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Journal of Accounting – Business & Management 13 (2006) 69-84

The Power of Celebrity Endorsement in Brand Choice Behavior: An Empirical Study of Consumer Attitudes in Jordan
Sami Alsmadi*
Abstract The main purpose of this study is to explore consumer attitudes towards the role of celebrity endorsement in television advertising in Jordan, and provide guidance to advertising makers and specialists to improve the effectiveness of celebrity-based television advertising. The study was based on an empirical research approach, which used a convenience sample of 450 students, drawn from Yarmouk University campus. The data was analyzed by various statistical techniques, such as Frequency analysis, Descriptive analysis, One Sample t-Test, and One-Way ANOVA. The main findings showed that Jordanian respondents were generally interested in celebrity endorsement in advertising, as the majority recognized its overall attractiveness, though did not find it convincing enough in terms of brand choice behavior. The study suggested to reconsider the way celebrities were projected in advertising, or even chosen, within the context of the Jordanian culture. The study urged further research to explore this issue in greater depth in Jordan. The study made several other recommendations in the light of the findings. Keywords: Brand choice behavior, consumer attitudes I. INTRODUCTION Today, the modern marketing strategy of most business firms rely heavily on creative advertising to promote their products to their target markets. In fact, a central goal of today's advertising strategy is the persuasion of customers, who are becoming increasingly educated, sophisticated and, selective. Competition is also becoming more intense. Having a good product alone is not enough to compete in markets of high standards (Kumar and Reinartz, 2006). Obviously, The changes in markets and consumer lifestyle are driving marketers to focus on more persuasive ways of promoting their products. In today's media driven markets, creative television advertising can promote not only products, but also attractive lifestyles and dreams that are highly valued by consumers (Alsmadi, 2005). Very often, advertising makers use various advertising styles to influence consumers' brand choice behavior. Among the different styles available, celebrity endorsement is becoming a popular choice in the advertising industry. Celebrities like movie actors, television stars, famous athletes are widely used in television advertising to influence consumers' brand choice behavior (Shimp, 2003). Advertisers try to establish a link between their brands and a
*Sami

Alsmadi Chair, Department of Public and Business Administration College of Business Administration University of Sharjah UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

2002). What is the effect of CBTA on consumers' brand choice behavior? 3. this is the primary concern of the current research. How attractive is CBTA to the Jordanian consumer? 2. it is noticeable that the portrayal of celebrities in television advertising is significantly increasing and becoming more important in the advertising strategy of most business firms across the world. 1997). and other celebrities. in particular. In Jordan. In deed. the study seeks to answer the following questions: 1. Lafferty. Yet. Television provides daily access to thousands of sport athletes. and its variability across cultures. and Newell. vary by demographic variables (sex and income)? On the contribution side. But. it is not clear how Jordanian customers respond to this type of advertising. 2003). the special influence of celebrity endorsement is further enhanced by the obvious features of television advertising. and Rangan. . 2001). to suggest that it certainly affects their brand choice behavior. thus increase advertising persuasion within the Jordanian context. there is no evidence. it is virtually difficult to identify advertising approaches that can be universally effective. Consumers are likely to take more notice of celebrity advertisements and improve their level of product recall (Bowman. with respect to brand-choice behavior. 2000. Statement of the research problem Because of the complexity of consumer buying behavior. when celebrities endorse things that relate to their desired image (Internet World. The perceived image of celebrities is likely to have a positive impact on product choice behavior (for example. This makes celebrity-based television advertising (CBTA) an attractive choice by advertising makers. Specifically. How important is the celebrity-product match up? 4. so far. Research and experience show that consumers are most comfortable. The current research investigates this issue within the Jordanian context. Do consumer attitudes towards CBTA. film and television stars. Goldsmith. In particular. and highly ready to spend. marketers continue to adopt this universal trend in their advertising strategy.70 Sami alsmadi / Journal of Accounting – Business & Management 13 (2006) 69-84 desirable image or lifestyle of a celebrity (Suegker. focusing on the following dimensions: 1) Attractiveness of CBTA 2) The effect of CBTA on consumers' brand choice behavior 3) The importance of celebrity-product match up Research objectives The purpose of this study is to explore Jordanian consumer attitudes towards CBTA to understand how consumers respond to celebrity endorsement in television commercials. the findings are expected to help advertising makers improve the effectiveness of their advertising efforts. which investigates consumer attitudes towards celebrity endorsement in television advertising (CBTA) in Jordan. In fact. The term CBTA will be used throughout this study to mean television advertising that depends primarily on celebrity endorsement to influence consumer brand choice behavior. Mathur. Mathur.

