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& KEYWALL™ OPERATING GUIDE
KEYSTONE DESIGN MANUAL
& KEYWALL™ OPERATING GUIDE
The information presented in this manual, including technical and engineering data, ﬁgures, tables, drawings, and procedures, is provided for general information only. While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, this information should not be used or relied upon for any speciﬁc application without independent professional examination and veriﬁcation of its accuracy, suitability, and applicability. Anyone using this material assumes any and all liability resulting from such use. Keystone Retaining Wall Systems disclaims any and all express or implied warranties of merchantability ﬁtness for any general or particular purpose or freedom from infringement of any patent, trademark, or copyright in regard to the information or products contained or referred to herein. Nothing herein contained shall be construed as granting a license, express or implied, under any patents. Keystone is a registered trademark of Keystone Retaining Wall Systems, Inc. Keystone Retaining Wall Systems are covered by one or more U.S. Patents. Copyright © 1993, 1994, 1995, 2001 by Keystone Retaining Wall Systems, Inc. Printed in the United States.
Keystone Retaining Wall Systems, Inc. 4444 West 78th Street, Minneapolis, MN 55435 Telephone 952.897.1040
KEYSTONE DESIGN MANUAL
& KEYWALL™ OPERATING GUIDE
K e y s t o n e R e ta i n i n g W a l l U n i t s
G e os yn t h et i c S o i l R e i n fo rc e m e n t
R e ta i n i n g W a l l D e s i g n Th e o r y
Th e D e s i g n P r o c e s s
Ke y Wa ll O p e rat i n g I n s t ruc t i o n s
© 2001 Keystone Retaining Wall Systems, Inc.
Revised August 2001 Reprinted July 2006
DESIGN MANUAL &KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Table of Contents Ta b l e o f C o n t e n t s Introduction Design Manual & KeyWall Operating Guide Geotechnical Responsibility pa g e 9 10 11 pa g e PA R T F O U R PA R T O N E Keystone Retaining Wall Units Keystone Retaining Wall Units Keystone Materials Standard Unit Compac Unit Mini Unit Intermediate & Legacy Unit Unit Shear Resistance Base Shear Resistance Inter-Unit Shear Resistance Shear Data & Analysis 15 17 17 18 18 19 19 19 20 20-21 PA R T T W O Geosynthetic Soil Reinforcement Geosynthetic Soil Reinforcement 25 Design Strength 27 Reduction Factors 27-28 Connection Strength 28-29 Geosynthetic Soil Interaction Coefficient 29-30 Geogrid Manufacturers' Data 31 PA R T T H R E E Retaining Wall Design Theory Retaining Wall Design Theory Important Technical Deﬁnitions Lateral Earth Pressure Theories Coulomb Earth Pressure Theory Coulomb Earth Pressure Equation Coulomb Failure Plane Location Rankine Earth Pressure Theory Rankine Earth Pressure Equations Rankine Failure Plane Location Trial Wedge Analysis Bearing Capacity Applied Bearing Pressure Calculated Bearing Capacity Bearing Capacity Factors Settlement Global Stability Seismic Analysis 35 37 38 39 39-40 40 40 40 41 41 42 42 42 43 44 44 45 The Design Process Introduction Design Methodology Unit Selection Wall Batter Hinge Height Wall Geometry Wall Embedment Sloping Toe Soil Properties Surcharge Reinforcement Type & Properties Soil Reinforcement Length External Stability Analysis Battered Wall Design Options Sliding Analysis Coulomb .NCMA Overturning Rankine .NCMA Sliding Rankine .AASHTO Overturning Overturning Bearing Capacity Ultimate Bearing Capacity Internal Stability Tensile Capacity Tension Level Calculation AASHTO Internal Tension Connection Capacity Pullout Capacity Stability of Facing 49 51 52 52 52-53 53 53 54 54 55 55 56 56 57 58 58 59 59 60 60 60 60 61 61 62 62 63 63 64 65 .AASHTO Sliding Overturning Analysis Coulomb .
NCMA . AASHTO Methodologies 89-93 97-107 111-121 125-139 REFERENCES References 111 143 . NCMA . Rankine Methodology D: Reinforced Soil Wall Design.Coulomb Methodology C: Reinforced Soil Wall Design.5 Table of Contents DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Table of Contents pa g e PA R T F I V E KeyWall Operating Instructions Installation & User’s Guide Installation Registration Keywall Installation & Setup Launching the Keywall Program Keywall Windows Interface Keywall Interface Options Keywall Registration Details General Input Geometry Input Soil Properties Leveling Pad Factors of Safety Reinforcement Selection Design Preferences Results Screen Edit Geogrid Data in Results Screen Seismic Input 69 71 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 79 80 81 82 83 83 84-85 PA R T S I X Appendices Examples A: Gravity Wall Design.Coulomb Methodology B: Reinforced Soil Wall Design.
000 square feet . New Jersey Compac Classic Straight Face Units 44.DESIGN MANUAL &KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE S i t e A p pl i c at i o n : Co r p o r at e D eve lo pm e n t Morris Corporate Park Parsippany.
aesthetically appealing. Because of their structural strength with the ﬁberglass pins and granular drainage ﬁll. Atlanta. geosynthetic soil reinforcement was gaining approval and acceptance as a viable soil reinforcement material. With the structural pin and crushed stone ﬁll for interlock. The original Keystone Standard unit was 2 feet (600 mm) from face to tail. . but are easier to handle. timber tie. lighter to place. the interlocked assembly is more stable than most other structures. Concurrent with the development of the Keystone system.9 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Introduction T he Keystone retaining wall system was created to provide an economical. Georgia. or cast-in-place retaining walls. providing weight and stability to resist the applied earth pressures. easy-to-install. Since 1986. and quicker to install than boulders. Later. and structurally sound system as an alternate to boulder.5 feet (2 m). eliminating the need for grouting or mortar. the combination of geogrids and Keystone units provides an integrated wall system that can be constructed to heights far exceeding the limits of simple gravity walls. millions of square feet of Keystone retaining walls have been successfully constructed. The units have the stability of a large mass. the Keystone Compac unit was introduced. some exceeding 50 feet (15 m) in height. both as gravity and reinforced systems. Post Spring Development. Applications vary from residential landscaping walls to structural highway walls. concrete panel. a smaller 1-foot (300 mm) deep unit. The Keystone system was initially conceived as a gravity wall system that could be constructed to heights of up to 6. Both units were designed with a structural pin connection and granular interlock. crib structures or thin-shelled panel structures.
Actual test data is available to the designer for inter-unit shear capacity. 1997]. et. AASHTO 1994-96 recommends an empirical Rankine/Meyerhof analysis for highway projects that was developed for inextensible steel reinforcement. The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). and Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) design guidelines. soil reinforcement connection strength.10 I NTRODUCTION Design Manual & Operating Guide D e s i g n M a n ua l & Key Wa l l O pe r at i n g G u i d e T his manual concisely describes the retaining wall design components and related design theory in a step by-step method based on accepted engineering principals and concepts discussed in the National Concrete Masonry Association (NCMA) Design Manual for Segmental Retaining Walls. The NCMA design manual recognizes the many technical nuances of segmental retaining wall design and provides needed criteria for proper engineering and design evaluation of modular systems. Standard Speciﬁcations for Highway Bridges. Extensions. Some use a Coulomb earth pressure analysis like NCMA. others use a Rankine earth pressure analysis. All pertinent data and design criteria is pre-programmed so the designer can focus on the wall geometry. additions. This manual simpliﬁes design by concentrating on the Keystone concrete wall units and speciﬁc geogrid products. The more conservative AASHTO design standards remain the published standard for the transportation sector and covers many of the major structures constructed to date. and unit base shear resistance. It is important for the designer to understand that there are other design methodologies in use in the United States and around the world which will provide different results due to the simplifying design assumptions and methods of calculation utilized. . AASHTO 1997-98 recommends a "simpliﬁed" method based on the work contained in the FHWA research documents 89-043 and 96-071 but also permits the older proven methods.al. It is our opinion that the NCMA design manual represents a comprehensive approach to Segmental Retaining Wall (SRW) design but tends to conﬂict in principal with existing methodologies such as those originally developed by the geogrid manufacturers and those contained in AASHTO design guidelines. loading conditions. The designer should become comfortable with the differences in these design methodologies and be able to choose the appropriate design approach for any project with conﬁdence. Second Edition [Collin. The KeyWall program allows the user to choose between four different design methodologies and compare results. or permits a system stiffness analysis based on the methods outlined in FHWA research document 89-043. or deviations from these methodologies are noted and explained. and constructability.
can easily perform an analysis. The appropriate design recommendations should address the following items as they pertain to the retaining structures: • Bearing capacity of the foundation soil • Strength properties of the in-situ and proposed ﬁll soils • Long-term global stability of the structure and adjacent slopes • Settlement estimates • Groundwater and subsurface drainage considerations If this information is not included in the initial soils report. We recommended that all walls of signiﬁcant size or walls with poor soils and/or steep slopes be evaluated by a geotechnical engineer. The purpose of the investigation is to provide design recommendations for structures that interact with the site soils and to comment on construction considerations for the soils in general. the geotechnical engineer will be able to provide estimates of the basic design parameters and long-term stability considerations without extensive and expensive testing. It is important that the geotechnical investigation and analysis include an assessment of the soil and water conditions in the area of the proposed retaining structures. Although we encourage the responsible use of KeyWall for wall design. we strongly recommend that the ﬁnal design and site conditions be reviewed by a qualiﬁed engineer. KeyWall simpliﬁes design to the point that anyone. . the geotechnical engineer should be contacted to provided the additional information required for the retaining wall design. For larger structures and more difficult soil conditions. but a qualiﬁed engineers’ design can save considerable expense in the construction stage and ensure that the proper assumptions were made during design for long-term performance. The design and successful performance of Keystone retaining wall structures is dependent upon the quality of information obtained by the site investigation. The KeyWall computer-assisted design approach for retaining walls gives the user a sense of simplicity and security in the design of these structures. technically qualiﬁed or not. For many sites. the geotechnical engineer may have to obtain more information about the site soils with additional borings and/or lab tests. and considerable engineering time. Geotechnical engineering is both an art and a science which requires education and years of experience to properly characterize site conditions and soil properties.11 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE G eot ec h n i c a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y M ost civil projects designed by professional ﬁrms require a subsurface investigation by a qualiﬁed geotechnical engineer as part of the site engineering process. KeyWall will save many hours in design.
Pa r t O n e K e y s t o n e R e ta i n i n g W a l l U n i t s .
Texas. Keystone products currently available include: • Standard Unit. The Intermediate unit and the Legacy unit are designed for small landscape retaining walls up to 3 feet (1m) in height. In addition to the above units. Half height Mini units can be placed between the Standard and Compac units for architectural accenting. The Mini unit is designed for landscape retaining walls and may be used with lightweight reinforcing materials up to 6. Figure 1. Keystone has a complete line of smaller landscape products which are marketed and sold through retail distribution and landscape supply outlets. .4 Keystone Standard and Compac units are designed for use as structural retaining walls. Figure 1.15 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Keysto n e R e ta i n i n g Wa l l U n i t s eystone retaining wall units are a zero-slump concrete masonry product developed speciﬁcally for use K in earth retaining wall structures. Local producers of the product have a variety of colors available. There are no structural pin connections with these units. Regal Cinemas 18.5 feet (2m).2 • Mini Unit.1 • Compac Unit. complementing most landscaping and structural retaining wall applications. The units have a rear lip that overlaps the units below it to hold them in place.. San Antonio. Figure 1.3 • Intermediate and Legacy Unit. Figure 1.e. i. those exceeding 6. These products are generally not considered for structural applications and are not discussed further in this manual.5 feet (2m) in height and/or supporting structures or highway loading. Keystone has developed a wide variety of shapes and designs to accommodate most architectural and structural requirements.
2mm) per 8 inch (203mm) unit height (1° batter). the in-place density of the aggregate ﬁlled unit is 120 pcf (18. The Keystone Standard and Compac units have crushed stone ﬁlled cores that provide additional mechanical interlock and internal drainage. or split-rock ﬁnish in various natural colors. The pins are manufactured of pultruded ﬁberglass and will not corrode or deteriorate.4° batter). Minimum pin strength is 6. corduroy. Figure 1.7mm) in diameter.17 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Keysto n e M at e r i a l s Sta n da r d U n i t Keystone units are typically manufactured of concrete with a minimum compressive strength of 3000 psi (21MPa) at 28 days and a maximum absorption of 8%. so the mixing. with a typical face width of 18 inches (457mm) and height of 8 inches (203mm). compaction. and Mini units are vertically interconnected using high-strength pultruded ﬁberglass pins. face treatments and colors are available at all manufacturing locations. For design purposes. but for design purposes. Please check with your local manufacturer or Keystone supplier for availability. The pins improve the connection between the units and the structural soil reinforcement while assuring proper placement of the reinforcement materials.000 psi (750MPa) tensile strength. All dimensions are plus or minus 1/8 inch (3mm) except for the unit depth which varies due to the split rock ﬁnish.85 kN/m3). Not all units types. and curing are performed under controlled conditions and provide consistent quality. In addition. . Face shapes can be tri-planar. The rear pin setting allows placement of the units at a minimum 1 1/4-inch (31. The units may have a face treatment of molded.400 psi (44MPa) short beam shear strength and 110. curved.09 m2) of face area per unit. Standard.03 m3) of aggregate drainage ﬁll per unit. the ﬁberglass pin does not change properties (soften or become brittle) due to the temperature changes typical in retaining wall applications. The front pin setting allows the units to be placed at a minimum setback of approximately 1/8-inch (3. The manufacturing process is automated.8° batter). The pins assure a running bond conﬁguration of the units and provide signiﬁcant lateral connection strength between units.1 Standard/Standard II Unit Standard units are manufactured with a dual pin hole The connection pins are 5 1/4 inches (133mm) long and 1/2 inch (12. or straight. conﬁguration. The centroid of the unit is slightly forward of center toward the face.9mm) per 8 inch (203mm) unit height (4. varying with local manufacturing and aggregates. The geometry yields exactly 1 square foot (0.7mm) setback per 8 inch (203mm) unit height (8. it is taken at the center. An alternate placement of front/back pin hole allows a setback of 5/8-inch (15. Units weigh 100 to 125 pounds (45 to 55kg) each. Compac. In-place units have approximately one cubic foot (0. The Standard unit varies due to manufacturing considerations from 18 to 24 inches (457 to 600mm) in depth.
It is similar to the Compac unit for design purposes. Including this zone.4°. and 8.3 cubic feet (0. Depth may vary from 11 to 12.09 m2) of face area per unit. the same pin settings with a 4-inch (102mm) high unit.8° setback as the Standard unit.5 inches (280 to 317mm) depending upon local manufacturing and splitting requirements.2 Compac / Compac II Unit program due to the specialized use of this product. The Mini unit is a 10. It is recommended that 12 inches (0. . weighing slightly less and providing more batter due to The dual pin hole conﬁguration allows the same 1°. Figure 1. This geometry yields exactly 1 square foot (0. varying with local manufacturing and aggregates. This geometry yields 1/2 square foot (0.3m) of aggregate be placed behind each unit to provide drainage for the shorter Compac unit. varying with local manufacturing and aggregates. For design purposes.5-inch (267mm) deep unit with a face width of 18 inches (457mm) wide by 4 inches (102mm) high. 4.3 Mini Unit KeyWall does not incorporate the Mini unit into the Figure 1. Depth may vary from 10 to 12 inches (254 to 305mm) depending upon local manufacturing and splitting requirements.04 m3) of unit drainage ﬁll per unit. the in-place density of the aggregate ﬁlled unit is 120 pcf (18. Units weigh approximately 45 pounds (20kg) each.05m2) of face area per unit. there is approximately 1.18 PA R T O N E Retaining Wall Units C o m pa c U n i t Mini Unit The Keystone Compac unit is a 12 inch (305mm) deep unit with a typical face width of 18 inches (457mm) by 8 inches (203mm) high.85 kN/m3). Units weigh 80 to 100 pounds (35 to 45kg) each.
In Keystone walls with no earth reinforcement (gravity walls). only 12 inches (300mm) behind the units. For taller walls (over 15 feet or 5m).5 inches (267mm). Leveling pads may be constructed of well-compacted gravel/crushed stone or unreinforced concrete. For most walls.67 square feet (0. In soil reinforced Keystone walls. The depth of the unit is approximately 10. the gravel/crushed stone leveling pad is adequate. depending on local manufacturing. contractors have found that concrete can lead to faster wall installation and is easier to use on the larger projects.85 square feet (0.06m2) of face area per unit. The lip at the rear sets the unit back 1 inch (25mm) each course and yields a 7. the frictional resistance varies with the roughness and shear strength of the materials. .19 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE I n t e r m e d i at e & Le g ac y U n i t B a s e S h e a r R e s i sta n c e Intermediate units are 7-1/4 inches (180mm) high with a face width of 16-7/8 inches (425mm). The units are hollow underneath and constructed so no gravel drainage ﬁll is placed within the core of the units. yielding 0. Both are important to the wall's ability to resist lateral movements during construction and to hold the retained soil in place. yielding 0. level surface on which to place the base course units at the design elevations and provide localized bearing capacity for the units. Since the leveling pad may be constructed of various materials. A prepared leveling pad is required to provide a ﬁrm. from 78 to 85 pounds (35 to 40kg). Figure 1. The depth of the unit is approximately 12 inches (305mm).08m2) of face area per unit. Weight of the units vary. The concrete pad requires more care in placement and more expensive materials (concrete verses aggregate). Legacy units are 6 inches (150mm) high with a face width of 16 inches (406mm). unit base friction is a lessor component of the sliding calculation as the reinforced zone provides most of the resistance along the base.4 Intermediate and Legacy Units KeyWall does not incorporate the Intermediate or Legacy unit into the program due to the specialized use of these products. the total resistance of the wall to lateral movement (sliding) is provided by the friction along the base of the units. U n i t S h e a r R e s i sta n c e There are two areas where the shear resistance is important: • leveling pad shear resistance • inter-unit shear resistance. but the speed of placing the ﬁrst course generally offsets the extra cost of materials.8° and 10° batter to the completed wall face. The shear and moment capacity of the wall facing prevents bulging of the wall face.
