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Preamble: Ethics is defined as ³«the science of moral duty or the science of ideal human character and the ideal ends of human action. The chief problem with which ethics deals concerns the nature of the summumbonum, or highest good, the origin and validity of the sense of duty, and the character and authority of moral obligation.´ Webster¶s New International Dictionary, 2nd Edition. We exist in a world that is filled with uncertainty. In order to bring more meaning to our short existence, we humans have sought to bring control to our lives and thus reduce this element of uncertainty. In the activity of health care and its delivery to our fellow humans, chaos can lead to worsening health, rampaging disease and death. Thus, we have developed intricate financial plans, marvelous educational systems, brilliant research techniques and well-defined laws to order this most vital of human efforts. Despite all of these attempts to control the uncertainty, human character itself undermines and degrades the outcome. In an attempt to control this last and most errant aspect of human action, the science of ethics has taken a vital position in our culture. Ethics under girds all aspects of our enterprise of health care, the financing of it, the education of its practitioners, the growth and development of its knowledge and how it is to be adjudicated. The American Association for Respiratory Care is a living, breathing and growing organization dedicated to improving all aspects of the science of respiratory care. As evidence of its evolutionary nature, the Association has seen fit to initiate a process which will continuously amplify its ethical statements in order to meet the growing complexity of what the profession of respiratory care is asked to accomplish. This ³Statement´ is part of this process of growth and is to be passed on to generation after generation of practitioners who will wisely see the importance of remolding, restating and adding to these statements as the field of respiratory care expands and evolves. Co-chairs: Richard L. Sheldon, MD, FAARC Carl P. Wiezalis, MS, RRT, FAARC
Committee members responsible for writing this statement: G. Andrews C. Brooks P. Doorley F. Hill J. Hughes J. Lee P. Mathews S. Mikles M. Prewitt B. Rogers T. Watson L. Van Scoder S. Bastable R. Edge R. Weilacher E. Rodriguez H. Hedrick E. Rodriguez C. Durbin
In the conduct of their professional activities respiratory therapists shall be bound by the following ethical and professional principles. Respiratory therapists shall:
and public. registration. These activities are supported by education. they will choose only the highest quality CEU programs which will address the topics that represent new. Today¶s respiratory therapist is a dedicated life-long learner. the respiratory therapist will be aware of the required Continuing Education Units (CEUS) required by their state¶s license laws and will comply with these requirements. unbiased and free from personal feelings or prejudices. Areas of known weakness may require educational attention. It is incumbent upon the respiratory therapist to exhibit actions and carry our activities in a scrupulously honest manner. and fosters trust in the profession and its professionals. shall successfully complete formal education and training and demonstrate initial and continuing competency via appropriate national or state certification. transitional. and long-term care venues.B. acute and critical care settings. Patient care continues to improve as scopes of practice change. sea. research. AARC Position Statement: Respiratory Therapy Education. 3. peer and public confidence is promoted in the individual practitioner and in the profession. 2002. et all: Respiratory care. principles and practice. subacute. Demonstrate behavior that reflects integrity. proven techniques and knowledge. each respiratory therapist is responsible to maintain knowledge and skills commensurate with the advances in the cardiorespiratory milieu. and administration. In the process of continuing education. W. Louis. skilled nursing. This . Respiratory care is a life-supporting. 2. AARC Position Statement: Requirements for the Provision of Respiratory Care. and education of the patient. therapy. In light of the burgeoning explosion in healthcare science. personal. new technologies and disease management strategies emerge and learning is validated. Hemlen KM and Carroll C: Ethics of health care delivery. St. In so doing. or air. pp 73-75. References/Suggested Reading 1. but not limited to: physician¶s offices. transport by land. Actively maintain and continually improve their professional competence and represent it accurately. and home and self-care settings. supports objectivity. Saunders Company.1. Any respiratory therapist providing cardiorespiratory care to patients. The practice of respiratory care encompasses activities in: diagnostic evaluation. or licensure prior to assuming their duties. The respiratory therapist is expected to possess a recognized ability to render competent and efficacious care across the entire health care delivery spectrum. 2. infectious diseases and epidemiology. research. life-enhancing health care profession practiced under qualified medical direction. In Hess DR. This behavior pattern is maintained and sustained for the life of one¶s professional career through continuing education. including. family. Perform only those procedures or functions in which they are individually competent and which are within the scope of accepted and responsible practice. regardless of the care setting and patient demographics. inpatient or outpatient clinics. In so doing.