For example. 4. lifestyle. 1979). Endorser attributes Research has shown that effective celebrities must be assessed against five essential attributes. But. Respect: refers to the quality of being admired or esteemed due to endorser's overall accomplishments.g. Their expectations are continuously rising. artists and. 5. models. 2001. Celebrity/audience match up: compatibility between an endorser and the target audience. Miciak and Shanklin. It represents the extent to which the target market relates positively to the endorser. at least partly. They usually enjoy high public recognition. what are the desired qualities that should be possessed by effective celebrities? Next section will deal with this. In either way they often deliver a convincing message. television stars. Celebrities (e. Attractiveness: all characteristics that make an endorser attractive to audience members (e. personality properties. 2003): 1. a sport athlete is considered to be an expert when he/she endorses sport related products. Similarity: represents the extent to which an endorser matches target audience on characteristics related to the endorsement relationship (sex. physical look. 2002). Expertise: knowledge. 2. actors. usually referred to as 'TEARS' model (Shimp. Endorser selection criteria The decision to select celebrity endorsers in television advertising is very important. due cost consideration. It reflects the extent to which audience members trust and believe what celebrities say regarding the advertised brand. They appear on television as spokespersons on behalf of the advertised brand. this will positively affect customers' brand choice behavior. integrity. A celebrity is a well-known personality who enjoys public recognition by a large share of a certain group of people (Schlecht. experience. But this does not say much about the selection criteria used by marketers and advertising makers. and believability of an endorser. Marketers and advertising makers use variety of selection criteria. with marketers continuing their efforts to meet them. Trustworthiness: honesty. Eventually. LITERATURE REVIEW 71 The celebrity Concept In a today's dynamic and highly competitive business environment customers are becoming more demanding. Below is a list of the most important ones (Erdogan. 1994): 1. attractive lifestyle. They help increase awareness of advertised brands and create positive feelings towards them (Solomon. . Next section will cast light on this issue. and often have powerful influence upon endorsing products. or ordinary users of such brand.g. … etc. … etc. age. 2003). 3. In their creative advertising efforts marketers turn to celebrity endorsement to influence consumer brand choice behavior. The TEARS model describes the essential qualities of celebrities that are important in determining their effectiveness in endorsement. sport athletes) are known to the public for their accomplishments in areas other than the product class endorsed (Friedman and Friedman. and skills of an endorser regarding the advertised brand. Baker and Tagg.).Sami alsmadi / Journal of Accounting – Business & Management 13 (2006) 69-84 II.).

