Project Design Guide

Version: 8.1.1
Document Number: 09330811

Fourth Edition, September 2007, version 8.1.1
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CONTENTS
Description of Guide ................................................................ xiii About this book .............................................................................xv How to find business scenarios and examples .......................xv Prerequisites .......................................................................... xvi Who should use this guide..................................................... xvi Resources.................................................................................... xvi Documentation....................................................................... xvi Education ............................................................................. xxiii Consulting ............................................................................ xxiii International support ............................................................ xxiii Technical Support ................................................................. xxv Feedback .................................................................................... xxx

1. BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform

Introduction.................................................................................. 1 Business intelligence architecture ................................................. 2 Source systems for data collection .......................................... 3 Extraction, transformation, and loading process...................... 4 Data warehouse for data storage and relational design .......... 5 The MicroStrategy platform ........................................................... 7 MicroStrategy metadata........................................................... 8 MicroStrategy Intelligence Server .......................................... 11 MicroStrategy Desktop........................................................... 11 MicroStrategy Web and Web Universal ................................. 13 MicroStrategy project ............................................................. 14 The project design process.......................................................... 15

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Project Design Guide

2. The Logical Data Model

Introduction................................................................................ 17 Facts: Business data and measurements.................................... 21 Attributes: Context for your levels of data.................................... 22 Attribute elements: Data level values..................................... 23 Attribute relationships ............................................................ 24 Hierarchies: Data relationship organization ................................. 25 Sample data model...................................................................... 26 Building a logical data model ....................................................... 26 User requirements ................................................................. 27 Existing source systems ........................................................ 28 Converting source data to analytical data.............................. 28 Logical data modeling conventions.............................................. 33 Unique identifiers ................................................................... 34 Cardinalities and ratios .......................................................... 35 Attribute forms ....................................................................... 36

3. Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model

Introduction................................................................................ 39 Columns: Data identifiers and values .......................................... 41 Tables: Physical groupings of related data.................................. 41 Uniquely identifying data in tables with key structures........... 42 Lookup tables: Attribute storage ............................................ 43 Relate tables: A unique case for relating attributes ............... 45 Fact tables: Fact data and levels of aggregation ................... 46 Homogeneous versus heterogeneous column naming.......... 49 Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage......................................................................................... 51 Highly normalized schema: Minimal storage space............... 52 Moderately normalized schema: Balanced storage space and query performance.......................................................... 54 Highly denormalized schema: Enhanced query performance........................................................................... 56 Design trade-offs ......................................................................... 59 Schema type comparisons .......................................................... 60

4. Creating and Configuring a Project

Introduction................................................................................ 63 Project connectivity components ................................................. 64 MicroStrategy metadata......................................................... 64 Metadata shell ....................................................................... 65 Project source ........................................................................ 65

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Database instance ................................................................. 67 Project.................................................................................... 67 Summary of project connectivity ............................................ 68 Creating a project ........................................................................ 68 Creating the metadata repository ................................................ 71 Connecting to the metadata repository and data source ............. 71 Connecting to the metadata repository .................................. 72 Connecting to a data source .................................................. 72 Creating the project ..................................................................... 73 Creating a test or prototype project using Project Builder...... 74 Creating a production project using Project Creation Assistant ................................................................................ 75 Creating facts and attributes........................................................ 82 Configuring additional schema-level settings .............................. 83 Deploying your project and creating reports ................................ 84

5. The Building Blocks of Introduction................................................................................ 85 Business Data: Facts Creating facts............................................................................... 87 Simultaneously creating multiple, simple facts ...................... 88 Creating and modifying simple and advanced facts .............. 91 The structure of facts ................................................................... 96 How facts are defined ................................................................. 97 Mapping physical columns to facts: Fact expressions ........... 98 Fact column names and data types: Column aliases ................ 105 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions.................................................................................. 107 Defining a join on fact tables using table relations............... 110 Defining a join on fact tables using fact relations................. 114 Forcing facts to relate to attributes: Using cross product joins ........................................................................ 116 Lowering the level of fact data: Fact degradations .............. 118 Disallowing the reporting of a fact at a certain level............. 122

6. The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes

Introduction.............................................................................. 125 Creating attributes ..................................................................... 129 Simultaneously creating multiple attributes.......................... 129 Adding and modifying attributes .......................................... 134 Unique sets of attribute information: Attribute elements ............ 140

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Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms ......... 143 Attribute form properties ...................................................... 146 Attribute form expressions ................................................... 147 Modifying attribute data types: Column aliases ................... 156 Attribute forms versus separate attributes ........................... 158 Attribute relationships ................................................................ 159 Viewing and editing the parents and children of attributes .............................................................................. 161 Supporting many-to-many and joint child relationships ....... 163 Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles ......... 175 Specifying attribute roles ..................................................... 177 Attributes with more than one ID column: Compound attributes .................................................................................... 183 Example: Creating compound attributes.............................. 184 Collections of attribute forms: Form groups............................... 186 Supporting compound attributes .......................................... 187 Displaying and organizing related forms.............................. 188 Using attributes to browse and report on data........................... 189 Setting how attribute forms are displayed by default ........... 191

7. Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes

Introduction.............................................................................. 193 Creating user hierarchies........................................................... 194 Types of hierarchies .................................................................. 196 System hierarchy: Project schema definition ....................... 197 User hierarchies: Logical business relationships ................. 197 Hierarchy organization............................................................... 198 Hierarchy structure............................................................... 199 Viewing hierarchies: Hierarchy Viewer ................................ 200 Configuring hierarchy display options........................................ 200 Controlling the display of attribute elements ........................ 201 Filtering attributes in a hierarchy.......................................... 203 Entry point............................................................................ 205 Hierarchy browsing .............................................................. 206 Using the Hierarchy Viewer and Table Viewer .......................... 211 Using the Hierarchy Viewer ................................................. 211 Using the Table Viewer........................................................ 213

8. Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project viii

Introduction.............................................................................. 215 Updating your MicroStrategy project schema............................ 216

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Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog ...................................................................................... 218 What should I know before I use the Warehouse Catalog? .............................................................................. 219 Accessing the Warehouse Catalog...................................... 219 Adding and removing tables for a project ............................ 220 Managing warehouse and project tables ............................. 221 Modifying data warehouse connection and operation defaults ................................................................................ 226 Customizing catalog SQL statements.................................. 233 Troubleshooting table and column messages ..................... 239 Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables ............. 241 When to use aggregate tables............................................. 242 Determining the frequency of queries at a specific level...... 246 Considering any related parent-child relationships .............. 246 Compression ratio................................................................ 247 Creating aggregate tables ................................................... 248 The size of tables in a project: Logical table size................. 249 Dividing tables to increase performance: Partition mapping...... 250 Server versus application partitioning .................................. 250 Metadata partition mapping ................................................. 251 Warehouse partition mapping .............................................. 254 Metadata versus warehouse partition mapping ................... 255

9. Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons

Introduction.............................................................................. 257 Creating transformations ........................................................... 258 Expression-based versus table-based transformations ....... 259 Building a table-based transformation ................................. 260 Building an expression-based transformation...................... 261 Transformation components ...................................................... 263 Transformation metrics and joint child attributes ....................... 265

A. MicroStrategy Tutorial Introduction.............................................................................. 267 What is the MicroStrategy Tutorial?........................................... 267 MicroStrategy Tutorial data model............................................. 271 Geography hierarchy ........................................................... 272 Products hierarchy ............................................................... 274 Customers hierarchy............................................................ 276 Time hierarchy ..................................................................... 277 Promotions hierarchy ........................................................... 278

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..................................................................................................... 328 Connecting to SAP BW servers on UNIX and Linux................................................................. 330 Connecting to Essbase servers ............................................ 285 Time schema ................ 322 Connecting to SAP BW servers............................................ 284 Customers schema ......................... 298 Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy ....................................... 283 Products schema .............. 349 Creating metrics from OLAP cube data with MDX and compound metric techniques ....................................... 291 MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources .... 311 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy....................Contents Project Design Guide MicroStrategy Tutorial schema ......................................... Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Introduction...... 317 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy................................. 340 Configuring the XMLA Provider ........................... 344 Mapping OLAP cubes ..................... 338 Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers............................. 297 Understanding the SAP BW terminology ..................................... 288 Miscellaneous fact tables......... 359 x © 2007 MicroStrategy......................................................... 288 B.... 287 Sales fact tables .... .......... 286 Promotions schema .......... 327 Connecting to SAP BW servers on Windows ........................................................... 308 SAP BW structures ................... 280 Geography schema .................................. 302 Supporting SAP BW variables ............................... 337 Configuring the XMLA Provider ............................................................ 294 Authentication ............................................ 334 Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers............................................................................. 334 Configuring the XMLA Provider ......................................................................... 287 Inventory fact tables........ 343 Importing OLAP cubes............................................................................................................. 292 Understanding MicroStrategy architecture.................................................................................................................................................................................... 311 Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy ......................................................................................... 341 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy... Inc..............................................................................................................

................................... 376 Business case 1: Distinct attribute lookup table..................... 389 Business case 5: Outer joins between attribute lookup tables.................................. 403 Index ............................................ Inc......................... xi ............................................................................................... 369 Logical tables............... 375 Logical view examples.... 395 Mapping of external data types to MicroStrategy data types............................................................................................ 371 Creating logical tables ........................................ 427 © 2007 MicroStrategy.................................................... 377 Business case 3: Slowly changing dimensions................................................................................................. 370 How should I use logical tables? ....... 398 Data type and format type compatibility................................................................. 390 D.................................................... Logical Tables Introduction............ 400 Using the Big Decimal data type................................. 399 Big Decimal.................................. 378 Business case 4: One-to-many transformation tables .................. 373 Using SQL for logical views ......................................................................................................... 376 Business case 2: Attribute form expression across multiple tables .................................................................... 395 MicroStrategy data types ..... Data Types Introduction................ 401 Glossary . 397 Format types................................................................................Project Design Guide Contents C.........................................................................

Contents Project Design Guide xii © 2007 MicroStrategy. . Inc.

Chapter 2. Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model. and modifying a project in MicroStrategy and covers a wide range of project-related topics. BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform. including the following: • Chapter 1. Chapter 4. • • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. explores logical data modeling and how it can help you identify the different elements within your business data and plan your project. Creating and Configuring a Project. xiii .PREFACE Description of Guide The MicroStrategy Project Design Guide provides comprehensive information on planning. creating. Inc. Chapter 3. describes components of the physical warehouse schema such as columns and tables and explores how you can map components from the logical data model to components in the database to form the physical warehouse schema. The Logical Data Model. provides a brief introduction to business intelligence architecture and some of the main components within the MicroStrategy platform. describes the major components involved in project creation and guides you through the process of creating a project in MicroStrategy.

Chapter 9. Microsoft® Analysis Services. discusses the different types of hierarchies in MicroStrategy. • • xiv © 2007 MicroStrategy. which includes a metadata and warehouse. Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons. This chapter also covers all the steps necessary to create attributes for your project. describes the structure of facts and explores different types of facts and how they relate to your business data. Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project. MicroStrategy Tutorial. • • • • The appendixes contain the following additional reference information. Appendix C. The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes. or Hyperion® Essbase® for use within MicroStrategy. which you may or may not require depending on your specific needs: • Appendix A.Preface Project Design Guide • Chapter 5. provides information about connecting to an OLAP Cube source such as SAP® BW. Chapter 6. This chapter also covers all the steps necessary to create facts for your project. Appendix B. Chapter 8. . provides a conceptual look at the structure of attributes and explores different types of attributes and how they relate to your business data. Logical Tables. and a set of demonstration applications designed to illustrate the features of the MicroStrategy platform. Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes. and explains how you can create user hierarchies to help organize and enhance your project. Inc. the different types of logical tables. discusses the different types of transformations in MicroStrategy and describes how you can create transformations in your project. provides information on the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources. and how to create logical tables and views in MicroStrategy. Chapter 7. discusses logical tables. The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts. describes methods you can implement to better optimize and maintain your project for both the short and long term.

and customer analysis. which are a set of sample analytics. Inc. How to find business scenarios and examples Within this guide.Project Design Guide Preface • Appendix D. metadata. About this book xv . provides information about the different data types in MicroStrategy. which is MicroStrategy’s sample warehouse. About this book This book is divided into chapters that begin with a brief overview of the chapter’s content. human resources. and describe the user roles the information in this book was designed for. see the MicroStrategy Tutorial. Example analysis includes such business areas as financial reporting. each from a different business area. The Analytics Modules are part of a product bundle called the MicroStrategy Business Intelligence Developer Kit (BIDK). Information about the MicroStrategy Tutorial can be found in the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. © 2007 MicroStrategy. list prerequisites for using this book. Business scenarios can be found in the Analytics Modules. The following sections provide the location of additional examples. Detailed examples of advanced reporting functionality can be found in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. For examples of reporting functionality. many of the concepts discussed are accompanied by business scenarios or other descriptive examples. Each module comes with a sample data model and a collection of packaged reports that allow dozens of analytical variations. and project. Data Types.

and modify a MicroStrategy project using the MicroStrategy platform. Manuals: MicroStrategy manuals provide • • • introductory information concepts checklists xvi Resources © 2007 MicroStrategy. the following business intelligence application users should read this guide: • • Project Designers Database Administrators Resources Documentation MicroStrategy provides both manuals and online help. Inc. create. . In short.Preface Project Design Guide Prerequisites Before working with this document. you should be familiar with: • • the information provided in the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide the nature and structure of the data you want to use for your business intelligence application Who should use this guide This document is designed for all users who require an understanding of how to design. these two information sources provide different types of information. as described below.

