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Charles Macdonald EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 2010
Charles Macdonald Senior Technology Specialist TELUS firstname.lastname@example.org
Table of Contents
Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 1 Components of the Storage Environment ......................................................................... 2 Roles and Responsibilities ............................................................................................ 2 Table 1 – Typical Roles in a Storage Environment ................................................... 4 I/O System Components ................................................................................................... 6 Physical Components of the I/O System: Hosts, Connectivity, and Storage ................ 6 Figure 1 – Hosts, Connectivity, and Storage ............................................................. 7 Hosts: Physical Components .................................................................................... 8 Figure 2 – Host Physical Components in the I/O Path .............................................. 9 Connectivity: Physical Components ........................................................................ 10 Figure 3 – FC Network Physical Components in the I/O Path ................................ 12 Storage: Physical Components ............................................................................... 13 Figure 4 – Storage Physical Components in the I/O Path ....................................... 14 Figure 5 – Physical Components in the I/O Path and Roles ................................... 16 Logical Components of the I/O System ....................................................................... 17 Hosts: Logical Components .................................................................................... 17 Figure 6 - Host Logical Components in the I/O Path ............................................... 20 Connectivity: Logical Components .......................................................................... 21 Storage: Logical Components ................................................................................. 21 Figure 7 – Storage Logical Components in the I/O Path ......................................... 24 Figure 8 – Logical Components in the I/O Path ...................................................... 25 Configurable Items in the Storage Environment ......................................................... 26 Figure 9 – I/O Path for Solaris 10 with Leadville and DMX ..................................... 31 Defining the Problem ................................................................................................... 33 Solving the Problem .................................................................................................... 33 Figure 11 – Configuration Management Goal ......................................................... 36 Conclusion ...................................................................................................................... 37
Disclaimer: The views, processes or methodologies published in this compilation are those of the authors. They do not necessarily reflect EMC Corporation’s views, processes, or methodologies
2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing
In large organizations, responsibility for configuring items between the application and the physical disks that may affect storage availability and performance often cross several functional groups, e.g., storage operations, systems administration, database administration, application support, and design/architecture. Configuration errors or omissions at any level can contribute to performance degradation or decreased availability. However, requirements are often not well understood by all the groups involved. This article offers a generalized overview of the path an I/O operation takes between the application and the storage to illustrate how the interaction of various configurable items provides optimal performance and availability.
This article will provide Storage Administrators with a common language for potential configuration issues with: • • • • • Other Systems Administrators Database Administrators Application Support Design/Architecture Managers responsible for technical groups
An understanding between management and the technical groups ensures that they all work collaboratively to deploy and maintain systems with appropriate configurations that meet performance and availability requirements.
2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing
Components of the Storage Environment
A storage environment includes three categories of components: 1. Physical components of the I/O system 2. Logical components of the I/O system 3. Human actors
Physical components include servers, storage arrays, and connectivity devices. Logical components include databases, server operating systems, and storage system microcode. Human Actors, i.e., the people associated with the storage environment, include business users who create, view, and manipulate data within the storage environment, as well as anyone involved in the architecture, design, deployment, maintenance, and ongoing operation of the storage environment’s physical and logical components.
The purpose of a storage environment is to support business functions and objectives at the least possible cost. Business objectives that drive costs include not just the amount of primary data that must be stored, but also multipliers to the amount of data, such as the number of backups required, backup retention periods, archive retention, and disaster recovery requirements. Associated cost drivers include performance requirements for speed of access to the data, availability requirements that require redundancy, and sufficiency of systems to meet recovery time and recovery point objectives. The three components of a storage environment must be working in concert to fulfill this purpose.
Roles and Responsibilities
The Business User is the most important person within the storage environment. He/she is the reason for the existence of the storage environment. Others in the storage environment perform the tasks required to design, deploy, and operate the storage environment. These tasks are generally consistent regardless of the business setting, but the way that tasks are allocated in different organizations may be quite different. For example, the configuration of disk and file systems on a server may be a Systems Administrator function in one organization, but the responsibility of the Storage Administrator in another. Similarly, higher level functions, such as planning the
2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing
they are not intended to define a standard that would be suitable for all organizations. Different structures may co-exist within silos in the same organization for a variety of reasons such as legacy structures inherited with the acquisition of other corporations. or independent management structures in different functional business groups or branches of business. These definitions are for illustration only. but reside within a Storage Operations group in another. That may not be true in many organizations. 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 3 . In this article. Organizational roles and responsibilities should be well defined and well understood by all of the groups and individuals involved. and communication are likely to increase the frequency of preventable business function disruptions by introducing failure points in the storage environment. as should methods of engagement and communication between the functional groups. the roles of the typical actors in a storage environment are summarized in Table 1. The role descriptions use the term Service Level Agreement (SLA) that implies that some level of service has been well defined.particulars of storage allocations. Insufficient collaboration. coordination. may be determined by a Design group in one organization.