New York. Tom L. Katz. 225. AARC Position Statement: Role of the Respiratory Therapist in the Hospital and Alternative Sites. 220. including the right to informed consent and refusal of treatment. Ethical Dimensions in the Health Professions: 3rd Edition. In the performance of their duties.B. References/Suggested Reading 1. Respiratory therapists have an ethical duty as professionals to respect the patients¶ trust and safeguard the privacy and security of this information. 21 Ohio N. 3. 80 (1994) 4. 2001. Ruth Purtilo. & Policy 69. W. Health L. Respect for patients¶ autonomy is vital to the practice of respiratory therapy. 256 (1994) 4.Must it Remain a Fairy Tale? 10 J. The respiratory therapist must inform the attending physician in the event that the patient does not fully understand and has not fully consented to the proposed treatment or diagnostic procedure. Respect and protect the legal and personal rights of patients they treat. Contemp. or required by law. Divulge no confidential information regarding any patient or family unless disclosure is required for responsible performance of duty. 226. Oxford University Press.L. 171. Respiratory therapists must accept that self-determination defines a patient¶s right to choose or refuse treatment.requires a mind open to. The obligation of confidentiality prohibits practitioners from disclosing patient information to other parties and encourages respiratory therapists to exercise caution with such information to ensure that only authorized access occurs. References/Suggested Reading 1. AARC Position Statement: Scope of Practice. and absorbent of new techniques and new and expanded applications of all aspects of cardiorespiratory care. 2. Childress. 217. 218. Szczygiel. decisions may be made by advance directive or by a legal guardian. in search of. . Rev. In those cases where patients do not have the capacity for autonomous choice. Principles of Biomedical Ethics: 5th Edition.U. Saunders Company. 2. Respiratory therapists have a responsibility to provide the patient with a clear understanding regarding therapeutic interventions and outcomes. Beauchamp and Jason F. Essential to a patient¶s ability to exercise autonomy is informed consent. Beyond Informed Consent. Informed Consent. 1999. Philadelphia. respiratory therapists have access to confidential medical information. 3. Failure to stay abreast of the constantly changing nature and character of cardiorespiratory science and practice may result in a failure to perform competently in an ever-expanding scope of practice.
