P O C K E T

N AT U R E

TREES

P O C K E T

N AT U R E

TREES
ALLEN COOMBES

DORLING KINDERSLEY

LONDON, NEW YORK, MUNICH, MELBOURNE, AND DELHI DK LONDON
Senior Art Editor Ina Stradins Project Art Editor Vanessa Thompson Senior Editor Angeles Gavira Editor Georgina Garner DTP Designer Adam Shepherd Picture Editor Neil Fletcher Illustrator Gill Tomblin Production Controllers Elizabeth Cherry, Melanie Dowland Managing Art Editor Phil Ormerod Managing Editor Liz Wheeler Art Director Bryn Walls Category Publisher Jonathan Metcalf

DK DELHI
Designers Supriya Sahai, Shefali Upadhyay, Kavita Dutta Editors Glenda Fernandes, Sheema Mookherjee, Dipali Singh Editorial Consultant Anita Roy Editorial Support Chumki Sen, Bhavna Seth DTP Designers Sunil Sharma, Balwant Singh, Jessica Subramanian DTP Co-ordinator Pankaj Sharma Managing Art Editor Aparna Sharma First published in Great Britain in 2004 by Dorling Kindersley Limited 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL A Penguin Company Copyright © 2004 Dorling Kindersley Limited All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owners. A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 0-7513-3872-9
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CONTENTS How This Book Works Identification 6 8 Conifers with Needles Conifers with Scales 12 47 Broadleaved Compound 56 Broadleaved Simple 90 Glossary Index Acknowledgments 217 218 224 .

HEIGHT 30m. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. larger lobe This large Its obovat lobes. Photographs of representative species show the diversity in the group.E. tapered points. lance-shaped. Luco DOUGLAS FIR ABIES LASIOCARPA LOREM IPSUM CALIFORNIA REDWOOD BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Quercus x 201 White Willow Salix alba (Salicaceae) The common large waterside willow of Europe. FLOWERING TIME Spring. HEIGHT 25m. male catkin SCALE DRAWING To give an indication of the plant’s height. snipes. and curlews. The Scarlet Willow (Salix alba ‘Britzensis’) has orange-red winter shoots. 136 B Hun Quercus lobed leaves are clustered towards the end of the shoots. See panel above right. BARK Dark grey. yellow male catkin NOTE The White Willow is pollarded to encourage the growth of young shoots. SCIENTIFIC NAME CORNER PICTURE Provides a view of one of the characteristic features of the tree. OCCURRENCE Riversides and meadows all over Europe.6 INTRODUCTION How this book works This guide covers over 300 of the most commonly seen tree species in Europe. the bark can become corky in some forms. There are a number of distinct types in this group. plovers. deciduous tree. deeply fissured with age. and may include leaves. dar The flowe and pend Species that exhibit greater or more complex features. often with drooping shoots. upcurved. ‘caerulea’ is highly valued as it is used for making cricket bats. which has slightly larger leaves that soon become smooth below. are given a full page. M SINGLE-PAGE ENTRIES in colour. flowers. the first y leaf to 20cm long DETAIL PICTURES These tinted boxes show individual parts of the tree in greater detail. the trees are arranged by family and by genus so that similar looking species appear together for ease of comparison. Eur SIMILAR SPECIES None – its deeply leaves make it highly distinctive. Most species have long legs that enable them to wade in shallow water. or fruit. and may be straight. also commonly planted. while the females are green and are borne on separate trees. LONG. Small green fruit open to release cottony seeds. finely toothed leaves end in long. Crack Willow (p. or are of special interest. M GROUP INTRODUCTIONS Each of the four chapters opens with an introductory page describing the group’s shared characteristics. a scaled drawing of the tree is set next to a drawing of an adult human. The trees are then divided into four easily recognized groups: Conifers with Needles. “shanks”. smooth below. DEEPLY CORNER CAPTION Describes the feature pictured above. becoming dark green above and blue-green below. The tiny flowers are borne in small catkins as the leaves emerge. a feature inherited from the Cork Oak. the males are yellow. spreading habit drooping branches leaf to 10cm long leaves taper to fine point green female catkin NOTES Describe striking or unique physical features that will help you identify the species. They are silky and hairy when young. The slender. SIMILAR SPECIES Hybrid Crack Willow (p. Avocet. sandpipers. Within each group. the green abo in catkins females in short-stalk 2cm long. and shoots that snap when bent. OCCURRENCE Woodland in S. BARK Grey-brown. or downcurved. seen in situ. Broadleaved Compound. While notched. godwits. including the Oystercatcher. and turn yellow-brown in autumn. SPREAD 20m. Conifers with Scales. SPREAD 25m. which has larger leaves.203). adding to the information provided in the main description. and deeply fissured. At the beginning of the book is a short introduction which focuses on the process of identification in the field. Broadleaved Simple. while their bills range from short to very long. spreading. White Willow is a vigorous. rugged.202). . Conifers with Needles This chapter includes a group of birds that are called waders in Europe and shorebirds in North America. GREY-BROWN narrow leaves are commonly found on riverbanks where the slightest breeze shows their blue-green undersides. or provide other interesting background information. A hybrid b this is a se shape and glossy. the wood of Salix alba var.

OCCURRENCE Woodland. and are edged with pointed teeth. emi-evergreen tree. the females inconspicuous.143). and are dark ove and grey-green beneath. They are rk green above and grey-white with hairs beneath. SPREAD: the width of the tree in the wild. usually with parent species. OCCURRENCE: the habitat in which the tree can be found and its geographic distribution. In these instances the species’ native origin is also given. The broadly spreading habit ked acorns. SIMILAR SPECIES: lists species that look similar to the one featured. more than one name may be listed. native to S. The flowers are borne s. PHOTOGRAPHS Illustrate the tree in its natural setting. Its leaves are very variable in d size. Some trees are not native to Europe and may only be found in cultivation in the region.HOW THIS BOOK WORKS 7 M SPECIES ENTRIES The typical page describes two species. full foliage means the tree is evergreen. ripen in ear. in cups covered by bristly scales. up to 2cm long. in which case a distinguishing feature is always given. y rope. DESCRIPTION Conveys the main features and distinguishing characteristics of the species. the males yellow-green dulous. All have one main photograph of the species. to . The figure represents a 6-ft human. the males yellow-green and pendulous. Acorns. Each entry follows the same easy-to-access structure.8m (6ft) CHAPTER HEADING COMMON NAME Some species do not have an English common name. The tree illustration represents the tree at maturity in the wild. sometimes corky. ripen in the second year. Tree height 20m Human figure represents a height of 1. which is taken in the plant’s natural setting in the wild.143). ANNOTATION Characteristic features of the species are picked out in the annotation. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. rounded top leaf to 12cm long OTHER KEY INFORMATION These coloured panels provide consistent information on the following points: HEIGHT: the tree’s height in the wild. In these cases the scientific name is given as the entry heading.134) and Cork Oak (p. commonly cultivated. This is supported by one or more detail pictures that show the individual parts of the tree in close-up.134). Cork Oak (p. scale artworks. the nconspicuous. HEIGHT 30m. fissured. lobed ombe Oak COLOUR BANDS Bands are colour-coded. often providing a distinguishing feature to help tell them apart. x hispanica (Fagaceae) between Turkey Oak (p. Where opinions differ. with a different colour for each of the four chapters. Annotations. . BARK Grey-brown. Species not profiled in this book may be listed. Bare branches on one side mean the tree is deciduous. ROADLEAVED SIMPLE ngarian Oak FAMILY NAME The botanical family name is given in brackets after the scientific name. slightly hairy shoots. SCALE MEASUREMENTS Two small scale drawings are placed next to each other in every entry as a rough indication of tree size. FLOWERING TIME: the season in which the tree produces flowers. SIMILAR SPECIES Turkey Oak (p. SPREAD 30m. frainetto (Fagaceae) . Europe. and a data box add key information and complete the entry. rs are borne in catkins. deciduous tree has stout. te to oblong leaves have numerous blunt-tipped larger ones sometimes notched.

but also study closely the leaves. fruit. some obvious. autumn red white line on under-side green upperside RED MAPLE young leaves bronzegreen GIANT FIR prominent veins silver green underside SILVER MAPLE older leaves SPRING CHERRY RAULI variegated NORWAY MAPLE . Note the shape of the tree and where and when it is growing. Remember that most plants are variable and features such as leaves can differ in size and shape. some less so.8 INTRODUCTION Identification Trees have many characters that can be used to identify them. Leaf Shape Tree leaves are extremely diverse. consisting of patches of colour. or just before they fall in autumn. and bark. for example). narrowing at both ends JAPANESE CRAB APPLE COMMON ASH COMMON BEECH palmate RED HORSE CHESTNUT MOUNT ETNA BROOM Leaf Colour and Markings Leaf colour and markings vary both between and within species. Assess the shape and size of all its elements. Some leaves change colour as they mature. Check if the leaf is simple (one individual blade) or compound (divided into leaflets) and how any leaflets are arranged (pinnately or palmately. even on the same tree. some leaves are marked with prominent veins or are variegated. flowers. scale-like rounded heartshaped needle-like MARITIME PINE ITALIAN CYPRESS JUDAS TREE oblong SPANISH CHESTNUT REDBUD slender and widest above the middle slender and widest below the middle broadest above the middle broadest below the middle PAPER BIRCH GRECIAN STRAWBERRY TREE CRACK WILLOW parallelsided with blunt tip leaflet MAGNOLIA OBOVATA simple pinnate broad.

depending on the species. toothed. opposite clustered alternate DOWNY OAK MOOSEWOOD irregular sprays HUNGARIAN OAK flattened sprays LAWSON CYPRESS ITALIAN CYPRESS whorls ATLAS CEDAR Flowers Note their size. colour. while oak leaves are alternate and sometimes in a cluster towards the ends of the shoots. Some trees may have separate male and female flowers. or scented. for example. have leaves that grown opposite one another. Look at them.I D E N T I F I C AT I O N 9 Leaf Margin and Texture The leaf margin can vary from untoothed to wavy. but also touch and smell the leaves. For example. or variously lobed. Plant parts can be characteristically rough. but also consider how and where flowers are borne on the plant. flowers at end of shoots female plant 1 2 1 female opens red separate male plant BAY LAUREL male opens 2 yellow NORWAY SPRUCE cluster single flowers in leaf axil STRAWBERRY TREE ALDER BUCKTHORN MALUS FLORENTINA MEDLAR . and form. toothed SILVER BIRCH ORIENTAL BEECH COMMON HOLLY lobed matt glossy PYRENEAN OAK COMMON BEECH HOP HORNBEAM hairy WHITE POPLAR Leaf Arrangement Leaf arrangement can provide clues to a tree’s identity. spiny. on the same or on different plants. All maples and ashes. hairy. evergreens usually have rather leathery leaves spiny while some species of poplar may be hairy wavy margin or downy on one or both sides.

or habit. Take note of Many evergreen trees. wide. the Indian Horse Chestnut and the Red Horse Chestnut appear similar. Fruits protect the tree’s seeds and facilitate seed distribution. COLUMNAR The Incense CONICAL Like most young conifers. characteristically coloured berries. all external factors. Age can also affect the shape SPREADING of a tree. hard-shelled nuts. this Norway Spruce is conical. FALLEN FRUIT These cones look similar. are spreading in habit. . but spruce cones fall from the tree intact while fir cones break up on the tree. other trees bear very different forms of fruit. Even fruits that have fallen to the ground can help identification. acorn in cup hard shell AUSTRIAN PINE SPANISH FIR contains multiple seeds contains single seeds CULTIVATED APPLE enclosed in bracts CHERRY LAUREL woody husk ENGLISH OAK green husk BLACK WALNUT small and woody WALNUT HORNBEAM ORIENTAL BEECH cylindrical pods broad wings Silver Fir Oriental Spruce CAROB RED GUM PAPERBARK MAPLE DIFFERENT FRUITS When not in bloom. including fleshy. SHRUB-LIKE This exposed Phoenician Juniper grows as a shrub.10 INTRODUCTION eggshaped cones single upright cone Fruit While different types of cone help to distinguish conifers. but be aware that shape can vary greatly: a tree growing in the open will differ in shape to one of the same species growing in a dense forest. smooth sparsely spiny INDIAN HORSE CHESTNUT RED HORSE CHESTNUT Habit Observing a tree’s shape. can Cedar is taller than it is help species identification. until you observe their very different fruit. like this Cretan Maple. some fruits have wings to aid wind-borne dispersal. and flattened pods.

it also produces colour and textural differences between young and old specimens. at least until the following season’s leaves open. Tree species found in a lowland valley are likely to be very different to those found high in the mountains. FLOWERING The Norway Maple flowers before its leaves appear. MOUNTAINS Conifers. COASTLINES The Aleppo Pine is native to the slopes of the Mediterranean coast. the Sycamore flowers open later. Some trees. SYCAMORE NORWAY MAPLE HOLM OAK TURKEY OAK SEASONALITY The Holm Oak is evergreen while its cousin the Turkey Oak is deciduous. such as the Tibetan Cherry.I D E N T I F I C AT I O N 11 Bark As a tree grows. due to their preference for specific environmental conditions. . Habitat Some trees are naturally widespread but others. another similar-looking tree may flower only after the young leaves are produced. such as the Bosnian Pine. RIVERBANKS The Alder tree is likely to be found by rivers and in other wet areas. its trunk expands causing the exterior layers of dead bark to peel or crack. have very distinctive bark colour. may be confined to certain habitats and particular geographical regions. This expansion creates various characteristic bark patterns. Deciduous trees lose their leaves in autumn but evergreens retain them. A tree may produce its flowers before its leaves open. smooth peeling (vertical) peeling (horizontal) JAPANESE CEDAR glossy redbrown young HIMALAYAN BIRCH SMOOTH ARIZONA CYPRESS old flaking (plates) ridges and fissures GREY BIRCH squares WINGNUT patchy DATE PLUM SILVER BIRCH TIBETAN CHERRY GREY-BUDDED SNAKE-BARK MAPLE Seasons Flowering time and leaf persistence can be defining features for a tree. thrive in mountainous regions.

The evergreens usually have leathery leaves marked with white lines of pores on one side. Most are evergreen. firs. The Aleppo Pine (pictured) is an example found on the Mediterranean coast. such as the pines.Conifers with Needles This widely distributed group contains many of the most familiar conifers. such as the larches. GIANT FIR SUBALPINE FIR KOREAN FIR CALIFORNIA REDWOOD . both features that help them to reduce water loss. and cedars but there are a few deciduous examples. spruces.

The conerounded top like flowers are green but gradually turn brown. The long shoots bear single leaves while the short side shoots bear leaf clusters. SIMILAR SPECIES None – very distinctive among commonly grown trees.CONIFERS WITH NEEDLES 13 Maidenhair Tree Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae) The only survivor of an ancient group of trees widespread before the conifers. Maidenhair Tree has distinctive notched leaves borne on slender stalks. BARK Grey-brown and smooth at first. Chile and S. later ridged and fissured. The rotting fruit has a particularly spreading habit unpleasant odour. glossy dark green leaves ending in sharp points. leaf to 7. HEIGHT 30m or more. BARK Grey and wrinkled. SPREAD 15m. this evergreen tree has shoots that are densely covered by oval. The flowers of this deciduous tree are small and yellow-green. the rounded females at the ends of the shoots. Argentina. male flower cluster leaf to 5cm long shoots densely covered with leaves cone covered by thin scales HEIGHT 30m. Male and female flowers are borne on separate trees – the cylindrical males on side shoots. native to S. SIMILAR SPECIES None. . Female trees produce fleshy. plum-like seeds with edible kernels.5cm long MATT GREEN leaves are fan-shaped with veins radiating from the base. males are in catkin-like clusters and females are single or in pairs. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. OCCURRENCE Cultivated (in gardens and city streets). FLOWERING TIME Spring. Monkey Puzzle Araucaria araucana (Araucariaceae) Also known as the Chile Pine. native to China. in autumn they turn bright yellow. FLOWERING TIME Summer. OVERLAPPING leaves often remain attached to the trunk for many years. SPREAD 20m.

leaves arranged spirally yellow-brown flower clusters ROUNDED cones to 4cm wide. peeling bark slender. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. BARK Red-brown. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. SPREAD 10m. are borne at the end of the shoots. the evergreen Chinese Fir is later columnar. ripening to brown. China and Vietnam. SPREAD 15m. which has similar foliage when young but has more sharply pointed leaves. Male flowers in small yellow-green clusters are borne in the leaf axils. green at first. tapering to a soft point. have pointed tips. females are yellow-green. both are borne at the ends of the shoots. BARK Red-brown. leaves arranged spirally leaf to 1. SIMILAR SPECIES Taiwania cryptomerioide. peeling in fibrous strips. marked with two white bands beneath. bright green leaves that are broadest at the base. FLOWERING TIME Spring. pointed leaves and rounded cones are distinct. native to Japan. this tree has slender. while the females form rounded cones. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. leaf to 6cm long HEIGHT 25m. Its bright green leaves. While male flower clusters are yellow-brown. cone to 2cm wide red-brown. SIMILAR SPECIES None – its long.14 CONIFERS WITH NEEDLES Japanese Cedar Cryptomeria japonica (Cupressaceae) SLENDER needles curve forward along the shoot and female cones are borne at the shoot tips. columnar and spread on either side of the habit shoot. ridged. Chinese Fir Cunninghamia lanceolata (Cupressaceae) Conical when young.5cm long A conical evergreen. green ripening to brown. native to S. . bright green leaves conical habit HEIGHT 30m.

to upright and tree-like. montana is common in Arctic and alpine regions. peeling in vertical strips. PROSTRATE and creeping. or sometimes a tree. Many selections are glossy green grown in gardens and the needles creeping J. blue-black berrylike cones up to 6mm long. BARK Red-brown with longitudinal ridges. and is found at any time of the year. covered at first with a white bloom. which has leaves with two NOTE This is the only juniper native to N. marked with a broad white band on the upper surface. white bands above and red-brown fruit. . The flowers are very small. spreading habit cone to 6mm long leaf to 1. and arranged in whorls of three on the shoots.CONIFERS WITH NEEDLES 15 Common Juniper Juniperus communis (Cupressaceae) This evergreen conifer is of variable habit. Europe. this species is of very variable habit. communis var.2cm long HEIGHT 6m. Female plants bear fleshy. SIMILAR SPECIES Prickly Juniper (p. The fruit takes two years to ripen. from bushy and spreading. males are yellow and females green. it is much more common in S. OCCURRENCE Heaths and chalky hills throughout Europe. FLOWERING TIME Spring.16). SPREAD 1–3m. or a bushy shrub. growing in clusters on separate plants. bushy. Its sharp-pointed needles are glossy green on both surfaces. Europe than the Common Juniper.

FLOWERING TIME Spring. OCCURRENCE Dry hillsides in S. SPREAD 3m. which has similar flowers.16 CONIFERS WITH NEEDLES Syrian Juniper Juniperus drupacea (Cupressaceae) ORANGE-BROWN in colour. OCCURRENCE Dry hillsides in S.15). This evergreen tree has a dense. SPREAD 10m. Its needle-like. which have smaller cones. peels in thin. males yellow and females green. fleshy cones. borne in clusters. other needleleaved junipers (Juniperus). conical crown cone to 2. on separate plants. prickly leaves HEIGHT 15m. ripening to purple-black.15). in long strips. the bark of this species. dark green beneath and have two blue-white bands on the upper surface. Its large. Rounded berry-like cones. BARK Red-brown to purple-brown. conical to spreading habit leaf to 2. vertical strips. distinct among junipers. large shrub or small tree of conical to spreading habit.5cm long HEIGHT 15m. sharppointed leaves are green beneath and marked with two blue-white bands above. SIMILAR SPECIES Common Juniper (p. Greece. are small. conical to columnar and upright habit. SIMILAR SPECIES Common Juniper (p. peeling in thin strips. Europe.5cm long glossy green foliage leaf to 2. up to 1.5cm long. Prickly Juniper Juniperus oxycedrus (Cupressaceae) An evergreen. . peeling PURPLE when ripe. FLOWERING TIME Spring. which has shorter leaves. like that of many junipers. with only one white band on the upper surface. turn from red-brown to purple when ripe. BARK Orange-brown. sharppointed leaves.5cm long slender. they are glossy. the berry-like cones nestle among the whorls of dark green. The flowers. are green and bloomy at first. this juniper has needle-like leaves in whorls of three.

conical in habit. comes into leaf much later. The green female flowers develop even in the absence of male flowers. They are borne on oppositely arranged side shoots that fall in autumn after the leaves turn yellow. NOTE The habit.CONIFERS WITH NEEDLES 17 Dawn Redwood Metasequoia glyptostroboides (Taxodiaceae) A large. leaf to 2. and usually found only in areas with hot summers. conical habit dark green foliage redbrown bark HEIGHT 30m. distinctive bark. and produces “cypress knees” at the base. SIMILAR SPECIES Swamp Cypress (p.5cm wide TURNING yellow-brown or red-brown before falling in autumn. BARK Red-brown. peeling in thin strips on mature trees. China. the Dawn Redwood’s slender. which has alternate side shoots. even in winter. producing rounded green cones that ripen to brown. FLOWERING TIME Early spring.to red-brown.19). native to C. catkin-like clusters. with the males in drooping. . deciduous tree. SPREAD 10m. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. and the opposite shoots or buds make this tree easily recognizable. The flowers are small. but turn dark green later.5cm long leaves on either side of shoot cone 2. soft leaves emerge pale green early in the year. the leaves are borne on shoots that are themselves deciduous.

native to USA (California). The flowers are borne in clusters at the end of the shoots. which has very different foliage and much larger cones. this evergreen is the world’s tallest tree. Also known as the Coast Redwood. woody cones. SIMILAR SPECIES California Redwood (above). the outer bark gives Redwood forests a unique earthy smell. thick. native to USA (Oregon and California). FLOWERING TIME Late winter to early spring. BARK Red-brown. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. thick. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. and fibrous. green at first. columnar habit leaves to 2cm long red-brown cone to 3cm long dark green foliage HEIGHT 30–50m. . and fibrous. SIMILAR SPECIES Giant Redwood (below). while the green female develops into egg-shaped. BARK Red-brown. developing into red-brown. SPREAD 15m. The flowers are small. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. females green. the male yellow-brown. and the foliage is rough to the touch. are arranged on both sides of the shoots.5cm long HEIGHT 30–50m. The dark green leaves are small and slender. to 8mm long. yellow male flower cone to 7. the male is yellow. conical habit FIBROUS and rough in texture. has smaller cones and different foliage. exceeding 100m in its native habitat. soft. ending in sharp points. Its dark green leaves are marked with two white bands beneath. this conical evergreen reaches a massive 80m or more in its native California. soft. with pointed tips. woody cones. later ripening to brown. Giant Redwood Sequoiadendron giganteum (Taxodiaceae) Variously known as the Big Tree or Wellingtonia.18 CONIFERS WITH NEEDLES California Redwood Sequoia sempervirens (Taxodiaceae) NEEDLE-SHAPED leaves. SPREAD 15m.

and does not produce “cypress knees”. Its deciduous shoots are arranged alternately on the branches. trees commonly develop “cypress knees” – woody protuberances that grow vertically from the soil around the tree trunk. FLOWERING TIME Spring. SPREAD 15m. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. HEIGHT 30m. thin.17). native to S. often buttressed at the base. USA. as well as the alternate shoots and “cypress knees”. (the knee-like bumps on older trees). the leaves are arranged on either side of the shoots. NARROW. and rough. . When grown near water. soft. comes into leaf much earlier. which ripen to brown. The green female flowers are found in small clusters at the base of the male catkins and develop into rounded green cones up to 3cm wide. SIMILAR SPECIES Dawn Redwood (p. are distinctive features. alternate shoots deciduous foliage leaf to 2cm long leaves arranged on either side of shoot columnar habit NOTE The deciduous foliage. BARK Grey-brown to red-brown. and flattened. peeling in vertical strips. which has leaves on opposite shoots.CONIFERS WITH NEEDLES 19 Swamp Cypress Taxodium distichum (Taxodiaceae) The Swamp or Bald Cypress is conical when young. The small male flowers hang in catkins up to 20cm long. but becomes columnar with age.E.

from the Pyrenees and Alps to the Balkan Mountains. the Silver Fir is often naturalized and is widely planted for forestry. SIMILAR SPECIES King Boris Fir (right). the long. becoming columnar with age. cracked plates may develop on older trees. notched at the tips. The ripe cones break up on the tree before falling. The yellow male flower pointed crown clusters hang beneath the shoots. SPREAD 15m. BARK Grey and smooth. Its shoots have a dense covering of hairs and end in red-brown buds that are not usually sticky. dark green foliage NOTE One of the commonest firs in European mountains. the leaves are marked with two white or greenish white bands beneath. yellow male flowers leaf to 3cm long cone to 15cm long HEIGHT 50m. developing into erect. OCCURRENCE Mountain forests. while female clusters are green and upright.20 CONIFERS WITH NEEDLES Silver Fir Abies alba (Pinaceae) WHITE or greenish white bands on the undersides of the leaves make them look silvery. becoming columnar with age glossy. which has bolder white markings on the leaves. This evergreen tree is conical at first. cylindrical cones with bracts projecting outwards. spruces (Picea). . are sometimes confused with firs but have pendulous cones that fall intact. conical habit. FLOWERING TIME Spring. It is used as a Christmas tree in many parts of Europe. spread outwards on both sides of the shoots. Slender and glossy dark green above. flat leaves.

BARK Dark grey and smooth. cylindrical cones that break up on the tree before falling. dark green leaves. Slender. leaf to 3cm long HEIGHT 30m. are borne on smooth shoots that end in sticky buds. which has smoother shoots. Greek Fir (below). the glossy. spread outwards on both sides of the hairy shoots. BARK Grey and smooth. downturned bracts. with two white bands beneath. cracks into plates on older trees. Greek Fir Abies cephalonica (Pinaceae) Conical when young. OCCURRENCE Mountains from Bulgaria to N. evergreen tree has features that are intermediate between the Silver Fir (left) and the Greek Fir (below). this evergreen tree tends to become columnar with age. with white undersides. which has fainter white bands on its leaves. FLOWERING TIME Spring. SIMILAR SPECIES King Boris Fir (above). SPREAD 15m. the cylindrical cones are 15cm long. while the female flower outline clusters are green and develop into upright. OCCURRENCE Mountains in Greece. cracks with age. SPREAD 15m. evergreen leaves white bands grey bark HEIGHT 30m. Male flower clusters narrow are yellow. leaf to 3cm long conical shape SHARPLY pointed and linear. and have protruding. spreading branches BROWN and upright. this conical. which has hairy shoots. narrower at both ends. whorled. Its leaves have two white bands below and are borne on hairy shoots that end in sticky buds. female clusters are green and develop into cylindrical cones up to 15cm long.CONIFERS WITH NEEDLES 21 King Boris Fir Abies borisii-regis (Pinaceae) Possibly of hybrid origin. Male flower clusters are yellow. The tips of downturned bracts protrude between the cone scales. sharp-pointed leaves. . Greece. SIMILAR SPECIES Silver Fir (left). FLOWERING TIME Spring.

FLOWERING TIME Spring. are upswept above. SIMILAR SPECIES None – no other species has leaves that are blue-green on both sides. the yellow male flower clusters are red at first. needle-like. SPREAD 15m. the shoots. 2 white bands below leaf SLENDER leaves spread out in two ranks on either side of the shoots. cracks with age. SPREAD 10m. the female clusters are yellowgreen and upright. large. BARK Grey-brown and smooth on young trees. evergreen tree are bright green above. OCCURRENCE Cultivated (in gardens and for forestry). leaves with rounded tips. The leaves are arranged neatly on each side of the shoots. native to W. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. The upright. Giant Fir Abies grandis (Pinaceae) The slender leaves of this fast-growing. Hanging beneath the shoots are the male flower clusters. maturing into erect. and spreading beneath. conical habit HEIGHT 50m or more. scaly and ridged with age. SIMILAR SPECIES None – the leaf arrangement is quite distinct. cylindrical green cones that ripen to brown and then break up on the tree. These are green when young. USA and Baja California. The slender leaves are blue-green to grey-green on both sides with blunt tips. North America. with two white bands beneath. or red before they open.22 CONIFERS WITH NEEDLES Colorado White Fir Abies concolor (Pinaceae) LONG. which are yellow. BARK Grey and smooth on young trees. Hanging beneath the shoots. cylindrical cones. leaf to 6cm long Conical when young. FLOWERING TIME Spring. columnar shape male flower cluster HEIGHT 30m. this evergreen tree becomes columnar with age. green female flower clusters mature into erect. native to W. . ripening to brown.

dark green leaves. These are purple at first. are borne in clusters among the shiny. evergreen tree. purple when young. Male flower clusters are yellow. In separate clusters. branches slightly ascending HEIGHT 10m. brown when ripe. evergreen tree becomes columnar when old. SIMILAR SPECIES Noble Fir (p. has larger cones. North America. has bluer leaves and corky bark. The distinctive. lasiocarpa var.CONIFERS WITH NEEDLES 23 Korean Fir Abies koreana (Pinaceae) A small. later breaking up on the tree. FLOWERING TIME Spring. slender leaves with blunt. with resin blisters. the pointed crown females are purple. Corkbark Fir (A. native to South Korea. cylindrical cones up to 10cm long. leaf to 2cm long cone to 7cm long UPRIGHT cones. arizonica). They are dark green above. silvery white bands beneath. SPREAD 3m. narrow leaves are upright above the shoots.27). . SIMILAR SPECIES None. cracks with age. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. with two white bands beneath and a notched tip. the Korean Fir has rather short. with two broad. native to W. small cones turn brown when mature. Subalpine Fir Abies lasiocarpa (Pinaceae) This narrowly conical. FLOWERING TIME Spring. smooth at first. Its slender leaves are grey-green. and break up on the tree. BARK Dark grey-brown. conical. sometimes notched tips. with the central leaves pointing forwards. conical habit becoming columnar with age LONG. tinged with red before they open. BARK Grey and smooth. spreading beneath. leaf to 4cm long HEIGHT 20m. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. The yellow male flower clusters hang under the shoots and the upright red-purple female flowers ripen to purple. SPREAD 8m. maturing to upright.

leaf to 1. evergreen tree with stout. cone that breaks up on the tree when ripe. SPREAD 10m. cylindrical.5cm long two pale bands beneath stout. alternate leaves are dark green above with two greenish white bands beneath. nearly smooth shoots HEIGHT 15m. FLOWERING TIME Spring. where it has been reduced to a small population by felling and grazing. reduced to a few trees in its native habitat. Sicily. the sticky buds on the shoots and is much more widely distributed in the mountains of Europe. pointed leaves. rounded at the apex.24 CONIFERS WITH NEEDLES Sicilian Fir Abies nebrodensis (Pinaceae) STOUT shoots bear the rigid. cracking with age. below the shoots. maturing to an upright. conical habit A very rare species. the Sicilian Fir is a broadly. dark brown cones.20). . BARK Orange-brown. OCCURRENCE Mountain slopes in N. Male flower clusters are yellow-green. which has longer leaves and lacks NOTE This is the only species of fir native to Sicily. and male flower clusters. conical. SIMILAR SPECIES Silver Fir (p. nearly smooth shoots ending in sticky buds. The rather short. cylindrical. while females are green and upright.

broadly conical habit white lines leaf to 4cm long yellow male flower cluster dense.27) are two of the most similar species. slender leaves are densely arranged. maturing to purplebrown. dark green foliage NOTE The lush foliage with forward-pointing leaves. LINEAR and notched at the tip. . The broadly cylindrical. They have conspicuous. Turkey. SIMILAR SPECIES Certain uncommon species such as Greek Fir (p. cracking into small plates with age. those on the underside of the shoots spread horizontally. the closely related A. BARK Grey and smooth. which may also be red at first. evergreen tree is of conical habit.E. OCCURRENCE Cultivated (sometimes planted for forestry and grown as a Christmas tree). The cones break up on the tree when ripe. with two white bands on the lower surface of each needle. hang beneath the shoot.21) and Noble Fir (p. distinguish this species from other firs. the leaves are glossy and dark green. borne separately at the shoot tips. HEIGHT 30m or more. Its alternate. protruding. those above point forwards. upright cones are initially green. Yellow male flower clusters. bornmuelleriana has smooth shoots. The female flower clusters are green and upright. and the conspicuous cone bracts. FLOWERING TIME Spring. downcurved bracts which emerge from between the scales. SPREAD 15m.CONIFERS WITH NEEDLES 25 Caucasian Fir Abies nordmanniana (Pinaceae) This vigorous. native to the Caucasus and N.

the Spanish Fir has linear. The cones have pointed tips and ripen from green to brown. Spain. square plates with age. SIMILAR SPECIES The only native fir in its range. evergreen tree. finally breaking up on the tree. some forms such as ‘Glauca’ have bluer foliage. OCCURRENCE Mountain slopes around Ronda in S. SPREAD 10m. grey-green to blue-green leaves. are red at first. BARK Dark grey. FLOWERING TIME Spring. cracking into small.26 CONIFERS WITH NEEDLES Spanish Fir Abies pinsapo (Pinaceae) SHORT and rigid. Also. . These are densely arranged and stand out all around the smooth shoots. standing out all around the shoot. smooth. they are sharp-pointed in young plants but blunt in mature ones. rigid. Borne in separate clusters. the grey-green to grey blue leaves are bluntly pointed. The short. broadly conical. later opening yellow. cone to 15cm long leaf to 2cm long male flower cluster grey-green to blue-green foliage NOTE HEIGHT 20m. dense habit A very distinctive. rigid leaves arranged around the shoot distinguish this species from other firs. borne in clusters on the undersides of the shoots. it can only be confused with some uncommon relatives found in N. or at least with a parting above. also planted in the streets. Male flowers. the female flowers are green and upright. Africa. other firs have leaves spreading either side of the shoot.

They are borne singly on long shoots. The slender. radially above and spreading to either side below. The male flower clusters are yellowbrown and upright. and are densely arranged on hairy shoots. FLOWERING TIME Autumn. The ripe cones break up on the tree. in separate clusters. linear leaves are blue. green at first. before falling off. have smaller cones with less conspicuous bracts. female flowers. . BARK Dark grey.28).23). cracking with age. SPREAD 20m. dense foliage columnar habit forestry. BARK Pale silvery grey. broadly conical habit cone to 8cm long BARREL-SHAPED cones break up on the tree once they ripen. native to the Atlas Mountains in Algeria and Morocco. The shoots have upcurved tips. HEIGHT 40m or more. cracking into scaly plates on old trees. USA. needle-like. and in whorls on the short side shoots. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. up to 25cm long. OCCURRENCE Cultivated in gardens and for tapering on top UPRIGHT brown cones.to greygreen above. which has a flattened and tiered habit. SPREAD 15m. ripening to brown over two to three years. and to 2cm long. downwardpointing bracts. are reddish or green and upright. Clusters of tiny female flowers mature in one year to barrel-shaped cones. SIMILAR SPECIES Other Abies species such as Subalpine Fir (p. FLOWERING TIME Spring. the evergreen Noble Fir becomes columnar with age. leaf to 3cm long Atlas Cedar Cedrus atlantica (Pinaceae) This evergreen has dark to blue-green leaves that are slender.CONIFERS WITH NEEDLES 27 Noble Fir Abies procera (Pinaceae) Narrowly conical when young. male flower cluster to 5cm long HEIGHT 30m. are densely covered with long. Male flower clusters are red tinged with yellow and borne on the undersides of the shoots. native to W. SIMILAR SPECIES Cedar of Lebanon (p. with two silvery white bands beneath.

which has upcurved shoot tips. evergreen tree. but none has its distinctive nodding shoot tips. flattened branches SPREADING branches give the tree its distinctive layered appearance. vertical cracks develop with age. SPREAD 20m. native to the Himalayas. SPREAD 15m. SIMILAR SPECIES Other cedars (Cedrus). Replaced in Cyprus by C. later ripen to purple-brown. cracking on older trees. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. and Turkey. The clusters of tiny female flowers mature in one year to barrelshaped cones.28 CONIFERS WITH NEEDLES Deodar Cedrus deodara (Pinaceae) UPRIGHT. barrelshaped cones. Syria. BARK Dark grey. from Afghanistan to Tibet. to 7cm long. slender. FLOWERING TIME Autumn. are purple. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. barrel-shaped cones. . brevifolia with shorter leaves and cones. but with age develops its characteristic broad head with flattened and tiered branches. cone to 12cm yellow male flower cluster leaf to 4cm long long HEIGHT 30m. green at first. The upright male flower clusters. and needle-like. to 5cm long. cone to 12cm long leaf to 3cm long HEIGHT 30m. FLOWERING TIME Autumn. Green to grey-green. The leaves are dark green to grey-green. they are borne singly on young shoots and in dense whorls on short side shoots. conical habit A broadly conical. are upright. Cedar of Lebanon Cedrus libani (Pinaceae) This evergreen tree is conical when young. slender and needle-like. maturing to brown. but turn yellow-brown when open and shedding pollen.27). yellow-brown when open. BARK Dark grey. the Deodar has larger leaves than other cedars. The females are tiny. native to Lebanon. borne singly on long shoots and in dense whorls on short side shoots. The male flower clusters. SIMILAR SPECIES Atlas Cedar (p.

commonly planted for timber elsewhere. open in early spring. OCCURRENCE Mountain forests in C. drooping branches. long yellow shoots but are borne in dense whorls on short side shoots. SPREAD 15m. which has cones with the scales curved outwards. while the upright female clusters are red or yellow. bright green leaves. upright cone scales. on the underside of the shoots. cone to 4cm long . Europe. drooping branches female flower cluster male flower cluster HEIGHT 30–40m. FLOWERING TIME Spring. becoming red-brown and cracking into scaly plates with age.CONIFERS WITH NEEDLES 29 European Larch Larix decidua (Pinaceae) This fast-growing species is deciduous.30). are yellow. each up to 4cm long. and yellow shoots that distinguish this species from the other larches. OVAL red young cones with upright scales are clearly visible on the slender. turning yellow in autumn. NOTE It is the deciduous leaves. conical habit thin. soft. SIMILAR SPECIES Japanese Larch (p. They are arranged singly on distinctive. Its slender. Male flower clusters. interspersed with needle-like leaves in clusters. The egg-shaped cones have upwardpointing scales and ripen in the first autumn after flowering. BARK Grey and smooth.

soft grey-green to green leaves. Its slender. green to grey-green foliage HEIGHT 30m.to grey-green leaves that open in early spring. SPREAD 15m. Male flower clusters are yellow. creamy to pink female flowers are borne in larger clusters on top of the shoots. blue. are arranged singly on long shoots. SIMILAR SPECIES European Larch (p. FLOWERING TIME Spring. conical habit male flowers female flowers HEIGHT 30m. They are arranged singly on long shoots.30 CONIFERS WITH NEEDLES Japanese Larch Larix kaempferi (Pinaceae) CONE scales curve backwards. making the cones look like rosettes. Dunkeld Larch Larix x marschlinsii (Pinaceae) This deciduous tree is a hybrid between the European Larch (p. but are borne in dense whorls on short side shoots. BARK Red-brown. cracking into scaly plates with age. which turn yellow in autumn. but are borne in dense whorls on short side shoots. FLOWERING TIME Spring. SPREAD 15m. BARK Red-brown. turning yellow in autumn.29) and Japanese Larch (above). hence its alternative common name Hybrid Larch. while the upright female flowers are cream to pink or red.29). cone to 3cm long conical habit leaves in dense whorls female flower cluster UPRIGHT. cone to 3cm long leaf to 4cm long This deciduous tree is characterized by slender and soft. borne on the undersides of the shoots. Male flowers are drooping and yellow. growing scaly with age. . OCCURRENCE Cultivated.29) has upright cone scales and bright green leaves. while upright. OCCURRENCE Cultivated (particularly for timber). native to Japan. often occurs when seed is collected from Japanese Larch (above) growing near European Larch (p. SIMILAR SPECIES None – it is intermediate between its parent species. egg-shaped cones have scales curved slightly outwards.