51 N F = 770 + 0.31 N F = 205 + 0. inter-unit shear and the indeterminate nature of the concrete aggregate soil interface prompted Keystone to perform a series of direct shear tests using the Keystone units and three types of leveling pad materials at Utah State University.5. shear between any unit above the base.90 N F = 0. divide the "y-intercept" by 68.5 + 0.29 N C o m pa c U n i t s For gravity walls. the shearing resistance between units may be reduced because the reinforcing can reduce friction between units. Laboratory testing provides the following derived equations for shear resistance based on a total calculated normal force. S h e a r D a t a a n d A n a ly s i s The importance of the base friction.31 N.30 N F = 290 + 0.U n i t S h e a r R e s i sta n c e Laboratory testing has been performed to determine the inter-unit shear resistance of the various Keystone units.20 PA R T O N E Retaining Wall Units I n t e r. Without adequate shear resistance between units.31 F = 1548 + 0. Unit to unit Unit to unit w/geogrid Crushed stone pad Concrete pad Sand pad F = 770 + 0. When a layer of geogrid reinforcing is included in the wall system. Sta n da r d U n i t s Unit to unit Unit to unit w/geogrid Crushed stone pad Concrete pad Sand pad F = 2430 + 0. or in the case of a gravity wall.31 N F = 995 + 0.51 N F = 0. For example.49 N To determine metric equivalents in kN/m.92 N F = 0. The inter-unit shear resistance is the internal shear capacity of the wall facing. N. in lbs/lf. a wall could bulge between layers of reinforcing. The results of the Keystone Standard and Compac unit tests are graphically depicted in Figure 1. The granular interlock is decreased and the unit-to-unit friction may be reduced. the ﬁrst equation would be F = 35. the inter-unit shear capacity is obtained based on the calculated normal force. For many systems. reinforcing may actually decrease the stability of the face while providing stability to the overall earth mass. shear during construction. N where: h Wu = Depth to Interface = Width of unit face = h Wu γ unit γ unit = Unit weight of unit face .5. A full shear test report is available from Keystone and also includes data on the Intermediate units.
21 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Ty p i c a l S h e a r R e s i s t a n c e B e t w e e n U n i t s Inter Unit Shear Strength 6000 5000 Shear Force ( plf ) 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 2000 Co mp ac Stan dard dard eog w/g rid Stan 4000 6000 8000 Normal Force( plf ) 10000 .
Pa r t Tw o G e os yn t h et i c S o i l R e i n fo rc e m e n t .
1m) for Compac units. Cds Terminology used to deﬁne geosynthetic soil reinforcement tensile strength varies somewhat between authors.5 ft (2m) for Standard K units and 3. August 2000. and rock or soil anchors. A limit equilibrium design procedure is used to determine the number. galvanized steel bar mats. When a wall exceeds safe gravity heights. Tsc • Geosynthetic-soil pullout interaction coefficient. depending on geometry. Soil reinforcement materials that have been successfully used with the Keystone Retaining Wall System include geogrids. . Wall under construction with Geogrid Reinforcement.5ft (1. Design for steel reinforcement is discussed in the Keystone KeySystem design manual and HITEC Evaluation. length and distribution of geosynthetic reinforcement layers required to form a stable soil-reinforced mass. soil reinforcement is required to provide stability against overturning and sliding. speciﬁers. Soil-reinforced walls typically consist of geosynthetic materials that are mechanically connected to the Keystone units and placed in horizontal layers in the compacted backﬁll. Tcl. soil type. The terminology used within this section is consistent with that of AASHTO and FHWA.25 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Geosynthetic Soil Reinforcement eystone retaining walls may perform as gravity retaining walls for heights up to 6. strength. The majority of Keystone retaining walls are constructed using geosynthetic reinforcement which is the focus of this manual and the KeyWall program. Tal • Geosynthetic-Keystone unit connection strength. Ci • Geosynthetic-soil direct shear coefficient. geotextiles. and speciﬁc loading. Geosynthetic material design parameters in the limit equilibrium analysis are: • Long-Term Design Strength (LTDS) and working strength. unless otherwise noted. and suppliers.
as determined by the manufacturer’s quality control process and accounting for statistical variation. A suitable factor of safety is then applied to this theoretical load. based on the manufacturer's recommendations and testing. Creep rupture is similar to the procedure described above. This value is reported as the MARV value (Mean Average Roll Value). Equation (2. The European practice.S. The reduction factor for reinforcement installation damage is based on results of full-scale construction damage tests. The practice within the U.] RFid The reduction factor for installation damage (i. etc. or a more severe backﬁll source. etc. Tult R F c r x RF i d x RF d The long-term design strength (LTDS). which is being adopted in the U.000 hours of sustained load testing. which establish a default value for the installation damage factors used in the LTDS determination. however. is based upon the Federal Highway Administration guidelines for reinforced slopes [Berg. 75 years or 100 years. 1993].27 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE D e s i g n St re n gt h R e d u c t i o n Fa c t o r s Two methods for determining long-term allowable geosynthetic reinforcement working stress design (Tal) are currently used in practice.inch (20 mm) minus. cuts. for geogrid reinforcement utilized in the Keystone retaining wall design is: Equation (2. At the end of the design life.1) LTDS = L RFcr The reduction factor to account for the long-term creep characteristic of polymetric materials. The Long-Term Design Strength (LTDS). Procedures for test acceleration are discussed in GRI:GG4. KeyWall permits the choice of three different backﬁll materials (ﬁne-grained soils.e. designers are beginning to change to creep rupture testing. the total creep strain in the material should be less than 10 percent. tears. Accelerated testing (testing at elevated temperatures) is used to extrapolate 10. . the load at which rupture may occur at the end of the design life is predicted. uses a sustained load procedure. as described in GRI:GG4 Standards of Practice.000-hour creep test data for one load cycle to 100..2) Tal = LTDS FS Tult The ultimate strength of geosynthetic reinforcing when tested in a wide width or single rib test (ASTM D4595). nicks. extrapolated to a design life for the structure (typically 75 years). The basis of this method is to predict a load that will cause "creep rupture" at the design life of the structure. based on 10. in working stress design to account for all factors on loads. Values may be substantiated by construction damage tests for the selected geo-synthetic material with project speciﬁc. This method establishes the Long Term Design Strength (LTDS). is reduced by an overall safety factor (FS).000-hour curve is then extrapolated an additional log cycle to the project design life of the structure. uncertainties. 3/4. but tests to rupture instead of targeting a 10 percent strain. The reduction factor is based on the highest tension level at which the cumulative creep strain-rate continues to decrease with log-time within the design period. [With the introduction of FHWA DEMO82 and revisions to the British code.000 hours per GRI and ASTM standards.).S.. not the load that will cause 10 percent creep in the material. The long-term tension-strain-time behavior of polymeric reinforcement is determined from results of controlled laboratory creep tests conducted on ﬁnished-product specimens for a minimum duration of 10. created by ﬁll placement and construction equipment operations that potentially reduce reinforcing strength and performance. This 100.000 hours. and 2 inch (50 mm) minus).
FS The overall tension safety factor for material. Figure 2.1 and Figure 2. Connection Load Peak Load Failure Load at 3/4" Stress/strain plot Reinforced soil wall designs are unique to the speciﬁc Keystone units and geosynthetic reinforcement used. geometric. variable or poorly deﬁned soil conditions. 3/4" Deformation Displacement Figure 2. FS is similar to other overall safety factors in working stress design. Connection data is speciﬁc to each combination and reinforcement level. and the speciﬁc geosynthetic utilized for frictional systems.2 per NCMA Test Method SRWU-1[NCMA.2 Connection Load Plots at Different Normal Forces . In soils where high alkalinity or other aggressive factors (ph < 3 or > 9) may be present. and ﬁnal product physical structure [Elias.1 Load Test at one Normal Force Connection Load Peak Load Plot Max θ θ y 3/4" Load Plot Max Tconn = y + N tan θ Max Co n n ec t i o n St re n gt h Normal Force The connection strength. including resin type. is the ultimate state reinforcement-facing connection strength. For most soils used with the Keystone system.5 for most permanent applications. a review of geosynthetics has been completed and is presented in FHWA RD95-016 "Durability of Geosynthetics for Highway Applications" [Elias. 1996]. the manufacturers have included recommended factors to account for possible chemical and biological degradation. the manufacturer should be contacted for speciﬁc recommendations. Tconn. For unusual loading conditions.28 PA R T T W O Geosynthetic Soil Reinforcement R e d u c t i o n Fa c t o r s RFd The reduction factor to account for the effects of chemical and biological exposure to the reinforcement that are dependent on material composition. and loading uncertainties that cannot be speciﬁcally accounted for. additives. The minimum is a factor of safety of 1. Typical graphs for an individual stress-strain test and complete series plot is shown in Figure 2. Substitution of any materials invalidates a given wall design. Tconn is dependent upon the vertical depth to the reinforcement. resin grade. 1990]. type of Keystone unit utilized. manufacturing process. 1997]. For further information on the chemical and biological durability of a reinforcement. this factor may be increased at the discretion of the designer. Laboratory testing is required to deﬁne the connection strength for speciﬁc materials at varying normal pressures. wall geometry.
. the calculated tensile load at each reinforcement level in the geosynthetic must be less than 1) the allowable geosynthetic design strength. The coefficients are determined in the laboratory and are a function of soil and geosynthetic material types. Since serviceability is a limiting performance criterion. Peak interface friction angles are used in design. The pullout interaction coefficient is used in stability analysis to compute the frictional resistance along the reinforcing soil interface in the zone beyond a deﬁned plane of failure. Two types of soil-reinforcement interaction coefficients or interface shear strength parameters are used for design of soil reinforced structures: pullout interaction coefficient. Serviceability strength. Tcl divided by a safety factor (Tcl/FS). Test method GRI:GG5 may be used to determine pullout coefficients for geogrids. is deﬁned as the connection strength at a maximum 0. Cds. Tsc.5. Failure of the connection is generally a pullout failure of the reinforcement. Ci and direct shear coefficient. NCMA and AASHTO require that both ultimate strength and serviceability criteria be satisﬁed.1997]. The calculation yields the capacity to resist pullout of the reinforcement from the soil.5. as determined with the NCMA Test Method SRWU-1 [NCMA. The direct shear coefficient is used to determine the factor of safety against outward sliding of the wall mass along the layers of reinforcement. The recommended minimum factor of safety on the ultimate connection strength is 1. The recommended minimum factor of safety against geosynthetic pullout is 1. Design pullout resistance of the geosynthetic reinforcement is deﬁned as the ultimate tensile load required to generate movement of the reinforcement through the soil mass measured at a maximum 3/4 inch (19 mm) displacement. and 2) an ultimate connection strength limit.75-inch (20mm) movement. whichever is lower. Note: Vertical pressure for connection strength evaluation is limited by the Hinge Height (discussed in Part 4). Tal. no additional reduction (FS) is required.29 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Co n n ec t i o n St re n gt h Geosynthetic-Soil Interaction Coefficient In Keystone wall design.
8 0. 8 0.7 Cds s 0.6** * (USC is the Unified Soil Classification System perASTM D-2487) **(Consult geogrid manufacturer) Note: These coefficients do not apply to Geotextiles or " fat" soils. Lean Clay (SC.6** 0.9 0. . Gravel.SP) Sandy Silt. ML. GM) Sand.30 PA R T T W O Geosynthetic Soil Reinforcement Geosynthetic-Soil Interaction Coefficient KeyWall 2001 uses the following default values for Ci and Cds based upon the phi angle inputted for the reinforced ﬁll material. SM . Soil Type (USC*) Crushed Stone. Gravel (GW.7 0. Silty Sands (SW.9 0. CL) Other Clay (CL/CH) φ Angle φ ≥ 32˚ φ ≥ 28 ˚ φ ≥ 25˚ φ ≤ 25˚ Ci 0.
KeyWall's data ﬁles will be updated. This information is provided with no written or implied warranty as to the accuracy of the data supplied. Keystone provides the data as a service to its customers and to ensure data uniformity for Keystone design. . The material provided and testing performed by Keystone is the basis for the values programmed into KeyWall.31 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE G e o g r i d M a n u fa c t u r e r s ' D ata Geogrid manufacturers were contacted during the development of this Keystone Design Manual and asked to provide the required information to evaluate their design parameters. Information provided to Keystone by the geogrid manufacturers/suppliers is available directly from the geogrid manufacturers. Data values should be veriﬁed with the manufacturers. As new materials are developed or new data is provided.
Part Three R e ta i n i n g W a l l D e s i g n Th e o r y .
This manual is solely intended to provide insight into the KeyWall design software and the general principles of modular wall design without being an exhaustive summary of soil mechanics. and 3) global or overall stability. 2) E foundation bearing capacity. simpliﬁcation of the calculations to develop the Coulomb and Rankine earth pressure theories can be examined. soil cohesion (c). California. The analysis of each is based on the engineering properties of the soil(s): angle of internal friction (φ). the NCMA Design Manual for Segmental Retaining Walls. Inﬁniti Dealership. FHWA research papers (DEMO 82). Global stability and seismic analysis are beyond the scope of this design manual but a brief description is provided. and AASHTO Standard Speciﬁcations for Highway Bridges. and the density (γ) of the soils. . The user should refer to recent geotechnical textbooks. By starting with the basic theory. the basic mechanisms of lateral earth pressures and stability of foundations are presented. In this chapter. it is easier to understand the mechanisms of performance and failure and adapt the design to special conditions not directly addressed by the simpliﬁed methods. There are further simpliﬁcations made to the theories when adapted for design of mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) structures.35 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE R e t a i n i n g W a l l D e s i g n Th e o r y arth retaining wall structures require three primary areas of design analysis: 1) lateral earth pressures. San Diego. Once the basic concepts and mechanisms of earth pressures are understood. for additional material and information on soils and MSE structures.
(Note: these properties are referred to as φ' and c' in most textbooks. and compound failure planes that may compromise the wall structure. Hansen. drained conditions. This manual refers to global stability as all other combinations of internal and external stability. This manual uses the factors proposed by Vesic (1975) which is consistent with the other documents discussing MSE walls. overturning. φ and c will be used for simplicity and represents effective stress analysis. Global Stability Conventional retaining wall design only looks at simple sliding. slope stability. graphical methods. Residual strength values require greater movement of the soil than is intended by the design of reinforced soil structures but may be appropriate in some cases with cohesive soils. (Note: All factors assume level ground and must be adjusted for sloping ground conditions. different bearing capacity factors have been published by Meyerhof. however. and Vesic over the years. and computer analysis. and bearing as failure modes. Bearing Capacity Factors Angle of Internal Friction (φ) This value represents the frictional shear strength of the soil when tested under compacted and conﬁned conditions.37 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE I m p o r t a n t Te c h n i c a l D e f i n i t i o n s Effective Stress Design The soil strength parameters are based on drained conditions which are applicable to granular soils and ﬁne grained soils for long term. This manual will brieﬂy discuss the methods of active earth pressure calculation as it relates to reinforced soil structures and accepted design principals. Peak Strength The peak shear strength of a soil is the maximum load measured during a test at a nominal displacement. This manual will utilize peak shear strength values in effective stress analysis unless otherwise noted. They describe the theories of Coulomb and Rankine and methods of solution via formulas. . In this manual. Passive pressures are typically neglected and not covered in this manual.) Soil mechanics text books include sections on passive and active earth pressures. The general bearing capacity formula as proposed by Terzaghi is used. the failure plane (locus of maximum stress points) is modeled as a straight line following the appropriate Rankine or Coulomb deﬁnition of the slope angle for simpliﬁcation. Internally.) Failure Plane Soil failure planes are typically non-linear and are often represented by a log-spiral curve. This value should not be confused with a soil "angle of repose" which reﬂects the angle that a pile of loose soil will naturally stand.
[Note: When the backslope is equal to the assumed friction at the back of the wall (β=δ). The basic assumptions for this active wedge theory were developed by Coulomb (1776).2 and 3. provides an additional force component that helps support the unstable wedge of soil. but will account for wall batter if entered in the KeyWall “Geometry” selection. Rankine and AASHTO use a Rankine approach. The friction at the back of the wall face and at the back of the reinforced zone for external stability computations.38 PA R T T H R E E R e t a i n i n g Wa l l D e s i g n T h e o r y L a t e r a l E a r t h P r e s s u r e Th e o r i e s The NCMA Design Manual for Segmental Retaining Walls (1997) is based on Coulomb earth pressure theory. The other major methodology is Rankine earth pressure theory (1857) which is based on the state of stress that exists in the retained soil mass. Rankine equations more conservatively assume no wall friction at the soil wall interface and a vertical wall structure which greatly simpliﬁes the mathematics of the problem. Coulomb and Rankine formulas provide identical earth pressure coefficients and resultant forces for vertical walls]. AASHTO design methodology is required on most transportation related projects operating under this more conservative design criteria. The lateral earth pressure. Pa. For those interested in comparing Coulomb verses Rankine verses AASHTO. is the net force required to hold the wedge of soil in place and satisfy equilibrium. the lateral earth pressure calculated by Coulomb is generally less than the earth pressure that would be predicted by the Rankine equations. Because of these additional resisting forces. . NCMA is the Coulomb analysis per the NCMA design manual. The major difference between the two theories is that the Coulomb model and equations account for friction between the back of the wall and the soil mass as well as wall batter. AASHTO design methodology generally applies Rankine earth pressure theory for earth reinforced structures. KeyWall allows the user to select each design methodology. Both theories essentially model the weight of the soil mass sliding along a theoretical plane of failure (Figure 3.3).
