dialogue replacement (ADR) editors focus on the clarity of each word of dialogue. A system of organization. spots the appropriate tracks to determine where and when sound is to be added or altered. The film may go through various edited versions before a decision is made on which version works the best. sound elements such as air traffic may preclude quality recordings. A sound mix of dialogue and temporary music is completed so the film can be shown to preview audiences. A film can be tested as few as two times or as many as fifteen. is used to catalog each of the shots. which can vary from editing room to editing room.The production process results in miles of film.

Depending on the subject matter. Whereas editor of a narrative film works according to the structure of the preexisting screenplay. documentaries often do not begin with a screenplay because real events are filmed as they unfold. however. they involve animation-stand shooting of photographs and other archival materials. instead of live-action shooting. Interviews are transcribed. editor. The edited film may run anywhere from several minutes to several hours. Shooting is determined by the unfolding events. but to get at the underlying feelings about events. figuring out how to structure the material in a logical and emotionally moving way. The crew for a documentary can be composed of only a few people. Or. The challenges of location shooting are great because the environment cannot be controlled as it can in narrative filmmaking. or assistant logs each shot. whereas the editor of a narrative . The editor uses these logs to create an edit on paper. In addition. It is typical for a documentary to have a very high shooting ratio. a documentary might be shot over several years or several days. The production crew is often kept small so as not to disrupt the events that are being filmed. Unlike narratives. and cinematographer or sound mixer. the director. the director often spends time in preproduction with the subjects so they become comfortable with and trust him or her. Concurrent with filming. As much as one hundred times more footage is sometimes shot than is used. and it occurs at real locations instead of constructed locations. editor. the crew can include separate individuals who perform each of these functions. often rely on a screenplay that is based on years of research. If the content focuses on a few people.The production process for a documentary varies greatly depending on the type of film. with the director also functioning as producer. writer. Historical documentaries. The director often strives to reveal not only facts. the editor or writer of a documentary creates the screenplay from the footage and point of view of the film.

scratch. a few hours. experimental films deal with a wide variety of subject matter. A film might be scripted down to the individual frame. experimental films might run a few minutes. limited urban releases. and editor. the Internet. and. Some filmmakers bypass the camera completely and draw. public television. due to the financial exigencies of independent filmmaking. from personal issues and interior psychological states to the very nature and ontology of the film image. or they can cost many thousands of dollars. with one individual often acting as producer. CD-ROM. Distribution outlets for . Experimental films can cost less than $100. writer.film decides which angle to use for any given shot (since the same material is shot multiple times from different camera setups). or otherwise work directly on the celluloid. the editor of a documentary generally has only one take per shot to work with because actions usually cannot be restaged from multiple angles. director. One film might have a different image on each frame. Experimental Filmmaking Experimental films generally explore alternative content and forms. for some featurelength documentaries. much in the manner of abstract expressionist painting. art houses. or it might be spontaneously and instinctively shot. educational and public library venues. Photographic equipment employed in experimental films ranges from a state-of-the-art 35-mm camera to a child’s toy camera. Often compared to poetry and to the other plastic arts. or be virtually endless as in the case of film loops. Experimental films are usually independently produced. festivals. sound mixer. Distribution outlets for documentaries include video. or they construct their films from found or archival footage. museums. Though generally short. while another might consist entirely of one long shot taken by a static. stationary camera.

those for documentary films. but often more limited than. Film Promotion & Distribution: The publicity of a movie takes place at two levels: .experimental films are similar to.

