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Amity School of Engineering

AMITY UNIVERSITY RAJASTHAN

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DTMF (dual tone multi frequency) is the signal to the phone company that you generate when you press an ordinary telephone's touch keys. In the United States and perhaps elsewhere, it's known as "Touchtone" phone (formerly a registered trademark of AT&T). DTMF has generally replaced loop disconnect ("pulse") dialing. With DTMF, each key you press on your phone generates two tones of specific frequencies. So that a voice can't imitate the tones, one tone is generated from a high-frequency group of tones and the other from a low frequency group. Here are the signals you send when you press your Touchtone phone keys:

Digit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 * #

Low High frequencyfrequency 697 697 697 770 770 770 852 852 852 941 941 941 1209 Hz 1336 1477 1209 1336 1477 1209 1336 1477 1336 1209 1477

A number of companies make microchips that send and receive DTMF signals. The Telephony Application Program Interface (TAPI) provides a way for a program to detect DTMF digits.

Dual-tone multi-frequency signaling

A DTMF keypad from an AutovonTelephone. The column of red keys produces the A, B, C, and D DTMF events, labeled by their telephony function. Dual-tone multi-frequency signaling (DTMF) is used for telecommunication signaling over analog telephone lines in the voice-frequency band betweentelephone handsets and other communications devices and the switching center. The version of DTMF that is used in push-button telephones for tone dialing is known as Touch-Tone. It was first used by AT&T in commerce, using that name as a registered trademark. DTMF is standardized by ITU-TRecommendation Q.23. It is also known in the UK as MF4. Other multi-frequency systems are used for internal signaling within the telephone network. The Touch-Tone system, using the telephone keypad, gradually replaced the use of rotary dial starting in 1963[citation needed], and since then DTMF or Touch-Tone became the industry standard for both cell phones and landline service. Contents

1 Multifrequency signaling 2 #, *, A, B, C, and D

3 Keypad 4 Special tone frequencies 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links Multifrequency signaling Prior to the development of DTMF, automated telephone systems employed pulse dialing (Dial Pulse or DP in the U.S.) or loop disconnect (LD) signaling to dial numbers. It functions by rapidly disconnecting and re-connecting the calling party's telephone line, similar to flicking a light switch on and off. The repeated interruptions of the line, as the dial spins, sounds like a series of clicks. The exchange equipment interprets these dial pulses to determine the dialed number. Loop disconnect range was restricted by telegraphic distortion and other technical problems[which?] , and placing calls over longer distances required either operator assistance (operators used an earlier kind of multi-frequency dial) or the provision of subscriber trunk dialing equipment. Multi-frequency signaling (see also MF) is a group of signaling methods that use a mixture of two pure tone (pure sine wave) sounds. Various MF signaling protocols were devised by the Bell Systemand CCITT. The earliest of these were for in-band signaling between switching centers, where long-distance telephone operators used a 16-digit keypad to input the next portion of the destination telephone number in order to contact the next downstream long-distance telephone operator. This semi-automated signaling and switching proved successful in both speed and cost effectiveness. Based on this prior success with using MF by specialists to establish long-distance telephone calls, Dual-tone multi-frequency (DTMF) signaling was developed for the consumer to signal their own telephone-call's destination telephone number instead of talking to a telephone operator. AT&Ts Compatibility Bulletin No. 105 described the product as "a method for pushbutton signaling from customer stations using the

voice transmission path." In order to prevent consumer telephones from interfering with the MF-based routing and switching between telephone switching centers, DTMF's frequencies differ from all of the pre-existing MF signaling protocols between switching centers: MF/R1, R2, CCS4, CCS5, and others that were later replaced by SS7 digital signaling. DTMF, as used in push-button telephone tone dialing, was known throughout the Bell System by the trademarkTouch-Tone. This term was first used by AT&T in commerce on July 5, 1960 and then was introduced to the public on November 18, 1963, when the first push-button telephone was made available to the public. It was AT&T's registered trademark from September 4, 1962 to March 13, 1984,[1] and is standardized by ITUT Recommendation Q.23. It is also known in the UK as MF4. Other vendors of compatible telephone equipment called the TouchTone feature Tone dialing or DTMF, or used their own registered trade names such as the Digitone of Northern Electric (now known as Nortel Networks). The DTMF system uses eight different frequency signals transmitted in pairs to represent 16 different numbers, symbols and letters - as detailed below. As a method of in-band signaling, DTMF tones were also used by cable television broadcasters to indicate the start and stop times of local commercial insertion points during station breaks for the benefit of cable companies. Until better out-of-band signaling equipment was developed in the 1990s, fast, unacknowledged, and loud DTMF tone sequences could be heard during the commercial breaks of cable channels in the United States and elsewhere.[citation needed] [edit]#, *, A, B, C, and D