Flowers of both sexes bloom separately on the same tree. are arranged on stout orange-brown shoots. developing scaly plates when mature. upright evergreen. Many garden selections are grown. SIMILAR SPECIES Serbian Spruce (p. four-sided. particularly dwarf forms. HEIGHT 50m. . leaf to 2cm long large. with pointed tips. FLOWERING TIME Late spring.32).CONIFERS WITH NEEDLES 31 Norway Spruce Picea abies (Pinaceae) A vigorous. the female flower clusters are also upright and red. conical tip CYLINDRICAL. which has smaller cones. from Scandinavia to the Alps and Greece. Its slender. The male flower clusters are upright. on mountains in the south of its range. OCCURRENCE Forests. SPREAD 15m. the Norway Spruce grows very large and has many cultivars and varieties. upright tree cone to 15cm long female flowers male flowers NOTE The Norway Spruce is the common spruce of Europe and frequently used as a Christmas tree. BARK Purple. reddish at first becoming yellow when ripe and releasing pollen. Widely planted for timber and as an ornamental species in gardens. hanging brown cones have scales that are notched at the tips. dark green leaves. and fall intact from the tree when ripe. developing into pendulous green cones that turn brown when ripe.

with pendulous shoots.31). leaf to 2cm long two white bands on leaf underside NOTE HEIGHT 30m. This species is found very rarely in the wild and is now being threatened by hybridization with the planted Norway Spruce (p. flattened. conical to columnar habit Conical when young. purple-brown cones. and needle-like. yellow when open and releasing pollen. commonly planted elsewhere. the leaves are glossy. the evergreen Serbian Spruce eventually becomes narrow and columnar.34). FLOWERING TIME Late spring. OCCURRENCE Native only to limestone mountain slopes near the River Drina in Serbia. Slender. the male flowers are red at first. pale brown shoots but some are all around. omorika ‘Pendula’ is a garden selection with conspicuously drooping shoots that can spread across the ground at the base of the tree. the females are red and ripen the same year to form pendulous. dark green above with two white bands beneath. SPREAD 10m. SIMILAR SPECIES Sitka Spruce (p. which lacks the downswept branches. that fall intact from the tree when ripe. cracking into scaly plates with age. P. . Male and female flowers are borne in separate clusters. BARK Purple-brown. to 6cm long. narrowly egg-shaped.32 CONIFERS WITH NEEDLES Serbian Spruce Picea omorika (Pinaceae) FLATTENED leaves lie mostly above the hairy.

female flowers are red. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. the Oriental Spruce is conical at first. leaf to 8mm long narrowly conical habit cone to 10cm long HEIGHT 40m or more. yellow when open. and falls from the tree intact when ripe. later brown and sticky with resin. ripening to a slender. SIMILAR SPECIES None – the very short leaves and narrow cones of this spruce make it distinctive. Male flowers are red at first.CONIFERS WITH NEEDLES 33 Oriental Spruce Picea orientalis (Pinaceae) An evergreen tree of dense habit. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. eventually flaking into small plates as the tree ages. dark green and have four sides which end in a blunt point. Male and female flower clusters are borne separately on the same tree. The leaves point forward on hairy pale shoots. ‘Aurea’ is a very striking form with bright yellow young foliage. SPREAD 10m. BARK Pinkish brown. native to the Caucasus and N. NEEDLE-LIKE. NOTE Commonly planted in large gardens. .E. Turkey. The cylindrical cone is purple at first. becoming columnar with age. very short and rigid leaves are glossy. pendulous cone.

the mature cones fall from the tree intact. glossy. females are green. conical habit CYLINDRICAL. pointed leaves. . Sitka Spruce Picea sitchensis (Pinaceae) Vigorous and large. SIMILAR SPECIES None – no other common spruce has flattened. in separate clusters. OCCURRENCE Cultivated (particularly as a forestry tree). FLOWERING TIME Late spring. scaly. flaking in large plates. particularly when young. native to W. maturing into pendulous.34 CONIFERS WITH NEEDLES Blue Spruce Picea pungens (Pinaceae) PENDULOUS. narrowly conical habit cone to 10cm long HEIGHT 25m. dark green leaves are flattened. elongated green cones are covered with toothtipped scales and ripen to brown. pale brown cones. while the female clusters are green. and pale brown. this dense. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. BARK Purple-grey. Male flowers are red turning yellow. hanging. SIMILAR SPECIES None – the blue foliage and sharp leaves are distinctive. leaf to 3cm long Narrow and conical when young. native to W. with a pointed tip and two white bands beneath. evergreen tree becomes columnar with age. USA (Rocky Mountains). North America. BARK Purple-grey. this evergreen tree with a conical habit has smooth shoots that are white to pale brown. SPREAD 15m. cone to 10cm long leaf to 3cm long HEIGHT 50m. ranging in colour from greygreen to bright silvery blue. SPREAD 7m. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. Its four-sided leaves are rigid and sharppointed. Mature cones fall from the tree intact. The clusters of male flowers are red. Its slender.

borne singly. BARK Orange-brown. Long-stalked cones. . SIMILAR SPECIES Aleppo Pine (p. native to Canary Islands. HEIGHT 30m. Canary Island Pine Pinus canariensis (Pinaceae) This evergreen tree is conical at first later becoming columnar. females towards the tips. OCCURRENCE Cultivated (in plantations in the Mediterranean region).CONIFERS WITH NEEDLES 35 Calabrian Pine Pinus brutia (Pinaceae) A conical to columnar. BARK Orange-brown. SPREAD 10m. borne in clusters of three. Mediterranean region from Bulgaria to Greece and Turkey. The yellow flowers are in clusters. FLOWERING TIME Late spring to early summer. Young plants have bright silvery blue leaves. SPREAD 15m. dark green leaves with rough margins. Borne on short stalks and pointing forwards along the shoots. and this foliage is sometimes retained for several years. FLOWERING TIME Late spring to early summer. these pines grow on the volcanic mountain slopes of the Canary Islands. rounded crown leaf to 15cm long cone to 11cm long HEIGHT 20m. SIMILAR SPECIES None. the glossy brown cones ripen in the second autumn and fall from the tree intact. OCCURRENCE E. the males at the base of the shoots. cracking with age.37). dark green leaves in pairs. ripen in the second autumn. is more widespread and has bright green foliage. to 20cm long. evergreen tree. MATURE trees can reach a large size in their native habitat. It has slender. the Calabrian Pine has slender. thick. pointed. male flower cluster leaf to 30cm long columnar habit of mature tree DISTINCTLY conical when young.

purple-brown. SPREAD 10m. leaf to 10cm long HEIGHT 25m. These mature to an egg-shaped. which has longer leaves. . opening yellow when narrow. The slender. NOTE The cones do not open – the large seeds are either taken by birds or are released when the cone has fallen and decayed. and densely arranged in clusters of five. this evergreen tree becomes columnar with age and has greenish shoots covered in orange-brown hairs.36 CONIFERS WITH NEEDLES Swiss Stone Pine Pinus cembra (Pinaceae) SLENDER. woody cone. The closely related and similar P. and larger. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. SIMILAR SPECIES Macedonian Pine (p. the Alps and Carpathians. pointed. aromatic leaves are arranged in forward-pointing clusters of five on densely hairy shoots. OCCURRENCE Forests on mountain slopes. The male flower clusters are purple-red. which fall intact from the tree when ripe. the leaves are bright green on the outer surface and blue-grey on the inner surfaces. up to 8cm long. Narrow and conical when young. releasing pollen. scaly with age. less woody cones. BARK Grey-brown.40). bright green. females are red conical habit and in separate clusters. sibrica grows over large areas of Siberia.

These often persist. native to W. stout stalks.CONIFERS WITH NEEDLES 37 Beach Pine Pinus contorta (Pinaceae) The evergreen Beach Pine is usually bushy and spreading when small. latifolia). twisted. spreads with age. the cone scales end in a sharp point. SIMILAR SPECIES Calabrian Pine (p. FLOWERING TIME Late spring to early summer. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. open. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. leaf to 12cm long cone to 12cm long HEIGHT 20m. Aleppo Pine Pinus halepensis (Pinaceae) This evergreen. cracking into squares. up to 5cm long. leaf to 5cm long male flower clusters young green cone broadly conical habit EGG-SHAPED. has unopened cones. North America. later red-brown and fissured. open. Male flower clusters are yellow. SIMILAR SPECIES Mountain Pine (p. dark green leaves are densely borne in pairs on the shoots. spreading habit LARGE. The short. HEIGHT 25m. . SPREAD 10m. the red female flowers mature in the second autumn into brown cones. later becoming conical. BARK Grey. which has cones that point forwards. for some time on the tree. The very slender. BARK Red-brown.35). conical cones point backwards along the shoots and often persist on the tree. OCCURRENCE Dry slopes in the Mediterranean region.38) has dark brown cones). conical tree of open habit. pale brown cones point backward along the shoot. while the female flowers are pink and mature to brown cones which are borne in whorls of three on short. Male flower clusters are yellow. SPREAD 10m. Lodgepole Pine (P. bright green pine needles are sparsely borne in pairs towards the ends of the shoots. contorta var.

females are red-purple. ripening in autumn. Pinus mugo subsp. egg-shaped cones in the second autumn. conical tree of dense habit. BARK Grey-pink. OCCURRENCE Rocky mountain slopes from the Pyrenees to the Alps. red-purple female flower conical habit cone to 10cm long leaf to 9cm long male flower cluster HEIGHT 20m. OCCURRENCE Mountain forests in limestone regions of S. maturing to small. SIMILAR SPECIES None – its blue young cones are very distinctive. uncinata (Pinaceae) This is an evergreen tree of narrow. dark green leaves are densely borne in pairs. FLOWERING TIME Early summer. Italy and the Balkans.38 CONIFERS WITH NEEDLES Bosnian Pine Pinus heldreichii (Pinaceae) THIS species is characteristic of high mountain regions where it often grown on limestone. a shrub up to about 3m tall. conical habit cone to 5cm long SMALL and dark brown. black and scaly in old trees. . BARK Grey and smooth when young. rigid. this pine becomes columnar with age. An evergreen. dark brown. The rigid. leaf to 6cm long HEIGHT 25m. cracking with age. ripening to orange-brown in the next year. is found from the Alps to the Balkans. The male flower clusters are yellow and female clusters are red-purple. conical habit with needle-like. SIMILAR SPECIES None – the basal scales of the cone curve downwards making it easily recognizable. narrow. short. the egg-shaped cones develop from female flowers. dark green leaves densely arranged in pairs on the shoots. mugo. FLOWERING TIME Early summer. While the male flower clusters are yellow. maturing to eggshaped cones that are deep blue in the first autumn. Mountain Pine Pinus mugo subsp. SPREAD 10m. SPREAD 10m.

broadly columnar habit leaf to 15cm long DENSE stands of Austrian Pine can be found in the European mountains. from the Alps to the Balkans. columnar up to 8cm long. Europe. grey-green leaves. SIMILAR SPECIES Austrian Pine (above). BARK Dark grey to nearly black. SPREAD 15m. evergreen tree. becomes dark grey. flexible grey-green leaves are borne in pairs. SPREAD 15m. laricio (Pinaceae) This large. shorter leaves. . It is often seen with several stems emerging from a trunk that is sometimes short. cone to 8cm long HEIGHT 40m or more. becoming broadly columnar with age. the Austrian Pine is conical when young. developing ridges and scales. Male flower clusters are yellow or red-tinged. The cones fall intact from the tree when ripe. also commonly cultivated. that fall intact from the tree when ripe. ridged. leaf to 18cm long HEIGHT 40m and more. and scaly with age. females are red. dark brown cones. The slender. OCCURRENCE Rocky slopes in the mountains of C. FLOWERING TIME Early summer. SIMILAR SPECIES Corsican Pine (below). BARK Pinkish grey. in the habit second autumn. Sicily). evergreen tree is conical when young and later becomes broadly columnar. The rigid. which has more rigid. deeply ridged. more flexible.CONIFERS WITH NEEDLES 39 Austrian Pine Pinus nigra (Pinaceae) A stoutly branched. maturing to eggconical to shaped. the bark gradually darkens with age. maturing to egg-shaped brown cones in the second autumn. FLOWERING TIME Early summer. While male flower clusters are yellow. OCCURRENCE Rocky mountain slopes in Corsica and Italy (Calabria. PINKISH grey at first. has slender. usually with a single trunk. large. Corsican Pine Pinus nigra subsp. while females are pink. dark green leaves have a sharp pointed tip and are borne in pairs.

SIMILAR SPECIES Weymouth Pine (p. glossy brown cones that may persist on the tree for many years. SPREAD 10m. Male flower clusters are yellow or purple-tinged. the drooping cones later ripen to pale brown. conical habit when young CONICAL and glossy brown. An evergreen.42) has narrower leaves and hairy shoots. They are borne in pairs. maturing to prickly. becoming red- brown and deeply fissured with age. Greece). Maritime Pine Pinus pinaster (Pinaceae) The evergreen Maritime Pine is conical when young. narrowly conical tree of dense habit. females are red. the Macedonian Pine has slender. Europe. dense habit leaf to 10cm long cone to 15cm long HEIGHT 30m. Serbia. FLOWERING TIME Early summer. SPREAD 10m. while old trees usually have a long. FLOWERING TIME Early summer. BARK Grey when young. The female flowers mature in the second autumn to slightly curved. pale brown cones. . while females are red. The very long. OCCURRENCE Mountain slopes of the Balkan Peninsula (Bulgaria. purple-brown and cracking into plates with age. and N. BARK Grey-green and smooth. cylindrical to conical.W. While the male flower clusters are yellow. SIMILAR SPECIES None – it has the longest leaves of any native European pine.40 CONIFERS WITH NEEDLES Macedonian Pine Pinus peuce (Pinaceae) GREEN and resinous at first. greygreen leaves are rigid and end in a sharp point. conical. OCCURRENCE Coastal regions and mountain slopes of S. leaf to 20cm long grey-green foliage HEIGHT 30m or more. the cone has sharp scales that end in a point. needle-like. from Portugal to Italy. bare trunk and a domed head of branches. rigid blue-green leaves borne in clusters of five on the smooth green shoots. pointing forwards along the shoots.

broad. heavy. and glossy brown. . have silvery blue leaves that are arranged singly. While male flower clusters are yellow-brown. FLOWERING TIME Early summer. spreading habit GREEN at first. Its grey-green leaves are needle-like. unlike any other pine. the female clusters are green. deeply fissured on old trees. OCCURRENCE Coastal regions in sandy soils throughout the NOTE The seeds of this species are the edible pine nuts or kernels that are commonly sold and often used in Mediterranean food. umbrella-shaped head leaf to 15cm long glossy brown cone cone to 10cm long nutlike seeds HEIGHT 20m or more. the ripe cones are nearly rounded. They contain large. The flowers are borne in separate clusters on young shoots. Young trees. deeply grooved on both sides.CONIFERS WITH NEEDLES 41 Umbrella Pine Pinus pinea (Pinaceae) This evergreen tree has an umbrella-shaped head of branches. Mediterranean region. edible seeds. rigid. BARK Orange-brown. stout. SIMILAR SPECIES None – the flat-topped and spreading head is unique and makes this tree instantly recognizable. and occasional shoots on old trees. ripening in the third autumn to broadly egg-shaped to rounded cones. and and are borne in pairs on smooth orange-brown shoots. SPREAD 20m.

curved. North America. conical habit cone to 15cm long HEIGHT 30m. wallichiana) that has larger leaves and cones. OCCURRENCE Cultivated (for ornamental use and timber). with leaves in threes. and sticky with resin. OCCURRENCE Cultivated (sometimes for forestry). cone to 12cm long HEIGHT 30m or more. leaf to 12cm long bright yellow male flowers RIPE. and are found in separate clusters on young shoots. The female clusters mature in the second autumn to pendulous. SPREAD 15m. pale brown cones are cylindrical. pale brown cones. evergreen tree is conical when young. SPREAD 15m. BARK Dark grey and smooth. They are grey-green on the outer surface and grey-white on the inner one. While the male flower clusters are yellow-brown. leaf to 15cm long This fast-growing. FLOWERING TIME Early summer. later fissured. SIMILAR SPECIES None – although may be confused with less common Bhutan Pine (P. Weymouth Pine Pinus strobus (Pinaceae) The very slender leaves of this conical. females are red. The slender. native to E. BARK Dark grey and deeply furrowed. SIMILAR SPECIES None – its bright green foliage. native to USA (California). broadly columnar pale brown cones that habit persist on the branches for many years. FLOWERING TIME Early summer. The male flowers are yellow. . while females are pink. evergreen tree are densely arranged in clusters of five on smooth shoots. later becoming broadly columnar. bright green leaves are densely arranged in clusters of three on smooth grey-green shoots. and persistent cones distinguish it from other pines. flexible.42 CONIFERS WITH NEEDLES Monterey Pine Pinus radiata (Pinaceae) UPRIGHT male flower clusters are conspicuous on the tree in early summer. cylindrical. ripening in the second autumn to conical.

SIMILAR SPECIES Distinct in the wild. BARK Purple-grey. sylvestris ‘Fastigiata’ is narrowly columnar in habit. YELLOW male flowers nestle among the rigid and twisted blue-green leaves that are borne in pairs on the shoots. Female clusters are upright and red. may be confused with planted Japanese Red Pine (P. particularly dwarf forms. and are scattered in ones or twos at the tips of the young shoots. The stout. spreading egg-shaped. spreading head on a tall trunk with age. and found at the base of young shoots. They mature in the second autumn to rounded. densiflora) which has longer green leaves. needlelike leaves are blue-green to blue-grey. deeply cracked. sylvestris ‘Aurea’ has bright yellow leaves in winter. female flower leaf to 7cm long HEIGHT 30m or more. developing a rounded. the Scots Pine is conical when young. extending east to Turkey. Of those that grow into trees. with branches that grow in whorls. P. OCCURRENCE Heaths and mountains in sandy soils. throughout male flower Europe. FLOWERING TIME Early summer. sometimes they have a silvery tinge. woody green cones head that are brown when ripe. are cultivated in gardens. SPREAD 15m.CONIFERS WITH NEEDLES 43 Scots Pine Pinus sylvestris (Pinaceae) An evergreen tree. orange to pink bark on upper trunk NOTE Many selections. Male flower clusters are cylindrical and yellow. and fissured. orange to pink towards top of trunk. while P. flaking into small plates with age. cone to 8cm long .

which is smaller. the bark is thick. native to W. Male flower clusters are yellow and found on the underside of the shoots. OCCURRENCE Cultivated (very commonly for forestry). and blue-green foliage. A fast-growing. with a variety extending to Mexico.44 CONIFERS WITH NEEDLES Douglas Fir Pseudotsuga menziesii (Pinaceae) GREY- to purple-brown. North America. taking on an irregular and flat-topped shape with age. They later form long and pendulous cones with three-pronged bracts. . deeply fissured with age. BARK Grey-brown to purple-brown. can usually be found under the tree at any time of year. and fall intact when ripe. evergreen tree. Green at first. they become red-brown. SPREAD 15m. SIMILAR SPECIES Blue Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. glauca). developing deep red-brown cracks with age. large. irregular habit narrow-tipped branches leaf to 3cm long male flower cluster female flower cluster cone to 10cm long NOTE The three-pronged bracts on the cones make identification of Douglas Fir easy. Its slender. or their remains. all around the shoots. HEIGHT 40m or more. dark green leaves have two white bands beneath and are arranged radially. the Douglas Fir is conical when young. The bracts. Clusters of female flowers are green or flushed with pink and borne at the ends of shoots. has shorter cones.

North America. the dark green. OCCURRENCE Cultivated (with many dwarf forms). . egg-shaped cones persist on the tree after shedding their seeds in autumn. blunt-tipped leaves have parallel sides and two white bands narrowly beneath. this conical. which lacks the overturned leaves above the shoots and has parallel-sided leaves. light brown cones. BARK Purple-grey. exposing their bluegreen undersides with two white bands. SPREAD 15m. SPREAD 15m. flaking in scaly patches. native to W. North America. Male flower clusters are yellow. native to E. On top of the shoot. males are borne beneath the shoots. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. SIMILAR SPECIES Western Hemlock (below). Arranged flatly on either side of the shoots. while the females are borne at the shoot tips and mature into small cones. Both male and female conical habit flower clusters are reddish.CONIFERS WITH NEEDLES 45 Eastern Hemlock Tsuga canadensis (Pinaceae) The leading shoot at the top of this conical.5cm long SMALL and egg-shaped. BARK Purple-brown. evergreen tree is distinctly drooping. while females are green. Spread on either side of the shoots. OCCURRENCE Cultivated (particularly for forestry). which has tapered leaves and smaller cones. SIMILAR SPECIES Eastern Hemlock (above). leaves to 2cm long HEIGHT 30m. cone to 2cm long HEIGHT 30m. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. evergreen tree is also characterized by a distinctly drooping leading shoot at the top. the upturned dark green leaves point forwards. maturing to small. cone to 2. flaking and ridged as it matures.2cm long drooping leading shoot broadly conical habit PENDULOUS. the hanging cones mature from purplish red to pale brown. Western Hemlock Tsuga heterophylla (Pinaceae) Like the Eastern Hemlock (above). the leaves taper slightly from the base and have a blunt tip. leaf to 1.

Male flowers grow beneath the shoots. Many selections have been made. with two pale bands below. OCCURRENCE Hills and mountains. upright branches yellow aril leaf to 3cm long fleshy red aril with seed NOTE The Yew is often seen in gardens as hedges or topiary. usually red aril. the Yew is often manytrunked. ‘Fastigiata’. mainly spread in two rows on either side of the shoots. BARK Purple-brown. also cultivated. held in a fleshy. throughout Europe. the leaves are dark green above. is a conical selection with upright habit branches and leaves growing all around the shoots. The fruit is a single seed. evergreen tree. ‘LUTEA’ HEIGHT 20m. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. pale yellow male flower clusters. especially when bearing fruit. smooth. A broadly conical. including several with variegated foliage. It is open at the top.46 CONIFERS WITH NEEDLES Yew Taxus baccata (Taxaceae) ROUNDED. SPREAD 10m. ‘Lutea’ is an unusual form with yellow fruit. . are found in the leaf axils beneath the shoots. All parts (except the arils) are poisonous. and flaking. about 3–4mm wide. SIMILAR SPECIES None – it is not easily confused with other species. ripening the first autumn. Linear and pointed at the tip. on chalk or limestone soil. exposing the green seed. or Irish Yew. while the tiny green female flowers are borne singly at the ends of the shoots on separate plants.

It is important to note that all conifers with scales have needle-like leaves during their juvenile phase as seedlings. The Stinking Juniper (below) is a good example of this. but not all. retaining some of its needles into maturity. as well as some. the Chinese Juniper is less clear-cut. of the junipers. only developing scale-like leaves as they mature. and includes the cypresses and their relatives. scale-like leaves. CHINESE ARBOR-VITAE LAWSON CYPRESS WESTERN RED CEDAR PHOENICIAN JUNIPER .Conifers with Scales This group of evergreen conifers has tiny.

The tiny leaves are pointed. and have a triangular. native to western USA. Lawson Cypress Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Cupressaceae) The conical. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. conical habit SMALL red male flower clusters are often conspicuous at the shoot tips in spring. bright green foliage in flattened sprays is composed of tiny. OCCURRENCE Cultivated (large number of forms). ripening to red-brown. and later scaly. native to USA (Oregon and California). Male flowers are red. The flower clusters comprise tiny yellow males and green females. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. both borne at the tips of the shoots. are oblong with six scales that open out when ripe. tapering towards top A distinctly narrow and columnar habit. SPREAD 5m. blue-green at first. red-brown. The aromatic.57). later brown. evergreen Lawson Cypress has dark green foliage in drooping. females are blue. ripening to rounded cones with eight scales. SPREAD 10–15m. SIMILAR SPECIES Some forms of Lawson Cypress (below). SIMILAR SPECIES Western Red Cedar (p. scale-like leaves pressed against slender shoots. BARK Smooth. with white markings beneath and are densely arranged around the shoots. flattened sprays. FLOWERING TIME Spring. dense. BARK Purple-brown and smooth. cone 8mm wide densely arranged leaves HEIGHT 30m or more. characterizes this evergreen tree. . but the habit and foliage are different. sharppointed tip. extending south to Baja California. The yellow cones. the leaves are in sets of two pairs. narrow habit leaf to 3mm long cones open when mature HEIGHT 30m.48 CONIFERS WITH SCALES Incense Cedar Calocedrus decurrens (Cupressaceae) DARK and glossy green. has glossy foliage and egg-shaped cones. later flaking in vertical strips. tapering towards the top.

The tiny. have blunt tips and are marked with white beneath. peeling in strips with age. free tips and are marked with white beneath. FLOWERING TIME Spring. which densely cover the shoots. SIMILAR SPECIES None – the small cones and free leaf tips make it distinctive. glossy green foliage HEIGHT 20m. While the male flower clusters are reddish yellow. scale-like leaves have small. clusters are pale brown ripening conical to rounded cones – green at habit first. pointed. evergreen tree is arranged in flattened sprays. vertically fissured bark starts to flake in strips on older trees. leaves with blunt tips cone about 1cm wide HEIGHT 20m. the Sawara Cypress has glossy green foliage arranged in flattened sprays. SPREAD 8m. SPREAD 8m. brown cones that are green when young. SIMILAR SPECIES More common Lawson Cypress (left). dense leaf cover RED-BROWN. . native to Japan. OCCURRENCE Cultivated (many selections are grown in gardens. BARK Red-brown. OCCURRENCE Cultivated (many selections are grown in gardens. Male flower clusters are brownish while females are green. evergreen tree. rounded. including forms with juvenile foliage). leaves at angle to shoot cone to 8mm wide broadly conical habit RED-BROWN bark becomes fissured and starts peeling in vertical strips on old trees. scale-like leaves. ripening to small. which has pointed leaves. peeling in vertical strips.CONIFERS WITH SCALES 49 Hinoki Cypress Chamaecyparis obtusa (Cupressaceae) The dark green foliage of this conical. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. later turning brown. particularly dwarf forms). BARK Red-brown. Sawara Cypress Chamaecyparis pisifera (Cupressaceae) A broadly conical. native to Japan. female narrow. The tiny.

52) and the Nootka Cypress (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis). dark green leaves have pointed tips. flattened sprays densely arranged all around the shoots. scale-like. ripen to brown the second year after flowering and so appear clustered on the old shoots. columnar habit. ridged and flaking with age. narrow. with various foliage colours. The glossy brown cones (which are not always produced on some forms) are green when young. evergreen tree. SPREAD 10m. OCCURRENCE Known only in cultivation (several forms are grown. FLOWERING TIME Spring. They are borne in small. SIMILAR SPECIES None – this species is quite distinct in its shape. tapering towards the top. The tiny. females are green. narrow. and foliage. when produced. . columnar habit A very fast-growing. While male flower clusters are yellow. vigour. especially yellow). both are clustered at the tips of the shoots. HEIGHT 30m or more.50 CONIFERS WITH SCALES Leyland Cypress x Cupressocyparis leylandii (Cupressaceae) SPHERICAL green young cones. the Leyland Cypress has a dense. yellow male flowers cone 2cm wide densely arranged leaves NOTE This evergreen tree is a garden hybrid between the Monterey Cypress (p. BARK Red-brown and smooth.

and lacks resin on the leaves. dense leaf cover small flower clusters HEIGHT 20m. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. females are blue-white and grey-green ripen in the second leaves autumn to bloomy. native to USA (Arizona). SPREAD 10m. The small but conspicuous male flower clusters are yellow while the females are green – both are borne at the shoot tips. conical. cone 1. the tiny. grey-green leaves. open habit VERTICAL ridges develop on the bark as it peels in fibrous strips with age. evergreen tree has a rather open and sometimes weeping habit. . Its foliage is dark grey-green. FLOWERING TIME Late winter. BARK Red-purple. peeling in vertical strips. and a small fleck of white resin is usually visible in the centre on the underside. with distinctly pointed tips to the scales. Cedar of Goa Cupressus lusitanica (Cupressaceae) Also called the Mexican Cypress. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. Glossy brown. has fibrous bark. evergreen tree of compact habit has slender. cone 2. SIMILAR SPECIES Arizona Cypress (C.5cm wide HEIGHT 30m. is less frequently grown.5cm wide compact habit REDDISH purple to redbrown bark flakes in rounded scales as it ages. scale-like. reddish shoots densely covered with irregular. glabra (Cupressaceae) This conical. arizonica). the rounded cones ripen in the second autumn. flaky with age. scale-like leaves with free. Each leaf has a pointed tip.CONIFERS WITH SCALES 51 Smooth Arizona Cypress Cupressus arizonica var. pointed tips arranged in sprays all around the shoots. While male flower clusters are yellow-brown. SIMILAR SPECIES None – the bloomy young cones with pointed scales make it easily recognizable. later grey. SPREAD 6m. rounded cones. native to Mexico and Central America. aromatic sprays of tiny. this large. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. BARK Brown.

BARK Red-brown with shallow ridges. which has a narrowly columnar habit and egg-shaped cones. The rounded purple-brown cones have scales with small. both borne at the tips of the shoots. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. columnar habit. SIMILAR SPECIES Italian Cypress (right). Its aromatic. and not in flattened sprays as in Chamaecyparis trees. Although a rare species in the wild. particularly those with yellow foliage. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. the Monterey Cypress is commonly cultivated in Europe. blunt points. . SPREAD 15m. bright green foliage is composed of tiny. scale-like leaves with pointed tips. while females are green. columnar habit cone to 4cm wide spray of leaves around shoot pointed tips NOTE Several garden selections of the Monterey Cypress are frequently seen.52 CONIFERS WITH SCALES Monterey Cypress Cupressus macrocarpa (Cupressaceae) FOLIAGE is arranged around the shoots as in all Cupressus species. native to USA (coastal areas near Monterey. dense. such as ‘Goldcrest’. densely arranged in sprays all around the shoots. bright green foliage A large. the Monterey Cypress spreads with age. Male flower clusters are yellow. vigorous evergreen tree of usually dense. They ripen in the second autumn and usually remain on the tree for several years. California). HEIGHT 30m.

E. Europe. with prominent projections on the large scales. longitudinal. spiralled ridges. both borne at the shoot tips. some are much broader and open with a conical or pendulous habit. borne in clusters. tapered top narrow. SPREAD 4m or more. scale-like leaves with blunt tips.CONIFERS WITH SCALES 53 Italian Cypress Cupressus sempervirens (Cupressaceae) The narrow. Although the narrow form described here is most commonly seen. each with a projection in the centre. HEIGHT 20m. while the females are green. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. which are borne in irregular sprays all around the shoots. The dark green foliage is composed of tiny. Heavily fruiting branches may bend out from the tree under the weight of cones. OCCURRENCE Rocky mountain slopes. also commonly cultivated. The egg-shaped to nearly rounded brown cones have 6–12 scales. SIMILAR SPECIES Monterey Cypress (left). BARK Grey-brown with shallow. Male flower clusters are yellow-brown. They ripen in the second autumn. . cone to 4cm wide CONES. columnar habit NOTE The Italian Cypress is a characteristic tree of the Mediterranean region. columnar habit and tapered top make the evergreen Italian Cypress easily recognizable. are usually slightly longer than wide. S. which has a denser habit and smoother cones.

females are purple-green and borne on separate plants. Juvenile plants have needlelike leaves in threes or sometimes in pairs. while the females. conical. dense habit RED-BROWN in colour. conical.54 CONIFERS WITH SCALES Chinese Juniper Juniperus chinensis (Cupressaceae) LONG. . and a different distribution. have tiny. blunt-tipped. marked with two white bands above. are covered with a white bloom and ripen the second year. peeling in strips. which is red-brown on mature trees. juvenile leaves to 8mm long This conical. 8mm long. peeling in vertical strips. borne on separate plants. scale-like leaves. SPREAD 6m. These ripen in the second year to purple-black. and Japan. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. dark green foliage of this dense. SIMILAR SPECIES Pencil Cedar (p. BARK Red-brown. leaf to 5mm long HEIGHT 15m. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. Asia. scale-like adult foliage conical habit HEIGHT 15m. Mature plants. rounded. Male flower clusters are yellow-brown. on the other hand. BARK Red-brown. which has red-brown cones. and usually some juvenile foliage. China. covered with a whitish bloom when young and bearing up to three seeds. evergreen tree is composed of tiny. Europe and S. While male flower clusters are yellow. foetid foliage.W. Stinking Juniper Juniperus foetidissima (Cupressaceae) The aromatic. the bark peels in long strips as the tree ages. OCCURRENCE Rocky mountain slopes in S. The berry-like cones. native to Myanmar.56) also has both types of foliage on the same tree. SPREAD 6m. but the cones ripen in one year.E. Korea. are green. berry-like cones up to 1cm wide. evergreen tree often bears two types of foliage. SIMILAR SPECIES Phoenicean Juniper (right). scale-like leaves (needle-like in juvenile plants). vertical strips peel off the bark.

Europe. France. foetid foliage. SIMILAR SPECIES Stinking Juniper (left) and Spanish Juniper (below). conical. on juvenile plants they are needle-like. dark green leaves are arranged in pairs or in whorls of three. . shrubby habit HEIGHT 10m. Borne on separate plants. OCCURRENCE Dry hillsides in Spain and the Alps of S. berry-like cones. with dark green. Male flower clusters are yellow. BARK Dark brown. to 8mm wide and each with up to four seeds. which have cones in different colours and aromatic foliage. while the female clusters are green. which has red cones. the male flower clusters are yellow and females are green. often marked with a fleck of white resin. peeling in vertical strips. While the leaves on adult plants are tiny and scale-like. evergreen tree is composed of tiny. and a coastal distribution. berry-like cones are red-brown and sometimes slightly bloomy. peeling in vertical strips. slightly foetid foliage.E. The rounded. are bloomy when young and ripen in the adult foliage second year. the bark peels in vertical strips as it grows older. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. The rounded. SPREAD 15m.CONIFERS WITH SCALES 55 Phoenicean Juniper Juniperus phoenicea (Cupressaceae) This evergreen tree is conical or sometimes shrubby. TINY scale-like. dark green foliage of this narrow. scale-like leaves. They ripen in the second year and contain up to nine seeds. purple. juvenile leaf to 5mm long HEIGHT 12m. SIMILAR SPECIES Phoenicean Juniper (above). borne on separate trees. SPREAD 5m. throughout S.4cm wide Spanish Juniper Juniperus thurifera (Cupressaceae) The aromatic. OCCURRENCE Coastal regions from Canary Islands and Portugal. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. BARK Grey-brown. cones to 1. DARK brown in appearance. The conical habit plants may also bear juvenile foliage composed of needle-like leaves.

native to China. upright. while females are green and borne on separate plants. Chinese Arbor-vitae Platycladus orientalis (Cupressaceae) Usually rather shrubby with several main branches emerging from the base. Russia. SPREAD 4m. These cones persist on the tree over winter. the females are green and ripen to large. the bark peels off in vertical strips.56 CONIFERS WITH SCALES Pencil Cedar Juniperus virginiana (Cupressaceae) RED-BROWN in colour. dark green leaves. native to E. this evergreen. Korea. leaf to 6mm long conical to columnar habit HEIGHT 20m. and E. . peeling in vertical strips. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. scale-like. conical tree has tiny. which has aromatic foliage and smaller cones. conical habit TINY. BARK Red-brown.54). dark green leaves are arranged on the shoots in upright sprays. cone to 2cm long HEIGHT 15m. Male flower clusters are yellow. peeling in vertical strips. BARK Red-brown. has cones that ripen in the second year. egg-shaped brown cones. which are bloomy when young. scale-like leaves and some juvenile leaves. While the male flower clusters are yellow. berry-like cones are blue-purple with a white bloom and ripen in the first year. SIMILAR SPECIES Western Red Cedar (right). cone 2cm long This evergreen tree has a dense. SIMILAR SPECIES Chinese Juniper (p. North America. which are needle-like and arranged in pairs. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. each of the scales has a prominent hook on the back. conical to columnar habit. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. The rounded. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. The aromatic foliage varies from green to blue-green and consists of both tiny. SPREAD 5m.

While male flower clusters are blackish red. Each cone has 10–12 leathery scales. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. SPREAD 15m. A popular garden tree making an effective large screen. narrowly conical habit dark green leaves cone to 1. TINY. scale-like leaves are dark green above. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. the evergreen Western Red Cedar has pleasantly aromatic foliage and its dark green leaves are borne in flattened sprays. both are borne at the ends of the shoots. North America.2cm long NOTE HEIGHT 35m or more. turning yellow when open. The upright.CONIFERS WITH SCALES 57 Western Red Cedar Thuja plicata (Cupressaceae) Fast-growing and conical. which has rounded cones with eight scales. which has larger cones. BARK Purple-brown. the females are yellow-green. Chinese Arbor-vitae (left). native to W. SIMILAR SPECIES Lawson Cypress (p.48). There are several selections including ‘Zebrina’ which have yellowstriped foliage. and have white markings beneath. peeling in vertical strips. . and lacks the aromatic foliage. egg-shaped cones ripen the same year from yellow-green to brown.

or they may be palmate and fan-like.Broadleaved Compound A broadleaf tree with compound leaves has broad leaves (as opposed to needles or scales) that are made up of at least two leaflets. but this is not always the case. Related tree species often have similar leaf types. The leaflets may be arranged pinnately. For example. but the related Whitebeam does not. and appear fern-like. the Rowan has compound leaves. as on the Horse Chestnut (below). STAG’S HORN SUMACH JAPANESE ROWAN PINK SIRIS BLACK WALNUT . such as on the Black Walnut.

REDDISH to pale cinnamon-brown. with males and females on separate plants. SPREAD 10m. papery flakes. yellow-leaved forms 20cm long such as ‘Elegans’. dark green leaves. SIMILAR SPECIES None – no other maple has leaves with more than three leaflets. wide habit tassel-like male flowers red anthers HEIGHT 15m. BARK Grey-brown and smooth. green to pink flowers. dark green foliage fruit wing to 3cm long leaflet to 10cm long HEIGHT 15m. also known as the Ash-leaved Maple. are borne in clusters before or as the leaves emerge. the bark peels in waferthin. The leaves are divided into three leaflets edged with blunt teeth. shoots. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. without petals. ‘Flamingo’. BARK Reddish to brown. Variegated. SIMILAR SPECIES None – its peeling bark is unmistakable. peeling conspicuously in thin flakes. native to North America.BROADLEAVED COMPOUND 59 Paperbark Maple Acer griseum (Aceraceae) A deciduous species. Box Elder Acer negundo (Aceraceae) This deciduous tree. Tiny. ‘ELEGANS’ SMALL clusters of downward-pointing. and turn red in autumn. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. They are followed by conspicuous fruit with broad. Small yellow-green flowers open in drooping clusters with the young leaves. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. has pinnate. this maple is broadly columnar at first. native to China. curved fruit are borne on female trees. female plants bear two-winged leaf to fruit. with 3–7 leaflets on smooth or hairy. opposite. often bloomy. grey-blue and hairy beneath. pale green wings that are usually seedless. and ‘Variegatum’ are cultivated in gardens. SPREAD 10m. They are dark green above. . spreading with age.

SIMILAR SPECIES Mastic Tree (above). is red at first. SIMILAR SPECIES Turpentine Tree (below). the fruit.60 BROADLEAVED COMPOUND Mastic Tree Pistacia lentiscus (Anacardiaceae) SMALL and rounded. Also known as the Lentisc. OCCURRENCE Dry slopes and woods around the Mediterranean. males and females on separate plants. which is evergreen and has leaves that lack a terminal leaflet. SPREAD 8m. the egg-shaped fruit. slopes. up to 7mm long. appear in dense clusters in the axils of the leaves. pinnate. this small. Each leaf stalk has a distinct wing. The alternate. dark green leaves. with no terminal leaflet. with up to nine untoothed leaflets. BARK Grey-brown. SPREAD 6m or less. Turpentine Tree Pistacia terebinthus (Anacardiaceae) Deciduous and spreading. spreading habit leaflet to 6cm long RED at first. dark green leaves are pinnate with up to six pairs of untoothed leaflets. each of which ends in a small. and woods in the Mediterranean region. FLOWERING TIME Spring. males and females on separate plants. 5mm wide. OCCURRENCE Dry places. the Turpentine Tree has alternate. flower cluster to 15cm long HEIGHT 10m. Small red or yellow flowers. which is deciduous and has pinnate leaves with a terminal leaflet. FLOWERING TIME Spring. become purple-brown when ripe. BARK Grey-brown. leathery. which end in a small point. evergreen tree of spreading habit is often shrubby. pointed tip. ripening to black. spreading habit leaflet to 3cm long flower to 3cm long HEIGHT 8m. The small green flowers have no petals. . and are borne in elongated clusters from the axils of the leaves. from France to Turkey. without petals.

SPREAD 10m. aromatic. FLOWERING TIME Summer. Tiny green flowers are borne in dense. velvety shoots. native to Central and South America. BARK Red-brown. small. pinnate leaves have up to 27 leaflets. are borne on female trees. Tiny. pinnate leaf to 30cm long HEIGHT 15m. OCCURRENCE Cultivated (particularly in the Mediterranean region). glossy red fruit. The alternate. smooth. pendulous shoots create a weeping effect in this broadly columnar to rounded. sometimes with a terminal leaflet. borne on stout. upright clusters. BRIGHT red fruit are matted together with long hairs. Pepper Tree Schinus molle (Anacardiaceae) The slender. which has smooth. native to E. creamy white flowers open in large. naturalized in parts of S. . is often shrubby. flaking when mature. spreading tree of open habit. dark green leaves have as many as 30 or more slender leaflets. SIMILAR SPECIES None. conical. BARK Dark brown. producing numerous suckers from around the base.BROADLEAVED COMPOUND 61 Stag’s Horn Sumach Rhus typhina (Anacardiaceae) This deciduous. followed by the fruit. which may be toothed. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. North America. broadly columnar habit ROUNDED. SIMILAR SPECIES Smooth Sumach (Rhus glabra). evergreen tree. pendulous clusters in spring and summer. Europe. to 5mm wide. forming conical clusters. which are dark green above and blue-green beneath. The alternate. bloomy shoots and minute hairs on the fruit. SPREAD 10m. pinnate. FLOWERING TIME Spring and summer. males and females are borne on separate plants. broadly spreading habit leaf to 60cm long flower cluster to 20cm long HEIGHT 10m. on the same plant or on separate plants.

. native to Argentina and Bolivia. usually before the leaves.5cm wide. Jacaranda Jacaranda mimosifolia (Bignoniaceae) A deciduous. FLOWERING TIME Autumn. about 2. rounded purple-black fruit. the Jacaranda has opposite. which has similar foliage but is not as large and has pink flowers with long pink stamens. are borne at the end of shoots. spreading habit DISC-SHAPED seed pods. spreading tree. fern-like leaves. or purple in autumn. and usually produces numerous suckers around the base.71). native to E. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. BARK Grey and prickly. 5mm wide. bright green leaflets. OCCURRENCE Cultivated (slow-growing variegated forms). SPREAD 10m. spinosa) has conical. dark green leaflets that turn yellow.62 BROADLEAVED COMPOUND Japanese Angelica Tree Aralia elata (Araliaceae) SMALL white flower clusters. FLOWERING TIME Spring. Opposite and twice pinnate. SPREAD 10m. This deciduous tree or shrub of spreading habit has stout. spreading habit leaf 1m or more long HEIGHT 10m. Asia. spiny branches. BARK Dark brown with shallow ridges. the whole flowerhead up to 60cm long. SIMILAR SPECIES Devil’s Walking Stick (A. the leaves have numerous. the leaf stalks are spiny beneath. are dark brown and woody when ripe. upright flowerheads. red. The flowers are followed by tiny. about 6cm wide. to 1cm long. leaf to 30cm long flower to 3cm long HEIGHT 15m. SIMILAR SPECIES Pink Siris (p. which are twice pinnate with numerous small. Purple-blue flowers are arranged in broadly pyramid-shaped heads at the shoot tips.

BROADLEAVED COMPOUND

63

Elder
Sambucus nigra (Caprifoliaceae)
With a broadly columnar to rounded head, a rather twisted growth, and arching branches, the deciduous Elder tree is often shrubby, with several stems sprouting from the base. The leaves, borne in opposite pairs on stout grey-brown shoots, are pinnate, with 5–7 sharply toothed, oval, elliptical, and pointed leaflets, each up to 20cm long; they have a rather unpleasant smell. The flat heads of white flowers, each about 6–10mm wide, are followed by glossy black, edible berries, which are green when unripe, and have red stalks.
SMALL, creamy white, fragrant flowers are borne in broad, flattened heads up to 25cm wide.

broadly columnar to rounded head creamy white flowers

leaf to 30cm long leaflet to 12cm long

berry about 6mm wide

NOTE Both the flowers and fruit are used to make wine. Many selections are grown in gardens, including the purple-leaved, variegated, and cut-leaved forms. The ripe fruit are occasionally green.

HEIGHT 10m. SPREAD 8m. BARK Grey-brown, deeply furrowed, and corky. FLOWERING TIME Summer. OCCURRENCE Moist woods and hedgerows all over Europe;

commonly grown in gardens (and often escaped from cultivation). SIMILAR SPECIES Danewort (S. ebulus), which is herbaceous; S. racemosa which is shrubby with red berries.

64

BROADLEAVED COMPOUND

Red Horse Chestnut
Aesculus x carnea (Hippocastanaceae)
REDDISH pink flowers are a feature inherited from one of the Red Horse Chestnut’s parent species, the much smaller Red Buckeye.