which is behind the main reason for employing celebrities to promote almost all kinds of products (Fraser and Brown. This power is viewed in three aspects: attention. tough. 2002). and even impersonate celebrities' behavior to enhance their self-esteem. Saturation factor: refers to whether an endorser is overexposed to the media (multiple brand endorsement). 1996. marketers have to pay top celebrities huge amounts of money for their endorsement services. and health behaviors (for example. Some celebrities are arrogant. and persuasion. through identification with certain desirable images. Celebrity/brand match up: compatibility between an endorser and the image desired for the endorsed brand. Goldsmith. 2002). and Newell. 7. coupled with the high cost of endorsement. Many brand managers prefer to avoid the 'hassle' of dealing with them. Research evidence revealed that the perceived image of celebrity endorsers had a positive impact on product buying behavior (for example. 1998.). a person with a relatively high annual income (say $200. they seek to imitate. This process says more about what people hope to become than it does about what they already are. which breaks through the advertising clutter and makes the endorsed brand more noticeable to target audience. noncompliant or inaccessible. Cost consideration: the cost of acquiring a celebrity's services is an important issue in the advertising industry. (Blakeley. many brand managers and advertising makers consider celebrities as high-risk endorsers. 1995. 2000). Celebrity Attractiveness: (discussed in the TEARS model). credibility. 4. 6. If a celebrity endorses several brands. Often. dress. Power of celebrity endorsement Many people aspire to share values and lifestyles of celebrities as models of success. Celebrity Credibility: (discussed in the TEARS model). Working ease/difficulty: represents how easy/ difficult is to deal with an endorser. Martin. 8. which conveys a sense of trust for endorsed brands. Lafferty. 2001). To put this in perspective. Till and Busler.g. Some avoid celebrity endorsement altogether. The trouble factor: refers to the evaluation of the likelihood that a celebrity will get into troubles after an endorsement (e. . Brown and Basil. Several research studies stressed the importance of this type of match up (for example. For example. emulate. which sends a persuasive message to target audience to adopt the endorsed brand. rape. the brands they choose. his/her perceived credibility will suffer. Due to these unfortunate incidents. 5. Such behavior includes imitating the way celebrities speak. product choice. child-molestation … etc. Hoffner and Cantor. while others conduct thorough and careful scrutiny in selecting celebrities. Previous research Many studies described the positive effects of celebrities on consumer buying behavior. This simply reflects the power of celebrity endorsement. 3.72 Sami alsmadi / Journal of Accounting – Business & Management 13 (2006) 69-84 2.000) would have to work (270) years to earn as much as Tiger Woods' income in a single year from endorsements only. and most importantly. communicate. Often. such as the adoption of clothing styles. 1991). One specialist maintained that appealing to youth and other consumer audiences through celebrities could be a powerful marketing strategy (Cuneo. 1998). 2000. The famous golfer Tiger Woods was estimated to earn $54 million annually from endorsements (Ferguson. Till and Shimp. Drugs.

One study stressed the advantage of celebrity endorsement in enhancing product recognition and recall. One study showed an evidence that a company's stock price declined when negative publicity hit a celebrity who endorsed one of its brands (Louie. who examined the value of star power in an endorsement. the study recommended to use celebrities to intensify an already strong issue-oriented message (Pepe.Sami alsmadi / Journal of Accounting – Business & Management 13 (2006) 69-84 73 Mathur. get a celebrity to say it" (Grimm. One study by Howard (2002) showed that female respondents in the U. Ohanian. the appeal and effectiveness of the celebrity within the advertising was still going to be determined by the quality of the creative idea behind the advertising message (Iddiols. and Tagg. many studies were critical about the use of celebrity endorsement. the universal role of CBTA is mainly to elicit consumers' attention and ultimately persuade them to buy endorsed products. and how this affected their personal lives. which feature models and other types of celebrities. They concluded that people selectively integrated the perceived values and behaviors they saw in celebrities they admired and adopted them into their own lives (Frazer and Brown. many studies showed an overwhelming support of the use of celebrity endorsement in advertising. Mathur. Similar other comments were made along this line (for example. 2001). Frazer and Brown examined how audience members identified with celebrities. The study explored the common concern that consumers would focus their attention on the celebrity and fail to note the endorsed brand itself (Erdogan. The study maintained that consumers were likely to take more notice of celebrity advertisements and improve their level of product recall (Bowman. Instead. Pappas (1999). particularly from a western perspective. partly. At least. 1997. one may enjoy the attractive appeal of advertisements. 2002). 2001). One specialist put it this way "A product pitched by a celebrity is a tale told by an idiot" (Feuer. indicated that many consumers were skeptical of celebrities who were paid to provide positive information about endorsed brands. Shanahan. were more responsive to celebrity endorsement (20%) than male respondents (16%). 1991). the literature did not show consistence among research findings on this issue. Wells and Prensky (1996). Other studies explored the issue of negative publicity associated with celebrity endorsers (For example. Howard. ultimately. but not necessarily make the purchase or switch his/her loyalty upon endorsement. indicated how a well-designed advertising helped celebrities convert their star power into brand equity. this can be justified by cultural differences as well as variations in the measuring instruments used. who commented cynically on this view. One study examined the potential risks of overshadowing endorsed products. the issue of celebrity endorsement in advertising has received a significant attention in the literature. 1998). One critique. 2001). In deed. Clearly. One study indicated that people of all ages emulated the appearance and behaviors of media celebrities they admired (Hoffner and Cantor. Kulik. Obviously. had this to say "if you don't have anything meaningful to say. at least. As revealed in the literature review above. One study examined the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement. The study concluded that. 1990).S. and Johnson. while some studies were cautious as they expressed some concerns. 2002). One critical study urged companies to stop using celebrities to drum up media coverage in the absence of a solid story. 2002). Till and Shimp. On the downside. and Rangan. who examined the issue of credibility. Theoretically. 2002). 2002).A. 2001). Despite . 2004). Several other studies criticized the credibility of celebrity endorsement (for example. Baker.