Resources xvii . © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide Preface • • examples high-level procedures to get started Online help: MicroStrategy online help provides • • detailed steps to perform procedures descriptions of each option on every software screen Manuals The following manuals are available from your CD-ROM or the machine where MicroStrategy was installed. as well as basic maintenance guidelines.com. Reporting. Adobe Acrobat Reader 4. If you do not have Acrobat Reader installed on your computer. • MicroStrategy Quick Start Guide Overview of the installation and evaluation process. configuring. Inc. and HP platforms. Linux. The procedure to access them is below.0 or higher is required to view these documents. MicroStrategy Overview • Introduction to MicroStrategy: Evaluation Guide Instructions for installing. and Analysis Products • MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide Information to install and configure MicroStrategy products on Windows. UNIX. Manuals for Query.adobe. you can download it from www. and using the MicroStrategy Evaluation Edition of the software. • MicroStrategy Upgrade Guide Instructions to upgrade existing MicroStrategy products. and additional resources.

and project optimization. Covers installation and configuration of MicroStrategy Mobile and how a designer working in MicroStrategy xviii Resources © 2007 MicroStrategy. format. and how to analyze data in a report. and distribute business data. • MicroStrategy Report Services Document Creation Guide Instructions to design and create Report Services documents. filters. • MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide Instructions to get started with MicroStrategy Desktop and MicroStrategy Web. maintain. Data Mining Services. and understand facts. tune. • MicroStrategy Mobile User Guide Instructions for using MicroStrategy Mobile to view and analyze data. • MicroStrategy Office User Guide Instructions for using MicroStrategy Office to work with MicroStrategy reports and documents in Microsoft® Excel. Freeform SQL reports. consolidations. Includes the basics for creating reports. filters. and Outlook. and perform other business tasks with MicroStrategy reports and documents on a mobile device. metrics.Preface Project Design Guide • MicroStrategy System Administration Guide Concepts and high-level steps to implement. OLAP Cube reports. Word. building on information in the Basic Reporting Guide and Advanced Reporting Guide. Query Builder reports. transformations. advanced schemas. metrics. and prompts. Inc. to analyze. deploy. Topics include reports. and troubleshoot a MicroStrategy business intelligence system. • MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide Instructions for advanced topics in the MicroStrategy system. . PowerPoint®. attributes. and prompts. building on information in the Basic Reporting Guide. • MicroStrategy Project Design Guide Information to create and modify MicroStrategy projects. hierarchies. custom groups.

Inc. • MicroStrategy Functions Reference Function syntax and formula components. instructions to use functions in metrics. • MicroStrategy Narrowcast Server Application Designer Guide Fundamentals of designing Narrowcast Server applications. and troubleshoot Narrowcast Server. filters. examples of functions in business scenarios. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Manuals for Information Delivery and Alerting Products • MicroStrategy Narrowcast Server Getting Started Guide Instructions to work with the tutorial to learn Narrowcast Server interfaces and features. configure. Resources xix . • MicroStrategy Narrowcast Server Installation and Configuration Guide Information to install and configure Narrowcast Server. • MicroStrategy Narrowcast Server Upgrade Guide Instructions to upgrade an existing Narrowcast Server. • MicroStrategy Narrowcast Server System Administrator Guide Concepts and high-level steps to implement. tune. attribute forms. tune.Project Design Guide Preface Desktop or MicroStrategy Web can create effective reports and documents for use with MicroStrategy Mobile. • MicroStrategy Web Services Administration Guide Concepts and tasks to install. maintain. and troubleshoot MicroStrategy Web Services.

Inc. and so on. xx Resources © 2007 MicroStrategy. object models. . MicroStrategy. then Product Manuals. • MicroStrategy Web SDK The Web SDK is available in the MicroStrategy Developer Library. A Web page opens with a list of available manuals in PDF format. integrate Narrowcast Server with other systems.Preface Project Design Guide Manuals for Analytics Modules • • • • • • Business Intelligence Developer Kit (BIDK) Installation and Porting Guide Customer Analysis Module Reference Sales Force Analysis Module Reference Financial Reporting Analysis Module Reference Sales and Distribution Analysis Module Reference Human Resources Analysis Module Reference Software Development Kits • MicroStrategy Developer Library (MSDL) Information to understand the MicroStrategy SDK. which is sold as part of the MicroStrategy SDK. To access installed online documentation 1 From the Windows Start menu. Documents the Narrowcast Server Delivery Engine and Subscription Portal APIs. 2 Click the link for the desired manual. and the Narrowcast Server SPI. code samples. • Narrowcast Server SDK Guide Instructions to customize Narrowcast Server functionality. choose Programs. including details about architecture. customization scenarios. and embed Narrowcast Server functionality within other applications.

When you select one of these guides. click the Bookmarks and Page from the View menu. F1 key: Press F1 to see context-sensitive help addressing the function or task you are currently performing. Resources xxi .Project Design Guide Preface 3 Some documentation is provided in HTML help format. Help menu: Select Contents and Index to see the main table of contents for the help system. If bookmarks are not visible on the left side of an Acrobat (PDF) document. the File Download dialog box opens. Online help MicroStrategy provides several ways to access online help: • • • Help button: Use the Help button at the bottom of most software screens to see context-sensitive help. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. Select Open this file from its current location. and click OK.

italic • new terms defined within the text and in the glossary • names of other product manuals • when part of a command syntax. indicates variable information to be replaced by the user Example: The aggregation level is the level of calculation for the metric. . The following table lists these conventions. Type bold Indicates • button names. Inc. check boxes. and menus that are the focus of actions or part of a list of such GUI elements and their definitions • text to be entered by the user Example: Click Select Warehouse. Example: Type copy c:\filename d:\foldername\filename Courier font • • • • • • calculations code samples registry keys path and file names URLs messages displayed in the screen Example: Sum(revenue)/number of months. xxii Resources © 2007 MicroStrategy. + A keyboard command that calls for the use of more than one key (for example. SHIFT+F1) A note icon indicates helpful information for specific situations. options. dialog boxes. lists. A warning icon alerts you to important information such as potential security risks. press CTRL+B. these should be read before continuing. UPPERCASE • keyboard command key (such as ENTER) • shortcut key (such as CTRL+V) Example: To bold the selected text.Preface Project Design Guide Documentation standards MicroStrategy online help and PDF manuals (available both online and in printed format) provides standards to help you identify concepts and procedures. Example: Type cmdmgr -f scriptfile.scp and press ENTER.

and more. currency symbols. project and testing strategies and recommendations. visit www. It also includes the availability of translated interfaces and documentation.com/Education. Offerings include complex security architecture designs.Project Design Guide Preface Education MicroStrategy Education Services provides a comprehensive curriculum and highly skilled education consultants. and more.com/Consulting. metadata. International support MicroStrategy supports several locales. strategic planning. and statistics databases MicroStrategy Intelligence Server MicroStrategy Web server MicroStrategy Desktop client Web browser © 2007 MicroStrategy. support for date formats. A MicroStrategy business intelligence environment consists of the following components. visit www. decimal formats. Resources xxiii .microstrategy. Inc. For a detailed description of education offerings and course curriculums. performance and tuning. For a detailed description of consulting offerings. Consulting MicroStrategy Consulting Services provides proven methods for delivering leading-edge technology solutions.microstrategy. Many customers and partners from over 800 different organizations have benefited from MicroStrategy instruction. The level of support is defined in terms of the components of a MicroStrategy business intelligence environment. Support for a locale typically includes native database and operating system support. collectively known as a configuration: • • • • • warehouse.

translated versions of the online help files and product documentation are available in several of the above languages.Preface Project Design Guide MicroStrategy is certified in homogeneous configurations (where all the components lie in the same locale) in the following languages: English (US). Portuguese (Brazilian).2. The user language in the product interface is also the language that you selected the first time you installed the product on the system. Once the product is installed.3 The user language preference that was set previously in version 7. .2. The user language in the product interface is the language that you select during installation. Korean. xxiv Resources © 2007 MicroStrategy. Japanese. In addition. Chinese (simplified) and Swedish. Italian.3 is the language of display of the installation routine and the user language of the product interface. French. Installation Fresh installation on a system in which MicroStrategy application has never been installed before Result The MicroStrategy Installation Wizard prompts you to select the language from the drop-down list. the Online Help is displayed in the same language that the user selects in the language prompt of the installation routine. German. Upgrading an earlier installation from version 7. MicroStrategy also provides limited support for heterogeneous configurations (where some of the components may lie in different locales). Please contact MicroStrategy Technical Support for more details. Inc. Spanish. The following table lists the language selection possibilities for different installation cases. Repair or maintenance installation on a system on which MicroStrategy application has been installed before All subsequent executions of the installation routine are displayed in the language that you selected the first time you installed the product on the system. A translated user interface is available in each of the above languages.

Inc. Technical Support If you have questions about a specific MicroStrategy product. Resources xxv . are displayed in the language that you selected during the upgrade installation.x Result The MicroStrategy Installation Wizard prompts you to select the language from the drop-down list. including 7.2. all subsequent executions of the installation routine for maintenance or for upgrade. The installation routine is displayed in the selected language. the installation Online Help is displayed in English only. online help.Project Design Guide Preface Installation Upgrading an earlier installation from version 7. and release notes. Completely uninstalling all the MicroStrategy products and installing the same version or a newer version If you uninstall all the products and install either the same version or a higher version again. readme files. Note: Even if you select a language from the language prompt in the installation routine. the MicroStrategy Installation Wizard prompts you to select the language from the drop-down list. Paths to access each are described above. you should: 1 Consult the product guides. Besides.1. it has no effect on the default language of the product interfaces. However. 2 Consult the MicroStrategy Knowledge Base online at http://www.2 or earlier.microstrategy. During installation.asp © 2007 MicroStrategy. unless overridden by the command line parameter. the user language of the product interface language remains the same as the one set in the product interface before running the upgrade installation.com/support/ k_base/index.

Refer to the terms of your purchase agreement to determine the type of support available to you.com/ Support/Policies. To ensure the most effective and productive relationship with MicroStrategy Technical Support.microstrategy. Inc. 2 Verify that the system is using a currently supported version of MicroStrategy software by checking the Product Support Expiration Schedule at http://www. 4 Minimize the complexity of the system or project object definition to isolate the cause. 3 Attempt to reproduce the issue and determine whether it occurs consistently. A Support Liaison is a person whom your company has designated as a point-of-contact with MicroStrategy’s support personnel. Your company may designate two employees to serve as their Support Liaisons. 3 If the resources listed in the steps above do not provide you with a solution.Preface Project Design Guide A technical administrator in your organization may be able to help you resolve your issues immediately.asp.com/Support/ Expiration.microstrategy. contact MicroStrategy Technical Support directly. review the Policies and Procedures document posted at http://www. Your company may request to change their Support Liaisons two times per year with prior written notice to MicroStrategy Technical Support. Ensure issues are resolved quickly Before logging a case with MicroStrategy Technical Support. MicroStrategy Technical Support may be contacted by your company’s Support Liaison. xxvi Resources © 2007 MicroStrategy. All customer inquiries and case communications must come through these named individuals. the Support Liaison may follow the steps below to ensure that issues are resolved quickly: 1 Verify that the issue is with MicroStrategy software and not a third party software. .

microstrategy. or log a case using the Online Support Interface. GMT. Inc. Phone: • United Kingdom: +44 (0) 208 396 0085 • Benelux: +31 20 346 9210 • Finland: +35 8 9 6937 9620 • France: +33 1 41 91 86 49 • Germany: +49 69 95096206 • Ireland: +35 3 1242 1522 • Italy: +39 02696 33 456 • Spain: +34 91 406 90 10 • International distributors: +44 (0) 208 396 0080 Hours: • United Kingdom: 9:00 A. Monday-Friday except holidays • Mainland Europe: 9:00 A. and how to contact MicroStrategy Technical Support. CET.M.M. If your Support Liaison is unable to reach MicroStrategy Technical Support by phone during the hours of operation.M. the Middle East.com Web: https://support.–6:00 P.com Web: https://support. Resources xxvii . Eastern Time (1400–0000 GMT). Monday–Friday except holidays E-mail: eurosupp@microstrategy.–6:00 P. 6 Discuss the issue with other users by posting a question about the issue on the MicroStrategy Customer Forum at https://forums. North America E-mail: support@microstrategy.com Fax: +44 (0) 208 396 0001 The European Technical Support Centre is closed on certain public holidays.microstrategy.com.–7:00 P.M.M.M. when. they can leave a voicemail message. These holidays reflect the national public holidays in each country. The table on the following page shows where.microstrategy. and Africa (EMEA) © 2007 MicroStrategy. Monday-Friday except holidays Europe.Project Design Guide Preface 5 Determine whether the issue occurs on a local machine or on multiple machines in the customer environment.com Fax: (703) 842–8709 Phone: (703) 848–8700 Hours: 9:00 A. send e-mail or fax.