DTMF keypad layout. The engineers had envisioned phones being used to access computers, and surveyed a number of companies to see what they would need for this role. This led to the addition of the number sign (#, sometimes called 'octothorpe' or 'pound' in this context - 'hash' or 'gate' in the UK) and asterisk or "star" (*) keys as well as a group of keys for menu selection: A, B, C and D. In the end, the lettered keys were dropped from most phones, and it was many years before these keys became widely used for vertical service codes such as *67 in the United States of America and Canada to suppress caller ID. Public payphones that accept credit cards use these additional codes to send the information from the magnetic strip. The U.S. military also used the letters, relabeled, in their now defunct Autovon phone system.[2] Here they were used before dialing the phone in order to give some calls priority, cutting in over existing calls if need be. The idea was to allow important traffic to get through every time. The levels of priority available were Flash Override (A), Flash (B), Immediate (C), and Priority (D), with Flash Override being the highest priority. Pressing one of these keys gave your call priority, overriding other conversations on the network. Pressing C, Immediate, before dialing would make the switch first look for any free lines, and if all lines were in use, it would disconnect any nonpriority calls, and then any priority calls. Flash Override will kick every other call off the trunks between the origin and destination.

Consequently, it was limited to the White House Communications Agency. Precedence dialing is still done on the military phone networks, but using number combinations (Example: Entering 93 before a number is a priority call) rather than the separate tones and the Government Emergency Telecommunications Service has superseded Autovon for any civilian priority telco access. Present-day uses of the A, B, C and D keys on telephone networks are few, and exclusive to network control. For example, the A key is used on some networks to cycle through different carriers at will (thereby listening in on calls). Their use is probably prohibited by most carriers. The A, B, C and D tones are used in amateur radio phone patch and repeater operations to allow, among other uses, control of the repeater while connected to an active phone line. DTMF tones are also used by some cable television networks and radio networks to signal the local cable company/network station to insert a local advertisement or station identification. These tones were often heard during a station ID preceding a local ad insert. Previously, terrestrial television stations also used DTMF tones to shut off and turn on remote transmitters. DTMF signaling tones can also be heard at the start or end of some VHS (Video Home System) cassette tapes. Information on the master version of the video tape is encoded in the DTMF tone. The encoded tone provides information to automatic duplication machines, such as format, duration and volume levels, in order to replicate the original video as closely as possible. DTMF tones are sometimes used in caller ID systems to transfer the caller ID information, however in the USA only Bell 202 modulated FSK signaling is used to transfer the data. A DTMF can be heard on most Whelen Outdoor Warning systems. [edit]Keypad

1209 Hz on 697 Hz to make the 1 tone The DTMF keypad is laid out in a 44 matrix, with each row representing a low frequency, and each column representing a high frequency. Pressing a single key (such as '1' ) will send a sinusoidal tone for each of the two frequencies (697 and 1209 hertz (Hz)). The original keypads had levers inside, so each button activated two contacts. The multiple tones are the reason for calling the system multifrequency. These tones are then decoded by the switching center to determine which key was pressed. DTMF keypad frequencies (with sound clips) 1209 Hz 1336 Hz 1477 Hz 1633 Hz 697 Hz 1 770 Hz 4 852 Hz 7 941 Hz * 2 5 8 0 3 6 9 # A B C D

Special tone frequencies

National telephone systems define additional tones to indicate the status of lines, equipment, or the result of calls with special tones. Such tones are standardized in each country and may consist of single or multiple frequencies. Most European countries use a single precise frequency of 425Hz, where the United States uses a dual frequency system.