This hybrid between the Horse Chestnut (right) and Red Buckeye (p.66) is a deciduous, broadly columnar to rounded tree. Its dark green leaves are opposite and palmately divided into 5–7 sharply toothed leaflets. The flowers emerge creamy white streaked with yellow, but later turn deep pink, blotched with red. They have five petals and are borne in conical, upright clusters. Rounded fruit contain up to three seeds (“conkers”) and have few or no spines; they ripen from green to brown. ‘Briotii’, a garden selection that is occasionally seen, has deep red flowers and darker, glossier leaves.

columnar to rounded habit

deep pink to red flowers

finely toothed margin

leaf to 25cm long

flower clusters to 20cm long

fruit to 4cm wide

NOTE
HEIGHT 20m. SPREAD 15m. BARK Red-brown, rather rough, and often develops burrs. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. OCCURRENCE Known only in cultivation (grown in parks, streets,

and gardens). SIMILAR SPECIES Horse Chestnut (right), which has whitish flowers and spiny fruit; Red Buckeye (p.66), which is a much smaller tree with flowers that have four petals.

In winter, the Red Horse Chestnut can be identified by its only slightly sticky buds, as opposed to the very sticky buds of the Horse Chestnut (right).

BROADLEAVED COMPOUND

65

Horse Chestnut
Aesculus hippocastanum (Hippocastanaceae)
The familiar Horse Chestnut is characterized by the large, glossy brown and very sticky buds that appear in winter. Its flowers are white with a yellow blotch that turns red. They are borne in large, upright, conical clusters and are followed by distinctive green fruit that contain up to three glossy brown seeds or conkers. A deciduous tree with a broadly columnar to spreading habit, it has palmate, dark green leaves each with 5–7 large, sharply toothed leaflets with short stalks. The leaves turn orange-red in autumn. ‘Baumannii’, a selection of this species, has double flowers and no fruit.
LARGE, creamy white flower clusters make a spectacular show in spring, in parks, streets, and gardens, where this tree is commonly planted.

columnar to spreading shape

vigorous habit

leaf to 30cm long flower cluster to 30cm long

NOTE Although commonly planted in parks and large gardens, the origin of this tree was unknown for many years, until it was discovered in the wild in the mountains of N. Greece. The seeds are used in the game of conkers.

HEIGHT 30m. SPREAD 20m. BARK Red-brown to grey; flaking in scales on large trees. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. OCCURRENCE Mountain forests in N. Greece and Albania;

commonly cultivated. SIMILAR SPECIES Red Horse Chestnut (left), which has pink flowers blotched with red, and few or no spines on the fruit.

66

BROADLEAVED COMPOUND

Indian Horse Chestnut
Aesculus indica (Hippocastanaceae)
WHITE

flowers have a yellow blotch that turns red as the flower ages, and are borne in upright conical spikes.
broadly columnar habit

The young, lance-shaped, bronze-coloured leaves of this deciduous tree are finely toothed and turn dark green with age. They are opposite and palmately compound, usually with 5–7 leaflets. The clustered white flowers have long stamens. The smooth, pear-shaped fruit contain up to three glossy brown seeds.
flower cluster to 30cm long leaflet to 25cm long

fruit to 7cm long

HEIGHT 20m. SPREAD 15m. BARK Grey and smooth. FLOWERING TIME Early summer. OCCURRENCE Cultivated; native to

N.W. Himalaya. SIMILAR SPECIES Horse Chestnut (p.65), which flowers earlier and whose flowers do not have protruding stamens.

Red Buckeye
Aesculus pavia (Hippocastanaceae)
Five sharply toothed, glossy green leaflets, each with a short stalk, characterize the palmately compound, opposite leaves of this small, spreading, deciduous tree. The leaves turn red in autumn. The smooth, rounded to pear-shaped fruit each contain up to two glossy brown seeds and ripen from green to brown.
broadly spreading habit
FOUR-PETALLED,

narrow red flowers are borne in upright clusters about 15cm long.

leaflet to 15cm long flower to 4cm long fruit to 5cm long

HEIGHT 5m. SPREAD 6m. BARK Dark grey and smooth. FLOWERING TIME Early summer. OCCURRENCE Cultivated; native to S.E. USA. SIMILAR SPECIES Red Horse Chestnut

(p.64), which has larger, five-petalled flowers as well as larger leaves.

which have taper-pointed leaflets. female flower HEIGHT 25m. the small petalless flowers turn green – males in pendulous catkins to 8cm long in clusters of three at the base of the young shoots. and scaly with age. SPREAD 20m. females at the tip of the expanding shoots. green. dark green leaves have 5–9 toothed leaflets. which do not have bright yellow winter buds. native to E.BROADLEAVED COMPOUND 67 Bitternut Carya cordiformis (Juglandaceae) This conical. furrowed. Its opposite. native to E. females at the tip of the expanding shoots. broadly columnar habit male catkin GREY and smooth. SPREAD 15m. leaf to 30cm long HEIGHT 20m. The fruit is an inedible nut in a thin husk. BARK Grey and smooth when young. Yellow in bud. The fruit is an edible nut enclosed in a thick green husk. deep yellow-green leaves with five to seven toothed leaflets. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. later ridged and scaly. ridged. deciduous tree has opposite. FLOWERING TIME Late spring to early summer. deciduous tree becomes broadly columnar with age. BARK Grey-brown. SIMILAR SPECIES None – its peeling bark and leaves with five leaflets make it distinct. Shagbark Hickory Carya ovata (Juglandaceae) This broadly columnar. North America. pinnate. the bark becomes thick. golden yellow autumn colour CONSPICUOUS green buds to 1cm long appear among the pinnate leaves. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. SIMILAR SPECIES Other hickories. peels in vertical flakes. leaf to 40cm long . and lack petals – males in pendulous catkins to 12cm long in clusters of three at the base of the young shoots. North America. The flowers are small. OCCURRENCE Cultivated.

SIMILAR SPECIES Black Walnut (below). dark green. the males are in hanging catkins. SPREAD 20m. which does not have sticky. becoming fissured with age. separating into small plates. BARK Grey-brown. native to E. BARK Dark grey-brown. has sticky hairs on its shoots and less leaflets. The large. on old shoots. FLOWERING TIME Late spring to early summer. dark green leaflets that are hairy on both sides.68 BROADLEAVED COMPOUND Japanese Walnut Juglans ailantifolia (Juglandaceae) GREY-BROWN bark develops deep interlacing ridges on older trees. the Japanese Walnut has stout. leaf to 90cm long female flowers A spreading. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. native to Japan. ridged with age. female clusters are red. sharply toothed leaflets are glossy. pinnate leaves have up to 23 leaflets. fruit to 5cm long catkin to 10cm long HEIGHT 25m. without petals. pinnate leaves have up to 19 toothed. densely hairy when young. deciduous tree is conical when young. hairy shoots. The fruit is an edible brown nut in a rounded green husk. dark green foliage fruit to 5cm long HEIGHT 20m. at the ends of young shoots. leaf to 60cm long SLENDER. and the females in small clusters at the ends of the young shoots. The flowers are small and green. but widens with age. The flowers are small and without petals. FLOWERING TIME Late spring to early summer. The fruit is an edible brown nut enclosed in a sticky green husk. Black Walnut Juglans nigra (Juglandaceae) This vigorous. pointed. The males are green. sticky shoots. SPREAD 20m. The large. North America. . SIMILAR SPECIES Japanese Walnut (above). with the terminal one sometimes missing. in hanging broad crown catkins up to 30cm long. deciduous tree. OCCURRENCE Cultivated (as a forestry tree for timber).

often naturalized. untoothed leaflets. flowers are clustered in They are borne on stout. becoming fissured with age. and wood. FLOWERING TIME Late spring to early summer. which can be seen if shoots are cut lengthways. smooth shoots and are aromatic separate pendulous catkins on the same when crushed. males hang in conspicuous catkins up to shorter than the males. smooth on young trees. There are many garden selections grown for their fruit. The yellow-green flowers are small and tree. SPREAD 20m. the females without petals. . green husk dark green leaves broadly spreading habit fruit to 5cm long NOTE HEIGHT 25m. Europe. dark green MALE and female leaves with 5–9 leaflets. the Walnut has pinnate. 10cm long from the ends of old shoots. while the shorter female catkins form at the tips of new shoots as the leaves are expanding.E. The fruit is the familiar creamy white leaf to 45cm walnut.BROADLEAVED COMPOUND 69 Walnut Juglans regia (Juglandaceae) A deciduous tree. SIMILAR SPECIES None – no other walnut has leaves with so few. fruit. OCCURRENCE Mountains and hillside forests in S. which are bronze when young. BARK Pale grey. widely cultivated for their ornamental value. enclosed in a rounded green husk that ripens long to brown. Walnuts can be distinguished from the related hickories (Carya) by the chambered pith.

petalless flowers are borne in separate catkins. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. this is a vigorous tree with suckers at the base. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. the Wingnut usually produces suckers from the base. native to the Caucasus and N. BARK Purple-brown. broadly spreading habit RIPENING fruit clusters hang below the glossy. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. The small. SPREAD 30m. SIMILAR SPECIES Hybrid Wingnut (below). hanging clusters. unstalked leaflets and upright. BARK Grey and smooth when young. developing crossing leaf to 50cm long fruit cluster male catkin to 45cm long ridges with age. deciduous tree. The large. flowers are in hanging catkins. dark green foliage in summer. green-winged nut that ripens to brown. males yellow and females green. glossy. pinnate leaves have numerous unstalked. green-winged nuts spreading ripen to brown and are habit borne in long. lack an upright wing on the leaf stalk. Borne in hanging clusters. Small. slender. OCCURRENCE Known only in cultivation. which has slightly winged leaf stalks. The alternate. leaf to 60cm long A fast-growing. Hybrid Wingnut Pterocarya x rehderiana (Juglandaceae) A garden hybrid between Wingnut (above) and Chinese Wingnut (P. The small. winged stalks. dark green leaflets that turn yellow in autumn. winged fruit in hanging catkin HEIGHT 30m. interlacing ridges over the years. stenoptera). . stenoptera). SIMILAR SPECIES Wingnut (above) and Chinese Wingnut (P. becoming ridged with age. the males yellow and the females green. Iran.70 BROADLEAVED COMPOUND Wingnut Pterocarya fraxinifolia (Juglandaceae) BARK of mature Wingnut trees develops deep. SPREAD 25m. the fruit is a small. pinnate leaves have up to 19 toothed. HEIGHT 25m. petalless.

each about 5mm long. fluffy clusters of flowers appear at the ends of the shoots. native to S. that is brown when ripe. silky pink stamens.W. SIMILAR SPECIES Pink Siris (below). which has blue-green leaves and bark. native to S. Silver Wattle has alternate. The alternate. fragrant yellow flowers SMOOTH and bluegreen on young trees. SIMILAR SPECIES Silver Wattle (above). the bark becomes nearly black with age. OCCURRENCE Cultivated.E.BROADLEAVED COMPOUND 71 Silver Wattle Acacia dealbata (Leguminosae/Fabaceae) An evergreen. fern-like. SPREAD 12m. . this deciduous tree has an open. leaf to 12cm long fruit to 8cm long HEIGHT 15m. bipinnate. OCCURRENCE Cultivated (Mediterranean region). Pink Siris Albizia julibrissin (Leguminosae/Fabaceae) Also known as the Silk Tree. flower cluster leaflets to 1cm long SMALL flowers in clusters are made conspicuous by long. FLOWERING TIME Late winter to early spring. Asia and China. FLOWERING TIME Late summer. to 15cm long. ripening from green to brown. spreading habit. becoming nearly black with age. broadly conical to spreading tree. The fruit is a flattened pod. Borne in large heads composed of many small. The fruit is a flattened pod. BARK Smooth and blue-green. rounded clusters. SPREAD 10m. dark green leaves have numerous small leaflets. Dense. BARK Dark grey-brown and smooth. Australia and Tasmania. has dark green leaves and dark grey-brown bark. broadly spreading habit HEIGHT 12m. bipinnate blue-green leaves divided into numerous tiny leaflets. the individual flowers are tiny.

Asia. the deciduous Pea Tree is upright when young. .72 BROADLEAVED COMPOUND Pea Tree Caragana arborescens (Leguminosae/Fabaceae) YELLOW peaflowers up to 2cm in length are produced on slender stalks in small clusters. SIMILAR SPECIES None – the foliage and fruit are very distinct. glossy. Carob Ceratonia siliqua (Leguminosae/Fabaceae) An evergreen tree of broad. arborescens ‘Lorbergii’ is a selection with very slender leaflets and smaller flowers. shrubby growth More often a large shrub. up to 15cm long. The fruit. rocky areas and hillsides of the Mediterranean region. leathery. widely cultivated and naturalized in S. BARK Dark brown and rough. pinnate leaves. The flowers are borne on the previous year’s woody growth and are followed by cylindrical brown pods up to 5cm in length. spreading with age. males and females usually on separate trees. SIMILAR SPECIES C. later turn purple-brown. which does not split open. the terminal one being replaced by a bristle-like. dark. OCCURRENCE Dry. SPREAD 12m. FLOWERING TIME Summer to autumn. and glossy. dark. BARK Grey-brown. pod-like fruit. Europe. The alternate. contains hard seeds in a sweet pulp. Small green flowers are borne in cylindrical clusters. native to N. have 4–6 pairs of untoothed leaflets. smooth. leaf to 8cm long HEIGHT 6m.to mid-green leaves are composed of up to six pairs of untoothed leaflets and lack a terminal leaflet. green when young. fruit to 20cm long HEIGHT 10m. OCCURRENCE Cultivated in gardens and sometimes naturalized. spreading habit. Its alternate. FLOWERING TIME Late spring.to mid-green. the Carob is also sometimes shrubby. SPREAD 4m. spreading habit leaflet to 6cm long FLATTENED. slender spine.

FLOWERING TIME Early summer.to mid-green above. and glossy green. pendulous clusters. SIMILAR SPECIES ‘Sunburst’ and many other garden selections which are spineless. SIMILAR SPECIES Common Laburnum (p. this small. spreading. The small flowers are yellow-green. which has leaves that are silky and hairy beneath.BROADLEAVED COMPOUND 73 Honey Locust Gleditsia triacanthos (Leguminosae/Fabaceae) A deciduous tree with a columnar to spreading crown. BARK Dark grey and smooth. OCCURRENCE Mountains of the Alps and Balkans. native to E. or shrub. rough and scaly. BARK Dark grey. broadly spreading habit leaf to 20cm long HEIGHT 30m. up to 8cm long. and slightly hairy below. The fruit is a pale brown pod. and is narrowly winged above. deciduous tree. sometimes spiny. branched spines. later fissured. has alternate leaves divided into three leaflets that are deep. about 2cm long. males and females in separate cylindrical clusters about 5cm long. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. the bark is rough and usually has clusters of branched spines. smooth. The pea-like flowers. golden yellow flowers are borne in slender. are borne in hanging clusters that grow up to 45cm in length. the Honey Locust has a trunk that often bears large. FLOWERING TIME Early summer. pinnate or twice pinnate leaves made up of bright green leaflets turn yellow in autumn. SPREAD 20m. Alternate. North America. flattened pod up to 45cm long. The fruit is a dark brown. pointed tip leaf to 10cm long HEIGHT 6m or more. spreading habit 3 leaflets FRAGRANT. SPREAD 5m. Alpine Laburnum Laburnum alpinum (Leguminosae/Fabaceae) Also known as the Scotch Laburnum. .74). leaflet to 4cm long DARK grey and scaly. often twisted.

SIMILAR SPECIES Voss’s Laburnum (right). each rounded at the tip. NOTE All parts of this tree and of other Laburnums are poisonous. and C. Also known as the Golden Rain Tree. pendulous clusters up to 25cm long. FLOWERING TIME Late spring to early summer. which has slightly longer flower clusters and smaller fruit pods. Alpine Laburnum (p.74 BROADLEAVED COMPOUND Common Laburnum Laburnum anagyroides (Leguminosae/Fabaceae) PEA-LIKE. which has leaves that are green and smooth beneath. fragrant.73). The fruit is a slightly rounded. They are deep green above. broadly spreading habit leaflet to 9cm long flower to 2. spreading tree has alternate leaves with three leaflets. OCCURRENCE Woods and thickets in mountainous areas of S. fissured with age. in gardens this species has largely been replaced by Voss’s Laburnum (right). BARK Smooth and dark grey. and covered with silky white hairs when young. pale brown pod. SPREAD 3m. up to 8cm long. with black seeds. . grey-green and whitish beneath.5cm long HEIGHT 7m. this deciduous. hairy. and hangs in clusters. golden yellow flowers are borne in slender. Europe. Golden yellow flowers are borne in dense and showy leafless clusters. Although known as Common Laburnum.

OCCURRENCE Mountains in S. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. Black Locust Robinia pseudoacacia (Leguminosae/Fabaceae) Often spreading widely by means of suckers. Common Laburnum (left). ‘Vossii’ is the common form in gardens. up to 5cm long. BARK Smooth. have up to 21 leaflets.5cm long HEIGHT 7m. and dark brown pods up to 10cm long. flower to 2. SIMILAR SPECIES Alpine Laburnum (p.E. and is often sparsely produced. The alternate. Europe. The fruit is a brown pod. SPREAD 15m. usually with a pair of spines at the base. with flower clusters up to 60cm long. BARK Grey-brown with deep furrows. up to 6cm long.76) has green shoots without spines and produces smaller pods. They are deep green above with silky hairs pressed close to the leaf surface. It has pea-like. and widely naturalized. native to S. broadly spreading habit DARK grey and smooth. with few seeds. the bark becomes shallowly fissured with age. fragrant.73). DARK blue-green leaves have many elliptical untoothed leaflets. dark grey. the flowers hang in clusters 30cm or more long. spreading tree have three leaflets to 8cm long. fissured with age.73) and Common Laburnum (left). leaf to 30cm long columnar habit flower to 2cm long HEIGHT 25m. that are grey-green beneath. . fragrant white flowers in hanging clusters to 20cm long. and pea-like. This tree is a hybrid between Alpine Laburnum (p.BROADLEAVED COMPOUND 75 Voss’s Laburnum Laburnum x watereri (Leguminosae/Fabaceae) The alternate leaves of this deciduous. Golden yellow. FLOWERING TIME Late spring to early summer. this is a vigorous. pinnate leaves. FLOWERING TIME Early summer. SPREAD 3m. USA. SIMILAR SPECIES Japanese Pagoda Tree (p. deciduous tree with a broadly columnar head. on red-brown shoots.

The smooth. The fruit is a brown pod wavy-marginated.5cm long. spreading habit. native to S.75). pinnate leaves with up to 17 sharply pointed. spreading habit FRAGRANT lilac flowers are profusely borne in large. often persist on the tree over winter. native to China. The rounded orange-yellow fruit. yellow autumn foliage leaf to 25cm long HEIGHT 20m. BARK Dark grey-brown with prominent ridges. SIMILAR SPECIES None. SPREAD 20m. white or pink-tinged habit flowers are about 1.76 BROADLEAVED COMPOUND Japanese Pagoda Tree Sophora japonica (Leguminosae/Fabaceae) FRAGRANT flowers open in large clusters to 30cm long at the ends of the shoots. spiny red-brown shoots. open clusters. The spreading pea-like. divided into numerous toothed or lobed leaflets. Small lilac flowers. the Bead Tree has glossy. early autumn in regions with cool summers. FLOWERING TIME Summer. each with five spreading petals. Asia. leaf to 70cm long HEIGHT 10m. spineless green shoots of this deciduous tree are bloomy when young and have alternate. Bead Tree Melia azedarach (Meliaceae) A deciduous tree of graceful. OCCURRENCE Cultivated and occasionally naturalized in Europe. 1. OCCURRENCE Cultivated (particularly in the Mediterranean region) and occasionally naturalized. are borne in clusters that are up to 20cm long. blue green below. dark green leaves that are alternate and twice pinnate. SIMILAR SPECIES Black Locust (p. FLOWERING TIME Late spring to early summer. SPREAD 15m. untoothed leaflets dark green above. .5cm wide. BARK Grey and furrowed. which has angled. up to 8cm long.

. which have a smooth bark.81). FLOWERING TIME Spring. BARK Grey-brown with narrow ridges. or purple in autumn. dark brown or nearly black leaf buds. The tiny. petalless flowers of the White Ash are purple or green and borne in clusters. the trunk develops narrow. HEIGHT 30m.BROADLEAVED COMPOUND 77 White Ash Fraxinus americana (Oleaceae) This large. The opposite. SPREAD 25m. In winter. unlike many other ash species. they are bluegreen beneath. deciduous tree is of broadly columnar habit. which are up to 5cm long. The foliage turns to yellow. native to E. interlacing ridges as it ages. with males and females found on separate trees. The fruit. bluish green foliage broad. GREY-BROWN. OCCURRENCE Cultivated (with several selections grown for their habit and autumn colour). pinnate leaves have up to nine short-stalked and sparsely toothed. and ripen from green to brown. not whitish. Dark green above. creating a spectacular sight. its stout. North America. smooth. SIMILAR SPECIES Green Ash (p. columnar habit shortstalked leaflets leaf to 35cm long NOTE The White Ash provides a useful wood that is traditionally used in the making of sports equipment such as baseball bats. oval leaflets. which has leaflets that are green below. green or brown shoots end in small. have a flattened wing. red.

This deciduous. green or purple flowers without petals open in clusters before the leaves. The leaves of the similar Caucasian Ash are often in threes. a selection of this known as ‘Raywood’ is often grown for its elegant foliage and purple autumn colour. glossy bright green above. BARK Dark grey-brown. broadly columnar habit colourful autumn foliage leaf to 25cm long leaflet to 7. Caucasian Ash (F. . Europe to the Caucasus. up to 4cm long.78 BROADLEAVED COMPOUND Narrow-leaved Ash Fraxinus angustifolia (Oleaceae) GREY-BROWN.5cm long NOTE A widely distributed and variable species. and E. oxycarpa). OCCURRENCE Woods and river banks of S. SIMILAR SPECIES Common Ash (right). males and females on separate plants. taper-pointed leaflets. with slender leaflets that have hairs beneath near the base. The winged fruit. HEIGHT 25m. FLOWERING TIME Spring. the Narrow-leaved Ash is generally recognizable by its narrow and sharplytoothed leaflets. which has distinct black buds. Europe. hairless beneath. the bark of the Narrow-leaved Ash has numerous. are green ripening to brown. SPREAD 20m. pinnate leaves have up to 13 sharply toothed. broadly columnar tree has shoots that end in brown buds. angustifolia subsp. The opposite.E. prominent ridges. Tiny. with prominent ridges. which has different foliage and occurs from S.

which has brown buds and narrower leaves. The male and female flowers are separate. Glossy green. broadly columnar habit leaf to 30cm long fruit to 4cm long HEIGHT 30m or more. pinnate leaves have up to 13 sharply toothed. with a slender.80). SPREAD 20m. developing deep fissures NOTE The distinctive flower buds form dense. and open from almost black buds before the leaves emerge. are up to 4cm long and ripen to brown. SIMILAR SPECIES Narrow-leaved Ash (left). TINY and purple. . nearly black clusters before they open and are easy to spot in early spring. each 10cm long. winged fruit. smooth shoots and prominent black buds. The opposite. tapered point at the tip. FLOWERING TIME Spring. Vigorous shoots from the base may be produced in summer and these often have purple foliage. deciduous tree of broadly columnar to spreading habit. produced in clusters. Manna Ash (p. OCCURRENCE Moist woods and river banks throughout most of Europe. BARK Smooth and pale grey when young. the flowers have no petals. the Common Ash has stout. dark green leaflets. and may be on the same or different trees. with age.BROADLEAVED COMPOUND 79 Common Ash Fraxinus excelsior (Oleaceae) A large. which has grey buds. they are borne in dense clusters.

. The tiny green flowers in clusters have no petals and open before the leaves. Europe.80 BROADLEAVED COMPOUND Manna Ash Fraxinus ornus (Oleaceae) FRAGRANT flowers with four white petals are borne in drooping clusters to 20cm long with the leaves. and sharp-toothed. FLOWERING TIME Spring. Pinnate and opposite or in whorls of three.78).79). the bark is initially smooth. BARK Smooth and dark grey. OCCURRENCE Woods on dry slopes in the Mediterranean region and E. stalked leaflets with hairs along the main vein beneath. which does not have densely hairy shoots and leaves. FLOWERING TIME Late spring to early summer. broadly columnar tree are densely covered with soft white hairs. which has black buds. have up to nine dark green. OCCURRENCE River banks in S. SPREAD 20m. Fraxinus pallisiae Fraxinus pallisiae (Oleaceae) The young shoots of this deciduous. SIMILAR SPECIES Narrow-leaved Ash densely hairy shoot (p. pinnate leaves. slender-pointed leaflets that are densely hairy beneath. GREY-BROWN. taper-pointed. The opposite. broadly spreading habit green fruit ripens to brown leaflet to 12cm long HEIGHT 20m.E. BARK Grey-brown becoming fissured. this deciduous tree with a spreading habit has shoots with grey buds. the dark green leaves are up to 25cm long and have up to 13 toothed. They are followed by winged fruit in autumn. columnar habit leaflet to 6cm long HEIGHT 30m. SIMILAR SPECIES Common Ash (p. Europe. The fragrant flowers are followed by winged fruit to 4cm long. up to 25cm long. Also called Flowering Ash. They become tinged with purple and yellow in autumn. SPREAD 20m. but gradually becomes fissured with age.

opposite. the Green Ash has shoots with blunt brown buds. and Red Ash with downy shoots. Large. and turn yellow in autumn. distinctly stalked leaflets. Two forms of this species were once recognized: Green Ash with smooth shoots. pinnate leaves have up to nine toothed or untoothed. dark green above. native to North America. . but differs in having pointed buds. the bark of the Green Ash has narrow. ripen from green to brown. The winged fruit. up to 5cm long. they are now regarded as one species. Male and female flowers are borne in clusters on separate plants.BROADLEAVED COMPOUND 81 Green Ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica (Oleaceae) A fast-growing. OCCURRENCE Cultivated.77) is often confused with this species. They are glossy. deciduous tree of broadly columnar habit. broadly columnar habit leaflet to 12cm long leaf to 30cm long stalked leaflets NOTE HEIGHT 20m. FLOWERING TIME Spring. BARK Grey-brown with narrow ridges. SIMILAR SPECIES White Ash (p. paler beneath. interlacing ridges. SPREAD 15m. The tiny. GREY-BROWN. and leaves that are blue-green beneath. green or purple flowers have no petals and open only after the leaves.

It makes a small tree to 10m tall with several slender stems and is only found in coastal areas of Crete. Male and female flowers are borne on separate trees. are borne on female trees. The Date Palm (P. SIMILAR SPECIES Date Palm (P. are large and arching with up to 200 pairs of dark green. HEIGHT 20m. often with suckers from the base. FLOWERING TIME Summer. . dryfleshed. arching leaves leaf to 6m long old leaf bases marked on bark NOTE One of the most commonly grown palms. rounded head. P. The leaves. large. clustered at the end of an unbranched stem. succulent fruit to 7cm long. and is cultivated. OCCURRENCE Valleys in the Canary Islands. arching leaves. pointed leaflets to 50cm long. those towards the leaf base reduced to spines. theophrasti has blue green leaves and dry fruit. This evergreen palm has a stout. SPREAD 10m BARK Grey and rough. prominently marked by old leaf bases.5cm long. commonly cultivated in the Mediterranean region and other warm areas. to 30m.82 BROADLEAVED COMPOUND Canary Island Palm Phoenix canariensis (Palmae/Arecaceae) EGG-SHAPED. single stem and a large. Canary Island Palm is distinguished by its very stout trunk and long. up to 2. are borne in large clusters which hang among the leaves. and has larger. dactylifera). 1–2cm long. Small creamy yellow flowers. which is taller. dactylifera) is larger. orange fruit.

on a stout. spiny stalk to 2m long. The lower. Small creamy white flowers are borne in large. hanging clusters to 4m long followed by egg-shaped brown fruit. native to China. creamy yellow flowers open in large clusters. are divided more than half way to the base into numerous segments. The fruit contains a single seed. fan-shaped leaf leaf to 1m wide male flowers GREY bark is mostly obscured by old leaf bases densely covered in brown fibres. HEIGHT 10m. SPREAD 3m. males and females on separate plants. rigid. SIMILAR SPECIES Windmill Palm (above). native to China. FLOWERING TIME Late spring to early summer. single trunk of the evergreen Petticoat Palm ends in a rounded to hemispherical. BARK Grey. The leaves. BARK Grey and ridged. FLOWERING TIME Late spring to early summer. mostly obscured by old leaf bases. is smaller with fibrous leaf bases on the trunk. ridged. grey-green leaves to 2m wide. SIMILAR SPECIES Petticoat Palm (below). Petticoat Palm Washingtonia filifera (Palmae/Arecaceae) The stout. . on a stalk to 45cm long. dead leaves LARGE. dark green segments. which is larger and lacks the fibrous trunk. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. SPREAD 3m. The leaves are cut almost to the base into many. ridged bark fruit to 1m long HEIGHT 10m. open head. Small. fan-shaped. dead leaves are long-persistent and hang against the trunk. slender trunk and a small head of clustered leaves. OCCURRENCE Cultivated in Europe. are divided into about 50 segments. this evergreen palm has a single.BROADLEAVED COMPOUND 83 Windmill Palm Trachycarpus fortunei (Palmae/Arecaceae) Also known as Chusan Palm.

this deciduous tree has shoots ending in sticky. each with five petals and conspicuous stamens. turning red and purple in autumn. and heaths on acid soils across most of Europe. which are poisonous when raw. BARK Pale grey and smooth. which are blue-green beneath. . The small white flowers. SPREAD 10m. The alternate. native to Japan and Korea. conical tree has shoots that end in purple buds covered in grey hairs. Japanese Rowan Sorbus commixta (Rosaceae) Broadly conical when young and spreading with age. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. leaf to 20cm long flowerhead to 15cm wide HEIGHT 10m. dark green leaflets. often weigh down the branches. OCCURRENCE Woodland. mountains. glossy red buds. SIMILAR SPECIES Japanese Rowan (below). pinnate leaves have up to 15 sharply toothed. BARK Glossy grey and smooth. becoming ridged with age. which has matt green leaves and buds with grey hairs. Spreading with age. open in broad heads and develop into berries. flowerhead to 15cm wide broadly conical habit leaf to 20cm long fruit to 8mm wide HEIGHT 15m. are borne on red stalks. glossy green above and blue-green below. SPREAD 10m. Flat heads of small white flowers are followed by orange-red fruit in autumn.84 BROADLEAVED COMPOUND Rowan Sorbus aucuparia (Rosaceae) HEAVY clusters of rounded orange-red berries. Alternate. 8mm wide. Service Tree (right). FLOWERING TIME Late spring. taper-pointed. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. pointed leaflets. SIMILAR SPECIES Rowan (above). this deciduous. attractive to birds. conical to spreading habit ROUNDED orange-red fruit. pinnate leaves have up to 15 finely toothed.

HEIGHT 20m. occasionally grown as an ornamental tree or for its fruit. pinnate yellow-green leaves have up to 21 oblong. apple.or pear-shaped fruit have a gritty texture. this tree has also been found in South Wales. The relatively large apple. and smaller. up to 1. and sometimes naturalized. . OCCURRENCE Native to S. toothed leaflets which are smooth above and hairy beneath when young. turning red or purple in autumn. are borne in rounded to conical clusters. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. orange-red fruit that are poisonous when raw. each with five petals.5cm wide. The alternate. BARK Dark brown. Europe.BROADLEAVED COMPOUND 85 Service Tree Sorbus domestica (Rosaceae) The green shoots of this deciduous. which has smoother bark. the large. leaf to 22cm long fruit to 3cm long flower cluster to 10cm wide NOTE While mainly confined to the European mainland. SIMILAR SPECIES Rowan (left). SPREAD 15m. Small white flowers. cracking into scales with age. broadly columnar habit GREEN or flushed with red. broadly columnar to spreading tree end in sticky green buds.or pearshaped fruit are sometimes eaten when slightly rotted.

cracking towards the base. oval. . OCCURRENCE Woodlands in Scandinavia. becomes rounded with age. SPREAD 8m. broadly conical tree. flattened heads. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. oval head leaf to 10cm long FLATTENED white flowerheads. and toothed terminal leaflet. above which the lobes decrease in size towards the leaf tip. The alternate. are followed by rounded red berries. BARK Grey-brown and smooth. BARK Grey and smooth.86 BROADLEAVED COMPOUND Bastard Service Tree Sorbus hybrida (Rosaceae) ROUNDED. dark green leaves are covered with grey hairs beneath and normally have two pairs of free. The alternate.2cm wide follow the small white flowers. SIMILAR SPECIES S. toothed leaflets at the base. has larger leaves. They usually have four or five pairs of toothed leaflets. The flowers are in broad. bright red fruit about 1. OCCURRENCE Woods in Sweden. S. 10cm wide. Sorbus teodorii Sorbus teodorii (Rosaceae) This deciduous shrub or tree has an oval head when young. SIMILAR SPECIES S. pinnate leaves are dark green above with grey hairs below. SPREAD 10m. which has leaves with a blunt-tipped terminal leaflet. x thuringiaca (right). fruit 1cm wide HEIGHT 12m. later becoming conical to rounded. three-lobed. pointed. Bastard Service Tree (above). meinichii. meinichii. leaf to 10cm long This deciduous. rounded with age flowerhead to 10cm wide HEIGHT 15m. has four or five pairs of free leaflets. Its stout shoots end in purple buds covered in grey hairs. which normally has two pairs of free leaflets. with a larger. FLOWERING TIME Late spring.

The leaves are dark green above. BARK Grey and smooth. narrow. cracking with age. SIMILAR SPECIES Bastard Service Tree (left) has smaller leaves.191) and Rowan (p.BROADLEAVED COMPOUND 87 Sorbus x thuringiaca Sorbus x thuringiaca (Rosaceae) Deciduous with an oval to rounded head. ROUNDED bright red fruit up to 1cm wide are borne in arching clusters and make an attractive autumn feature. The rest of the leaf is lobed. ‘Fastigiata’ is a commonly grown selection. OCCURRENCE Woodland in Europe. upright habit of ‘Fastigiata’ has made it a popular amenity tree. usually with one or more pairs of free leaflets at the base. particularly where space is restricted. grey and hairy beneath. Small white flowers are borne in flattened heads. this tree has alternate. (p. flowering shoots. oval leaves. A hybrid between Whitebeam NOTE The compact. the upright branches making a dense. flowerhead to 12cm wide rounded head leaf to 15cm wide HEIGHT 12m. SPREAD 10m.84) occasionally found where the parents grow together. more shallowly towards the tip. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. oval crown. . These are present on vigorous shoots but often absent on short.

FLOWERING TIME Mid. BARK Pale brown with narrow fissures. are borne in large. leaf to 45cm long HEIGHT 12m. conical panicles at the ends of the shoots. Small yellow flowers are followed by bladder-like fruit capsules. turning dark green above.2cm wide. often with some leaflets further divided or lobed. four-petalled flowers. columnar with a broadly spreading head. about 1.88 BROADLEAVED COMPOUND Pride of India Koelreuteria paniculata (Sapindaceae) YELLOW. and eventually yellow-brown. fruit to 5cm long . SIMILAR SPECIES None – very distinct tree in all its features. The alternate leaves are pinnate. yellow-green at first. OCCURRENCE Known only in cultivation. SPREAD 15m. 3-sided fruit capsules particularly so in late summer and autumn when the characteristic flowers and fruit appear. up to 5cm long. broadly spreading habit The graceful shape of this deciduous tree. becoming green or red. native to China and Korea. ‘Fastigiata’ is an uncommon form of narrowly upright habit. they emerge bronze when young. ‘Rose Lantern’ is generally grown for its red fruit pods. Toothed and downy. and finally yellow in autumn. makes it hard to mistake.to late summer. flower clusters to 45cm long NOTE There are a few garden selections.

This vigorous tree thrives in warm cities where it is much planted. pinnate. large. The alternate. The fruit are green at first. dark green leaves have 15 or more pairs of leaflets. deciduous tree has a broadly columnar crown. becoming darker and rougher with age. FLOWERING TIME Late summer. leaf to 60cm or longer notch at leaflet base columnar crown dark green pinnate leaves NOTE HEIGHT 20m or more. PINNATE. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. and the females are followed by winged fruit. which are tapered at the tip and untoothed except for 1–3 notches near the base. BARK Grey-brown with fine streaks. In cooler areas. . becoming yellow-brown flushed with red. Flowers are small.BROADLEAVED COMPOUND 89 Tree of Heaven Ailanthus altissima (Simaroubaceae) This fast-growing. native to China. Male and female flowers usually grow on separate trees. SPREAD 15m. with five or six yellow-green petals and are borne in large panicles at the end of the shoots. which have opposite leaves without notches. it may not flower or fruit well. SIMILAR SPECIES Walnut (Juglans) and ash (Fraxinus) species. up to 4cm long. and often naturalized. similar to those of ash (Fraxinus). dark green leaves have many pairs of leaflets.

in this book. fan-leaved palms belong in this group but. untoothed to toothed or spiny. NORWAY MAPLE GREY ALDER COMMON BEECH BROAD-LEAVED LIME .Broadleaved Simple Most broadleaved trees have simple leaves – leaves that are not divided into leaflets. they are included with the broad-leaf compound trees because of their superficial physical similarity. Technically. round to heart-shaped. Both deciduous and evergreen trees fall into this group. such as the Red Oak (below). and their leaf shapes range from slender to wide. and deeply lobed to shallowly lobed.

each fruit has two horizontal. and turn yellow in autumn.5cm long. deciduous tree of spreading habit is sometimes shrubby. with orange fissures. BARK Pale brown. and somewhat corky. The opposite leaves are dark green above. the larger of which have smaller lobes towards the tips. The fruit is up to 2. and hangs in clusters. The leaf lobes are usually untoothed and end in fine points. round crown spreading habit NOTE This species is often planted for hedging. HANGING in clusters. with leaves edged creamy white and ‘Pulverulentum’. FLOWERING TIME Mid. spreading wings and ripens from green to reddish. with two widely spreading wings. SPREAD 10m. which usually has leaves that are three-lobed and lacks the milky sap in the leaf stalk. When cut. paler and hairy beneath.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 91 Field Maple Acer campestre (Aceraceae) Also known as Hedge Maple. .97). Garden selections include forms with variegated foliage such as ‘Carnival’. They are heartshaped at the base and deeply cut into five lobes. OCCURRENCE Woods and hedgerows throughout Europe.to late spring. this round-crowned. the leaf stalk exudes a milky sap. which has leaves speckled white. SIMILAR SPECIES Montpelier Maple (p. Upright clusters of small green flowers open with the young leaves. leaf to 10cm wide fruit about 5cm wide HEIGHT 15m.

The opposite leaves have three taper-pointed. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. The upright branches and young green shoots of this deciduous tree give it a broadly columnar to spreading crown. leaf to 15cm long flower cluster to 10cm long bright red autumn colour HEIGHT 15m.92 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Snake-bark Maple Acer capillipes (Aceraceae) SMOOTH. with forms extending to the Himalayas and China. OPPOSITE. SPREAD 15m. has leaves that are hairy beneath and young shoots covered in a white bloom. untoothed lobes and turn yellow in autumn. drooping clusters. bright green. which is also cultivated. with green shoots. SIMILAR SPECIES Grey-budded Snake-bark Maple (p. White sap exudes from the leaf stalks when they are cut. smooth beneath. often produces suckers at its base. .96). SPREAD 10m. rounded clusters with the young leaves and are followed by green fruit with spreading wings. and followed by red-tinged fruit with spreading wings to 2cm long. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. Garden selections include ‘Aureum’ with yellow foliage. Small yellowgreen flowers are borne in upright. deciduous tree. Small green flowers are borne in slender. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. native to Japan. green and grey bark with vertical white stripes. on this and other maples has been likened to a snake’s skin. and ‘Rubrum’ with deep red young leaves. leaves have 5–7 fine taper-pointed. SIMILAR SPECIES Lobel’s Maple (p. which is upright in habit with bloomy shoots. columnar to spreading habit fruit to 2cm long leaf to 15cm across HEIGHT 20m. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. BARK Green with white vertical stripes. BARK Grey and smooth. toothed lobes and are rich green above. Cappadocian Maple Acer cappadocicum (Aceraceae) This broadly columnar to spreading. native from Turkey to Iran and the Caucasus.102).

with a taper-pointed tip. dark green leaves. ‘Ernest Wilson’ has pale green leaves turning bright orange in autumn.102) and Moosewood (p. The leaves are oval. and with or without small lobes at the base. horizontal cracks. . BARK Green with slender. These are followed by green fruit that become flushed with red. then brown. native to China. Slender. deciduous tree of conical to widely spreading habit. drooping clusters.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 93 Père David’s Maple Acer davidii (Aceraceae) A small.99) both of which have lobed leaves. 10cm long. Several forms are grown in gardens. They can turn yellow to orange or red in autumn. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. glossy. SPREAD 10m. this maple has opposite. and have spreading wings. dark green leaves with little autumn colour. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. SIMILAR SPECIES Grey-budded Snake-bark Maple (p. ONE of the several mainly Asiatic trees known as snake-bark maples because of their attractive bark. ‘George Forrest’ has large. of small green flowers appear with the young foliage. vertical white stripes and marked with NOTE This species is variable in its leaf shape and it is also one of the most commonly seen snake-bark maples. conical habit leaf to 15cm long fruit wings to 3cm long HEIGHT 15m.

OCCURRENCE Mountain woodlands in the Balkans.101). The small yellow flowers are borne in upright. SPREAD 15m. Red Bud Maple (A.94 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Heldreich Maple Acer heldreichii (Aceraceae) HANGING in drooping clusters from slender stalks. which has less deeply cut leaves and bright red fruit wings. the lower ones smallest. HEIGHT 20m.h. They are glossy. Red Bud Maple (A. trautvetteri) from the Caucasus. is occasionally cultivated. becoming fissured with age. With a broadly columnar to spreading crown. which has less deeply divided leaves and pendulous flower clusters. toothed lobes. into three to five prominent. dark green above and blue-green beneath. almost to the base. this deciduous tree has opposite leaves that are deeply cut. conical clusters as the leaves emerge and are followed by winged fruit. turning yellow or red in autumn. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. the winged fruit ripen from green to red in the subspecies trautvetteri. SIMILAR SPECIES Sycamore (p. columnar to spreading head leaf to 20cm or more wide yellow autumn leaf reddish twig NOTE The Heldreich Maple is distinct from other maples in the very deeply cut leaves which may be divided almost to the base. . trautvetteri). BARK Smooth and grey-brown. heldreichii subsp. subsp.