JST (Tokyo).com Web: https://support. Inc. In Europe. Pakistan. Monday–Friday except holidays Latin America Support Liaisons should contact the Technical Support Center from which they obtained their MicroStrategy software licenses or the Technical Support Center to which they have been designated. Malaysia.Preface Project Design Guide Asia Pacific E-mail: apsupport@microstrategy.M. MicroStrategy Technical Support personnel may make recommendations that require administrative privileges on the MicroStrategy projects. Although not a requirement. Monday-Friday except holidays E-mail: latamsupport@microstrategy.com Fax: +81 3 5456 5464 Phone: • Korea: +82 2 560 6565 • Singapore (supporting Singapore.com Fax: +55 11 3044 4088 Phone: LATAM (except Argentina): +55 11 3054 1010 Argentina: 0 800 444 MSTR Hours: 9:00 A. and Sri Lanka): +65.8969 • Japan (supporting Japan. Australia.com Web: https://support.M. BST (Sao Paulo). . This can eliminate security conflicts and improve case resolution time. we recommend you designate Support Liaisons who have permissions to be MicroStrategy project administrators. In North America. Hong Kong. and all other Asia Pacific countries not listed in this section): +81 3 3511 6720 Hours: 9:00 A. these holidays reflect many U. and Latin America. national holidays.–7:00 P. these holidays reflect the national public holidays in each country. The individual Technical Support Centers are closed on certain public holidays.microstrategy. Taiwan.M. During the course of troubleshooting and researching issues. China. Required information when calling When contacting MicroStrategy Technical Support. please provide the following information: • xxviii Resources Personal information: © 2007 MicroStrategy.6303. New Zealand. India. Asia Pacific.M.–6:00 P.S. or that assume that the designated Support Liaison has a security level that permits them to fully manipulate the MicroStrategy projects and has access to potentially sensitive project data such as security filter definitions.microstrategy.

including MicroStrategy software product(s) and versions Full description of the case including symptoms. Resources • • xxix . and be ready to provide it when inquiring about an existing case software version and product registration numbers of the MicroStrategy software products you are using case description: What causes the condition to occur? Does the condition occur sporadically or each time a certain action is performed? Does the condition occur on all machines or just on one? © 2007 MicroStrategy. and steps taken to troubleshoot the case thus far • Business/system impact If this is the Support Liaison’s first call. Inc.Project Design Guide Preface Name (first and last) Company and customer site (if different from company) Contact information (phone and fax numbers. e-mail addresses) • Case details: Configuration information. be prepared to provide the following additional information: • case number: Please keep a record of the number assigned to each case logged with MicroStrategy Technical Support. error messages(s). they should also be prepared to provide the following: • • • • street address phone number fax number e-mail address To help the Technical Support representative work to resolve the problem promptly and effectively.

disk space. or a software upgrade)? If there was an error message. If the Technical Support representative is responsible for an action item. a major database load. RAM. The Support Liaison may call MicroStrategy Technical Support at any time to inquire about the status of the issue.Preface Project Design Guide When did the condition first occur? What events took place immediately prior to the first occurrence of the condition (for example. . not all items listed below may be necessary): computer hardware specifications (processor speed. Feedback Please send any comments or suggestions about user documentation for MicroStrategy products to: xxx Feedback © 2007 MicroStrategy. and so on) network protocol used ODBC driver manufacturer and version database gateway software version (for MicroStrategy Web-related problems) browser manufacturer and version (for MicroStrategy Web-related problems) Web server manufacturer and version If the issue requires additional investigation or testing. The Support Liaison should perform any agreed-upon actions before contacting MicroStrategy Technical Support again regarding the issue. Inc. the Support Liaison and the MicroStrategy Technical Support representative should agree on certain action items to be performed. a database move. what was its exact wording? What steps have you taken to isolate and resolve the issue? What were the results? • system configuration (the information needed depends on the nature of the problem.

com Send suggestions for product enhancements to: support@microstrategy. please include the name and version of the products you are currently using. Inc.Project Design Guide Preface documentationfeedback@microstrategy.com When you provide feedback to us. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Feedback xxxi . Your feedback is important to us as we prepare for future releases.

.Preface Project Design Guide xxxii Feedback © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc.

specifically.1 1. 1 . how the MicroStrategy platform interacts with your business data to provide a wide range of functionality. Inc. it is important to understand how business intelligence systems work and. BI ARCHITECTURE AND THE MICROSTRATEGY PLATFORM Introduction Before planning and creating a project in MicroStrategy. An optimum business intelligence application: • • • Gives users access to data at various levels of detail Allows users to request information and have it delivered to them accurately and quickly Provides a foundation for the proactive delivery of information to system subscribers © 2007 MicroStrategy. Business intelligence (BI) systems facilitate the analysis of volumes of complex data by providing the ability to view data from multiple perspectives.

For more information on how MicroStrategy can access your data sources. but other systems or files that capture or hold data of interest are also possible An extraction. 2 Business intelligence architecture © 2007 MicroStrategy. Business intelligence architecture A BI architecture has the following components: • A source system—typically an online transaction processing (OLTP) system. Hyperion Essbase. Inc. MicroStrategy can also access data from text files. page 5. . see Data warehouse for data storage and relational design. as well as some of the components within the MicroStrategy platform that allow you to create and analyze your business intelligence. transformation. and other data sources.1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide This chapter introduces you to the basic architecture of BI systems. Excel files. and loading (ETL) process A data warehouse—typically an online analytical processing (OLAP) system A business intelligence platform such as MicroStrategy • • • The diagram above illustrates the common setup for standardizing data from source systems and transferring that data into MicroStrategy. SAP BW. Microsoft Analysis Services.

Project Design Guide BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform 1 Source systems for data collection Source systems refer to any system or file that captures or holds data of interest. Business intelligence architecture 3 . • • • Recall the example of a bank that relies on several source systems to store data related to the many services the bank offers. page 5. as the system records huge volumes of data every day. insertions. by business activities and workflow. see Data warehouse for data storage and relational design. inventory. Meanwhile. telecommunications. Data history is limited to recent or current data. Data is aligned by application. Inc. For more information on data warehouse design. and order processing. Data formats are not necessarily uniform across systems. © 2007 MicroStrategy. or deletions. and therefore has many source systems to support these services. An example of data that benefits from this type of optimization is the number of credit card transactions that an OLTP system might record in a single day. and many others. manufacturing. website usage. e-commerce. suppose one source system—a database file on the bank’s server—keeps track of deposits and withdrawals as they occur. A bank is an example of a business with many source systems. A source system is usually the most significant site of online transaction processing (OLTP). For example. deposits. Each of these business services has a different and specific workflow. An average bank offers several services such as account activity updates and loan disbursement. that is. This is in contrast to data warehouses which are often designed for reading data for analysis with a minimum number of updates. This processing is relied upon daily by nearly every industry. a different source system—another file on the server—keeps track of each customer’s contact information. Transactional processing involves the simple recording of transactions and other business data such as sales. OLTP systems are databases or mainframes that store real-time processing data and have the following characteristics: • Data access is optimized for frequent reading and writing. including health care.

Extraction. The ETL process involves the following steps: 1 Data is gathered from various source systems. This consolidation is achieved using the extraction. . and loading process The extraction. Transformation procedures can include converting data types and names. such as a customer's ATM activity. you must enter the bank and perform the transaction with a bank teller. and loading (ETL) process represents all the steps necessary to move data from different source systems to an integrated data warehouse. and loading (ETL) process. to get a money order. Each of these different sets of data is likely gathered by different source systems. However. and account balances.1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide At an automated teller machine (ATM). account balances. The ETL process consolidates data so it can be stored in a data warehouse. 3 The data is loaded into the data warehouse. loan status. 2 The data is transformed and prepared to be loaded into the data warehouse. the customer information stored in each of these different systems must be consolidated. including the customer's ATM activity. and these two services require different operational systems. This process can be explained with the example of a bank that wants to consolidate a variety of information about a particular customer. correcting typographical errors. and money market account information. If a bank wants to see a unified view of a particular customer. loan status. transformation. Inc. This is because the operational systems supporting these two services are designed to perform specific tasks. filling in incomplete data. transformation. and similar processes to standardize the format and structure of data. transformation. eliminating unwanted data. you can withdraw or deposit money as well as check on balances. Since 4 Business intelligence architecture © 2007 MicroStrategy.

and OLAP cubes. However. Excel files. see Storing and analyzing data with alternative data sources. Data warehouse for data storage and relational design A well-designed and robust data warehouse is the source of data for the decision support system or business intelligence system. Most data warehouses have the following characteristics: • Data access is typically read-only. whereas data warehouses are usually designed and optimized for analytical processing. percent-to-total contributions. It enables its users to leverage the competitive advantage that the business intelligence provides. In combination with MicroStrategy tools and products. or deleted. Business intelligence architecture 5 . the data warehouse also provides the foundation for a robust online analytical processing (OLAP) system. updated. This is in contrast to most © 2007 MicroStrategy. Data warehouses are usually based on relational databases or some form of relational database management system (RDBMS) platform. transforms it until it is standardized and consistent. MicroStrategy does not require that data be stored in a relational database. and then loads the data into the data warehouse. the ETL process extracts the data from the different banking source systems. The source systems described above. and profit analysis. are generally designed and optimized for transactional processing. the data that comes from one system may be inconsistent with the data that comes from another system. You can integrate different types of data sources with MicroStrategy such as text files. Analytical processing involves activities such as choosing to see sales data by month and selecting the applicable metric to calculate sales trends. such as OLTP systems. The most common action is the selection of data for analysis. growth patterns.Project Design Guide BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform 1 each source system can have its own naming conventions. In this case. page 6. These relational databases can be queried directly with Structured Query Language (SQL). a language developed specifically to interact with RDBMS software. trend reporting. Inc. For more information on accessing data stored in alternative data sources. Data is rarely inserted.

Data history extends long-term. A data warehouse can be thought of as one type of data source. A data source is any file. The Logical Data Model and Chapter 3. Defining a project’s logical data model and physical warehouse schema are important steps in preparing your data for a MicroStrategy project. Data formats are uniformly integrated using an ETL process (see Extraction. and loading process. system. page 4). transformation. The following are different data source alternatives which MicroStrategy can integrate with: • OLAP cube sources: In MicroStrategy you can integrate with sets of data from SAP BW. For more information on source systems. reporting. • • Data is aligned by business subjects. Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model. and refers specifically to using a database as your data source. and loading process. . Inc. The structure of data in a data warehouse and how it relates to your MicroStrategy environment can be defined and understood through a logical data model and physical warehouse schema. and Hyperion Essbase. which are a common type of data warehouse.1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide OLTP source systems which must be able to handle frequent updates as data is gathered. or storage location which stores data that is to be used in MicroStrategy for query. transformation. For more information on the steps of the project design process. page 3. which are referred to as 6 Business intelligence architecture © 2007 MicroStrategy. Microsoft Analysis Services. MicroStrategy can also integrate with a number of alternative data sources. usually two to five years. A data warehouse is populated with data from the existing operational systems using an ETL process. • • Storing and analyzing data with alternative data sources Along with integrating with relational databases. as explained in Extraction. and analysis. see Chapter 2. see Source systems for data collection. page 4.