At distributor level. The budgets allocated for such publicity are comprehensive but smaller than the budgets at producer level. the Indian media plays a vital role in this process. Superstar Shah Rukh Khan is a fine example of the above. And yes. to do whatever it takes to enforce that “must-watch” feeling among the masses in order to win this very competitive rat-race. His perfectly knitted . hoardings. But the scope of this is publicity is limited to the distributor’s territory. this publicity tries to reach the audience who may not have access to cable TV or radio. With over 1000 films releasing in a given year. radio. national magazines etc. local newspapers etc. the box-office success. This publicity is aimed at all the target audience in the country for creating a “buzz” about the movie.At producer level. Actors barely promoted their films. The media used at this level are posters. At producer level the publicity of movies is done at a large scale with a national or international scenario in consideration. the multiplex domination – it has become a necessity for those involved.e. Also. At distributor level the publicity is mainly for making the target audience aware about the theatres where the movie is playing and the timings of the movies. Today’s Bollywood presents a very different scenario. filmmakers never ventured in-front of the camera and our main stream media couldn’t care less. The star cast of the movie is also associated with publicity at this level. The budgets at this level are very big and the media used are teaser on TV channels and cinema halls. Gone are those days when plastering a few posters on the walls and hand-painted Billboard signs were the only means available for a film’s publicity. all of them fighting for a common goal i.

tying up with news-channels and popular online sites. birthday celebrations with the Indian media. reviews and movie news. the 6-pack (over-toned) tag line. "making of". Over the years trailers have been transformed into teasers. despite a weak storyline and very mediocre performances. be it non-stop television promotions. And as a result. songs. the OSO clothes line – in short. The mainstream advertising for movies. King Khan took the job of film-marketing to a whole new level. .marketing tactics. all forms a part of the promotion strategies adopted by film makers. Om Shanti Om ended up being a super duper box-office success. Trailers. star appearances on TV shows. targeted at the end users is done via TV. that give little info about the movie while buzz amongst the audience about the movie. interviews. Movie trailers form the conventional part of advertising movies via television. cricket matches and last but certainly not the least.

The combination of act and speech. Therefore. U/A: Unrestricted/Universal Public Exhibition but with parental guidance for children below 12 years. A movie with 'U' rating contains no or mild violence and sensuality. language and sexuality. sight and sound in semi darkness of the theatre with elimination of all distracting ideas will have a strong impact on the minds of the viewers and can affect emotions. o This rating is similar to G of the MPAA. not only desirable but also necessary” Rating System The rating system of Films is as follows: • • U: Unrestricted/Universal Public Exhibition: This rating is given to films suitable for 'family viewing'. it has as much potential for evil as it has for good and has an equal potential to instill or cultivate violent or good behaviour. The movie may contain some material that is .Censor Board-Central board of film certification The Central Board of Film Certification (popularly known as the Censor Board) is a government of India regulatory body and censorship board of India controlled by Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. television shows. It cannot be equated with other modes of communication. It reviews. Censorship by prior restraint is. According to the Supreme Court of India : “Film censorship becomes necessary because a film motivates thought and action and assures a high degree of attention and retention as compared to the printed word. therefore. and promotional material. rates and censors movies. television ads. This rating is given to a movie which contains mild violence. It should not disturb even the youngest of children.

However such an act is a penal offence under the Laws of India. indicating they are disallowed from public screen .unsuitable for children under 12. o This rating is similar to R of the MPAA. No rating: Several films do not receive a rating. • • • A: Adults: 'A' Films are meant for Adult audience above 18 years only. S: Specialized Audience: This rating is given very rarely and signifies that the film is meant for specialized audience such as Doctors. o This rating is similar to 12A of BBFC and PG-13 of the MPAA. This rating is given to a movie which contains heavy doses of violence. sexuality. frightening images and language.

Producers and directors will take many courageous steps and come up with new experiments. this issue is not as simple as it prima facie seems.. films including those films which . Art films. will rejuvenate once again. Then. The first problem is regarding the criterion in which the performance of a film would be judged and indemnified accordingly. Secondly due to advent of overseas rights and musical rights etc. even new comers will also dare to enter into this profession. a demand is also being made to include the performance of the film at box office.Box Office Coverage: Due to a very huge list of flop films every year and the increasing rate of unsuccess of many big banners film now a days. The quality of the films will improve and new ideas and stories will come forward. because then people will not hesitate in investing on those films. Although this step might have above positive effects but there are lots of practical problems and negative effects in its implementation. which are in very poor state. However. It is very difficult to find out a straight formula according to which the performance of a film would be judged and that makes almost impossible to calculate the amount of compensation based on that. The repetition of the same formula again and again due to fear of flops will also be reduced. The positive effect of this step will be that producer will make the films free from all the worries about films fate at box office.