Spanish Maple (A. spreading habit ROUNDED and lobed. FLOWERING TIME Late spring.91) has smaller leaves. HEIGHT 10m. spreading tree has opposite leaves that are divided into sometimes three. leaf to 10cm wide shrubby to spreading habit fruit wings to 3cm long HEIGHT 10m.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 95 Balkan Maple Acer hyrcanum (Aceraceae) Often shrubby. this deciduous. with rounded leaves that are silky and hairy on both sides when young.5cm long . spreading tree. They are dark green above and blue-green beneath and turn yellow in autumn. SIMILAR SPECIES Japanese Maple (p. which reach less than halfway to the base.E. which are green at first ripening to brown. GREY-BROWN and smooth. SIMILAR SPECIES Field Maple (p. BARK Smooth and grey-brown. The small red-purple flowers are borne in hanging clusters as the young leaves emerge and are followed by fruit with two green or red-flushed wings. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. Europe. leaf to 13cm long fruit wings to 2. the bark becomes scaly with age. SPREAD 10m. usually five. The large leaves of the garden selection ‘Vitifolium’ are richly coloured in autumn. BARK Grey-brown. and turn orange to red and purple in autumn. SPREAD 10m. hairy leaves. followed by fruit with two wings. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. the opposite dark green leaves are edged with sharp teeth. flower cluster which has leaves with fewer lobes and tufts of hair at the vein axils beneath. native to Japan. Small yellow-green flowers open in drooping clusters as the young leaves emerge. They have 7–11 pointed dark green lobes. OCCURRENCE Woods on dry mountain slopes in S. Fullmoon Maple Acer japonicum (Aceraceae) This is a deciduous. lobes that are edged with few prominent teeth.98). granatense) has smaller.

habit and does not have bloomy shoots.100). SIMILAR SPECIES Cappadocian Maple (p. which has a spreading NOTE This tree is very distinct in its habit. Deciduous with a narrowly columnar habit. which has several taper-pointed teeth on its leaf lobes. A milky sap is exuded from the leaf stalk when cut. the bark of Lobel’s Maple has shallow.5cm long. developing narrow fissures with age. They are glossy. Italy.96 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Lobel’s Maple Acer lobelii (Aceraceae) SMOOTH and pale grey. Norway Maple (p. . this tree has young shoots which are covered in a blue-white bloom. which are up to 2. becoming green the following year. dark green above. which appear on the surface as the tree ages. paler beneath. The opposite leaves have five wavy-edged lobes which taper abruptly at the end to a fine point and have no or few teeth. Upright clusters of small yellow-green flowers open with the young leaves. These are followed by fruit with spreading green wings. SPREAD 6m. BARK Pale grey and smooth. OCCURRENCE Mountain woodland in S. and turn yellow in autumn. narrow columnar habit yellow-green flowers leaf to 15cm long winged fruit HEIGHT 20m. vertical fissures.92). and is occasionally planted in gardens for its shape and autumn colour. FLOWERING TIME Late spring.

Drooping clusters of small.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 97 Montpelier Maple Acer monspessulanum (Aceraceae) Sometimes shrubby. . habit DARK grey or blackish. Leathery in texture. the bark of this maple starts developing cracks in older trees. up to 4cm long. this deciduous. FLOWERING TIME Early summer. which is evergreen. Clusters of bright yellow flowers open before the leaves. which has toothed leaf lobes. and blue-green beneath. SPREAD 15m. with few hairs beneath except on the veins when mature. leaf to 7cm long HEIGHT 10m. glossy. dark green above.91). SPREAD 10m. spreading habit leaf to 10cm long and wide WINGED fruit follow the flowers. square plates. and yellow in autumn.W. slender-stalked. sometimes with two smaller lobes at the base. Europe. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. Italian Maple Acer opalus (Aceraceae) This deciduous tree has a broadly columnar crown. the small. with shallow. Field Maple (p. they are formed in pairs. OCCURRENCE Woodland on hills and mountains in S. peeling in large. OCCURRENCE Sunny slopes on hills and mountains in S. rounded head. rounded lobes. The opposite leaves are shallowly divided into three bluntly toothed lobes. yellow-green flowers are followed by fruit with nearly broadly parallel wings. BARK Grey-tinged pink.5cm long.104). which has more deeply lobed and toothed leaves. They are glossy. and C.101). cracks with age. BARK Dark grey or blackish. up to spreading 1. spreading tree has a dense. obtusatum has leaves that are hairy beneath. opposite leaves are rounded at the tip with three untoothed lobes. SIMILAR SPECIES Sycamore (p. bright yellow flowers HEIGHT 20m. dark green above. Subsp. in branched clusters. SIMILAR SPECIES Cretan Maple (p. Europe.

Among the many selections grown in gardens are ‘Atropurpureum’. SPREAD 10m. and have tufts of hair in the vein axils beneath. smooth. SIMILAR SPECIES Fullmoon Maple (p. ‘Osakazuki’. spreading habit leaves to 10cm long autumn leaf colour tiny.98 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Japanese Maple Acer palmatum (Aceraceae) BRIGHT green above. this maple has slender shoots that end in small. which. with purple foliage. or red in autumn. the leaves turn yellow. with bright pink winter shoots. and toothed lobes. The autumn colour is further enhanced by the green or red winged fruit. popular in gardens for its autumn colour. and ‘Sango-kaku’ (‘Senkaki’). China. Borne in opposite pairs. native to Japan. A deciduous tree with a graceful. redpurple and white flowers NOTE This is a commonly planted species. The leaves vary in the depth and toothing of the lobes. to 2cm long. orange. followed by fruit with green or red wings. spreading habit. and Korea. ‘Dissectum’. . paired buds. The small red-purple and white flowers open in clusters with the young leaves. with very good autumn colour. a shrubby form with finely cut leaves. slightly fissured on older trees.95) has less deeply cut leaves with more numerous lobes. HEIGHT 10m or more. BARK Grey-brown. the leaves are divided into 5–7 tapering. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. along with the shoots. are densely covered in silky hairs when young. pointed. OCCURRENCE Cultivated.

native to E. they turn butter-yellow in autumn. which are mainly native to E.99) is the only one that occurs naturally in North America. and yellow-green flowers. broadly columnar habit GREEN with red-brown and white vertical stripes. ‘Erythrocladum’. has yellow bark. BARK Green with vertical stripes. SIMILAR SPECIES Grey-budded Snake-bark Maple (p. arching branches and a broadly columnar habit. Asia. and toothed lobes. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. Pale green flowers in slender. the bark of the Moosewood becomes grey with age. green fruit wings . OCCURRENCE Cultivated. Deep green above and paler beneath.102). The Moosewood (p.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 99 Moosewood Acer pensylvanicum (Aceraceae) This is a deciduous tree with upright. with some red-brown hairs. drooping clusters are followed by fruit with green wings up to 2. which has flower cluster to 12cm long bloomy young shoots. The opposite leaves are divided at the tip into three tapering. North America. smaller leaves with coarsely-toothed lobes. SPREAD 8m. a form sometimes seen in gardens.5cm long. pointed. leaf to 15cm long HEIGHT 10m. yellow-green leaves. NOTE This species is one of the snake-bark maples. and bright pink winter shoots.

followed by fruit with large wings. bright yellow flowers open before the young leaves emerge. SIMILAR SPECIES Lobel’s Maple (p. OCCURRENCE Mountain woodland in Europe. opposite leaves are divided into five lobes. Several forms are grown in gardens. The large. slender points. and turn yellow. The leaf stalk exudes a milky sap when cut. which has bloomy shoots. commonly planted and sometimes naturalized. which has leaves broadly edged creamy white. the Norway Maple has shoots ending in red buds. SPREAD 15m. Clusters of small. bright green above. Both are common trees. but they are easily distinguished by the buds – red in the Norway Maple and green in the Sycamore. A large. with purple foliage. and ‘Drummondii’. which has green buds. they are paler and glossy beneath. . bright green leaves each have five lobes. Sugar Maple (p. ending in several teeth with long. Sycamore (right). the broad. BARK Grey and smooth. FLOWERING TIME Early spring.100 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Norway Maple Acer platanoides (Aceraceae) YELLOW or red in autumn. such as ‘Crimson King’. each with several tapered teeth. autumn foliage leaf to 18cm long fruit to 5cm long NOTE This tree is often confused in winter with the Sycamore (right). deciduous tree with a broadly columnar crown. vigorous. bright yellow flowers HEIGHT 25m.103) lacks milky sap in the leaf stalk and has leaves that are blue-green beneath.96). or red in autumn. orange.

columnar head leaf to 15cm wide NOTE This species is known as a plane tree in Scotland but has no connection with the true planes (Platanus). flaking in irregular plates when old.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 101 Sycamore Acer pseudoplatanus (Aceraceae) The broad crown of this large. SPREAD 20m. Norway Maple (left). commonly planted and naturalized. The leaves are very often infected by tar spot fungus. 5-lobed leaf flower cluster to 12cm long HEIGHT 30m. BARK Pinkish to yellow-grey.97). and ‘Erythrocarpum’. which has red buds. FLOWERING TIME Mid-spring. YELLOW-GREEN flowers hang in pendulous clusters from the slender shoots. which has leaves with purple undersides. deciduous tree spreads with age. the leaves are heart-shaped at the base and palmately lobed. drooping panicles. SIMILAR SPECIES Italian Maple (p. OCCURRENCE Mountain woodland of Europe. Its shoots end in green buds and the opposite leaves are divided into five sharp-toothed lobes. The leaves are dark green above and blue-grey beneath. fruit wing to 3cm long ‘ERYTHROCARPUM’ . a small tree with bright pink young foliage. such as ‘Atropurpureum’. turning yellow in autumn. ‘Brilliantissimum’. Several selections are grown in gardens. Small yellow-green flowers are borne in dense. followed by fruit with green or redflushed wings. which has yellow flowers and bark which peels in square plates. which causes conspicuous black blotches. dense foliage broad. which has red fruit wings.

leaf to 13cm long yellow-green flower cluster HEIGHT 10m. dark green fruit to 2cm long above. dark green above. which has larger. which has similarly shaped but larger leaves. redflushed wings. Small yellow-green flowers appear with the young leaves. followed by fruit with two green. . they are blue-white beneath. BARK Dark grey and smooth. and are followed by red-winged fruit that appear on elongated stalks. Grey-budded Snake-bark Maple Acer rufinerve (Aceraceae) VERTICAL white stripes and diamond-shaped marks appear on the bark. more deeply cut leaves. Glossy. SIMILAR SPECIES Moosewood (p.102 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Red Maple Acer rubrum (Aceraceae) BRIGHT red foliage in autumn gives the Red Maple its common name. slender flower stalks broadly columnar crown leaf to 10cm long HEIGHT 25m. which turns from green to grey with age. native to E. SIMILAR SPECIES Silver Maple (right). FLOWERING TIME Early spring. males and females sometimes on separate trees. toothed lobes. The red to red-brown shoots of this large. FLOWERING TIME Mid-spring. grey and fissured on old trees. deciduous tree have opposite leaves with three or five toothed lobes that reach halfway to the base of the leaf. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. Dense clusters of small red flowers.99). OCCURRENCE Cultivated. North America. they have red-brown hairs on the veins beneath. The opposite leaves have three prominent. SPREAD 8m. SPREAD 15m. native to Japan. open before the leaves. broadly columnar habit The young shoots and buds of this deciduous tree have a blue-white bloom. usually turning yellow in autumn. BARK Green with long white stripes.

fissured and scaly on old trees. The opposite leaves have five lobes. Sugar Maple Acer saccharum (Aceraceae) Maple syrup is made from the sap of this deciduous tree in its native North America. North America. on younger trees it is smooth. flaking on old trees. they are pale blue-green beneath. the finely haired leaves are sharp-toothed. BARK Grey and smooth. and turn yellow then to orange or red in autumn. leaf to 15cm long HEIGHT 30m. SIMILAR SPECIES Norway Maple (p. broadly columnar habit DEEP fissures appear on the grey-brown bark with age. up to 2. followed by two-winged fruit that are about 5cm long. Deep matt green above. and turn yellow in autumn. which has smaller. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. followed by fruit with two wings. yellowgreen to reddish flowers open in clusters before the leaves. native to E. native to E. less deeply cut leaves that turn red in autumn. Small. North America.100).BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 103 Silver Maple Acer saccharinum (Aceraceae) Characteristic light green leaves with a silvery white underside lend this fast-growing. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. . Small yellow-green flowers open in pendulous clusters. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. leaf to 13cm long HEIGHT 25m. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. whose leaves are green below.5cm in length. SPREAD 20m. the three larger ones bearing few round-tipped teeth. reaching more than halfway to the base of the leaf. SPREAD 15m. The opposite leaves are divided into five deeply cut lobes. SIMILAR SPECIES Red Maple (left). lobes reach below centre of leaf columnar habit SILVERY WHITE on the underside. large. BARK Grey-brown and smooth. deciduous tree its name.

which have two green or red-tinged wings up to 1. The opposite. the leaves often turn orange or red in autumn. including Crete. Yellow-green flower clusters are followed by small fruit. bushy habit HEIGHT 10m. upright clusters of white or greenish white flowers open after the leaves have emerged and are followed by fruit which are green when uripe.5cm long HEIGHT 10m. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. leathery leaves are shallowly three-lobed or unlobed. which has leaves that are blue-green beneath. SPREAD 10m. especially in its white. bushy habit. leaf to 10cm long fruit wings to 2.97).104 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Cretan Maple Acer sempervirens (Aceraceae) CLUSTERS of tiny winged fruit follow the small yellowgreen flowers. SIMILAR SPECIES None – it is very distinct from other Acer species. with two green or red-tinged nearly parallel wings. BARK Dark grey. SIMILAR SPECIES Montpelier Maple (p. Europe and Turkey. Tatarian Maple Acer tataricum (Aceraceae) This bushy-headed. spreading habit SHARP-toothed and oval. often with wavy margins. then brown. fragrant flowers. OCCURRENCE Woodland and among shrubs in S.5cm long. bright green leaves are unlobed or have a small lobe on each side. BARK Grey-brown and smooth. often turning red. OCCURRENCE Dry rocky slopes in the hills 3-lobed leaf leaf to 5cm long and mountains of Greece.E. dark green above. often of shrubby. SPREAD 10m. This is an evergreen or nearly evergreen. deciduous tree of spreading habit. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. spreading tree. is sometimes shrubby. small. they are paler below. . Small. short-stalked. The opposite. Glossy.

about 1cm wide ‘GOLDEN KING’ NOTE HEIGHT 15m. a female with yellow-margined leaves. dark green above. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. and smaller fruit. fragrant. the male and female flowers leaf to 13cm on separate plants. BARK Grey and smooth. almost entirely represented by selections which are often variegated. white or purple-flushed flowers are borne in clusters. OCCURRENCE Cultivated (in gardens). ‘Camelliifolia’. Female trees bear bright red. the YELLOW-splashed. Popular forms of this hybrid include ‘Golden King’. long rounded berries. in some forms. Small. SPREAD 10m. and variegated have a nearly spineless margin. a male to conical tree with purple habit shoots and large ‘CAMELLIIFOLIA’ leaves with berry fewer spines. the leaves of the female that may or may not have spine-tipped teeth on the form ‘Lawsoniana’ margins. SIMILAR SPECIES Common Holly (p. broadly columnar to conical tree. more spiny leaves.107). Highclere Holly has alternate. which is found in the wild and has smaller. nearly spineless leaves. this tree was first raised in Britain when the latter was grown in glasshouses. A hybrid between the various forms of holly and Madeira Holly (p. They are glossy. oblong to broadly oval leaves.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 105 Highclere Holly Ilex x altaclerensis (Aquifoliaceae) An evergreen.106). . and columnar ‘Hodginsii’. a female with glossy dark green.

and ‘Handsworth New Silver’ with red berries. Glossy and dark green. with males and females columnar to conical habit on separate trees. with green or purple shoots. green ovary of female flower leaf to 10cm long HEIGHT 20m. White or purple-flushed. purple shoots. from oval to oblong. so the same tree may carry both toothed and untoothed leaves. such as ‘Bacciflava’. BARK Pale grey and smooth. evergreen tree is sometimes shrubby. usually bright red berries are densely clustered on the branches of female trees. which has larger leaves and fruit. although forms of it are found on the Azores and the Canary Islands. fragrant flowers are borne in clusters. its alternate leaves vary in shape.105). the leaves are smooth. Madeira Holly (right). . SIMILAR SPECIES Highclere Holly (p. Young trees and lower shoots tend to have very spiny leaves while on older trees and higher shoots. which has winged leaf stalks and is found only in Madeira. which bears yellow berries and has spiny leaves. SPREAD 15m. OCCURRENCE Woods and hedgerows in Europe. white male flowers NOTE Many decorative forms exist in gardens. The 1cm-wide berries may also be yellow or orange. and creamedged leaves.106 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Common Holly Ilex aquifolium (Aquifoliaceae) SHINY. This broadly columnar to conical. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. often with variegated foliage.

dark green leaves that are borne on distinctly winged stalks.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 107 Madeira Holly Ilex perado (Aquifoliaceae) This evergreen tree with a conical to broadly columnar head has alternate. the females small. long leaf to 10cm long fruit to 3cm long HEIGHT 25m. frequently planted. this alder is easily recognized by its distinctive rounded. The tiny flowers are conical following year. male catkin to 7. are followed by green berries that turn red. OCCURRENCE Woodlands in Madeira. and S. Female trees bear clusters of small berries. short. spiny teeth towards the tip. dark WOODY. They are glossy. crowded. with few. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. 1cm wide. Clusters of small white flowers. FLOWERING TIME Late winter to early spring. SIMILAR SPECIES Common Holly (left). alternate leaves that are finely toothed and heart-shaped at the base. the males yellow and drooping. platyphylla with larger leaves is found in the Canary Islands. males and females on separate plants. OCCURRENCE Woods in the mountains of C. SPREAD 12m. SIMILAR SPECIES None. brown. BARK Grey and smooth.5cm and upright. and paler with hairs in the vein persist until the axils beneath. leaf to 10cm long HEIGHT 8m SPREAD 6m. . Italian Alder Alnus cordata (Betulaceae) A vigorous. habit borne in catkins before the leaves emerge. cone-like fruit can green and smooth above. glossy green leaves OVAL leaves are untoothed or edged. developing shallow fissures with age. deciduous tree. Italy and Corsica. Subspecies azorica with smaller leaves is found in the Azores while subsp. BARK Grey and smooth. red. which does not have winged leaf stalks but has spinier leaves on young trees.

and have a tapering base. mature leaves. conical habit The Alder is a deciduous tree of conical habit. OCCURRENCE River banks and other wet places in Europe. is a smaller tree with leaves deeply cut into pointed lobes. The males are pendulous and yellow. SIMILAR SPECIES None – the leaves. broadest at the end with a notched tip. to 10cm long. the upright. red females are much smaller. . they are widest at the tip.108 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Alder Alnus glutinosa (Betulaceae) SMALL green unripe fruit are borne in clusters and mature to woody. are distinct in shape from other European species of Alnus. The dark green. a garden selection. which may be indented. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. whose young green shoots and alternate leaves are slightly sticky to the touch. green unripe fruit ripe fruit 2cm long NOTE This is the commonest European alder. It is often grown in gardens and parks as an ornamental tree. HEIGHT 25m. BARK Dark grey. paler beneath. SPREAD 12m. cracks into square plates on old trees. dark brown cones that remain on the tree during winter. ‘Imperialis’. The tiny flowers are borne in separate male and female catkins formed during the summer. are up to 10cm long. only about 5mm long.

females small. and woody. SIMILAR SPECIES Grey Alder (above). FLOWERING TIME Late winter to early spring.5cm long HEIGHT 10m. and often remains on the tree during winter. in C. Its alternate leaves are dark green. sometimes naturalized. the smaller females upright and red. grey below. native to Canada and N. BARK Dark grey and smooth. and are edged with small. OCCURRENCE River banks and other wet leaf to 10cm long male catkin to 10cm long places in the mountains of Europe. . oval leaves are dark green and deeply leaf to 10cm long veined above.E. the males pendulous and yellow. which is a smaller tree.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 109 Grey Alder Alnus incana (Betulaceae) This deciduous tree with a broadly conical habit has young shoots covered in grey hairs. east up to the Caucasus. conical habit HEIGHT 20m. BARK Dark grey and smooth. USA. broad. Its alternate. upright. SPREAD 10m. double teeth. OVAL and tapering to the base. and double-toothed or slightly lobed at the margins. dark brown. cone-like fruit. woody. deciduous tree of spreading habit has slightly hairy young shoots. small. OCCURRENCE Cultivated and. to 2cm long. SPREAD 12m. greenish white beneath. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. may persist until the following year. Speckled Alder Alnus rugosa (Betulaceae) This sometimes shrubby. which has more sharply toothed leaves. Europe. SMALL flowers are borne in catkins. and red. The brown. The cone-like fruit is short-stalked. The tiny flowers are borne in catkins: the males drooping and yellow. the dark green leaves are grey and hairy below. SIMILAR SPECIES Speckled Alder (below). spreading habit fruit to 1.

BARK White with obvious. taper-pointed. FLOWERING TIME Mid-spring. horizontal lenticels. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. North America. peels in horizontal strips. the smaller females are upright and green. with horizontal lenticels. OCCURRENCE Cultivated.114).110 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Yellow Birch Betula alleghaniensis (Betulaceae) YELLOW-BROWN in colour.E. fruiting catkin CREAMY white. Small brown fruit clusters. broadly columnar to spreading tree. has sharper-toothed leaves and hairy shoots. glossy warts. the bark peels in papery strips. break up when mature. native to N. the bark peels horizontally in thin. drooping. SIMILAR SPECIES Himalayan Birch (p. the Yellow Birch has hairy young shoots that smell of wintergreen when scratched. flaky strips. BARK Yellow-brown. and turn yellow in autumn. paler beneath. toothed margin leaf to 7. SIMILAR SPECIES Sweet Birch (Betula lenta). but the bark is dark red-brown and does not peel. and conical habit glossy green above. native to N. The small brown fruit in cylindrical. Tiny flowers are borne in catkins: the males large. . broadly conical tree are rough with small. upright clusters. up to 3cm long. columnar to spreading habit A deciduous. SPREAD 15m. coarsely toothed leaves are taper-pointed. which has aromatic foliage. finely toothed leaves are matt. toothed margin leaf to 10cm long male catkin to 10cm long HEIGHT 20m. dark green above. peeling to reveal creamy to pink inner bark. SPREAD 15m. up to 3cm long. Its alternate. The alternate. break up when ripe.5cm long male catkin to 10cm long HEIGHT 25m. Asia and Japan. Erman Birch Betula ermanii (Betulaceae) The young shoots of this deciduous. oval. The male catkins are drooping and yellow. oval.E. and yellow. the smaller females upright and reddish green. FLOWERING TIME Early spring.

up to 4cm leaf to long. and green. brown with age. leaf to 10cm long conical habit male catkin to 10cm long HEIGHT 20m. turning yellow in autumn. which has more sharply toothed leaves and white bark with dark cracks at the base.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 111 River Birch Betula nigra (Betulaceae) This deciduous tree is conical when young. FLOWERING TIME Mid-spring. upright. the bark peels in horizontal strips. upright clusters. The female catkins are small. SIMILAR SPECIES None – this species has highly distinctive foliage and bark. and taper to the base and the tip. Paper Birch Betula papyrifera (Betulaceae) Also known as Canoe Birch. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. BARK White with horizontal lenticels. drooping clusters of brown fruit. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. conical tree has young shoots that are warty and often hairy. native to E. while the large male catkins are drooping and yellow. giving them a diamond-shaped outline. and becomes dark brown and ridged on old trees. SPREAD 15m. Its blue-green leaves turn yellow in autumn. BARK Cream to pink-grey. later becoming broadly columnar to spreading. The yellow male flowers are in drooping catkins. dark green. they are deeply doubletoothed above the middle. exposing a pinkish orange inner bark. The small brown fruit are in cylindrical. and scatter 10cm on ripening. this deciduous. fast-growing. the green female flowers in upright to spreading catkins.5cm long PINK-GREY bark peels in papery layers. The matt. native to Canada and N. SPREAD 15m. WHITE with dark lenticels. SIMILAR SPECIES Silver Birch (p. oval leaves are sharply toothed and taper to a point at the tip. Cylindrical. long spreading habit female catkin male catkin to 7. FLOWERING TIME Mid-spring. break up as they ripen. HEIGHT 15m. USA.112). North America. . up to 5cm long.

later drooping. with numerous small warts. The young shoots are rough to the touch. and becomes black at the base on old trees. SPREAD 20m. and mountains in Europe. SIMILAR SPECIES Downy Birch (right). Glossy and dark green. often developing diamond-shaped. This large. Several selections are grown in gardens. weeping habit fruit cluster to 3cm long leaf to 6cm long female catkin male catkin to 6cm long HEIGHT 30m. has deep cracks and knobbly bumps towards the base. OCCURRENCE Woodlands. which has hairy shoots and leaves. deciduous tree has gracefully weeping branches. the bark lacks the dark markings at the base of the trunk and remains white even on old trees. They are oval to triangular and edged with prominent double teeth. the males yellow and drooping. the other common birch of Europe. . such as ‘Laciniata’ with finely cut leaves and ‘Tristis’ with very pendulous shoots. Tiny flowers are borne in catkins. The brown fruit clusters break up when ripe. narrow. heaths. BARK White. and the green females upright. the leaves turn yellow in autumn.112 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Silver Birch Betula pendula (Betulaceae) WHITE bark of mature trees is prominently marked with dark scars. NOTE The Silver Birch is the only birch species with a naturally pendulous habit compared to other Betula trees. black markings at the base of mature trees. FLOWERING TIME Mid-spring. giving it an easily recognizable form.

and mountains in Europe. SIMILAR SPECIES Silver Birch (left). dark green leaves. glossy. break up when ripe. upright. but does not peel. the Grey Birch has hairless. the females smaller. does not peel. narrow. tapered points. has warty. sharply toothed. conical habit upright. Tiny flowers are borne in catkins. dark green leaves are borne on slender stalks and end in long. hairless shoots and double-toothed leaves. deciduous tree. OCCURRENCE Woodland. SPREAD 4m. FLOWERING TIME Mid-spring. The oval. female catkin leaf to 7. turn smooth and yellow in autumn. cylindrical clusters of small brown fruit.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 113 Grey Birch Betula populifolia (Betulaceae) A small. break up when mature. BARK White or grey-white. Its broadly oval. up to 3cm long. it stays white at the base even on old trees. moors. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. sometimes with grey or pinkish cracks at the base. Tiny flowers are borne in catkins. The spreading. SIMILAR SPECIES Silver Birch (left). cylindrical clusters of small brown fruit. FLOWERING TIME Mid-spring. Downy Birch Betula pubescens (Betulaceae) Softly hairy young shoots and leaves give this conical. it darkens at the base with age. is larger with black marks at the base on old trees. the females smaller. edged with single teeth.5cm long WHITE or grey-white bark has black marks and long lenticels. female catkin fruiting catkin male catkin to 10cm long leaf to 6cm long HEIGHT 20m. conical habit HEIGHT 10m. North America. the males drooping and yellow. WHITE bark may have grey or pinkish cracks at the base.5cm long male catkin to 7. The upright. up to 3cm long. . deciduous tree its name. BARK White. native to E. warty shoots. narrowly conical. the males drooping and yellow. SPREAD 12m. and green. and green.

male catkin to 12cm long female catkin HEIGHT 20m. which has shoots that are hairless or nearly so.E. rather light green. Tiny fruiting catkin flowers are borne in catkins: the males yellow and drooping. broadly ovate. and leaf to 10cm long upright. hairy young shoots. which ripen from green to brown and persist on the tree over winter. spreading habit flower to 5cm long leaf to 25cm long fruit pod to 40cm long HEIGHT 15m. The often glossy. SIMILAR SPECIES Erman Birch (p.114 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Himalayan Birch Betula utilis (Betulaceae) PINKISH white to coppery brown. The flowers at the ends of the shoots are followed by slender. SIMILAR SPECIES Empress Tree (p. untoothed leaves. BARK Pinkish white to coppery brown. to 3cm long. the Indian Bean Tree has large. of small brown fruit. FLOWERING TIME Midsummer. China. . wide-spreading tree with stout shoots. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. are sharply toothed. Indian Bean Tree Catalpa bignonioides (Bignoniaceae) A deciduous. native to the Himalayas and W. OCCURRENCE Cultivated.205). the females smaller. dark green. broadly oval. arranged in whorls of three on long stalks. which has opposite leaves densely covered in sticky hairs. The cylindrical clusters. SPREAD 20m. CONICAL clusters of bell-shaped white flowers have yellow and purple spots. with many warts. hanging.110). bean-like pods. FLOWERING TIME Mid-spring. BARK Grey and scaly. and turn yellow in autumn. alternate leaves taper at the tip. conical to columnar crown This deciduous tree with a conical to columnar crown has silky. SPREAD 15m. USA. ‘Aurea’ is a selection with bright yellow young foliage. green. break up when mature. native to S. the flaky bark makes this a popular ornamental tree.

this evergreen tree has square young shoots. Spain. Balearic Islands. cracking into small squares on older trees. leaf to 4cm long HEIGHT 10m. OCCURRENCE Scrub and woodland. and Sardinia. BARK Grey and smooth. males and females separate on the same plant. conical to columnar or spreading habit leaf to 3cm long male flowers fruit to 8mm long OFTEN a shrub.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 115 Balearic Box Buxus balearica (Buxaceae) Of conical to columnar habit. . which are much shorter than the fruit. The small green fruit are about 8mm long and topped with three horns. BARK Pale grey-brown. SIMILAR SPECIES Balearic Box (above). The opposite. SIMILAR SPECIES Common Box (below). The male flowers have conspicuous yellow anthers. often low-growing and shrubby. leathery leaves are oval and dark green. The tiny green flowers are petal-less. OCCURRENCE Dry. the male flowers are showier than females. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. rocky hillsides of S. usually on alkaline soils. which are nearly as long as the fruit. which has larger leaves. throughout Europe. particularly in very dry places. SPREAD 5m. SPREAD 5m or less. dark green leaves are often blue-green when young. Common Box Buxus sempervirens (Buxaceae) This is evergreen plant is more often a shrub than a tree. The flowers of both sexes are separate but in the same cluster. the males with conspicuous yellow anthers. Its opposite. HEIGHT 6m. but can become a tree in sheltered woodland. has smaller leaves and a wider distribution. conical to columnar habit WITH their yellow anthers. The small green fruit are topped with three horns. particularly in exposed positions. FLOWERING TIME Early spring.

males and females separately. BARK Grey and smooth. open in small clusters. Broad-leaved Spindle Tree Euonymus latifolius (Celastraceae) NODDING clusters of bright pink fruit split when ripe to reveal orange seeds. greenish white flowers. which has smaller buds. up to 15cm long. The tiny. shrubby habit fruit to 2cm wide HEIGHT 6m. SPREAD 8m. The opposite. slender.E. spreading. are oval to oblong and edged with fine teeth. deciduous tree has green shoots ending in small leaf buds. The small pink flowers have five petals and are borne in clusters. which has much larger buds.2cm wide. OCCURRENCE Woods and thickets of S. BARK Grey and smooth. They turn reddish purple in autumn. orange autumn foliage leaf to 10cm long small greenish flowers HEIGHT 6m. fissured with age. dark green leaves. The dark green. . spreading tree is often shrubby and its shoots end in prominent. leaf to 15cm long This deciduous. each with four petals. FLOWERING TIME Late spring to early summer. about 1cm long. open to reveal orange seeds. This often low-branching or shrubby. The showy pink fruit have four narrow wings. opposite leaves are oval to lanceshaped and edged with fine teeth. bright pink fruit. and S. FLOWERING TIME Late spring to early summer. SIMILAR SPECIES Broad-leaved Spindle Tree (below). SPREAD 8m. to 5mm long. They turn orange-red or purple in autumn. woodland. and pointed buds. and hedgerows throughout Europe. SIMILAR SPECIES Spindle Tree (above).116 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Spindle Tree Euonymus europaeus (Celastraceae) FOUR-LOBED. up to 1. OCCURRENCE Scrub. sometimes on different plants. Europe and Turkey.

147). males and females on separate plants. The female trees bear small. female flowers . produces slender young shoots. which has alternate. and heart-shaped at the base. pod-like fruit clustered along the shoots. The tiny petalless flowers emerge early in the year on bare shoots. SPREAD 20m. blue-green leaves emerge early in the year. rather than opposite. BARK Pale grey-brown with shallow fissures. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. The rounded. native to the Himalayas.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 117 Katsura Tree Cercidiphyllum japonicum (Cercidiphyllaceae) This fast-growing. blue-green leaves are opposite or nearly so. ROUNDED. edged with fine teeth. leaf to 8cm wide HEIGHT 20m. deciduous tree of conical to rounded habit. Fallen leaves have a characteristic aroma of burnt sugar. and Japan. turning yellow to orange and purple in autumn. Male flowers have numerous red stamens. leaves that are not toothed. green. conical to rounded habit yellow autumn foliage NOTE The name Cercidiphyllum refers to the resemblance of the leaves to those of the Judas Tree (p. SIMILAR SPECIES Judas Tree (p. China. flaking on old trees.147).

deciduous tree are covered with a blue-white bloom. up to 1. spreading habit form in clusters. Tiny. North America. and are notched at the tip. from dark green above. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. which has larger leaves. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. Cultivated selections may have variegated foliage or pink to deep pink bracts. leaf to 10cm long The young shoots of this small. broadly conical to columnar tree are opposite. The eggshaped. long-stalked. native to E. oval leaves colour richly in autumn. strawberrylike fruit clusters are up to 2. broadly columnar habit FLESHY red fruit hang in clusters on long. and wavy-edged.5cm long HEIGHT 10m. BARK Red-brown. white bracts HEIGHT 10m. SPREAD 10m.5cm long. . greenish white and hairy beneath. SIMILAR SPECIES Flowering Dogwood (above). clusters of flowers 4 taperpointed bracts leaf to 7. kousa var. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. Japanese Strawberry Tree Cornus kousa (Cornaceae) The leaves of this deciduous. chinensis.118 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Flowering Dogwood Cornus florida (Cornaceae) OPPOSITE. native to E. SIMILAR SPECIES Japanese Strawberry Tree (below). creamy white or pink-tinged bracts. each cluster surrounded by four conspicuous. BARK Dark red-brown. each cluster surrounded by four conspicuous bracts. the undersides with tufts of brown hairs in the axils of the veins. C. North America. FLOWERING TIME Early summer. Dense clusters of tiny greenish flowers open with the young leaves. slender stalks in autumn. flaking in patches. oval. greenish white flowers in dense clusters appear after the leaves emerge. whose fruit is not fleshy. which are usually white but occasionally pink. Pacific Dogwood (right). dark green.5cm wide. The red. glossy red fruit. to orange and red or purple. SPREAD 8m. separating when ripe. cracking into small square plates on mature trees.

fleshy. BARK Grey-brown and flaky. creamy white or pinkish bracts. dark green leaves. Garden selections are sometimes grown for their larger fruit or variegated foliage. Small flower buds are visible on the shoots during winter and open in clusters before the leaves emerge. spreading tree or. oval. BARK Grey and smooth. leaf to 10cm long HEIGHT 10m. Pacific Dogwood Cornus nuttallii (Cornaceae) This deciduous. up to 2cm long. each with a single stone. TINY. The edible. which is smaller and has flowerheads with only four bracts. OCCURRENCE Woodland edges and thickets in C. shrubby habit CLUSTERS of unpleasantly scented tiny. . which break up when ripe. SPREAD 10m. four-petalled yellow flowers open before the leaves. more often. SIMILAR SPECIES None. native to W. up to 1. Europe. conical tree has opposite. notched at the tip. leaf to 15cm long reddish autumn foliage HEIGHT 15m. are borne in clusters. FLOWERING TIME Late winter to early spring. are borne in clusters. a shrub. and S.5cm long. The flowers are borne in dense clusters as the leaves appear. North America. They are surrounded by six (sometimes four or eight) large. dark green leaves. SIMILAR SPECIES Flowering Dogwood (left). Cornelian Cherry has opposite.E. bright red fruit. SPREAD 10m. OCCURRENCE Cultivated.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 119 Cornelian Cherry Cornus mas (Cornaceae) A deciduous. which turn yellow or red in autumn. The flowerhead can grow up to 15cm wide. oval. The egg-shaped red fruit. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. greenish white flower clusters are surrounded by usually six showy bracts.

OCCURRENCE Cultivated. FLOWERING TIME Spring. rounded clusters on slender stalks. dark green and often glossy leaves are clustered on shoots. Variable in shape. peeling in small flakes on mature trees. Also known as the Ghost or Handkerchief Tree. native to China. broadly conical tree easily recognizable. blue-black fruit. 2. native to E. the smooth. SIMILAR SPECIES None – no other tree shares similar features. dark green above and covered with white hair below. BARK Orange-brown. SIMILAR SPECIES None. Bunches of berry-like. SPREAD 15m. spreading branches. ovate to elliptic leaves tiny green flowers HEIGHT 20m. ripen in autumn. The flowers open in small. Its stout shoots have heart-shaped leaves. broadly conical to columnar habit BRIGHT red or yellow leaves in autumn makes this one of the finest trees for rich seasonal colour. untoothed. SPREAD 10m. ripen to purple-brown.120 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Dove Tree Davidia involucrata (Cornaceae) ROUNDED clusters of tiny flowers are surrounded by two showy white bracts. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. Sour Gum. Showy white bracts around clusters of small flowers make this deciduous. bright red buds make this tree conspicuous in winter. large. . eggshaped. up to 1cm long. broadly conical habit bract to 20cm long HEIGHT 15m. Tupelo Nyssa sylvatica (Cornaceae) Variously known as Black Gum. The round leaf to green fruit. deeply ridged and furrowed on older trees. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. or Tupelo. BARK Dark grey-brown. this deciduous tree has a broadly conical to columnar crown and slender.5cm 15cm long wide. North America.

SPREAD 25m. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. the slender shoots often drooping at the tips. in hanging clusters. which is a much smaller tree or shrub. When used in hedges. the only other Carpinus species native to Europe. which are made conspicuous by their three-lobed green bracts. males are yellow-brown. Hop Hornbeam (p. The oval to oblong leaves have prominent veins and are sharply double-toothed at the margins. are borne in summer.122). SIMILAR SPECIES Oriental Hornbeam (p. fruit cluster to 7. OCCURRENCE Deciduous woodlands and commonly in hedgerows. all over Europe.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 121 Hornbeam Carpinus betulus (Betulaceae) Conical when young. They are dark green above. paler beneath. HEIGHT 30m.5cm long leaf to 10cm long male catkin to 5cm long female catkin NOTE A Hornbeam without fruit can be identified by its fluted trunk. the deciduous Hornbeam develops a more rounded outline. fluted on old trees. . this species can be recognized by its sharply doubletoothed leaves which are folded along the veins. which has rough bark and hop-like fruit. The tiny flowers are borne in pendulous catkins as the young leaves emerge. Small fruit. each hidden at the base of a conspicuous bract with three untoothed lobes. females are green and shorter. broadly spreading habit PENDULOUS fruiting clusters.124). BARK Pale grey and smooth. ripen from green to yellow-brown. and turn yellow in autumn.

this spreading tree has several stems from the base and is often coppiced for its shoots. Tiny flowers are borne in pendulous catkins as the young leaves emerge.121). ripening to yellow-brown. SPREAD 10m. smooth. to 5cm long. hidden at the base of leaf-like. sharply toothed bracts. sharply-toothed leaves that turn yellow in autumn. this deciduous tree has alternate. SIMILAR SPECIES Filbert (right). the edible nuts (cobnuts) are carried in clusters of up to four. dark green leaves leaf to 5cm long HEIGHT 20m. OCCURRENCE Woodlands and their margins. Europe to the Caucasus. The alternate. Male flowers appear before the leaves open and female flowers are tiny. Common Hazel Corylus avellana (Betulaceae) Frequently shrubby and forming thickets. toothed. glossy. dark green leaves turn yellow in autumn. lobed husk. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. heart-shaped. which is a larger tree with larger leaves and 3-lobed bracts. BARK Grey-brown. females shorter and green. Turkish Hazel (right).E. OCCURRENCE Deciduous woodland and thickets from S. in pendulous clusters. hairy. The fruit is a small nut. Partially enclosed in a deeply lobed pale green husk. SIMILAR SPECIES Hornbeam (p. edible nuts leaf to 10cm long and thickets. BARK Purplish grey. . throughout Europe. FLOWERING TIME Late winter to early spring. gradually becomes fluted on older trees. has a slender-pointed. multiple stems HEIGHT 10m.122 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Oriental Hornbeam Carpinus orientalis (Betulaceae) SMOOTH purple-grey bark. has fruit in a tubular husk. spreading habit Often shrubby and forming thickets. the males are yellow-brown. with only the red stigmas showing. and contain the male flowers. about 4mm long. SPREAD 15m. peeling in strips. PALE yellow pendulous catkins hang from bare shoots.

Before the alternate. SIMILAR SPECIES Common Hazel (left) and Filbert (below).E. each enclosed in a tubular pale green husk. the male flowers hang in pendulous. with only the red stigmas showing. Europe. ‘Purpurea’. Filbert Corylus maxima (Betulaceae) Usually with several main stems and more often a shrub. fruit in tubular husk leaf to 12cm long HEART-shaped. this spreading. OCCURRENCE Deciduous woodlands of S. dark green leaves have a double-toothed margin and are carried on hairy stalks. tapered lobes. with only the red stigmas showing. conical head leaf to 15cm long COARSELY doubletoothed leaves are heart-shaped at the base. dark green leaves open.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 123 Turkish Hazel Corylus colurna (Betulaceae) This deciduous tree with a compact. frequently planted in parks and streets. FLOWERING TIME Late winter to early spring. dark green leaves that turn yellow in autumn. has a shorter husk which does not hide the nut. each enclosed in pale green husk with long. fruit are in deeply-lobed bracts. females are tiny. BARK Grey-brown. The edible fruit are in clusters. . deciduous tree has alternate. cultivated for its edible nuts. SPREAD 15m. pale yellow catkins from the bare shoots. conical head has young shoots covered in sticky hairs. male catkin to 10cm long HEIGHT 25m. pendulous catkins before the leaves.E. flaking in small plates. FLOWERING TIME Late winter to early spring. male catkin to 8cm long HEIGHT 10m. with purple foliage. is sometimes seen in gardens. which are generally smaller. The edible nuts are in clusters. BARK Grey-brown. SIMILAR SPECIES Common Hazel (left). Europe. SPREAD 10m. broadly oval. Female flowers are tiny. Male flowers open in pale yellow. OCCURRENCE Woodlands and thickets of S.