Event Busy signal (US)

Low frequency High frequency 480 Hz 620 Hz 480 Hz 440 Hz

Ringback tone (US) 440 Hz Dial tone (US) 350 Hz

The tone frequencies, as defined by the Precise Tone Plan, are selected such that harmonics and intermodulation products will not cause an unreliable signal. No frequency is a multiple of another, the difference between any two frequencies does not equal any of the frequencies, and the sum of any two frequencies does not equal any of the frequencies. The frequencies were initially designed with aratio of 21/19, which is slightly less than a whole tone. The frequencies may not vary more than 1.8% from their nominal frequency, or the switching center will ignore the signal. The high frequencies may be the same volume as or louder than the low frequencies when sent across the line. The loudness difference between the high and low frequencies can be as large as 3 decibels (dB) and is referred to as "twist." The duration of the tone should be at least 70 ms, although in some countries and applications DTMF receivers must be able to reliably detect DTMF tones as short as 45ms. European Tones: Event Low frequency High frequency

Busy signal (Most of Europe) Ringback tone (UK & Ireland)

425 Hz 400 Hz

---450 Hz ---450 Hz ----

Ringback tone (Most of Europe) 425 Hz Dial tone (UK) Dial tone (Most of Europe) 350 Hz 425 Hz

As with other multi-frequency receivers, DTMF was originally decoded by tuned filter banks. Late in the 20th century most were replaced with digital signal processors. DTMF can be decoded using theGoertzel algorithm.

Conventionally, Wireless-controlled robots use rf circuits, which have the drawbacks of limited working range, limited frequency range and the limited control. Use of a mobile phone for robotic control can overcome these limitations. It provides the advantage of robust control, working range as large as the coverage area of the service provider, no interference with other controllers and up to twelve controlles. Although the appearance and the capabilities of robots vary vastly, all robots share the feature of a mechanical, movable structure under some form of control. The Control of robot involves three distinct phases: perception, processing and action. Generally, the preceptors are sensors mounted on the robot , processing is done by the on-board microcontroller or processor, and the task is perfomed using motors or with some other actuators.

Step 1PROJECT OVERVIEW

In this project the robot, is controlled by a mobile phone that makes call to the mobile phone attached to the robot in the course of the call, if any button is pressed control corresponding to the button pressed is heard at the other end of the call. This tone is called dual tone multi frequency tome (DTMF) robot receives this DTMF tone with the help of phone stacked in the robot The received tone is processed by the atmega16 microcontroller with the help of DTMF decoder MT8870 the decoder decodes the DTMF tone in to its equivalent binary digit and this binary number is send to the microcontroller, the microcontroller is preprogrammed to take a decision for any give input and outputs its decision to motor drivers in order to drive the motors for forward or backward motion or a turn. The mobile that makes a call to the mobile phone stacked in the robot acts as a remote. So this simple robotic project does not require the construction ofreceiver and transmitter units. DTMF signaling is used for telephone signaling over the line in the voice frequency band to the call switching center. The version of DTMF used for telephone dialing is known as touch tone.

DTMF assigns a specific frequency (consisting of two separate tones) to each key s that it can easily be identified by the electronic circuit. The signal generated by the DTMF encoder is the direct al-gebric submission, in real time of the amplitudes of two sine(cosine) waves of different frequencies, i.e. ,pressing 5 will send a tone made by adding 1336hz and 770hz to the other end of the mobile. The tones and assignments in a dtmf system shown below

Step 2Circuit Description

Figures shows the block diagram and cicuit diagram of the microcontroller- based robot. The important components of this robot are DTMF decoder, Microcontroller and motor driver. An MT8870 series dtmf decoder is used here. All types of the mt8870 series use digital counting techniques to detect and decodeall the sixteen DTMF tone pairs in to a four bit code output. The built -in dila tone regection circuit eliminated the need for pre- filtering. When the input signal given at pin2 (IN-) single ended input configuration is recognized to be effective, the correct four bit decode signal of the