1.39 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE C o u l o m b E a r t h P r e s s u r e Th e o r y Co u lom b E a rt h Pr e s s u r e E quat i o n The reader should note that for horizontal surfaces (level surcharge).2 Coulomb Wedge Diagram q Which results in the following ka coefficient. The appropriate Coulomb earth pressure equations for earth and surcharge pressure are as follows: Equation (3a) Equation (3b) where: ka γ H q Pa = 1/2 γ H2 ka Pq = q H ka = coefficient of active earth pressure = moist unit weight of the soil = total design height of the wall = uniform surcharge The active earth pressure coefficient. a closed-form equation solution is applicable and easily derived. For example. Equation (3c) sin2 ( ka = Pq H Pa α +φ ) 2 sin2α sin(α . For geometries where the slope changes within the zone of failure (broken back slope). or inﬁnite sloping surfaces (that extend beyond the theoretical Coulomb failure plane). is determined from an evaluation of the Coulomb wedge geometry shown in Figure 3. if a short broken back slope is modeled as an inﬁnite slope. the simple equations are no longer applicable and may be unnecessarily conservative. ka. β W H φ δ Pa R α ρ Figure 3. the trial wedge method is used in the analysis. the design may require signiﬁcantly more reinforcement and excavation than if modeled correctly. (See Figure 3.4) The earth pressure behind the wall face or at the back of the reinforced zone is represented by a triangular pressure distribution for active soil pressure and a rectangular distribution for uniform surcharge pressure as is shown in Figure 3.δ) sin(α + β) sin(φ + where: H/2 H/3 α φ β δ = angle of batter from horizontal = angle of internal friction of soil = slope angle above wall = angle of friction at back of wall Figure 3.δ) 1+ δ) sin(φ .β) sin(α .1 Earth Pressure Diagram . For these conditions. This is an iterative trial wedge process where successive failure surfaces are modeled until a maximum earth pressure force is calculated for the geometry and loading given.2.
φ/2) • Vertical wall. backslope ka = cos β cos β .1. β W H β φ R Pa α ρ = 45 + φ/2 Figure 3.cos2 φ cos β Rankine earth pressure is a state of stress evaluation of the soil behind a retaining structure which traditionally assumes a vertical wall and no friction between the soil/wall interface. The earth pressure equations are the same as Coulomb: Equation (3e) Pa = 1/2 Equation (3f) γ H2 ka Pq = q H k a P C o u l o m b Fa i l u r e P l a n e L o c a t i o n where: ka = coefficient of active earth pressure γ = moist unit weight of the soil h q = total design height of the wall = uniform live load surcharge The Coulomb failure plane varies as a function of the wall geometry and friction angles for both the soils and the soil/wall interface. where: φ ι β δ = angle of internal friction = batter of wall measured from vertical (α-90°) = slope angle above the wall = angle of friction at back of wall (or reinforced mass) Tables are available in the NCMA Design Manual and elsewhere which tabulate these values and assist in determining the appropriate Coulomb earth pressure E coefficients and failure plane orientation based upon the wall geometry and soil parameters.3. Equation (3d) tan(ρ−φ)= + cos2 β . The derivation of this Coulomb formula can be found in geotechnical textbooks such as Foundation Analysis and Design by Bowles (1996). the relationship for ρ is: Equation (3d) See footnote below. level backslope Equation (3g) ka = tan2 (45 .cos2 β .3 Rankine Wedge Diagram Which results in the following equations for ka: • Vertical wall.K 40 PA R T T H R E E Retaining Wall Design Theor y Co u lom b E a rt h Pr e s s u r e E quat i o n R a n k i n e E a rt h Pr e s s u r e E quat i o n s This equation is found in differing forms in other texts due to the trigonometric assumptions made in the formula derivation. The KeyWall program calculates these values for each geometry.cos2 φ where: φ = angle of internal friction of soil β = slope angle above wall −tan(φ−β) + tan (φ−β) [tan(φ−β)+ cot (φ+ι)][1+ tan (δ−ι) cot(φ+ι)] 1+ tan (δ−ι)[ tan (φ−β)+ cot (φ+ι)] . R a n k i n e E a r t h P r e s s u r e Th e o r y ka can be determined from an evaluation of the Rankine wedge geometry similar to the Coulomb wedge analysis as shown in Figure 3. For level surcharge and inﬁnite slope conditions. a trial wedge calculation is used instead of the formulas. The earth pressure behind the wall face or at the back of the reinforced zone is represented by a triangular pressure distribution similar to that shown in Figure 3. The orientation of the resultant earth pressure is parallel to the backslope surface. For broken back conditions.
However.41 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE R a n k i n e Fa i l u r e P l a n e L o c a t i o n T r i a l W e d g e A n a ly s i s The Rankine failure plane location is typically assumed to be at: Equation (3h) ρ = 45˚ + φ/2 The KeyWall program uses a "trial wedge" analysis for determining the internal and external forces in order to provide the "correct" results for more complicated design geometries. is that only simple level and inﬁnite sloping surcharges with uniform loadings can be analyzed. The KeyWall program actually uses this method to calculate Rankine earth pressure coefficients as it permits wall batter to be included in the calculation when required. This method of analysis permits the designer to properly model many typical design conditions and not overly simplify the analysis due to limitations of equation solutions and other design software. the internal analysis is not well deﬁned for unusual slopes and loading conditions and the designer is expected to use engineering judgement with the simpliﬁed methods. It is necessary to look at a "trial wedge" method or "approximation" method when attempting to analyze broken back slopes or other slope / load combinations. equal to the backslope. such as the Coulomb and Rankine equations. The "trial wedge" calculation is an iterative process which determines the loading at successive failure plane orientations until a maximum loading is determined for the geometry and surcharge loading. The KeyWall "trial wedge" analysis used is consistent with the fundamental assumptions of the applicable Coulomb and Rankine theories by setting δ = β. "Trial wedge" results match the equation solutions for the level and inﬁnite slope conditions but will determine the correct internal and external values for broken back slope conditions and offset live and dead loads. .4. However. Wedges W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 Where ρ is ﬁxed and measured from horizontal under all design scenarios which is only technically correct for level surcharge applications. the Rankine failure plane varies under backslope conditions.4 Trial Wedge Diagram T r i a l W e d g e A n a ly s i s The limitation of closed form solutions. H δ Pa α ρ φ R Pa R W Force Diagram Figure 3. it is customary to ﬁx the failure plane at 45˚ + φ/2 in earth reinforcement design. See Figure 3. AASHTO and NCMA suggest an approximation method for broken-back slope conditions which deﬁnes equivalent design slopes for the external analysis. In theory. for a speciﬁc design case. thus best representing the curved failure surface and locus of maximum stress points for a reinforced soil mass. β. β W Note: The Coulomb earth pressure equation will provide identical Rankine earth pressure coefficients by setting the interface friction angle. δ.
simpliﬁes to: Equation (3k) where: Q ult = c N c + γ DN q + 0. Qult is the ultimate bearing capacity of the foundation soils based on the soil and geometry parameters.0.cohesion γ . q γ D = depth of embedment below grade B-2e = effective footing width Nc = bearing capacity factor for cohesion Nq = bearing capacity factor for embedment Nγ = bearing capacity for footing width W Pq Pa e D σv R B-2e B Foundation Soil φ .5 Applied Bearing Pressure Diagram The equivalent footing width and applied bearing pressure are calculated as follows: Equation (3i) e = B/2 . and effective base width of B-2e.42 PA R T T H R E E Retaining Wall Design Theor y B e a r i n g C a pa c i t y C a l c u l a t e d B e a r i n g C a pa c i t y Bearing capacity is the ability of the foundation soil to support additional loading imposed on the surface from the completed wall system.unit weight Figure 3. the soil mass equivalent footing size. Bearing capacity is analyzed considering two criteria: • Shear capacity of the soil • Total and differential settlement Shear capacity of the soil is a function of the foundation soil strength.5 γ BN s d γ γ γ For which inﬁnitely long strip footing with shape and depth factors = 1. and any groundwater conditions as determined by the geotechnical investigation.5 γ( B-2e)N γ Applied Bearing Pressure c = cohesion of foundation soil = unit weight of foundation soil Figure 3. The ultimate foundation bearing capacity can be calculated from the following Meyerhof equation: Q ult = c N c s c d c + γ DN q s q d q + 0.5 shows the Meyerhof distribution of applied bearing pressure for ﬂexible foundation systems that is typically utilized with earth reinforcement structures.(Mr-Mo)/Rv Equation (3j) σv = Rv/ (B -2e) where: e B = eccentricity of reaction = Total length of base Mr = sum of resisting moments Mo = sum of overturning moments Rv = sum of vertical reactions .shear strength c . the depth of embedment.
bearing capacity is determined without considering the wall embedment portion of the equation.00 1.1) cot φ Nq = e πtanφ tan 2 (45+φ/2) Nγ = 2(Nq+1) tanφ The factor of safety for bearing capacity is the ratio of ultimate bearing capacity to the calculated applied bearing pressure.40 33. See design preferences for this option.03 109.98 14.14 6.47 3. Bearing capacity in KeyWall is based solely on the soil parameters input for the foundation soil and the embedment depth assuming that the ground is level in front of the wall.94 6.40 48.65 5. Nc = (Nq .88 22.12 75.14 46. Equation (3l) FSbearing = Qult/σv Note: In some cases.45 1.1 Bearing Capacity Factors (Vesic 1975) .66 18.34 10.72 30.57 2.20 Nγ 0.83 20. Nγ.0 (NCMA) and 2.40 10.41 Table 3.49 8.22 2.5 (AASHTO) against bearing capacity failure is considered acceptable for ﬂexible earth reinforced structures.43 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE B e a r i n g C a pa c i t y Fa c t o r s Bearing capacity factors for the bearing capacity equation (through Vesic 1975) are as follows. The designer may check for a total stress condition by inserting total stress parameters for the foundation soil.31 Nq 1. A minimum safety factor of 2.39 10.30 64. φ 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Nc 5.00 0.
Total settlement is limited by the designer's criteria and Global stability analysis is beyond the scope of this document and is not included in the KeyWall program. Figure 3. and other subsurface conditions. it is recommended a qualiﬁed geotechnical engineer be consulted for proper analysis and speciﬁcations. there is no signiﬁcant structural effect on the wall system. and the addition of this vertical stress over a large area can induce signiﬁcant settlement. and vertical construction slip joints are recommended. Due to the variability of foundation conditions. As long as the structure settles uniformly. such as mat-type foundations and bearing areas under MSE wall systems. A higher Factor (FS = 1. typically 2B. however.e. potential inﬂuences of groundwater. Differential settlements typically should be limited to 1% (i. it is easy to see that with a large "B". 1 foot in 100 feet) (NCMA) or 1/2% (i.30 min 2nd Tier Loading Internal Global Stability Sliding Surface External Global Stability Sliding Surface Method of Slices ∅L T1 W E2 E1 T2 τ ∅ N impact on adjacent structures or tolerances on vertical movements. . 1 foot in 200 feet) (AASHTO). It is recommended that a qualiﬁed geotechnical engineer be consulted for proper analysis and recommendations. Settlement analysis is beyond the scope of this document. the shear capacity of the foundation is usually sufficient. FS = 1.7 Global Stability Section Global stability should be investigated any time the following situations occur: • Steep slopes away from the toe of wall • Steep slopes above the top of wall • Tiered wall construction • Poor foundation soils Slope stability is a complicated analysis that depends on site geometry. with larger footing widths. the area of inﬂuence below the loaded area becomes quite large.44 PA R T T H R E E Retaining Wall Design Theor y Settlement G lo b a l Sta b i l i t y Settlement criteria may limit design bearing pressures for structures having large footing areas. It is important that the designer distinguishes between allowable bearing capacity for shear failure (a catastrophic failure mechanism) and a settlement criterion (a noncatastrophic event). constructing walls over uncompacted utility trenches. tested soil parameters and potential inﬂuence of groundwater.. going directly from a rock foundation to a soil foundation.3 is required by NCMA and AASHTO. or transitioning from any elastic bearing surface to a rigid foundation surface. However. Differential settlements in such a short distance will be detrimental to any structure.5) may be required for critical structures such as bridge abutments. it can be a necessary part of a comprehensive design analysis on larger projects and is best performed by the site geotechnical engineer. Differential settlement. The designer is cautioned about spanning box culverts. and is not included in the KeyWall analysis. construction methods. However. will cause a ﬂexural movement in the wall face and may lead to unit realignment and cracks to relieve tensile stresses in the concrete. By reviewing equation (3k)..e. A minimum Factor of Safety of 1.
and AASHTO.8 External Stability S . A External Stability Figure 3.8 below as it pertains to reinforced soil structures.45 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE S e i s m i c A n a ly s i s Keystone retaining wall structures have proven to be earthquake resistant due to the system's inherent ﬂexibility which permits minor yielding during a major seismic event. Rankine. The KeyWall program uses three different methods which parallel the three different design methodologies of Coulomb. There are many ways to evaluate seismic forces which are quite complicated. Structure Acceleration. The only published seismic design standards are contained in the AASHTO Standard Speciﬁcations for Highway Bridges (Section 5 and IA) and a recent NCMA Seismic Design Manual which describe a pseudo-static method of analysis based on the Mononobe-Okabe application of conventional earth pressure theory. The details of seismic analysis are beyond the scope of this manual and other documents should be consulted. A schematic of pseudo-static analysis considerations is shown in Figure 3.9 Internal Stability Lateral Inertial Force Dynamic Earth Pressure Static Earth Pressure Peak Ground Acceleration. Am Active Wedge Inertial Force Facing Inertial Force Active Zone In t e r n a l S t a b il it y Figure 3.
Pa r t F o u r Th e D e s i g n P r o c e s s .
it's time to put the pieces together into a Keystone Wall System design. Keystone unit. Note: For walls with slopes below the toe. Michigan. and local stability of the facing . and reinforcement type and properties.shear and bending. surcharge loading conditions. and applied bearing pressure. Gross and differential settlement should also be checked as required by the structure design. The details of a complete design analysis are tedious. or tall slopes above the walls. Spring Lake. wall batter. geogrid soil reinforcement. overturning about the toe. The following sections describe the steps taken in the design analysis. and better performed by computer and veriﬁed by hand. It is assumed the reader has used the KeyWall program for the proposed design and is ready to conﬁrm the results obtained. and earth pressure theory. Private Residence. . pullout capacity of the reinforcing beyond the theoretical failure plane. wall geometry. tiered walls. potentially weak foundations. the trial and error process for actual reinforcement selection and placement is not discussed in detail. The parameters required for the design of a Keystone earth retaining structure are: choice of design methodology. The internal stability items checked during the design include: tensile overstress of reinforcing. sliding at the base of the reinforced zone or along the lower layers of geogrid reinforcement. however.49 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Introduction A fter discussion of the Keystone units' properties. The external stability items checked during the design include: sliding of the gravity wall. Keystone unit reinforcement connection. soil types and properties. global slope stability should be analyzed as part of a geotechnical investigation.
it also requires that the reinforcement lengths be signiﬁcantly longer at the top of wall than bottom of wall due to the ﬂatter slope of the calculated Coulomb failure plane. Also. The most important issue is that the designer understand and be comfortable with a design methodology and its limitations. the Rankine theory provides simpler formula and failure plane deﬁnitions which are easier to use and check. then follow the methodology in its entirety. . and AASHTO Simpliﬁed as the design methods. The advantage of using a Coulomb earth pressure methodology is that it can provide the lowest calculated earth pressure in a given situation by taking all beneﬁcial components into account (wall batter and wall friction). The NCMA Coulomb methodology is based on fundamentally different principals than the Rankine and AASHTO methodologies and will provide different results in both the internal and external calculations due to these differences. However. the reduced earth pressure may permit vertical spacing of the reinforcement in lower walls that exceed the wall facing's ability to remain stable during construction and in the ﬁnal conﬁguration (facial stability at top of wall and between reinforcement levels). KeyWall provides the designer choices for NCMA-Coulomb. Rankine. Also.51 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Design Methodology It is ﬁrst necessary to select and understand the design methodology that will be used for a speciﬁc project. This is not in accordance with any established design methodology. Rankine earth pressure theory has been the established methodology for earth reinforcement design in the public sector since the early 1970's which provides a certain level of comfort to many designers. Note: a common concern is that the facing and soil mass can move down together in a ﬂexible wall system without a rigid foundation which would eliminate the stabilizing effects of assumed wall friction on the failure wedge and the resulting lower Coulomb earth pressure. Note: A common misuse of Coulomb theory is to calculate the lower earth pressure and then ﬁx the failure plane at the steeper Rankine slope (45˚+ φ/2) for the purposes of the pullout resistance calculation. The advantage of using a Rankine earth pressure methodology is that no assumption has to be made with regard to friction between the wall structure and retained soil mass. AASHTO-96.