the desire “we want 100% uptime and never delete anything” usually does not become a requirement when the business is presented with a price tag to achieve it. including performance and availability requirements. 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 4 .. retrieve. and manage applications. e. and disaster recovery strategies. and drive the creation of SLAs for items such as performance. Application Support Analysts maintain applications to meet defined SLAs. Architects set general and specific technology directions at a high level. data retention periods. and manipulate data within the storage environment to carry out business functions. recovery time objectives. availability. including vendor selection.Table 1 – Typical Roles in a Storage Environment Actor Role Business Users store. having broad impact on strategic technology decisions. *Note: Business Users might not be very good at defining requirements.g. recovery point objectives. Designers create specific technology solutions for defined business requirements. Business User requirements* provide the justification for the cost of deploying and maintaining a storage environment. Designers produce designs within the constraints set by Architects on technology and standards. Application Support Analysts deploy. Architects create standards and blueprints for the technology that will be available within an organization. configure.
and manage databases and database related software. Systems Administrators maintain the server environment to meet SLAs. including performance and availability requirements. Backup Administrators deploy. and dedicated hardware that supports the application. configure. including performance and availability requirements. Database Administrators maintain the database environment to meet SLAs. in accordance with designs provided by Designers. Storage Administrators maintain the storage arrays and networks to meet SLAs. and manage backup applications. such as Oracle ASM. path management software. such as HBAs. Systems Administrator responsibilities include configuring server components relating to storage.Database Administrators deploy. Backup Administrators maintain the backup environment to meet SLAs. and manage storage arrays and dedicated storage networks. and manage server hardware and operating systems. and file systems. Systems Administrators deploy. in accordance with designs provided by Designers. volume managers. such as tape libraries. configure. configure. in accordance with designs provided by Designers. including performance and availability requirements. including performance and availability requirements. Storage Administrators deploy. configure. 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 5 .
or copper cables. and manipulate data. Connectivity. Most of the examples are for hosts attached to block storage over a fibre channel network. Connectivity refers to the physical components that provide the medium for communication between hosts and storage. Below. and storage devices. and switches. logical components. such as magnetic tape. to large mid-range systems. and may also refer to virtual hardware. connectivity. but also provide a feature rich environment that mediates the access to disk. and network attached storage. retrieve. Physical Components of the I/O System: Hosts. and solid state disk drives.I/O System Components The following sections provide a generic description of the I/O System in terms of physical components. Figure 1 illustrates the high level relationship between hosts. Storage refers to any storage medium that is external to the host. routers. This article is only concerned with intelligent storage arrays that do not merely provide access to disk. it also includes hubs. Hosts can be anything from a notebook PC. twisted pair cables. and Storage The physical components of a storage environment are segregated into host. optical disk drives. Hosts are the computers that run the applications that users interact with to store. connectivity. and storage. such as a VMware server. The physical components of the storage environment are discussed in more detail in the following sections. and their relationships. 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 6 . for both block based storage on an FC SAN. such as optical cables. but the general discussion applies to other storage networks as well. In the case of networks.
and Storage 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 7 .Figure 1 – Hosts. Connectivity.
Hosts: Physical Components To illustrate data flow within a computer. Internal Storage consists of memory. for a host with connectivity to block based storage via an FC SAN. and I/O devices communicate within a computer over buses and bridges that form the internal connectivity.g. Internal Storage. The CPU consists of the physical components that perform the instructions contained in the programs. and Internal Connectivity. The CPU also contains some amount of high speed storage (registers and cache) to facilitate CPU operations. and CD/DVD drives. such as the keyboard. and devices such as Network Interface Cards (NICs) and Host Bus Adapters (HBAs) that enable host to host or host to external storage communications. and larger storage devices.. such as disk drives. 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 8 . and mouse. tape drives. I/O Devices. The CPU. the physical components can be generalized to the Central Processing Unit (CPU). Figure 2 is a high level diagram of the physical components within a host. monitor. RAM and ROM. I/O Devices include devices that handle user to host communications. Note that the host is depicted with two HBAs to provide physical redundancy for the I/O path to the storage. internal storage. e. and their I/O connections.