DTMF tone is transferred to Q1 (pin11) through Q4(pin14) outputs. The atmega 16 is a low power, 8 bit,cmos microcontroller based on the AVR enhanced RISC architecture. It provides the following feature: 16kb of in system programmable flash memory with read write capabilities, 512bytes of EEPROM, 1KB SRAM, 32 general purpose input/output lines. 32 general purpose working registers. All the 32 registers are directly connected to the arithmetic logic unit, allowing two independent registers to be accessed in one signal instruction executed in one clock cycle. The resulting architecture is more code efficient. Outputs from port pins PD0 through PD3 and PD7 of the microcontroller are fed to inputs IN1 through IN4 and enable pins (EN1 and EN2) of motor driver L293d respectively, to drive geared motors. Switch S1 is used for manual reset. thenotationsare : ic1-mt8870 ic2-atmega16 ic3-l293d ic4-cd7004 r1,r2-100kresistances r3-330kresistances r4-r8-10kresistances c1-0.47microfaratcapacitor c2,c3,c5,c6-22pfaratcapacitor c4-0.1microfaratcapacitor xtal1-3.57mhzcrytal xtal2-12mhzcrystal s1-pushtoonswitch m1,m2-12v,100rpmmotor batt- 6v

Step 3Software description (the hex code) the Avr microcontroller is programmed using WIN AVR for beginners have a look at this instructable first http://www.instructables.com/id/Ghetto-Programming%3a-Getting-

started-with-AVR-micro/ this is the way to pogram the avratmega 16 look at the pin diagram of atmega16 and then connect the pins acordingly (if u have any problem then feel free to write me) i have attached the full code. The header file will be included automatically if u have installed the winavr in default location

Step 4Working

In order to control the robot, you have to make a call to the cellphone attached to the robot from any phone. now the phone is picked by the phone on the robot through autoanswer mode(which is in the phn, just enable it). now when you press 2 the robot will move forward when you press 4 the robot will move left when you press 8 the robot will move backwards

when you press 6 the robot will move right when you press 5 the robot will stop.

Step 5Construction

for constructing this robot, you require these components Components used:" MT8870 DTMF DECODER - 1 " Atmega 16 microcontroller - 1 " L293d motor driver ic - 1 " Cd7004 not gate ic - 1 " 1n4007 diode - 1 " 100k resistances - 2 " 10 k resistances - 5 " 330 k resistances - 1 " 0.47mf capacitors - 1 " 0.1mf capacitors - 1 " 22pf capacitors - 4 " 3.57mhz crystal - 1 " 12mhz crystal - 1

" Push to on switch - 1 " 2 geared motors (6v, 50 rpm) - 2 (4 for four wheel drive) " Battery 6v - 1 wheels - 4 cellphone - 2 (one urs and one can be urfrnds) handsfree - 1 (for the phn on the rover) you have to place a cellphone on the rover. The cellphone is connected to the rover through a handsfree. construct the rover in the shape which is given below. You can get these parts from any electronic store with ease

Step 6To connect the hands free with the circuit

there are always two connections which come out of the phone, these connections are 1. Tip 2. Ring i'll prefer to use handsfree which have a straight jack (similar to the ones which we use in our ipods, but a thinner one) the tip of that jack is called the "tip" and the rest part behind the tip after a black strip is the ring So connect these two connections with the circuit and you will be done

Remote Robot Control System based on DTMF of Mobile Phone


I. INTRODUCTION The remote robot control technologies have been used in the fields like factory automation or space exploration, which it isdifficult for human to treat. However, as usage of the homerobot is activated, many corporations and laboratories areresearching the methods which