Tiny male and female flowers are borne in separate catkins. HEIGHT 20m. while the females are broadly conical to spreading habit shorter and green. dark green foliage leaf to 10cm long fruit to 5cm long male catkin to 8cm long NOTE This tree derives its common name from its hop-like fruit clusters and from its resemblance to the Hornbeam (p. OCCURRENCE Deciduous woodland of S. A distinguishing feature of this deciduous tree is its hop-like fruit clusters. . SPREAD 15m. Europe. which are finely toothed at the margin. SIMILAR SPECIES Hornbeam (p.124 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Hop Hornbeam Ostrya carpinifolia (Corylaceae) DISTINCTIVE. and produces nuts surrounded by three-lobed bracts. matt. They are matt. The alternate. paler beneath. These have creamy white husks that completely enclose the small nuts. and turn yellow in autumn. oval leaves. end in a short. which has smooth bark. male catkins are pendulous and yellow. FLOWERING TIME Spring. which has similar leaves and wood. flaking on older trees.121). BARK Grey-brown and smooth when young. hop-like fruit clusters composed of inflated. tapered point. creamy white husks make an attractive feature as they ripen during summer.121). dark green above.

The bell-shaped yellow flowers. The bell-shaped.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 125 Kaki Diospyros kaki (Ebenaceae) This is a deciduous tree with a spreading to columnar head. the females singly. orange-red autumn foliage JUICY. edible fruit end in a point and ripen from green to orangeyellow or blue-black. The alternate. fissured with age. about 1. with a spreading to columnar head. dark green leaves are oval with a pointed tip and untoothed margin and turn red or orange in autumn. the females singly. pink to orange-yellow flowers are four-lobed. and N. FLOWERING TIME Summer. glossy. the Date Plum has alternate. untoothed. S. SIMILAR SPECIES Kaki (above) has larger fruit. The rounded. OCCURRENCE Cultivated and sometimes female flower about 5mm long leaf to 15cm long naturalized in S. Male and female flowers are borne on separate trees. fissuring into square plates. elliptical. native to Turkey. Europe. becomes dark and SMOOTH and grey when young. fruit 2cm wide . edible fruit are yellow to orange or red. BARK Grey and smooth. SIMILAR SPECIES Date Plum (below). native to China.5cm long. tomato-like. which has much smaller fruit and is a larger tree. and have pointed tips. especially in warm areas. the males in small clusters. leaf to 20cm long fruit to 7. FLOWERING TIME Summer. OCCURRENCE Cultivated for its edible fruit.W. SPREAD 15m. glossy. have four sepal lobes. or oval. Date Plum Diospyros lotus (Ebenaceae) Deciduous. the bark turns dark with age. Iran. which persist on the fruit. Male and female flowers are borne on separate trees. HEIGHT 20m. BARK Grey and scaly. the males in small clusters. SPREAD 12m. Asia. dark green leaves that are lance-shaped. spreading crown cracks into square plates with age.5cm wide HEIGHT 14m. and end in a tapered point.

with males and females on separate plants. shredding with age. Asia. silvery green foliage leaf to 8cm long HEIGHT 12m. often naturalized in S. The egg-shaped yellow to reddish fruit. fleshy. spreading shrubby habit ROUNDED. thicket-forming shrub or small tree. fragrant. Its alternate. Tiny yellowish flowers open in small clusters before or as the leaves emerge. bright orange fruit are densely clustered along the shoots.126 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Oleaster Elaeagnus angustifolia (Elaeagnaceae) ROUGH. FLOWERING TIME Spring. and scaly. and C. native to W. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. willow-like leaves are narrowly oblong to lance-shaped and are dark green above and silvery with scales beneath. with spiny shoots. Sea Buckthorn Hippophae rhamnoides (Elaeagnaceae) This deciduous. are edible. has smaller leaves and rounded orange fruit. Europe. The alternate. Clusters of small. SIMILAR SPECIES Oleaster (above). and C. . with vertical fissures. BARK Red-brown. slender. untoothed leaves are covered in silver scales on both sides. sandy soils. fissured. linear. and C. Europe. and riverbanks of N. which has larger leaves and fruit. SPREAD Below 6m. FLOWERING TIME Late spring to early summer. bell-shaped yellow flowers open in the axils of the young leaves. SIMILAR SPECIES Sea Buckthorn (below). spreads by suckers from the base. leaf to 7cm long fruit to 8mm wide HEIGHT Up to 10m. up to 2cm long. Its is frequently planted as an ornamental tree and to stabilize sand dunes. fragrant yellow flowers Also known as Russian Olive. BARK Brown to nearly black. SPREAD 10m. this broadly conical to spreading. red-brown bark becomes fissured and scaly. OCCURRENCE Coastal regions. deciduous tree has spiny shoots covered in silver scales.

128). oval to oblong. SPREAD 10m. glossy. Small. or sometimes have occasional teeth on vigorous shoots. dark green leaves are finely toothed. rounded. Strawberry Tree (p. Small.5cm wide and rough with warts. about 6mm long. The orange-red. SIMILAR SPECIES Hybrid Strawberry Tree (below).E. evergreen. has bark that does not peel. thickets. spreading tree has smooth red young shoots. peeling in thin strips.128) and the Grecian Strawberry Tree (above). native to S. spreading tree has red young shoots with some sticky hairs. vertical strips with age flower cluster to 10cm long leaf to 10cm long HEIGHT 10m. The alternate. and rocky slopes of S.128). are carried in nodding clusters. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. habit orange-red fruit are about 1cm wide and nearly smooth.E.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 127 Grecian Strawberry Tree Arbutus andrachne (Ericaceae) This sometimes shrubby. this evergreen. and rocky slopes where the parents grow together. OCCURRENCE Woods. . FLOWERING TIME Spring or autumn. The alternate. open. about 6mm long. spreading crown RED-BROWN. urn-shaped white flowers. OCCURRENCE Woods. BARK Red-brown. Europe. leaf to 10cm long flower cluster to 10cm long RED-BROWN bark peels in thin strips to reveal a bright orange-brown layer beneath. Europe. peeling in thin strips. oval. dark green leaves are untoothed. rounded fruit are about 1. thickets. leathery. HEIGHT 10m. the bark peels in long. Grecian Strawberry Tree (above). urnshaped white flowers. BARK Red-brown. The broadly spreading small. are carried in upright clusters. SPREAD 10m. Hybrid Strawberry Tree Arbutus x andrachnoides (Ericaceae) A naturally occurring hybrid between the Strawberry Tree (p. has toothed leaves. thin. SIMILAR SPECIES Strawberry Tree (p.

the fruit resemble small strawberries. evergreen tree. Ireland (Cork. which give the tree its name. referring to the fact that the fruit is edible. pink flowers are borne in drooping clusters at the ends of the shoots as the fruit from the previous year’s flowers are ripening. Unlike many members of its family. BARK Red-brown. which has untoothed leaves. which has toothed leaves. Hybrid Strawberry Tree (p. The alternate. and flaking but not peeling. urnshaped white or. Small. Ireland. this tree can often be found growing on alkaline soil. Mediterranean region and S.127). strawberry-like fruit. with toothed margins. although it is not exactly delicious. and Sligo).W. rough. glossy green foliage flower cluster about 5cm long redbrown bark leaf to 10cm wide HEIGHT 10m. a popular ornamental tree in gardens. dark green. FLOWERING TIME Autumn. oval leaves are glossy. Some forms have untoothed leaves. more rarely. SIMILAR SPECIES Grecian Strawberry Tree (p. There are famous stands of this tree in W. The very characteristic. ripen from green through yellow to red.127). OCCURRENCE Thickets and woodland in rocky places in the NOTE “Unedo” means literally “I eat one”. broadly spreading habit A spreading. the Strawberry tree has sticky hairs on the young shoots.128 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Strawberry Tree Arbutus unedo (Ericaceae) PENDULOUS and roughly warty on the surface. Killarney. SPREAD 10m. .

are densely arranged on numerous short side shoots. Carried on the short side shoots. with an upright to spreading head. SMALL. bright green leaves. French for plants. fading to brown. The fruit are small. Europe. lusitanica is similar but the flowers have a red stigma. FLOWERING TIME Early to mid-spring. . flaking in thin vertical strips. honey-scented flowers are white. which has purple flowers. briar comes from bruyère. alpina. is grown in gardens for its ability to withstand hard frost. short-stalked. and dry. forming long. usually has several main stems and is often shrubby. a shrubby form. containing many tiny seeds. Spanish Heath (E. The slender. arborea var. SIMILAR SPECIES The shrubby E. to 5mm long. E. OCCURRENCE Thickets and mountain slopes of S. slender spikes. HEIGHT 6m or more. needle-like. hairy shoots. spreading habit NOTE Traditionally.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 129 Tree Heath Erica arborea (Ericaceae) This evergreen tree. Several forms are cultivated in gardens. Europe. bellshaped white flowers. australis). BARK Grey-brown. brown. wood from the roots of this tree was used to make briar pipes in S. fragrant. SPREAD 4m. are densely arranged in whorls of three or four on the upright. about 3mm long. pyramidal spikes flower to 3mm long shrubby. the small.

but larger flower clusters and opposite leaves. encloses up to three glossy brown. other varieties are generally grown for their particularly tasty fruit. BARK Grey and smooth. Large and vigorous. Also known as the Sweet Chestnut. making for a spectacular sight in parks and gardens. creamy white flower spikes cover the tree in summer. They are glossy. The flowers are borne in long. HEIGHT 30m. sharp spines. OCCURRENCE Woodland with acid soil in S. oblong leaves taper to a point and are edged with numerous slenderpointed teeth. catkin to 25cm long leaf to 20cm long nuts in spiny husk broadly columnar habit NOTE Ornamental selections of this tree include ‘Albomarginata’. The pale green fruit husk. frequently planted and often naturalized. it has stout shoots and a broadly columnar head. upright to spreading catkins. dark green and turn yellowbrown in autumn. Europe. this deciduous tree was widely introduced outside its native region of southern Europe by the Romans. SIMILAR SPECIES Horse Chestnut (p. which has leaves edged creamy white.130 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Spanish Chestnut Castanea sativa (Fagaceae) SLENDER. Its alternate. which has superficially similar fruit. slender. FLOWERING TIME Midsummer. SPREAD 20m. densely covered with slender. .65). edible nuts. brown with spiralling ridges on older specimens.

Europe. BARK Pale grey and smooth. with up to ten pairs of veins. in rounded. . The fruit is a woody husk. SILKY and hairy when young. the males are more conspicuous. dark green leaves are widest above the middle and have up to 12 pairs of veins. BARK Pale grey and smooth. SIMILAR SPECIES Oriental Beech (above).5cm long. on alkaline and well-drained soils. throughout Europe. dark green. Common Beech Fagus sylvatica (Fagaceae) Zig-zag shoots ending in long. leaf to 12cm long fruit 2. up to 2. FLOWERING TIME Mid-spring. the Oriental Beech is conical when young. slender-pointed buds characterize this spreading. the leaves are silky when young. It has alternate. males and females in separate clusters. The more conspicuous males are borne in drooping. pale yellow heads. SPREAD 20m.E. widest above the middle. turning yellow-brown in autumn. Tiny flowers open in clusters. which has larger leaves. the dark green leaves turn bright yellow in autumn. which has smaller leaves. OCCURRENCE Woodlands of S. Its tiny flowers open with the young leaves. later becoming broadly columnar to spreading. pale yellow heads. rounded. yellow autumn foliage leaf to 10cm long HEIGHT 30m. Its alternate. FLOWERING TIME Mid-spring. deciduous tree. males and females separate. sometimes furrowed. OCCURRENCE Woodland. The fruit is a woody husk with one or two edible nuts.5cm long WAVY-EDGED and dark green. SIMILAR SPECIES Common Beech (below). wavy-edged leaves. and spreading contains one or habit two edible nuts.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 131 Oriental Beech Fagus orientalis (Fagaceae) A deciduous tree. broad habit 4-lobed husk HEIGHT 30m. SPREAD 20m.

the bark begins to crack and flake with age. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. BARK Grey-green and dark grey. native to Chile and Argentina. finely toothed leaves are made distinctive by the numerous parallel veins. the toothed leaves are blue-green beneath and turn yellow in autumn. SIMILAR SPECIES Rauli (above). each has up to 18 pairs of parallel veins and hairy on both sides. conical to columnar habit fruit to 1cm long HEIGHT 30m. The tiny greenish flowers are insignificant. BARK Grey and smooth when young. SPREAD 20m. leaf to 8cm long SMOOTH and grey when young. are bronze when young. covered with sticky bristles. SIMILAR SPECIES Roble (below). the Roble is conical when young. which has fewer veins on its leaves. cracking into plates with age. The fruit has a scaly green husk. native to Chile and Argentina. Flowers are tiny and greenish. the males and females in separate clusters. turns brown when ripe. paler beneath. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. which has larger leaves with more veins. They have up to ten pairs of veins. FLOWERING TIME Mid-spring. broadly columnar habit leaf to 10cm long HEIGHT 25m. The matt. Dark green and oval. and contains three small nuts. fissured on old trees. male and female borne in separate clusters.132 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Rauli Nothofagus alpina (Fagaceae) OBLONG. SPREAD 15m. and contains three small nuts. later becoming broadly columnar. . OCCURRENCE Cultivated. dark green leaves. which is brown when ripe. This deciduous tree has a broadly columnar head and slender shoots. The fruit has a green husk up to 1cm long. which are hairy when young. Roble Nothofagus obliqua (Fagaceae) A deciduous tree with slender shoots.

pendulous. OCCURRENCE Woodlands. with the males being yellowgreen. SIMILAR SPECIES Normally very distinct. and 4cm long. CONICAL buds. in S.5cm long. 2. SPREAD 15m. . They are dark green above and bluegreen beneath with loose white hairs. which suggests this species might be associated with the Canary Islands. tip the stout shoots. which rub off easily.5cm long. The flowers are in catkins. but can be confused in gardens with its hybrids with English Oak (page 141) and Sessile Oak (p. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. broadly columnar crown leaf to 15cm long dark green foliage NOTE In spite of its Latin name. Only some leaves turn yellow or yellow-brown in autumn.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 133 Algerian Oak Quercus canariensis (Fagaceae) A semi-evergreen tree with a broadly columnar crown. are held in a hairy cup and ripen in the first year. Spain and Portugal. while the females are inconspicuous. it is not native to these islands but to North Africa. widest above the middle. are on stalks up to 2. Short-stalked acorns.139). and have untoothed lobes that decrease in size towards the leaf tip. the scales edged with white hairs. The large leaves. BARK Dark grey and thick and with deep fissures. HEIGHT 25m. this species retains at least some of its leaves until spring. mainly on hills and mountains.

bushy shrub. the males yellow-brown and drooping. leaf to 4cm long HEIGHT 10m. BARK Grey brown and deeply ridged. SIMILAR SPECIES None – although it has holly-like leaves. at least when young. FLOWERING TIME Early summer. the males yellow-green and drooping. . FLOWERING TIME Early summer. rigid. but sometimes a broadly columnar tree. SPREAD 25m. Its alternate leaves are variable in shape. blue-green beneath. and deeply lobed. They are dark green above. and hairy. SIMILAR SPECIES Lucombe Oak (p. deciduous tree are tipped with leaf buds surrounded by characteristic long whisker-like stipules.5cm-long acorn. smooth when young. the leaves mature to dark green and are glossy on both sides.5cm long HEIGHT 35m.136). acorn to 2. spreading habit The hairy shoots of this large. The flowers are in catkins. holly-like leaves edged with sharp spines. toothed. also widely planted and naturalized. shrubby or columnar habit RIGID. which ripens in the second year. bristle-like scales. to 6cm long. on stalks to 2cm long. rocky places of the Mediterranean region.134 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Turkey Oak Quercus cerris (Fagaceae) DENSELY covered in narrow. It is very distinctive among oaks and often confused with holly. the acorn cup encloses half the acorn. spiky scales densely cover the cup carrying the 2. Bronze when young. OCCURRENCE Woodland in S. slightly rough. Kermes Oak has alternate. OCCURRENCE Dry. SPREAD 6m. which is semi-evergreen. to 5cm long. Kermes Oak Quercus coccifera (Fagaceae) An evergreen. Europe. the females leaf to 12cm long inconspicuous and borne separately. vigorous. the females inconspicuous. BARK Dark grey. The flowers are borne in catkins. and C. The acorns ripen in the second year. becoming cracked and scaly with age.

North America. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. broteroi has larger leaves which remain densely hairy beneath. dark green above. this tree is sometimes low and shrubby. borne separately. The alternate leaves are toothed and deeply lobed. native to E. BARK Dark grey and smooth. spreading tree has smooth shoots. paler beneath. to 8cm long. SPREAD 15m. bristle-like tips. Acorns to 3. the females inconspicuous. blue-green underside HEIGHT 20m. HEIGHT 25m.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 135 Scarlet Oak Quercus coccinea (Fagaceae) This deciduous. SIMILAR SPECIES Pin Oak (p. becoming scaly with age.5cm long. Portuguese Oak Quercus faginea (Fagaceae) Semi-evergreen and spreading. The flowers are in catkins: the males yellow-green and drooping. This habit variable species has several forms: subsp. the males yellow-green and drooping. the females inconspicuous. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. and river valleys of S. leaf to 10cm long OVAL.W. Red Oak (p. glossy dark green leaves are edged with rounded or slightly pointed teeth. each lobe ending in slender.5cm long ripen in spreading the first year. (p.133) which has hairs on the undersides of young leaves that are easily rubbed off. Flowers are borne in catkins. . leaf to 15cm long broadly spreading habit BRIGHT red in autumn. SPREAD 25m. to 4cm long. half enclosed in a glossy cup. The acorns are up to 2. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. later ridged. SIMILAR SPECIES Algerian Oak. and ripen the second year. Portugal. OCCURRENCE Woodlands. the leaves are otherwise glossy dark green above. leathery. which has more conspicuous hair tufts under the leaf.138). Its alternate leaves are glossy.142). which has dull leaves. with small tufts of hair in the vein axils beneath. hills. BARK Dark grey. hairy beneath at first becoming smooth and bluegreen. Spain and S.

FLOWERING TIME Late spring. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. a feature inherited from the Cork Oak.E. ripen in the first year. and deeply fissured. ripen in the second year. . BARK Grey-brown. and turn yellow-brown in autumn. the larger ones sometimes notched. SPREAD 25m. this is a semi-evergreen tree. and are edged with pointed teeth. OCCURRENCE Woodland. Cork Oak (p. the bark can be corky in some forms. OCCURRENCE Woodland. the females inconspicuous. fissured. HEIGHT 30m. the females inconspicuous.143).143). commonly cultivated.134) and Cork Oak (p. native to S. Its oblong leaves have numerous blunt-tipped lobes. the males yellow-green and pendulous. sometimes corky.136 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Hungarian Oak Quercus frainetto (Fagaceae) DEEPLY lobed leaves are clustered towards the end of the shoots. in cups covered by bristly scales. rounded top leaf to 12cm long GREY-BROWN in colour. Lucombe Oak Quercus x hispanica (Fagaceae) A hybrid between Turkey Oak (p. usually with the parent species. rugged. The flowers are borne in catkins: the males yellow-green and pendulous. The short-stalked acorns. and are dark green above and grey-green beneath. Europe. SIMILAR SPECIES None – its large. dark green above and grey-white with hairs beneath. leaf to 20cm long male catkin HEIGHT 30m. They are glossy. larger lobe This large. SIMILAR SPECIES Turkey Oak (p. in S. SPREAD 30m. The flowers are borne in catkins. BARK Dark grey. deeply lobed leaves make it highly distinctive. deciduous tree has stout. Europe. slightly hairy shoots. Its leaves are very variable in shape and size.134). up to 2cm long. notched. Acorns. broadly spreading habit up to 2cm long.

They are very variable in shape on young plants. . The acorns are held in cups up to one-third their length and they ripen in the first year. BARK Nearly black. which has more rounded. cracking into small. making this tree a showy sight in early summer. Cork Oak (p. FLOWERING TIME Early summer.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 137 Holm Oak Quercus ilex (Fagaceae) The young shoots of this large. commonly planted and sometimes naturalized. blooming on young shoots. this is the most commonly cultivated evergreen oak tree. evergreen tree are densely covered with grey-white hairs. are small and inconspicuous. HEIGHT 30m. Often seen in coastal areas in its native regions. Young trees and shoots from the base of old trees often have sharply toothed leaves. blue-green leaves and larger. with a spiny margin. leathery and rigid leaves are glossy. are drooping. 10cm yellow-green and pendulous. the females. scaly squares with age. which are green beneath. The elliptic to narrowly ovate.143). and may be toothed or untoothed. borne long separately on the same plant. OCCURRENCE Woods in hills and along coastal cliffs in the Mediterranean region. dark green above. like those of holly (Ilex). PENDULOUS catkins appear along with the grey young leaves. The flowers are borne in catkins: the leaf to males. pointed acorn dense. edible acorns. SPREAD 30m. SIMILAR SPECIES Quercus rotundifolia (p.142). the Holm Oak has become widely naturalized in similar situations in southern England. closely covered with grey hairs beneath. rounded head acorn to 2cm long spreading habit NOTE In most regions. which has corky bark.

deeply fissured and cracked with age. the males yellowgreen and drooping. the alternate leaves are hairy on both sides when young. BARK Dark grey.134). broadly conical habit leaf to 15cm long DEEPLY lobed red autumn leaves are glossy on both sides with conspicuous tufts of hair below. SIMILAR SPECIES Turkey Oak (p. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. bristle-like point spreading head whitehaired shoot leaf to 10cm long HEIGHT 15m. Pin Oak Quercus palustris (Fagaceae) A deciduous tree with a broadly conical to spreading head. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. Europe. the females inconspicuous. the males yellow-green and drooping.135). North America. acorn about 1. SPREAD 12m. SIMILAR SPECIES Scarlet Oak (p. Acorns ripen in the second year. The young shoots of this deciduous or semi-evergreen tree are densely covered with white hairs. The alternate. SPREAD 25m. OCCURRENCE Woodlands of S. the females inconspicuous. native to E. . glossy green leaves end in bristle-tipped teeth and have tufts of hair in the vein axils on their undersides. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. has dull green leaves. the lower branches of the Pin Oak droop distinctly. Red Oak (p. Edged with large teeth that end in bristle-like points.E. The acorns ripen in the second year.142). lacks the conspicuous hair tufts. BARK Grey and smooth. The flowers are borne in catkins. blue-green beneath.138 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Valonia Oak Quercus macrolepis (Fagaceae) DENSE scales cover the acorn cup containing the ripe 4cm-long fruit. but only on the underside of mature dark green leaves.5cm long HEIGHT 30m. which lacks the long bristle tips on the leaves. The flowers are borne in catkins.

OCCURRENCE Woodlands throughout Europe. Where this species grows alongside Common Oak (p. the Sessile Oak has many garden selections varying in leaf shape. to 8cm long. untoothed lobes. about one-third of the acorn is enclosed in a cup. the females inconspicuous. with intermediate characters. which has leaves with very short stalks but long-stalked acorns. vertically ridged in mature trees.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 139 Sessile Oak Quercus petraea (Fagaceae) This is a large. SIMILAR SPECIES English Oak (p. Unstalked or very short-stalked. broadly spreading habit PROMINENT and deep vertical ridges develop on the grey bark of mature trees. Dark. BARK Grey. A variable and widely distributed species. SPREAD 25m. Male and female flowers are borne separately in catkins: the males yellow-green and drooping. they have a thin layer of hairs beneath. it hybridizes to form Q. slightly glossy green above.141). deciduous tree with a spreading head and smooth young shoots. leaf to 12cm long acorn to 3cm long NOTE HEIGHT 40m.141). x rosacea. . FLOWERING TIME Late spring. Other deciduous European oaks tend to have hairy shoots and often much hairier leaves. The alternate leaves are borne on stalks to 1cm or more long and are edged with rounded.

which has less deeply lobed leaves. becoming glossy dark green.140 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Downy Oak Quercus pubescens (Fagaceae) SOFT hairs cover the young shoots and greygreen leaves. OCCURRENCE Dry. the alternate leaves. to 4cm long.139). spreading habit leaf to 15cm long SHORT-STALKED acorns. Europe. . and covered with white hairs beneath. The alternate leaves have up to eight rounded to pointed lobes on each side. the leaves become almost smooth as they mature. deeply ridged. widest above the middle. FLOWERING TIME Early summer. deciduous tree. OCCURRENCE Woods in the mountains of S. Pyrenean Oak (below). sunny hillsides of S. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. leaf to 10cm long A variable and widely distributed. SIMILAR SPECIES Downy Oak (above). the females inconspicuous. emerge late. which has smooth shoots. with densely scaled caps ripen in the first year. Europe. Short-stalked acorns. this oak has a spreading head and hairy young shoots. SPREAD 15m. to 4cm long. and cracked. Pyrenean Oak Quercus pyrenaica (Fagaceae) This deciduous tree has a broadly columnar head and softly hairy shoots. BARK Dark grey. and are softly hairy above and below when young. SPREAD 15m. which has leaves that are smooth above. Deeply cut into up to eight lobes on each side. BARK Grey and cracked.W. spreading habit dark greygreen mature leaves HEIGHT 20m. SIMILAR SPECIES Sessile Oak (p. drooping catkins HEIGHT 20m. The flowers are borne in catkins: the males yellow-green and the females inconspicuous. ripen in the first year. The flowers are borne in catkins: the males drooping and yellow-green. and C.

The wood is used for wine casks. stripes. rounded head which has weeping branches. very short. and ‘Pendula’. widest above the middle. SPREAD 30m. BARK Grey with vertical fissures. FLOWERING TIME Late spring.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 141 English Oak Quercus robur (Fagaceae) This oak is a deciduous. spreading tree with smooth shoots. .139). but is found less often in the south. smooth. This is the commonest oak across much of Europe. Europe and throughout Britain. spreading habit yellow-green male flowers acorn to 4cm long leaf up to 12cm long NOTE HEIGHT 35m. and are dark cup. It can be up to 1. green above and blue-green beneath. drooping. which is narrowly columnar with upright branches. Several selections are grown in gardens such as ‘Fastigiata’ (Cypress Oak). Initially green. the blade is turned slightly upwards. LONG-STALKED acorns The alternate. which has long-stalked leaves and unstalked acorns. especially common in W. Where the base of the they turn brown and may develop dark leaf meets the stalk. OCCURRENCE Woods throughout Europe. the females inconspicuous.are enclosed in a scaly stalked leaves have 5–7 lobes on each side.000 years old. they ripen in Flowers are borne in catkins: the males yellow-green and the first year. SIMILAR SPECIES Sessile Oak (p.

the females inconspicuous. spreading tree.137). Ripening the second year. and rounded leaves are spine-toothed on young plants but become oval and spineless as the tree matures. later fissured. The large acorns. SPREAD 20m. are sweet and edible. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. SIMILAR SPECIES Scarlet Oak (p. ripening the first year. Blue-green beneath. up to 4cm long. matt. native to E. flowers are borne in drooping catkins. the alternate leaves are shallowly cut into bristle-tipped lobes and have stalks that are red at the base. North America. An evergreen. OCCURRENCE Plains and hills of Spain. broadly spreading habit DESPITE the tree’s name. leaf to 20cm long HEIGHT 25m. BARK Pale grey and smooth. bitter acorns. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. the females are inconspicuous. dark green above. yellow-green catkins. rotundifolia is closely related to Holm Oak (p. only the base of the 3cmlong acorn is enclosed in a shallow cup. The flowers are borne in catkins. and S. leathery.135) and Pin Oak (p. the males yellow-green and pendulous. France. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. Portugal.138). Male flowers are borne in drooping. which has corky bark.142 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Quercus rotundifolia Quercus rotundifolia (Fagaceae) BLUE-GREEN leaves are densely covered with white hairs beneath. spreading tree with smooth reddish shoots. Q. BARK Dark grey with small squarish plates. Cork Oak (right). The alternate. broadly spreading habit leaf to 6cm long HEIGHT 15m. SIMILAR SPECIES Holm Oak (p. both of which have leaves that are glossy green below. Pigs fed on these acorns give the much sought-after Iberian ham. SPREAD 15m. . the leaves often colour yellow or brown in autumn. which has smaller. Red Oak Quercus rubra (Fagaceae) This is a deciduous.137).

or the second year on some trees which may flower in autumn. the bark is cut from the tree to make the corks for wine bottles and other items. Macedonian Oak Quercus trojana (Fagaceae) Upright when young. BARK Grey-brown. SPREAD 15m. spreading tree retains its short-stalked. oval leaves are wavyedged with few shallow teeth at the margin and are covered beneath with white hairs.137) and Quercus rotundifolia (left). SIMILAR SPECIES None. in W. green to greygreen leaves have up to 12 small. SIMILAR SPECIES Holm Oak (p. . OCCURRENCE Woods. Turkey. leaf to 8cm long HEIGHT 20m. the females inconspicuous. this deciduous or semi-evergreen. with prominent ridges.E. the males yellow-green and drooping. alternate leaves until late in the year. Italy. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. Lora wepsum Lora wepsum Lora wepsum FLOWERING TIME Late spring. spreading habit OVAL to oblong. The alternate. OCCURRENCE Woods of S. BARK Pale grey.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 143 Cork Oak Quercus suber (Fagaceae) The twigs of this evergreen. Mediterranean often grown for cork production. spreading tree often droop at the tips. and ripen the second year. leaf to 7cm long broadly spreading habit CORKY. growing fissured on older trees. Acorns ripen the first year. the females inconspicuous. blue-green. acorn to 3cm long HEIGHT 20m. and W. The flowers are borne in catkins. both of which lack the corky bark. Male and female flowers are borne in separate catkins. SPREAD 20m. the glossy. pointed teeth. Acorns up to 3cm long are borne in a cup edged with bristly scales. thick and corky. the males yellow-green and drooping. the Balkans.

North America. 5–7 lobes broadly spreading habit leaf to 30cm long acorn to 2. SIMILAR SPECIES Red Oak (p. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. SPREAD 20m. rounded clusters. The alternate. rather than alternate. five-lobed. BARK Grey and smooth. SIMILAR SPECIES Maples (Acer).142). native to E. Oval to elliptic. BARK Dark grey. Sweet Gum Liquidambar styraciflua (Hamamelidaceae) The branches of this conical. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. Tiny yellowgreen male and female flowers open in separate. the alternate leaves are glossy. long-stalked leaves are often mistaken for those of a maple. toothed leaves are glossy green above and turn yellow to orange. which have opposite. and purple in autumn. are edged with rough points. smooth. the bark becomes fissured with age. fissured with age. The fruit. . Many garden forms are popular for their autumn colour. with bristle-tipped lobes. as is the underside of young leaves. dark green and smooth. North America. in rounded clusters 3cm wide. and Central America. becoming fissured and scaly with age. males yellow-green and pendulous. Flowers are borne in clusters. SPREAD 15m.144 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Black Oak Quercus velutina (Fagaceae) DARK grey and smooth. The young shoots and winter buds of this deciduous tree are covered with brown hairs. native to E. The acorns ripen in the second year. Mexico. females inconspicuous. leaf to 15cm long conical habit TOOTHED. deciduous tree often have corky ridges. which has blue-green leaf undersides. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. leaves. red. HEIGHT 25m. FLOWERING TIME Late spring.5cm long Lora amit HEIGHT 25m. revealing orange inner bark.

are borne in clusters in the leaf axils. Iran. this deciduous. The male flowers. SIMILAR SPECIES None – a very distinct tree in its bark. they are followed by small brown fruit up to 8mm long. with numerous stamens. broadly oval. greenish yellow flowers. FLOWERING TIME Late winter. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. Often with bronze-red margins when young. The small. petalless flowers are made conspicuous by red anthers.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 145 Persian Ironwood Parrotia persica (Hamamelidaceae) Usually branching low down. conical tree is similar to the much more widely distributed Bay Laurel (p. native to the Caucasus and N.5cm long. The clusters of tiny. dark green leaves are hairy beneath when young and are very aromatic when crushed. Female plants bear glossy black fruit up to 1. are more noticeable. FLAKING bark with pale yellow-brown patches is an ornamental feature of this tree. the bark is slightly roughened with small lenticels. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. SIMILAR SPECIES Bay Laurel (p. they are glossy green above and turn yellow. SPREAD 15m. leaves. BARK Smooth and dark grey. orange. broadest towards the tip and shallowly toothed above the middle. spreading tree has alternate. OCCURRENCE Cultivated.146). Laurus azorica Laurus azorica (Lauraceae) This evergreen. SMOOTH and greybrown. SPREAD 10m. leaf to 12cm long broadly spreading habit HEIGHT 15m. and flowers. native to the leaf to 12cm long Azores and Canary Islands. males and females on separate plants. conical habit HEIGHT 20m. about 1cm wide.146). and purple in autumn. BARK Grey-brown. red. The alternate. flaking in older trees. . leathery. which has smaller leaves and smooth shoots. wavy-edged leaves.

SIMILAR SPECIES Laurus azorica (p. and the fruit is a flat pod. OCCURRENCE Woods in the Mediterranean region. dark green. rounded leaves have a heart-shaped base and a short point at the tip. Male and female flowers are borne on separate plants. BARK Dark grey-brown.146 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Bay Laurel Laurus nobilis (Lauraceae) SMALL greenish yellow flowers. the flowers are about 1cm long. this is the laurel used as a herb in cooking. becoming dark green. with many shoots arising from the base. berry-like fruit. They are bronze when young. 8cm long. aromatic leaves often have a wavy margin and taper gradually at the base. PEA-LIKE purple-pink flowers are borne in clusters on bare shoots before the leaves. Redbud Cercis canadensis (Leguminosae/Fabaceae) Usually low-branching and often shrubby. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. SIMILAR SPECIES Judas Tree (right) has blue-green leaves and larger flowers. spreading tree. smooth. spreading habit bronze young foliage shortpointed tip leaf to 10cm wide HEIGHT 10m. OCCURRENCE Cultivated (grown in parks and gardens). Small and slender-stalked. Also known as Sweet Bay. This evergreen. oval to oblong. BARK Dark grey and smooth. and may turn yellow in autumn. conical tree is often shrubby. the Redbud is a deciduous. SPREAD 10m. native to E. The alternate. FLOWERING TIME Spring. SPREAD 10m. are borne in clusters from the leaf axils. which ripen from green to black. The alternate. . Female plants bear fleshy. 1cm wide. commonly cultivated. conical habit fruit to 1cm long glossy green foliage leaf to 10cm long HEIGHT 20m. North America. which has larger leaves and hairy shoots.145). cracking into scaly plates with age.

rocky slopes in Sardinia and Sicily. BARK Grey-brown. Mediterranean region. sometimes with a short-pointed tip. FLOWERING TIME Spring. this broom has slender. Flowers can spreading habit form large clusters on the main trunks. and smooth on both sides.to late summer.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 147 Judas Tree Cercis siliquastrum (Leguminosae/Fabaceae) This deciduous. PINK pea-like flowers. leaf to 1cm long HEIGHT 10m. BARK Grey-brown. dense clusters. ending in a small point. 1cm long. spreading habit BRIGHT golden yellow and pea-like. cracking into small square plates with age. and the fruit is a hanging. drooping green shoots. open in large. deeply fissured at the base. flattened pod. Mount Etna Broom Genista aetnensis (Leguminosae/Fabaceae) A deciduous. the alternate leaves are few and rather inconspicuous and most have fallen by flowering time. The fruit is a dark brown pod. SIMILAR SPECIES Redbud (left) has dark green leaves and smaller flowers. the fragrant flowers are borne singly along new shoots. Small and narrow. rocky slopes in the E. spreading tree has several main stems bearing alternate. before and with the leaves. SPREAD 10m. up to 2cm long. fruit to 10cm long heartshaped base HEIGHT 10m. or sometimes a shrub. rounded leaves. The leaves are blue-green above. OCCURRENCE Dry. FLOWERING TIME Mid. spreading tree. SPREAD 10m. . paler beneath. which ripens from green to pink and brown. OCCURRENCE Dry. SIMILAR SPECIES None.

‘Aureomarginatum’ is a garden selection with yellowedged leaves. deciduous tree has a broadly columnar head and green young shoots which are smooth or nearly so. which is much more rarely seen and has more deeply cut leaves. becoming deeply furrowed with age. leaf to 15cm long flower 6cm wide fruit to 6cm long HEIGHT 30m. chinense). . of which the outer three spread horizontally. North America. pale brown fruit clusters are composed of many seeds with papery wings. SPREAD 20m. FLOWERING TIME Early summer. The flowers have nine tepals. The alternate leaves have four pointed lobes and are distinctively notched at the tip. SIMILAR SPECIES Chinese Tulip Tree (L. dark green above and blue-green beneath. broadly columnar habit NOTE This tree produces a very fine timber which is popular in the manufacture of furniture and other wooden items. They are glossy. Also known as Yellow Poplar. large.148 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Tulip Tree Liriodendron tulipifera (Magnoliaceae) CUP-SHAPED flowers. are green with orange bands. The conical. which open singly at the ends of the shoots. turning orange and yellow in autumn. native to E. this fast-growing. BARK Grey-brown. often persisting over winter. OCCURRENCE Cultivated.

and are slightly fragrant. up to 9cm long. with 16 tepals. SIMILAR SPECIES None – its large size combined with its flowers make it distinct. which open singly at the ends of the shoots. short-pointed. untoothed leaves. Bronze when young. The small flowers have nine tepals and are bluegreen to yellow-green. FLOWERING TIME Late winter to early spring. up to 30cm wide. China. oval. deciduous tree has a broadly conical head and stout shoots. SIMILAR SPECIES None – its small flowers make it distinct among magnolias. . native to E. native to the Himalayas and S. this magnolia has alternate. are borne singly among the leaves at the ends of the shoots. broadly conical habit CUP-SHAPED flowers. North America. large. BARK Grey and smooth. conical habit SHOWY flowers. SPREAD 20m. They are mid. OCCURRENCE Cultivated.to dark green above. leaf to 25cm or more HEIGHT 20m. BARK Grey-brown.W. and paler or blue-green beneath. with scaly ridges. Campbell’s Magnolia Magnolia campbellii (Magnoliaceae) A deciduous tree with a broadly conical head and stout. very smooth blue-green shoots. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. The cylindrical.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 149 Cucumber Tree Magnolia acuminata (Magnoliaceae) This vigorous. they turn dark green above. leaf to 25cm long fruit to 7cm long HEIGHT 30m. paler and hairy beneath. FLOWERING TIME Early summer. Its alternate. cucumbershaped fruit ripen from green to pink then deep red. are produced in shades of pink to white. SPREAD 15m. oval leaves are untoothed and end in a short point. emerge from silky hairy buds before the leaves and are followed by cylindrical red fruit clusters up to 15cm long. The flowers.

SPREAD 10m. tapering to the base. white flowers on bare branches flower to 10cm wide broadly conical habit DARK green leaves are paler and slightly hairy below. . dark green foliage The stout shoots of this conical. BARK Dark grey. leathery. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. evergreen tree are covered in brown hairs. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. SIMILAR SPECIES Magnolia x loebneri. The fruit is a cylindrical red cluster to 10cm long. Large. elliptic to oval. leaf to 15cm long HEIGHT 12m. USA. sometimes covered with dark brown hairs. Its alternate.E. native to Japan and South Korea. creamy white flowers open singly at the ends of shoots. the fruit is covered with green scales and brown hairs. glossy. leaf to 25cm long flower to 30cm wide HEIGHT 15m. Garden selections such as the hardy ‘Exmouth’ and the large-flowered ‘Goliath’ are grown.150 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Bull Bay Magnolia grandiflora (Magnoliaceae) CONE-LIKE in appearance. SPREAD 15m. smooth. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. Its alternate leaves are broadest above the middle. dark green leaves are paler beneath. SIMILAR SPECIES None – a very distinct tree as it is the only common evergreen magnolia. red seeds emerge from it when ripe. FLOWERING TIME Summer. creamy white or pinkish flowers are held horizontally and have six large tepals with three smaller tepals at the base. whose flowers have more tepals. fragrant. grey hairs. Magnolia kobus Magnolia kobus (Magnoliaceae) The young shoots of this conical. which may be white or pink. buds are covered in silky. deciduous tree exude a fragrance when scratched. developing scales on old trees. native to S. BARK Grey and smooth. The slightly fragrant. rigid. opening before the leaves.

