Developing Reading Comprehension in EFL Students | Top Down And Bottom Up Design | Reading (Process)

Developing Reading Comprehension In FL Students Through The Use Of Computer


I. INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………........3 1..1. Conceptual framework ………………………………………………………………4 II. Literature Review ……………………………………………………………………...6 III. HYPOTESIS ................................................................................................................10 IV. DESIGN ………………………………………………………………………………11 4.1. What’s Power Point …………………………………………………………………11 4.2. Why use Power Point in EFL classroom …………………………………………...12 4.3. Technique to be applied ……………………………………………………………..13 4.4. Lesson Plan …………………………………………………………………………..13 V. RESEARCH …………………………………………………………………………...15 5.1. Actual Implementation of the plan ………………………………………………....15 5.2. The purpose of reading ……………………………………………………………..16 5.3. Improving Comprehension ………………………………………………………....16 5.4. Guidelines for Creating Reading Software ……………………………………… .18

VI. RESULTS …………………………………………………………………………….24

VII. CONCLUSION ……………………………………………………………………..25 7.1. References ……………………………………………………………………………26

1 Project Research–Methodology Course

Developing Reading Comprehension In FL Students Through The Use Of Computer

Abstract: Historically, in the educational field, numerous efforts have been made to facilitate the complex process of FL reading comprehension. While computers are increasingly being used for instruction for FL reading, there is not yet a solid understanding of how this technology can be effectively used in the area of FL reading instruction. The present study examines the effect of the computer on developing FL reading comprehension. To this end, this study reviews relevant empirical studies conducted both in Ll and FL contexts. Although some studies reported contradictory findings, previous research has generally supported the notion that computer-assisted reading programs facilitate FL reading comprehension. Several advantages of using the computer for enhancing reading comprehension have been identified, for example, facilitating automatic word recognition and vocabulary acquisition, providing multimedia glossing, strengthening the benefits of reading strategy training, and stimulating student motivation toward reading. The literature review also points out the need for reading software incorporating sound theoretical principles of the reading process. Reflecting the need, this study establishes practical guidelines for designing and evaluating reading software on the basis of interactive processing theory, which is currently one of the most prevalent reading theories.

2 Project Research–Methodology Course

numerous efforts have been made to facilitate the complex process of FL reading comprehension. 1995. Some writers have even claimed that the incorporation of computer technology into the reading process may bring about a change in reading theory and reading practice (Wilkinson. More recently. 1995). incorporating the findings of research in the field. 1996. Chun & Plass (1997) claimed that this complexity is further compounded for FL readers. however. there is not yet a solid understanding of how this technology can be effectively used in the area of FL reading 3 Project Research–Methodology Course . in the educational field. Herron. Introduction: Research in First language (Ll) and Foreign language (FL) reading comprehension has gained impetus over the past three decades and resulted in many valuable insights for understanding the process of reading. 1983. Clarke and Silberstein (1977) convincingly argued for the need for instruction on reading strategies. 1979). pictures. since the advent of computers.Developing Reading Comprehension In FL Students Through The Use Of Computer Developing Reading Comprehension In FL Students Through The Use Of Computer I. In addition. and diagrams have been valued for their potential aid in the reading comprehension process by activating the schemata relevant to the story being read (Chun & Plass. for example. videos. Reinking. In spite of its constant shift in focus throughout the history of reading research. Historically. sound. increasing interest has been paid in the use of computers for developing reading comprehension skills. & Cole. Omaggio. Hanley. it has been generally agreed that reading is a very complicated process involving a variety of factors that interact with one another. 1987). While computers are increasingly being used for instruction for L2 reading (Borchardt & Johnson. Based on a psycholinguistic model of reading.