05).S. According to the latest statistics. few studies explored the issue of television advertising in Jordan. Based on the nature of the current research problem. Originally. focusing on different aspects (indicated earlier). Sampling procedures This study used a convenience sample of 450 students contacted at the university campus.74 Sami alsmadi / Journal of Accounting – Business & Management 13 (2006) 69-84 the universal trend of using celebrities in advertisements. the following hypotheses are formulated: H1: Jordanian consumers are likely to consider CBTA as an attractive advertising.S advertisements (Kiran and Fahad. focusing on different other issues. given the findings indicated in the literature. H4:There are no significant differences in consumers' brand-choice behavior (α≤0. 500 copies of a questionnaire were distributed to respondents. This population is generally considered homogeneous in terms of age group and education level. H2: CBTA is likely to have a positive influence on consumers' brand choice behavior. One comparative study between the Arab world and the U. it is considered an extension to previous research in other areas of television advertising in Jordan. According to this method. however. Other student categories were not included in the study. respondent age and education were assumed relatively fixed within this population. and briefed them about the purpose of the study. no previous studies were conducted on this specific issue within the Jordanian culture. To the best knowledge of the author. 2005. In that. Mansour. which is influenced by CBTA. The study found that as high as 83% of Arabic advertisements featured women decently compared to only 29% of U. Other studies supported these findings (Alsmadi. Research hypotheses The current study draws on the literature and explores CBTA from the perspective of the Jordanian consumer. 2004). Afterwards. This paved the way to focus on other demographic variables in this study. in particular. 2000). 2005). of which population included all Yarmouk University students who were enrolled in all BA programmes. using drop-off approach (Aaker et al. The usable sample was 450 respondents after the . That is. such as sex and income. This makes the current research the first of its nature to focus attention on the specific issue of CBTA in Jordan. 1998). examined the effects of cultural differences regarding the advertising material. due to demographic characteristics (sex and income). the data collection team interviewed students. followed by an arrangement to collect the completed questionnaires. they hand delivered the questionnaires to them to fill out. H3: Jordanian consumers are likely to believe that the celebrity-product match up is important. the literature showed little reflection of how these advertisements were perceived by consumers across cultures. who showed an interest to participate in the study. Alsmadi (2004) found that television advertising was generally inconsistent with consumer culture in Jordan due to the use of unfamiliar vocabulary and unacceptable women portrayal. Yarmouk University has (17726) students in all BA programmes (Department of Development and Planning. RESEARCH DESIGN Study population This study is based on a field work. For example. III. In genera.