The MicroStrategy platform 7 . page 11—an analytical server optimized for enterprise querying. For more information on connecting to and integrating OLAP cube sources in MicroStrategy. As with OLAP cube sources described above. page 8—a repository that stores MicroStrategy object definitions and information about the data warehouse MicroStrategy Intelligence Server. MicroStrategy can report against these alternative data sources while concurrently accessing a relational database to integrate all of your data into one cohesive project. and maintenance of business intelligence applications. reporting. Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources. Windows-based environment providing a complete range of analytical functions designed to facilitate the deployment of reports MicroStrategy Web and Web Universal. and OLAP analysis MicroStrategy Desktop. you can query. page 13—a highly interactive user environment and a low-maintenance interface for reporting and analysis • • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. • Text files and Excel files: With MicroStrategy’s Freeform SQL and Query Builder features. see Appendix B. analyze. MicroStrategy can integrate with these data sources while simultaneously accessing a relational database effectively. For more information on using text files and Excel files with the Freeform SQL and Query Builder features. Inc. The MicroStrategy platform A business intelligence platform offers a complete set of tools for the creation.Project Design Guide BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform 1 OLAP cube sources. deployment. and report on data stored in text files and Excel files. support. Some of the main components of the MicroStrategy platform include: • MicroStrategy metadata. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. page 11—an advanced.

The information is stored in a proprietary 8 The MicroStrategy platform © 2007 MicroStrategy. The sections that follow provide a brief overview of each of these components. MicroStrategy metadata MicroStrategy metadata is a repository that stores MicroStrategy object definitions and information about your data warehouse. see the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide.1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide • MicroStrategy project. page 14—where you build and store all schema objects and information you need to create application objects such as reports in the MicroStrategy environment. To learn how to administer and tune the MicroStrategy platform. refer to the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. which together provide a flexible reporting environment The MicroStrategy platform components work together to provide an analysis and reporting environment to your user community. . Inc. For more detailed information about these and the other components that make up the MicroStrategy platform. as shown in the following diagram.

metrics. These objects are not used directly for reporting. These schema objects are often created and managed by a MicroStrategy architect: Facts relate numeric data values from the data warehouse to the MicroStrategy reporting environment. are all created and stored in the metadata repository. attributes. Facts are used to create metrics. The MicroStrategy platform 9 . For more information about creating and administering configuration objects. and project administration. You can build and manipulate several fundamentally different kinds of objects in MicroStrategy. In general. Inc. Facts. such as tables. users.Project Design Guide BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform 1 format within a relational database. Schema objects include facts. Schema objects—Objects that are created in the application to correspond to database objects. but are created by a project architect or administrator to configure and govern the platform. The metadata maps MicroStrategy objects—which are used to build reports and analyze data—to your data warehouse structures and data. Examples include database instances. As a general rule. and columns. reports. which are analytical calculations that are displayed on a report. these objects. The metadata also stores the definitions of all objects created with MicroStrategy Desktop and Web such as templates. report creation in MicroStrategy is achieved through using various types of objects which represent your data as report building blocks. user privileges. and so on. views. attributes. see the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts. and other objects which are stored in the Schema Objects folder in MicroStrategy Desktop’s folder list. hierarchies. and so on. groups. • Configuration objects—Objects that provide important information or governing parameters for connectivity. facts. and hierarchies are three essential pieces to any business intelligence application. which are described below. Facts are discussed in more detail in Chapter 5. configuration objects are created and maintained with the managers in MicroStrategy Desktop within the Administration icon. • © 2007 MicroStrategy. The number of units sold is one example of a fact.

Quarter. templates. One of the most common examples of a hierarchy is a time hierarchy which includes attributes such as Year. Hierarchies are discussed in more detail in Chapter 7. Attributes are used to define the level at which you want to view the numeric data on a report. The metadata enables the sharing of objects across MicroStrategy applications by providing a central repository for all object definitions. These groupings can help users make logical connections between attributes when reporting and analyzing data. and so on. Month. MicroStrategy metadata also facilitates the retrieval of data from the data warehouse when using MicroStrategy applications. Hierarchies are groupings of attributes so that they can be displayed to reflect their relationships to other attributes. custom groups.1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide Attributes represent the business context in which fact data is relevant. All application objects can be created and maintained in MicroStrategy Desktop. page 13. In the example of regional sales in the Southeast. filters. . metrics. documents. Information on creating application objects is in the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide and MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. Application objects are created using schema objects as building blocks. Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes. Inc. Southeast represents the attribute or context of the sales data. and prompts. • Application objects—Objects used to provide analysis of and insight into relevant data. see MicroStrategy Web and Web Universal. Attributes are discussed in more detail in Chapter 6. For more information about MicroStrategy Web. Reports and documents can also be created and managed in MicroStrategy Web. Application objects include reports. MicroStrategy Intelligence Server evaluates the most efficient data retrieval scenario to provide excellent query performance. The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes. It converts user requests into SQL queries and 10 The MicroStrategy platform © 2007 MicroStrategy.

See the MicroStrategy Functions Reference for details about these functions. For information on how to install and configure MicroStrategy Intelligence Server. Inc. The MicroStrategy platform 11 . refer to the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide.Project Design Guide BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform 1 translates the results of those SQL queries back into MicroStrategy objects such as reports and documents which can be easily analyzed and understood. MicroStrategy Desktop provides the project designer functionality essential to creating both schema and application objects necessary to serve the user communities of both MicroStrategy Desktop and Web. MicroStrategy Desktop MicroStrategy Desktop is an advanced. and OLAP analysis. refer to the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. For a detailed description of MicroStrategy Intelligence Server functionality and tuning recommendations. The important functions of MicroStrategy Intelligence Server are: • • • • Sharing objects Sharing data Managing the sharing of data and objects in a controlled and secure environment Protecting the information in the metadata MicroStrategy Intelligence Server also provides a library of over 150 different sophisticated mathematical and statistical functions. MicroStrategy Intelligence Server MicroStrategy Intelligence Server is an analytical server optimized for enterprise querying. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Windows-based environment providing a complete range of analytical functionality designed to facilitate the deployment of reports. You can also add and define your own functions. reporting.

which are in turn used to design reports. including MicroStrategy Desktop. This modification is necessary if you have new requirements that require you to add or remove new levels of data in a hierarchy. refer to the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. MicroStrategy Web. For example. If you need to change how to view your business information or how the data is modeled. Desktop is where you can manage application objects such as reports. • After reports have been created. thus providing access to your data. schema objects must first exist. and MicroStrategy Office. Tables in MicroStrategy are references to tables in your data warehouse. For information about the various components that comprise MicroStrategy Desktop. However. and metrics. It provides a unified environment for creating and maintaining business intelligence projects. graphical interface. The change automatically takes effect in the application. One of the other functions of MicroStrategy Desktop is to create projects. hierarchies. Facts. and other schema objects are the building blocks for application objects such as reports and documents. without making any alterations to the database. attributes. Application objects such as reports are used to analyze and provide insight into the relevant data. before application objects are created. You can change the structure of a business hierarchy by re-ordering it. Schema objects allow application objects to interact with the data warehouse to access the data for analysis. Inc. report designers and analysts can deploy them through different interfaces. Desktop provides the ability to modify one aspect of the application without affecting the others. The following examples highlight some ways in which Desktop allows you to model your business intelligence applications: • Every report or query can automatically benefit from the tables you include in an application. facts are used to create metrics. Creating and Configuring a Project.1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide Desktop enables you to model applications using an intuitive. . 12 The MicroStrategy platform © 2007 MicroStrategy. Projects are discussed in Chapter 4. filters.

Sun ONE®. Using the Web interface. For information on advanced Desktop functionality. For more information about deploying MicroStrategy Web. IBM AIX®. industry-leading analysis. and HP-UX Application servers such as BEA WebLogic™. Red Hat® Linux®. MicroStrategy Web provides ad-hoc querying. MicroStrategy Web Universal is a version of MicroStrategy Web that provides the added benefits of also working with: • • • Operating systems such as Sun Solaris™. see the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. analyze. Additional MicroStrategy definitions. MicroStrategy Web and Web Universal MicroStrategy Web provides users with a highly interactive environment and a low-maintenance interface for reporting and analysis. and Apache Tomcat All web servers and browsers supported by MicroStrategy Web MicroStrategy Intelligence Server must be running for users to retrieve information from your data warehouse using MicroStrategy Web products. quick deployment. page 64. IBM WebSphere®. Inc. and rapid customization potential. are discussed in Project connectivity components. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. users can access. making it easy for users to make informed business decisions. refer to the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide.Project Design Guide BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform 1 For more information about creating application objects such as reports in MicroStrategy Desktop. and share data through any web browser on many operating systems. including many project-related terms. © 2007 MicroStrategy. The MicroStrategy platform 13 . Oracle®.

and user community. sales distribution. Schema objects are discussed in later chapters in this guide. In MicroStrategy Desktop. privileges. Contains all reporting objects used to create reports and analyze the data. For example. Security objects include security filters. and so on. reports. metrics. and so on. Security and other project-level administrative features are discussed in the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. . A project also represents the intersection of a data source. security roles. a project the environment in which all related reporting is done. Contains all schema objects used to interpret the data in those tables. attributes. A project can contain many types of objects. projects appear one level below project sources in the Folder List. metadata repository. and reports that you can create using schema objects such as attributes and facts. and so on. A project: • • Determines the set of data warehouse tables to be used. Report objects are covered in the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide and the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. Inc. access control. including application objects such as filters. Defines the security scheme for the user community that accesses these objects. • • A project can contain any number of reports in addition to a number of other objects that support simple and advanced reporting requirements. filters. Projects are often used to separate data from a data warehouse into smaller sections of related data that fit user requirements. prompts. Reporting objects include metrics. and 14 The MicroStrategy platform © 2007 MicroStrategy. Conceptually. hierarchies. inventory. Schema objects include facts. you may have a project source separated into four different projects with analysis areas such as human resources.1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide MicroStrategy project A project is where you build and store all schema objects and information you need to create application objects such as reports in the MicroStrategy environment. which together provide a flexible reporting environment. and therefore the set of data available to be analyzed.

Some key concepts to understand before you begin creating a project are as follows: • A project is created within a specified metadata repository. In the project. This allows all of your users in the human resources department to use the human resources project and they do not have to look through inventory data that they are not interested in. determined by the project source through which you create the project. The project’s warehouse location is specified by associating it with the appropriate database instance.Project Design Guide BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform 1 customer satisfaction. you can then create schema objects based on the columns and tables in the warehouse. • The procedures associated with these concepts are explained in Creating the project. page 73. Inc. one of the connections you create is between the project and your data warehouse. © 2007 MicroStrategy. The project design process When you create a project in MicroStrategy Desktop. The project design process 15 .

. It is important to keep this in mind as you design your project and plan for the next phase of development. Designing a project is very rarely a single. which are each covered in the following chapters: Notice that the project design process includes a feedback loop.1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide The diagram below shows this high-level view of data modeling. 16 The project design process © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. schema design and implementation. new user requirements and project enhancements require modification to the initial project design. and project creation. As projects are deployed and tested. linear process.

A logical data model is similar in concept to using a map and an itinerary when going on a trip. This is different from the physical data model or warehouse schema. You need to know where you are going and how to get there. how its various parts interact.2 2. You also need a plan that is visible and laid out correctly. 17 . A logical data model is a logical arrangement of data as experienced by the general user or business analyst. and can also help you decide what you intend to learn from the data. THE LOGICAL DATA MODEL Conceptualizing your business model and the data on which to report Introduction Devising a model of your business data can help you analyze the structure of the data. Inc. For example. This chapter describes one of the major components of data modeling: the logical data model. a simple logical data model for a retail company can organize all necessary © 2007 MicroStrategy. The logical data model graphically depicts the flow and structure of data in a business environment. which arranges data for efficient database use. providing a way of organizing data so it can be analyzed from different business perspectives.

. the word logical is a more accurate term than multidimensional. While a multidimensional data model must have at least one dimension. This is the key concept of the logical data model. and you do not need to start over completely. product. which are three common business perspectives typically associated with a retail business. a logical data model may or may not have any explicitly defined dimensions.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide facts by store. but the blueprint remains the same. Logical data models are independent of a physical data storage device. The scope and complexity of a logical data model depends on the requirements of the reporting needs of the user community and the availability of source data. If you are familiar with multidimensional data modeling. 18 © 2007 MicroStrategy. The reason that a logical data model must be independent of technology is because technology is changing so rapidly. As the MicroStrategy platform does not require you to define dimensions explicitly. The more sophisticated and complex the reporting requirements and source data. What occurs under the logical data model can change with need or with technology. Inc. and time. logical data modeling is similar to multidimensional data modeling. the more complex the logical data model becomes.