which in turn can significantly contribute to the actual reading instruction. This section will describe a current theoretical view of FL reading comprehension as a conceptual framework for critically evaluating studies and programs that will be reviewed in this study and for presenting practical guidelines for selecting and designing theoretically 4 Project Research–Methodology Course . it is important that computer-based reading programs should also be designed and implemented in such a way that they reflect current knowledge about the reading process in terms of how to teach reading and what to focus on in order to maximize their effectiveness (Singhal. Understanding an adequate theory of reading comprehension is a prerequisite for the development and improvement of educational practices. 1998).Developing Reading Comprehension In FL Students Through The Use Of Computer instruction. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of the computer on developing FL reading comprehension. In line with this. Conceptual Framework: Reading research has greatly aided in understanding reading comprehension processes. For this purpose. two questions have been posed: 1) What studies have been conducted on the use of computers for improving reading comprehension? 2) What considerations should be taken in creating computer reading software? This study will first review relevant empirical studies conducted both in Ll and FL contexts and then offer practical guidelines for designing and evaluating reading software on the basis of a reading theory and the literature review.

Arens. it can also refer to the interaction among many reading component skills. predicting what will come next. 1988b. topdown processing is more related to the macro level of comprehension. empirically validated reading software. Eskey. the reader builds the text information with the help of the knowledge gained from the text and the background or prior knowledge he or she already has (Bamett. interpretation and use of prior knowledge. reading is the process in which the reader intelligently interacts with the text to comprehend it. Second. While interacting with the text. refers to two different conceptions. top-down processing skills (Carrell. the interactive processing theory has been widely applied to the area of reading instruction. vocabulary knowledge. phrases. Research has shown that good readers skillfully use higher-level reading strategies which facilitate reading comprehension. 1991). Carrell & Eisterhold. Silberstein. 1988. Sameuls & Kamil. Due to its ability to describe how input is processed in a meaningful. One of the current prevalent views of reading is interactive processing theory (Samuels & Kamil. 1983). The term. & Bymes. 1984. In other words. interaction between lower-level. and knowledge of sentence structure. reading is the result of the simultaneous. Swaffar. First. convincing way. 1984). 5 Project Research–Methodology Course . it can refer to the interaction that happens between the reader and the text. bottom-up processing skills and higher-level. 1987. 1989. Bottom-up processing is primarily concemed with textual decoding and requires such skills as word recognition. To be more specific. not sequential. Eskey & Grabe.Developing Reading Comprehension In FL Students Through The Use Of Computer grounded. interactive processing. and mobilizing background or prior knowledge. Automaticity in lower-level processing has been shown to contribute importantly to fluent reading. 1986. and expressions through the contextual clues. such as inferring the meaning of unfamiliar words. On the other hand.

Considering the current situation. Literature Review: A vast majority of studies on the use of computers for developing reading comprehension have been conducted in the Ll context. the literature review will also entail a critical evaluation of the studies in terms of study design and the computer programs used to make a more valid assessment of the effectiveness of the computer as a medium for FL reading instruction Using computers for reading instruction dates back to the mid-1960s when broad-scaled projects such as the Stanford Project. which were often supported by U. interactive processing theory views reading as interactive in that the reader makes use of information from his/her background knowledge as well as information from the printed page while reading. 1991).Developing Reading Comprehension In FL Students Through The Use Of Computer Interestingly enough. were 6 Project Research–Methodology Course . but complementary (Grabe. Mostly for the studies conducted in L2 contexts. concrete understanding of what has been accomplished in this field and to aid them in applying valuable insights gained from Ll research to FL situations. most FL researchers stress the first type of interaction between the reader and the text while most cognitive psychologists and education psychologists emphasize the second one. this literature review will include the research conducted in Ll environments to offer readers a broader. II. federal grants. To sum up.S. However. interaction of diverse reading skills. Reading is also interactive in the sense that many skills work together simultaneously in the process. Grabe explained that this division largely results from the difference in emphasis placed on defining how reading processes interact and how the processes can be investigated through research. these two perspectives are not mutually exclusive.