OCCURRENCE Known only in cultivation (grown in parks and gardens). macrophylla. SPREAD 10m. Magnolia x soulangeana Magnolia x soulangeana (Magnoliaceae) A garden-raised hybrid between Magnolia denudata and M. this is a spreading. native to Japan.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 151 Magnolia obovata Magnolia obovata (Magnoliaceae) The large. SIMILAR SPECIES Only some infrequently seen species are similar such as M. officinalis. leaf to 45cm long CUP-SHAPED flowers are set in a whorl of leaves at the end of the shoots. . FLOWERING TIME Early summer. and are arranged in whorls at the tip of the shoots. large pink and white flowers. x. 20cm long broadly spreading habit flower to 25cm wide GOBLET-SHAPED flowers are variable in colour. The strongly fragrant flowers. wieseneri. deciduous tree or large shrub. SPREAD 12m. FLOWERING TIME Spring and early summer. Cylindrical. M. flushed with pink. make it easily recognizable. from creamy white to pink or purple-pink. and M. BARK Grey and smooth. grown in many forms. broadly conical habit flower 20cm wide HEIGHT 15m. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. dark green leaves are widest towards the tip and end in a short point. The flowers have nine creamy white tepals. The alternate. each with 9–11 thick tepals. and semi-shrubby habit. deep green leaves of this deciduous tree are widest above the middle. ripen to bright red. fruit to 10cm long HEIGHT 10m. liliiflora. are creamy white with bright red stigmas. up to 20cm long. BARK Grey and smooth. SIMILAR SPECIES None – the profuse. the fruit appears in a cylindrical cluster and leaf to ripens from green to pink. spiky fruit.

spreading habit HEIGHT 10m. or is shrubby with stout green shoots. leaf to 20cm long HEIGHT 15m. with the white male flowers in cylindrical catkins and the green females in rounded heads with purple stigmas. grey hairs below. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. SIMILAR SPECIES None – its leaf shape and unique fruit make it highly distinctive. this ripens to a brown or purple. native to S. ripe fig low branches EACH green.152 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Paper Mulberry Broussonetia papyrifera (Moraceae) DARK GREEN leaves are roughly hairy above and covered with soft. . the figs ripen in autumn. Tiny flowers. naturalized in warm male catkin to 8cm wide areas of Europe.W. SPREAD 10m. unripe fruit has a fleshy receptacle containing numerous small seeds. deciduous tree has bristly shoots and oval leaves. spherical fruit clusters are up to 2cm wide. they become dark green as they mature. which have oblong and not spherical fruit. The edible. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. leaf to 30cm long purple. males and females on separate plants. Asia. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. dark green above and slightly rough with hairs. edible fig. are borne on the inside of the green structure that becomes the fruit. widely naturalized in the Mediterranean region. BARK Grey and smooth. Familiar and edible. SIMILAR SPECIES White and Black Mulberries (right). The deeply lobed leaves are glossy. Fig Ficus carica (Moraceae) Spreading and deciduous. Often purple-tinged when young. SPREAD 15m. this tree often branches low down. Male and female flowers are found on separate plants. with a toothed margin. FLOWERING TIME Spring or early summer. native to China and Japan. which may be deeply lobed or unlobed. BARK Grey-brown with shallow fissures. spreading habit This spreading.

toothed. and fissured. and may be unlobed or deeply lobed. about 1cm long. HEIGHT 10m. and roughly hairy above. OVAL to rounded. occasionally naturalized in S. SIMILAR SPECIES Paper Mulberry (left). . or red in colour. spreading tree often has a gnarled and irregular appearance. SIMILAR SPECIES Paper Mulberry (left). which has rough leaves and unstalked fruit clusters. SPREAD 10m. turn yellow in autumn. pink. OCCURRENCE Cultivated (particularly in warm areas). heart-shaped at the base. glossy green leaves. spreading habit leaf to 15cm long fruit 2. native to N. and borne in short clusters. BARK Orange-brown. which has smooth. Europe. with the male and female flowers on the same or separate plants. The oval leaves are toothed at the margin. SPREAD 15m. fissured with age. native to Far East. Male and female flowers are tiny and green. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. White Mulberry (above). distinctly stalked fruit may be white. The clustered. FLOWERING TIME Early summer. on the same or separate plants. with a heart-shaped base. They are deep green. glossy leaves.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 153 White Mulberry Morus alba (Moraceae) Spreading and deciduous. Black Mulberry (below). spreading habit leaf to 20cm long fruit 2. FLOWERING TIME Early summer. edible.5cm long HEIGHT 15m. BARK Orange-brown. Black Mulberry Morus nigra (Moraceae) This deciduous. dark green above. China. and are often lobed. Tiny green flowers are borne in short clusters about 1cm long. this tree has very variable leaves that are smooth and glossy.5cm long EDIBLE fruit clusters are deep red when ripe and generally unstalked. rough. and stalked fruit clusters.

peeling in large flakes. and creamy white. young plants have stalkless. woody. the Blue Gum has a broadly columnar head. up to 3cm wide. OCCURRENCE Cultivated in S. OCCURRENCE Cultivated in S. SPREAD 25m. flower cluster to 5cm long columnar to spreading habit HEIGHT 40m or more. and prominently ribbed fruit. silvery blue leaves. alternate. alternate leaves are blue-green to grey-green on both sides and pendulous. follow the flowers. evergreen tree. pale brown. The white flowers have numerous stamens. BARK Grey-brown. FLOWERING TIME Summer. followed by small. The slender. FLOWERING TIME Summer. The flowers are borne in clusters. Europe. Australia. the Red Gum is broadly columnar or sometimes spreading. it is recognized by its distinctive fruit. They open singly in the axils of the leaves and are followed by the woody fruit. curved. Blue Gum Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae) A vigorous. Europe. and drooping leaves are blue-green. HEIGHT 40m.E. native to Tasmania and S. native to Australia. young seedlings have bluish foliage. The slender. leaf to 20cm long An evergreen tree. curved. woody. SIMILAR SPECIES Blue Gum (below). SIMILAR SPECIES Although similar to other gums. BARK Grey-brown and creamy white. .154 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Red Gum Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Myrtaceae) SMALL. large. peeling in large flakes. SPREAD 25m. short-stalked flowers with numerous long white stamens are borne in clusters in the leaf axils. columnar head leaf to 30cm long flower with numerous stamens LARGE. which has large fruit borne singly. hemispherical fruit.

leaf to 18cm long broadly columnar habit GREY-BROWN bark peels in large flakes to expose creamy white inner trunk. alternate. long-pointed. They are followed by round. they are dark green. becoming blue-green. Small white flowers with numerous stamens open in clusters of three in the axils of the leaves. but none are as common in cool temperate regions. The small. White flowers with numerous stamens are borne in clusters of three in the axils of the leaves. FLOWERING TIME Summer. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. alternate. SPREAD 25m. ending in a point. peeling in large patches.E. Ribbon Gum Eucalyptus viminalis (Myrtaceae) This evergreen tree with a broadly columnar head has red young shoots. On young plants. native to Tasmania and S. green. BARK Grey-brown and creamy white. HEIGHT 40m. or orange. broadly columnar habit ROUGH at the very base. opening from silvery blue buds. which has rounded juvenile leaves. native to Tasmania and S. Australia. BARK Grey-brown and creamy white. Leaves on young plants or from cut stumps are silvery blue and rounded. rough at the base. nearly stalkless fruit. lance-shaped leaves on this evergreen tree are silvery at first. leaf to 10cm long HEIGHT 25m. . Australia. The slender. SPREAD 15m. the bark is grey. woody fruit are 5mm long. cupshaped. FLOWERING TIME Summer. creamy when exposed.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 155 Cider Gum Eucalyptus gunnii (Myrtaceae) The aromatic.E. SIMILAR SPECIES Mountain Gum (E. and sometimes wavy-edged leaves are pale green. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. peeling in large flakes. dalrympleana). SIMILAR SPECIES Several other gum trees. about 6mm long.

The variant sylvestris.156 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Tree Privet Ligustrum lucidum (Oleaceae) SMALL. Flower clusters are followed by the familiar olives which ripen from green to black. The opposite. often kept low by pruning. round-headed. this evergreen tree spreads with age. ending in a tapered point. OCCURRENCE Cultivated throughout the Mediterranean for fruit and oil. and with grey-white shoots. occasionally also ornamental. Conical when young. SPREAD 15m. they mature to glossy. FLOWERING TIME Summer. The opposite untoothed leaves are grey-green above. Olive Olea europaea (Oleaceae) Evergreen. . with spiny branches. conical clusters up to 20cm long. up to 1cm long. FLOWERING TIME Summer. Asia. this tree often branches low down and is shrubby. tiny white. japonicum). SIMILAR SPECIES Japanese Privet (L. BARK Grey and smooth. leathery leaves are oval. BARK Pale grey and ridged. which occurs wild in the Mediterranean region.W. round head fruit to 4cm long FRAGRANT. native to China. native to S. four-toothed flowers are borne in clusters in the leaf axils. dark green. SIMILAR SPECIES None. is smaller and shrubby. Bronze when young. grey-white beneath. low branches leaf to 8cm long HEIGHT 15m. Some variegated forms are also grown. The flowers are followed by rounded blue-black fruit. SPREAD 10m. fragrant white flowers hang from the ends of the shoots in large. which is rarely grown. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. is smaller and shrubby with very thick leaves. conical to spreading habit leaf to 10cm long HEIGHT 15m.

heart-shaped leaf leaf to 10cm long HEIGHT 7m. SPREAD 10m. BARK Dark grey. the opposite leaves have an untoothed margin and a pointed tip. which has superficially similar glossy foliage at a distance and has alternate leaves. Small. Clusters of small. open after the flowers. upright. widely cultivated and occasionally naturalized elsewhere. SPREAD 10m. On young plants. dense foliage forms domed head greenish white flower clusters ROUNDED blue-black fruit. BARK Grey-brown. FLOWERING TIME Early summer. in the axils of the leaves. tree-like shrub. the leaves are larger and sharply toothed.E. the fruit is a taperpointed capsule about 1cm long. SIMILAR SPECIES Strawberry Tree (p. Oval or slightly heart-shaped. Lilac Syringa vulgaris (Oleaceae) The Lilac is a deciduous.128). brown. up to 1cm long. OCCURRENCE Thickets on rocky slopes of S. very dark green above. which spreads with age. broadly spreading tree is upright when young with slender but rigid shoots. FLOWERING TIME Late spring to early summer. rounded. upright to spreading habit SMALL. Europe. greenish white flowers open in the axils of the leaves.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 157 Phillyrea latifolia Phillyrea latifolia (Oleaceae) This evergreen. cracking into small squares. . The opposite leaves are oval to lance-shaped. lilac flowers are tubular and fragrant and borne in dense clusters. SIMILAR SPECIES None. fissured. and oblong. four-lobed. leaf to 6cm long HEIGHT 10m. The four-lobed flowers are borne in opposite pairs on the shoots. glossy. OCCURRENCE Evergreen woodland in dry areas of the Mediterranean. and with finely toothed or untoothed margins.

oblong. SIMILAR SPECIES None – this evergreen tree is easily recognized by the wavy-edged. have a whitish base and five deep red-purple lobes and are very fragrant in the evening. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. and many variegated selections. glossy. tubular flowers. and with a wavy margin. BARK Dark grey and smooth. The fruit is a rounded. . including ‘Purpureum’ with purple foliage.158 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Pittosporum tenuifolium Pittosporum tenuifolium (Pittosporaceae) UNTOOTHED. which opens to reveal sticky seeds. glossy green leaves. The alternate leaves of this evergreen tree are produced on deep purple-black shoots. broadly columnar head flower about 1cm long leaf 6cm long HEIGHT 10m. nearly black capsule about 1. New Zealand. The small. Males and females are often borne on separate plants and may be either solitary or in clusters. SPREAD 6m. rather light green leaves are smooth. the males having prominent yellow anthers.2cm wide. which open in the axils of the leaves. OCCURRENCE Cultivated in parks and gardens. native to NOTE Several forms of this species are grown in gardens.

which has more deeply lobed leaves. SIMILAR SPECIES London Plane (above). rounded heads. OCCURRENCE Known only in cultivation. maple-like leaves are glossy. large. leaf to 20cm long fruit cluster 2. SPREAD 25m. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. rounded fruit clusters persist on the tree over winter. flaking in large patches.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 159 London Plane Platanus x hispanica (Platanaceae) This vigorous. which has more shallowly lobed leaves. deep green above and paler beneath. a hybrid between the American Sycamore and Oriental Plane (below). brown. pale brown. this plane has a broadly columnar or spreading head of branches. the females red and followed by spherical fruit that persist on the tree in clusters. poplars. SIMILAR SPECIES Oriental Plane (below). the leaves are paler beneath. and walnuts. The tiny flowers are borne in pendulous. deciduous tree. OCCURRENCE River banks and mountain woods of S. the lower ones often drooping. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. brown. . leaf to 20cm long HEIGHT 35m. GREY. in groups of up to six. and cream. with brown hairs when young. The alternate. BARK Grey-brown. the bark begins to flake conspicuously in large patches with age. BARK Grey.5cm wide HEIGHT 30m. rounded broadly clusters. Oriental Plane Platanus orientalis (Platanaceae) A large. alders. Tiny flowers are borne in pendulous. The males are yellow. this tree is frequently associated with willows. Europe. and cream.E. Glossy bright green above. Dense. with brownish hairs when young. maple-like leaves with five toothed lobes. male clusters yellow. deeply lobed. and creamy. deciduous tree with a spreading to broadly columnar head has alternate. spreading habit OFTEN found growing by water. columnar females red. SPREAD 25m.

OCCURRENCE Woods. and hedgerows of Europe. Tiny. often branching low. round berries. fourlobed green flowers are borne in the axils of the leaves. often on chalky soils. spreading habit HEIGHT 8m. maturing to glossy. The showy flowers are followed by the familiar reddish to yellowish edible fruit. SPREAD 6m. The opposite. branches from the base. rigid shoots that are frequently spine-tipped. OCCURRENCE Cultivated for its fruit and as an ornamental tree. spreading. BARK Orange-brown. flower to 4cm wide leaf to 8cm long fruit to 8cm wide The Pomegranate is a deciduous. spreading habit leaf to 6cm long dense fruit clusters CLUSTERS of tiny. deep green. FLOWERING TIME Summer. scaly.160 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Pomegranate Punica granatum (Punicaceae) FUNNEL-SHAPED red flowers with crinkled petals open singly or in pairs at the ends of the shoots. this tree has slender. alternate leaves. . which ripen from green to black. FLOWERING TIME Summer. SIMILAR SPECIES Alder Buckthorn (right). BARK Grey-brown. with several upright. Buckthorn Rhamnus cathartica (Rhamnaceae) Deciduous. flaking. or it may be shrub-like. naturalized in the Mediterranean region. SIMILAR SPECIES None. Asia. Its opposite. sometimes spiny. and often shrubby. glossy green leaves have a finely toothed margin and turn yellow in autumn. spreading tree. thickets. SPREAD 6m. fragrant flowers are followed by fleshy. oval. HEIGHT 5m.W. oblong leaves are untoothed and emerge bronzy red. native to S. which has untoothed.

BROADLEAVED SIMPLE

161

Alder Buckthorn
Rhamnus frangula (Rhamnaceae)
This is a deciduous, spreading or shrubby tree, often with several main stems. The alternate, untoothed leaves are widest towards the end, where there is a short point. They are glossy, dark green above, paler beneath, and turn yellow or red in autumn. The fleshy, rounded fruit are green becoming red and then ripening to black. tiny flowers
TINY

flowers are green tinged with pink and borne in dense clusters in the leaf axils.

leaf to 7cm long

fruit to 1cm wide

broadly spreading habit

HEIGHT 5m. SPREAD 6m. BARK Grey and smooth, with vertical fissures. FLOWERING TIME Summer. OCCURRENCE Woods, thickets, and

hedgerows of Europe; often on wet soil. SIMILAR SPECIES Buckthorn (left), which has opposite leaves and whose fruit are never red.

Snowy Mespilus
Amelanchier lamarckii (Rosaceae)
Often shrubby, this deciduous, spreading tree usually has several stems starting from the base. The oval, pointed, alternate leaves have a finely toothed margin. Bronze and covered in silky hairs when young, they mature to dark green and turn red in autumn. The white flowers are borne in clusters opening with the young foliage and have five slender petals.
leaf to 8cm long 5-petalled flowers
ROUNDED

and purpleblack, the fruit are up to 1cm wide and very juicy.
red autumn foliage

HEIGHT 12m. SPREAD 15m. BARK Smooth and grey, cracking with age. FLOWERING TIME Spring. OCCURRENCE Sandy soils; native to Europe

but probably of North American origin. SIMILAR SPECIES Can be confused only with rarer Amelanchier species seen in gardens.

162

BROADLEAVED SIMPLE

Azarole
Crataegus azarolus (Rosaceae)
ROUNDED,

yellow to orange or red, edible fruit have an applelike flavour.

A spreading, deciduous tree, the Azarole has spiny shoots that are hairy when young. The alternate leaves are lobed, oval or diamond-shaped, and narrow at the base. Downy on both sides when young, they later become smooth and glossy green above. Clusters of white flowers, about 1.5cm wide, leaf 8cm are followed by rounded long fruit up to 2cm wide.
spreading habit narrow base

spiny shoot

HEIGHT 10m. SPREAD 10m. BARK Grey-brown, growing fissured with age. FLOWERING TIME Early summer. OCCURRENCE Scrub and woodland margins

on hill slopes; native to Crete; naturalized in S. Europe. SIMILAR SPECIES Oriental Thorn (right), which has sharply toothed leaf lobes.

Cockspur Thorn
Crataegus crus-galli (Rosaceae)
Armed with sharp spines up to 8cm long, this deciduous tree has a spreading, often flattened head, and bears clusters of white flowers, each 1.5cm wide. The alternate, unlobed, dark green leaves are widest towards the rounded tip and narrow at the base, turning orange and red in autumn. The ripe fruit, up to 1cm wide, persist well into winter.
spreading habit leaves glossy above leaf 10cm long
FLESHY and edible, rounded red fruit hang in clusters from long, thin stalks.

flattened head

HEIGHT 8m. SPREAD 10m. BARK Dark grey-brown, scaly with age. FLOWERING TIME Early summer. OCCURRENCE Cultivated; native to

E. North America.
SIMILAR SPECIES C. x persimilis, whose

fruit fall soon after ripening.

fruit to 1cm wide

BROADLEAVED SIMPLE

163

Oriental Thorn
Crataegus laciniata (Rosaceae)
The somewhat spiny shoots of this deciduous, spreading tree are white with hairs when young. The alternate leaves are diamond-shaped in outline and deeply cut into five or more sharply toothed lobes. They are glossy, dark green above and covered with grey hairs on the underside. The clusters of white flowers are followed by rounded to oblong, red or yellowflushed fruit that are edible.
spiny shoots
CLUSTERED

white flowers, up to 2cm wide, have pink anthers.

spreading habit leaf to 5cm long HEIGHT 6m. SPREAD 8m. BARK Grey-brown, cracking into thin plates fruit to 2cm long

with age.
FLOWERING TIME Early summer. OCCURRENCE Thickets and rocky slopes in

the mountains of S.E. Europe. SIMILAR SPECIES Azarole (left), which has bluntly lobed leaves.

Midland Hawthorn
Crataegus laevigata (Rosaceae)
The alternate leaves of this deciduous, spreading tree are shallowly divided into blunt lobes and are usually broadest above the middle. They are glossy, dark green above and paler beneath. Shoots are smooth spreading and glossy. Rounded to oval, habit inedible, bright red fruit, with two seeds, follow the white flowers. ‘Paul’s Scarlet’ is a commonly planted hybrid with deep pink, double flowers.
WHITE

flowers, to 2cm wide, have red anthers, and are borne in small clusters.

leaf to 5cm long

fruit to 2cm long

HEIGHT 10m. SPREAD 10m. BARK Grey and smooth, cracking with age. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. OCCURRENCE Woods, usually with clay soils,

all over Europe. SIMILAR SPECIES Hawthorn (p.165), which has more deeply lobed leaves and fruit with a single stone.

164

BROADLEAVED SIMPLE

Crataegus x lavalleei
Crataegus x lavalleei (Rosaceae)
ROUNDED

green fruit on short stalks are borne in clusters in autumn and ripen to reddish green.

glossy foliage

A hybrid species, this spreading tree has sparsely spiny shoots that are hairy when young. Its large, alternate leaves, widest above the middle, with a tapered base and short-pointed tip, remain on the tree well into winter. They are glossy, dark green above, but grey and hairy beneath. In early to midsummer, white flowers with pink anthers are borne in flattened clusters on hairy stalks, followed by rounded red fruit ripening in late autumn. The commonly grown form of this hybrid is known as ‘Carrièrei’.
NOTE This tree is a hybrid between Cockspur Thorn (C. crus-galli) and Crataegus mexicana. It originated in France and has now become a popular street tree.

spreading habit

leaf to 10cm long

flower 2.5cm wide

HEIGHT 10m. SPREAD 12m. BARK Dark grey, flaking in scaly plates. FLOWERING TIME Summer. OCCURRENCE Known only in cultivation (grown in parks,

gardens, and streets). SIMILAR SPECIES A very distinct tree easily recognizable by its dark green, semi-evergreen foliage and its late-ripening fruit.

fruit 2cm wide

with a broadly tapered base. OCCURRENCE Woods. flowers twice: once in winter or early spring. which has less deeply cut leaves with three to five more or less blunt lobes and fruit containing two stones. often used for hedging. bright red fruit or hips ripen in attractive clusters at the end of branches from September to October. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. and again at the normal time of late spring. each containing a single stone. The Hawthorn is a variable and widely distributed species. known as the Glastonbury Thorn. scrub. broadly spreading habit SHINY. The alternate leaves are oval to diamond-shaped in outline.2cm wide. cracked and scaly in old trees. leaf to 5cm long HEIGHT 10m.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 165 Hawthorn Crataegus monogyna (Rosaceae) The smooth.163). They are deeply cut into three or five sharply toothed lobes and are glossy. SPREAD 10m. BARK Orange-brown. dark green above and paler beneath. The fragrant white flowers have pink anthers and are borne in dense clusters. It was said to have grown from the staff of Joseph of Arimathea. . white blossom flower to 1. which he plunged into the ground at Glastonbury when he came to England from the Holy Land. These are followed by bright red oval fruit up to 1. thorny shoots of this deciduous species are often somewhat pendulous on old trees. SIMILAR SPECIES Midland Hawthorn (p. and hedgerows throughout Europe. depending on the weather.5cm wide NOTE The garden selection ‘Biflora’.

oval. spreading tree is sometimes shrubby and has smooth. The alternate. which is a larger tree. flower to 1cm wide glossy dark green canopy FLESHY. and contain a single seed. scaly on old trees. Loquat Eriobotrya japonica (Rosaceae) Sometimes shrubby. leaf to 25cm long HEIGHT 10m SPREAD 10m. The large. has larger leaves. They are glossy dark green above with prominent veins and densely hairy beneath. edible orangeyellow fruit are up to 6cm long. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. this evergreen. The white flowers have numerous stamens with pink anthers and are borne in open clusters. SIMILAR SPECIES Whitebeam (p. and may be naturalized in the same area. alternate leaves are toothed at the edge and broadest above the middle. SIMILAR SPECIES None. up to 12mm long. dark green leaves are paler beneath and have sharply toothed lobes and toothed stipules at the base. BARK Grey-brown.166 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Crataegus rhipidophylla Crataegus rhipidophylla (Rosaceae) DEEP red fruit are longer than wide. grows fissured on older trees. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. hairy shoots. spreading habit HEIGHT 8m. native to China. flower to 2cm wide leaf to 7cm long This deciduous. occasionally naturalized in S. often spiny shoots. Europe. particularly in the Mediterranean. FLOWERING TIME Autumn.191). OCCURRENCE Woods of Norway and Sweden. SPREAD 8m. leathery. spreading tree has stout. . BARK Grey-brown. The fragrant white flowers open in conical clusters at the ends of the shoots and are followed by spherical to pear-shaped fruit.

fruit to 10cm long NOTE HEIGHT 8m SPREAD 8m.W. with deep yellow fruit and ‘Vranja’. up to 5cm wide.188). spreading tree are densely covered in white hairs. becoming dark green and smooth above. which are covered in white woolly hairs when young. BARK Purple-brown and flaking. very fragrant fruit. SIMILAR SPECIES Common Pear (p. Several selections are grown for their fruit such as ‘Luistanica’. and S.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 167 Quince Cydonia oblonga (Rosaceae) The young shoots of this deciduous. OCCURRENCE Widely cultivated. naturalized in the Mediterranean. The alternate. native to C. with golden-yellow. They are hairy when young. densely covered in greywhite hairs beneath. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. untoothed. . have five petals and are borne singly. later becoming smooth. which has toothed leaves and fruit borne in clusters. leaf to 10cm long PALE pink or white flowers. Asia. are used in preserves. short-stalked leaves are oval to nearly rounded. The pear-shaped or apple-shaped. fragrant yellow fruit.

FLOWERING TIME Late spring. of which Malus dasyphylla is probably one of the parents. This rare species may be a hybrid between a Malus and a Sorbus. rounded to pearbroadly columnar shaped fruit. naturalized in Europe. OCCURRENCE Woods. SIMILAR SPECIES M. SIMILAR SPECIES M.to purple-brown bark flakes in small. thickets. SPREAD 10m. Malus florentina Malus florentina (Rosaceae) The alternate. BARK Grey. flowers 2cm wide leaf to 6cm long fruit 1cm wide HEIGHT 8m.to purple-brown. OCCURRENCE Cultivated in gardens and orchards for its fruit. broad. SPREAD 6m. trilobata has larger. Clustered white flowers are followed by small. 5cm wide. The small sepals fall habit before the fruit ripens. They are deep green above. RED. densely covered with white hairs beneath. dasyphylla. long-stalked leaves. Greece.168 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Cultivated Apple Malus domestica (Rosaceae) WHITE flowers flushed pink. This deciduous. flaking. and its sepals do not fall. fruit to 10cm wide broadly spreading habit leaf to 12cm long HEIGHT 10m. square plates and turns orange-brown when exposed. red. FLOWERING TIME Late spring to early summer. The alternate. flaking with age. and turn orange. yellow. and rocky places. thin. open in clusters from deep pink buds. spreading tree with a rounded head and hairy young shoots is a hybrid. N. which has small yellow or red-flushed fruit. oval leaves of this deciduous tree have several toothed lobes on each side. . Five-petalled flowers are followed by edible green. or red fruit. oval leaves are dark green above and hairy beneath. BARK Red-brown to purple-brown. and purple in autumn. Italy to N.

BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 169 Japanese Crab Apple Malus x floribunda (Rosaceae) There is a dense head of arching shoots on this small. Profusely borne. OCCURRENCE Cultivated in parks. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. clustered flowers open pale pink as the leaves emerge. rounded fruit. the five-petalled. deciduous. dense habit. fruit to 1cm wide white flowers. SIMILAR SPECIES None – distinctive in its small size. native to China. sharply toothed. flaking on old trees. HEIGHT 12m. leaf to 10cm long arching shoots DEEP red in bud. open as the leaves emerge and are followed by small. deciduous tree has a broad. to 10cm long. the flowers. broadly spreading habit FRAGRANT white flowers open profusely in large clusters from pink buds. SPREAD 15m. flower to 5cm wide . SPREAD 6m. gardens. and profuse flowers. oval. FLOWERING TIME Spring. BARK Purple-brown. spreading tree. taper-pointed leaves are dark green and can be lobed on vigorous shoots. FLOWERING TIME Spring. SIMILAR SPECIES None – its vigorous habit. The alternate. turning yellow in autumn. They are smooth above and hairy beneath when young. and small fruit make this tree distinctive. overlapping petals are followed by small. slightly flattened red fruit borne on slender stalks. fruit 8mm wide HEIGHT 5m.5cm wide. Malus hupehensis Malus hupehensis (Rosaceae) This vigorous. a hybrid of Japanese origin. cherry-like. narrowly oval. BARK Purple-brown. finely toothed leaves. The alternate. and streets. end in a tapered point and are dark green above when mature. flaking with age. Flowers with five broad. 2. rounded head. and become almost white.

with upright branches and double pink flowers. The flowers vary from white to pink and may be single or semi-double. Some have purple leaves. and ‘Van Eseltine’. . SIMILAR SPECIES Many Malus hybrids are cultivated in gardens with NOTE Crab Apple hybrids are grown in a wide range of forms as ornamental trees for their flowers and the fruit. SPREAD 10m. They are spreading. and purple-red flowers followed by red-purple fruit. dark green or purple leaves. gardens. BARK Grey-brown to purple-brown. with a variety of flowers and fruit. and streets. Popular forms include ‘Golden Hornet’.170 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Crab Apple hybrids Malus hybrids (Rosaceae) ‘EVERESTE’ is one of the many crab apples grown for their ornamental fruit. ‘Profusion’. Numerous hybrids of crab apple species are raised in gardens. FLOWERING TIME Late spring to early summer. OCCURRENCE Cultivated in parks. with deep red-purple young leaves. white flowers and deep yellow fruit. flowers ranging from white to red and with small to large fruit of various colours. spreading habit leaf to 10 cm long white blossom deep yellow fruit purple-red blossom ‘PROFUSION’ double flowers ‘VAN ESELTINE’ ‘GOLDEN HORNET’ HEIGHT 8m. flaking on old trees. deciduous trees with oval. with pink-flushed. that follow in autumn.

followed by small. and have three persistent sepals. and smooth or nearly so on both sides when mature. florentina.E. square plates. cracking into small. The oval to nearly rounded leaves have finely toothed margins and short-pointed tips. FLOWERING TIME Early summer.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 171 Wild Apple Malus sylvestris (Rosaceae) This deciduous. and finally purple. Malus trilobata has young shoots with white hairs and long-stalked. OCCURRENCE Evergreen thickets of N. leaf to 10cm long flower 4cm wide HEIGHT 15m. are followed by rounded green or red-flushed fruit. dark green leaves. yellow-green or red-flushed fruit. SIMILAR SPECIES Cultivated Apple (M. domestica) and M. Greece. and fissured with age. pumila. OCCURRENCE Woods. these turn yellow. leaf to 8cm long fruit to 4cm wide HEIGHT 10m. SIMILAR SPECIES M. up to 3cm wide. SPREAD 10m. the fruit. and hedgerows all over Europe. they are dark green above. conical habit SMALL and hard. to 4cm wide. . Malus trilobata Malus trilobata (Rosaceae) A deciduous and conical tree. deeply cut into three lobes. cracked. In autumn. BARK Brown. which have leaves that are hairy beneath. spreading tree or shrub sometimes has spiny shoots. paler below. which has smaller leaves and fruit with no sepals. are often slightly wider than long. The white flowers. SPREAD 6m. maple-like. at the end of the shoots. thickets. BARK Grey-brown. White or pink-tinged flowers. are borne in clusters. often pinktinged flowers appear in clusters in April and May. red. spreading habit WHITE. sometimes a shrub. FLOWERING TIME Late spring.

brown fruit have persistent green sepals. dark green above. OCCURRENCE Woods and thickets in S. FLOWERING TIME Summer. FLOWERING TIME Late spring to early summer. Photinia davidiana Photinia davidiana (Rosaceae) This evergreen tree often produces several stems from the base and is sometimes shrubby. Matt. . which both have toothed leaves. Its alternate. Europe. the older leaves turning red before they fall. the Medlar has alternate. cracking into thin plates with age. spreading habit flower to 5cm wide leaf to 15cm long HEIGHT 6m. BARK Grey-brown and smooth. sometimes with thorny shoots. hard. serratifolia. rounded head leaf to 12cm long HEIGHT 10m. Europe. A deciduous tree. flowers. dark green leaves that may be untoothed or have small teeth towards the tip. Small white flowers open in dense clusters at the end of the shoots and are followed by rounded fruit up to 8mm wide. russet-brown fruit up to 3cm wide. SPREAD 8m. Its white flowers are borne singly. Wild plants are more shrubby and spiny than those in cultivation. naturalized in C. SIMILAR SPECIES None. oblong. oblong leaves are untoothed with a small. x fraseri (right) and the less common P.172 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Medlar Mespilus germanica (Rosaceae) ROUNDED but flattopped. SIMILAR SPECIES P. they are paler beneath. followed by pear-shaped to rounded. flower 6mm wide TINY bright red fruit hang from long stalks in small clusters. native to China and Vietnam. tapered point.E. with smaller leaves. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. and fruit. at the ends of the shoots. SPREAD 10m. BARK Grey-brown and orange-brown.

Its alternate leaves are broadest towards the tip. they are bronze-red when they first emerge. It is a popular tree among gardeners for its colourful young foliage. which has untoothed leaves. dark green later. up to 5mm wide. P. The small white flowers with pink anthers open in flattened heads. . and used as a container plant). turning glossy. This is a hybrid between P. broadly spreading habit rounded head OBLONG leaves are toothed and smooth. serratifolia. SIMILAR SPECIES P. BARK Grey-brown and smooth. the young foliage is bronze-red in colour. glabra and P. FLOWERING TIME Late spring and summer. serratifolia. They are followed by usually sparse.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 173 Photinia x fraseri Photinia x fraseri (Rosaceae) Like its relative Photinia davidiana (left). rounded red fruit. this tree is evergreen and sometimes produces several stems from the base or has a shrubby habit. peeling in flakes on old trees. two popular forms derived from it are ‘Red Robin’ and ‘Robusta’. Photinia x fraseri was first developed as a hybrid in the USA. davidiana (left). SPREAD 8m. which is a larger tree with leaves to 20cm long and flowerheads to 15cm wide. OCCURRENCE Known only in cultivation (grown in parks and gardens. bronze-red young leaves finely toothed leaf margin flowerhead to 10cm wide leaf to 15cm long NOTE HEIGHT 10m.

Japan. bright red fruit.174 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Photinia villosa Photinia villosa (Rosaceae) OVAL. long-pointed leaves and different fruit. This deciduous. SIMILAR SPECIES Peach (p. spreading tree with smooth reddish shoots. the rounded fruit is edible and sweet. has slender. Bronzy when young and usually hairy. OCCURRENCE Cultivated and occasionally naturalized. open on the shoots before the leaves emerge. broadly oval to nearly round leaves have a finely toothed margin. soft hairs. native to N. small white flowers leaf to 8cm long HEIGHT 8m. BARK Smooth and red-brown. BARK Grey-brown. with a finely toothed margin and tapered point at the tip. dark green. China. 2.183). Apricot Prunus armeniaca (Rosaceae) The Apricot is a deciduous. The alternate. . often flushed with red. HEIGHT 10m. Flattened clusters of small white flowers with pink anthers are followed by the fruit. SPREAD 10m. native to China. SIMILAR SPECIES None – distinct from all Crataegus species in the lack of thorns and warty flower and fruit stalks. The alternate leaves are oval or broadest towards the end. ending abruptly in a short point. spreading tree is sometimes shrubby. spreading habit The stalks of both the flowers and fruit are rough with small warts. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. shallowly fissured. SPREAD 10m. The fruit are densely covered in short. Pale pink or white flowers. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. up to 1cm long. They open bronzy red and mature to glossy. and Korea. clusters of pink flowers leaf to 10cm long fruit to 4cm wide ORANGE-YELLOW. nestle among the bright red and orange autumn leaves. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. they mature to dark green.5cm wide.

dark green. profusion of white flowers spreading habit FIVE-PETALLED white flowers. and gardens. edible red or black fruit. smooth. SPREAD 15m. parks. this species has given rise to the sweet cherries that have sweet. maturing to matt. FLOWERING TIME Spring. slender-stalked cherries ripen to red and are edible. are borne in clusters just before or as the young leaves emerge. These are widely cultivated for their very popular fruit. sharply toothed leaves are up to 15cm long and taper abruptly to a short point at the tip. the alternate. They are bronze when young.177). pink-tinged buds fruit to 1cm wide flower to 3cm wide NOTE The tallest European cherry.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 175 Wild Cherry Prunus avium (Rosaceae) A deciduous tree. which is a smaller. the Wild Cherry or Gean is conical when young becoming broadly columnar to spreading with age. Conspicuous glands can be seen at the top of leaf stalks. and glossy at first. The rounded. OCCURRENCE Woodlands of Europe. ‘Plena’ is a selection with double flowers. tree with acid fruit and finely toothed leaves. SIMILAR SPECIES Sour Cherry (p. which is commonly planted in streets. and turn yellow or red in autumn. Elliptic to oblong. BARK Red-brown. often shrubby. . 3cm wide. HEIGHT 25m. peeling horizontally in strips.

native origin NOTE The purple-leaved forms of the Cherry Plum are popular trees. sharply toothed leaves are glossy. White flowers open along the shoot before the leaves emerge. white flowers. flaking with age. and are often seen planted in parks. uncertain.5cm wide. The alternate.176 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Cherry Plum Prunus cerasifera (Rosaceae) FIVE-PETALLED. bitter fruit. 3cm wide. . Purple-leaved forms of this tree are commonly grown: P. downy on the veins beneath. SIMILAR SPECIES Blackthorn (p. which is more shrubby with blue-black. SPREAD 10m. are sweet and edible. cerasifera ‘Pissardii’ has white flowers. open singly or in clusters. BARK Purple-brown. A deciduous. scaly. 2. the Cherry Plum has hairy. dark green and smooth above.185). plum-like red fruit. it flowers several weeks later. The rounded. cerasifera ‘Nigra’ has pink flowers. oval. gardens and streets. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. spreading tree. while P. broadly spreading habit leaf to 6cm long HEIGHT 8m. sometimes spiny shoots. OCCURRENCE Naturalized in thickets and hedgerows. thicket-forming shrub or a small.

origin uncertain. oval leaves are glossy. FLOWERING TIME Spring. are 2cm wide and open in small clusters before the leaves emerge. P. OCCURRENCE Cultivated in gardens and orchards. ‘Semperflorens’ (All Saints’ Cherry) continues to flower through summer. dark green above. deciduous tree is often shrubby. smooth on both sides. cerasus ‘Rhexii’ is a garden selection grown for its double flowers. with suckers at the base and smooth shoots. SPREAD 8m. which is a larger tree with bigger leaves that are hairy beneath and sweet or bitter fruit. broadly spreading habit LONG-STALKED white flowers.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 177 Sour Cherry Prunus cerasus (Rosaceae) This small. . which is the commercially grown Sour Cherry. spreading. peeling in horizontal strips. The alternate. widely naturalized in Europe. NOTE This species is commonly grown for its fruit. BARK Purple-brown. numerous other selections are grown for their edible fruit. leaf to 8cm long fruit to 2cm wide HEIGHT 8m. SIMILAR SPECIES Wild Cherry (p. with green sepals. The red or black fruit that follow the five-petalled flowers are sour but edible.175). and finely toothed with tapered points.

They are followed by edible plumlike fruit which have a single stone. fissured on old plants. SPREAD 6m. Balkans. fruit are oval and up to 4cm long. and up to 8cm long. When ripe. dark green leaves have a toothed margin and are smooth on both sides. FLOWERING TIME Spring. SIMILAR SPECIES Plum (below). BARK Grey-brown. fissured with age. open in small clusters of three to four along the shoots as the young leaves open. FLOWERING TIME Spring. flesh does not separate easily from the stone. the flesh of the edible fruit separates easily from leaf to the stone. 8cm long flower to 2. OCCURRENCE Cultivated (grown in gardens and orchards). matt green leaves are oval or widest towards the end and hairy beneath. yellow. with toothed margins. The alternate. which has hairy leaves and shoots. oval. deciduous tree has smooth. Italy and the S. Sometimes shrubby. dark. SPREAD 10m. OCCURRENCE Thickets and mountain slopes in S. spreading habit leaf to 4cm long fissured. White flowers. The alternate. or purple. the edible fruit is smooth-skinned. spineless shoots. greybrown bark HEIGHT 6m. white flowers line bare shoots HEIGHT 10m. about 1cm wide.5cm wide ROUNDED to eggshaped. . Bullace (right). red. Plum Prunus domestica (Rosaceae) The Plum is a rounded to spreading. sometimes red-flushed. BARK Grey-brown. It has spineless shoots that are hairy when young. this spreading. cocomilia (above). deciduous tree. widely naturalized in Europe.178 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Prunus cocomilia Prunus cocomilia (Rosaceae) EDIBLE yellow. has smooth shoots and leaves. Small white flowers are borne singly or in clusters of up to three on the bare shoots before the leaves emerge. SIMILAR SPECIES P.

SIMILAR SPECIES Plum (left). spreading tree has smooth. fissured on old trees.183). the flesh separates from the leaf to 12cm flattened stone which contains an long edible. . up to 5cm long. leaves emerge. green or redflushed shoots. of garden origin.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 179 Almond Prunus dulcis (Rosaceae) This deciduous. spreading tree are densely hairy when young. the edible and abruptly short-pointed at the tip. widely naturalized in Europe. before or as the is sweet and fleshy. open on the bare shoots. The five-petalled flowers open before the leaves emerge. Europe. with a toothed margin and long. The alternate. OCCURRENCE Cultivated for its edible fruit. and N. Small white flowers fruit. white seed. profusion of pink to white flowers PALE pink or white flowers. Africa. bluntlytoothed. tapered tip. BARK Dark grey and smooth. Asia. native to S. has a flattened stone that separates easily from the flesh. It has alternate. SIMILAR SPECIES Peach (p. Mirabelle plums and damsons are selected forms of Bullace. The green fruit is covered with velvety hairs. and C. glossy green leaves are smooth on both sides.W.5cm wide leaf to 8cm long HEIGHT 7m. open singly or in clusters of up to three. cultivated plants are spineless. SPREAD 10m. matt. Wild plants are spiny. oval. Bullace Prunus insititia (Rosaceae) The often spiny shoots of this deciduous. SPREAD 10m. up to 5cm wide. flower to 2. naturalized in S. dark green leaves that are hairy on both sides ROUNDED to eggshaped. FLOWERING TIME Spring. OCCURRENCE Cultivated (for its fruit and as an ornamental). fruit to 6cm long HEIGHT 8m. The edible fruit has broadly spreading a rounded stone that clings to habit the flesh. later cracks into squares. when ripe. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. which has fleshy fruit with a grooved stone. lance-shaped. BARK Dark grey.

These deciduous trees are cultivated Prunus forms or hybrids. FLOWERING TIME Spring. usually spreading habit leaf to 15cm long large double flowers yellow anthers ‘KANZAN’ ‘AMANOGAWA’ ‘SHÔGETSU’ HEIGHT 10m or more. and streets). NOTE These ornamental garden trees are of ancient origin in Japan. which has single flowers in unstalked clusters. SPREAD 15m or more. the most popular and commonly planted Japanese cherry (also main picture). semi-double.180 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Japanese Cherries Prunus (Rosaceae) DEEP pink. white double flowers. where they have been cultivated for over a thousand years. ‘Kanzan’ is vase-shaped at first. double flowers of ‘Kanzan’. SIMILAR SPECIES P. sharply toothed dark green leaves. branching later. or double. and ‘Taihaku’ has very large. The showy flowers can be pink or white. which is a much larger tree. tapered point. ‘Shôgetsu’ has large. ‘Shirotae’ is wide spreading with drooping branches and large clusters of white single to semi-double flowers. often bronze when young. double flowers. They have alternate. single. usually ending in a long. with deep pink.184). OCCURRENCE Known only in cultivation (grown in gardens. single white flowers. Commonly seen forms are ‘Amanogawa’ with an upright habit and pale pink double flowers. avium ‘Plena’. . parks. Sargent’s Cherry (p. BARK Red-brown with horizontal bands.

smooth on both sides with a toothed margin.E. subsp. are borne in cylindrical clusters in spring. glossy. The alternate. habit broader leaves and shorter flower clusters.2cm long. to 1. oval leaves are red-stalked. rounded tree is usually shrubby with stout. which has red-stalked leaves and longer flower clusters in summer. SPREAD 10m. ripen from green to red then black. OCCURRENCE Woodland in S. paler below. The Cherry Laurel is grown in many forms. azorica is found in the Azores. OCCURRENCE Woodland in S. oblong leaves are smooth on both sides with small teeth above the middle and end in a short point. which has green-stalked leaves and shorter flower clusters in spring. varying in habit and leaf. to 25cm long. .5cm wide HEIGHT 10m. leathery. each 8mm wide. Portugal Laurel Prunus lusitanica (Rosaceae) An evergreen. FLOWERING TIME Midsummer. the Portugal Laurel is often shrubby and can have several stems from the base.E. then glossy black. SIMILAR SPECIES Cherry Laurel (above). Europe. SPREAD 10m. leaf to 12cm long HEIGHT 10m. often as low shrubs. BARK Grey-brown and smooth. spreading habit leaf to 20cm long FRAGRANT white flowers. FRAGRANT white flowers. The alternate. The flowers are followed by rounded fruit which ripen from green to red. slender clusters. flower cluster to 12cm long fruit to 1. SIMILAR SPECIES Portugal Laurel (below). FLOWERING TIME Spring. smooth shoots that are green when young. Subspecies broadly spreading azorica has shorter. The oval fruit. dark green above. conical to spreading tree. 1cm wide. open in long. BARK Dark grey-brown and smooth. Europe.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 181 Cherry Laurel Prunus laurocerasus (Rosaceae) This evergreen.