specialists and. which included academics. 2=disagree. The measurement logic was based on the fact that the higher the attitude mean score the more favorable the attitude. running from strongly disagree up to strongly agree (1=strongly disagree. including Frequency analysis.1 13. . Appendix A shows the three sections with the relevant statements which measure each dimension. Their comments were considered in the final version. The first three hypotheses were tested by One Sample tTest.05 or less). Table (1) shows the distribution of the sample according to sex groups and income brackets. The third section was prepared to measure consumer attitudes towards the celebrity-product match up (Dimension 3).1 100 n=450 Research instrument To collect the required data. and vice versa.84). The second section was designed to assess the influence of CBTA on consumers' brand choice behavior (Dimension 2). The questionnaire included three main sections relevant to the dimensions of the study. and Analysis Of Variance (One Sample tTest. 5=strongly agree). The higher the value the more favourable the attitude.2 37. A five-point Likert scale was used for measurement.8 100 57. Descriptive analysis. 4=agree and. and vice versa. The fourth hypothesis was tested by One-Way ANOVA to explore mean differences among sex and income sub-groups. The testing for mean differences was based on (0. The test output of reliability analysis revealed a correlation value of (α = 0. The first section was intended to measure consumer attitudes towards the attractiveness of CBTA (Dimension 1). The reliability of the measuring instrument was evaluated by Cronbach Alpha analysis. 3=neutral.8 29. the response rate was (90%). Table 1 Distribution of the study sample according to demographic characteristics (sex and income) Variable Variable level Count Percentage (%) Sex Total Income (JD) Total Male Female --250 or Below 251-500 501+ --- 280 170 450 260 131 59 450 62.05). The scale consisted of five levels of agreement.Sami alsmadi / Journal of Accounting – Business & Management 13 (2006) 69-84 75 process of data editing and cleaning. The questionnaire also contained questions on the demographic characteristics of respondents (sex and income).05) significance level as a decision rule (α≤0. and vice versa. One-Way ANOVA). advertising practitioners. Statistical treatment Several statistical techniques were used at the analytical stage. We accept statistical differences if the significance level is (0. The questionnaire (Arabic version) was validated through a pilot study. based on the value of (3) [scale midpoint]. a self-administered questionnaire was designed to measure consumer attitudes towards CBTA. Accordingly.

They believed that it was eye-catching (94.8 4. which measures this dimension as a whole. however. in terms of its overall attractiveness. 2-Television advertising.46). attractive (76%). with the standard deviation showing little dispersion around this mean. The analysis in the Table revealed that the overall attitude mean score of respondents. These results were further substantiated by One Sample tTest. using IndependentSamples t-Test and One-Way ANOVA. Attraction of CBTA (Dim. Many previous studies.72 3.9 88. we can accept this hypothesis. attracts my attraction.1 2. which states that “Jordanian consumers are likely to consider CBTA as an attractive advertising”. For example. was significantly different from that for those who disagreed.85 6. 1: (α) * (%) (%) * (%) attraction of CBTA score Dev.87). agreement levels. who agreed with the attitude statements as a whole.5%). for the dimension as a whole. with high t-value (t=28. was above the scale midpoint (3. which clearly indicated positive attitudes towards attractiveness of CBTA. respectively. This means that the mean score of Jordanian respondents.94%) had positive attitudes towards CBTA.9%). As shown in the Table. one study concluded that people selectively integrated the perceived values and behaviors they saw in celebrities they admired and adopted them into their own lives (Frazer and Brown. and encouraging to pay more attention to the details of endorsed product (62%). Table 2 Descriptive analysis. DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS Research findings in Tables (2 through 4) show descriptive analysis (mean scores and standard deviations). is popular. the analysis of agreement scores showed that the majority of respondents (75. Disagree N Agree Dim. at (α≤0. Further analysis (Tables 5 and 6) examine differences among respondent demographics (sex and income). 1) The research findings for the first dimension (Table 2) revealed that Jordanian respondents were interested in CBTA.48 0. as the majority believed that it was generally attractive. popular (88.76 Sami alsmadi / Journal of Accounting – Business & Management 13 (2006) 69-84 IV. 2002). t Sig.3 . and agreement levels for attitude statements regarding the three dimensions of the study. which revealed that the overall mean difference. The findings also show results of One Sample t-Test for each dimension. was statistically significant (α =0. Further.3%). supported these findings. value 1-Television advertising. which uses celebrities. enjoyable (58.24 0. These findings support the first hypothesis of the study (H1).05). 4. The test value was (3). and t values (One Sample t-test) of attitude statements regarding Dimension 1 of the study Mean Std.0 94. Therefore. all statements for this dimension had mean scores above the scale midpoint.000). which uses celebrities.9 4. which is the scale midpoint (five-point Likert scale). taken as a whole.