Glynn. Rev. treatment. sexual orientation. References/Suggested Reading 1. emotional. emotional. J. 27 John Marshall L. or for educational purposes. and lifestyle values.L. gender. national origin. politics or any other factor that will make a human-being unique. 2. or authorize access to confidential information. If a respiratory therapist is unable to provide care without discrimination. ethnicity. environmental. spiritual. 625. . Overview: Computerized Medical Records Create New Legal and Business Confidentiality Problems. Respiratory therapists may only breach confidentiality when mandated by law or code such as when abuse is suspected or concern for public health arises. 643 (1994).J. view. 637. race. they have an ethical responsibility to request that they be assigned other duties so as to not lessen the rights or dignity of the patient in question. Respiratory therapists need to look at the whole person. Any lessening of the dignity of a patient in these areas during the course of treatment is below the ethical standard and should not be tolerated. Identity Cards and Databases in Health-Care: The Need for Federal Privacy Protections.When respiratory therapists exchange information with other staff for diagnostic. 645. age. Practitioners must accept responsibility for their own level of well-being and for the everyday choices made which affect their own health. Field. the ethical caregiver must have a clear idea of the potential for abuse when discrimination occurs within the areas of class. Multidisciplinary Representation of Children: Conflicts Over Disclosure of Client Communications. In such cases. handicap. culture. 639. Promote disease prevention and wellness. 28 Colum. Provide care without discrimination on any basis. creed. social and spiritual aspects of health. 11 HealthSpan 3. It is vital that Respiratory therapists follow prescribed policies related to security and disclosure whether oral. 626. Personal biases shall not allow them to stand in the way of a patient¶s right to the best care possible. By optimizing their own wellness. or electronic transfer of information. social. nutritional. 6. 253. In order to assure the highest quality care to all patients. Respiratory therapists shall follow a system of personal health care that fosters and leads to optimal attainment of the physical. 4 (1994). Minor. 617. by telephone. the respiratory therapist can best participate in programs that promote disease prevention and wellness in others. 4. including analysis of physical. 279 (1995). Probs. the duty to protect the individual or public health outweighs the duty to maintain confidentiality. religion. mental. & Soc. 3. 21 Rutgers L. written. with respect for the rights and dignity of all individuals. 652 (1990) 5. color. precautions must be taken to limit the ability of others to hear. AIDS: Establishing a Physician¶s Duty to Warn. 630-32.
falsification of records. and drawn conclusions which are supported by the data developed. A primary purpose of science is the formulation and testing of hypotheses about the world around us. illegal behaviors such as theft. but not limited to poor quality patient care. reported outlying data. The current scientific world is now filled with great incentive to arrive at conclusions which can be marketed and thereby allow the researcher to achieve financial and personal gain. fraud and causing the injury or death of a patient. and any witnessed or suspected event must be promptly reported to an immediate supervisor and/or appropriate authority. vulgar speech. the door is open for further and more serious breaches. The ethical approach to research does not disallow these kinds of gain. In the conduct of their professional activities. Knowing that when a minor infraction is tolerated. April 27. sexual harassment. References/Suggested Reading 1. and customer service failures. should they take the extremely difficult step of reporting illegal. Permitting illegal or unethical behavior to go unreported and uncorrected maligns the integrity of other respiratory therapists in the workplace and reflects badly on the profession at large. or the . and shall refuse to conceal illegal. wasteful practices. Within our current professional world of ³blame and punishment´. respiratory therapists will not engage in any illegal acts and shall adopt a zero tolerance approach to the illegal behavior of others. unethical or incompetent behavior. studies´ which help to remove bias and other tendencies to arrive at conclusions that will help the researcher more than expand the body of scientific truth. it fails its mission and its readers. unethical or incompetent acts of others. These methods include but are not limited to the concepts of the ³randomized. but are not limited to. the respiratory therapist has the right to protection by the organization for which he works. Lieberman P. Anything that distorts the testing of hypotheses. unethical. Respiratory therapists must resolve to personally promote organizational policies that detail reporting mechanisms for the identification and remediation of illegal. Follow sound scientific procedures and ethical principles in research. These infractions include. The Graveyard Shift. or incompetent behaviors. Data published by an investigator and the interpretation of those data must be the truth. Respiratory therapists shall resolve that they will neither engage in nor tolerate unethical behaviors in their coworkers including. destructive attitudes. Refuse to participate in illegal or unethical acts. and to the extent that an investigator¶s work deviates from what is strictly true. Through the centuries there have been methodologies developed by which truth in science can be found. 8.7. and the purpose of a scientific investigator is to report and explain the results of tests of these hypotheses. 2002. but does require that before information is released under the concept of ³proven scientific data´ the researcher(s) have scrupulously identified and removed bias. prospective. double-blind. The Los Angeles Times.