enable human to controlefficiently and easily in the house or outdoor. Especially,controlling the home robot regardless of time and space isimportant challenge. Because the mobile phone enables humanto connect with the outside devices via mobile communication network regardless of time and space, the mobile phone issuitable device to control the home robot. This paper suggests a method to control a robot using amobile phone, irrespective of the phone model and mobilephone carrier. The system that we suggest consists of themobile phone normally registered in communication serviceand the robot that can call a mobile phone. Existing methodsfor robot control using mobile phones have usage problemsbecause the cost and need for continuous control. The methodof robot control suggested in this paper can solve the problemsof existing methods control that use simple voice calls. Our method uses the DTMF (Dual Tone Mutiple Frequency) generated when a keypad button of the mobile phone beingcalled by the robot is pressed. A mobile phone user controls therobot by sending the DTMF tone to the robot. Mobilecommunication network coverage is larger than that of LANs,thus users can take advantage of mobile phones to control therobot. This paper outlines existing methods for robot control usingmobile phone in section 2. Section 3 presents the structure andcomponents of robot control using the DTMF tone of mobilephones. Section 4 explains how we implement the suggestedmethod for robot control. We conclude this paper and mentionfuture work in the last section. II. RELATED WORK A. The robot control using the wireless internet platform of mobilephone.Generally the wireless internet platform of mobile phones is used for robot control. Wireless internet platforms supportconnecting to the IP (internet protocol) network via the mobilecommunication network. Once the mobile phone connects tothe IP network, it can use the services related with the IPnetwork. The representative method of robot control based onan IP network is to use the WWW protocol like Figure 1(a).

Components of this control system include the robot and theserver that sends the control signal to the robot and the clientthat request the action of the robot to the server. The user cancontrol the robot using the video and voice data, because the IPnetwork allows much data to be transferred. This robot controlsystem can be constructed at low cost, because the PC or PDAcan be used as the client in this system.

Several mobile operators commercialized services for robotcontrol using the wireless internet platform on the mobilephone network. These services adopted the server-client modelin the IP network. The wireless internet platform on mobilephones connects to the IP network via mobile communicationnetwork like Figure 1(b). The mobile phone connects to theserver for robot control and controls the robot in the IPnetwork via the server in IP network. This method works well,but has some problems. First, because the mobile phone connects to the IP network over a mobile communicationnetwork, the user pays the connection time cost of the mobilecommunication

network and the cost for packets in the IPnetwork. In practice users do not use this service due to highusage cost. Another problem is that this service is dependenton the mobile operator. So if a mobile phone subscriber of amobile operator switches to another mobile network provider,the subscriber cannot use the previous service to control the remote robot, or needs to learn how to use the new service ofthe new provider to control the robot.B. The robot control using SMS of mobile phoneAnother method for robot control using mobile phones is tomobile phone use SMS (Short Message Service). SMStransmits a short message to a mobile phone connected to amobile communication network. An SMS message is sent to anexternal server that connects to the IP network and sends thecontrol signal to the remote robot over the IP network likeFigure 1(c). A mobile phone sends the SMS message definedas a special protocol for robot control to an external server. Theserver analyzes the content of the SMS message and sends thecontrol signal to the robot over the IP network. The remoterobot reacts based on the control signal received. The cost for aSMS message is comparatively cheap and most mobile phoneproviders support SMS. Continuous control of the robot isimpossible, because there is delay in transmitting the SMSmessage from the mobile phone to the robot. It is inadequate toadopt SMS to control the robot in systems that need continuouscontrol of the robot. III. THE STRUCTURE OF OUR WORK The method suggested in this paper for robot control adoptsthe DTMF tone of the mobile phone. As the Figure 2 shows,the components of this system consist of the mobile phone,robot control system and mobile robot. The robot controlsystem is physically included in the mobile robot. It consistsof an external CDMA modem, DTMF receiver board and

microprocessor-based control board. This system connects thevoice call between the mobile phone and robot. If callconnection succeeds, the DTMF tone generated from themobile phone is transmitted to the CDMA external modem ofthe mobile robot over the mobile communication network. TheDTMF tone of the analog signal moves from the CDMAexternal modem to the DTMF receiver. This DTMF signal isconverted to a digital binary signal. The converted digitalbinary signal is transmitted to the microprocessor-basedcontrol board. When the DTMF receiver is about to transmitthe converted digital signal to the control board, it interruptsthe control board. Then, the microprocessor-based controlboard receives the digital binary data based on the DTMF tonefrom the DTMF receiver when handing the interrupt. Thecontrol board analyzes the digital binary data and findswhether it is same with one among predefined defined values.If it is same with one of predefined values, the control boardsends the corresponding control signal to the robot. The valueof this control signal is PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) and selects the motor action in the robot. Thus the systemcontrols the mobile robot using the mobile phone DTMF.A. DTMF signal of mobile phone and DTMF receiver DTMF is the signal to be transmitted to the counterpart whenthe keypad buttons (Figure 3) of the mobile phone are pushed.Each button pushed creates two tones of differing frequency.