00 Std. showed low mean score values (below scale midpoint) for most statements.66). was statistically significant (α =0. who disagreed with the attitude statements as a whole.00 13.57 1. However.79).8 Agree * (%) 76.98%) was greater than that of agreement (30. is enjoyable 5. some studies were critical about the use of . which uses celebrities.63 1. Although many previous studies stressed the advantage of celebrity endorsement in enhancing product recognition and recall (Bowman. However. was significantly different from that for those who agreed. CBTA was likely to increase acceptance of endorsed brands (2.08%).5 3. with the standard deviation showing little dispersion around this mean.5 75. at (α≤0.94 n=450 * For analysis purposes. we can not generally accept this hypothesis. is more attractive.0 3.22 24. The resulting overall mean score value was below scale midpoint (2.0 3. 2002).87 0. the majority of respondents appeared to have negative attitudes towards the role of CBTA in brand choice behavior. as indicated above. 0.65 28. with relatively high t-value (t=-4. Therefore. which uses celebrities.2 58. though did not help much in other aspects of brand choice behavior. 2) Dimension (2) measures the influence of CBTA on consumer’s brand choice behavior.Sami alsmadi / Journal of Accounting – Business & Management 13 (2006) 69-84 Dim. 1 as a whole 77 Mean score 4. The research findings for this dimension (Table 3) unveiled that CBTA did not seem to have much influence on Jordanian consumers in terms of their brand choice behavior.000). The results in the Table revealed that the overall percentage of disagreement on this dimension (43. improve awareness of such brands (2. This means that the mean score of Jordanian respondents. Further analysis of attitude mean scores. CBTA was powerful enough to remind consumers of endorsed brands during shopping (3. these findings do not seem to support the second hypothesis (H2).2 N (%) 13. despite their positive view of CBTA’s attractiveness indicated in the analysis of the first dimension.46 0.97 t value Sig. which states that “CBTA is likely to have a positive influence on consumers' brand choice behavior”. and also agree and strongly agree into "Agree". For example.000 11.89). and help make buying decisions (2.4 13. 4-Television advertising. the analysis of One Sample t-Test showed that the overall mean difference.58 12. disagree and strongly disagree were regrouped into "Disagree".82).4 28.58).27). for the dimension as a whole.Attractive celebrities in television advertising make me pay more attention to product details Dim. (α) Disagree * (%) 10.6 62.05). Influence of CBTA on brand choice (Dim. Obviously. 1: attraction of CBTA 3-Television advertising. Dev. In that.