have been conducted to examine the effect of using the computer on developing reading readiness skills.Developing Reading Comprehension In FL Students Through The Use Of Computer carried out to develop a comprehensive computer-based reading curriculum. Morrison. eliminating the need for a classroom teacher. widespread availability of microcomputers has made possible research on the effect of specific computer programs on reading ability. the researchers claimed that computers can be used effectively to teach preschoolers some important pre-reading skills.and posttest revealed that there were significant differences in the scores in the pre-reading skill areas of rhyming skill related to learning phonics for decoding and school language related to sequencing. no differences existed in the areas of letter recognition and visual matching. findings have been mixed. In the studies of elementary and junior high school students on the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction. On the other hand. Spache (1967) raised the issues that it ignored the role of the teacher and overemphasized the mastery of isolated skills in a drill-and-practice format. With respect to the Stanford project. Since then. organization and word meaning. Gore. and Anderson (1989) conducted a study with 14 five-year-old children for five months to determine whether the computer can serve to teach preschoolers pre-reading skills. and computer-assisted instruction focused on individual reading skills including word attack skills. Several studies. Maas. In spite of the mixed results. In a study undertaken to determine the effect of extended use of computers on reading achievement of the students of low socio-economic status. the reading curriculum which the Stanford Project produced for kindergarteners through third graders was characterized by utilizing centrally located mainframe computers. For example. for instance. Analysis of the Metropolitan Readiness pre. Arroyo (1992) found significantly higher reading 7 Project Research–Methodology Course .

Lange. Besides. due to the small sample size. computer-assisted instructionenhanced student motivation toward learning. a study by Hamilton (1995) of 46 third. students showed improvement in both overall reading scores and specific reading skills on a standardized test. She suggested that in addition to reading improvement. On the other hand. The value of this intervention program used in 8 Project Research–Methodology Course . After analyzing the possible causes of the problem of declining reading scores among elementary and middle school students.through sixth-grade students reported no significant differences between the computer-assisted instruction group and the traditional basal instruction group. the results have limited generalizability. And the data of interview with teachers and students as well as case studies of four students revealed that learning multiple reading strategies helped students transfer the reading skills to other subject areas.Developing Reading Comprehension In FL Students Through The Use Of Computer achievement gains on the IOWA Tests of Basic Skills for 30 seventh graders who were exposed to extensive computer instruction for a year compared with nonusers. use of appropriate software matching the strategies. But both studies did not provide sufficient information on what specific computer-assisted reading instruction was given to students. McCarty. After receiving reading instruction integrating reading strategies with computer technology for five months. But it is questionable whether the mere exposure to general computer instruction not specifically related to reading instruction could truly contribute to improvement in reading comprehension. and integration of reading strategies into other subject áreas. Norman and Upchurch (1999) designed a reading intervention program composed of three major categories: instruction of reading strategies through using graphic organizers and cooperative learning. Serious efforts were made to improve reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge through the use of computer software and teaching reading strategies in Illinois.

Wise and Olson (1994) conducted a study with 45 struggling readers in second through sixth grade to examine whether or not the talking computer can help them to develop word recognition and phonological decoding skills. visual and audio supports. compared with similar students who were assigned to regular classroom language arts instruction. The researchers also reported the students' improved attitude toward reading and enthusiastic responses toward the computer-assisted program. Reinking. Students read stories on the computer for thirty minutes for four to five days per week for 10 weeks. Reasoning from their previous studies that lack of word recognition skills is a primary factor of the struggling readers' problems. having access to pronunciation of unfamiliar words they encountered in the text through the computer's speech synthesizer. and phonemic awareness revealed that the children's word recognition and phonological decoding abilities improved significantly. spelling. This result is consistent with the findings of other studies on the effect of the computer on increasing word recognition skills (McKenna. And in fact several efficacy studies have reported the positive results for the effectiveness of the computer as a means of developing literacy skills in struggling readers. Due to its great potential for providing reading supports including glossing. 9 Project Research–Methodology Course . reading comprehension. 1996). and Watkins. Another major category of studies was on the effect of computer programs on students with reading difficulties. computer software has been credited as an effective tool for teaching reading to students who suffer from reading difficulties. non-word reading.and post tests on word recognition.Developing Reading Comprehension In FL Students Through The Use Of Computer this study lies in the fact that an attempt was actually made to incorporate the findings of the research regarding the crucial importance of reading strategies and their training into classroom practices. Labbo. and speech supports. Results in pre.