Its young shoots are covered in sticky hairs. This small. fruit to 1cm long . and turn yellow in autumn. 2cm wide. deciduous tree has an open. shallowly toothed leaves end in short. and S. Europe. leaf to 7cm long HEIGHT 10m. in a distinctive arrangement of up to ten flowers. SPREAD 10m. with hairs along the veins beneath. also used in the preparation of medicinal syrups. short-stalked white flowers open in slightly elongated clusters at the end of short. are borne in clusters. shrubby habit NOTE In the Near East. which has bitter black. bitter red cherries. 5cm long. pastries. The flowers have five petals and are followed by small. BARK Grey-brown.182 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE St Lucie Cherry Prunus mahaleb (Rosaceae) FRAGRANT white flowers. The alternate. native to C. SIMILAR SPECIES Sour Cherry (p. that ripen to black. OCCURRENCE Woods and dry hillsides. They are glossy. abrupt points.177). broadly oval to almost round. the spicy seeds are used to flavour drinks. edible fruit and is found in Europe as a cultivated plant in orchards and gardens or occasionally naturalized. rounded to egg-shaped. FLOWERING TIME Spring. leafy shoots borne on the branches of the previous year after the foliage has emerged. Bowl-shaped. dark green above. spreading habit. This cherry has given rise to several forms including some with a weeping habit or with yellow fruit. and bread. 6mm long. spreading. and is often shrubby.

finely toothed. the Peach has alternate. with a red flush. BARK Dark grey-brown. bitter. dark green leaves that end in a tapered point. fissured on old trees. SPREAD 10m. pink or sometimes white flowers. The fruit contains a deeply-pitted. The variety nectarina (Nectarine) has fruit with a smooth skin. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. dark green above. SIMILAR SPECIES Rum Cherry (p. lance-shaped. 8mm long. leaf to 15cm long pink or white flowers on bare shoots SWEET fleshy fruit is orange-yellow. rather unpleasantly scented. . furrowed stone with a white seed.179). up to 15cm long. SPREAD 15m. leaf to 10cm long spreading habit flower to 1cm wide HEIGHT 15m. glossy black fruit. often naturalized in Europe. Almond (p. which has rounded leaves and smaller fruit. Peach Prunus persica (Rosaceae) A deciduous tree with smooth shoots. Short-stalked. this deciduous tree spreads with age.174). The flowers are followed by rounded or oval. ‘Colorata’. The alternate leaves are toothed and end in a short point. white. SIMILAR SPECIES Apricot (p. FLOWERING TIME Spring. fragrant flowers are borne in slender racemes. and turn red or yellow in autumn. fruit to 8cm wide HEIGHT 8m. are borne singly or in pairs on the bare shoots before the leaves emerge. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. has purple leaves and pink flowers. and covered in velvety hairs. OCCURRENCE Woodlands and river banks. a garden selection. BARK Dark grey and smooth. which has glossy foliage. native to Europe. SMALL. They are matt. glossy.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 183 Bird Cherry Prunus padus (Rosaceae) Conical when young.184). 4cm wide. which has a dry fruit.

taper-pointed tip. dark green above and turning orange and red in autumn. OCCURRENCE Cultivated (grown in parks and leaf to 12cm long flower to 4cm wide gardens). leaf to 12cm long up to 15cm long WHITE flowers. SPREAD 15m. FLOWERING TIME Late spring to early summer. 4cm wide. ridged on old trees. up to 1cm wide. up to 1cm wide. Flower clusters are followed by round. The young shoots of this deciduous. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. spreading tree are smooth and reddish. spreading habit and slender shoots. They are glossy. SIMILAR SPECIES Bird Cherry (p. irregular shape HEIGHT 20m.183). native to North America. which has flowers in stalked clusters.180). which ripen from red flower clusters to black. FLOWERING TIME Spring. dark green above and turn yellow or red in autumn. The alternate. open in unstalked clusters of up to six. broadly spreading habit HEIGHT 15m. up to 1cm long. edible fruit. native to Japan. Rum Cherry Prunus serotina (Rosaceae) This is a deciduous tree of irregular.184 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Sargent’s Cherry Prunus sargentii (Rosaceae) PINK. SIMILAR SPECIES Japanese Cherries(p. SPREAD 15m. dark grey. becoming glossy. open in spreading to drooping racemes. . sharply toothed leaves are oval or broadest towards the long. Flowers open as the young leaves emerge and are followed by rounded to oval purple-black fruit. BARK Smooth. They are smooth on both sides and bronzy red when young. oval to lance-shaped leaves are edged with fine teeth and taper to a point at the tip. which has matt green leaves. five-petalled flowers. BARK Red-brown with horizontal bands. The alternate.

They are followed by egg-shaped fruit. The small. hairy beneath when young. spreading habit SMOOTH. native to W.176).BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 185 Tibetan Cherry Prunus serrula (Rosaceae) Deciduous and spreading. FLOWERING TIME Spring. BARK Glossy red-brown and smooth. inedible and bitter. wood margins. lance-shaped leaves are finely toothed and end in a long. about 1. flower to 2cm wide leaf to 10cm long HEIGHT 15m. they are used to flavour gin. SPREAD 6m. with white hairs on the veins beneath. They are dark green above. FLOWERING TIME Spring. SIMILAR SPECIES Cherry Plum (p. China. thicket-forming shrub than a spreading tree. and has edible. The alternate. peeling in thin horizontal strips. are usually borne singly and open on the white flowers clothe shoots bare shoots before in spring the leaves emerge. tapered point. It peels horizontally in strips. SPREAD 18m. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. dark green above. BARK Dark grey-black. that are red when ripe. Short-stalked white flowers open singly or in clusters of up to three as the young leaves emerge. . SIMILAR SPECIES None – its bark is unique among the Prunus species. They are matt. blue-black fruit HEIGHT 5m. glossy redbrown bark is banded with pale. horizontal lenticels. with a toothed margin. alternate leaves are broadest at the end. plum-like fruit. the Tibetan Cherry has young shoots that are covered with short hairs. and hedgerows throughout Europe. Small white flowers.5cm wide. up to 1cm long. leaf to 4cm long ROUNDED blue-black berries are covered with a white bloom. OCCURRENCE Thickets. the Blackthorn has spiny shoots. which flowers earlier. Blackthorn Prunus spinosa (Rosaceae) More a deciduous.

with semi-double deep pink flowers that fade to pale pink. up to 1cm wide. pale pink or white flowers. oval to lance-shaped leaves have a sharply toothed margin and taper to a point at the tip. Deciduous and spreading. each petal notched at the tip. BARK Smooth and grey-brown. . broadly spreading habit leaf to 8cm long flower to 2cm wide NOTE HEIGHT 6m.186 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Spring Cherry Prunus x subhirtella (Rosaceae) PINK buds open into small clusters of fivepetalled. SIMILAR SPECIES None. The two forms most commonly seen in gardens are ‘Autumnalis’. this tree has reddish young shoots. SPREAD 8m. The alternate. The flowers open in small clusters and are followed by glossy black fruit. mild periods during winter. OCCURRENCE Cultivated in parks and gardens. and spring. They are bronze when they first emerge. native to Japan. This tree is a Japanese hybrid between the Fuji Cherry (Prunus incisa) and Prunus pendula. with horizontal bands. maturing to dark green. FLOWERING TIME Late autumn. The forms with semi-double flowers are popular garden trees. with semidouble pale pink flowers that fade to white. and ‘Autumnalis Rosea’.

SPREAD 12m. The white flowers are borne in clusters of up to 12 as the young leaves emerge. and turn red-purple late in autumn. dark green when mature. which has much larger fruit. dark green above. Grey with hairs above when young.190). native to the E. deciduous tree has shoots that are covered in grey hairs when young and are often spinetipped. WHITE flowers. SPREAD 8m. . native to China. SIMILAR SPECIES Common Pear (p. They are glossy. Callery Pear Pyrus calleryana (Rosaceae) This broadly conical. BARK Grey. fruit to 3cm wide leaf to 8cm wide HEIGHT 6m. flower to 2cm wide ROUNDED to pearshaped fruit are 2cm wide and brown dotted with white. rounded. alternate leaves are edged with small teeth or untoothed. deciduous tree has hairy young shoots that become smooth with age. FLOWERING TIME Spring. with five petals and orange stamens are borne in dense clusters. broadly oval. OCCURRENCE Dry. FLOWERING TIME Spring. rocky places. this rounded. they become glossy. paler below. SIMILAR SPECIES Silver Pear (p. ‘Chanticleer’ is a popular selection with a very narrow crown. which has hairier leaves. BARK Dark grey. The narrowly oval to oblong. cracking into small squares. Mediterranean region. broadly conical habit leaf to 8cm long HEIGHT 15m. The alternate. The flowers are followed by rounded small. OCCURRENCE Cultivated in parks.188).BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 187 Almond-leaved Pear Pyrus amygdaliformis (Rosaceae) Often shrubby. fissured and scaly with age. up to 2. sometimes wavy-edged leaves are finely toothed at the margin. yellowhabit brown fruit on short. and streets.5cm wide. stout stalks. gardens.

The white flowers with pink anthers are 2. broadly columnar habit A broadly conical to columnar. SIMILAR SPECIES Plymouth Pear (right) has smaller fruit and thinner. occasionally naturalized in Europe. sometimes spiny shoots. .188 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Common Pear Pyrus communis (Rosaceae) SWEET. and colour. and end in an abrupt taper-pointed tip. dark green above. OCCURRENCE Known only in cultivation (grown in gardens and fruit to 10cm long orchards). edible. white flower clusters NOTE This species is thought to be a hybrid involving several European species. SPREAD 12m. the Common Pear has stout. The alternate. up to 10cm long.190) has smaller and harder fruit. smoother bark.5cm wide and are borne in clusters as the leaves emerge. heart-shaped base. Wild Pear (p. Along with its cultivars. They are followed by the characteristic fruit which vary in size. cracking into small squares on older trees. FLOWERING TIME Spring. with a finely toothed margin. They are glossy. BARK Dark grey. often flushed with red. becoming smooth as they mature. broadly oval leaves. shape. deciduous tree. round to pear-shaped fruit may be green or yellow. are hairy when young. it is widely grown for its edible fruit. leaf to 10cm long HEIGHT 15m.

Europe. spiny tree with narrower leaves and smaller fruit. The alternate. SPREAD 6m. and flower-bearing stalks of this deciduous. cracking on old trees. FLOWERING TIME Spring. OCCURRENCE Woods and dry slopes. shallowly scalloped and untoothed. white flowers are borne in clusters as the leaves emerge. The alternate. glossy green leaves are finely toothed and are almost smooth when young. The 2cm-wide. yellowgreen fruit become sweet when ripe.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 189 Plymouth Pear Pyrus cordata (Rosaceae) This small. ROUNDED. FLOWERING TIME Spring. . and C. Europe. which has much larger fruit with sepals that remain attached to it. GREY-BROWN bark is smoother and thinner than that of the Common Pear (left). The white flowers. OCCURRENCE Woods and hedgerows. SPREAD 8m. leaf to 8cm long rounded habit fruit to 5cm wide HEIGHT 8m. rounded leaves young tree HEIGHT 8m. leaf to 4cm long Snow Pear Pyrus nivalis (Rosaceae) The stout. giving it the common name Snow Pear. BARK Dark grey. about 3cm wide. SIMILAR SPECIES P. broadly oval. new leaves. small. rounded tree are all densely covered with fine white hairs. oval leaves become smoother and grey-green as they mature. native to S. deciduous tree is often shrubby and rounded. elaeagnifolia is a smaller. BARK Grey-brown. open in clusters. with smooth or spiny shoots. they are not usually eaten. SIMILAR SPECIES Common Pear (left). The fruit are rounded to slightly more typically pear-shaped and up to 2cm long. however. native to W. young shoots. usually spineless.

and pointed at the tip. FLOWERING TIME Spring. edible fruit. broadly conical tree. cracking into square plates with age. follow the flowers. hard. The creamy white flowers with pink anthers open in dense clusters as the leaves emerge. They are densely covered with white hairs when young. 3cm long. OCCURRENCE Cultivated in gardens. HEIGHT 8m. broadly conical habit leaf to 8cm long HEIGHT 20m. 3cm wide. from fruit to 4cm wide France to E. Europe. pearshaped green fruit.190 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Wild Pear Pyrus pyraster (Rosaceae) WHITE flowers. weeping habit leaf to 9cm long flower to 2cm wide SMALL. SPREAD 12m. FLOWERING TIME Spring. P. SIMILAR SPECIES P. This species is sometimes not regarded as distinct from the Common Pear. edible fruit. gradually becoming smooth and dark green above. Its shoots are often spiny and the oval to rounded leaves are alternate. The narrow. the Common Pear (p. rounded to more typically pear-shaped. with white stamens tipped with pink anthers open in clusters among the leaves. finely toothed. which has larger. bourgaeana. which is spiny with slightly broader leaves. hard. . BARK Grey-brown. cracking with age. SPREAD 8m. untoothed leaves are tapered at both ends. One of the parents of the commonly cultivated species. lance-shaped. SIMILAR SPECIES Common Pear (p. BARK Dark grey. this is a deciduous. The white flowers are followed by small.188). Silver Pear Pyrus salicifolia ‘Pendula’ (Rosaceae) The shoots of this deciduous tree with weeping branches are spineless and covered with white hairs when young. with a pointed tip. OCCURRENCE Woods and thickets. elaeagnifolia.188). which has smaller flowers and broader leaves.

graeca (p. this is the commonest whitebeam with unlobed leaves. open in flattened clusters. they are white with hairs on both sides when young. up to 1.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 191 Whitebeam Sorbus aria (Rosaceae) A rounded. aria ‘Lutescens’ is a commonly planted form with silvery young leaf to 12cm foliage.5cm wide. fruit to 1. BARK Grey and smooth. the Whitebeam is conical when young. The shoots are covered with white hairs at first but become smooth with age. S. SPREAD 20m. Arranged alternately. deciduous tree. cracking and shallowly ridged with age. Some cultivated selections such as long ‘Majestica’. dark green above. are followed by rounded. 10cm wide. well-drained. have leaves 10–15cm long. FIVE-PETALLED flowers. especially alkaline soils. commonly planted in parks and along streets. bright red fruit dotted with pale lenticels.192) and Rock Whitebeam (p. with numerous white stamens. OCCURRENCE Widespread in woods and open areas in Europe. The attractive foliage and fruit has made this tree popular. the oval leaves have sharply pointed teeth. . becoming smooth and glossy.5cm wide broadly columnar habit HEIGHT 20m.196) are shrubs or small trees with leaves that are broadest above the middle. The white flowers. on NOTE In most areas. FLOWERING TIME Late spring to early summer. SIMILAR SPECIES S.

large lenticels. Conical when young. They are oval and. oval to nearly rounded leaves have a tapered base. has shallowly lobed leaves with white hairs below. each with five petals and numerous white stamens. with few. grey with hairs beneath.195) has longer leaves and the fruit has fewer lenticels. LEATHERY. rounded tree is often shrubby. White flowers about 1. dark green above. with white stamens and pink anthers.5cm wide. SIMILAR SPECIES S. FLOWERING TIME Late spring to early summer. Sorbus graeca Sorbus graeca (Rosaceae) This deciduous. shrubby habit HEIGHT 8m. and are followed by rounded. leaf to 13cm long fruit about 1. and greenish white beneath with a dense covering of hairs. SPREAD 8m.3cm wide HEIGHT 10m. SIMILAR SPECIES Rock Whitebeam (p. edged with shallow lobes. S. about 1. Europe. Europe from the E.196) leaf to 9cm long hairy underside has a different distribution and fruit with numerous lenticels. bright red fruit. up to 1. BARK Grey and smooth. open in dense clusters at the ends of the shoots. Alps to the Balkans. OCCURRENCE Woods in E. are borne in clusters at the ends of the shoots. dark green above. White flowers.2cm wide. SPREAD 8m. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. with several stems. the deepest lobes a third of the way along the leaf blade. The alternate leaves are glossy. . except at the base. mougeotii (p. umbellata.2cm wide.192 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Sorbus austriaca Sorbus austriaca (Rosaceae) ROUNDED fruit ripen from green to red and are spotted with conspicuous lenticels. The alternate. OCCURRENCE Mountain woods in E. BARK Grey and smooth. this deciduous tree becomes rounded with age. sharply-toothed leaves are glossy.

broadly columnar to rounded habit leaf to 12cm long fruit to 1. Europe. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. which has rounded fruit and less deeply lobed. It is apomictic – that is it produces identical offspring when raised from seed. longer leaves as well as a very different distribution. mougeotii (p. dark green above and grey-green with hairs beneath. are borne in dense clusters to 10cm wide in late spring. which become smaller towards the tip. oval leaves are edged with up to seven lobes on each side. These are followed by clusters of shiny red fruit. They are glossy. BARK Grey and smooth.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 193 Swedish Whitebeam Sorbus intermedia (Rosaceae) A vigorous.195). EGG-SHAPED red fruit. . broadly columnar to rounded. up to 2cm wide.5cm long NOTE This species is commonly seen in parks and streets. HEIGHT 15m. deciduous tree. Five-petalled white flowers.W. with few lenticels are borne in dense large clusters. OCCURRENCE Woods in N. the deepest reaching about one-third of the way to the centre of the leaf. SPREAD 15m. cracking on old trees. the alternate. Except for the untoothed base. the Swedish Whitebeam has hairy young shoots that soon become smooth. SIMILAR SPECIES S.

194

BROADLEAVED SIMPLE

Service Tree of Fontainebleau
FIVE-PETALLED,

white flowers, 1.5cm wide, are borne in flattened flowerheads.

Sorbus latifolia (Rosaceae)
This broadly columnar, deciduous tree has hairy, young shoots which become glossy and smooth when mature. The alternate, broadly oval leaves, as wide as they are long, are edged with small, triangular, toothed lobes. They are glossy dark green above and covered in grey hairs beneath, turning yellow in autumn. Clusters of white flowers are followed by round, brownish red fruit, marked with conspicuous lenticels. It probably originated as a fruit 1.2cm hybrid between wide Whitebeam (p.191) and Wild Service Tree (p.196).

leaf to 10cm long

leaves turn yellow in autumn

NOTE Many similar trees, also intermediates between Wild Service Tree and Whitebeam or an allied species, have been described from various parts of Europe. They vary slightly in the shape of the leaves and the size and colour of the fruit.

HEIGHT 15m. SPREAD 12m. BARK Grey and smooth; cracking and scaly with age. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. OCCURRENCE Woods of S.W. Europe. SIMILAR SPECIES This species is one of many in the genus that are

described as apomictic, that is they produce identical offspring when grown from seed, unlike most tree species, which are variable. Some of these species are difficult to distinguish.

BROADLEAVED SIMPLE

195

Sorbus mougeotii
Sorbus mougeotii (Rosaceae)
This deciduous, rounded tree, conical when young, and sometimes a shrub, has alternate, oval leaves with shallow, toothed lobes, the deepest of which reach about onefourth of the way to the centre of the leaf. Hairy on both sides when young, they become glossy dark green and smooth above, grey-white with hairs beneath. White flowers, 1.5cm wide, open in clusters and are followed by round, red fruit 1cm wide with few, small lenticels.
leaf to 10cm long grey-white leaf underside conical habit
GREY-BROWN bark is inconspicuously marked with small, horizontal lenticels.

HEIGHT 20m. SPREAD 15m. BARK Grey-brown and smooth. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. OCCURRENCE Mountain woods of the

W. Alps and the Pyrenees. SIMILAR SPECIES S. austriaca (p.192), which has relatively broader leaves and fruit with conspicuous lenticels.

Sorbus norvegica
Sorbus norvegica (Rosaceae)
Sometimes a small tree, this deciduous species is more usually an upright to spreading shrub. The alternate broadly oval leaves, on stalks covered in grey hairs, are sharply toothed above the middle, and tapered to the base. They are glossy, dark green above and covered with white hairs beneath. White flowers open in clusters at the ends of the shoots, followed by rounded red fruit.
flower to 1cm wide leaf to 10cm long fruit to 1cm wide
WHITE

flowers, about 1cm wide, have five petals and numerous white stamens.

HEIGHT 10m SPREAD 10m. BARK Smooth and grey. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. OCCURRENCE Woods of Norway

and Sweden.
SIMILAR SPECIES Whitebeam (p.191), which is a larger tree, has larger leaves, and may be naturalized in the same area.

196

BROADLEAVED SIMPLE

Rock Whitebeam
Sorbus rupicola (Rosaceae)
TYPICALLY found in mountainous regions of N. Europe, including Britain, where it grows in rocky places.

leaf to 14cm long

This deciduous species may grow into a small, spreading tree or shrub. Widest and sharply toothed above the middle, the alternate leaves are glossy dark green above and slightly hairy at first, densely covered in white hairs beneath. White flowers, 1.5cm wide, are borne in small clusters. They are followed by rounded, red fruit, also 1.5cm wide and dotted with numerous small lenticels.
spreading, shrubby habit

HEIGHT 5m. SPREAD 4m. BARK Grey and smooth. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. OCCURRENCE Limestone rocks; native to

N. Europe.
SIMILAR SPECIES Several rare Sorbus species

are similar but often have lobed leaves or are much larger.

Wild Service Tree
Sorbus torminalis (Rosaceae)
This deciduous tree has a broadly columnar head and glossy brown shoots that are hairy when young. The alternate, maple-like leaves are deeply cut into sharply toothed, triangular lobes. Glossy dark green above, they turn yellow, red, or purple in autumn. Small white flowers, 1.5cm wide, open in flattened heads and are followed by rounded to egg-shaped, russet-brown fruit.
ascending branches open flower clusters
DARK

brown, the bark begins to crack into scaly plates as the tree ages.

leaf to 10cm long

fruit to 1.6cm long

HEIGHT 20m. SPREAD 15m. BARK Dark brown, cracking into scaly plates

with age.
FLOWERING TIME Late spring to

early summer.
OCCURRENCE Woods; native to Europe. SIMILAR SPECIES None.

BROADLEAVED SIMPLE

197

White Poplar
Populus alba (Salicaceae)
A deciduous tree, the White Poplar is broadly columnar, spreading with age, and has young shoots that are densely covered in white hairs. The alternate leaves have rounded stalks. They have a dense layer of white hairs on both surfaces when young, but later become dark green and smooth above. On vigorous shoots, they are maple-like and deeply lobed, the larger lobes toothed, while elsewhere on the tree they have very shallow lobes. Male and female flowers are borne in drooping catkins on separate plants, the males grey with red anthers, the females green. The small green fruit capsules open to release tiny cottony seeds.
DENSE

white hairs cover the underside of leaves, which are hairy on both sides when young; they have three to five deep lobes when on vigorous shoots.

spreading habit

white, hairy young leaves

NOTE This tree, also known as Abele, produces many suckers, often at some distance from the parent. These show the lobed, maple-like leaves particularly well.

leaf to 10cm long

HEIGHT 30m. SPREAD 20m. BARK Pale grey, dark, and fissured at the base of the tree. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. OCCURRENCE Woods; native to Europe. SIMILAR SPECIES Grey Poplar (p.198), which has unlobed leaves even

on vigorous shoots, that have longer, flattened stalks and are less vividly white beneath, eventually becoming smooth; Aspen (p.200), which has flattened leaf stalks.

This species is thought to be a hybrid between White Poplar and Aspen. Tiny cottony seeds are released by small green fruit capsules. dark brown and deeply fissured on old trees. OCCURRENCE Woods and valleys of Europe. The broadly oval to nearly triangular. are borne on separate trees.197). leaf to 10cm long pale grey bark Several selections of this very vigorous. are commonly grown. Grey Poplar Populus x canescens (Salicaceae) This vigorous. becoming smooth and dark green above.200). They are hairy on both sides when young. alternate leaves are longer on very vigorous shoots. FLOWERING TIME Late spring. broadly columnar habit HEIGHT 30m. SPREAD 20m. which has smooth leaves. The oval to nearly rounded leaves are toothed or only shallowly lobed. BARK Pale grey with diamond-shaped marks. diamond-shaped marks. Most Grey Poplars are male. SIMILAR SPECIES White Poplar (p. Its young shoots are covered in white hairs. the bark is dark brown and furrowed on older trees. and green female catkins. deciduous tree with a broadly columnar head. becoming glossy. BARK Pale grey and deeply furrowed. Aspen (p. OCCURRENCE Known only in cultivation. which has maple-like leaves with hairs below. bearing flowers with red anthers in pendulous catkins. SPREAD 20m. and nearly smooth beneath. such as ‘Robusta’.198 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Hybrid Black Poplar Populus x canadensis (Salicaceae) DROOPING catkins of male flowers with red anthers. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. deciduous tree spreads by suckers from the base. . a hybrid between Cottonwood and Black Poplar (both right). columnar habit leaf to 8cm long HEIGHT 30m. which lacks hairs on the leaf margins. They are often bronzy red and hairy margined when young. SIMILAR SPECIES Black Poplar (right). dark green above. PALE grey with dark.

HEIGHT 30m. They are bronze when young becoming glossy dark green. drooping. cottony seeds. The flowers are in drooping catkins. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. the females green. Subsp. which has smaller leaves. open to release tiny. both of which have hairs at the edges of young leaves. Black Poplar (below). Small green fruit open to release white. The selection ‘Italica’ is narrowly columnar with upright branches. . the males with red anthers. and are edged with numerous small hairs. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. cottony seeds. hairless leaves. and no hairs at the margin. BARK Dark grey and deeply fissured. finely toothed leaves have a tapered tip. SPREAD 25m. SPREAD 20m. alternate. often cultivated. native to Europe. alternate leaves have small glands where the leaf stalk meets the blade. The broadly oval to triangular. on separate trees. broadly columnar to spreading habit leaf to 18cm long NARROW. yellow-green female flower catkins elongate into fruit. They are glossy green above and smooth on both sides. SIMILAR SPECIES Hybrid Black Poplar (left). deciduous tree often develops large burrs. the males with red anthers. the females green. OCCURRENCE River valleys of Europe. deciduous tree with sticky aromatic leaf buds. borne in catkins. naturalized in Europe occasionally. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. BARK Pale grey and deeply furrowed. leaf to 10cm long HEIGHT 30m. native to North America. broadly spreading habit SMALL green fruit. Black Poplar Populus nigra (Salicaceae) The trunk of this fast growing. SIMILAR SPECIES Hybrid Black Poplar (left) and Cottonwood (above). Flowers are borne in drooping catkins.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 199 Cottonwood Populus deltoides (Salicaceae) This is a vigorous. betulifolia has hairy young shoots. The broadly oval to triangular. which has smaller.

males and females on separate trees. . hang from the bare shoots in early spring. Small green fruit open to release tiny seeds that are contained within cottony white hairs. slender. the leaves become grey-green above. which has leaves covered with grey hairs beneath. flattened stalks. HEIGHT 20m.200 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Aspen Populus tremula (Salicaceae) PENDULOUS grey male catkins. Carried on long. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. this species forms large colonies in woods. spreading by means of suckers produced by the roots. on mountains in the south of the range. SIMILAR SPECIES Grey Poplar (p. flattened leaf stalks make the leaves tremble in the slightest breeze. Bronze and hairy when young. with red anthers. and turn yellow in autumn. darker and ridged at the base of old trees.198). usually smooth on both sides. SPREAD 15m. Often found on poor soils. but spreads with age. The deciduous Aspen is conical when young. making a rattling sound distinctive to the Aspen. The flowers are borne in drooping catkins up to 8cm long. OCCURRENCE Moist woods and hillsides all over Europe. the rounded to broadly oval leaves are edged with rounded teeth. BARK Smooth and grey. the largest leaves borne on vigorous shoots. conical to spreading habit leaf to 8cm long rounded leaf NOTE The long. paler beneath. The male catkins are grey. while the female catkins are green.

smooth below. which has larger leaves. deciduous tree. . FLOWERING TIME Spring. spreading. The tiny flowers are borne in small catkins as the leaves emerge. Small green fruit open to release cottony seeds. spreading habit drooping branches leaf to 10cm long leaves taper to fine point green female catkin yellow male catkin NOTE The White Willow is pollarded to encourage the growth of young shoots. the wood of Salix alba var. BARK Grey-brown. and shoots that snap when bent.203). while the females are green and are borne on separate trees. tapered points. which has slightly larger leaves that soon become smooth below. narrow leaves show their blue-green underside with the slightest breeze blowing along the riverbank. The slender. often with drooping shoots. The Scarlet Willow (Salix alba ‘Britzensis’) has orange-red winter shoots. lance-shaped. deeply fissured with age.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 201 White Willow Salix alba (Salicaceae) The common large waterside willow of Europe. LONG. OCCURRENCE Riversides and meadows all over Europe. caerulea is highly valued as it is used for making cricket bats. SIMILAR SPECIES Hybrid Crack Willow (p. Crack Willow (p. HEIGHT 25m. also commonly planted. SPREAD 20m. White Willow is a vigorous. the males are yellow. They are silky and hairy when young. finely toothed leaves end in long. becoming dark green above and blue-green below.202).

finely toothed. spreading when older. this deciduous tree has young shoots covered in a white bloom. toothed. SIMILAR SPECIES Eared Willow (S. The oval. SPREAD 8m. the females green. which has shoots ridged beneath the bark. . silky-hairy catkins. broadly conical habit leaf to 12cm long HEIGHT 10m. while the females are green. is upright when young. SLENDER. A small green capsule. SIMILAR SPECIES None – its bloomy shoots make it distinctive. fissured on old trees. multiple stems HEIGHT 10m. The leaves are hairy when young becoming smooth on both sides. though the grey-green uppersides becomes smooth in older trees. The flowers are borne in tiny catkins. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. OCCURRENCE Damp habitats such as moist woods in N. up to 4cm long. The flowers are borne in small. alternate leaves are glossy. BARK Grey and smooth. BARK Dark grey and deeply fissured. FLOWERING TIME Early spring. SPREAD 10m. dark green above. Violet Willow Salix daphnoides (Salicaceae) Conical when young. and bluegreen beneath. on separate trees.202 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Goat Willow Salix caprea (Salicaceae) FLOWERS are in small catkins. sometimes a small tree. alternate leaves are hairy on both sides when young. the males are silvery with yellow anthers. on separate trees. Europe. later spreading and often branching low down or with several stems. This deciduous shrub. aurita). the males with yellow anthers. the fruit opens to release cottony seeds. the shoots not ridged beneath the bark. Small green fruit open to release cottony seeds. OCCURRENCE Woods and hedgerows leaf to 10cm long throughout Europe.

They are paler beneath. SPREAD 15m. finely toothed. FLOWERING TIME Spring. showy.201). spreading tree rather resemble those of the Bay Laurel (p.146). leaf to 12cm long slender female catkin spreading habit CYLINDRICAL. Bay Willow Salix pentandra (Salicaceae) The alternate. SPREAD 15m. BARK Grey-brown. FLOWERING TIME Early summer. on separate plants. The small flowers lack petals and are borne in catkins on separate trees. The flowers are borne in cylindrical catkins after the leaves emerge. slightly aromatic dark green leaves of this deciduous. Its alternate leaves are silky-hairy when young. elliptic to narrowly ovate. which has silky leaves and twigs that do not snap easily. toothed. with shallow fissures. OCCURRENCE Riversides and meadows throughout Europe. leaves end in a finely tapered point and are dark green above and blue-green below. the males have yellow anthers.146). the males dense and showy. and end in a short point. but otherwise the tree is distinctive. Cottony seeds emerge from the small green fruit capsules. soon becoming smooth. Small green fruit open to release fluffy white seeds. SIMILAR SPECIES Leaves have a superficial resemblance to those of Bay Laurel (p.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 203 Crack Willow Salix fragilis (Salicaceae) The twigs of this deciduous tree snap off easily from its branches giving rise to the common name. broadly spreading habit leaf to 15cm long HEIGHT 15m or more. SLENDER. with bright yellow anthers. while the females are green. frequently planted. HEIGHT 15m. the females green. . SIMILAR SPECIES White Willow (p. OCCURRENCE Riverbanks and meadows throughout Europe. bright yellow male catkins appear after the leaves. BARK Dark grey and deeply fissured.

204

BROADLEAVED SIMPLE

Weeping Willow
Salix x sepulcralis ‘Chrysocoma’ (Salicaceae)
PALE

grey-brown, the bark is marked with shallow fissures as the tree ages.

This deciduous, spreading tree has a rounded crown and long, pendulous yellow shoots. The alternate, slender, finely toothed leaves end in long, tapered points. Slightly silky at first, they turn smooth, bright green above and blue-green beneath. The flowers are borne in catkins and are mostly male with yellow anthers, but some are partially or completely female, with green flowers. The fruit is a small green capsule, 3mm long, which opens to release fluffy white seeds.

weeping habit

catkin to 7.5cm long

leaf to 12cm long

NOTE
HEIGHT 20m. SPREAD 25m. BARK Pale grey-brown and fissured. FLOWERING TIME Spring. OCCURRENCE Known only in cultivation. SIMILAR SPECIES The species is a hybrid of White Willow (p.201) and

S. babylonica. Although the latter was at one time grown in Europe, it has largely been replaced by Weeping Willow.

Among the most commonly grown weeping trees, this is a familiar sight, particularly by water. Often planted in small gardens where it becomes too large.

BROADLEAVED SIMPLE

205

Empress Tree
Paulownia tomentosa (Scrophulariaceae)
The deciduous Empress Tree is broadly columnar to rounded and has very stout shoots that are hairy when young. The opposite leaves are large and oval, with a heart-shaped base and pointed tip, and often shallowly five-lobed. Dark green and velvety above, they are densely covered with sticky hairs beneath. Borne in large, upright clusters at the ends of shoots, the bell-shaped, Foxglovelike, fragrant, pale purple flowers open from buds formed the previous year.
broadly columnar to rounded habit
EGG-SHAPED,

pointed fruit are borne in clusters, and ripen from green to brown.

leaf to 30cm long

flower to 5cm long

fruit to 5cm long

HEIGHT 15m. SPREAD 12m. BARK Grey and smooth with conspicuous lenticels; cracking with age to

NOTE It is the clusters of pale brown, felted flower buds and persistent brown fruit that help distinguish this tree in winter.

reveal broad, pale orange-brown fissures.
FLOWERING TIME Spring. OCCURRENCE Cultivated in parks and gardens; native to

China and Korea. SIMILAR SPECIES Indian Bean Tree (p.114), which has leaves arranged in threes on the shoots, and very different flowers and fruit.

206

BROADLEAVED SIMPLE

Snowdrop Tree
Halesia monticola (Styracaceae)
WINGED green fruit, up to 5cm long, which end in a slender point, hang downwards from the stem; they ripen to brown.

The deciduous Snowdrop Tree has alternate, finely toothed, oval to oblong leaves, which end in a tapered point. Dark green above and paler beneath, they are hairy when young. The bell-shaped, white or pink-tinged flowers have four lobes and hang from the shoots in small clusters as the young leaves emerge.

conical to broadly columnar habit

HEIGHT 15m. SPREAD 10m. BARK Grey-brown; deeply furrowed on

older trees.
FLOWERING TIME Spring. OCCURRENCE Cultivated; native to S.E. USA. SIMILAR SPECIES Japanese Snowbell

leaf to 20cm long flower to 2cm long

(right), which has shorter leaves and does not have winged fruit.

Epaulette Tree
Pterostyrax hispida (Styracaceae)
Conical when young, the deciduous Epaulette Tree spreads with age. The alternate, oblong leaves have a finely toothed margin and pointed tip; they are bright green above and grey-green beneath. Small, fragrant white flowers have conspicuous stamens and are borne in large, hanging clusters up to 25cm long. The small, ribbed, brown fruit are up to 8mm long and are covered in bristly hairs.
spreading habit
DROOPING

clusters of bell-shaped white flowers have a distinctive fan-shaped arrangement.

leaf to 20cm long

flower to 6mm long

HEIGHT 10m. SPREAD 10m. BARK Grey-brown, fissured. FLOWERING TIME Early summer. OCCURRENCE Cultivated; native to China

and Japan. SIMILAR SPECIES None – its fan-shaped flower clusters and bristly, ribbed fruit make it distinctive.

BROADLEAVED SIMPLE

207

Japanese Snowbell
Styrax japonicus (Styracaceae)
A deciduous tree, the Japanese Snowbell often has a short trunk and branches that emerge low down. Its alternate, oval leaves are tapered at the base and end in a pointed tip; they have a finely toothed margin. Glossy, dark green above, they may turn red or yellow in autumn. The slightly fragrant flowers have five lobes and yellow anthers and are usually white, although some forms have pink flowers. The grey-green fruit are egg-shaped and about 1cm long.
BELL-SHAPED, white or pink-tinged flowers hang from slender stalks in clusters beneath the branches.

broadly spreading habit

leaf to 10cm long flower to 1.5cm long

NOTE The Japanese Snowbell is the most popular of this large family of Asian and American trees. It is an excellent small tree for a woodland garden.
HEIGHT 10m. SPREAD 15m. BARK Dark grey-brown and smooth; brownish fissures and ridges on old trees. FLOWERING TIME Early summer. OCCURRENCE Cultivated (in parks and gardens); native to China, Japan, and Korea. SIMILAR SPECIES Snowdrop Tree (left), which has winged fruit and longer leaves.

BARK Dark purple to black. Its slender young shoots are densely covered with tiny.W. naturalized in S. which has flowers with four petals. Europe. The fruit are inconspicuous. bright green leaves. this species has scale-like. FLOWERING TIME Spring. slender clusters. Borne in clusters from the previous year’s shoots. SPREAD 6m.E. sometimes summer from new shoots. flower cluster to 5cm long HEIGHT 5m. FOUR-PETALLED. native to S. bright green leaves up to habit 4mm long. it is planted and sometimes naturalized elsewhere. OCCURRENCE Coastal salt marshes. the flowers are only 2mm long. spreading habit flower clusters to 5cm long HEIGHT 7m. TINY Spreading and deciduous. tiny. BARK Brown to purple-brown. The tiny flower petals often persist after flowering. from the old shoots. very slender clusters. Europe. it can be rather difficult to distinguish. pale pink flowers are borne in dense. often branching low or a shrub. which has flowers with five petals. The fruit are inconspicuous. mostly uncommon species of Tamarix in Europe. Tamarix parviflora Tamarix parviflora (Tamaricaceae) The long and arching branches of this tree or shrub are often produced low down. SIMILAR SPECIES T. The slender young shoots are densely covered with tiny. SPREAD 6m. native to S.208 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Tamarix africana Tamarix africana (Tamaricaceae) five-petalled white or pale pink flowers are borne in dense. scale-like leaves up to 4mm long. parviflora (below). africana (above). FLOWERING TIME Spring. England. scalespreading to shrubby like. One of several. SIMILAR SPECIES T. OCCURRENCE Hedgerows and river banks. .

this tree is only found in areas with acidic soils. FLOWERING TIME Summer. This species is very distinctive in its bark and flowers. this tree only grows in areas with lime-free soil. BARK Red-brown. about 2cm long. OCCURRENCE Cultivated in parks and gardens. The oval. leaf to 10cm long flower 6cm wide redbrown bark HEIGHT 15m. tapered points. They are dark green and smooth above. the latter falling intact from the tree. Like the related Camellia. native to Japan and Korea. orange. .BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 209 Stewartia pseudocamellia Stewartia pseudocamellia (Theaceae) Conical when young. or red in autumn. finely toothed leaves end in short. SIMILAR SPECIES None – some other species in this genus are occasionally grown in gardens but much less commonly. conical to broadly columnar habit CAMELLIA-LIKE and white. flaking conspicuously to leave grey and NOTE Closely related to the more common evergreen. red-brown capsule. pink patches. and turn yellow. each flower has numerous bright yellow stamens. SPREAD 10m. smooth or hairy beneath. this deciduous tree becomes broadly columnar with age. and five wavy-edged petals joined at the base. The fruit is a woody. shrubby camellias seen in gardens.

hanging clusters at the base of which are single. are heart-shaped at the base.210 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Small-leaved Lime Tilia cordata (Tiliaceae) FRAGRANT pale yellow flowers. BARK Smooth and grey. Several selections of narrow or conical habit are grown in gardens. open in small. abruptly tapered point. The rounded. with green undersides. Unlike other limes. alternate leaves have a sharply toothed margin. FLOWERING TIME Summer. often on limestone. SPREAD 20m. throughout Europe. broadly columnar habit leaf to 8cm long HEIGHT 30m. Broad-leaved Lime (right). greygreen fruit are about 1.2cm long. turning yellow in autumn. conspicuous yellowgreen bracts. The leaves are smooth below with conspicuous tufts of brown hairs in the leaf axils. which has leaves covered with soft hairs beneath. The Small-leaved Lime is a large. and end in a short. which has leaves NOTE This species is one of the parents of the Common Lime (right). . 2cm wide. OCCURRENCE Woods. They are dark green above and blue-green beneath. furrowed with age. The rounded. this tree is usually without or with few suckers at the base. SIMILAR SPECIES Common Lime (right). deciduous tree with a broadly columnar head.

SPREAD 20m. SIMILAR SPECIES Common Lime (above). and Small-leaved Lime (left). flower to 2cm wide HEIGHT 40m. alternate leaves are sharply toothed and end broadly in a short point. The rounded to broadly oval. The alternate leaves are dark green above. Broad-leaved Lime (below). has blue-green leaf undersides. Its young shoots are usually covered with soft white hairs. and similar to those of the Small-leaved Lime (left). leaves turn yellow in autumn ROUNDED to broadly oval. both of which have leaves with smoother undersides. this large. OCCURRENCE Woods of Europe.2cm long. deciduous tree. They are dark columnar habit green above. leaf to 12cm long flower to 2cm wide HEIGHT 30m. OCCURRENCE Woodlands of Europe. and is often seen with numerous suckers at the base. has hairy leaf undersides. also cultivated. deciduous tree is broadly columnar in habit. SIMILAR SPECIES Small-leaved Lime (left). shallow fissures with age. shallowly fissured with age. The fragrant flowers and fruit are similar to those of Small-leaved Lime (left). FLOWERING TIME Summer. FLOWERING TIME Early spring.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 211 Common Lime Tilia x europaea (Tiliaceae) A hybrid between Small-leaved Lime (left) and Broad-leaved Lime (below). with a broadly columnar head. Broad-leaved Lime Tilia platyphyllos (Tiliaceae) One of the parents of Common Lime (above). may sometimes have many suckers at the base. . BARK Grey-brown. except for the tufts of hair in the axils. leaf to 10cm long EGG-SHAPED grey-green fruit are 1. green and smooth beneath except for tufts of hairs in the axils of the veins. and usually softly hairy on both sides. SPREAD 20m. this vigorous and large. the leaves are sharply toothed and end in a short point. BARK Grey. paler beneath.

the fruit are rounded to egg-shaped. The alternate leaves are dark green above and are covered with silvery hairs beneath. SIMILAR SPECIES None – it is the silvery hairs of the leaves and green bract shoots that distinguish Silver Lime from other European species. The very fragrant. broadly columnar habit NOTE The species is frequently planted in streets and parks. hence its common name. at the base of which is a conspicuous pale green bract.212 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Silver Lime Tilia tomentosa (Tiliaceae) ROUNDED leaves are often unequal at the base. The green fruit are up to 1. with long-stalked leaves and drooping branches. SPREAD 15m. It is a deciduous tree with a broadly columnar habit. OCCURRENCE Woods of S. Weeping Silver Lime (T. Woody and grey-green. The young shoots of the Silver Lime have a dense covering of silvery hairs. BARK Grey.2cm long. five-petalled yellow flowers are borne in clusters. growing shallowly fissured with age. flower to 2cm wide leaf to 12cm long HEIGHT 25m. . tapered point. up to ten together.E.to late summer. leaf margins are sharply toothed and sometimes slightly lobed. tomentosa ‘Petiolaris’). is particularly common. Europe. and end in a short. FLOWERING TIME Mid.

and can commonly be seen planted in streets and squares in the Mediterranean region. The alternate. HEIGHT 20m. and without petals. the males and females separate on the same tree. The rounded. Tiny. green. rocky areas of S. leaf to 15cm long NOTE This tree thrives in warm. BARK Pale grey and smooth. broadly columnar head NARROW oval leaves are dark green and rough to the touch above. and often oblique at the base. SIMILAR SPECIES Some species of elms. edible fruit. the flowers open singly or in small clusters in the axils of the leaves as these are expanding. up to 1cm wide.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 213 Nettle Tree Celtis australis (Ulmaceae) This is a deciduous tree with a broadly columnar to spreading head. dry areas of Europe. are three-veined and slenderpointed at the tip. but these lack the threeveined leaves and berry-like fruit of Nettle Tree. berry-like. oval leaves have a sharply-toothed margin. FLOWERING TIME Spring. SPREAD 20m. OCCURRENCE Woods and thickets in dry. Europe. grey-green and softly hairy beneath. ripen from green to black. .