Figure 2 – Host Physical Components in the I/O Path 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 9 .
it will still have access to disk in the case of a failure that interrupts the I/O path for one HBA (e. for example. If business functions are particularly sensitive to performance degradation. a host with two separate HBAs attached to a pair of redundant SAN fabrics. File I/O protocols Network File System (NFS) and Common Internet File System (CIFS) that are used to access Network Attached Storage (NAS) devices are more widely used.The physical components of the host must be sized appropriately for the expected workload. but will also have a 50% reduction in theoretical bandwidth to the storage. iSCSI. NFS. particularly where the IP connectivity is not a dedicated storage network. 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 10 . FC switches are the prevalent interconnect device. FC networks. such as Infiniband. switch port failure). a generalized description of FC switches is given below. Fibre Channel (FC). so are not described in this article. troubleshooting problems with NAS is often complicated by having an additional organizational unit involved (the IP Network Administrators) and a more complex topology. Block based I/O over IP networks use protocols such as iSCSI. or FCoE. so it is the only device considered here.g. hubs. provide connectivity between hosts and storage for block based I/O. and switches. You must also consider exception scenarios when determining the necessary level of redundancy.. This article will only consider two types of storage networks: IP networks and FC networks. and may require redundancy to meet availability requirements. and not just downtime. IP networks provide connectivity for host and storage for either block based or file based I/O. IP networks are generally well understood. also called fabrics. and CIFS. HBA optic failure. Connectivity: Physical Components There are a variety of connectivity options to support various storage network protocols. Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE). The connectivity devices in FC networks can consist of routers. Additional HBAs may be required in the host to provide redundancy for performance if the potential performance degradation in this routine failure scenario is not acceptable to the business user. However.
Ports contain a transceiver (either a gigabit interface converter (GBIC). 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 11 . which also allows provides the communication path for the controller units. such as GBICs. FC networks are typically deployed in pairs of redundant fabrics. fans. Figure 3 illustrates the components of a FC network. internal connectivity. Port to port communication in the switch takes place via a bus or backplane. which transmit and receive signals to and from the node (host. and power supplies. so that a failure in one fabric degrades connectivity. but copper may be used in some circumstances. and control processor (CP) units. Cables used to connect nodes to the FC switch are generally fibre optic cables. Director class switches may also have hot swappable controller cards.FC switches consist of three key components: ports. or a small form-factor pluggable (SFP). storage. rather than interrupting it. or switch) that is attached to the port. FC switches generally include a number of hot swappable components.
Figure 3 – FC Network Physical Components in the I/O Path 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 12 .
The front end consists of the storage front adapters and their controllers. Read ahead algorithms attempt to prefetch data into cache before hosts request it. Cache increases the speed of write operations from a host perspective. Serial ATA (SATA). The back adapters connect to physical disks using SCSI or FC. i. One storage array may contain different types of disks. or a storage network. The back end consists of storage back adapters and their controllers. Figure 4 illustrates the physical components of a storage array. cache. Different disk sizes may also reside within the same storage array. but all contain some type of redundancy. Cache consists of a number of cards of volatile memory that mediates the transfer of data between hosts and physical disks. data that is written to disk is not dependent on power to maintain its state. The internal connectivity in the storage array varies between storage vendors and models of arrays. During a power failure.Storage: Physical Components The physical makeup of a storage array is described by grouping components into four broad categories: front end. speeding up read I/O operations by facilitating some portion of the read I/O from the host perspective to be performed at cache rather than disk speeds. battery power dumps cache to vault disks. Front adapters provide the interface between the hosts and the storage array. as the storage array acknowledges the write I/O as committed when it is written to cache. writes are duplicated on two separate cache boards. The physical disks in the storage array are persistent data stores. then writes it to disk or destages it later. Cache mirroring protects uncommitted writes from cache board failures. either through direct connections. or Solid State Drives (SSD). and physical disks. I/O operations to cache are much faster than I/O operations to disk. such as FC.e. The back end controllers also contain some small amount of memory to help facilitate and optimize data transfer between the cache and the physical disks. Back adapters are configured to provide multiple paths to the disks. back end. so the back adapters are not a single point of failure in the storage array. 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 13 .