but it is not certain whether students have in fact received any benefits from the use of annotations in relation to reading skills which can be applied to different reading contexts. Most studies on the effects of multimedia annotations on FL reading comprehension have produced positive results as shown by higher score gains in reading comprehension tests. the gains in reading achievement can be explained by the immediate availability of annotations for the text being read. Obviously multimedia annotations provided for a text can facilitate the comprehension of the given text. that is on what I base my research. The studies mostly used computer programs with different types of reading supports such as annotations of individual words. Hypothesis: As technology has become an important part in the process of any activity. on the tendency that the higher the 10 Project Research–Methodology Course . As special software is being used more with the increase of requirements in new educational methods. visual supports. it’s logical that the results or the expected results of using them are favorable. However. III. and information on the text.Developing Reading Comprehension In FL Students Through The Use Of Computer A number of more recent studies have attempted to investígate the effects of multimedia annotations on reading comprehension. Basically we make use of computer in almost every activity instead of the common way of teaching or making students more autonomous in reasoning and applying things that will not be easy to apply in the case of use of the normal or common way to develop reading comprehension in EFL students. I expect to find good results in the application of this research.

like specific programs that with the use of slideshow can make students think first and then infer from what they’re seeing so after that process they’re prepared to understand and comprehend better reading sections that are carried out in class. Powerpoint helps concentration and guarantees effective learning if everything goes according to plan. Your computer might already have PowerPoint installed. each time making it even better. PowerPoint is a software bundled in MS office and used for creating presentations usually in the form of slideshows. 11 Project Research–Methodology Course . Design: What is PowerPoint? Powerpoint presentations are excellent for teaching large EFL classes of students. Since technology has a direct influence or effect on educational field. IV. the better results we get form that tool. computer has tools that approach the problem of reading comprehension. For all those benefits a computer and its tools represent I can expect students will get the best support in comprehension from this technique and their comprehension may be improved.Developing Reading Comprehension In FL Students Through The Use Of Computer technology applied in education or for educational purposes. Besides. Over the years Microsoft has been updating the software. I expect to obtain favorable results in the application of computer.

In a few weeks of using PowerPoint presentations. As a teacher of large classes especially. I have only focused on large classes because that is the 12 Project Research–Methodology Course . All of a sudden my students could concentrate long enough for me to drive home new language points. my class of 25 students all passed their English exams. It would not be an overstatement to say that if well planned. classroom games followed with ease. Being an expert in using the computer. I always did know how to get started. With new language points well into their brains. where I’m teaching. large classes are not common. So what about small classes? Needless to say that most often it is easier to teach smaller language classes than large ones. This was when I understood why some of my brilliant games had failed in the past. hungry for knowledge? Luckily. PowerPoint presentations can take away 50-70% of the burden of presenting new vocabulary to large classes. most classrooms in el Cultural are well equipped with overhead projectors and in some cases they have other electronic tools in classrooms. In El Cultural. I found the use of PowerPoint presentations a great aid in my teaching (by large classes I mean classes of 15-25 students).Developing Reading Comprehension In FL Students Through The Use Of Computer Why use PowerPoint presentations in EFL Classrooms? Teaching English or any other language especially to large classes of primary schools and absolute beginner students can prove to be a nightmare at times. I soon realized the similarities it shares with MS word. However. I was amazed by the results. when I eventually began using MS PowerPoint to create classroom presentations.) So how do you teach a class of 15-25 students staring at you. At the end of the month. which I was vaguely familiar with at the time.