2cm long. They are dark green and smooth or slightly rough above. White Elm Ulmus laevis (Ulmaceae) The young shoots on this deciduous tree are covered in soft grey hairs. OCCURRENCE Wooded valleys in C. white-haired fruit make it distinct. with sharp teeth that are larger towards the tip. The flowers are followed by winged green fruit. Tiny flowers with red anthers open on bare shoots. BARK Grey-brown and smooth. spreading head SLENDER-STALKED. winged. and are followed by the fruit. with a short stalk. are edged with hairs. this large. The alternate. and grey with hairs beneath. SPREAD 25m. OCCURRENCE Woods and hedgerows throughout Europe. Europe. deciduous tree develops a rounded head with age and has rough young shoots. pendulous. open. becoming ridged in old trees. FLOWERING TIME Late winter. becoming furrowed with age. green fruit to 1. Dutch Elm (U. oval leaves have unequal halves. SIMILAR SPECIES None. The alternate. Conical when young. rounded head fruit to 2cm long leaf to 15cm long HEIGHT 30m. x hollandica) is a hybrid between Wych Elm and Field Elm.214 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Wych Elm Ulmus glabra (Ulmaceae) TINY flowers with red anthers open on the bare shoots in late winter before the leaves emerge. FLOWERING TIME Late winter. SIMILAR SPECIES None – its slender-stalked. broadly oval to rounded leaves are sharply toothed and very unequal at the base. . They are dark green and very rough above. SPREAD 25m. leaf to 12cm long HEIGHT 30m. and E. BARK Grey and smooth.

DENSE clusters of tiny flowers with red anthers open on the bare shoots. have seeds positioned above the middle. often planted. OCCURRENCE Woods. English Elm Ulmus procera (Ulmaceae) This deciduous tree with a broadly columnar head usually has suckers at the base. Europe. are green-winged with the seed positioned above the middle. green fruit. They are dark green and habit rough to the touch above and hairy beneath. BARK Pale grey and smooth when young. The habit tree is deciduous. SIMILAR SPECIES English Elm (below). thickets.BROADLEAVED SIMPLE 215 Field Elm Ulmus minor (Ulmaceae) Like other elms. flowers open on bare shoots leaf to 10cm long HEIGHT 30m. which has leaves smooth on the upper side. SPREAD 20m.5cm long. The fruit.5cm long. 1. FLOWERING TIME Late winter. fields. SIMILAR SPECIES Field Elm (above). They are glossy green and smooth above. BARK Grey and smooth when young. . The broadly oval to rounded alternate leaves are sharply toothed with a very broadly columnar unequal base. FLOWERING TIME Late winter. OCCURRENCE Woods. and hedgerows throughout Europe. with a columnar head and has smooth young shoots. columnar paler beneath with hairs only on the veins. which has hairs covering the leaf underside. becoming fissured with age. and shoots which can become corky when a few years old. Winged. and hedgerows of W. SPREAD 20m. to 1. unequal leaf base leaf to 12cm long FLOWERS in tiny clusters have red anthers and open on the bare shoots. HEIGHT 30m. oval leaves of the Field Elm are very unequal at the base and have sharply toothed margins. becoming furrowed with age. the alternate.

native to N. rounded leaf to fruit 6mm wide. FLOWERING TIME Spring. SPREAD 20m. Caucasian Elm Zelkova carpinifolia (Ulmaceae) This is a deciduous. with the males in clusters. BARK Grey and smooth. They are dark green above. The flowers are tiny and green. this deciduous. paler and hairy beneath. the female flowers are followed by small. low branches leaf to 4cm long HEIGHT 6m. Iran. flaking in orange- brown patches with age. SIMILAR SPECIES Caucasian Elm (below). spreading tree has slender young shoots covered in white hairs. 10cm long broadly columnar habit OBLONG. FLOWERING TIME Spring. The short-stalked. The flowers are tiny and green. OCCURRENCE Cultivated. narrowly oval. alternate leaves are dark green and rough above with hairs along the veins beneath.216 BROADLEAVED SIMPLE Cretan Zelkova Zelkova abelicea (Ulmaceae) SMOOTH. HEIGHT 25m. while the males are in clusters. N. Turkey. alternate leaves have four or five teeth on each side. which has larger leaves with more teeth. ascending branches. OCCURRENCE Rocky mountain slopes of Crete. SIMILAR SPECIES Cretan Zelkova (above). BARK Grey and smooth. usually borne singly. SPREAD 8m or more. Often branching low and sometimes shrubby. oval head of numerous. which has smaller leaves with fewer teeth. rounded fruit about 5mm wide. the females are usually borne singly and followed by small. and the Caucasus. . and turn orangebrown in autumn.E. columnar tree with a short trunk and a dense. The short-stalked. dark green leaves are edged with usually 9–11 pairs of triangular teeth. grey-brown bark has conspicuous narrow bands of lenticels.

Pinnately lobed leaves have lobes. Describes a tree that is leafless for part of the year (usually winter). CATKIN COLUMNAR Taller than broad. PERSISTENT Not falling. ALTERNATE Borne singly. CONE The fruiting structure of conifers. Borne in pairs on opposite sides of the stem. defining a group within a species. SUBSP.g. a fluted or swollen trunk that aids stability in shallow rooting conditions. DECIDUOUS DOUBLE FLOWER Describes a flower with more petals than in the normal wild state. ear- like lobes. Words in italics are defined elsewhere in the glossary. SELECTION see CULTIVAR. broadest above the middle. if any. composed of an anther. An unbranched and often pendulous flower cluster of a single sex.) A naturally occurring variant of a species. with the sepals fused into a short tube. LENTICEL A small pore found on shoots and fruit through which air can pass. two wing petals. e.) A category of classification. branched flower cluster. and denoted by the first part of the scientific name. VARIETAS (abbrev. or other organ. The terminal shoot of a main branch. Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) is one species. MIDRIB The primary. SUBSPECIES (abbrev. coat on a seed. i. rather than leaflets. and usually with an erect upper petal. PANICLE TERMINAL Located at the end of a shoot. stamens. FORM Any variant of a species. PEA-LIKE Describes a flower structure typical of members of the Pea family. RACEME An elongated. SEPAL The usually green parts of a flower outside of the petals. SEMI-EVERGREEN With few leaves retained over winter. but remaining attached to the plant. AXIL The angle between two structures. such as the leaf and stem or the midrib and a small vein. isolated geographically but able to interbreed with others of the same species. BIPINNATE Twice pinnate. EVERGREEN Describes a tree that always bears leaves. BRACT BURR A woody outgrowth on the trunk of some trees. CONICAL OVATE Egg-shaped. STIGMA The female part of the flower that receives the pollen. leaf-like structure found at the base of flowers or in the cone of a conifer. GENUS The male part of the flower that bears the pollen. normally borne on a stalk (filament). NATIVE A classification category defining a group of similar and usually interbreeding plants. usually central. PALMATELY COMPOUND Sepals and petals when they look alike.g. Pinus in Pinus pinea. unbranched flower cluster. NATURALIZED OBOVATE Egg-shaped. COMPOUND BUTTRESSED With Occurring naturally in a particular region. Non-woody. Widest at the bottom. usually used to describe leaves. SIMPLE SPECIES HABIT plant. with the divisions themselves pinnately divided. STIPULE A leaf-like organ at the base of a leaf stalk. and with few. STAMEN Male part of a flower. SUCKERS Shoots arising from below the soil at the base of a tree. vein of a leaf or leaflet. and now forming self-sustaining populations in the wild. TEPALS A small. HERBACEOUS A fleshy. . Fan-shaped and divided into leaflets.GLOSSARY 217 Glossary Many of the terms defined here are illustrated in the general introduction (pp. with parallel sides. VARIEGATED CULTIVAR A selection made by humans and maintained in cultivation. in two vertical rows or spirally.e. dying back at the end of the growing season and overwintering by means of undeground rootstocks. often brightly coloured. ANTHER A category in classification consisting of a group of closely related species. introduced by human activity into a region. VAR. A cross between two different species. broadest towards the base. An elongated. with stalked flowers. Having more than one colour. Covered with a thin blue-white layer which can be rubbed off. stem. arranged in this manner. A non-native plant. tapering towards the top. below species. The shape of a PINNATE Describes a compound leaf with the leaflets arranged as in a feather. HYBRID LEADING SHOOT Undivided. 8 –11). e. collectively called the calyx. with stalked flowers. OPPOSITE Describes a leaf divided into leaflets. BLOOMY LEAFLET One of the divisions that make up a compound leaf. ARIL AURICLED With small. and two lower petals forming a keel.

Japanese 62 Apple Cultivated 168 Japanese Crab 169 Wild 171 Apricot 174 Aquifoliaceae 105–107 Aralia elata 62 spinosa 62 Araliaceae 62 Araucaria araucana 13 Araucariaceae 13 Arbor-vitae.218 INDEX Index A Abele 197 Abies alba 20 borisii-regis 21 bornmuelleriana 25 cephalonica 21 concolor 22 grandis 22 koreana 23 lasiocarpa 23 var. arizonica 23 nebrodensis 24 nordmanniana 25 pinsapo 26 procera 27 Acacia dealbata 71 Acer campestre 91 capillipes 92 cappadocicum 92 davidii 93 granatense 95 griseum 59 heldreichii 94 subsp. Red 66 Buckthorn 160 Sea 126 Bull Bay 150 Bullace 179 Buxaceae 115 Buxus balearica 115 sempervirens 115 C Calabrian Pine 35 California Redwood 18 Callery Pear 187 Calocedrus decurrens 48 Campbell’s Magnolia 149 Canary Island Palm 82 Canary Island Pine 35 Canoe Birch 111 Cappadocian Maple 92 Caprifoliaceae 63 Caragana arborescens 72 ‘Lorbergii’ 72 Carob 72 Carpinus betulus 121 orientalis 122 . rugosa 109 Alpine Laburnum 73 Amelanchier lamarckii 161 Anacardiaceae 60–61 Angelica. Bull 150 Bay Laurel 146 Bay Willow 203 Beach Pine 37 Bead Tree 76 Bean. 121–123 Bhutan Pine 42 Bignoniaceae 62. trautvetteri 94 hyrcanum 95 japonicum 95 lobelii 96 monspessulanum 97 negundo 59 opalus 97 palmatum 98 pensylvanicum 99 platanoides 100 pseudoplatanus 101 rubrum 102 rufinerve 102 saccharinum 103 saccharum 103 sempervirens 104 tataricum 104 Aceraceae 59. Chinese 56 Arbutus andrachne 127 x andrachnoides 127 unedo 128 Arecaceae 82–83 Arizona Cypress 51 Ash Caucasian 78 Common 79 Flowering 80 Green 81 Manna 80 Narrow-leaved 78 Red 81 White 77 Aspen 200 Atlas Cedar 27 Austrian Pine 39 Azarole 162 B Bald Cypress 19 Balearic Box 115 Balkan Maple 95 Bay. Mount Etna 147 Broussonetia papyrifera 152 Buckeye. Indian 114 Beech Common 131 Oriental 131 Betula alleghaniensis 110 ermanii 110 lenta 110 nigra 111 papyrifera 111 pendula 112 populifolia 113 pubescens 113 utilis 114 Betulaceae 107–114. 114 Birch Canoe 111 Downy 113 Erman 110 Grey 113 Himalayan 114 Paper 111 River 111 Silver 112 Sweet 110 Yellow 110 Bird Cherry 183 Bitternut 67 Black Locust 75 Black Mulberry 153 Black Oak 144 Black Poplar 199 Black Walnut 68 Blackthorn 185 Blue Douglas Fir 44 Blue Gum 154 Blue Spruce 34 Bosnian Pine 38 Box Balearic 115 Common 115 broadleaved compound 58–89 Broad-leaved Lime 212 broadleaved simple 90–216 Broom. 91–104 Aesculus x carnea 64 hippocastanum 65 indica 66 pavia 66 Ailanthus altissima 89 Albizia julibrissin 71 Alder 108 Buckthorn 161 Grey 109 Italian 107 Speckled 109 Aleppo Pine 37 Algerian Oak 133 Almond 179 Almond-leaved Pear 187 Alnus cordata 107 glutinosa 108 incana 109 Alnus cont.

48–57 x Cupressocyparis leylandii 50 Cupressus arizonica 51 var. 146–147 Fagaceae 130–144 Fagus orientalis 131 sylvatica 131 Ficus carica 152 Field Elm 215 . glabra 51 lusitanica 51 macrocarpa 52 sempervirens 53 Cydonia oblonga 167 Cypress Arizona 51 Bald 19 Hinoki 49 Italian 53 Lawson 48 Leyland 50 Mexican 51 Monterey 52 Nootka 50 Sawara 49 Smooth Arizona 51 Swamp 19 D Danewort 63 Date Palm 82 Date Plum 125 Davidia involucrata 120 Dawn Redwood 17 Deodar 28 Devil’s Walking Stick 62 Diospyros kaki 125 lotus 125 Dogwood Flowering 118 Pacific 119 Douglas Fir 44 Dove Tree 120 Downy Birch 113 Downy Oak 140 Dunkeld Larch 30 Dutch Elm 215 E Eared Willow 202 Eastern Hemlock 45 Ebenaceae 125 Elaeagnaceae 126 Elaeagnus angustifolia 126 Elder 63 Box 59 Elm Caucasian 216 Dutch 215 English 215 Field 215 White 214 Wych 214 Empress Tree 205 English Elm 215 English Oak 141 Epaulette Tree 206 Erica arborea 129 australis 129 lusitanica 129 Ericaceae 127–129 Eriobotrya japonica 166 Erman Birch 110 Eucalyptus camaldulensis 154 dalrympleana 155 globulus 154 gunnii 155 viminalis 155 Euonymus europaeus 116 latifolius 116 European Larch 29 F Fabaceae 71–76.INDEX 219 Carya cordiformis 67 ovata 67 Castanea sativa 130 Catalpa bignonioides 114 Caucasian Ash 78 Caucasian Elm 216 Caucasian Fir 25 Cedar Atlas 27 of Goa 51 Incense 48 Japanese 14 of Lebanon 28 Pencil 56 Western Red 57 Cedar of Goa 51 Cedar of Lebanon 28 Cedrus atlantica 27 deodara 28 libani 28 Celastraceae 116 Celtis australis 213 Ceratonia siliqua 72 Cercidiphyllaceae 117 Cercidiphyllum japonicum 117 Cercis canadensis 146 siliquastrum 147 Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 48 nootkatensis 50 obtusa 49 pisifera 49 Cherry Bird 183 Cornelian 119 Fuji 186 Rum 184 Sargent’s 184 Sour 177 Spring 186 St Lucie 182 Tibetan 185 Wild 175 Cherry Laurel 181 Cherry Plum 176 Chestnut Horse 65 Indian Horse 66 Red Horse 64 Spanish 130 Sweet 130 Chile Pine 13 Chinese Arbor-vitae 56 Chinese Fir 14 Chinese Juniper 54 Chinese Tulip Tree 148 Chinese Wingnut 70 Chusan Palm 83 Cider Gum 155 Coast Redwood 18 Cockspur Thorn 162. Japanese 180 Crab Apple Hybrids 170 Crack Willow 203 Crataegus azarolus 162 crus-galli 162. 164 laciniata 163 x lavalleei 164 laevigata 163 mexicana 164 monogyna 165 x persimilis 162 rhipidophylla 166 Cretan Maple 104 Cretan Zelkova 216 Cryptomeria japonica 14 Cucumber Tree 149 Cultivated Apple 168 Cunninghamia lanceolata 14 Cupressaceae 14–16. 164 Colorado White Fir 22 Common Ash 79 Common Beech 131 Common Box 115 Common Hazel 122 Common Holly 106 Common Juniper 15 Common Laburnum 74 Common Lime 211 Common Pear 188 conifers with needles 12–46 conifers with scales 12–57 Cork Oak 143 Corkbark Fir 23 Cornaceae 118–120 Cornelian Cherry 119 Cornus florida 118 kousa 118 mas 119 nuttallii 119 Corsican Pine 39 Corylaceae 124 Corylus avellana 122 colurna 123 maxima 123 Cottonwood 199 Crab Apple.

220 INDEX Field Maple 91 Fig 152 Filbert 123 Fir Blue Douglas 44 Caucasian 25 Chinese 14 Colorado White 22 Corkbark 23 Douglas 44 Giant 22 Greek 21 King Boris 21 Korean 23 Noble 27 Sicilian 24 Silver 20 Spanish 26 Subalpine 23 Flowering Ash 80 Flowering Dogwood 118 Fraxinus americana 77 angustifolia 78 subsp. oxycarpa 78 excelsior 79 ornus 80 pallisiae 80 pennsylvanica 81 Fuji Cherry 186 Fullmoon Maple 95 Heath Spanish 129 Tree 129 Hedge Maple 91 Heldreich Maple 94 Hemlock Eastern 45 Western 45 Hickory. Common 15 Phoenicean 55 Prickly 16 Spanish 55 Stinking 54 Syrian 16 Juniperus chinensis 54 communis 15 drupacea 16 foetidissima 54 oxycedrus 16 phoenicea 55 thurifera 55 virginiana 56 K Kaki 125 Katsura Tree 117 Kermes Oak 134 King Boris Fir 21 Koelreuteria paniculata 88 Korean Fir 23 L Laburnum alpinum 73 anagyroides 74 x watereri 75 Laburnum Alpine 73 Common 74 Voss’s 75 Larch Dunkeld 30 European 29 Japanese 30 Laurel Bay 146 Cherry 181 Portugal 181 Larix decidua 29 kaempferi 30 x marschlinsii 30 Lauraceae 145–146 Laurus azorica 145 nobilis 146 Lawson Cypress 48 Leguminosae 71–76. Persian 145 Italian Alder 107 Italian Cypress 53 Italian Maple 97 J Jacaranda 62 Jacaranda mimosifolia 62 Japanese Angelica Tree 62 Japanese Pagoda Tree 76 Japanese Cedar 14 Japanese Cherries 180 Japanese Crab Apple 169 Japanese Larch 30 Japanese Maple 98 Japanese Privet 156 Japanese Red Pine 43 Japanese Rowan 84 Japanese Snowbell 207 Japanese Strawberry Tree 118 Japanese Walnut 68 Judas Tree 147 Juglandaceae 67–70 Juglans ailantifolia 68 nigra 68 regia 69 Juniper Chinese 54 H Halesia monticola 206 Hamamelidaceae 144–145 Hawthorn 165 Midland 163 Hazel Common 122 Turkish 123 . Shagbark 67 Highclere Holly 105 Himalayan Birch 114 Hinoki Cypress 49 Hippocastanaceae 64–66 Hippophae rhamnoides 126 Holly Common 106 Highclere 105 Madeira 107 Holm Oak 137 Honey Locust 73 Hop Hornbeam 124 Hornbeam 121 Hop 124 Oriental 122 Horse Chestnut 65 Indian 66 Red 64 Hungarian Oak 136 Hybrid Black Poplar 198 Hybrid Strawberry Tree 127 Hybrid Wingnut 70 Juniper cont. 146–147 Lentisc 60 Leyland Cypress 50 Ligustrum japonicum 156 lucidum 156 Lilac 157 Lime Broad-leaved 211 Common 211 Silver 212 Small-leaved 210 Liquidambar styraciflua 144 Liriodendron chinense 148 tulipifera 148 G Gean 175 Genista aetnensis 147 Giant Fir 22 Giant Redwood 18 Ginkgo biloba 13 Ginkgoaceae 13 Gleditsia triacanthos 73 Goat Willow 202 Golden Rain Tree 74 Grecian Strawberry Tree 127 Greek Fir 21 Green Ash 81 Grey Alder 109 Grey Birch 113 Grey Poplar 198 Grey-budded Snake-bark Maple 102 Gum Blue 154 Cider 155 Mountain 155 Red 154 Ribbon 155 Sweet 144 I Ilex x altaclerensis 105 aquifolium 106 perado 107 Incense Cedar 48 Indian Horse Chestnut 66 Ironwood.

Campbell’s 149 Magnoliaceae 148–151 Maidenhair Tree 13 Malus dasyphylla 168 domestica 168. 171 Manna Ash 80 Maple Balkan 95 Cappadocian 92 Cretan 104 Field 91 Fullmoon 95 Grey-budded Snakebark 102 Hedge 91 Heldreich 94 Italian 97 Japanese 98 Lobel’s 96 Montpelier 97 Norway 100 Paperbark 59 Père David’s 93 Red 102 Red Bud 94 Silver 103 Snake-bark 92 Spanish 95 Sugar 103 Tatarian 104 Maritime Pine 40 Mastic Tree 60 Medlar 172 Melia azedarach 76 Meliaceae 76 Mespilus germanica 172 Metasequoia glyptostroboides 17 Mexican Cypress 51 Midland Hawthorn 163 Monkey Puzzle 13 Monterey Cypress 52 Monterey Pine 42 Montpelier Maple 97 Moosewood 99 Moraceae 152–153 Morus alba 153 nigra 153 Mount Etna Broom 147 Mountain Gum 155 Mountain Pine 38 Mulberry Black 153 Paper 152 White 153 Myrtaceae 154–155 P Pacific Dogwood 119 Pagoda. 171 x floribunda 169 hupehensis 169 hybrids 170 pumila 171 sylvestris 171 trilobata 168. 156–157 Oleaster 126 Olive 156 Oriental Beech 131 Oriental Hornbeam 122 Oriental Plane 159 Oriental Spruce 33 Oriental Thorn 163 Ostrya carpinifolia 124 . 173 villosa 174 Picea abies 31 omorika 32 orientalis 33 pungens 34 sitchensis 34 Pin Oak 138 Pinaceae 20–45 Pine Aleppo 37 Austrian 39 Beach 37 Bhutan 42 Bosnian 38 Calabrian 35 Canary Island 35 Chile 13 Corsican 39 Japanese Red 43 Lodgepole 37 Macedonian 40 Maritime 40 Monterey 42 Mountain 38 Scots 43 Swiss Stone 36 N Narrow-leaved Ash 78 Nettle Tree 213 Noble Fir 27 Nootka Cypress 50 Norway Maple 100 Norway Spruce 31 Nothofagus alpina 132 obliqua 132 Nyssa sylvatica 120 O Oak Algerian 133 Black 144 Cork 143 Downy 140 English 141 Holm 137 Hungarian 136 Kermes 134 Lucombe 136 Macedonian 143 Pin 138 Portuguese 135 Pyrenean 140 Red 142 Scarlet 135 Sessile 139 Turkey 134 Valonia 138 Olea europaea 156 Oleaceae 77–81. 173 serratifolia 172. Japanese 76 Palm Canary Island 82 Chusan 83 Date 82 Petticoat 83 Windmill 83 Palmae 82–83 Paper Birch 111 Paper Mulberry 152 Paperbark Maple 59 Parrotia persica 145 Paulownia tomentosa 205 Pea Tree 72 Peach 183 Pear Almond-leaved 187 Callery 187 Common 188 Plymouth 189 Silver 190 Snow 189 Wild 190 Pencil Cedar 56 Pepper Tree 61 Père David’s Maple 93 Persian Ironwood 145 Petticoat Palm 83 Phillyrea latifolia 157 Phoenicean Juniper 55 Phoenix canariensis 82 dactylifera 82 theophrasti 82 Photinia davidiana 172 x fraseri 172.INDEX 221 Lobel’s Maple 96 Locust Black 75 Honey 73 London Plane 159 Lodgepole Pine 37 Loquat 166 Lucombe Oak 136 M Macedonian Oak 143 Macedonian Pine 40 Madeira Holly 107 Magnolia acuminata 149 campbellii 149 denudata 151 grandiflora 150 kobus 150 liliiflora 151 x loebneri 150 macrophylla 151 obovata 151 officinalis 151 x soulangeana 151 wieseneri 151 Magnolia. 171 florentina 168.

161–196 Rowan 84 Japanese 84 Rum Cherry 184 S Salicaceae 197–204 Salix alba 201 aurita 202 babylonica 204 caprea 202 daphnoides 202 fragilis 203 pentandra 203 x sepulcralis ‘Chrysocoma’ 204 Sambucus ebulus 63 nigra 63 racemosa 63 Sapindaceae 88 Sargent’s Cherry 184 Sawara Cypress 49 Scarlet Oak 135 Scarlet Willow 201 Schinus molle 61 Scots Pine 43 Scrophulariaceae 205 Sea Buckthorn 126 Sequoia sempervirens 18 Sequoiadendron giganteum 18 Serbian Spruce 32 Service Tree 85 Bastard 86 Wild 196 Service Tree of Fontainebleau 194 Sessile Oak 139 Shagbark Hickory 67 Sicilian Fir 24 Silver Birch 112 Silver Fir 20 Silver Lime 212 Q Quercus canariensis 133 cerris 134 coccifera 134 coccinea 135 faginea 135 frainetto 136 x hispanica 136 ilex 137 macrolepis 138 palustris 138 petraea 139 pubescens 140 pyrenaica 140 robur 141 rotundifolia 142 rubra 142 suber 143 trojana 143 velutina 144 Quince 167 R Rauli 132 Red Ash 81 Red Bud Maple 94 . Umbrella 41 Weymouth 42 Pink Siris 71 Pinus brutia 35 canariensis 35 cembra 36 contorta 37 var.222 INDEX Pine cont. domestica 178 dulcis 179 elaeagnifolia 190 incisa 186 insititia 179 laurocerasus 181 lusitanica 181 mahaleb 182 padus 183 pendula 186 persica 183 pyraster 190 sargentii 184 serotina 184 Prunus serrula 185 spinosa 185 x subhirtella 186 Pseudotsuga menziesii 44 var. uncinata 38 nigra 39 nigra subsp. glauca 44 Pterocarya fraxinifolia 70 x rehderiana 70 stenoptera 70 Pterostyrax hispida 206 Punica granatum 160 Punicaceae 160 Pyrenean Oak 140 Pyrus amygdaliformis 187 bourgaeana 190 calleryana 187 communis 188 cordata 189 elaeagnifolia 189. 190 nivalis 189 pyraster 190 salicifolia ‘Pendula’ 190 Red Buckeye 66 Red Gum 154 Red Horse Chestnut 64 Red Maple 102 Red Oak 142 Redbud 146 Redwood California 18 Coast 18 Dawn 17 Giant 18 Rhamnaceae 160–161 Rhamnus cathartica 160 frangula 161 Rhus glabra 61 typhina 61 Ribbon Gum 155 River Birch 111 Robinia pseudoacacia 75 Roble 132 Rock Whitebeam 196 Rosaceae 84–87. laricio 39 peuce 40 pinaster 40 pinea 41 radiata 42 sibrica 36 strobus 42 sylvestris 43 wallichiana 42 Pistacia lentiscus 60 terebinthus 60 Pittosporaceae 158 Pittosporum tenuifolium 158 Plane London 159 Oriental 159 Platanaceae 159 Platanus x hispanica 159 orientalis 159 Platycladus orientalis 56 Plum 178 Plymouth Pear 189 Pomegranate 160 Poplar Black 199 Grey 198 Hybrid Black 198 White 197 Yellow 148 Populus alba 197 x canadensis 198 x canescens 198 deltoides 199 nigra 199 tremula 200 Portugal Laurel 181 Portuguese Oak 135 Prickly Juniper 16 Pride of India 88 Privet Japanese 156 Tree 156 Prunus 180 armeniaca 174 avium ‘Plena’ 175 bourgaeana 190 cerasifera 176 cerasus 177 cocomilia 178 Prunus cont. latifolia 37 densiflora 43 halepensis 37 heldreichii 38 mugo subsp.

Japanese 207 Snowdrop Tree 206 Snowy Mespilus 161 Sophora japonica 76 Sorbus aria 191 aucuparia 84 austriaca 192 commixta 84 domestica 85 graeca 192 hybrida 86 intermedia 193 latifolia 194 meinichii 86 mougeotii 195 norvegica 195 rupicola 196 teodorii 86 x thuringiaca 87 torminalis 196 umbellata 192 Sour Cherry 177 Spanish Chestnut 130 Spanish Fir 26 Spanish Heath 129 Spanish Juniper 55 Spanish Maple 95 Speckled Alder 109 Spindle Tree 116 Broad-leaved 116 Spring Cherry 186 Spruce Blue 34 Norway 31 Oriental 33 Serbian 32 Sitka 34 St Lucie Cherry 182 Stag’s Horn Sumach 61 Stewartia pseudocamellia 209 Stinking Juniper 54 Strawberry Tree 128 Grecian 127 Hybrid 127 Japanese 118 Styracaceae 206–207 Styrax japonicus 207 Subalpine Fir 23 Sugar Maple 103 Sumach Smooth 61 Stag’s Horn 61 Swamp Cypress 19 Swedish Whitebeam 193 Sweet Birch 110 Sweet Chestnut 130 Sweet Gum 144 Swiss Stone Pine 36 Sycamore 101 Syrian Juniper 16 Syringa vulgaris 157 T Taiwania cryptomerioide 14 Tamaricaceae 208 Tamarix aricana 208 parviflora 208 Tatarian Maple 104 Taxaceae 46 Taxodiaceae 17–19 Taxodium distichum 19 Taxus baccata 46 Theaceae 209 Thorn Cockspur 162 Oriental 163 Thuja plicata 57 Tibetan Cherry 185 Tilia cordata 210 x europaea 211 platyphyllos 211 tomentosa 212 Tiliaceae 210–212 Trachycarpus fortunei 83 Tree Heath 129 Tree of Heaven 89 Tree Privet 156 Tsuga canadensis 45 heterophylla 45 Tulip Tree 148 Chinese 148 Tupelo 120 Turkey Oak 134 Turkish Hazel 123 Turpentine Tree 60 Wellingtonia 18 Western Hemlock 45 Western Red Cedar 57 Weymouth Pine 42 White Ash 77 White Elm 214 White Mulberry 153 White Poplar 197 White Willow 201 Whitebeam 191 Swedish 193 Wild Apple 171 Wild Cherry 175 Wild Pear 190 Wild Service Tree 196 Willow Bay 203 Crack 203 Eared 202 Goat 202 Scarlet 201 Violet 202 Weeping 204 White 201 Windmill Palm 83 Wingnut 70 Hybrid 70 Chinese 70 Wych Elm 214 Y Yellow Birch 110 Yellow Poplar 148 Yew 46 Z Zelkova abelicea 216 carpinifolia 216 Zelkova.INDEX 223 Silver Maple 103 Silver Pear 190 Silver Wattle 71 Simaroubaceae 89 Siris. Silver 71 Weeping Willow 204 . Pink 71 Sitka Spruce 34 Small-leaved Lime 210 Smooth Arizona Cypress 51 Smooth Sumach 61 Snake-bark Maple 92 Snow Pear 189 Snowbell. Cretan 216 U Ulmaceae 213–216 Ulmus glabra 214 x hollandica 214 laevis 214 minor 215 procera 215 Umbrella Pine 41 V Valonia Oak 138 Violet Willow 202 Voss’s Laburnum 75 W Walnut 69 Black 68 Japanese 68 Washingtonia filifera 83 Wattle.

127 bl. 166 cbr. 183 cfr. 169 cfr. tl. tl. 23 car. tl. cal. 167 tr. cfl. tl. 135 bcl. tr. 103 tr. 186 c. 143 bl. tl. cfr. 146 bcl. 194 bl. 58 ca. clb. 46 ca. 146 cfl. cfr. 27 cfr. 204 tl. tr. 22 bcl. 183 cal. clb. cfl. 209 tr. . 84 bcr. 192 cfl. 75 cfl. 179 br. tr. 22 cra. 146 tl. cla. 107 cfr. tl. car. 35 bcr. Silvertris: 154 crb. 115 tr. tr. cfr. 96 cl. 148 cb. 16 bcl. cfl. 8 cbl. cfl. 89 cb. cbr. 19 cr. John Ferro Sims: 87 bc. 213 tr. 210 ca. cal. 75 car. tr. 59 br. 104 bl. cfl. car. 190 bl. 97 cra. 147 bcl. 66 cal. cbr. cfl. cfl. tl. John Fielding: 32 cl. 193 tr. E&D Hosking: 94 br. 175 ca. 12 bcl. cb. r = right. 51 bcr. 178 cal. cal. 153 tr. 185 tr. 110 cfl. cal. 173 tr. tr. 95 cra. 185 bl. cla. 11 bc. tl. crb. 53 cr. 81 ca. cfr. cla. cla. 111 bl. 206 br. bl. cfl. 119 cfr. cfr. David Hosking: 142 tl. 132 bcl. 114 cal. 51 car. cfl. 17 cr. 171 tr. 180 tl. Andreas Stieglitz: 107 tr. 199 cla. 163 cfr. 34 br. 123 cal. 42 bcl. cfr. 26 tl. tl. cra. 126 bl. 44 cr. 107 bl. 157 cal. 190 ca. FLPA: 154 bcl. br. cra. 177 c. car. tl. bl. The publishers would like to thank the following for their kind permission to reproduce the photographs: A D Schilling: 10 br. 24 cbl. 65 ca. 64 cr. 153 cla. cra. cbr. 144 br. F Collect: 199 tr. 154 cal. car. cla. 54 cfl. cal. 161 bcr. 37 bcr. 129 cb. 88 tl. tr. 75 bl. tl. 147 cfr. 171 car.224 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley would like to thank Bridget Lloyd-Jones for her help with picture administration and editing. 42 cfl. tl. 149 cla. 20 cl. 138 tr. 29 tr. car. cfr. 72 cal. 178 bl. cfr. 99 ca. cfl. c = centre. 196 bl. 156 bcl. tr. cfl. cra. tr. Howard Rice: 12 br. cb. Keith Rushforth: 71 tr. 29 ca. 106 ca. Ingmar Holmasen: 166 tl. 216 cal. 144 cal. 113 bl. Juliette Wade: 28 br. 154 tl. 39 cfr. 203 tr. tr. tl. 41 ca. 164 ca. 91 ca. tl. 155 bcr. 32 tl. 43 ca. 21 bl. Wardene Weisser: 83 br. tl. 196 car. 28 cfl. 183 tr. 163 tr. 162 cal. cfr.cla. cfr. 140 bcl. Claire Bowers Abbreviations key: a = above. cfl. Jurgen & Christine Sohns: 62 clb. br. 50 tl. 198 tl. bl. 148 tl. tl. 172 bcl. tl. 122 bcl. Alan Outen: 177 tr. tr. car. 154 cbr. 214 tl. 152 ca. 119 bcr. 49 bcr. 71 br. 77 cb. bl. 194 tl. cfl. 143 cbr. PICTURE CREDITS Picture librarians : Richard Dabb. 121 ca. 130 cr. RP Lawrence: 215 cfr. b = bottom. Garden Picture Library Howard Rice: 87 tr. 26 cl. cla. tr. 92 tl. 179 cfr. 210 tl. tl. Heinz Schneider: 10 cfl. 183 br. cra. 182 br. 86 crb. 202 clb. 116 car. 137 cb. tr. 31 cr. 39 cla. Maurice Nimmo: 174 bl. tr. 4. car. 142 cfl. 211 cra. 156 tl. cr. tr. c. cfr. 157 bl. 47 bcr. t = top. Andrew Beckett: 94 tl. 184 tl. Michael Rose: 82 car. David Dixon: 179 cra. 74 tl. tr. 60 cla. ca. ca. 120 bcr. 55 car. 23 bl. 18 br. cbl. cra. Steven Wooster: 174 car. cfr. 212 ca. 23 tr. 14 cal. 102 tl. 195 bl. 36 ca. 203 car. 169 car. tl. tr. 150 cfl. cra. 215 tr. clb. 112 cl. 157 tr. cfl. John Glover: 8 tcl. tr. 47 ca. Jens Schou: 2. 139 tr. 101 ca. tr. 192 cra. Mike J Thomas: 214 cra. 13 car. 15 tr. tr. 92 bl. 45 bl. 175 tr. 34 tl. 140 car. 168 tl. 163 bl. 38 bcl. car. 99 tr. 159 cfr. 184 cal. 111 car. cfr. tr. f = far. 204 ca. 62 tl. cal. car. Neil Fletcher: 10 c. cfr. 12 bl. 86 tl. tl. cfr. 57 cr. 184 bcl. cal. tr. 61 car. bl. 108 ca. car. Bob Gibbons: 179 tr. 46 tl. crb. 159 cla. tl. 207 ca. tl. 115 bl. cra. 60 crb. 42 car. Joseph Strauch: 10 bl. 197 ca. cal. 11 tcl. 56 bcl. tr. tr. 139 ca. tr. cfl. 209 cb. tr. clb. 18 cfl. 160 cra. cfr. tl. KW Fink: 61 bl. 60 bcl. cfr. 203 cfr. 68 cfl. 215 bl. 82 cb. tr. 170 ca. 181 bcr. tr. 192 bcl. cfr. 116 br. 158 ca. Natural Image Bob Gibbons: 83 crb. 33 cb. 199 bcl. cfl. 68 bcl. 111 cfr. John R Seiler: 66bl. 176 ca. 31 tr. tl. 185 cbr. cfr. 202 ca. 100 tl. 72 bcl. 44 tl. cla. 5. cfr. 68 tl. 203 br. 144 cfl. 114 tl. cfl. cfr. 79 cb. Andrew Butler: 62 cal. cal. tr. cb. cla. 54 bcl. 136 bl. 40 cfl. 83 car. 58 br. 73 cfr. Alistair Duncan: 72 cfl. car. 208 cal. Derek Hall: 142 cra. 93 cr. 127 car. 121 tr. 91 tr. 151 br . cra. 154 car. Clive Boursnell: 67 cla. 165 ca. br. 138 bl. 119 tr. crb. 198 bl. car. 38 cra. cfr. tr. cfr. 211 cfr. Nature Photographers Ltd: 82 tl. tl. car. Leo Batten: 186 tl. 151 cfr. car. cla. cfr. 11 tc. 58 bcr. crb. cfl. 211 bl. cbr. tl. cfl. cra. 129 cla. 131 car. cfl. crb. 131 bl. tl. cal. 22 tl. cfl. crb. cal. 59 tr. tr. 92 cra. 202 tl. Oxford Scientific Films Deni Brown: 85 tr. 15 ca. cal. Andrew de Lory: 76 car. car. cfl. 141 ca. car. 208 cra. 181 cal. Martin B Withers: 97 bl. br. car. car. 192 tl. 150 bcr. 216 bl. tl. 159 bcr. 169 tr. tl. 190 cla. cfr. 191 tr. 104 tl. tr. 48 tl. B Borrell Casals: 125 cla. cfl. 94 cfl. 73 bl. 3. 50 cl. 109 bl. 66 tl. tl. tr. 102 bl. 166 bl. cb. tr. Mr Lloyd-Jones: 154 cla. bl. 195 cbr. 38 cfl. tl. tr. 36 tl. tr. cra. 13 bcl. 97 cal. tr. 191 cb. 187 br. cbl. cal. 70 cbl. 125 cb. 126 cra. 76 bcl. crb. 37 car. 73 car. Henriette Kress: 86 cra. tl. clb. 145 car. tr. 134 cal. 118 cb. 195 car. 156 car. C Andrew Henley: 41 tr. 69 tr. 48 br. 63 ca. Michael L Charters: 208 clb. tl. 134 br. 200 cb. 72 cra. Chris Gibson: 1c. cal. tr. All other images © Dorling Kindersley. tr. 193 cr. tr. 40 cbl. Deni Bown: 61 cfl. cfr. 76 tl. tl. crb. 133 tr. 128 tl. 115 cla. 110 tl. 40 cal. 39 bl. cfl. 14 cra. cra. 71 cfr. br. 53 tr. 47 bcl. tr. cal. 90 c. car. 71 cla. 103 bl. Matthew Ward: 127 tr. 10 bcr. 55 car. cfl. tr. 176 tl. cbl. 117 cb. tr. cfl. car. clb. cfl. 205 ca. cfr. car. Roger Wilmshurst: 74 c. cb. cla. Mark Newman: 83 bl. 98 ca. 12 ca. cla. Life Science Images: 83 cfr. tr. 184 cal. cla. tl. 189 bl. 173 ca. 166 cfl. tr. Ardea: 97 cfr. tr. 152 bcl. 57 tr. cra. 127 cfr. cfl. 142 bcl. cfl. 178 tl. 187 tr. 17 cfl. 192 cb. 80 bcl. cfr. 119 cal. 168 bcr. 86 bl. 120 cfl. 126 tl. 55 bl. 150 cal. 95 cfr. 160 tl. tl. 16 cfl. bl. cla. 14 br. tl. Justyn Willsmore: 12 bcr. br. 11 br. 181 br. 201 ca. 78 cb. tl. 171 bl. tl. 52 cl. 145 br. Frank Lane Picture Agency. 67 cfr. 27 bl. car. Eric Crichton: 42 tl. tl. 48 cal. 119 cra. 188 tl. 214 br. tl. Mike Slater: 174 clb. 151 tr. 80 clb. Erin Richards for additional administrative assistance. tr. 17 tr. l = left. 30 bcl. Steven Still: 33 tr. 154 bl. cfl. 18 car. ca. tl. 93 tr. 167 cb. 28 tl. 200 tl. clb. tr. cfl. cra. cfr. cla. 124 ca. 118 car. tl. cra.cla. 125 tr. cfl. clb.

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