They will make substandard movies without caring for the quality to recover from the insurance company. as already discussed the practical problems and negative effects are such that it must not be implemented. Recently some interest has also being shown by the southern film industry. This tendency should be changed.are shown flop. Increasing professionalism and demand for more realism has driven film business towards huge expenses and more risk. producers can do themselves a great service by insuring their films. With specific reference to Indian Film Industry. This will lead to a floodgate situation and it would become impossible for an insurance company to work. it has still to warm up for insurance. recovers there cost even before there release and in that case to recover from the insurance company for the performance of there film will not be right. . As a film producer it is always better to cover risks by obtaining insurance cover. Lastly there is a huge possibility that this kind of coverage will make the producers and directors idle. which works out to hardly 1-3% of the budget. Although many production houses have come up but the number is relatively very small. Regarding the demand to include the performance of film at box office. Now the changed circumstances have made it necessary to cover the film under insurance. negative effects and practical problems are such that it is not advisable to cover the performance of a film at box office. They will try to exploit this situation to their benefit and there will be a huge amount of fake cases. Thus. since even small-budget films need a sense of security. Advent of insurance in advertisement film is a right step in the direction. A large section still believes that insurance does nothing but to increases the budget of the film. Therefore in spite of some of the positive effects due to inclusion of the performance of a film.

which was most inactive and unwilling initially. The Indian film industry has also started imitating the West blindly. knows the proper place of sex and violence in films. Scenes of violence and sex cause a lot of social harm by affecting the minds of the young people. Western cinema is mostly based on stories of sex abuse and violence. Such a motive reflects lack of honesty and sincerity on the part of the film makers. If we consider the fact that people in general have undergone a rapid change in thinking we will not object to the inclusion of some such scenes in movies. they can have access to Western movies on . That means the portrayal of sex and violence in films should not be with sole motive of earning money. If people are prevented from watching such films. But one thing should be remembered that the inclusion of these two elements in films should not be exploited for selfish needs without caring for the harm done or being caused to others. A stage has been reached now where even putting a ban on such films will be of no use. who is fond of cinema. But normally such scenes would not threaten the morality of the viewers if they look for a harmonious part of the story or plot. This indicates that concept of film insurance is slowly and gradually recognized and accepted in India. Is Indian Cinema Forgetting its Indian cultures & Values Every person. It is a good sign for the film industry and it might just bail out the Indian Film Industry from its current recession.

If we saw that films we can feel the difference. Violence and sex have become a part of our life. Previously children were not allowed to see films of every kind. To talk about films is no more a taboo. we should see and understand those films. If we compare our films with those movies in Hollywood. violence. We cannot avoid such things and they will always be a part of our life. So. There is also no point in imposing full responsibility of such social maladies solely on films. . Our censor board selection is not so appreciable. People discuss violence freely and they have easy access to weapons for crimes.V. These were not inspired by films. The times have changed. The original uncensored western films are available in our metros. cinema did not exist at that time. we can't blame films as the only reason.internet and satellite T. The violence shown in our films is not as potent as to encourage crime in the country. In other words. In fact. They could see only those movies which had religious and historical themes. murders etc in our ancient literature. People in west see these films but we can't say that it has resulted in the increase in crime. black money and so on? There are stories of sex. Saying about the effect of hollywood in Indian cinema. our cinema is not the only cause of increasing crime and violence. prostitution. What is allowed by them in our films cannot be called as sex. Our films are just a counter part in the west. Why should we worry? What about the other social evils like corruption. But the fact is that scenario has also changed. we will see the difference.

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