Figure 4 – Storage Physical Components in the I/O Path 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 14 .
and operation of the physical infrastructure are generally easy to define.Figure 5 illustrates an end-to-end look at the physical components in the I/O path. and obvious failure points in the infrastructure are relatively easy to avoid if you take care to introduce architectural standards and solution designs that incorporate hardware redundancy. The greater danger lies in the configuration of the storage environment’s logical components. design. and identifies the actors that are responsible for tasks associated with the physical components. such as dual HBAs and FC fabrics. The roles and responsibilities for architecture. 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 15 .
Figure 5 – Physical Components in the I/O Path and Roles 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 16 .
The OS manages the interactions and interfaces between the users.Logical Components of the I/O System The logical components of the I/O system control user interactions with the physical components and interactions between the physical components and include: • • • • • • • • host applications databases host operating systems storage operating systems FC fabric operating systems logical volume managers file systems device drivers The logical components contain a large number of configurable items that multiply to create a vast number of configuration combinations. Linux. Device drivers enable the OS to communicate with specific hardware devices. Device drivers may be embedded with the OS. Examples of operating systems include Microsoft Windows. connectivity. Hosts: Logical Components Operating Systems (OS) provide the logical container that the rest of the logical components on a host work within. and the various flavours of UNIX. such as HBAs. The availability and performance of the storage environment is highly dependent on correctly configuring the logical components to work together. Logical components may reach beyond the physical divides between hosts. Device drivers interact with the programmed instructions called firmware or microcode that reside on the hardware devices. such as Solaris. but the physical divides are still a useful model for organizing the discussion of the logical components. 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 17 . and the physical components on the host. Some hardware devices. AIX. depending on the OS and the specific hardware. The OS and drivers provide all of the basic services used for I/O on the host. the logical components. support user microcode upgrades. and storage. or may be installed separately. and HPUX.
e. and video games. File Systems provide a method to store and organize data in collections of files. LVMs group a disk or disks into a volume group. Multipath managers may be integrated in the OS. Database applications are specialized for organizing logically related data to facilitate data analysis. From an OS perspective. or may span multiple physical disks. and the ability to move data around on physical disks without any disruption to data access. which in the case of external storage are also a virtual entity. Devices are presented over multiple physical and logical paths to provide redundant access to storage. Applications directly provide services to users. and to increase throughput. For example. e. Multipath managers may also provide performance enhancement functionality by incorporating algorithms to spread I/O over multiple paths. Oracle and Microsoft SQL are examples of database applications. or may be provided by a third party. like Solaris MPxIO. The file system maps user data to logical units of storage called file system blocks. or Veritas DMP. Logical Volume Managers (LVM) provide a virtualization layer above what the OS sees as physical disks. Path managers recognize that the multiple paths point to a single storage device. Oracle Automatic Storage Management (ASM) provides a file system and LVM-like functionality specifically for Oracle database applications. ASM uses raw disk that does not pass through any other LVM or file system present on the host. Applications and databases both rely on the file system to manage data storage and retrieval. Logical volumes can be a partition. the OS disk physical events are mapped to actual physical disks by the storage subsystem.g. They contain the functionality and logic to allow users to perform groups of related tasks. storage. web browsers. Other LVM functionality may include snapshots. EMC Powerpath™. and retrieval. 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 18 .Multipath Managers provide a layer of virtualization above what the OS sees as physical disks. and then to the OS disk physical extents.. Examples of application classes include word processors. HDS HDLM. and mediate access to the disk.. such as AIX LVM and Windows Logical Disk Manager. and then create logical volumes that are again presented to the OS as physical disks. i. or may be a third party product. Applications reside in a logical layer above the file system. These are then mapped to LVM extents if an LVM is present. such as Veritas Volume Manager. software RAID implementations. a portion of a physical disk. LVMs may be integrated with the OS.
Since the logical components in the I/O path are layered. • • • • • • • • I/O begins in the application/database layer is passed to the file system then the LVM then to the SCSI target drivers followed by the multipath driver then the SCSI command is encapsulated by the driver or drivers that handle the fibre channel protocol (FCP) then passes on to the HBA driver and out to the SAN This layering is depicted in Figure 6 below. 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 19 . the logical path of an I/O passes through several layers.
Figure 6 .Host Logical Components in the I/O Path 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 20 .