65) was much greater than that of disagreement (23. 43.4 18. 2 as a whole 2. This indicated that the attitude mean score of respondents.77 -4. which states that “Jordanian consumers are likely to believe that . which indicated that the overall mean difference.89 0.1 23.7 make the buying decision 2-CBTA helps me remember the 3. t Sig. Clearly. 2001). Celebrity-product match up (Dim.10). Obviously. Further. Erdogan.9 28. for the dimension as a whole.78 Sami alsmadi / Journal of Accounting – Business & Management 13 (2006) 69-84 celebrities in advertising as consumers would focus their attention on the celebrity and fail to note the endorsed brand itself (for example. the analysis of agreement scores showed that the overall percentage of agreement on this dimension as a whole (56. disagree and strongly disagree were regrouped into "Disagree".08 Dim. the greater the trust in the brand (3.2 28. These findings support the third hypothesis (H3).5 endorsed brands. value (%) (%) (%) of CBTA on consumers' brand choice behavior 1-CBTA helps me 2.79 1.98 25.93 30. was statistically significant (α =0.79) and that the more meaningful the match-up between the celebrity and the endorsed brand. with the standard deviation indicating little dispersion around this mean.3 31.45). was significantly different from that for those who disagreed. and Tagg. the majority of respondents seemed to have positive attitudes towards the importance of the perceived relationship between celebrities and the brands they endorsed.07 24.9 46. who agreed with this dimension as a whole. (α) Disagree* N Agree* Dim.6 25.2 21.000 n=450 * For analysis purposes.27 1. The figures in the Table showed that the overall attitude mean score of respondents. 2: Influence score Dev. the majority believed that the character of a celebrity in television advertising was likely to have an influence on the image of the endorsed brand (3. and also agree and strongly agree into "Agree".58 0. Baker. Table 3 Descriptive analysis. agreement levels.000).82 0. 3) The analysis of the third dimension (Table 4) revealed that Jordanian consumers were likely to appreciate the importance of match-up between celebrities and the products they endorsed in television advertising. with relatively high t-value (t=6. was (3.95 52. at (α≤0.06 51. and t values (One Sample t-test) of attitude statements regarding the dimension 2 of the study Mean Std.86).8 endorsed brand during shopping 3-CBTA increases 2.3 acceptance of endorsed brands 4-CBTA increases my awareness of 2.05). These findings were further substantiated by One Sample t-Test. which measures this dimension as a whole.66 1.13 47.65).

6 14. and also agree and strongly agree into "Agree".86 0.05 14.05). disagree and strongly disagree were regrouped into "Disagree". Kamins (1990) emphasized the importance of considering the appropriate match on an attractiveness basis between a celebrity and product type. the analysis focuses on (D2) as it measures the direct effect of CBTA on brand choice behavior.79 1. Therefore. This means that males and females were significantly different in their brand choice behavior due to the influence of CBTA.206) at a testing level of (α≤0. which is influenced by CBTA.1 the endorsed brand. which states that “there are no significant differences in consumers' brand-choice behavior (α≤0. agreement levels.65 19.000 23. the study explained that the characteristics of a celebrity were likely to interact with the nature of the advertised product. . value 1-The character of a celebrity 3. mean scores. (α) * (%) (%) product match up score Dev. The findings in the Table show that these differences were statistically significant (α=0. Shimp (2003) also shared similar views on this issue. we can accept this hypothesis.05).7 25. and t values (One Sample t-test) of attitude statements regarding the dimension 3 of the study t Sig. 3: Celebrity.65 Demographic variables The analysis in this section explores potential differences in consumers’ brand choice behavior (D2) due to their demographic variables (sex and income). the greater the trust in the brand Dim.2 56.Mean Std.1 42.65 n=450 * For analysis purposes. however. The purpose of this analysis is to test the fourth hypothesis of the study (H4). For example. due to demographic characteristics (sex and income)”.10 1.000). Further. Table 4 Descriptive analysis. Disagree N (%) Agree* Dim. Clearly. 3 as a whole 3. consistent with conclusions of many previous studies. These findings were.Sami alsmadi / Journal of Accounting – Business & Management 13 (2006) 69-84 79 the celebrity-product match up is important”.11 32.2 influences the image of the endorsed brand 2-The more meaningful the match up between the celebrity and 3. standard deviations and t-values were calculated to examine differences in consumers' brands choice behavior among male and female groups (Table 5). as the t-value was (4.45 0.87 6. 71. Sex To deal with the fourth hypothesis of the study (H4).