or manuscript reviewers can stem from family and personal relationships. author. 9.interpretation of the results of this testing. and other defects in study design introduce bias. International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. The form of bias that tends to receive the most attention in scientific publishing. is that involving money.42(6):623-634. testing and scope of the practice of those permitted to practice. actions that they perform required by legally determined and promulgated rules. A lack of appropriate controls. though. In its Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. A major part of this activity focuses on the identification of conflicts of interest. Regulations are descriptions of actions and activities promulgated and defined and enforced by the professional practice board under its legislative empowerment. and is therefore antithetical to the fundamental nature of science. regulations and laws. in which reported results deviate from the truth as a result of a financial relationship between the author and the product studied. authors. . Bias on the part of investigators. whether or not judgment is in fact affected. Regulations are sometimes referred to as Administrative laws. reviewer. Comply with state or federal laws which govern and relate to their practice. as do the selective reporting of data and the use of inappropriate statistical tests. Respiratory therapists must be aware of and responsive to the requirements for practice in their locale of practice. investigate activities of the profession and determine limits of sanctions and punishment for breach of the law and board regulations and rules. state or local legislative bodies that set conditions under which regulated activities can be practiced and detail the criteria which define the education. Respir Care 1997. Laws are decisions of national. Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. or editor has ties to activities that could inappropriately influence his or her judgment. is considered to be a form of bias. Regulations also define the board¶s powers to control areas of practice. religious beliefs. state and federal regulations and laws. inadequate sample sizes. politics. that their actual scope of practice be within the bounds set by local.´ The potential for bias is everywhere in science. These laws may also define breeches of legal practice.2 Dorland¶s Medical Dictionary3 defines bias as ³deviation of results or inferences from the truth. Regulations set for requirements for practice under the law. academic pressure. establish and empower oversight boards for the regulated profession and set boundaries defining the limits of these boards to collect monies. especially from the general public. and a host of other sources.´1 References/Suggested Reading 1. the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (³The Vancouver Group´) states that ³conflict of interest for a given manuscript exists when a participant in the peer review and publication process.
Someliynski. Someliynski was actually Billie Sue Renfrew. a notarized statement attesting that all the information submitted to the Board is true. Hernandez attended. nurses. Someliynski. . Upon submission to the board and during application processing J. her NBRC registration card and an application containing.Rules are developed by the board to operationalize the broader mandates of the Laws and Regulations. therapeutic activities or treatments other than those permitted under approved protocols or formal agreements with particular physicians Falsely hold themselves out to be physicians. Prior to that she practiced for 3 years in an adjacent state. a former roommate and co-worker of Tara Someliynski¶s. I went to RC school with a Tara Z. As a condition for licensure each practitioner must submit a copy of their current drivers license. Respiratory Therapists May Not: y y y Prescribe medicines. Someliynski has been practicing as a Registered Respiratory Therapist for 7 years. or other types of healthcare practitioners Practice at a level or in a manner beyond their legal level of competence unless enrolled in a formal training program aimed at learning those advanced skills _________________ Case Report ± Tara Z. but about eight years ago she was killed in an automobile accident three days after passing her RRT exams. Licensure became a requirement in her state this year. Someliynski and Mr. Upon examination it was discovered that Ms. this is very strange. RRT and appointed member of the board became curious about Ms. elderly and child abuse Communicate honestly and effectively with other members of the care team Act as a patient advocate in all situations involving respiratory care Uphold the integrity of the Respiratory Therapy Licensure Act in their state. the integrity of the NBRC examination system and the integrity of the profession by reporting actions and activities detrimental to the proper function and administration of these processes. Billie Sue had been dismissed near the end of her training for attitude problems and poor grades from the same school that Ms. MS. He stated to other board members ³You know.H. What are the chances that someone with that exact same name would also be an RRT from my home state?´ The rest of the board agreed that it was an exceptionally strange circumstance and referred the matter to the investigative branch.. The Therapist Must: y y y y y Keep and maintain accurate records of patient contact and treatment Report suspected cases of spousal. among other information.