19 . characteristics. © 2007 MicroStrategy. This process can help you think about the various elements that compose your company’s business data and how those elements relate to one another. conceptual. Inc.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 The logical data modeling process produces a diagram similar to the one shown in the following diagram: A logical data model represents the definition. or business environment. and relationships of data in a technical.

This is usually one of the first steps in designing a project. . page 25 20 © 2007 MicroStrategy. as shown in the following diagram: This chapter provides conceptual information about logical data models. page 21 Attributes: Context for your levels of data. Inc. the elements that exist within them. and also general instructions and guidelines for creating these models.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide Devising a logical data model for your business intelligence environment allows you to then consider various ways to physically store the business data in the data warehouse. A logical data model is a graphic representation of the following concepts: • • • Facts: Business data and measurements. page 22 Hierarchies: Data relationship organization.

Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 Facts: Business data and measurements One of the first things you do when you create a logical data model is to determine the facts. Conceptually. the ORDER_AMT column in the warehouse may correspond to the Order Amount fact in the MicroStrategy environment: SELECT sum(a21. For example. or variables that are typically numeric and suitable for aggregation. In a data warehouse. Inc. In MicroStrategy. data. while you capture stock and inventory data in another system and track it weekly. you can capture sales data in one system and track it daily.EMP_ID) WHERE a22. you can think of facts as business measurements. 12) © 2007 MicroStrategy. Facts: Business data and measurements 21 . such as SUM and AVG. For example.EMP_ID = a22. in the following SQL statement. 9. facts are schema objects that relate data values (typically numeric data) from the data warehouse to the MicroStrategy reporting environment. To those familiar with SQL. Facts allow you to access data stored in a data warehouse and they form the basis for the majority of users’ analysis and report requirements. and Account Balance are some examples of facts you can use as business measurements.CALL_CTR_ID in (5. facts generally represent the numeric columns in database tables on which you perform SQL aggregations. facts exist as columns within the fact tables. They can come from different source systems and they can have different levels of detail. The rest of data modeling consists mostly of providing context for the data that facts provide access to.ORDER_AMT) EMP_NAME FROM ORDER_FACT a21 JOIN LU_EMPLOYEE a22 ON (a21. Sales. Inventory. Facts are the building blocks used to create business measurements or metrics from which to derive insight into your data.

such as national. consider the sales figures of your company. you would need to know more about the source of that sales figure such as: • • • • A time frame for the sales Who and how many people contributed to the sales total What products were sold from which departments The scope of the sale. Metrics are discussed in detail in the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. . refer to Chapter 5. Fore a more complete discussion about facts. regional. If you were informed that your company had sales of $10. Attributes: Context for your levels of data After the facts are determined. For example. Inc. To those familiar with SQL. For example. These columns are used to qualify and group fact data. They are used to answer business questions about facts at varying levels of detail. the attributes must be identified.000.ORDER_AMT) represents a metric.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide In addition. a Month attribute allows you to see the same sales data summarized at the month level. local. The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts. if your sales data is stored at the day level. Attributes allow you to answer questions about a fact and provide a context for reporting and analyzing those facts. attributes generally represent the non-numeric and non-aggregatable columns in database tables. you can gather little useful information. while ORDER_AMT is the fact. or a single store Attributes provide context and levels for convenient summarization and qualification of your data to help answer the type of questions listed above. 22 Attributes: Context for your levels of data © 2007 MicroStrategy. sum(a21. To make the sales figure meaningful. which are business calculations often built using facts.

For a complete discussion about attributes. a Customer attribute allows you to see sales data at the customer level and you can qualify on the elements of the Customer attribute to see sales data for groups such as customers with last names beginning with the letter h. Inc. sum(a11.200203) GROUP BY al1.200202. Attribute elements: Data level values Attribute elements are the unique values or contents of an attribute. On a report.MONTH_ID = a12.MONTH_ID in (200201. For example. refer to Chapter 6.MONTH_ID MONTH_ID.MONTH_ID Attribute forms contain additional descriptive information about a given attribute and are discussed in terms of the logical data model in Attribute forms. the MONTH_ID column in the warehouse maps to the Month attribute in the MicroStrategy environment: SELECT a11. max(a12. in the following SQL statement.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 For example.MONTH_ID) WHERE a11. page 36. © 2007 MicroStrategy.MONTH_DESC) MONTH_DESC.TOT_DOLLAR_SALES) DLRSALES FROM MNTH_CATEGORY_SLS a11 join LU_MONTH a12 on (a11. Attributes: Context for your levels of data 23 . attributes are used to build the report and the attribute elements are displayed in rows or columns on the executed report. Attribute elements also allow you to qualify on data to retrieve specific results. 2005 and 2006 are elements of the Year attribute while New York and London are elements of the City attribute. For example. The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes.

as well as how each of them relates to the other attributes. The parent attribute is at a 24 Attributes: Context for your levels of data © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. Attribute relationships. .2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide The following diagram shows some examples of attributes and attribute elements. to have a solid understanding of all the attributes in the project. which are associations between attributes that specify how attributes are connected. there is no interaction between data. Every direct relationship between attributes has two parts—a parent and a child. you can better design your data model and project. The relationships give meaning to the data by providing logical associations of attributes based on business rules. Although attribute elements are not included in the logical data model. as the project designer. By recognizing and understanding the elements of an attribute. A child must always have a parent and a parent can have multiple children. page 140. Without relationships. and therefore no logical structure. they are necessary in understanding attribute relationships. Attribute relationships Building an effective project in MicroStrategy requires you. are essential to the logical data model. Attribute elements are discussed in more detail in Unique sets of attribute information: Attribute elements.

A graphical example of how facts. and hierarchies are related and form a complete logical data model is shown in the section Sample data model. For example. It is the existence of a fact that ties the Time hierarchy to the Customer hierarchy. Hierarchies: Data relationship organization Hierarchies in a logical data model are ordered groupings of attributes arranged to reflect their relationship with other attributes. in a relationship between Year and Quarter. Attributes are either related or unrelated to each other. Therefore. Inc. and Day to form the Time hierarchy. In a logical data model. page 26 below. They are identified by multiple attributes. you can group the attributes Year. © 2007 MicroStrategy. For example. attributes.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 higher logical level than the child is. which represent the level at which a fact is stored. Examples of related and unrelated attributes. In this case. For example. page 159. hierarchies contain attributes that are directly related to each other. if you want to create a report that shows information about customer purchases in a particular year. Year and Customer are attributes that are usually not in the same hierarchy and are not directly related to each other. Year and Customer are related through a fact. Hierarchies: Data relationship organization 25 . Usually the best design for a hierarchy is to organize or group attributes into logical business areas. are discussed in Attribute relationships. Year is the parent attribute and Quarter is the child. Attributes in one hierarchy are not directly related to attributes in another hierarchy. along with more detailed information about attribute relationships. there must be some way to determine how these two attributes are related. Month. Year and Quarter are attributes that are usually directly related to each other. facts exist at the intersection of hierarchies. the fact is a customer purchase. However. One year has many quarters and both attributes are in the Time hierarchy.

relationships. and hierarchies—a logical data model begins to take shape. Sample data model When all of the components are placed in a single diagram—facts. The following diagram is an example of a logical data model: Building a logical data model The first thing you must do before creating a logical data model is study the factors that influence your design. Some of the things to consider when creating a logical data model are • • • User requirements Existing source systems Converting source data to analytical data 26 Sample data model © 2007 MicroStrategy. Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide For a complete discussion about hierarchies. attributes. Inc. . refer to Chapter 7.

Building a logical data model 27 . However. In some cases. When creating the logical data model. page 28. Your user community can consist of people with vastly different requirements. you can derive additional data not found in the source systems. as explained in Existing source systems. to satisfy user requirements. These managers may want reports about their specific region or store over short-and long-terms. Sometimes. new user requirements may require you to modify the logical data model to better support the type of analysis and the retrieval of data that users demand. © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 User requirements The primary goal of logical data modeling is to meet the needs of your users’ reporting requirements. where additional questions and concerns arise with each draft of the logical data model. company executives are typically interested in overall trends and may want reports showing data aggregated across the company and over a long period of time. lack of data in the source systems can limit user requirements. In some cases. Developing such a model involves the following: • • • Identification of user requirements Design of solutions Evaluation of those solutions Logical data modeling is a reiterative process. Inc. you must consider all the potential users and how to accommodate their varied requirements. For example. additional user requirements can be encountered after deploying a project as users encounter areas for enhancement. Lower-level managers are typically more interested in data about their particular areas of responsibility. User requirements are an important part of the initial project design process.

Existing data is usually abundant. consisting of a large number of facts and attributes. You must determine what facts and attributes in the existing data are necessary for supporting the decision support requirements of your user community. users also want to see data at the monthly or yearly level. everything you find in the source data does not necessarily need to be included in the logical data model. While a review of your data is initially helpful in identifying components of your logical data model. this does not mean that it should not be included in the logical data model. you may not find all the facts and attributes to meet your needs within the data itself. but the business analysts want to see data for different states or regions. User requirements should drive the decision on what to include and what to exclude. For example. Although some data may not exist in a source system. an insurance company’s transactional system records data by customer and city. State and region do not appear in the existing source data and so you need to extract them from another source. .2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide Existing source systems Understanding what data is available is an important step in creating a logical data model. although data is stored at a daily level in the source system. Additionally. most logical models begin with an examination of the source data once existing systems are developed and 28 Building a logical data model © 2007 MicroStrategy. but a substantial portion of the work in creating a suitable logical data model involves determining what additional components are required to satisfy the needs of the user community. In this case. Converting source data to analytical data If there are no existing systems and you are just beginning your data warehousing initiative. attributes. The existing data should suggest a number of facts. and relationships. you can plan additional attributes to provide the levels at which you intend to analyze the facts in your data model. Inc. However. you can build the logical data model based heavily on current user requirements. Conversely.

determine the business level at which each fact is recorded. the steps to create a logical data model are as follows: • • • • Step 1: Identify the facts. which lets you easily recognize tables and columns and the data stored in those columns. make a list of all data that can be represented as facts in MicroStrategy. Step 1: Identify the facts Using your existing data. can be © 2007 MicroStrategy. A logical data model is similar in concept to an ERD. most OLTP systems have an entity relationship diagram (ERD). page 30 Step 3: Determine attribute relationships. in this guide the logical data model also takes into account how your data can be integrated into MicroStrategy to develop a business intelligence solution. meaning that a sale takes place in a particular store. on a particular day. for a particular item. sales facts are often stored at the store. in retail models. For example.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 implemented. Whether you start from nothing or have an existing source system to use. A product inventory fact. For example. for example. After you have all the facts listed. or day level. sales and profit figures. page 29 Step 2: Identify the attributes. page 31 Step 4: Define hierarchies. Inc. however. Building a logical data model 29 . item. The source data usually has some sort of documented physical structure. An ERD provides a graphical representation of the physical structure of the data in the source system. However. Remember that facts can be calculated and are usually numeric and aggregatable. page 32 The details in these steps are related to using an existing source system.

and week levels. Inc. page 241). They also want to view their data at the year. This practice is sometimes a reaction to user requirements established after project deployment. For example. . However. or week level. you can include an aggregate table that stores sales data at the year level (see Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables. This information may only be apparent to you after you deploy your project and you determine that a high percentage of your users are viewing sales data at the yearly level. This analysis requires MicroStrategy to aggregate the sales data from the day level to the year level. in the existing data there may be fact data recorded only at the day level. item. These business levels become the attributes in your logical data model (see Step 2: Identify the attributes. 30 Building a logical data model © 2007 MicroStrategy. Start by looking at the levels at which each fact is recorded and build from there. but such considerations should be taken into account during your initial project design initiative. To improve performance and meet the requirements of the majority of your users. month. Step 2: Identify the attributes Uncover attributes by considering the levels at which you would like to view the facts on your reports. page 30). You can then design a Year attribute for your project.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide stored at the region. your users are interested in analyzing data at more than just at the day level.