These design options can be quickly checked with KeyWall software to determine the most effective design. Note: With greater batter. Battered walls work poorly in tight curves and in sharp corners as the wall units move away or towards each other resulting in cut pieces or increasing gaps. either the Standard or Compac Unit can be constructed to a desired height using the appropriate soil reinforcement design. a selection of the preferred Keystone Unit is required. the calculated hinge heights are as follows: Hinge Height (ft/m) Unit/Batter Standard Compac Table 4. Wall batter will reduce the calculated earth pressure so it is very important that if a batter is assumed in the design. the wall batter be speciﬁed and the wall constructed with the design batter. the hinge height is that height at which the wall would topple over backward if the units were stacked without a soil backﬁll.6' (3.0' (4. The Compac unit requires that the soil reinforcement be placed in smaller vertical lifts due to the decreased facial stability of the smaller units and reduced connection strength.1) 11.2' (7. and degree of wall curvature expected. more lateral space is required for the wall system. The Standard unit is considerably more stable during construction and is preferred for the larger. For the Keystone units.6 feet high (12m). 2.1m)wall height.85m) of rightof way will be lost for a 20-foot (6. the inclination terms have been eliminated.5' (2.1 Hinge Height Batter of the wall is the designer's or contractor's choice depending on the appearance desired. Hinge height is deﬁned by: H= 2CG tan( ι ) Wa l l B at t e r where: CG = the center of gravity of the unit from back ι = wall batter from vertical (in degrees) This is a simpliﬁcation of the NCMA manual equation. As a general guideline. Hinge Height Hinge height is a signiﬁcant concept introduced by the NCMA Design Manual that accounts for wall batter on the maximum calculated normal pressure exerted at the unit base and at any reinforcement level.0) . 0˚ 4. for small gravity walls 3 . the Keystone Standard unit is the preferred choice. For taller walls or walls supporting surcharge loadings.4˚ 8. for a 8° batter. it is recommended that only reasonably straight walls be constructed with the 1" setback and walls with tight curves and corners be constructed with the near vertical alignment to facilitate construction. Simply stated. Below 3 feet (1m) high. Since the Keystone Standard and Compac units can be constructed with either a “near-vertical” or 1" (25mm) minimum setback batter per course. the Compac Unit or smaller Intermediate/Legacy Unit may be selected.8˚ H H 23.5) 13.52 PA R T F O U R The Design Process Unit Selection To begin the design process. more critical wall structures.0) 6.e. Hinge height deﬁnes the maximum conﬁning pressure at any reinforcing-unit interface and deﬁnes the normal force that will be exerted at the base when calculating sliding resistance. right-of-way available. Keystone does not normally recommend tilting the units on the base to provide batter..8 feet (0. i. where soil reinforcement generally will be required. therefore.
The design height of the wall is determined from the site geometry including the appropriate embedment. the minimum depth of embedment as a ratio to wall height may be determined in Table 4. The backslope geometry is modeled by deﬁning a slope angle (β) in degrees from horizontal and measuring the length of the slope (horizontal offset) above the top of the wall. Designs must be prepared for the different wall sections as deﬁned by the site conditions. Beyond that.2 from the NCMA Design Manual (1997): Wa l l G eom e t ry The design wall height is always measured from the top of leveling pad to the top of wall. For small Keystone Gravity Walls. For reinforced soil Keystone walls.53 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Hinge Height Wa l l E m b e d m e n t Hinge height limits the connection strength in battered walls due to the limit placed on vertical conﬁning pressure.e.5 ft (150mm) H/20 H/10 H/10 H/7 Table 4. . H/8) or 1 block minimum. recent research has indicated that this theoretical limitation may not exist in service and may be revised in the future. the backﬁll is assumed horizontal and may have a live or dead load surcharge applied on this surface. This is an important concept in the proper evaluation of connection strength of battered walls. Embedment 0.1 Design Section KeyWall models the slope from the Keystone Unit to crest of back slope. a minimum 1-inch (25mm)of embedment is recommended for every unit of height (i. Slope in front of Wall Minimum Requirement Horizontal(walls) Horizontal(abutments) 3H:1V 2H:1V Min.2 Minimum Embedment Horiz Offset Live/Dead load Backslope angle i Wall Height Length Figure 4.. However.
Fill slopes usually have poor compaction near the edge of slope and all slopes are subject to erosion and surﬁcial instability.3 Soil Shear Test Figure 4. The angle of internal friction (φ). The ﬁgures 4. The Uniform Building Code (UBC) recommends a 1' minimum or below prevailing frost depth which ever is greater for foundations. Lean Clay Other Clays φ .3.30˚ 26 .3 & 4.125 pcf 100 .Weight p 110 .34˚ 28 .54 PA R T F O U R The Design Process S l o p i n g To e Soil Properties The minimum embedment required with a slope in front of the wall should be based on the establishment of a minimum 4 ft (1. Note: The required embedment depth for Keystone walls may become a controversial issue. H’ (above grade) 4' theoretical or actual bench Finished grade point Geosynthetic reinforcement Normal Force Soil Soil Shear Force Design Height Total Embedment 1 Slope Bench Embedment Leveling pad Figure 4. the underlying soils.4 Soil Shear Plot Soil Type Crushed Stone.135 pcf 100 .4 below. and unit weight (γ) of the soils determine the force that will be exerted by the soil wedge on the wall structure. especially toe slopes. .3 Shear Strength and Weight Range A qualiﬁed geotechnical engineer should be consulted to establish the soil properties for a site.28˚ γ . and then conﬁrm the ﬁnal embedment depth for stability and bearing given the site conditions. Gravel Sands Silty Sands/Sandy Silt Sandy Clay. Height. AASHTO recommends a 2' minimum or below prevailing frost depth which ever is greater for retaining structures. and the site geometry.120 pcf Determined by Testing Table 4. determine the limits of removal and replacement of unsuitable materials. The purpose of a retaining wall system is to safely hold a wedge of soil in place to make a grade change in the shortest possible distance.2 Sloping Toe Shear Strength The depth of embedment should be increased when any of the following conditions occur: • Weak bearing soils • Potential scour of wall toe • Submerged wall applications • Signiﬁcant shrink/swell/frost properties of foundation soils.130 pcf 100 .2m) horizontal bench in front of the wall and establishing a minimum embedment from that point. Reasonable design values can usually be estimated by a qualiﬁed engineer based upon visual observation and history of the soils encountered. S φ c N Normal Stress Figure 4. Additional soil borings and laboratory testing may be required for taller walls or difficult site soil conditions. It is signiﬁcantly more important to properly inspect the foundation area when excavated. These minimum recommended depths are based on rigid foundation systems and are not totally applicable to ﬂexible systems which function properly with signiﬁcantly less embedment. cohesion (c).Angle 34˚+ 30 . The proper embedment depth is a function of the structure size and type. describe a simple shear test and test data plot which describes the soil strength properties: Some typical design φ and γ ranges for compacted or dense soils are shown in Table 4.
but the surcharge is a short distance back from the wall face. Surcharge live loads are used in the external stability analysis as driving forces. The designer should analyze the wall with the appropriate uniform surcharging from imposed dead loads. Each type of reinforcement can be used safely provided that the appropriate durability. The strength level of reinforcement to be used in a • pedestrian traffic. It is the designer's responsibility to evaluate the manufacturer's product test data and determine the grid types and design values appropriate for the project. installation damage.(See Figure 4. heavy traffic -. Line and point surcharge loads are not within the scope of this manual.. -. light storage. Typical live load surcharge loadings are: • landscaping walls.8 kPa) -. The basic design criteria is covered in Part Three of this Manual. Lower walls will generally use lower strength reinforcement while taller walls will require stronger reinforcement. KeyWall models the surcharge at the top of the slope on the horizontal surface. Construction and cost considerations typically govern this selection process. The designer may utilize lower strength reinforcement spaced closer together instead of higher strength reinforcement or different strengths within the same wall section to meet the design requirements.55 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Surcharge R e i n f o r c e m e n t Ty p e & P r o p e r t i e s A surcharge is a loading imposed on the soil behind the wall which exerts an additional force on the potential failure zone.0 psf. a Boussinesq stress distribution may be more applicable. footings. For heavy loadings due to equipment. the designer may input a horizontal offset to move the load away from the back of wall units.250 psf (12 kPa) Geosynthetic reinforcement for retaining walls are generally geogrids speciﬁcally designed and tested for use as soil reinforcement. auto parking • highway loading. --100 psf (4. but are not included as resisting forces. railroads. all surcharge loadings are assumed to be uniform live or dead loads and extend only on a horizontal surface. wall design is a function of wall height and loading. . • light-traffic. closely spaced tiers. and long term creep factors are determined for a given application based on ﬁeld and laboratory test data. The selection of polymer type or manufacturer of the reinforcement is a subjective determination based upon the speciﬁc design considerations of a project.4 kPa) To model surcharge loading with sloping backﬁll conditions. etc. then superimpose the earth pressure diagram for line or strip loads by hand or with the aid of a spread sheet analysis.1) If the surface is level. For simpliﬁcation in the KeyWall program.50 psf (2. Each manufacturer should be able to provide test documentation for the recommended values contained in their product’s technical literature.
Per AASHTO.5. therefore.7H or 8 foot minimum (2. q Wu i β NCMA further recommends that the soil reinforcement extend beyond the Coulomb failure plane a minimum of 1 foot (300mm). The choice of 60% or 70% of height for minimum reinforcement length is one of design speciﬁcation and the designer's preference. Keystone recommends providing uniform reinforcement lengths within a wall section to avoid excessive detailing on the plans and installation confusion by the contractor. The minimum length shall be as stated. minimum base to height proportions for MSE walls have been developed based on history and successful ﬁeld performance. External stability is the wall structures ability to resist external sliding and overturning forces and the foundation’s ability to support the structure. all lengths are measured from the front face of the wall system to the back of the reinforcement. Gravity walls rely solely on the mass of the facing units to resist external forces. All lengths represent the depth of the reinforced mass to resist external forces. The wall system must be proportioned to provide adequate safety against applied soil and surcharge loads. q β R B-2e B Figure 4. Note: The external stability analysis of a reinforced soil structure is similar for the Coulomb/NCMA and Rankine /AASHTO methodologies except that the Coulomb/NCMA method neglects the vertical component of the external forces whereas the Rankine/AASHTO methods include the stabilizing effects of the vertical component for sloping backﬁlls.6 Reinforced Wall Force Diagram . The only differences relate to AASHTO design code recommendations such as minimum L/H ratio and minimum reinforcement length requirements.5H). whichever is greater. AASHTO recommends that the reinforcement extend 3 feet (1m) past the Rankine failure plane. A typical external force analysis for a simple gravity wall is shown in Figure 4.56 PA R T F O U R The Design Process Soil Reinforcement Length E x t e r n a l S t a b i l i t y A n a ly s i s Irrespective of the design computations. β>0. The reinforced soil section is treated as a coherent gravity mass and analyzed externally as a rigid body similar to the gravity wall. In accordance with the NCMA Design Manual. the minimum length shall be 0. Note: live load surcharges are not typically applied on slopes. the minimum reinforcement length shall be 0. AASHTO requires that reinforcement be uniform in length while NCMA permits varying reinforcement lengths as required by the internal and external stability calculations. There is considerable evidence that walls experience greater deformation with shorter reinforcement “L/H” ratios (L/H< 0.6H for all wall applications.44m).5 Gravity Wall Force Diagram A typical external force analysis for a simple reinforced soil wall is shown in Figure 4. H Wf W1 HS/ 2 C L e HS/ 3 i W2 Pqv Pav HS Pqh Pah Wu Wf x H Pqh Pah H/2 H/3 R Figure 4.6. whichever is greater. The Rankine and AASHTO methods use essentially the same external analysis method. or as required for external stability.
KeyWall presents three options for the external stability analysis of battered walls: NOTE: The NCMA Design Manual suggests the parallelogram method even though the manual recognizes the concept of hinge height for gravity walls which supports the modiﬁed method. Active earth pressure is determined based on the batter of the reinforced zone interface with the retained soil. FHWA design software utilizes the vertical method even though this is not stated anywhere in AASHTO. Modified The modiﬁed method calculates only the weight of the battered reinforced mass that is over the base as indicated. . W W W Parallelogram Modified Vertical Figure 4. Keystone generally recommends the Modiﬁed method as being most consistent with design theory.7 Design Options Parallelogram The parallelogram method calculates the weight of the battered reinforced mass over the base as indicated including the wedge of soil that is not over the base. Vertical The vertical method calculates only the weight of the battered reinforced mass that is over the base as indicated.57 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE B at t e r e d Wa l l D e s i g n O pt i o n s Battered walls can create some problems in the design analysis since the geometry becomes more complex than vertical walls and the application of weights and loads is not as clear. Active earth pressure is determined based on a vertical interface between the reinforced zone and the retained soil. Active earth pressure is determined based on the batter of the reinforced zone interface with the retained soil.
On the other hand. unit to leveling pad shear.8. Reinforced soil wall analysis calculates soil to soil sliding resistance (Wf + W1 + W2) tan φ of the weaker soil (reinforced or foundation). and leveling pad shear resistance. For both gravity and reinforced walls. Resisting Forces Gravity wall analysis calculates inter-unit shear. are the driving forces. and 3) unit to unit shear above the leveling pad as indicated in Figure 4.NCMA-Sliding Sliding Resistance Driving Forces The horizontal earth pressure components. as the resisting force. Wf.58 PA R T F O U R The Design Process S l i d i n g A n a ly s i s The sliding resistance of a Keystone gravity wall is calculated by determining the sliding resistance between 1) the wall unit and the leveling pad material interface.9. The ratio of resisting forces to driving forces is calculated Sliding Movement to determine a Factor of Safety against Sliding: FSSL = Σ Resisting Forces Σ Driving Forces Coulomb . the driving force is calculated from Equations 3a and 3b for Coulomb active earth pressure and Equations 3e and 3f for Rankine active earth pressure. Note: Gravity walls rarely fail in sliding as the overturning calculation generally controls the maximum design heights possible.8 Gravity Wall Sliding (Pa + Pq) cos(δ). The sliding resistance of a Keystone reinforced soil wall is calculated by determining the sliding resistance between 1) the reinforced soil zone and the foundation soil interface and 2) through the reinforced wall system along a reinforcement level as indicated in Figure 4. and the based weight of wall.9 Reinforced Wall Sliding . reinforced soil structure design is typically proportioned based on sliding resistance and overturning rarely controls the design. 2) through the leveling pad material. Sliding Movement Sliding Resistance Sliding Resistance Figure 4. Figure 4.
. the wall system is a ﬂexible soil mass which can not overturn. Overturning Movement In reinforced wall design.11 Gravity Wall Overturning Overturning is the wall's theoretical tendency to tip over due to lateral pressures exerted by the soil and any surcharge loading at the back of the wall system. and leveling pad shear resistance. overturning is a major design consideration since the units are rigid and have a small L/H ratio at relatively short heights. as the resisting force.10). are the driving forces.10 Internal Sliding Length Figure 4.12 Reinforced Wall Overturning Driving forces are recalculated for each reinforcement level in the same manner as the external analysis. Figure 4. a minimum factor of safety of 1. This will be revised at a future date. and practically speaking. (reinforced or foundation). (Pa + Pq) cos(β). i Overturning Movement Z2 Z1 tunit Wu L B tsoil Figure 4. The driving or overturning moment is the result of active earth pressure forces and surcharge forces pushing at the back of the wall system. The surcharge load is a rectangular pressure distribution against the back of the wall system and the centroid of the rectangle is at 1/2 the height. The resisting force is calculated as the sum of the inter-unit shear and soil to geogrid interface shear: τ unit = from shear curve for unit w/geogrid τ soil = Weight x Tan φ x Cds For both gravity and soil reinforced structures. Resisting Forces Gravity wall analysis must calculate inter-unit shear. unit to leveling pad shear. Note: NCMA Design Manual shows the Coulomb failure plane falling inside the reinforced mass for the internal sliding calculation but does not use this method of analysis in their software.5 against sliding is required.59 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Rankine . Part Three. Reinforced soil wall analysis calculates (Wf + W1 + W2 + Pav + Pqv) tan φ of weaker soil. The reinforced soil wall sliding analysis becomes more complicated with geosynthetic sheet reinforcement because sliding must be checked along the lowest levels of reinforcement. In gravity wall design. the active earth pressure force is a triangular pressure distribution with the maximum force at the base and the centroid is at 1/3 the height.A ashto-Sliding O v e r t u r n i n g A n a ly s i s Driving Forces The horizontal earth pressure components. this "theoretical" overturning is not possible because the reinforcing is typically designed for a minimum L/H ratio of 60% or greater. as well as at the base of the mass (see Figure 4. Referring to Design Theory.
Resisting Moments Gravity wall analysis calculates the weight of the facing system. times the moment arm from toe to center of gravity of the facing column. Wf. Wf. the driving force is calculated from Equations 3a and 3b for Coulomb active earth pressure and Equations 3e and 3f for Rankine active earth pressure located in Part Three of this Manual. Reinforced soil walls calculate the weight of the entire system. times the moment arm from toe to center of gravity of the facing column. W1. W2. (Pa + Pq) cos(β).5 factor of safety against overturning is typically required. are the driving forces at their respective moment arms of H/3 or HS/3 and H/2 or HS/2 up from the toe. Reinforced soil walls calculate the weight of the entire system. a 2. For gravity walls. Only permanent forces within the wall are included as stabilizing forces. Figure 4. Pav. Pqv at their respective moment arm from the toe to each center of gravity as the resisting moment. Wf. W1. Wf. a 1. following ﬁgures.14 Reinforced Wall Bearing Failure . B e a r i n g C a pa c i t y FSSL = Σ Resisting Forces Σ Driving Forces Bearing capacity is the capacity of the foundation soil to support the load imposed by the wall system without shear failure or excessive settlement as depicted in the Driving Moments The horizontal earth pressure components. NOTE: The live load surcharge is included as a driving force and not as a stabilizing force.0 minimum factor of safety against overturning is required.60 PA R T F O U R The Design Process Coulomb . Figure 4. W2 at their respective moment arm from the toe to each center of gravity as the resisting moment. (Pa + Pq) cos(δ). For soil reinforced structures. The ratio of resisting moments to driving moments is calculated to determine a factor of safety against overturning.13 Gravity Wall Bearing Failure Rankine .NCMA Overturning Overturning For both gravity and reinforced walls. Resisting Forces Gravity wall analysis calculates the weight of the facing system. are the driving forces at their respective moment arms of H/3 or HS/3 and H/2 or HS/2 up from the toe.A A SHTO Overturning Driving Forces The horizontal earth pressure components.