Books. 2001 Winter. 8. AM-J-BIOETHICS. 1(1):52-3. 7. new media: medical ethics in the ancient world. breaches of confidentiality. 16(1): 78. 3. Law and ethics in a public health emergency. Hastings-Cent-Rep. 32(2): 9-ll. 2001 Winter. Renfrew had intercepted Ms. AAOHN-J 2002 Apr. What ethical and legal issues arise from this case? How could this situation have been avoided? (By the employer. 41(9): 833-5. AM-J-BIOETHICS. 5. Ethics in practice: asking the right questions. Elliott AC. FIRERESCUE-MAG 1998 Jan. AM-J-HEALTH-EDUC. Bonnie. A code of honor: avoid temptations. 2002 MarApr. 6. 72(3):23. Baker R. 9.287(15): 2005-6. journals. 1(1): 53-6. 10 Avoid any form of conduct that creates a conflict of interest and shall follow the principles of ethical business behavior. Honesty and Ethics in the professions ± Gallup poll results. The vast majority of respiratory therapists are honorable and dedicated professionals who are themselves harmed and diminished by conflict of interest. Dake JA Selected ethical issues in the teaching for health: perceptions of health education faculty. 12(4):326-30. J-Transcult-Nurs. When these actions were successful Billie Sue moved to her current state under her newly switched identity. Rogers. Reflecting on 40 years of Respiratory Care: then: code of ethics. 2001 Mar-Apr. 2002 Apr 17. JAMA. Inside look.)´ The bond of confidence and the standard of confidentiality are hallmark attributes to guarantee trust between the respiratory therapist and his/her patient. The careless word or comment may bring as egregious harm to the . RESPIR-CARE 1996 Sep. 2001 Oct. Dear Jack. 4. and others directly or indirectly involved in the patient¶s care. Conflict of interest has been defined by Thompson1 as ³a set of conditions in which professional judgment concerning a primary interest (such as patient¶s welfare or the validity of research) tends to be unduly influenced by a secondary interest (such as financial gain. 32(2): 66-74. or fraudulent practices of those in their peer group. 50(4): 167-9. Health care ethics: cultural relativity of autonomy. 10. What we talk about when we talk about right and wrong. 2. Clark JM. (J-AHIMA) 2001 Mar. Price JH. Kloss L. even the little things. Telljohann SK. Carnahan-RD.It was discovered that Ms. Elliott C. LO. by the state and federal government?) Is Billie Sue the only one at fault? What sanctions should be leveled? References/Suggested Reading 1. The facts of bioethics. Gostin. by the NBRC. Someliynski¶s NBRC card from the mail and had altered her driver¶s license by switching photos.
provided. Under no circumstances should any respiratory care practitioner engage in any activity which compromises the motive for the provision of any therapy procedures. Promote health care delivery through improvement of the access. N Engel J Med 1993. To witness or suspect conflict of interest or fraudulent practice and not report it makes the practitioner as culpable as having performed the act or practice. submitting claims for payment for services not provided. Fraudulent practices may include. or which have not been ordered. pp. or using/reporting improper billing codes and/or inflating service charges for selected patient groups to enhance reimbursement. References/Suggested Reading 1. Fraud or fraudulent practice is conduct intended to deceive. Respiratory therapy practitioners shall act in the manner that will indicate a proactive stance toward better access to a more effective and affordable health care system. lack of compassion.patient-therapist relationship as a knowing over breach of confidence for personal or professional gain. falsification of patient services or reimbursement or for other reasons. Fraudulent practices undermine legitimate practices and add to the burden on the nation¶s already financially stressed health care system. and overpowering greed. 3. and payers. or in any manner profit from referral arrangements with home care providers or others within the healthcare environment. This suggests that the respiratory therapist is: . Dorland¶s illustrated medical dictionary. Actively participating in conflict of interest and fraudulent practice is only level of transgression. In the realm of conflict of interest and fraudulent practice. 11. falsification of documentation to indicate that services were provided which were not. which should exist between patients.329(8):573-576. 2. Where¶s the bias? (editorial) Ann Intern Med 1997. vigilance is the watchword. the advice or counsel given patients and/or families. providing services which are not medically necessary. their caregivers. Philadelphia: WB Saunders. 1994. Davidoff F. A practice is equally fraudulent if practiced or witnessed. and may come by means of commission or omission. in fact. Thompson DF. 89-812. but are not limited to. and present an image of non-professionalism.126(12):986-988. Fraudulent practices violate the trust. efficacy. and cost of patient care. 28th edition. Understanding financial conflicts of interest.