Zoning decreases interference between nodes that do not need to communicate with each other. logical device cloning. as the logical configuration of FC switches is generally not the source of many systemic problems in the storage environment. Read hits decrease I/O response time by serving reads at cache rather than disk speeds. and simplifies management. then pre-fetch data from disk to cache in anticipation of a host request to increase read hits. and alerting via Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). A zone set is a collection of zones that identifies which nodes are visible to each other on the fabric. FC switches run their own operating systems that are also referred to as microcode. provides security by restricting communications between nodes. 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 21 . may contain a wide range of features including support for multiple RAID levels. These include command queuing that optimizes I/O by re-ordering commands to reduce seek time and rotational latency on the physical disks.Connectivity: Logical Components Logical components in the connectivity environment direct traffic between the source and destination devices on the network. often referred to as microcode. This article does not provide a detailed discussion of the I/O path within the FC fabric. For FC fabrics. The storage operating systems also manage performance optimization algorithms. logical device snapshots. and read ahead algorithms that recognize sequential read I/O. the principal logical component of interest from a configuration perspective is FC zoning that restricts communications between the nodes that are logged into the FC fabric. application interfaces (API). The microcode provides all of the FC services and management components such as command line interfaces (CLI). and external storage virtualization. remote replication capabilities. web interfaces. Storage: Logical Components The storage array operating system.
If a write I/O is forced to wait for a cache slot to become free because the cache is globally stressed. and then committing the data to disk later. This is called a write hit. A read miss occurs when a read request has to wait for data to be read from the physical disks before it can be returned to the host. allow the storage administrator to set write aside limits that direct large I/Os directly to disk. The precise path an I/O takes through the storage array varies somewhat depending whether the I/O is a write or a read. or to scenarios where data is being written directly to disk for reasons other than write aside. also known as LUN masking. so have a significantly lower response time to the host than read misses. or a cache limit has been reached for the logical device. Active/passive arrays also need to accommodate different behaviours for the various host multipath manager solutions. allows multiple hosts to access LUNs through shared front end ports on the storage array without seeing LUNs that belong to other hosts. a delayed fast write has occurred. Read hits service I/O at cache speeds. Some storage arrays. As mentioned earlier. The term write miss may also be applied to delayed fast writes. The storage array must adapt its SCSI emulation to accommodate variations in host operating system requirements. and describes the majority of write I/O. read-ahead algorithms increase the number of read hits by prefetching data to cache in anticipation of host requests. 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 22 . As discussed above. such as the EMC CLARiiON®. and on its interaction with the cache. LUN security.Storage arrays partition physical disks into logical devices (ldevs) that are then presented to hosts as SCSI target devices. Read hits occur when a read I/O is serviced from data already resident in cache. storage arrays increase write performance by acknowledging write I/O to the host once data has been written to mirrored cache. such as cache failure. commonly referred to as LUNs. which service I/O at disk speeds. This slows down the write response time for the host. but prevents large I/Os from consuming too much cache.
Note that not all writes are necessarily committed to disk. 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 23 .The sequence of events for a write hit on the storage array begins with FC frames being received on the front end ports. as illustrated in Figure 7. Later. and then the front end controller creates a SCSI write acknowledgement. From a logical perspective. then the original write is never committed to disk. and sends it to the host via the front end port. then SCSI. then service the I/O to/from the physical devices. the I/O passes through layers that deal with FCP. after which the SCSI payload is extracted by the front end controllers. encapsulates it in an FC frame. then map logical devices to physical devices. The I/O is written to mirrored cache. if a host overwrites the data while it still resides in cache (a write cache rehit). which then commit the data to disk. the data is destaged from cache to the back end controllers.
Figure 7 – Storage Logical Components in the I/O Path 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 24 .
Figure 8 – Logical Components in the I/O Path 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 25 .
concealing issues that will only become apparent when an exception scenario occurs with the storage environment. the loss of one of two paths as the result of a switch port failure decreases theoretical throughput by 50%. Common maintenance and deployment activities that should not cause disruption to service include: • • • • • Activating zone sets on the SAN fabric Creating LUNs on storage arrays Allocating LUNs to hosts Microcode upgrades on switches Microcode upgrades on storage arrays 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 26 . and the loss of a disk within a RAID group causes an increase in disk activity when the RAID group rebuilds to a new disk or a hot spare. However. Most default configurations will work when deployed. Storage environments should be able to withstand many types of physical failures and brief connectivity interruptions without causing significant disruption to applications and databases.Configurable Items in the Storage Environment The logical layers in the storage environment have configurable components that affect performance and availability. Incorrect configurations at any level can defeat physical and logical designs for high availability. that end-to-end view can be difficult to accomplish as the various actors often do not understand the end-to-end configuration requirements. Correct configurations require end-to-end compatibility for the configuration of the logical components. Common failures and events that should not cause disruption to service include: • • • • • • Single disk failure within a RAID group HBA failure in a multipath environment Switch or switch port failure in a multipath environment Storage port failure in a multipath environment Redundant power supply failure on a storage array LUN trespassing in active/passive storage arrays Some of the above may cause performance degradation in busy systems. For example.