(Note: rigid footing systems typically require a bearing capacity safety factor of 3. Settlement. bulging. Those moments are analyzed here again. 3)The tensile elements have adequate anchorage beyond the potential failure plane to hold the wedge of soil in place. Sliding and shear are also evaluated internally to ensure the mass will not fail in internal shear.5 provide the calculated applied bearing pressure. it is the tensile capacity of the reinforcing elements and inter-unit shear/connection capacity that holds the potential wedge of soil in place. and overturning. The external driving moments remain the same. The Elements of Internal Design are to ensure: 1)The tensile elements do not exceed their working stress limit. maximum allowable differential settlement is limited to1% (NCMA) or 1/2% (FHWA).11-12. In Figure 4. For a concrete cantilever wall. 2) The tensile elements have adequate connection capacity to the Keystone units. internal stability is provided by a combination of the stems bending and shear resistance at the footing and up the stem. σv. In soil reinforced wall system. The equations previously provided in Part Three. and the bearing surface's effective width (B-2e) in accordance with the equation and factors discussed in Part Three. . 4)There is not a potential surface where the mass can shear internally. and Figure 3. Overturning. A minimum 2. and the equivalent footing width. Internal stability is the ability of the reinforced mass to maintain its structure and resist the applied loads without deforming or failing. is composed of the Keystone units at the face combined with reinforcing elements extending back beyond the Coulomb or Rankine failure plane. For reinforced soil systems.0 (NCMA) or 2. the resisting moments and driving moments are calculated for the section being analyzed. The retaining wall mass. it is included in the driving moment term as one of the resisting reactions. since the surcharge (if over the structure) is a destabilizing force. however. B-2e. or structure. the embedment depth below grade.5 (AASHTO) factor of safety is required for bearing capacity for reinforced soil wall systems. particularly differential settlement. In a crib or gabion system.0) A second criteria for bearing capacity is settlement. internal stability is the dead weight and ability of each lift to resist sliding and overturning about the layer below. 5) The facing is stable against potential shear. should be evaluated by a qualiﬁed engineer.61 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE U lt i m a t e B e a r i n g C a pa c i t y I n t e r n a l Sta b i l i t y The ultimate bearing capacity of the foundation is a function of the soil shear strength (φ and c).
S.. In the U. some of the reinforcing layers may be slightly over-stressed in the trial design section. A simple equation can be setup which calculates the load per length of wall per reinforcement layer: Tn = ((Z1+Z2)/2 * Figure 4. The internal pressure for earth pressure and surcharge are superimposed on the reinforcement levels as shown in Figure 4. Figure 4.e.16. depending on their variability and potential effect on the design. live load versus dead load) and materials by factors. the design may use "load factors" that increase the applied loads and masses above their actual values and compare to the unfactored LTDS. Both methods achieve essentially the same result.15 Internal Stress Distribution .A. The load factor design method allows factoring of various applied loads (i. A factor of safety or load factor is incorporated into the design to keep the calculated applied stress safely below the rupture limit.16 Tension Level Calculation γ * ka + q*ka) * (Z2-Z1) The calculated tension in each layer of reinforcement should be less than the maximum allowable design Earth Pressure Resisted by Top Reinforcement Earth Pressure Resisted by Second Reinforcement Earth Pressure Resisted by Third Reinforcement Earth Pressure Resisted by Forth Reinforcement σq σa Base Shear at Boundary strength. It is our opinion that a slight overstress is acceptable as long as the layers above and below the layer in question are below the allowable stress level. Note: KeyWall has an option to incorporate base friction at the foundation boundary as an additional stabilizing force which reduces the calculated load in the lowest reinforcement level. this safety factor is typically applied as a reduction to the Long-Term Design Strength (LTDS). The "whole" in this case is the total internal stress within the reinforced zone. Due to the spacing algorithm used in KeyWall.15 using similar Coulomb and Rankine earth pressures as calculated for the reinforced soil type: The internal horizontal pressure for surcharge and earth pressure are applied to the tributary area of each reinforcement. This "feature" is not recognized in the NCMA and AASHTO design speciﬁcation so some caution must be used when applying this option in the Design Preferences. Z1 q*ka Z 1 *γ *k a Z2 Tn Z 2 *γ *k a Using the concept of "the sum of the parts equals the whole. of the speciﬁed reinforcement type at that level since the factor of safety is already accounted for in the working stress computation. Tal. of the reinforcement (working stress design)." theoretical earth pressure stresses in each element can be isolated and calculated as an applied load. In other countries.62 PA R T F O U R The Design Process Te n s i l e C a pa c i t y Te n s i o n L e v e l C a l c u l a t i o n Tensile failure occurs when the long-term design strengths of the reinforcement is exceeded and leads to tensile failure of the elements.. This analysis is consistent with model testing and ﬁnite element analysis which indicate a rapid reduction in load at the bottom of a structure. Each individual reinforcement level can be broken down into respective tributary areas as shown in Figure 4.
1) Tensile capacity of the reinforcing based on material strength. 1/2” 0. However.75 inch (19mm) movement (NCMA or AASHTO). in 1997. External stability computations remain the same for both methods. as limited by the hinge height criteria. . AASHTO proposed a "simpliﬁed" method for all reinforcement systems that still utilizes simple Rankine earth pressure methods but treats a sloping backﬁll as an equivalent uniform surcharge on a level backﬁll per Figure 4. AASHTO 96 uses the conventional Rankine analysis for sloping ﬁlls and AASHTO Simpliﬁed uses the equivalent surcharge method for slopes. Figure 4. ka. To check the connection capacity at any level.17 AASHTO Simplified Model The internal design for a sloping backﬁll calculates the internal earth pressure coefficient. 2) Connection capacity at peak connection load. determine the capacity of the reinforcing-unit connection as a function of the vertical conﬁning stress. KeyWall permits two AASHTO design methods. for a level backﬁll condition and then adds the average equivalent surcharge for the sloping ﬁll on top of the wall. whichever is less γ = unit weight of the Keystone unit σ v =1/2 HS γ P The designer must refer to the laboratory test curves to determine the connection capacity based on the unit and reinforcing type.6”) or how to measure the values. The connection serviceability evaluation is somewhat controversial due to difficulties in laboratory measurement and applicability to structure performance. All tensions should be below the connection capacity. the tensile load in the reinforcing may be limited by.17. The conﬁning stress. This analysis tends to increase the load near the top of wall and reduces the load near the bottom. The consensus in the present AASHTO codes is that extensible reinforcement permits enough strain (less stiffness) to permit simple active earth pressure design in accordance with Rankine Earth pressure theory. Tconn. as determined from the curves and discussed in Part Three of this Manual. β HS As stated in Part Three. or 3) Connection capacity at a serviceability state determined at 0. σv. Some incorrectly try to apply factors of safety to this deformation criteria while others can not agree on the magnitude (3/4”.63 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE A A S H T O I n t e r n a l Te n s i o n C o n n e c t i o n C a pa c i t y AASHTO design speciﬁcations (1992-1999) have had some trouble agreeing on the internal stress method of calculation for extensible soil reinforcement due to their intrinsic differences with the steel reinforcement systems of previous codes. σv is equal to: σv = hi γunit where: hi = depth to unit or hinge height. Keystone believes that connection serviceability is not an important design consideration due to these difficulties and does not consider it in conventional Rankine design.
5. per Figure 4. NCMA recommends that all reinforcement extend a minimum of 1 foot (300mm) beyond the theoretical failure plane. The formula for calculating the pullout resistance is deﬁned as follows: Pullout = (2 L ) (γ H ) (Tanφ C ) i ov e where: Le = length of reinforcing beyond the Coulomb or Rankine failure plane γ Hov = vertical pressure on the reinforcing in the pullout zone tan (φ) = shear strength of soil Ci = interaction coefficient of the reinforcing . The pullout capacity is checked at all reinforcing layers. the designer may H ov insert additional layers of reinforcement. or lower the upper most layer of reinforcing to provide more overburden.. Le Pullout capacity of top reinforcement Pullout capacity of 2nd reinforcement Pullout capacity of 3rd reinforcement Pullout capacity of 4th reinforcement Figure 4.64 PA R T F O U R The Design Process P u l l o u t C a pa c i t y Pullout capacity is the amount of available reinforcing pullout force to withstand the outward forces of the soil wedge. and the embedment length. the factor of safety for pullout should be greater then 1. If the factor is less. the embedment length beyond the failure plane is reduced to the point where the reinforcement may have to be longer than the lower levels to achieve adequate pullout resistance. AASHTO recommends a 3 foot (1m) minimum embedment length. increase the grid length(s). As the failure plane approaches the top of the wall system.18 Pullout Diagram Pullout capacity is checked at each reinforcing layer by calculating the average overburden height.18 with the appropriate earth pressure theory. The factor of safety for pullout is given as: FSpullout = Pullout Resistance Geogrid Load For all levels.e. (i. Hov. Le. The "2" multiplier is included since the reinforcing is providing pullout resistance from both sides. The length of the reinforcing behind the Coulomb or Rankine failure plane is deﬁned as the embedment length. above and below) and is how the Ci coefficient is evaluated.
This resistance is compared to the maximum shear at each reinforcement connection. N1 and N2. is used to determine the moment couple that must be resisted by the facing in a vertical wall. In reinforced structures.65 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE S t a b i l i t y o f Fa c i n g Inter-unit shear capacity is discussed in Part One.19 Shear & Bulging Stability The inter-unit shear capacity of the units is a function of overburden height (N1 or N2) limited by the hinge height criteria for battered walls as discussed in Part Four. A simple moment formula. bulging/bending between reinforcement levels.19 below shows the local stability loading condition that is analyzed by the KeyWall program. as a resisting force when looking at sliding failures along the reinforcing planes. inter-unit shear is the only resisting force holding the wall from sliding at any elevation above the base. The factor of safety of shear at a unit interface and the resistance to bulging should be greater than 1. (T1 or T2)/2. the stability of the facing must be checked for overturning above the top geogrid level.5. The Keystone unit resistance to bulging is based on the front of the wall not coming into tension as the earth pressure or span between reinforcement levels is increased. . and stability during construction. Figure 4. In gravity wall design. adequate shear resistance at the reinforcement levels. The bulging moment is resisted by the compressive force in the wall section at any depth. N1 Z1 T1 Z2 (Z 1 +Z 2 )/2 *γ *k a q*ka T2 N2 Figure 4. Wall batter creates a less stable situation under this analysis as it introduces an additional moment couple into the facing load. M = WL2/10 for a continuous wall structure.
Pa r t F i v e Ke y Wa ll O p e rat i n g I n s t ruc t i o n s .
KeyWall will output correctly to most printers supported by the Windows operating system including network printers. . KeyWall takes advantage of the graphical interface and permits easy input and selection using a mouse or key commands. Mac users should use PC software emulation such as SoftPC™ or Virtual PC™ to run KeyWall. and Windows NT/ 2000 operating system. KeyWall for Windows. Previous DOS and Macintosh versions are no longer supported by Keystone.69 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE I n sta l l at i o n & U s e r ' s G u i d e eyWall design software is currently available as a Windows™ software program that will run under K Windows 95/98.
Select Run from Start menu (Win95/98 task bar). Insert Keystone Technical CD in CDROM. My Computer. Enter a:\setup. See Keywall Figure 5. Note: KeyWall is programmed to expire each year on February 1st and will require a new registration code. This feature limits the usage of old versions of the software with out-of-date data. or The Keywall 2001 Directory.1 KeyWall for Windows Installing Software from Floppy Disks Registration later in these instructions I Instructions .exe as shown and press OK. KeyWall will not print in the demo mode but the user will still be able to utilize all design functions. Registration is free and only requires contacting Keystone for a registration code. The Instructions assume familiarity with the Windows operating system.Keystone Technical CD 1 Insert KeyWall ﬂoppy disk in a: drive. and is installed with a standard Windows Setup routine to simplify installation and initialize the program. Finder. This will provide a simple network browsers interface to the ﬁles on the CD. . Files may also be located manually through the Explorer. 3 Browse may also be used to ﬁnd Setup program on a: drive. 2 CD will automatically start up Microsoft Explorer (Auto Play must be on). KeyWall is provided on a demonstration basis until registered.71 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE I n sta l l at i o n R e g i st r at i o n KeyWall is provided on ﬂoppy disks or CD. The installation steps for the Microsoft Windows 95/98 operating system are illustrated in the following instructions.Floppy Disk 1 2 3 Instructions .
Progress: (Insert 2nd Disk when asked and press Next when complete) . Read Me File: License Agreement (press Next) 3. (press Next) 5. Destination Directory: (press Next or Browse if you wish to save in different directory) 4. Select Components: Check one box only to install proper data ﬁles. Last Chance to Abort: (press Next) 6.72 PA R T F I V E K e y Wa l l O p e r a t i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s Key Wa l l I n sta l l at i o n & S e tu p 1. Welcome : Screen (press Next) 2.
The Windows operating system can be used to modify this menu or create shortcut icons on the desktop for easy access. It is necessary to register KeyWall with Keystone Retaining Wall Systems to use the printing feature of the software.73 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE L au n c h i n g t h e Key Wa l l Pro g r a m The default KeyWall installation on the Windows operating system will place the KeyWall program and data ﬁles in a directory labeled KeyWall 2000 which resides in the Programs directory on the c: drive. The default installation will also set KeyWall up on the Start menu task bar for easy access to the program as shown below. Registration is covered in a later section. KeyWall will also place a Shortcut icon on the desktop which can be used to start the program. Figure 5.2 KeyWall for Windows Located on Desktop in Programs Folder .
74 PA R T F I V E K e y Wa l l O p e r a t i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s
Ke y Wa l l Wi n d ow s I n t e r fa c e
The KeyWall interface follows standard Windows functions. KeyWall presents an operating window with pulldown menus and tabbed data input windows within the program window.
Design cases This Option permits the saving of multiple design sections under the same ﬁle name. Add case
All pulldown menus, window tabs, and design cases can be accessed with the mouse in a conventional point-andclick manner or through "hot" key commands. Buttons and check box options can be set with a mouse-click. Data input ﬁelds can be individually selected with the mouse or the Tab key can be used as a method of quickly moving from ﬁeld to ﬁeld.
Creates a new subﬁle which copies all the settings from the design section that is being worked on until modiﬁed for the new section.
Pulldown Menu Options
Input Screen Tabs
Calculate Results Window Functions
Add/Subtract Design Cases
Figure 5.3 KeyWall for Windows Interface Options
DE S IG N M AN UAL
& KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE
Ke y Wa l l I n t e r fa c e O pt i o n s
File Menu The File menu permits the creation of a new project and saving and opening of project ﬁles. Projects are saved with .kwp suffix for reference. Options Project will permit various KeyWall preference changes such removing disclaimers, changing address, metric units, etc. Set Colors will permit changes to some of the display colors of the KeyWall program. Print Setup and Print Case Print Setup provides dialog boxes where different printers and printer features can be selected for use with the KeyWall program. Hand Calc provides a longform printout that provides intermediate data and calculation steps used by the KeyWall program. Exit shuts the program down. Keystone Units will display the design characteristics of the unit selected. Design Preferences allows the setting of speciﬁc design parameters and methods of calculation for speciﬁc design elements. Save Defaults creates a default ﬁle that saves the KeyWall input settings and will reset the program data every time the program is restarted or New Project is chosen. Help View Menu Earth Pressure permits quick access to the earth pressure and loads. Connection Data displays a connection strength graph of the selected primary reinforcement and Keystone unit combination. Design cases can also be selected from the view menu. Calculate Menu New Layout will calculate trial results based on the input data provided. Re-Calc will re-calculate results based on changed input data. Calc-Existing will retain any geogrid layout changes made in the previous results calculation for revised input data. About provides an information splash screen and access to the Registration feature of KeyWall. Contents & Topic Search provide access to a Help ﬁle which provides information about the KeyWall program.
76 PA R T F I V E K e y Wa l l O p e r a t i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s
Key Wa l l R e g i st r at i o n D e ta i l s
NOTE: The Registration Code and Name must be input exactly as shown on the registration information provided by Keystone Retaining Wall Systems. The letters are from A to F and the numbers are from 0 to 9. The spelling and capitalization has to be exactly as provided.
Mouse-click on the "Licensed to" box to bring up the registration input box.