let me sum it up this way. Well. The following section is a lesson plan based on the use of slideshows to introduce a reading activity: LESSON PLAN Trainee’s Last and First Name: Augusto Ramírez Student’s Level Time Title Of The Lesson : BASICO 10 : 4:00 Date : : “Discuss Skills. as teachers we have to prepare a lesson plan that goes through the order or getting students’ attention. help them to make inferences and predictions that would be a good approach to reach the objective which is help students to develop comprehension in reading. Technique To Be Applied: Through power point as teacher we can get students’ attention by the use of colorful slideshows. If PowerPoint presentations are great for large classes.Developing Reading Comprehension In FL Students Through The Use Of Computer area where using PowerPoint has solved a great deal of problems for teachers. but this is just a gimmick so students can feel more interested about the article or topic used in the lesson. Then several options as lesson plan are possible. then they make teaching smaller classes seem too easy. catching their interest. Abilities And Qualifications” 13 Project Research–Methodology Course . We can make use of animated slideshows but the background of the activity is to stimulate students’ interest and attention while introducing a reading activity.

Ss . skill.T . -Start a dialogue with their classmates .T .Tutor . -Sharing Ideas with the rest of the class Role Of T’ . -Participate actively and discuss about it.T -Class participation -Pairwork . knowledge and qualification Students will be required to explain the meaning of some qualifications.Observer . -Sharing ideas -Delivering their ideas. Students in their own words will try to express the main idea of the lesson without reading yet the article that has been cresated in form of animation.Controller .Ss . : Type Of Intercation -T-Ss -Ss-T Procedure Activity Students will look at slideshow and first try to get the details so they will have an idea form pictures first what’s the topic about.Observer .Tutor 14 Project Research–Methodology Course . then they will have to write an occupation or course of study for a person Timing Role Of Ss -Looking at the screen carefully -Participate actively.Ss -Reading carefully. written with simple words and attractive and impressive full of color with pictures that explain what are talents. Cultural : To show students the different qualifications and skills people have.Controller 10 10 . Experience and Knowledge.Ss .Monitoring 10 .Ss .Ss .Developing Reading Comprehension In FL Students Through The Use Of Computer Objectives • • • • : Communicative : To make students apply everything they have learned so far about regrets.Ss . Then.Prompter 10 . Grammar : To teach some collocations and grammar structure.Ss . Skills. talents. Students will read the article.Ss . Phonologic : To give students a sample of how to pronounce new words and new vocabulary.

Ss .T -Pair work.Observer .Developing Reading Comprehension In FL Students Through The Use Of Computer with each qualification Then Students will start to discuss about each picture that will be shown on screen and after discuss and have their ideas clear.Controller .Monitoring 10 . skills. Research: Actual Implementation: The lesson plan based on developing comprehension of EFL students is being carried out one day another so.T -Class participation -Pair work . Good reading means building frameworks for connecting words to thoughts.Ss . 10 . they will be required to match each picture with a specific definition.Ss . -Sharing ideas with their mates . 15 Project Research–Methodology Course . Finally students will have to create a new list of cases of talents.Ss .Ss .Tutor V. knowledge and quifications. The order I strictly try to follow is what various author agree and I’m applying my lesson plans base on that objectives. so that I can arrange the classes better and can appreciate how well students are doing.Ss . what I’m focusing now is to follow the order.

751-6324 This is easier because of chunking. try reading these numbers: 7516324 This is hard to read and remember. then pouring words of text into your mind is like pouring water into your hand. For example. 16 Project Research–Methodology Course . understanding and storing information.Developing Reading Comprehension In FL Students Through The Use Of Computer The Purpose Of Reading: The purpose of reading is to connect the ideas on the page to what you already know. then reading the sports page is easy. 123-4567 This is easy to read because of prior knowledge and structure. Develop a Broad Background: Broaden your background knowledge by reading newspapers. Here are some suggestions. Similarly. concentration and good study techniques. Become interested in world events. mental frameworks for holding ideas. You have a framework in your mind for reading. if you like sports. magazines and books. If you don't know anything about a subject. You don't retain much. Improving Comprehension: Reading comprehension requires motivation.