Opportunity Open Date. Inc. several months exist. Step 3: Determine attribute relationships Once you have identified your data to be defined as attributes in MicroStrategy. for a number of dates (in a © 2007 MicroStrategy. you should determine the type of relationship. several dates exist. and for every month. Only include facts and attributes that can serve your user community. Primary Competitor. These attributes are all related to the Opportunity attribute because they all answer questions about opportunity information. Year has a one-to-many relationship to Month. in the diagram below. For example. Additionally. in the Sales Force Analysis Module of the MicroStrategy BIDK opportunity information is stored with an Opportunity attribute which is directly related to the attributes Opportunity Close Date. for every year. you must then determine which attributes are related to each other. Building a logical data model 31 . you can always add more attributes and facts later.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 Be careful not to include more facts and attributes than necessary. From the reverse perspective the same relationship specifies that. It is usually unnecessary to bring all data from the source system into the analytical environment. if necessary. Logical data modeling is an iterative process. and Month has a one-to-many relationship to Day. For example. and so on. This one-to-many relationship specifies that.

only one year exists. Attribute relationships are discussed in detail in Attribute relationships. Inc. Jan 2006. Step 4: Define hierarchies Hierarchies provide a structure for your data and can help your users easily and intuitively browse for related attributes and include them in a report. This example may not accurately define how you store time information. and so on) then the relationship would become many-to-many. If you define the attribute Month as simply the month name (Dec. For example. such as an ERD. and so on) and not directly connected to a year (Dec 2005. you can organize all time-related attributes into the Time hierarchy.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide form such as 12/01/2005). page 24. You can 32 Building a logical data model © 2007 MicroStrategy. Consider the Year to Month attribute relationship type of one-to-many. Jan. only one month exists (in a form such as Dec 2005). and for a number of months. . If you have documentation for the existing data. In the context of a logical data model. it is likely that the documentation provides some additional details about the nature of the data and any inherent relationships. think of hierarchies as logical arrangements of attributes into business areas.

Inc. and make for a more robust logical data model. Logical data modeling conventions 33 . in which case you may have one big hierarchy. Although the user community is the ultimate beneficiary of a © 2007 MicroStrategy. the requirements of your user community should help you determine what hierarchies are necessary. These include: • • • Unique identifiers Cardinalities and ratios Attribute forms These logical modeling conventions can provide cues for system optimization opportunities. help with system maintenance. Depending on the complexity of your data and the nature of your business. Logical data modeling conventions There are numerous logical data modeling conventions you can use to enhance your logical data model. you may have very few hierarchies or you may have many. Again. It is possible that all the data is directly related.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 have a Customer hierarchy containing all attributes related to your customers and a Supplier hierarchy for all attributes related to supplier data.

This information can help define primary keys in the physical warehouse schema (see Uniquely identifying data in tables with key structures. This additional information can be particularly useful to a person learning about the system. when applicable. Unique identifiers denote the key that maps an attribute to its source data in the source system. and advanced report designers. these conventions are primarily intended for project designers. Remember that facts are usually identified by multiple attributes and therefore will have multiple unique identifiers. . Some attributes rely on more than 34 Logical data modeling conventions © 2007 MicroStrategy. administrators. Unique identifiers An additional modeling convention is to add unique identifiers for each attribute and fact. page 42). Inc. The following diagram shows a logical data model with unique identifiers added. Each convention adds more information about the data to the logical data model.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide well-optimized and maintained system.

Logical data modeling conventions 35 .Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 one ID column to identify its elements. which requires both the Item_ID and Class_ID columns to uniquely identify its elements. Ratios can be particularly helpful when trying to © 2007 MicroStrategy. Cardinalities help the database administrator estimate the size of the data warehouse and help project designers determine the best paths for users to navigate through the data using hierarchies in MicroStrategy. Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes. note the Item attribute. Inc. Cardinality is the number of unique elements for an attribute and ratios are the ratios between the cardinalities of related attributes. For example. which are discussed in Chapter 7. Cardinalities and ratios Another enhancement to the logical data model is the addition of cardinalities and ratios for each attribute.

it is impossible to determine how many customers have different dates of birth in the warehouse. Also note that the cardinality of some attributes such as Date of Birth are unknown. This additional information can be invaluable to database administrators and project designers. Attribute forms Including attribute forms in your logical data model can help you get a more complete view of all of the information that is made available in your project. . Note the cardinalities in the upper right corner of each attribute rectangle and the ratios next to some of the relationships between attributes.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide decide where creating aggregate tables will be most effective. The following diagram shows a logical data model which includes cardinalities and ratios. Inc. 36 Logical data modeling conventions © 2007 MicroStrategy. For example. this is because this information varies and is unpredictable.

you could have included each of these pieces of information as separate attributes. you store the following information about your customers: • • • • • Customer number (some numeric code used to uniquely identify customers) First name Last name Address Email address In your logical data model. these attributes simply provide additional information about the Customer attribute. and it is part of the Customer hierarchy.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 Attribute forms contain additional descriptive information about a given attribute. and in the data. you create an attribute called Customer to represent customers in your system. you can model these additional © 2007 MicroStrategy. Logical data modeling conventions 37 . they do not represent different levels within the Customer hierarchy. In reality. though. Inc. each with a one-to-one relationship to the Customer attribute. When a one-to-one relationship exists between an attribute and one of its descriptions. Each element of the Customer attribute represents a different customer. For example.

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pieces of descriptive information as attribute forms. The following diagram shows how you add attribute forms to a logical data model:

Attribute forms are discussed in terms of their role in MicroStrategy in Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms, page 143.

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Physical Warehouse Schema

WAREHOUSE STRUCTURE FOR YOUR LOGICAL DATA MODEL

Introduction
As discussed in the previous chapter, the logical data model can help you think about the logical structure of your business data and the many relationships that exist within that information. The physical warehouse schema is based on the logical data model. It is a detailed graphic representation of your business data as it is stored in the data warehouse. The physical warehouse schema organizes the logical data model in a method that makes sense from a database perspective. In contrast, the logical data model is a logical arrangement of data from the perspective of the general user or business analyst. For more information on what a logical data model is and how to create one, see Chapter 2, The Logical Data Model. The logical data model is only concerned with logical objects of the business model, such as Day, Item, Store, or Account. Several physical warehouse schemas can be derived from the same logical data model. The structure of the schema
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depends on how the data representing those logical objects are to be stored in the warehouse. For example you can store logical objects in the same table, in separate tables, duplicated across several tables, or in some other arrangement. While the logical data model tells you what facts and attributes to create, the physical warehouse schema tells you where the underlying data for those objects is stored. The physical warehouse schema describes how your data is stored in the data warehouse and how it can be retrieved for analysis. Creating a physical warehouse schema is the next step in organizing your business data before you create a project, as shown below:

The key components that make up the physical warehouse schema are columns and tables. Columns and tables in the physical warehouse schema represent facts and attributes from the logical data model. The rows in a table represent attribute elements and fact data.

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Columns: Data identifiers and values
Columns are fields in the warehouse that contain attribute and fact data. The types of columns are: • ID columns contain attribute element identification codes. These codes are typically numeric because computers can process numbers much more rapidly than text. All attributes must have an ID column. Description columns contain descriptions (text or numeric) of attribute elements. Description columns are optional. An ID column can serve a dual purpose as both an ID and description. Date is one example of an attribute that usually does not have a description column. The majority of attributes typically have an ID column and at least one description column. If an attribute has many attribute forms—additional descriptive information about a given attribute—they are represented by additional description columns. • Fact columns contain fact data.

Tables: Physical groupings of related data
The different types of tables are • • • Lookup tables: Attribute storage, page 43 Relate tables: A unique case for relating attributes, page 45 Fact tables: Fact data and levels of aggregation, page 46

While each type of table may function differently within the data warehouse, each type of table can be assigned a primary key that uniquely identifies the elements within the given table.

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Uniquely identifying data in tables with key structures
In relational databases, each table has a primary key that creates a unique value identifying each distinct data record or row. This applies to every type of table within the data warehouse. The types of keys that can be assigned to a table include: • • Simple key requires only one column to identify a record uniquely within a table. Compound key requires multiple columns to identify a unique record.

Which key structure you use to identify a unique attribute in a table depends on the nature of your data and business requirements. The following diagram shows how the different key structures can be used to identify a calling center.

The simple key shows how you can identify a calling center with only its Call_Ctr_id. This means that every calling center has its own unique ID. In the compound key, calling centers are identified by both Call_Ctr_id and Region_id. This means that two calling centers from different regions can share the same Call_Ctr_id. For example, there can be a calling center with ID 1 in region A, and another calling center with ID 1 in region B. In this case, you cannot identify a unique calling center without knowing both the Call_Ctr_id and the Region_id. Simple keys are generally easier to handle in the data warehouse than are compound keys because they require less storage space and they allow for simpler SQL. Compound

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keys tend to increase SQL query complexity, query time, and required storage space. However, compound keys have a more efficient ETL process. Which key structure you use for a particular attribute depends entirely on the nature of the data and your system. Consider what key structures work best when creating lookup tables in the physical warehouse schema.

Lookup tables: Attribute storage
Lookup tables are the physical representation of attributes. They provide the ability to aggregate data at different levels. Lookup tables store the information for an attribute in ID and description columns (see Columns: Data identifiers and values, page 41). Depending on how you choose to organize the physical schema, a lookup table can store information for one or more related attributes. If a table only stores data about one attribute, it is said to be a normalized table. If a table holds data about multiple attributes, it is said to be a denormalized table. The following diagram shows the different ways in which you can organize the same attribute information. Notice that the denormalized table holds the exact same data as the normalized tables. While the denormalized table consolidates

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information about attributes within one table, the normalized tables each contain only a subset of all of the information about the attributes.

You can use either structure for any table in the physical warehouse schema, though each structure has its advantages and disadvantages, as explained in the following sections and outlined in the table in Schema type comparisons, page 60.

Attribute relationships and lookup table structure
Attribute relationships are a major factor in determining the structure of lookup tables in a physical warehouse schema. In general, the following guidelines apply: • One-to-one relationships usually denote the existence of an attribute form. The description column of an attribute form should simply be included as an additional column in the attribute’s lookup table. Many-to-many relationships usually require the use of a relate table distinct from either attribute lookup table. A relate table should include the ID columns of the two attributes in question. For more information on how to use relate tables, see Relate tables: A unique case for relating attributes, page 45.

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Relate tables: A unique case for relating attributes
While lookup tables store information about attributes, relate tables store information about the relationship between two attributes. Relate tables contain the ID columns of two or more attributes, thus defining associations between them. Relate tables are often used to create relationships between attributes that have a many-to-many relationship to each other. With attributes whose direct relationship is one-to-many—in which every element of a parent attribute can relate to multiple elements of a child attribute—you define parent-child relationships by placing the ID column of the parent attribute in the lookup table of the child attribute. The parent ID column in the child table is called a foreign key. This technique allows you to define relationships between attributes in the attributes’ lookup tables, creating tables that function as both lookup tables and relate tables as shown in the following diagram:

In the case of a many-to-many relationship—in which multiple elements of a parent attribute can relate to multiple elements of a child attribute—you must create a separate relate table as shown in the following diagram:

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Fact tables: Fact data and levels of aggregation
Fact tables are used to store fact data. Since attributes provide context for fact values, both fact columns and attribute ID columns are included in fact tables. Facts help to link indirectly related attributes. The attribute ID columns included in a fact table represent the level at which the facts in that table are stored. For example, fact tables containing sales and inventory data look like the tables shown in the following diagram:

For more details on the level of aggregation of your fact data, see Fact table levels: The context of your data, page 48.

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Also. Tables: Physical groupings of related data 47 . The following diagram shows an example of a fact table and base fact columns: • Derived fact columns are created through a mathematical combination of other existing fact columns. The following diagram shows an example of a fact table and how you can create a derived fact column from base fact columns: In the example. the derived fact exists in several tables. Inc. the derived fact Tot_Dollar_Sales is created using the Qty_Sold. Unit_Price. and Discount fact columns. © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 Base fact columns versus derived fact columns The types of fact columns are base fact columns and derived fact columns: • Base fact columns are represented by a single column in a fact table. including Item_Mnth_Sls and City_Ctr_Sls.

derived fact columns can only contain fact columns from the same fact table. the following image shows two facts with an Item/Day/Call Center level. For example. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. which translates into simpler SQL and a speedier query at report run time. Metrics allow you to perform calculations and aggregations on fact data from one or more fact columns. The Sales and Inventory facts can be analyzed at the item. Fact table levels: The context of your data Facts and fact tables have an associated level based on the attribute ID columns included in the fact table. For more information on the different types of facts in MicroStrategy and how they are defined. The Item_id. The disadvantage is that derived fact columns require more storage space and more time during the ETL process. . page 97. day. Day_id. The advantage of storing derived fact columns in the warehouse is that the calculation of data is previously performed and stored separately. and call center levels because those levels exist as ID columns in the fact table. Inc.3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide Because facts in different fact tables are typically stored at different levels. You can create the same type of data analysis in MicroStrategy with the use of metrics. 48 Tables: Physical groupings of related data © 2007 MicroStrategy. and Call_Ctr_id columns in the table above represent practical levels at which sales and inventory data can be analyzed on a report. There are advantages and disadvantages to consider when deciding if you should create a derived fact column. For more information on what metrics are and how to create them. see How facts are defined.