is a 43-year-old HIV positive patient who has an admitting diagnosis of bronchial pneumonia and pneumothorax. to conserve scarce resources. who has been out of contact for ten years. His body temperature is 98. gender. religion or economic status. but able to answer questions appropriately. His oxygen saturation is 89% and he has a Pa02 of 65 mm Hg on a 40% Venturi mask. the patient has said he does not want ³life support and all that goes with it´. lightly sedated. ethnicity. ______________________ Case Report ± H.M. Expected to be both a change agent and an institutor of change An advocate for equal access and equal quality of care These responsibilities rise from duties to serve the public. or other factors or attitudes.y y y y y y Responsible for selecting and advocating procedures and therapies which will minimize the patient¶s length of stay and their short and long term dependence on expensive drugs and technologies. Respiratory therapists must be the champions of high quality patient focused care utilizing systems such as evidence-based medicine and outcomes analysis to guide our practice. C negative. Discussion ensues regarding further therapeutic steps. B. The patient declines intubation should he proceed to full respiratory failure. The patient is admitted to the ICU where a chest tube is inserted which results in a slight improvement in his oxygenation. He is cyanotic and tachycardic with a normal blood pressure. effective and economical a manner as possible. He has been HIV positive for 11 years and reports a weight loss of 40 lb over the last three months. Respiratory therapists must advocate for quality over quantity where the two are opposed. Previous medical records indicate the presence of a ³durable power of attorney´ which excludes ³heroic efforts´ and the use of ³life support equipment´. The patient is awake. He is hepatitis A. The patient has a 25% pneumothorax seen on chest X-ray. Services rendered should neither be distributed nor restricted due to race. The patient¶s family. His CD-4 T cell counts are very low and he has a positive sputum culture for Pneumocysticcarini. cannot be located for confirmation. The patient¶s life partner of eight years states he has seen the document and affirms that in the course of much discussion. This statement is welldocumented on the medical record. knowledge and resources in as efficient. Active in maintaining and advancing their professional knowledge and skill base through a process of life-long learning An advocate for technological procedural improvement which leads to improved outcome and reduced length of stay ± in the ED. .6 F (37 C) with respirations which are 24 breaths per minute and shallow. In order to do these things respiratory therapists must always use our skills. to do good (beneficence) and to use our knowledge and skills in a just and humane manner. ICU and within the facility A role model for cost savings in practice and advocates for procedures and technology which are both efficacious and economical.