Some of these activities may cause some performance degradation in busy systems.. SSD vs. storage administrators’ tasks are fairly straightforward. RAID 10) Disk tier (e. This affects activities like: • • SCSI LUN numbering (e. a CLARiiON microcode upgrades requires the service processors (SP) to reboot. concatenated) Fan out ratios 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 27 .g. concatenated) Fabric Zoning Storage Administrator activities that are not OS agnostic are due to OS variations in SCSI implementation and fail over requirements. SATA.g. 10000 RPM) MetaLUN configuration (striped vs.. e.g. From an availability perspective.g. resulting in many multipath events on connected hosts as LUNs trespass back and forth between the two SP. FC vs. RAID 5 vs. the following Storage Administrator activities are OS agnostic: • • • • LUN masking (unless LUN masking also includes SCSI emulation) LUN creation MetaLUN configuration (e. For example..g. striped vs. They affect decisions about items such as: • • • • RAID type (e. 15000 RPM vs. with only minor variations in configuration to suit the OS of the attached host... Volume Set Addressing for HPUX) SCSI emulation and failover configurations (e. port flag settings on DMX.g.. Additional care needs to be taken with active/passive storage arrays such as the EMC CLARiiON if the activity requires a controller failover. HBA registration on CX) Storage Administrators face greater challenges with configuration for performance considerations.
HEAT then compares the host configuration against the current interoperability matrix. Detailed connectivity guides for a particular OS and storage vendor combination is usually available from the storage vendor. EMCReports for Windows). and Application Support Analysts). Database Administrators. ZFS vs. and driver patches and upgrades. This guidance widely comes in the form of an interoperability matrix that contains information on a wide range of host-connectivity-storage combinations. and include required OS. there are multiple mechanisms for retrying failed I/O operations. native multipath vs. and provides a report on the configuration highlighting any discovered deficiencies. then uploads the compressed output file to the HEAT website. EMC also provides the web-based Host Environment Analysis Tool (HEAT) to assist Systems Administrators to validate the configuration of hosts that are attached to EMC Symmetrix® or CLARiiON arrays via FC. EMC PowerPath® vs. VxDMP) the responsibility for configurable items affecting availability and performance resides in different functional groups (e.g. Systems Administrators. As a result. Storage vendors provide guidance on host configurations that have been tested for availability. and timeout settings for reporting I/O operation failures up to the next logical layer. microcode. Incompatible configurations between the layers can lead to service disruptions if any layer is not able to appropriately handle I/O operation exceptions. and may include guidelines for parameter tuning beyond the guidelines published in the interoperability matrix.g.. 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 28 . These detailed guides provide an in-depth look at configuration options. due to a number of factors: • • • the large number of configurable items the large number of product choices available at the various logical levels (e.Most storage availability issues related to configuration reside in the logical components at the host level. VxFS. Each logical layer of the I/O path has some mechanism for dealing with imperfect I/O operations. and are suitable general performance requirements. for both logical and physical components. These documents are updated regularly to cover new products. The System Administrator runs a data collection tool to capture the configuration of a host (EMCGrab for UNIX.. Several examples of failures due to configuration or compatibility issues are discussed below.
SATAII) being added to the same ASM disk group. They are often thought to be only related to performance. Systems Administrator.g.1 JMS queues have internal timers that may cause JMS to shut down if I/O hangs during the ‘non-disruptive’ failover of the NAS head during a microcode upgrade. Database Administrators have taken on some additional configuration responsibilities.There must be some mechanism at the application level to deal with I/O interruptions that are considered to be normal operations in the storage environment. Host SCSI queue depth settings that control the maximum number of outstanding SCSI commands can be queued against a device. poor communication between the DBA. failing to set the ssd:ssd_io_time on a Solaris 10 host running the Leadville stack can cause the host to panic or offline all disk during regular SAN events such as LUN trespasses. WebLogic 8. as they now have more control over the configuration of logical devices on the host. even though NFS on the host recovers gracefully. For example. as a result. but they can also impact availability. For example. which can trigger write timeout values within Oracle ASM. or storage array microcode upgrades. This causes ASM to take disk groups offline. DBAs also choose how to allocate raw devices into the ASM disk groups. Path management software may require SCSI target driver timeout settings that are different than the OS default settings. With Oracle ASM. For example. FC vs. so in some cases problems are introduced at the design stage. DBAs can make many configuration changes that affect performance. adding new devices into an ASM disk group triggers a rebalancing operation that can have a significant performance impact. but queue depth can also be implicated in availability. Whether or not there is a configurable item at the application layer depends on the application. when applications are introduced that are not able to tolerate normal operations in the storage environment.. and Storage Administrator could lead to devices with dissimilar performance characteristics (e. inappropriately high queue depth settings can lead to unusually high I/O response times on a busy storage array. For example. switch microcode upgrades. 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 29 .