One tone belongs to the high frequency range and the othertone low frequency. Voice tones generally range from 0Hz to4000Hz. A DTMF tone includes two frequencies in this range(Table I). The DTMF tone corresponding to five buttonsconsist of mixed frequencies of 770Hz and 1336Hzcorresponding to row 1 and column 1 in Table 1. The A, B, C,D buttons are not used in general mobile phone. These buttonsare reserved for special use. The DTMF tones of mobilephones are generated by the same process as with generaltelephone. The DTMF tones generated from mobile phones aretransmitted over mobile communication networks to a CDMAexternal modem that is incorporated in the mobile robot. TheCDMA external modem sends the voice signals with theDTMF tone to the DTMF receiver through a stereo ear phonejack. As the Figure 4 shows, the DTMF receiver passes theDTMF tone through a zero crossing detector and dividesthe width frequency and the height frequency into a high groupfilter and a low group filter. The DTMF receiver calculates apoint of intersection

between the two frequencies. The DTMFreceiver modulates this signal through a digital detection

algorithm and outputs a 4-bit binary signal to Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4.Table II presents the values corresponding to the generateddigital binary signal. The DTMF receiver processes theinterrupt to the connected microprocessor-based control board.The microprocessor-based control board receives the 4-bitsthrough Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4. These values range from 1 to 12.

B. Microprocessor-based control board This system uses the AVR microprocessor to send thecontrol signal to the mobile robot with DC motors. This robotcontrol board transmits PWM values to the right and leftmotors of the mobile robot. The value of this PWM isdependent on the DTMF tone transmitted from the mobilephone via the mobile communication network. Handling theinterrupt generated from the DTMF receiver, the AVRmicroprocessor-based control board get the 4-bit message fromthe DTMF receiver. The control board should define the proper action for each value and put the PWM to the DC motors of themobile robot, because the values of these bits are from 1 to 12,.The control boards IO_AVR_06 pin (Figure 5) detects theinterrupt from the DTMF receiver. The control board isconnected to the DTMF receiver using the IO_AVR_08,IO_AVR_09, IO_AVR_10, IO_AVR_11 pin of the PORTF inthe AVR microprocessor. This control board gets the 4-bitsfrom the DTMF receiver through PORTF. When the controlboard put the values of the PWM corresponding to the 4-

bits,the control board uses the pins of the J1 connector. The secondpin of J1 is used to put the value of PWM to the left DC motorsof the robot. And the third pin of J1 is used to put the value ofPWM to the right DC motors of the robot. The control boardcan put only the values of PWM that range from 2100 to 3800. The control board should put the value (2950~3800) to the DCmotors of both sides of the robot to make the robot go forward.The 3800 PWM is the maximum speed for a forwardmovement of the robot. The control board should put the value(2100~2950) to the DC motors both sides of the robot to make

the robot reverse. The 2100 PWM is the maximum speed for abackward movement of the robot. The 2950 PWM value is aboundary value between forward and backward movement. Soif the value of PWM received is 2950, the robot stops.The control board

receives the value of the encoders throughthe J2, J3 pins. The J2 and J3 connector pins are used to get thevalues of the left and right DC motors of the mobile robotrespectively.