One week later the patient has clinically deteriorated to the degree that he is comatose and hear death. Chapters 3. Telljohann SK. the physicians and the patient¶s life partner. The mother insists he is not to be ³put behind the barn and let die´ regardless of the Durable Power of Attorney which can not be found among the patient¶s records at home. The mother and the life partner settle out of court. 1983. They rule that the patient¶s statements. Because of the large sums of money in the patient¶s estate. and often reduce costs. Selected ethical issues in the teaching for health: perceptions of health education faculty. Wiley Medical Publishers. Reflecting on 40 years of Respiratory Care: then: code of ethics: RESPIR. 2001 Winter. Encourage and promote appropriate stewardship of resources. equally effective device in place of more expensive technology. has precedence and because of the futility of aggressive care. 3.2002 Apr. AM-J-HEALTH-EDUC. The court subsequently dismisses the hospital and the physicians as defendants due to their use of the hospital¶s ethics committee for consultation and careful documentation of the patient¶s premorbid statements. They will participate in implementing changes in care that reduce costs without compromising quality and share ideas about ³best practices´. A practical demonstration of this principle is the implementation of patient-driven protocols. 4. AAOHN-J. Elliott C. 41(9):833-5. Dake JA. Soon thereafter the patient dies. 1(1):52-3. 50(4): 167-9. New York. as documented on the charge before he becomes mentally incompetent from his acute illness. the patient is not to be aggressively treated as demanded by his mother.* . Respiratory therapists will be good stewards of health care resources.CARE 1996 Sep. They have an obligation to advance the quality of respiratory care by using the best available science in support of individual care decisions. Another example of good stewardship is using a less expensive. and 6. AJ-J-BIOETHICS. 5. 4. the patient¶s will is found which leaves large sums of money to his life partner. References/Suggested Reading 1. Rogers B Honesty and Ethics in the professions ± Gallup poll results. The case is immediately referred to the hospital¶s ethics committee. They will develop and follow standards of care based on sound science. What we talk about when we talk about right and wrong. Biomedical Ethics: A guide to decision making. Francoeur RT. 2001 Mar-Apr. improve quality. 12. The mother suddenly appears and is devastated to learn of her son¶s illness and demands that he be immediately intubated and fully resuscitated. However. 32(2):66-74. 2. These evidence-based guidelines reduce variation in patient treatment. Price JH. the mother brings a lawsuit for wrongful death against the hospital.
Mosby 2002. No ethics material listed in Table of contents or index. pp. Mishoe SC. 9. FA Davis. Ethical arguments related to cost-conscious distribution of resources involves the concept of distributive justice. Hunt GE._________________ * Adherence to this principle is demonstrated by substituting a metered-dose inhaler for small volume nebulizer treatments in appropriate patients. Elstrun LR. MacIntyre NR.38-40. Respiratory disease: A case study approach to patient care 2nd ed. book titles. Egan¶s Fundamentals of Respiratory Care 7th ed. 5. Groves JR. 1-213. pp. Bakow ED. Respiratory Care Principles and Practice. Mishoe SC.1-87. 7. Saunders 2002. The Multiskilled Respiratory Therapist: A competency-based approach. Chapters 17. Delmar. 10. Wilkins RL. Chapter 2 pp 31-44. 2002. 1999. 1999 Chapt 1 pp. Burton GG. Stoller JK. Rau JL. Chang DW. publishers and chapter/page numbers of the reviewed texts are listed below: 1. Clinical Manifestations of Respiratory Disease 4th ed. 2. WB Saunders. Chapt 2. Stoller JK. Welch MN. Lippincott. Galvin WR. Legal and Ethical Dilemmas in Respiratory Care. Clinical Practice in Respiratory Care. No ethics material listed in Table of Contents or index. FA Davis. pp. Scanion CS. Adams AB. Respiratory Pharmacology 6th ed. 1995. 6. Carroll C. Beauchamp TL. Mosby. Childress JF: Principles of Biomedical Ethics. No ethics material listed in Table of contents or index. 1998. AARC Special Committee on Ethics and Professional Behavior Ethics Coverage in Current Respiratory Care Texts The authors. Chapt 4 pp 63-78. FA Davis. 4. 3. Foundations of Respiratory Care. Wyka KA. Critical Diagnostic Thinking in Respiratory Care: A case based approach. 11-14. DelmarThompson Learning. 2000. Mosby. Edge RS. Reference 1. Des Jardins T. 5th Edition. Jones AP. The Ethics of Health Care 2nd ed. pp 225-282. 11. . Mathews PJ. Chapt 8 pp 235-255. 12. Clarke WF. Chapter 2 pp 10-39. 1996. 2002. 2002. Oxford University Press. Critical Thinking in Respiratory Care. Fink JB. 2001. No ethics material listed in Table of contents or index. Saposnick AB. Hess DR. 8. Wilkins RL. Chapt 5 pp 63-78. Dexter JR. Longworth DL. McGraw-Hill 2002.
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