Figure 5.4 About KeyWall
Registration Information 1 KeyWall about Select the About KeyWall screen. 2 Licensed Click on Licensed to box. 3 Registration Screen (Enter Information and press OK)
Figure 5.5 Registration Information
and number input ﬁelds accept project text information for the title block on the printouts. The Rankine method is based on Rankine active earth pressure analysis and failure plane with an adjustment for the effects of wall batter.77 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE General Input The Project name. The Date defaults to the present date unless manually changed. Second Edition and is based on Coulomb active earth pressure analysis and failure planes. Metric Units KeyWall works in English units by default or Metric units when the metric option is selected under options/project. Figure 5. Compac.6 Project Information Screen and Unit Type Selection .4m)). and Country Manor.5" or 18") is set in the Design Preferences. Note: AASHTO designs are speciﬁc to the owner and project requirements which can include special design considerations not typically included in the KeyWall options. Depth of a standard unit ( 21. The NCMA method follows the 1997 Design Manual for Segmental Retaining Walls. Add Case Add Case permits the addition of multiple design cases to a project ﬁle. The typical units included are Keystone Standard. Face Unit Type Select the desired Keystone unit type. Minimum grid lengths (8' (2. The AASHTO Simpliﬁed method is based on a Rankine earth pressure and failure plane analysis similar to the 1996 AASHTO Analysis but treats backslope loadings in a different manner per the 1999 AASHTO speciﬁcations. Each case can have different design information which can be saved and re-loaded. The 1996 AASHTO method is based on an earth pressure and failure plane analysis similar to the Rankine analysis. The Case input ﬁelds accept text data unique to each design case. Design Methodology KeyWall permits analysis by four different methods.7H) and other AASHTO requirements are included. Selecting Gravity forces a gravity wall analysis regardless of parameters. base/height ratios (0.
7 Geometry Input Window . Horizontal Offset Enter the horizontal offset as measured from the face of wall to the break in slope or the horizontal offset of live and dead load for a level surcharge design case. 8. Pressing the arrows will toggle through the typical Keystone unit batters (0˚. This value should be left at 100ft or 30m for an inﬁnite loading condition unless performing a special analysis. The program defaults to minimums of 60% for NCMA and Rankine. Backfill Slope Enter the slope angle of backslope in the design section as applicable. Face Batter Enter the appropriate wall batter. 4. Live/Dead load Horiz Offset Backslope angle Wall Height Length D e s ign S ectio n Figure 5. Minimum Length Enter a minimum geogrid length that may be required. Wall Height Enter the total wall height (feet or meters) as measured from top of leveling pad to ﬁnished grade at the top of wall. Minimum L/H Enter a minimum base to height percentage that may be required. The program defaults to 4' (1.2m) for NCMA /Rankine and 8' (2.44m) for AASHTO. and 70% for AASHTO.78 PA R T F I V E K e y Wa l l O p e r a t i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s Geometry Input Surcharge The geometry input screen allows you to customize the project dimension information.4˚. KeyWall will use the minimum reinforcement length speciﬁed regardless if a shorter length will satisfy the design criteria.8˚). Other batters are possible in straight walls by tilting the leveling pad slightly which can be entered directly. Embedment Enter the distance below grade that the top of leveling pad is located. This value is only used in the calculation of foundation bearing capacity based on level ground in front of the wall. Enter the live or dead load surcharge (psf or kN/m2) as applicable. Load Width Enter width of the live load when modeling a strip live load. Live and dead loads are only applied to the horizontal surface above the wall not the sloping surface as shown.
The phi angle typically reﬂects the peak effective shear strength of the compacted or in-situ soil.5m) of a wall which is not correct for a long term design condition. Cohesion (psf or kN/m2) is typically set to zero due to the difficulties of predicting long term soil strength properties of cohesive soils in the analysis. Cohesion can lead to artiﬁcially low earth pressures in small walls that could mathematically justify 10' (3m) gravity walls or no reinforcement required in the upper 5' (1. This selection only affects the sliding resistance calculation of gravity walls.8 Soil Properties and Leveling Pad Selection Window . These values may be estimated for small walls but should be veriﬁed by testing or experience for larger structures. for each soil zone material.85kN/m3) is a good starting point if no other information exists but may be inadequate for steep back slopes. A leveling pad material must be chosen for gravity walls in order to determine the base friction for the speciﬁc unit type based on laboratory test data. and in-situ unit weight (γ).79 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Soil Properties L e v e l i n g Pa d Soil design properties must be established that include the phi angle (φ). φ = 28˚ and γ =120 pcf (18. (pcf or kN/m3). The unit weight typically reﬂects the moist unit weight of the soil. Figure 5.
80 PA R T F I V E K e y Wa l l O p e r a t i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s
Fa c t o r s o f S a f e t y
Default Values Review default values and adjust as required for project speciﬁc requirements. Generally, a factor of safety of 1.5 is the minimum required on all essential elements of the wall design. External Stability The Factor of Safety in Overturning is usually set at 2.0 for reinforced soil structures even though this element of the design analysis rarely controls the reinforcement length. The Factor of Safety in sliding is usually is set at 1.5 for gravity and reinforced structures. The Factor of Safety in Bearing is usually set at 2.0 for reinforced soil structures per NCMA criteria. AASHTO requires a minimum factor of 2.5 where as conventional concrete footings will use a factor of 3.0.
Uncertainties The Factor of Safety for Uncertainties can change for some government and highway work. Sometimes, speciﬁc design factors or maximum allowable geogrid loads are dictated in construction documents and speciﬁcations which require that the geogrid long term design strength be manually adjusted (see Design Preferences). Internal Connection Serviceability The connection Serviceability (0.75" or 19mm deformation criteria on connection strength) is only active if a safety factor value of 1.0 or greater is input. When 0.0 is input (default for the Rankine method), the serviceability criteria is neglected and only the peak connection strength safety factor criteria governs the design. Sometimes, speciﬁc connection design factors are dictated in plans and speciﬁcations which require that these factors be adjusted.
Figure 5.9 Safety Factors Input Window
DE S IG N M AN UAL
& KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE
Manufacturer Click on arrow to view a pull-down menu that lists the reinforcement manufacturers contained in the KeyWall data ﬁles. Select the desired manufacturer. Primary & Secondary Click on the arrow to view a pull-down menu that lists the soil reinforcement types in the data ﬁles for the selected manufacturer. "Primary" is the stronger geogrid that KeyWall will use at the bottom of the wall and "Secondary" is the geogrid that KeyWall will use higher in the wall if two different grid types are selected. Note that KeyWall may only use the secondary geogrid type if it is adequate for the design. Interaction Coefficients The default geogrid pullout and sliding coefficients are determined by the phi angle value of the reinforced zone material input in the Soils input screen. These values can be manually changed if required. (see Design Preferences to change)
Reinforcement Fill Type Select the appropriate ﬁll type that comprises the reinforced zone. This selection determines the installation damage value that is recommended by the geogrid manufacturer in the determination of the geogrid long term design strength. The three material types generally reﬂect ﬁner grained soils, 3/4" (19mm) minus material, and 2" (50mm) minus material. Check with the geogrid manufacturer for appropriate damage values when larger backﬁll material is anticipated. (See Design Preferences to change) Data Table The table displays the long term design strength calculation for the geogrid materials by the selected manufacturer (See Design Preferences to change). Note that each column can be widened with the mouse cursor. Not all reinforcement has been tested with all Keystone units. The table and choices will only present tested combinations for the chosen unit type.
Figure 5.10 Reinforcement Selection Window
82 PA R T F I V E K e y Wa l l O p e r a t i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s
Preferences Design preferences can be found under the option pull down menu. Embedment Select to include wall embedment in the bearing capacity calculation. (Default) Serviceability Select to include connection serviceability in NCMA and AASHTO options as the default setting. Rankine method does not include serviceability by default. (Default) Hinge Height Select to include "hinge height" limitation in connection strength evaluation. (Default) Base Friction Select to not include base friction reduction in bottom reinforcement tension. (Default) Vertical Design Select to match FHWA software external stability calculation for battered walls. Durability at Connection Select to include additional factor of 1.1 on peak connection strength for long term durability considerations in accordance with some AASHTO speciﬁcations.
Change Ci/Cds Select to permit changes to the default factors in Reinforcement Input Screen. Connection Creep Select to include additional factor on peak connection strength evaluation for long term creep considerations in accordance with some AASHTO speciﬁcations. Minimum Defaults Select to override manufacturer's minimum values with greater reduction factors as required. KeyWall will use the greater value of the two when option is employed. Design Options Select the geometry of the reinforced soil/retained soil interface for battered walls only. Refer to Figure 4.7 Parallelogram assumes an interface parallel to wall face, Modiﬁed assumes a vertical interface for sliding mass, Vertical assumes a vertical interface for sliding and external earth pressure. Unit Height Select the default height of unit for English and Metric systems (ie: 203mm vs 200mm). Default Data File Select different block and geogrid data ﬁle if available.
Figure 5.11 Design Preferences
<Tab> <Shift-Tab> <Arrow Up> <Arrow Down> <Control-Arrow Up> <Control-Arrow Down> <Control-Arrow Left> <Control-Arrow Right> <Space Bar> <Control-Insert> <Control-Delete> <Control-L> Move forward through the geogrid height. .5' (0. select a level of geogrid in the results screen ﬁrst to begin any changes. Length.1m) Change geogrid type at a speciﬁc layer Insert additional reinforcement layer above selected layer Delete selected reinforcement layer Set all reinforcing to the same length as selected grid layer NOTES: Always press Re-Calc after editing to recalculate values for ﬁnal evaluation. See Help ﬁle for explanation of ﬂags and notations on display. and type ﬁelds Move up one geogrid level Move down one geogrid level Move selected grid layer up one unit Move selected grid layer down one unit Shorten grid length by 0.83 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE R e s u lt s S c r e e n Return to input screens Direct printing of results Recalculate values after changes Selection handles for moving geogrid level or length with mouse Pullout Safety Factor Selected Level (dotted line around highlighted area) Calculated Tension Maximum connection (Peak & Serviceability) Allowable design tension in grid User controlled items (Height. length and type ﬁelds Move backward through the geogrid height.1m) Lengthen grid length by 0.12 Soil Geogrid Result screen Input Data Factor of Safety in Bearing (level toe in front of wall) Applied bearing pressure Eccentricity E d i t G e o g r i d D a t a i n R e s u lt s S c r e e n Note: Prior to editing. Type) External FoS's Facing Stability Figure 5. length.5'(0.
Am Am. Kh Kh. is calculated from A and Am in accordance with the appropriate design methodology chosen. Enable Seismic Check this box to enable the pseudo-static seismic calculation and press Results. horizontal seismic coefficient. is calculated from A in accordance with the appropriate design methodology chosen. or seismic maps such as those contained in AASHTO.13 Dynamic Results Screen . KeyWall will only trial design the static case so the user must manually adjust the design to satisfy the static + dynamic case. is input when required but generally left at Kv = 0. peak structure acceleration. Kv Kv. vertical seismic coefficient.84 PA R T F I V E K e y Wa l l O p e r a t i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s Seismic Input A Input peak ground acceleration for project location This may come from site speciﬁc recommendation. Figure 5. The Results will now display two values in each ﬁeld representing the static and static+dynamic values for comparison (534/845). local codes.
85 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Seismic Input Static Results Static + Dynamic Results Figure 5.14 Seismic Input Screen .
A p p e n d i x “A ” G rav i t y Wa ll D e s i g n N C M A .C o u lo m b M e t h o d o lo g y K e y s t o n e C o m pa c U n i t s I n f i n i t e S lo p e S u r c h a r g e .
(β) Surcharge = 8.8 .20) 1 + sin(98.0 degrees) = 0 psf (not applied to inﬁnite slope design) Height of Backslope = 50' (inﬁnite for design purposes) Gravity wall design (FSot>1.5' embedment) = 1V:4H (14.14) 2 sin 98.5) 2) Soil Parameters (degrees.5' exposed + 0 .8 degrees (1. psf. pcf ) Soil Parameters Retained Soil Foundation Soil φ 30 30 c 0 0 γ 120 120 3) Geometric Parameters φ = 30 degrees δ = 2/3φ = 20 degrees (concrete to soil) α = 98.8 sin(98.0') Crushed Stone Leveling Pad (φ =40˚ and γ =130pcf) Wall Batter (ι) Design Height Backslope.8 + 14) 2 .8 + 30 ) ka = sin(30 + 20) sin(30 . The design follows the procedure outlined in the NCMA Design Manual for Segmental Retaining Walls. The pertinent design information is summarized below: 1) General Design Data Compac Keystone Units (120 pcf with unit drainage ﬁll and Wu = 1.8 .8 degrees (90˚ + 8.8˚) β = 14 degrees (4H:1V slope) 4) Coulomb Earth Pressure Calculation sin 2 ( 98.25" per 8" unit) = 3.89 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Appendix : Infinite Slope Surcharge NCMA-Coulomb Methodology This set of calculations is intended to verify the KeyWall program output of a typical gravity wall design section.0' (2.20) sin(98.
73 > 1.5) (120pcf) (3')2 (0.8)) = 264 ft-lbs FSot = Mr/Mo = 264/153 = 1.288) cos (20-8.5 OK .8˚ β = 14˚ Wf H = 3' Pah H/3 = 1' 1' 5) Overturning Overturning Moment Mo = Pah (H/3) + Pqh (H/2) = 153 lbs (3'/3) + 0 = 153 ft-lbs Resisting Moment Mr = Wf x X = (H Wu γ)(Wu/2 + (H/2) Tan(ι)) = (3' x 1' x 120pcf )(1'/2 + (3'/2) Tan(8.288 for above parameters .90 PA R T S I X APPENDIX A Appendix : Infinite Slope Surcharge NCMA-Coulomb Methodology Equation (3c) ka = 0.8) Pah = 153 lbs/lf External Stability Diagram ι = 8.Coulomb Equation (3a) Pa = 1/2 γ H2 ka Pah = 1/2 γ H2 ka cos (δ-ι) Pah = (0.
5) (120) (1.926Rv = .839) = 302 lbs/ft (through pad) = 302 lbs/lf (lower of two) FSsl = Fv/Pah = 302/153 = 1. Nq = 18.91 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Appendix : Infinite Slope Surcharge NCMA-Coulomb Methodology 6) Sliding Sliding Resistance (at interface or through pad) Fv Fv = 0.5) +0.5 = (1'-2 x 0.192' Applied Bearing Pressure (under 6" pad) Equation (3j) σv = Rv/((B-2e)+0.40) .5 + .0 OK Note: Factor of safety in bearing without 6" crushed stone base is only 3.14.3.(264-153)/(3'x1'x120pcf) = 0.5γ(B-2e)Nγ where: Nc = 30.926(3' x 120pcf) =333 lbs/ft (from shear curves) = Rv Tan 40˚ = (3' x 1' x 120pcf) (0.(Mr-Mo)/Rv = 1'/2 .192')+0.53 > 2.192) + .5 OK 7) Bearing Pressure (under crushed stone leveling pad) Equation (3i) e = B/2 . qult = 0 + (120) (1) (18.11' = .40 B D c = (B-2e) + 0. Nγ = 22.97 > 1.4.5')+0.11) (22.5 = 1.4) + (0.5 = 1.0' (to bottom of pad) =0 = 3700 psf FSbr= 3700/388 = 9.5'(130pcf) = 388 lbs/sf 8) Bearing Capacity (under crushed stone leveling pad) Equation (3k) qult = cNc + γDNq + 0.5'γ = (3x120pcf)/((1'-2x0.
The maximum driving force is 153 lbs/lf. so by inspection. assumed soil properties. inter-unit shear is more than adequate with the Keystone Compac units. and foundation stability. . Inadequate surface drainage can permit saturation of the retained soils and foundation soils which can also cause wall instability and movement. 10) General Comments Gravity wall design is very sensitive to wall batter. Small variations can result in unacceptable safety factors and potential wall movement.92 PA R T S I X APPENDIX A Appendix : Infinite Slope Surcharge NCMA-Coulomb Methodology 9) Inter-Unit Shear The inter unit shear of Compac units is over 700 lbs/lf plus overburden pressure friction. surcharge. backslope.
93 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Appendix : Infinite Slope Surcharge NCMA-Coulomb Methodology .
250 psf .95 D E S I G N M A N U A L & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Appendix “B” R e i n fo rc e d S o i l Wa ll D e s i g n N C M A .C o u lo m b M e t h o d o l o g y K e y s t o n e S ta n d a r d U n i t s Level Surcharge .
10 LTDS 1399 FS 1.Coulomb Methodology Level Surcharge .90 for select backfill) 4) Geometric Parameters . level backslope = 250 psf (typical roadway surcharge) 2) Soil Parameters (Degrees. B Backslope. pcf ) Soil Select fill Reinforced Soil Retained Soil Foundation Soil φ 34 30 30 c 0 0 0 γ 120 120 120 3) Geogrid Design Parameters (plf) Geogrid Strata SG200 Tult 2725 FScr 1.10 FSid 1.79') Stratagrid SG200 Polyester Geogrid Wall Batter (ι) Design Height Base Length.5 Tal 933 plf (Ci & Cds = 0. β Surcharge = 0˚.61 Tcr 1500 FSd 1.97 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Appendix : NCMA . psf. The pertinent design information is summarized below: 1) General Design Data Standard Keystone Units (120 pcf with drainage ﬁll and Wu =1. The design follows the procedure outlined in the NCMA Design Manual for Segmental Retaining Walls. near-vertical orientation = 10' (9' exposed + 1' embedment) = 9.67 degrees (concrete/soil) = 90 degrees (90˚ + no batter) = 0 degrees (level) External φ δ α β = 30 degrees = φ = 30 degrees (soil to soil) = 90 degrees (90˚ + no batter) = 0 degrees (level) .250 psf This set of calculations is intended to verify the KeyWall program output of a typical reinforced soil wall design section.0' (uniform lengths chosen for simplicity) = 0.Coulomb Internal φ δ α β = 34 degrees = 2/3 φ = 22.