Really smart readers try to anticipate the author and predict future ideas and questions.Developing Reading Comprehension In FL Students Through The Use Of Computer Know The Structure of Paragraphs: Good writers construct paragraphs that have a beginning. If you're wrong. Anticipate And Predict:. ask questions. Create Motivation and Interes:. graphs and headings. Read the first and last paragraph in a chapter. 17 Project Research–Methodology Course . discuss ideas with classmates. look for transitional words. the greater your comprehension. or the first sentence in each section. model building. The stronger your interest. hypothesis. Often. Preview material. If you're right. systems thinking? See section 20 for more examples on critical thinking skills. Also. this reinforces your understanding. you make adjustments quicker. phrases or paragraphs that change the topic. Pay Attention To Supporting Cues: Study pictures. the first sentence will give an overview that helps provide a framework for adding details. middle and end. Identify The Type Of Reasoning: Does the author use cause and effect reasoning. induction or deduction.

the interactive processing theory of reading adopted as the 18 Project Research–Methodology Course . Concentrate on roots. you can keep a list of words to look up at the end of the day.Developing Reading Comprehension In FL Students Through The Use Of Computer Highlight. Frequent backtracking slows you down considerably. although it is faster to form words in your mind rather than on your lips or throat. Monitor Effectiveness: Good readers monitor their attention. you have to highlight. concentration and effectiveness. The best way to improve your vocabulary is to use a dictionary regularly. Should You Vocalize Words? Yes. To develop a deeper understanding. Build A Good Vocabulary: For most educated people. summarize and review important ideas. Summarize And Review: Just reading a book once is not enough. prefixes and endings. You might carry around a pocket dictionary and use it to look up new words. this is a lifetime project. Guidelines For Creating Reading Software: As described earlier. They quickly recognize if they've missed an idea and backup to reread it. Eye motion is also important. Or.

. and interaction between bottom-up processing and top-down processing. these capabilities must be taken full advantage of in developing software programs. specific guidelines relevant to either framework are built and presented in detail along with an example of exercises. and providing relevant activities as a means of developing reading skills. such as definitions of key words in both visual 19 Project Research–Methodology Course . In order to maximize reading achievement in computer-assisted reading environments. Interaction between the reader and the computer: One of the potential benefits of the computer for reading is the opportunity for increased interaction between the reader and the text on the computer. these guidelines put an emphasis on promoting interaction between the reader and the computer. Interactive capabilities of the computer have been recognized as an effective tool to make reading less frustrating and more enjoyable (McKenna et al. integrating decoding skills and comprehension skills. Based on the major claims of the theory and empirical findings. 1.Developing Reading Comprehension In FL Students Through The Use Of Computer conceptual framework for this study views reading as interactive in that the reader intelligently interacts with the text to make sense out of it and also in that many reading component skills involved in bottom-up and top-down processing interact with one another simultaneously while the reader is reading the text. a) Provides individual supports such as multimedia annotations: Reading software can provide useful glossing. this study establishes two main frameworks reflecting the two types of interaction specified by the theory: interaction between the reader and the text. 1996). In order to cover the full range of the reading theory. And individual.

Easy availability of glossing can help readers move through the text when they face comprehension problems and explore the supporting materials at an individualized pace. Open-ended questions entail more interaction by responding to reader's answers in an individual way. and grammar explanation. computer reading programs should contain open-ended questions instead of heavily relying on true/false or multiple-choice questions. their pronunciation. diagnose his or her problems in reading 20 Project Research–Methodology Course . d) Keeps record of individual students' performance and progress: Recent technological developments make it possible to build a tracker system in reading software to keep record of the type and frequency of the access the reader has to glosses and the performances. both the reader and the teacher can assess the student's current level of FL reading.Developing Reading Comprehension In FL Students Through The Use Of Computer and verbal forms. For both types of questions. software can provide the reader with hints or clues to work with to help them to get the correct answer before the correct answer is given. By looking at the records kept by the computer. b) Presents open-ended questions as well as well-designed true/false questions: In order for the interaction between the reader and the text to be meaningful. c) Provides immediate and adequate feedback on reader's responses: Reading software should provide immediate feedback on answers the reader gives in response to the questions presented by the computer Feedback should be relevant to the responses and provided in such a way that promotes interactivity and refines the reader's comprehension of the text.