You must be able to support fact reporting at the business levels which users require. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Homogeneous versus heterogeneous column naming Suppose the data warehouse has information from two source systems.Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 You do not need to include more lookup column IDs than are necessary for a given fact table. they store the same data: information about regions. Inc. this is because analyzing inventory data at the customer level does not result in a practical business calculation. The levels at which facts are stored become especially important when you begin to have complex queries with multiple facts in multiple tables that are stored at levels different from one another. This is called heterogeneous column naming. and in one source system regions are identified by column name Region_id and in the other the column name is Reg_id. These naming inconsistencies occur because source systems use different naming conventions to name the data they collect. For example. Tables: Physical groupings of related data 49 . Fact tables should only include attribute ID columns that represent levels at which you intend to analyze the specific fact data. notice that the table above does not include the Customer_id column. as shown in the diagram below. Though the Region_id and Reg_id columns have different names. and when a reporting request involves still a different level.

Inc. heterogeneous columns must be mapped to their corresponding facts and attributes. In order for reports to retrieve accurate and complete results. consider the heterogeneous column names that may exist in your source systems. For example. you must map both the Region_id and Reg_id columns to the attribute so all information about regions is calculated correctly and displayed on reports when the Region attribute is used. the Region_ID column has the same name in both tables. When you define facts and attributes in MicroStrategy Desktop. This is called homogeneous column naming. For consistency. as shown in the following diagram: 50 Tables: Physical groupings of related data © 2007 MicroStrategy. if you create a Region attribute given the tables in the example above. it is a good idea for columns that contain the same data to have the same column name. . In this case.3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide The data for the Lookup_Region table came from a different source system than the data for the Lookup_Call_Ctr and the source systems have different naming conventions. This explains why the same information about regions is represented by two columns with different names.

A fact column may or may not have the same name in different tables. is used to organize the physical schema to enhance query performance while maintaining and acceptable amount of data storage space. as shown below: Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage There are many ways to structure your data warehouse and no method is inherently right or wrong. These schema types are: • • • Highly normalized schema: Minimal storage space Moderately normalized schema: Balanced storage space and query performance Highly denormalized schema: Enhanced query performance Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage © 2007 MicroStrategy. Typically.Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 Just as it is possible for the same attribute data to exist in different lookup tables. it is also possible for the same fact data to exist in different fact tables. How you choose to structure the warehouse depends on the nature of your data. the available storage space. 51 . Inc. and the requirements of your user community. one of the schema types. or a combination of them.

such as Call_Ctr_desc. When comparing the different schema types. you should keep in mind the following concepts: • Redundant data can cause a couple of drawbacks. as shown in the figure below. . Dist_Ctr_id. • Joins are SQL operations that are required to combine two tables together in order to retrieve data. With no data redundancy. However. lookup tables contain unique developer-designed attribute keys. Fact table keys consist of attribute keys relevant to the level of data stored in the table. but as with any operation performed on your data warehouse. These operations are necessary. the sections below are meant to give a description of the most common or general schema types that are used to develop a physical warehouse schema. and 52 Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage © 2007 MicroStrategy. and Region_id. The schema examples that follow show data at the Item/Call Center/Date level. the number of joins required to build your queries affects the performance of those queries. such as Call_Ctr_id.3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide In each of these schemas a base fact table and any number of aggregate fact tables are used (For more information on aggregate fact tables. The sections below are not meant to be an exhaustive list of all possible schema types. In highly normalized schemas. The most obvious drawback is that redundant data requires more storage space to hold the same amount of data as a system with no redundancy. • Highly normalized schema: Minimal storage space The following diagram is an example of a highly normalized schema. see Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables. data only has to be updated in a single place. Inc. They also contain attribute description columns. Dist_Ctr_desc. Data redundancy also makes updating data a more intensive and difficult process because data resides in multiple places. page 241).

© 2007 MicroStrategy. Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage 53 . the lookup table for an attribute contains the ID column of the parent attribute. such as Dist_Ctr_id in the Lookup_Call_Ctr table. Inc. Also.Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 Region_desc.

therefore. Moderately normalized schema: Balanced storage space and query performance The following diagram shows an example of a moderately normalized schema. Inc. This schema type has the same basic structure as the highly normalized schema. . When accessing higher-level lookup tables such as Lookup_Region in the example above. numerous joins are required to retrieve information about the higher-level tables. The difference 54 Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage © 2007 MicroStrategy.3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide The following diagram shows what physical lookup tables look like in the warehouse: One benefit of using a highly normalized schema is that it requires minimal storage space in the warehouse because of it uses smaller lookup tables than the other schema types. However. there is a drawback to using only small tables in the data warehouse. multiple tables must be joined until the required column is found. This is because each table contains only a small amount of information about a given attribute.

© 2007 MicroStrategy. Region_id is included in the Lookup_Call_Ctr table.Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 here is the higher-level attribute ID columns are present within all tables of related attributes. Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage 55 . Inc. For example.

the tables within this type of schema take up some redundant storage space in the warehouse. A highly denormalized schema has the same basic structure as the other two schema types. . Using a moderately normalized schema provides a balance between the pros and cons of normalized and denormalized schema types. since some tables contain the same ID columns (as shown above with the Region_ID column).3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide The fact table structure within a moderately normalized schema is identical to that of the highly normalized schema. Highly denormalized schema: Enhanced query performance The following diagram is an example of a highly denormalized schema. Because the ID columns of both the parents and grandparents of an attribute exist in multiple tables. fewer joins are required when retrieving information about an attribute. However. Inc. The following diagram shows what the physical lookup tables look like in the warehouse. With 56 Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage © 2007 MicroStrategy.

Inc. Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage 57 . Distribution Center. For example. this schema type requires the largest amount of storage space within the warehouse because of its large lookup tables. This is possible because Lookup_Call_CTR contains all information (including description data) for Call Center as well as for Distribution Center and Region. but the description columns are present as well. For example. High denormalized schemas also cause the highest level of data redundancy. However. not only are higher-level attribute ID columns present within all related tables. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Region_desc is included in the Lookup_Call_Ctr table. you can include the descriptions of Call Center. and Region along with Sales Dollars in the same report while only having to join the Lookup_Call_CTR and Fact_Sales tables. Using a highly denormalized schema further reduces the joins necessary to retrieve attribute descriptions.Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 this type.

only one lookup table is used to contain all of the attribute IDs and description columns for a given hierarchy. Recall that in a highly denormalized schema. geography) consists of several lookup tables.3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide Star schema: Consolidating lookup tables When using the highly denormalized schema. star schemas can often 58 Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage © 2007 MicroStrategy. it is possible to eliminate most of the lookup tables and leave just a few. however. as shown below. as shown below: As with any schema type model there are advantages and disadvantages to using a star schema. As with a highly denormalized schema type. However. Arranging the warehouse schema this way produces a star schema. In this type of schema. the amount of join operations are reduced by using a star schema. In a star schema. A star schema can also reduce the amount of storage space necessary in a highly denormalized schema. Inc. . the lookup tables are consolidated so that every attribute ID and description column for a given hierarchy exists in one table. each hierarchy (for example.

Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 require large lookup tables that can take a more time to search than the smaller tables that are used in the other schema types. If you try to satisfy every single user requirement from the simplest to the most complex. Design trade-offs 59 . if you have the storage space necessary to accommodate data in a star schema it may seem that you would never want to normalize your schema. You must decide which factors are most important in your particular environment and weigh them against the other factors. However. Inc. Each of these categories affects the others. you will have to create an extensive data model and schema to support those requirements. Design trade-offs Constructing a logical data model and physical warehouse schema is an iterative process of compromises and trade-offs. SQL queries directed at a consolidated table require the use of a DISTINCT operator and these types of queries tend to be very © 2007 MicroStrategy. and greater maintenance for the database administrator. slower query performance. For example. The following diagram shows the three major requirements that must be balanced to create an effective system. This results in an increased load on the warehouse.

One hierarchy can be highly normalized while another can be highly denormalized. page 60. . see the following section Schema type comparisons. The table below compares the different schema types. In addition to the previous points. You can even use different schema types within the same hierarchy. Schema Type Highly normalized schema Lookup Table Structure • Attribute ID • Attribute description column • ID column of parent • Attribute ID • Attribute description column • ID column of parent • ID column of grandparents Advantages Minimal storage space and minimal data redundancy which makes updating data less intensive than for the other schema types Greatly reduces the number of joins necessary to relate an attribute to its grandparents as compared to a highly normalized schema Disadvantages Requires numerous joins to retrieve information from higher-level lookup tables Moderately normalized schema Requires some redundant storage 60 Schema type comparisons © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 241. For more comparisons between the different schema types described in this chapter.3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide expensive in terms of database resources and processing time. which are discussed in Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables. Inc. you may need higher level lookup tables to take advantage of aggregate tables. The use of a resource-intensive DISTINCT query could therefore negate any performance gain achieved by reducing the number of joins between higher-level lookup tables. Schema type comparisons One way to achieve a balance of the various trade-offs in your schema design is to use a variety of schema types in your physical warehouse schema.

Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 Schema Type Highly denormalized schema Lookup Table Structure • Attribute ID • Attribute description column • ID column of parent • description column of parent • ID column of grandparents • description column of grandparents • Consolidates an entire hierarchy into a single lookup table Advantages Further reduces joins necessary to retrieve attribute descriptions as compared to a moderately normalized schema Disadvantages Requires the most storage space and redundant data requires a more intensive process to update Star schema • Further reduces joins necessary to retrieve attribute descriptions as compared to a moderately normalized schema • Requires less storage space and data redundancy than a highly denormalized schema and thus data is easier to update Large lookup tables can negatively affect query performance when searching tables and requiring DISTINCT operations to be performed Now that you have gained an understanding of data modeling and the roles of facts and attributes. As facts and attributes are the cornerstones of the reports you intend to create using MicroStrategy. © 2007 MicroStrategy. it is essential to understand the structure of each of these schema objects before creating a project. you can learn about these same schema objects in terms of how they exist in the MicroStrategy environment. Inc. Schema type comparisons 61 .

3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide 62 Schema type comparisons © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. .

This chapter guides you through the first few major steps involved in creating a project in MicroStrategy. 63 . access the MicroStrategy Tutorial provided with the MicroStrategy platform. The Tutorial is a sample data warehouse and demonstration project you can use to learn about the various features of the MicroStrategy platform. For more information about the © 2007 MicroStrategy. BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform. see Chapter 1. It is ready to be used and requires no additional configuration tasks. Inc.4 4. CREATING AND CONFIGURING A PROJECT Introduction Once you create a logical model of your business data and arrange the data within the data warehouse. To see a sample project. you are ready to create a project in MicroStrategy. For definitions and descriptions of the components within the MicroStrategy platform that allow you to create and analyze your business intelligence applications.

configuration objects. MicroStrategy Tutorial. To view the structure of the MicroStrategy Tutorial. 64 Project connectivity components © 2007 MicroStrategy. application objects. The RDBMS for the metadata and warehouse do not need to be the same. Project connectivity components This section defines some of the basic terminology used in project creation in MicroStrategy Desktop. Metadata is stored in a relational database with a predefined structure.4 Creating and Configuring a Project Project Design Guide Tutorial. see Appendix A. . Inc. It is intended to familiarize you with some of the terms discussed in this guide. and project settings are stored in the MicroStrategy metadata. refer to the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. MicroStrategy metadata All schema objects.

You create the metadata shell with the MicroStrategy Configuration Wizard. and then select ReadMe. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Project connectivity components 65 . which creates the blank tables and populates some of the tables with basic initialization data. and password to a metadata repository. Project source The project source is a configuration object which represents a connection to a metadata repository. MicroStrategy strongly suggests you always connect to the metadata through Intelligence Server because of the security and scalability it provides. login. It is highly recommended that you never use direct mode connection in a production environment. In MicroStrategy Desktop. Metadata shell Before you can populate the metadata repository with data. This first step in the project creation process is outlined in Creating the metadata repository.Project Design Guide Creating and Configuring a Project 4 You can find the list of supported RDBMS platforms in the readme file that is installed with MicroStrategy products. the necessary tables to hold the data must be present. To view the readme from the Start menu select Programs. Inc. The metadata shell is the set of blank tables that are created when you initially implement a MicroStrategy business intelligence environment. the project source appears in the Folder List with an icon that varies depending on the type of connection it represents. then MicroStrategy. A connection to a metadata repository is achieved in one of two ways: • Direct or two-tier mode ( ): Connects to the metadata by specifying a DSN. You should not connect directly to the metadata unless you are implementing a prototype environment. page 71.