1.Coulomb External Forces Equation (3a) Pa = 1/2 γ H2ka Pah = 1/2 γ H2 ka cos (δ-ι) (Horz.22.Coulomb sin2 ( 90 + 30 ) ka = sin290 sin(90 .0) sin(90 .67) sin(90 + 0) Equation (3c) Equation (3d) External ka ρ = 0.0) sin(90 .98 PA R T S I X APPENDIX B Appendix : NCMA .67) sin(34 .79' Rv L= 7.0'-1.30) sin(90 + 0) Equation (3c) ka = 0.79)(10')(120 pcf) = 8652 lbs/lf Wq = q(B-Wu) = (250 psf)(9.Coulomb Methodology Level Surcharge .5) (120pcf) (10')2(0.4˚ for above parameters .0' .0' .250 psf 5) Coulomb Earth Pressure Calculation Internal ka = sin2 ( 90 + 34 ) sin290 sin(90 . sliding External Masses Wf = Wu H γ = (1.297) cos(30-0) Pqh = 643 lbs/lf External Stability Diagram q for maximum stress.79') = 1803 lbs/If Wf H=10' W1 Pqh Pah C L H/3 e H/2 1.22.Coulomb = 58.79')(10')(120pcf) = 2148 lbs/lf W1 = (B-Wu) H γ = (9.30) 1+ sin(30 + 30) sin(30 .67) 1+ sin(34 + 22.297 for above parameters .) Pah = (0. bearing pressure Wq q for overturning.21' B=9.297) cos(30-0) Pah = 1543 lbs/lf Equation (3b) Pq = qH ka Pqh = q H ka cos(δ−ι) (Horizontal Component) Pqh = (250psf)(10')(0.254 for above parameters .
5 OK 8) Sliding at Lowest Reinforcement Level Lateral Driving Forces (at depth of 9.5 OK 7) Base Sliding Lateral Driving Forces Rd = Pah + Pqh = 1543 lbs + 643 lbs = 2186 lbs/ft Lateral Resisting Forces Rr = (Wf + W1) x Tan φ of foundation = (2148 + 8652 ) x 0.21'/2) = 48600 ft-lbs FSot = Mr/Mo = 48600/8358 = 5.33' x 7.90 = 4904 lbs/ft FSsl = Rr/Rd = (2169+4904)/1944 = 3.250 psf 6) Overturning Overturning Moment Mo = Pah (H/3) + Pqh (H/2) = 1543 lbs (10'/3) + 643 lbs (10'/2) = 8358 ft-lbs Resisting Moment Mr = Wf x Wu/2 + W1 x (Wu + L/2) = (2148 x 1.99 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Appendix : NCMA .577 = 6232 lbs/ft FSsl = Rr/Rd = 6232/2186 = 2.31 = 2169 plf τ soil = (γ H (B-Wu)) x Tan φ (of reinforced material) x Cds = 120 pcf x 9.Coulomb Methodology Level Surcharge .79'/2) + 8652(1.79' + 7.64> 1.675 x 0.5 OK .21' x 0.79' x 120 pcf) 0.33' x 1.85> 1.33') Rd = Pah + Pqh = 1344 lbs + 600 lbs = 1944 lbs/ft Lateral Resisting Forces (at depth of 9.33') τ unit = 1548 + N x 0.31 = 1548 plf + (9.81> 1.
07 > 2.5 γ BN γ Note: The external analysis above is limited to simple overturning. Nγ = 22.54' Applied Bearing Pressure Equation (3h) σv = Rv/(B-2e) = (12603)/(9.92)(22.Coulomb Methodology Level Surcharge .14. sliding.0 OK = c N c + γ D Nq + 0.5)(120)(7.100 PA R T S I X APPENDIX B Appendix : NCMA .(58327-8358)/(12603) = 0.250 psf 9) Bearing Pressure (Note: Live load is added for e and Max Bearing Pressure) Eccentricity Equation (3f) e Mr Rv e = B/2 .0'/2 .21'/2) = 58327 ft-lbs = Wf + W1 + Wq = (2148 + 8652 + 1803) = 12603 lbs/ft = 9.0'-2 x 0. applied bearing pressure and bearing capacity for the reinforced mass based on a level toe.2e) = (9. Nq = 18.4) + (0.0'-2 x 0. Geotechnical site and soils evaluation is a site speciﬁc art and can not be programmed.40) = 12852psf = 12852/1591 = 8. . No attempt has been made to evaluate the more complicated geotechnical concerns of settlement and global stability.54') = 1591 lbs/sf 10) Bearing Capacity Equation (3i) qult where: Nc B D c qult FSbr = 30.40 = (B .(Mr-Mo)/Rv = Mr + Wq x (Wu + L/2) = 48600+ 1803 x (1.54) = 7.4.92' = 1.0' level embedment =0 = 0 + (120)(1)(18.79' + 7.
0 .250 psf q for maximum stress.101 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Appendix : NCMA .Coulomb Methodology Level Surcharge .21' B=9. bearing pressure SG200 Z SG200 H=10' SG200 SG200 σqh 1.79' σ ah 7.
Coulomb Methodology Level Surcharge . Therefore. Strata SG200 is OK for all four levels in tension.0 94 169 234 281 σqh 58.67 2.33' 8.00' z 0 3.00 7.33 1.102 PA R T S I X APPENDIX B Appendix : NCMA .33' 10.67' 6.33 2.6 58.6 58.6 58.250 psf 11) Maximum Grid Tension The calculated grid tensions (plf) are tabulated below: q = 250 psf σh1 = (0 + q)(ka) Load = (σh1 + σh2)/2 x area σh2 = (zγ + q)(ka ) Midpoint Z Area Grid Top 4) SG200 Mid 3) SG200 Mid 2) SG200 Mid 1) SG200 Depth 2.67 Load 353 507 608 528 152 190 228 261 293 316 340 4. .33 9.00 Bottom Strata SG200 has an allowable design load of 933 plf from the ﬁrst page which is greater than the calculated value at each level.6 σtot 59 Ave 106 Area 3.6 58.33 σah 0.
79 L = 7.90 0.674 .00 4.5.67 7.90 0.33 Le 2.76 17. γ 120 120 120 120 Height 4) 3) 2) 1) 8.27 9. q for maximum stress. bearing pressure Le = 2.67' Grid SG200 SG200 SG200 SG200 Hov 2.21' B = 9.89 5.250 psf 12) Pullout Resistance Pullout safety factors are determined on a level by level basis.29 3.56 6.29' Z Le = 3.103 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Appendix : NCMA .80 Tan34 .90 0. Surcharge is not considered as a resisting force under NCMA guidelines: Pullout Resistance = (γHov) (2Le) (Tan(φ)Ci) with Hov = average height of over burden.56' ρ = 58.0' L e v e l b y L e v e l P u l l o u t A n a ly s i s Check each grid level for available pullout resistance against previously calculated tensile loads.49 OK .33 9.93' H = 10' Le = 5.5 .67' 0.33' 2.All pullout safety factors are greater than 1.93 5.674 Ci 0.4˚ Le = 6.80' SG200 SG200 SG200 SG200 1.00' 5.Coulomb Methodology Level Surcharge . The effective lengths and calculated pullout is determined at each level and compared to a safety factor of 1.674 .674 .90 Pullout Load 666 2670 5933 9236 353 507 608 528 FSpo 1.
KeyWall incorporates the laboratory connection test data for all Keystone unit types connected to different geogrid types.5 Factor of Safety = 795 plf + N Tan 4˚ < 1056 plf Max .Coulomb Methodology Level Surcharge .104 PA R T S I X APPENDIX B Appendix : NCMA .250 psf 13) Connection Strength The last major item to check is the geogrid connection strength. The following chart is applicable for Standard units and Stratagrid SG200 geogrid in this example: Connection Capacity Connection Force (plf) 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 Normal Force (plf) The equations for these connection curves are: Peak Connection 3/4" Serviceability = 835 plf + N Tan 36˚ < 1562 plf Max / 1.
.105 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Appendix : NCMA .00' 5.67' 0.Calculated loads are less than the maximum allowable for Peak and Serviceability connection criteria.33' 9.250 psf Height 4) 3) 2) 1) 8.33' N 430 1003 1575 2004 Tpeak 765 1041 1041 1041 TServ 825 865 905 935 Load 353 507 608 528 OK .67' Grid SG200 SG200 SG200 SG200 Depth 2.00' 4.33' 2.Coulomb Methodology Level Surcharge .67' 7.
By inspection. the three unit vertical cantilever is ok with the 250 psf surcharge and the four block maximum spacing between geogrids will be stable during construction and in the ﬁnal design condition.Coulomb Methodology Level Surcharge . The data and methods conform to the NCMA. 1997. Summary The hand calculations verify the attached computer output. Standard Keystone units are typically spaced no greater than 4 blocks between geogrid levels to remain stable during construction and eliminate concerns over local stability.250 psf 14) Other Design Checks The KeyWall program also checks the spacing between geogrid levels and the cantilever at the top of wall against the stability of the facing units.106 PA R T S I X APPENDIX B Appendix : NCMA . . The cantilever at the top of wall is also checked against the ﬁnal loading condition as a small gravity wall.
107 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Appendix : NCMA .Keystone Systems ./ .Coulomb Methodology Level Surcharge .250 psf Pref: Embed.1 .
250 psf .Appendix “C” R e i n fo rc e d S o i l Wa ll D e s i g n R a n k i n e M e t h o d o lo g y K e y s t o n e S ta n d a r d U n i t s Level Surcharge .
The design follows the Rankine procedure outlined previously in the Keystone Design Manual.250 psf This set of calculations is intended to verify the KeyWall program output of a typical reinforced soil wall design section. psf.61 Tcr 1500 FSd 1.Rankine Internal φ = 34 degrees δ = β = 0 degrees (no backslope) α = 90 degrees (90˚ + no batter) β = 0 degrees (level) External φ δ α β = 30 degrees = β = o degrees (no backslope) = 90 degrees (90˚ + no batter) = 0 degrees (level) . β Surcharge = 0˚.111 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Appendix: Rankine Methodology Level Surcharge .79') Stratagrid SG200 Polyester Geogrid Wall Batter(ι) Design Height Base Length.pcf ) select fill Reinforced Soil Retained Soil Foundation Soil φ 34 30 30 c 0 0 0 γ 120 120 120 3) Geogrid Design Parameters (plf ) Geogrid Strata SG200 Tult 2725 FScr 1.10 FSid 1. B Backslope. near-vertical orientation = 10' (9' exposed + 1' embedment) = 8. level backslope = 250 psf (typical roadway surcharge) 2) Soil Parameters (degrees.5 Tal 933 plf Ci & Cds = 0.90 for select backfill 4) Geometric Parameters .10 LTDS 1399 FS 1.5' (uniform lengths chosen for simplicity) = 0. The pertinent design information is summarized below: 1) General Design Data Standard Keystone Units (120 pcf with drainage ﬁll and Wu =1.
0˚ for above parameters .333) cos(0) = 1998 lbs/lf = q H ka = qH ka cos(β) . (3e) Pah = 1/2 γ H2 ka cos(β) .333) cos(0) = 833 lbs/lf Equation.79')(10')(120 pcf) = q (B .φ/2) = 0.79') = 2148 lbs/lf = 1678 lbs/lf = (B .5)(120 pcf)(10')2 (0.283 for above parameters .5'-1.Rankine = 45 + φ/2 = 62.Rankine External Forces Pa = 1/2 γ H2 ka Equation.250 psf 5) Rankine Earth Pressure Calculation Internal Equation (3g) ka ka ρ ρ = tan2 (45 . (3f) External Masses Wf W1 Wq = Wu H γ = (1.Rankine Equation (3h) External Equation (3g) ka ka = tan2 (45 .Horizontal Component = (250psf)(10')(0.Horizontal Component Pah Pah Pq Pqh Pqh Pqh = (0.333 for above parameters .79')(10')(120pcf)= 8052 lbs/lf .Wu) = (250psf)(8.Wu) H γ = (8.112 PA R T S I X APPENDIX C Appendix: Rankine Methodology Level Surcharge .φ/2) = 0.5'-1.
5' H/2 1.71'/2) = 43350 ft-lbs FSot = Mr/Mo = 43350/10825 = 4.250 psf External Stability Diagram q for maximum stress.79' + 6.00 > 1.113 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Appendix: Rankine Methodology Level Surcharge .79'/2) + 8052(1.5 OK . sliding Wf H=10' W1 Pqh Pah C L H/3 e L = 6.71' B=8.79' Rv 6) Overturning Overturning Moment Mo = Pah (H/3) + Pqh (H/2) = 1998 lbs (10'/3) + 833 lbs (10'/2) = 10825 ft-lbs Resisting Moment Mr = Wf x Wu/2 + W1 x (Wu + L/2) = (2148 x 1. bearing pressure Wq q for overturning.
71' x 0.250 psf 7) Base Sliding Lateral Driving Forces Rd = Pah + Pqh = 1998 lbs + 833 lbs = 2831 lbs/ft Lateral Resisting Forces Rr = (Wf + W1) x Tanφ of foundation = (2148 + 8052 ) x 0.90 = 4564 lbs/ft FSsl = Rr/Rd = (2169+4564)/2516 = 2.675 x 0.5 OK 8) Sliding at Lowest Reinforcement Level Lateral Driving Forces (at depth of 9.31 = 1548 plf + (9.577 = 5885 lbs/ft FSsl = Rr/Rd = 5885/2831 = 2.5 OK .68 > 1.79' x 120 pcf) 0.33') τunit = 1548 + N 0.33') Rd = Pah + Pqh = 1739 lbs + 777 lbs = 2516 lbs/ft Lateral Resisting Forces (at depth of 9.31 = 2169 plf τsoil = (γ H (B-Wu)) x Tan φ (of reinforced material) x Cds = 120 pcf x 9.33' x 1.114 PA R T S I X APPENDIX C Appendix: Rankine Methodology Level Surcharge .08 > 1.33' x 6.
4.5'/2 .0 OK Note: The external analysis above is limited to simple overturning.5)(120)(6.5γ(B-2) N γ where: Nc B D c qult FSbr = 30. Geotechnical site and soils evaluation is a site speciﬁc art and can not be programmed. sliding.5'-2 x 0. .92' = 1.4)+(0.(51983-10825)/(11878) = 0.92)(22.115 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Appendix: Rankine Methodology Level Surcharge .40) = 11508 psf = 11508/1716 = 6.71 > 2.71'/2) = 51983 ft-lbs = Wf + W1 + Wq = (2148 + 8052 + 1678) = 11878 lbs/ft = 8.79' + 6.5'-2x0.(Mr-Mo)/Rv = Mr + Wq x (Wu + L/2) = 43350 + (1678 x (1. Nq = 18. No attempt has been made to evaluate the more complicated geotechnical concerns of settlement and global stability. Nγ =22.0' level embedment =0 = 0+(120)(1)(18.79') = 1716 lbs/sf 10) Bearing Capacity Equation (4i) qult = cNc+γDNq+0.79) = 6.79' Applied Bearing Pressure Equation (3h) σv = Rv/(L-2e) = (11878)/(8. applied bearing pressure and bearing capacity for the reinforced mass based on a level toe.250 psf 9) Bearing Pressure (Note: Live load is added for “e” and Max Bearing Pressure) Eccentricity Equation (3f) e Mr Rv e = B/2 .14.40 = (B-2e) = (8.
5’ Figure 3.283) Cos(0) = 70. . and local stability concerns: q for maximum stress.116 PA R T S I X APPENDIX C Appendix: Rankine Methodology Level Surcharge . pullout resistance.0 (Z) plf σqh = qka Cos (β) = (250psf) (0.8 plf The calculated pressure is applied to the tributary area of each reinforcement level which determines the tensile load in the geogrid reinforcement.79’ σ ah 6.250 psf Internal Stability . bearing pressure SG200 Z H=10’ SG200 SG200 SG200 σqh 1.4 Internal Stability Analysis . connection strength.Level.The internal analysis must look at the maximum loads at each grid level.283) Cos (0) = 34.71’ B=8. 250 psf Surcharge The internal earth pressure at any level is calculated as follows: σah = γ Z ka cos (β) = (120pcf) (Z) (0.
67' 6.33 9. .250 psf 11) Maximum Grid Tension The calculated grid tensions (plf) are tabulated below: q = 250 psf σh1=(0 + q)(ka) Load=[(σh1+σh2)/2] x area σh2=(zγ + q)(ka) Z Area Midpoint E Grid Top 4) SG200 Mid 3) SG200 Mid 2) SG200 Mid 1) SG200 Depth 2.8 70. Strata SG200 is OK for all four levels in tension.33 1.33 σah 0.00' z 0 3.8 70.00 Bottom Strata SG200 has an allowable design load of 933 plf from the ﬁrst page which is greater than the calculated value at each level.67 Load 425 611 732 637 184 229 275 314 354 382 411 4.33 2.00 7.33' 10.0 113 204 283 340 σqh 70.33' 8. Therefore.8 σtot 71 Ave 127 Area 3.8 70.117 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Appendix: Rankine Methodology Level Surcharge .67 2.8 70.
All pullout safety factors are greater than 1.35' SG200 SG200 SG200 SG200 1.29' ρ = 62˚ 6.88' H=10' Le=5.45' Z Le=3.29 6.90 0.35 Tan34 .5' Le=6.674 .32 7.88 5. a surcharge is not considered as a resisting force: Pullout Resistance = (γHov) (2Le) (Tan(φ)Ci) with Hov = average height of over burden.250 psf 12) Pullout Resistance Pullout safety factors are determined on a level by level basis.33 Le 2.71 13.68 4.118 PA R T S I X APPENDIX C Appendix: Rankine Methodology Level Surcharge .45 3.67' 0. γ 120 120 120 120 Height 4) 3) 2) 1) 8. q for maximum stress.674 .674 Ci 0.71' B=8.5.79 Check each grid level for available pullout resistance against previously calculated tensile loads.90 Pullout Load 714 2638 5646 8626 425 611 732 637 FSpo 1.90 0.5 . bearing pressure Le=2.674 .67' Grid SG200 SG200 SG200 SG200 Hov 2. The effective lengths and calculated pullout is determined at each level and compared to a safety factor of 1.54 OK .00 4.33' 2.00' 5.90 0.67 7.33 9.