a) Enhances word recognition skills: As described earlier. Timed reading is also a good means of furthering the interaction between the reader and the text on the computer. whereas unskilled readers lack this skill. reading software programs should be focused on simultaneously addressing decoding skills and comprehension skills in order to teach both types of skills. interactive processing theory postulates that textual decoding constitutes a major part of the information processing involved in reading. The reader can increase or decrease the speed depending on the current competence and comfort level. e) Provides a timed reading option: Through the option of timed reading. 2. the reader selects the speed with which he or she wants to read. Reflecting the obvious need for developing the word recognition skill. And textual decoding requires automatic word identification which is widely recognized as one of the crucial components of reading. To this end. 21 Project Research–Methodology Course . software programs should provide the reader with opportunities for practice in reading skills and strategies that are critical for successful reading comprehension. much research shows that fluent readers have fully developed automaticity in word recognition. With respect to the role of word recognition skill in reading.Developing Reading Comprehension In FL Students Through The Use Of Computer and take proper steps toward enhancing FL reading comprehension. Interaction between bottom-up processing and top-down processing Considering the fact that the reader is simultaneously engaged in bottom-up and topdown processing for reading comprehension. Provision of a variety of relevant activities embedded in reading texts is recommendable.

word. Contextualized vocabulary exercises facilitate word acquisition and retention more effectively. word recognition exercises can engage the reader in reading several words that are similar in shape and marking the same word as the first one as quickly as possible (e. ward). Or the reader can be asked to draw a line between the boundaries of a nonsense word composed of several words without any interval .g. 1990). These exercises help the reader not only to enhance sentence-decoding skills but also to overcome the tendency toward wordby-word reading. For example. Sentence-decoding exercises can involve the reader in reading a sentence in meaningful units. 1985. Vocabulary building activities should be set within the context of a reading passage. b) Promotes sentence-decoding skills: Knowledge of sentence or language structure also plays a significant role in reading processes. c) Promotes vocabulary development: Almost every L2 reading researcher agrees that vocabulary knowledge is a critical element of reading comprehension (Grabe. reading software should present sentence-decoding activities. Considering the role of knowledge of sentence structure. 22 Project Research–Methodology Course . Rayner. worm. 1991). To be more specific. 1989. Many studies support the effect of knowledge of structure on fluent reading (Garnham. world.Developing Reading Comprehension In FL Students Through The Use Of Computer reading software programs should offer exercises designed for this purpose. computer programs should be designed to model reading in meaningful groups and ask the reader to divide a sentence into meaningful units quickly while reading. word: work. Perfetti.

reading software should aid in building background knowledge about the topic of the text prior to reading. inference. f) Encourages readers to read for main ideas: Reading an L2 text requires going beyond understanding an individua] word or sentence to constructing main ideas from the text. cloze exercises or text reconstruction exercises. hints. Such activities can take the form of problemsolving games.Developing Reading Comprehension In FL Students Through The Use Of Computer d) Builds background knowledge about the text: A large number of research findings support the significant role of background knowledge in reading. 1989). inferring. Pre-reading activities designed to create background knowledge include looking at or reading an advance organizer in the form of video or short reading abstracts. and prediction and thus computer programs must be designed in a way that addresses them. To facilitate reading comprehension. Exercises should be designed to offer students opportunities to practice drawing inferences or making predictions based on clues. reading skills such as guessing. simulations. Activities can include reading instructions on getting general meaning of the text and answering questions presented by the computer. Studies have shown that training in reading strategies including the skills described can contribute to enhancing reading comprehension (Jimenez & Games. e) Prompts students to guess. and contextual information. Questions can also be used to activate the reader's prior knowledge of the text during reading. Kem. 23 Project Research–Methodology Course . 1996. and predict while reading: Successful reading requires the knowledge and implementation of higher-level.