the research findings for this dimension (shown earlier in Table 3) revealed that. we can not accept the fourth hypothesis (H6). that.733 0. as shown in Table (6).05). Obviously. in general. in general.80 Sami alsmadi / Journal of Accounting – Business & Management 13 (2006) 69-84 According to the mean scores in the Table. the findings indicated that the influence of CBTA on consumers’ brand choice behavior was relatively similar among the three income groups (low. t-values for respondent attitude scores on (D2) by sex.94 3.206 0.63). which was not statistically significant at the test level of (α≤0. The research findings. In a relatively conservative societylike Jordan.94) was greater than that of females (2. Clearly. standard deviations and. male respondents were more influenced by CBTA than females did.63 0.8 2. Table (6) showed that the attitude mean scores for the three income groups were all on the unfavourable side of the scale (2.59). and high income). noted for sex groups here.2 37.000 n=450 Income To test the fourth hypothesis (H4). Therefore. 2.84). as male mean score (2. in terms of sex. CBTA did not seem to have much influence on Jordanian consumers in terms of their brand choice behavior. this difference in attitudes can be expected. However. showed that there were no significant differences in consumers’ brand choice behavior (α=0. level (α) Male Female 62. Therefore. presented in the Table. This is reflected in the analysis in Table (5). Obviously. middle. .797 4. Table 5 Mean scores. in terms of income.206) due to income level. was merely in their level of unfavourability. and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to evaluate differences in consumers' brand choice behavior among income brackets of respondent. 2. Sex Percent Mean score Standard deviation t-value Sign. standard deviations. the statistical difference. as the F-value was (1. That is. CBTA did not seem to have much influence on Jordanian consumers in terms of their brand choice behavior.92. mean scores. we can accept the fourth hypothesis (H4). this seems to be consistent with earlier findings (shown in Table 3). which indicated that both males and females had mean scores on the unfavourable side of the scale (below 3).77. however. the three income groups were consistent in terms of their perception of the effect of CBTA on their brand choice behavior. in terms of income.

which clearly supported this conclusion. hoped that Jordanian advertising makers and specialists in the advertising industry will draw on these conclusions to maximize the benefits of using celebrities in advertising. One possible explanation behind this phenomenon could be the way the advertising message was designed. They seemed to believe in the importance of the match-up between the two. this calls for a better understanding of Jordanian consumer behavior. 2002). In particular. or even chosen. Middle income: 251-500 JD. the majority did not seem to view this kind of advertising convincing enough. taking consumer culture into consideration Recommendations The current research findings suggest that advertising makers and specialists are highly recommended to improve their perception of the role of celebrities in the advertising strategy in Jordan. this research revealed that Jordanian consumers were generally positive about many aspects of this dynamic issue in advertising strategy.1 2.1 2. the choice of celebrities was not possibly able to match up with consumers’ expectations. level) (α) 81 250 or below 57. Obviously. One study. therefore. this may.8 2.789 1. perhaps. this requires further investigation to understand the extent to which Jordanian consumers believe what celebrities say . and almost one fourth were neutral on this matter (revealed in Table 3).84 0.77 0. It is.805 n=450 * Low income: 250 JD or below. In either way. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Despite the conflicting results found in the literature on the use of celebrities in advertising. which used celebrities to appeal to target audience. In principle. probably.206 501 + 13. But this should not overshadow the whole view.59 0.Sami alsmadi / Journal of Accounting – Business & Management 13 (2006) 69-84 Table 6 Mean scores. lead to a more convincing and acceptable form of celebrity endorsement in television advertising in Jordan. require a rethinking or reconsideration to the way celebrities were projected in advertising.754 251 – 500 29. convincing enough to appeal to Jordanian consumers. however. standard deviations and. to affect their brand choice behavior. This will. Alternatively. within the context of the Jordanian culture. as nearly one third of respondents were subject to the effect of CBTA regarding their brand choice behavior. possibly through market research. Yet. in principle. the way celebrities were portrayed was not. It is evident from the findings that Jordanian consumers were impressed by the visual attractiveness of advertising messages. showed that the advertising problem in Asia was not so much the celebrities.92 0. F-values for respondent attitude scores on (D2) by income. They also showed an interest in the relationship between celebrities and endorsed products in an advertising. High income: 501+ JD V. Income (JD)* Percent Mean score Standard Deviation F-value F-Probability (Sig. but the lack of imagination in the way they were used (Bowman.

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