(Rankine method does not check serviceability as the default setting) .67' 0.67' Grid SG200 SG200 SG200 SG200 Depth 2.33' 9.Calculated loads are less than the maximum allowable for Peak connection criteria.33' N 430 1003 1575 2004 Tpeak 765 1041 1041 1041 TServ Load 425 611 732 637 OK .250 psf 13) Connection Strength The last major item to check is the geogrid connection strength.00' 4.67' 7. KeyWall incorporates the laboratory connection test data for all Keystone unit types connected to different geogrid types.5 Factor of Safety 3/4" Serviceability = 795 plf + N Tan 4˚ < 1056 plf Max Height 4) 3) 2) 1) 8.119 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Appendix: Rankine Methodology Level Surcharge .00' 5.33' 2. The following chart is applicable for Standard units and Stratagrid SG200 geogrid in this example: Connection Capacity 3000 2500 Connection Force (plf) 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 Normal Force (plf) The equations for these connection curves are: Peak Connection = 835 plf + N Tan 36˚ < 1562 plf Max / 1.
the three unit vertical cantilever is ok with the 250 psf surcharge and the four block maximum spacing between geogrids will be stable during construction and in the ﬁnal design condition. The cantilever at the top of wall is also checked against the ﬁnal loading condition as a small gravity wall. Standard Keystone units are typically spaced no greater than 4 blocks between geogrid levels to remain stable during construction and eliminate concerns over local stability. The data and methods conform to the Rankine design method as outlined in the Keystone Design Manual.120 PA R T S I X APPENDIX C Appendix: Rankine Methodology Level Surcharge . Summary The hand calculations verify the attached computer output.250 psf 14) Other Design Checks The KeyWall program also checks the spacing between geogrid levels and the cantilever at the top of wall against the stability of the facing units. By inspection. .
250 psf .121 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Appendix: Rankine Methodology Level Surcharge .
Appendix “D” R e i n fo rc e d S o i l Wa ll D e s i g n A A S H T O M e t h o d o lo g i e s K e y s t o n e S ta n d a r d U n i t s 3 H : 1 V S lo p i n g S u r c h a r g e .
AASHTO Internal φ = 34 degrees δ = β = 18.4 degrees α = 90 degrees (90˚ + no batter) β = 18. 3H:1V backslope = slope only 2) Soil Parameters (degrees.64 Tcr 1401 FSd 1. pcf ) φ 34 30 30 γ 120 120 120 Select fill Reinforced Soil Retained Soil Foundation Soil c 0 0 0 3) Geogrid Design Parameters (plf ) Geogrid Tensar UX1400SB Tult 3700 FScr 2. The design follows the basic AASHTO procedures outlined previously in the Keystone Design Manual and compares the internal difference of AASHTO 96 vs AASHTO Simpliﬁed.10 FSid 1.90 for select backﬁll 4) Geometric Parameters .125 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Appendix: 3H:1V Sloping Surcharge A A SHTO Methodologies This set of calculations is intended to verify the KeyWall program output of a typical reinforced soil wall design section.4˚.4 degrees = 90 degrees (90˚ + no batter) = 18.5 Tal 809 plf Ci & Cds = 0.05 LTDS 1213 FS 1.79') Tensar UX1400SB HDPE Geogrid Wall Batter (ι) Design Height Base Length. The pertinent design information is summarized below: 1) General Design Data Standard Keystone Units (120 pcf with drainage ﬁll and Wu =1.4 degrees (Inﬁnite slope) .4 degrees (Inﬁnite slope) External φ δ α β = 30 degrees = β = 18. psf. near-vertical orientation = 10' (9' exposed + 1' embedment) = 9.0' (70% min B/H or 8’ minimum) = 18. B Backslope. β Surcharge = 0˚.
5)(120pcf)(10'+8'Tan18.Horizontal Component = (0.cos2 φ ka = 0.5)(120pcf)(12.Rankine External Forces Equation (4e) Pa = 1/2 γ HS2 ka Pah Pah Pah Pav Pav Pav Wf = 1/2 γ HS2 ka cos(β) .283 for above parameters .398) cos(18.cos2 φ ka ρ ρ = 0.4) = 1208 lbs/lf = Wu H γ = (1.66'-10') 120pcf = 1277 lbs/lf .Wu) H γ = (9.1')(HS-H) γ = 1/2 (8')(12.cos2 φ cos β + cos2 β .φ/2) = 0.4)2(0.126 PA R T S I X APPENDIX D Appendix: 3H:1V Sloping Surcharge A A SHTO Methodologies 5) Rankine Earth Pressure Calculation Internal .79')(10')(120pcf) = 8652 lbs/lf W2 = 1/2(B .Rankine Equation (3h) Internal .66')2(0.328 for above parameters .0˚ for above parameters .0'-1.Rankine = 62.398 for above parameters .AASHTO 96 Equation (3g) ka = cos β cos β .Rankine = 45 + φ/2 = 62.79')(10')(120 pcf) = 2148 lbs/lf External Masses W1 = (B .4) = 3632 lbs/lf = 1/2 γ HS2 ka sin(β) .Vertical Component = (0.cos2 β .cos2 β .398) sin(18.cos2 φ cos β + cos2 β .Rankine Equation (3h) ρ = 45 + φ/2 External Equation (4g) ka = cos β cos β .0˚ for above parameters .AASHTO Simplified Equation (3g) ka ka ρ = tan2 (45 .
66'/3) = 15327 ft-lbs Resisting Moment Mr = Wf x Wu/2 + W1 x (Wu + L/2) + W2 x (Wu +2/3L) + (Pav x B) = (2148 x 1.21' Rv B = 9.127 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Appendix: 3H:1V Sloping Surcharge A A SHTO Methodologies External Stability Diagram β = 18.4 1' W2 Wf H=10' W1 HS= Pav 12.0' 6) Overturning Overturning Moment Mo = Pah (HS/3) = 3632 lbs (12.79'/2) + 8652(1.41 > 1.5 OK .66' C L e HS/3 Pah 1.79' + 7.0'+5.21'/2) + 1277(1.79' L = 7.33') + (1208 x 9') = 67559 ft-lbs FS ot = Mr/Mo = 67554/15327 = 4.
90 = 6073 lbs/ft FSsl = Rr/Rd = (2169+6073)/3257 = 2.31 = 2169 plf τsoil = ((γ H (B-Wu)) + W2 + Pav ) x Tan φ (of reinforced material) x Cds = ((120 pcf x 9.675 x 0.577 = 7665 lbs/ft FSsl = Rr/Rd = 7665/3632 = 2.71) + 1277 + 1208) x 0.33' x 1.66')2 (0.33') τunit = 1548 + N 0.4 = 3257 lbs/ft Lateral Resisting Forces (at depth of 9.11 > 1.128 PA R T S I X APPENDIX D Appendix: 3H:1V Sloping Surcharge A A SHTO Methodologies 7) Base Sliding Lateral Driving Forces Rd = Pah = 3632 lbs = 3632 lbs/ft Lateral Resisting Forces Rr = (Wf + W1 + W2 + Pav) x Tanφ of foundation = (2148 + 8652 + 1277 + 1208 ) x 0.79' x 120 pcf) 0.33 x 6.33' + 2.33') Rd = Pah @ 9.53 > 1.5 OK 8) Sliding at Lowest Reinforcement Level Lateral Driving Forces (at depth of 9.398)cos 18.31 = 1548 plf + (9.5 OK .33' = 1/2(120)(9.
40 = (B-2e)= (9.57' Applied Bearing Pressure Equation (4h) σv = Rv/(B-2e) = (13285)/((9.86' = 1.56 > 2.4)+(0.86)(22. Geotechnical site and soils evaluation is a site speciﬁc art and can not be programmed.(67559-15327)/(13285) = 0. . Nγ=126.96.36.199'-2x0.40) = 12772 psf FSbr = 12772/1690 = 7. applied bearing pressure and bearing capacity for the reinforced mass based on a level toe.5)(120)(7. Nq=18. sliding.0 OK Note: The external analysis above is limited to simple overturning.(Mr-Mo)/Rv = Mr (no live load) = 67559 ft-lbs = Wf + W1 + W2 + Pav = (2148 + 8652 + 1277 + 1208) = 13285 lbs/ft = 9.0'-2x0.0' level embedment =0 = 0+(120)(1)(18.57) =7.57') = 1690 lbs/sf 10) Bearing Capacity Equation (4i) qult = cNc+γDNq+0.0'/2 .129 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Appendix: 3H:1V Sloping Surcharge A A SHTO Methodologies 9) Bearing Pressure (Note: Live load is added for e and Max Bearing Pressure) Eccentricity Equation (4f) e Mr Rv e = B/2 . No attempt has been made to evaluate the more complicated geotechnical concerns of settlement and global stability.5γBNγ where: Nc B D c qult = 30.
3 (Z) plf The calculated pressure is applied to the tributary area of each reinforcement level which determines the tensile load in the geogrid reinforcement.4) = 37. and local stability concerns. UX1400 Z H=10' UX1400 UX1400 UX1400 σah 1.The internal analysis must look at the maximum loads at each grid level. connection strength.130 PA R T S I X APPENDIX D Appendix: 3H:1V Sloping Surcharge A A SHTO Methodologies Internal Stability . pullout resistance.21' B=9.79 ’ B = 7. .328)Cos(18.0' The internal earth pressure at any level is calculated as follows: σah = γ Z ka cos(β) = (120pcf)(Z)(0. This AASHTO method calculates the internal active earth pressure coefficient based on a sloping backﬁll in accordance with the Rankine earth pressure formula for sloping backﬁll.
00' Mid 3) UX1400 4.33' Bottom 373 311 224 124 174 2. Tensar UX1400SB is OK for all four levels in tension.0 Ave Area Load 62 3.00 σah 0. Grid Top Depth z 0 3.33 206 465 624 571 4) UX1400 2.67 Therefore.33 6.33' Mid 1) UX1400 9.33 342 1.33 10.00 8. .67 267 2.67' Mid 2) UX1400 7.131 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Appendix: 3H:1V Sloping Surcharge A A SHTO Methodologies 11a) Maximum Grid Tension (AASHTO 96 Method) The calculated grid tensions (plf) are tabulated below: σh1=(0)(ka) Z Area Load=[(σh1+σh2)/2 ]x area σh2=(zγ)(ka) Midpoint Tensar UX1400 SB = UX1400SB has an allowable design load of 809 plf from the ﬁrst page which is greater than the calculated value at each level.
Hov Le=2.95 10.69 9.03 Le 2. The effective lengths and calculated pullout is determined at each level and compared to a safety factor of 1.37' UX1400 H=10' Le=5.90 0.5.20 FSpo 8. .33' 2.37 5.95 OK . Pullout Resistance= (γHov) (2Le) (Tan(φ)Ci) with Hov = average height of over burden.95' Z Le=4.85' UX1400 UX1400 1.03 12.0' Check each grid level for available pullout resistance against previously calculated tensile loads.674 .674 .90 0.79' UX1400 ρ = 62˚ Le=6.60 9.5.90 Pullout Load 1791 4199 7611 8.79 6.85 Tan34 .20 18.00' 5.All pullout safety factors are greater than 1.21' 9.67' 0.67' Grid UX1400SB UX1400SB UX1400SB UX1400SB Hov 4.132 PA R T S I X APPENDIX D Appendix: 3H:1V Sloping Surcharge A A SHTO Methodologies 12) Pullout Resistance Pullout safety factors are determined on a level by level basis.85 120 10820 18.95 4.674 Ci 0.69 9. γ 120 120 120 Height 4) 3) 2) 1) 8.03 12.17 6.674 .90 0.79 7.
67' Grid UX1400SB UX1400SB UX1400SB UX1400SB Depth 2.33' 9.Calculated loads are less than the maximum allowable for Peak and Serviceability connection criteria. . The equations for these connection curves are: Connection Capacity 3000 2500 Connection Force (plf ) 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 Normal Force (plf) Peak Connection = 700 plf + N Tan 41˚ up to N = 1970 plf N > 1970 plf = 2150 plf + N Tan 7.33' N 430 1003 1575 2004 Tpeak 716 1048 1380 1612 TServ 565 785 1005 1169 Load 206 465 624 571 OK .67' 7.6˚ < 2559 plf Max / 1. The following chart is applicable for Standard units and Tensar UX1400SB geogrid in this example.00' 5.133 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Appendix: 3H:1V Sloping Surcharge A A SHTO Methodologies 13) Connection Strength The last major item to check is the geogrid connection strength.00' 4.5 Factor of Safety 3/4" Serviceability = 400 plf + N Tan 21˚ < 1579 plf Max Height 4) 3) 2) 1) 8. KeyWall incorporates the laboratory connection test data for all Keystone unit types connected to different geogrid types.33' 2.67' 0.
By inspection. This method uses a level earth pressure coefficient and adds the sloping ﬁll as an equivalent uniform surcharge. In the next section.134 PA R T S I X APPENDIX D Appendix: 3H:1V Sloping Surcharge A A SHTO Methodologies 14) Other Design Checks The KeyWall program also checks the spacing between geogrid levels and the cantilever at the top of wall against the stability of the facing units. All other items of the design remain the same. the three unit vertical cantilever is ok with the 3:1 sloping surcharge and the four block maximum spacing between geogrids will be stable during construction and in the ﬁnal design condition. . Standard Keystone units are typically spaced no greater than 4 blocks between geogrid levels to remain stable during construction and eliminate concerns over local stability. The cantilever at the top of wall is also checked against the ﬁnal loading condition as a small gravity wall. the AASHTO Simpliﬁed method is used to recalculate the internal stresses and contrast the results. Summary The hand calculations verify the attached computer output. The data and methods conform to the AASHTO design methods as outlined in this manual. The internal stress analysis for a sloping backﬁll was calculated using a sloping backﬁll earth pressure coefficient similar to the Rankine method.
283) = 45.79’ σ ah L = 7. and local stability concerns: q = average surcharge of slope = (HS .283) = 34.0' The internal earth pressure at any level is calculated as follows: σah = γ Z ka = (120pcf)(Z)(0.H)/2 x γ UX1400 Z H=10' HS=12.135 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Appendix: 3H:1V Sloping Surcharge A A SHTO Methodologies Internal Stability .0 (Z) plf σqh = qka =(12. connection strength. The AASHTO Simpliﬁed method calculates the internal active earth pressure coefficient based on a level backﬁll in accordance with the Rankine earth pressure formula and applies the slope as an average surcharge on a level backﬁll.66' UX1400 UX1400 UX1400 σqh 1.21' B=9.66' .The internal analysis must look at the maximum loads at each grid level. pullout resistance. .10')/2 x 120 pcf (0.2 plf The calculated pressure is applied to the tributary area of each reinforcement level which determines the tensile load in the geogrid reinforcement.
00' Mid 3) UX1400 4.33' Bottom 10. The "simpliﬁed" equivalent surcharge method distributes the loads differently and is weighted towards the upper wall section.2 249 289 2.33 113 45. UX1400SB is OK for all four levels in tension.136 PA R T S I X APPENDIX D Appendix: 3H:1V Sloping Surcharge A A SHTO Methodologies 11b) Maximum Grid Tension (AASHTO 96 simplified Method) The calculated grid tensions (plf) are tabulated below: σh1=(0 + q)(ka) Z Area Load=(σh1+σh2)/2 x area σh2=(zγ + q)(ka) Midpoint Example .Top grid level Tensar UX1400SB has an allowable design load of 809 plf from the ﬁrst page which is greater than the calculated value at each level. The connection capacity. Grid Top 4) UX1400 2.33 673 3. pullout calculations.33' Mid 1) UX1400 9.33 283 45.2 σtot 45. A drawback of this method is that the calculated internal loads increase as the reinforcement lengths increase which is not consistent with earth pressure theory.00 204 45.2 328 356 1. .00 340 45.2 158 204 2.2 102 3.67 545 Depth z 0 σah 0.0 σqh 45.67 594 6. and local stability are checked in a similar manner based on this load distribution.33 338 Ave Area Load Therefore.67' Mid 2) UX1400 7.2 385 8.
KeyWall can not comply with all these AASHTO variations without the User properly determining and selecting the parameters and design constraints within the software for each project. The data and methods conform to the AASHTO design methods as outlined in the Keystone Design Manual. minimum reduction factors. Many items are controversial and not fully addressed. Caution: AASHTO designs can be very tricky since the design code has changed almost every year since 1992.137 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Appendix: 3H:1V Sloping Surcharge A A SHTO Methodologies Summary The hand calculations verify the attached computer output. Items such as battered wall design. barrier loadings and various other design and performance constraints must be reviewed for each project. All other items of the design remain the same. connection strength evaluation. The internal stress analysis for a sloping backﬁll was calculated two ways: 1) AASHTO 96 uses a sloping backﬁll earth pressure coefficient and 2) AASHTO Simpliﬁed uses a level earth pressure coefficient and adds the slope as an equivalent surcharge. Each highway department has different state speciﬁcation requirements and modiﬁcations to the various AASHTO editions. .
138 PA R T S I X APPENDIX D Appendix: 3H:1V Sloping Surcharge A A SHTO Methodologies .
139 DE S IG N M AN UAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE Appendix: 3H:1V Sloping Surcharge A A SHTO Methodologies .
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