I saw the effects on students performance and class participation day after day. they started to predict things a way different than they did before. The overall results showed me that the impact of the use of slideshows on student’s confidence and will to participate increased a lot. 24 Project Research–Methodology Course . Results: In the course of implementing the method of using slideshows to introduce a topic in reading. Through Monitoring effectiveness of the method of using slideshows.Developing Reading Comprehension In FL Students Through The Use Of Computer VI. Since they felt interested in paying attention to every topic that was introduced while carrying out the class. but I can assure that after taking part of on of those classes they discover they were able to make some accurate guesses. some of them just don’t have the ability. I could see how well they went. I just obtained results by observing the enthusiasm of my students while teaching them. day after day they were improving their comprehension and their participations every time were more accurate. It was a pity that I had no the opportunity to finish with a test to see how far they went and express in statistics.

Developing Reading Comprehension In FL Students Through The Use Of Computer VII. A review of relevant literature revealed that the use of the computer has a beneficial effect on enhancing FL reading particularly by facilitating automatic word recognition. such as text style. strengthening the benefits of reading strategy training. the literature review also pointed out the need for designing reading software incorporating sound theoretical principles of the reading process. are not comprehensive in that they were devised only from the perspective of interactive processing theory. and vocabulary acquisition. graphic features. 25 Project Research–Methodology Course . It is hoped that the guidelines will assist language instructors and software developers in developing an awareness of the need for theoretically grounded and empirically validated reading software. fonts. however. providing multimedia glossing. and ease of use. and stimulating student motivation toward reading. It is true that there are other considerations in evaluating reading software. which is beyond the scope of this paper. Reflecting on the need. Conclusion: This study aimed to investigate the effect of the computer on developing FL reading comprehension. On the other hand. These guidelines. this study attempted to establish guidelines for creating and evaluating computer reading software programs using the interactive processing theory of reading as a conceptual framework and also empirical findings.

Arroyo. San Diego: Academic Press 26 Project Research–Methodology Course . T. and Silberstein. Reading and its development: Component skills approaches. DE: International Reading Association. (1995). 24(4). 70. Norwood. and Freebody. and classroom perspectives. Research on text comprehension in multimedia environments. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. (1992). CALL-EJ Online. In J. ED 380776 Bamett. (1977). 63-74 Balajthy. and Just. M. Orasanu (Ed. 3(2) Anderson. P. CALICÓ Resource Guidefor Computing and Language Learning. D. Chun. (1999). (1997). J. and Levy. empirical. Modern Language Journal. E. R. M. Situating learning in technology: The case of computer-mediated reading supports. MacReader and storyboard programs in ESL reading classrooms. Syntactic and lexical/semantic skill in foreign language reading: Importance and interaction. C. What is the effect of extensive use of computers on the reading achievement scores of seventh grade students? ERIC ED 353544 Aweiss. D.Developing Reading Comprehension In FL Students Through The Use Of Computer References: Alkahtani. Newark. Hillsdale. and Plass. ERIC. B. Reading comprehension: From theory topractice (pp. Carr. Vocabulary knowledge.). (1986). and Abalhassan. 135-154 Carpernter. System. (1996b). S. In J. Reading development in a second language: Theoretical. Comprehension and teaching: Research reviews (pp. (1986).). Cognitive processes in reading. F. 77-117). 343-349 Bemhardt. Toward a realization of psycholinguistic principies for the ESL reading class. Facilitating reading comprehension with multimedia. (1991). Language Learning. NC: Computer Assisted Language Instruction Consortium. Guthrie (Ed. Geneseo. (1990). (Eds) (1995). (Eds. Using computer technology to aid the disabled reader. S. 1 ( 1 ) . (1994). S. and Johnson. Durham. 27. E. P. 11-29). 503-519 Chun. and Plass. 60-81 Clarke M.). Journal of Educational Technology Systems. K. 25(1). (1991). E. Language Learning and Technology. NY: State University of New York at Geneseo. Borchardt. J. NJ: Ablex.

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