affecting items such as the number of I/O retries at the FC frame level. again leading to potential availability issues for common SAN events. 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 30 .FC protocol parameter tuning may also be recommended on some systems. attached via dual FC fabrics to an EMC DMX class array. Storage vendor qualified HBA drivers and firmware may contain default settings that are different from the OEM installation. Also included are some comments about configurable items at each logical layer. mapped to the actor in the organization most likely to perform the configuration. or the length of time the HBA waits before it takes a port offline due to loss of light. Figure 9 relates the generic logical layers presented in this article to a specific configuration example: a Solaris 10 host using the Leadville stack.
conf Multipath drivers scsi_vhci (mpxio) fcp FC protocol drivers fp /etc/system entries: Automatic LUN discovery: fcp:ssfcp_enble_auto_configuration Fail port: fp_offline_ticker FC Frame reties: fp retry count /kernel/drv/emlxs.Figure 9 – I/O Path for Solaris 10 with Leadville and DMX HOST Solaris 10 – Leadville I/O timeout I/O size Block size Configurable Items Applications Databases Application Oracle 10g File System Oracle Automatic Storage Management (ASM)* ZFS ASM Logical Volume Manager (LVM) * if present zpools RAID Striping Cache Quotas Snapshots Clones Block size Compression Diskgroups External Redundancy Allocation Unit Size Striping Stripe size SCSI target drivers ssd /etc/system entries: I/O timeout: ssd_io_time Queue Depth: ssd_max_throttle SCSI retry: ssd ua retry count /kernel/drv/fp.conf entries: Fail port: fp_offline_ticker FC Frame reties: fp_retry_count HBA drivers emlxs HBA HBA 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 31 .conf /kernel/drv/mpt.
Share Nothing Hot Spares RAID RAID 5 (7+1) Disk Controllers Port Port D i s k 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 32 . speed. size) RAID level Share Everything.CONNECTIVITY Port Port FC Zoning FC Zoning Single initiator zoning Single initiator zoning Zoning Port speed Port Port Port STORAGE Port Port Flag settings: Common Serial Number Disable Queue Reset on Unit Attention Fan Out ratios SCSI LUN numbers FC Protocol Fibre and SCSI Port Flag Settings SCSI Emulation LUN mapping LUN Security LUN masking LUN masking MetaDevice striping/concatenation Logical Devices MetaDevices Cache Cache Disk Tier (disk type.
Configuration changes resulting from new deployments into the environment. it is safe to state: Most storage related failures are directly attributable to improper configurations either as the result of initial deployment errors. and capacity management processes. but may not withstand storage environment exception scenarios. However. Each of these processes needs to be tied to a rigorous configuration management discipline to maintain a storage environment that approaches optimal performance and availability within the constraints of the environment’s physical capabilities. Often. and sustainment activities arising from problem. all you have to do is flip through the “Fixed Problems” section of the microcode patches you haven’t applied yet to get some ideas. this information will be recorded in a database referred to as the configuration management database (CMDB). The configuration management discipline should also contain processes that control the 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 33 . such as microcode upgrades and redundant hardware failures. storage goes awry. As a corollary to the above.Defining the Problem On occasion. As a general statement. Solving the Problem Configuration of a storage environment is an iterative process. incorrect configurations may manifest as problems on a future reboot. it follows that: Most storage related failures are preventable. or disk discovery. It is easy to imagine nightmarish storage scenarios. In other cases. performance. most storage related problems occur because people associated with the storage environment deploy flawed configurations that appear to be healthy. Configuration management begins with identifying the components in the storage environment. or failure to maintain the environment by pro-actively applying patches and upgrades. with the amount of detail necessary to support decision making regarding the potential impact configuration changes may have within the storage environment. The purpose of configuration management is to identify and track the characteristics of the physical and logical components.