IV. IMPLEMENTATION The robot control system through the mobile phone DTMFtone in this paper is depicted in Figure 6. The mobile phoneused in this system is a general phone that is registered on amobile communication network of a mobile network provider.The mobile robot in this system consists of a CDMA externalmodem, DTMF receiver, microprocessor-based robot control,DC motors and the drivers. The CDMA external modem is theBell-wave BSM-856 and includes the Qualcomm MSM 6050chipset. The modem is also registered in a mobilecommunication network, so has a unique phone number. TheDTMF decoder chip is the Samsung Electronics KT3170

The control board microprocessor is the AVR ATmega128.We implemented hardware to convert the DTMF tonetransmitted to the CDMA external modem to the 4-bits signaland output 4-bits to AVR

microprocessor-based control board.We connected a pin of the DTMF receiver to the INT 4 pin ofthe AVR microprocessor to enable a rising-edge interrupt to begenerated in the pin of the DTMF receiver. If the control boarddetects the INT 4, it executes the interrupt handler code. Thisinterrupt handler read the 4-bits of PORTF connected to Q1,Q2, Q3, Q4 of DTMF receiver. The interrupt handler calls thespecial functions to put the already defined PWM to the mobilerobots motors. The mobile phone keypad buttons functionsare depicted in Figure 7. The software code that we implementthe functions in the AVR control board is shown in Figure 8. The 2, 4, 5, 6, 8 buttons of the mobile phone indicate the actionof the mobile robot. The 0, *, # buttons change the speed of therobot's movement. Once the users mobile phone is connectedto the mobile robot through a voice call, the mobile robotmovement depends on the buttons the user pushes. Forexample, if the user pushes the 2 button, the mobile robotgoes forward as middle speed in current position. If the user

pushes the 8 button, the mobile robot reverses at the middlespeed in the current position. When the user pushes the buttonsrelated to speed in the state that the mobile robot goes forwardor back, the mobile robot continues to move in the samedirection with the speed corresponding to the pushed button. Ifthe user pushes the 5, the mobile robot stops. If user pushes4 or 6 in the stopped state, the mobile robot rotates to thedirection corresponding to pushed button. If the user is about tostop to rotate the mobile robot, the user may push the 5.Using this method, the mobile phone user can control the mobile robot using a mobile phone.Figure 9 depicts the action of the mobile robot when the userpushes the buttons that indicate the direction. Figure 9(a)present the robot in start position. In Figure 9(b) the userpushes the 2 to go forward. Figure 9(c) and Figure 9(d)represents corresponding action of mobile robot when the userpushes 4 then 5 to rotate the mobile robot 90 degrees to theright and stops the robot. Similarly Figure 9(e) and Figure

9(f)represents corresponding action of mobile robot when the userpushes 6 then 5 to rotate the mobile robot 90 degrees to theleft and stops the robot. Figure 9(g) has the user pushing 8 toreverse the robot. Figure 9(h) represents that the robot stopsmoving reversely finally.

V. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORKS This paper presented a method to control a robot using theDTMF tone generated when the user pushes the keypadbuttons of a mobile phone connected to the remote mobilerobot. This control method uses commercial mobilecommunication networks as the path of data transmission; wecan control the mobile robot stably. This enables the user tocontrol the mobile robot continuously by sending the mobilephone DTMF tone. Users can easily control the mobile robotusing the mobile phone keypad, a user-friendly device. Thissystem was implemented in the 2G mobile communicationnetwork, so video data cannot be obtained Future work willresearch the robot control system in the 3G mobilecommunication networks. This will facilitate controlling theremote robot, using the DTMF of mobile phone with videodata from the remote mobile robots camera.

REFERENCES [1] M.J. Jung, F. Arai, Y. Hasegawa, and T. Fukuda, Mood and task coordination of home robots IEEE International Conference ICRA 2003, vol. 1, pp. 250-255, September 2003. [2] R. Sharma, K. Kumar, and S. Viq, DTMF Based Remote Control System, IEEE International Conference ICIT 2006, pp. 2380-2383, December 2006. [3] R.C. Luo, T.M. Chen, and C.C. Yih,Intelligent autonomous mobile robot control through the Internet, IEEE International Symposium ISIE2000, vol. 1, pp. 6-11, December 2000 [4] PWM, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulse-width_modulation [5] M. Callahan Jr, Integrated DTMF Receiver, IEEE Transactions on communications, vol. 27, pp. 343-348, Febrary 1979. [6] KT3170, http://www.ortodoxism.ro/datasheets/SamsungElectronic/mXuusvq.p df