e.g. applications. databases.g. and standardize the configuration requirements for all of the logical components in the I/O path. new driver versions. may be impacted by a planned configuration change? What business services. OS and microcode patches).. applications. etc. may be impacted by a problem that has been identified? (e. and fixes and releases for existing components (e. what servers are connected to a failed switch. and maintenance of the configurable items in the I/O path. servers. Configuration management processes should be deeply integrated with problem management and change management processes. A successful configuration management implementation must define.configuration (i. deployment. and must be effectively integrated into their deployment and maintenance procedures. servers. Some organizations may choose to create a separate organizational unit for configuration management. while others may choose to create a committee containing representation from several organizational groups. if appropriate. and will assist in providing answers to questions such as: • • What business services. Each of the affected organizational groups should have a highly skilled resource involved in the configuration management process since the establishment of deployment standards requires specialized knowledge within each logical layer of the storage environment. databases. provide the ability to report on the configuration. This will be an ongoing process. and require configuration audits. or what servers require proactive maintenance to apply an OS patch?) • What configuration changes were introduced in the storage environment that may be linked to the introduction of a current problem? Configuration management in the storage environment is complicated by the number of organizational teams that may be involved in the design. as well as the reason for the particular value it should be set to. a reference to the vendor documentation that specifies the setting. In any case. record. and. as it must capture new technologies as they are introduced.. etc. configuration standards must be effectively communicated to the operational groups that apply the configurations. This higher level information will increase compliance by providing 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 34 . place controls on changes to the configuration).. Documentation of the standards should include a description of the functionality of each configuration item.
Audits also allow compliance with configuration standards to be measured and rated. periodic audits can be limited to some representative subset of the environment to allow the overall compliance of the storage environment to be extrapolated. and also periodically to measure the degree of compliance with configuration standards and uncover any latent threats. and generally increases their level of awareness and comfort with the storage environment. Audit configurations to ensure that they comply with the defined configuration standards. or as part of a continuous improvement process. Figure 11 illustrates the desired outcome of implementing a configuration management process for the storage environment. In large environments. which can be useful as an organizational performance metric.operational staff with a context for configuration decisions. 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 35 . Audits should be conducted for each deployment.
Figure 11 – Configuration Management Goal 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 36 .
as new Systems Administrators have generally had very limited exposure to external storage. As the storage environment grows larger. To be successful. and be integrated into their documentation and procedures. Since Systems Administrators are responsible for a large number of configurable items related to storage. due to a number of factors. the Storage Administrator and the Systems Administrator roles are likely to reside within the same functional group. However. As a result. these roles are often separated into different functional groups. To fulfill this purpose. We can reduce storage related failures by implementing a rigorous configuration management discipline. Most storage configuration issues occur in the logical components at the host level. this declining skill set presents challenges in maintaining the health of the storage environment. most storage related failures are preventable. such as when configuration errors are embedded in deployment tools. storage configurations often fail. the configuration management processes must include representation from all of the functional groups involved in configuring the I/O path. Configuration and maintenance issues at the Systems Administrator level can compound very quickly.Conclusion The purpose of a storage environment is to support business functions and objectives at the least possible cost. the logical. and human components of a storage environment must be working in concert. with causes that are directly attributable to improper configurations or poor maintenance practices. As well as tracking the status of all of the configurations within the storage environment. physical. Thus. the configuration 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 37 . or if server configurations and patch levels delay or prevent microcode upgrades being deployed on storage arrays and switches. such as: • • • The large number of configurable items at the host level The large number of product choices available The responsibility for configurable items resides in several different functional groups When an organization first deploys a storage environment. storage related skills within the Systems Administrator groups are likely to decline over time.
e. In general. i. and NAS is manageable. or NIM for AIX.management process must include regular audit procedures to provide a measurable verification of the level of compliance to standards. but having two vendors for modular storage increases complexity unnecessarily. Storage vendors provide guidance on host configurations that have been tested for availability and are suitable general performance requirements. EMC also provides tools that allow Systems Administrators to quickly check a host configuration against the current EMC support matrix. Kickstart for Red Hat Linux. storage vendors are strongly motivated to help keep your storage environment healthy. Configuration management faces fewer challenges if the number of unique configurations can be reduced by: • Limiting the number of manual tasks in server deployments by using standard images during deployment and tools such as Jumpstart for Solaris. 2010 EMC Proven Professional Knowledge Sharing 38 . having different vendors for monolithic arrays. Their expertise and experience in other customer sites should be leveraged when establishing a configuration management process and in its ongoing maintenance.. modular arrays. • Decreasing SAN complexity by limiting the number of storage vendors within the same class of storage.