Inc. The project metadata is the first tier. 66 Project connectivity components © 2007 MicroStrategy. and ensures metadata integrity. A project source may contain any number of projects. schema objects. the same metadata repository can be accessed by multiple project sources. enforces security. . Intelligence Server manages all connections to databases. After the connection to the metadata is established. A project source connects to a single metadata repository. and MicroStrategy Desktop. Intelligence Server is a necessary part of any production project. every object definition you create within this project source is stored in this metadata. MicroStrategy Desktop is the second tier. However. and Intelligence Server is the third tier. page 8 for definitions of these object types). This is the type of connection used to create a production-ready project in MicroStrategy. and configuration objects from any number of projects defined within this project source (see MicroStrategy metadata. The following diagram illustrates Server connectivity between a MicroStrategy metadata repository.4 Creating and Configuring a Project Project Design Guide • Server or three-tier mode( ): Connects to the metadata by pointing to an Intelligence Server definition. This includes application objects. A four-tier connection is a Server (three-tier) connection in conjunction with MicroStrategy Web deployed on a web server. Intelligence Server. which in turn governs and validates the connection to the metadata. For these reasons.

Connecting to a data source through a database instance is explained in detail in Connecting to a data source. Project A project is where you build and store all schema objects and information you need to create application objects such as reports in the MicroStrategy environment. page 72. metadata repository. Inc. see the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. For more information on what a project is in MicroStrategy. you specify the data source location by creating and selecting a database instance with the appropriate connection parameters. see MicroStrategy project. Project connectivity components 67 . For information on database instances. page 14. © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide Creating and Configuring a Project 4 Database instance The database instance is a configuration object that represents a connection to a data source. When you define a project. A project also represents the intersection of a data source. and user community.

database instances.4 Creating and Configuring a Project Project Design Guide Summary of project connectivity With a firm understanding of the MicroStrategy metadata. . It acts as the 68 Creating a project © 2007 MicroStrategy. Creating a project The following procedure describes the main steps to create a MicroStrategy project. and projects. These steps provide you with a high-level view of the project creation process. 1 Creating the metadata repository The metadata repository contains the objects and definitions associated with your project. project sources. Inc. you can begin to build an understanding of how these various pieces work together to provide an integrated business intelligence environment as shown in the following diagram. Bear this process in mind as you proceed through the rest of this guide.

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intermediary between your business data and your reporting environment. Therefore, the first step in the project creation process is to create a metadata repository. For detailed instructions, see Creating the metadata repository, page 71. 2 Connecting to the metadata repository and data source Once the metadata repository is created and populated with initialization data, you must establish connections to both the metadata repository and data source. For detailed instructions, see Connecting to the metadata repository and data source, page 71. 3 Creating the project Having created a metadata repository and established the necessary connections between the different parts of your MicroStrategy environment, you are ready to create the basic definition of your project. For detailed instructions, see Creating the project, page 73. 4 Creating facts and attributes Schema objects such as facts and attributes are the basic components of the logical structure of a project. The business data your user community wants to report on is represented by schema objects in MicroStrategy. Therefore, it is necessary to setup schema objects before reports can be created. This step is covered in Creating facts and attributes, page 82 of this chapter. You can use Query Builder or Freeform SQL to create schema objects as you design reports. For more information for these features, see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide.

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5 Configuring additional schema-level settings Once you create the initial schema objects, you can configure additional schema-level settings that allow you to add complexity and depth to objects in your project and to the project as a whole. For example, you can create advanced facts and attributes to retrieve specific result sets. You can also use attributes to create time-series analysis schema objects called transformations and implement various tools to optimize and maintain your project over time. For information about: • • • Advanced fact creation, see Creating and modifying simple and advanced facts, page 91. Advanced attribute creation, see Adding and modifying attributes, page 134. Hierarchies and hierarchy creation, see Chapter 7, Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes. Transformations and transformation creation, see Chapter 9, Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons. Project optimization and maintenance, see Chapter 8, Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project. The steps listed above relate to the process of creating a project which connects to a database or other data source such as a text file or Excel file. MicroStrategy also supports connecting to data stored in SAP BW, Microsoft Analysis Services 2000 and 2005, and Hyperion Essbase systems. When integrated with MicroStrategy, these systems are referred to as OLAP cube sources. You can connect to any of these OLAP cube sources to report and analyze the data concurrently within a project that also connects to a database, or you can create a a standalone connection to your OLAP cube source (see Appendix B, Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources).

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Creating the metadata repository
Your first step in project creation is to create a metadata repository. This repository stores all the objects necessary to support your project. You can create an empty metadata repository in the database location of your choice using the Metadata Tables option in the Configuration Wizard. Before proceeding to the next section, make sure your metadata repository exists in a non-Microsoft Access database. An Access database is unsuitable for a production project. Create a metadata repository using the guidelines outlined in the Configuring and Connecting Intelligence Server chapter of the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. When you create the metadata repository, MicroStrategy creates a default configuration in the repository. The default configuration populates the tables with the basic data required for the metadata, such as the default project folder structure and basic connection information. These tables are populated with your project information during the project creation step in the Project Creation Assistant, outlined in Creating the project, page 73. For instructions on creating a metadata repository in a database, see the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide.

Connecting to the metadata repository and data source
Once you have created a metadata repository, your next step is to connect MicroStrategy Desktop to the metadata repository and to your data source.

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Connecting to the metadata repository
You connect to the metadata repository in MicroStrategy Desktop or Web through a project source. Recall that a project source is a pointer to a metadata repository. It connects either through a DSN that points to the appropriate database location or by pointing to an instance of Intelligence Server which, in turn, points to the metadata repository location. To configure Intelligence Server and establish a server connection between the metadata, Intelligence Server, and MicroStrategy Desktop, follow the steps in the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide.

Connecting to a data source
A data source contains the business data from which you intend to gain analytical insight. Once you connect to the metadata repository through Intelligence Server, your next step is to create a connection to the data source to which your project can connect. You connect to the data source by creating a database instance in MicroStrategy Desktop. Create a database instance using the procedures outlined in the Configuring and Connecting Intelligence Server chapter of the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. When you create a project, you must assign a database instance to that project. A project specifies only one database instance at a time, but a database instance can be assigned to multiple projects.

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MicroStrategy also allows you to connect to your SAP BW, Microsoft Analysis Services, and Hyperion Essbase data sources. For information about connecting to these OLAP cube sources, see Appendix B, Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources.

Creating the project
You can now begin building the MicroStrategy project that connects to the metadata repository and data source. Project creation involves creating a basic project definition and creating your project’s first schema objects. There are several methods for creating and editing a project, which includes: • Creating a test or prototype project using Project Builder With Project Builder, you can build project prototypes for proof-of-concept tests with your own data. Project Builder is best suited for creating a test project, and it is not intended to create production projects. • Creating a production project using Project Creation Assistant This section guides you through the creation of a production-ready MicroStrategy project. The following table compares the main features of both the Project Creation Assistant and Project Builder. Use the table to determine the project creation tool that best suits your needs.
Features Intended audience Project type Complexity Project Creation Assistant Advanced users Production-ready or other large projects Extensive features require more project design knowledge Project Builder Newer users Test or basic projects Easier to use but fewer features

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Features

Project Creation Assistant Advanced; can create the following objects and more: • multiple tables, attributes, and facts at once • attributes with many-to-many and joint child relationships A variety of databases and other data sources

Project Builder Limited; cannot be used to create multiple schema objects at once, but can be used to create basic hierarchies and metrics

Functionality

Metadata repository type Metric and report creation

Microsoft Access

No, must be done after project creation Yes, basic metrics and reports only

Creating a test or prototype project using Project Builder
Project Builder is a wizard that allows you to create simple MicroStrategy projects quickly and efficiently. Project Builder was created with speed in mind; thus it provides only a subset of the features and functionality of the Project Creation Assistant. It allows you to rapidly create user hierarchies and simple metrics and reports. With Project Builder, you can build project prototypes for proof-of-concept tests with your own data and simple yet functional projects. To create a project for your production environment, it is highly recommended you follow the steps outlined in Creating a production project using Project Creation Assistant, page 75. The Project Creation Assistant can add greater functionality and capability to your project in your production environment. To learn more about Project Builder, proceed through this section. You can also refer to the Introduction to MicroStrategy: Evaluation Guide and the Project Builder online help (press F1 from within Project Builder).

Using Project Builder
By default, Project Builder uses a Microsoft Access database for the metadata repository. A Microsoft Access database is suitable for creating the metadata repository for a prototype

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project, but not a production project. You should not use Microsoft Access for anything other than a proof-of-concept or demonstration type of application. You can use Project Mover to move a demonstration project into a production-ready database (see the System Administration Guide.) Project Builder contains the following options that assist you in creating a prototype project: • My Database allows you to name the project and select the database that contains the business information you want to analyze with the project you create. My Business Model allows you to identify relationships that define the business information in your database. Project Builder uses this structure to help you analyze the data. My Reports allows you to use the attributes and metrics you defined using My Business Model, to create a variety of reports. These reports are based on pre-defined templates. You can also preview and run the reports. You can learn about creating and designing reports in more detail in the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. To access Project Builder from the Start menu select Programs, then MicroStrategy, then Desktop, and then select Project Builder.

Creating a production project using Project Creation Assistant
This section describes how to create a Server-connected (three-tier) project for your production setup using MicroStrategy Desktop. It is assumed you intend to implement Intelligence Server in your business intelligence environment as the means of connecting to your project as opposed to using a two-tier setup.

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Creating a project using the Project Creation Assistant in MicroStrategy Desktop provides advanced functionalities and greater complexity to your project than Project Builder. It allows you to create a new project and add the following objects to it or to an existing project: • • • Tables Facts Attributes

With the Project Creation Assistant you create and configure a project and some of the essential schema objects that reside within it. The intended audience for this tool includes experienced project creators who have planned all their facts, attributes, and data relationships. This information is covered elsewhere in this guide. For a listing of information covered in specific chapters, see Planning your project below. The main advantage of the Project Creation Assistant over Project Builder is its ability to create multiple schema objects at once. Since you can efficiently add multiple tables and develop numerous attributes and facts, it is especially useful for large projects which contain many tables and schema objects. With the Project Creation Assistant you can also create attributes with many-to-many relationships.

Planning your project
Before using the Project Creation Assistant, you should plan your project and consider the following: • The logical data model you intend to use for this project; logical data models are covered in Chapter 2, The Logical Data Model. The tables to use in the project; physical warehouse schema models are covered in Chapter 3, Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model. The facts to include in the project and the data types used to identify them; facts are covered in Chapter 5, The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts.

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The attributes to create in the project and the data types used to identify them, including: The description column name for each attribute. Any other attribute forms for each attribute. The child attributes for each attribute. Attributes are covered in Chapter 6, The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes.

Creating a new project using the Project Creation Assistant
Once you have planned your project and completed the prerequisites, you can use the Project Creation Assistant to build the project and populate the metadata based on the data structures present in your data warehouse. The steps of the Project Creation Assistant are: 1 Initialize/create the project. Initializing the project means giving the project a name and selecting the metadata repository in which to create the project—that is, the project source. After you specify these settings, the shell of a project is created in the metadata. This configures the folder structure and default connectivity settings. Be aware that this process can take some time to complete. 2 Select tables from the Warehouse Catalog. In this step, you use the Warehouse Catalog to specify which data warehouse tables to include in your project. 3 Create facts. 4 Create attributes. You should complete all the steps in the Project Creation Assistant at the same time. While you can save an incomplete project definition, you cannot finish creating it later with the Project Creation Assistant. Instead, you must complete it using the
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78 Creating the project © 2007 MicroStrategy. select Create New Project. Fact Creation Assistant. and default document directory location for the project. see the Configuring and Connecting Intelligence Server chapter of the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. as shown below: 3 Click Create project. such as the Warehouse Catalog.4 Creating and Configuring a Project Project Design Guide appropriate interface. 2 From the Schema menu. see the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. The default document directory for a project is the directory location to store all HTML documents. . To create a new project using the Project Creation Assistant 1 Log in to a project source in MicroStrategy Desktop. For more details on how to setup HTML documents for a project. 4 Enter the name. The New Project page opens. The Project Creation Assistant opens. description. Inc. To create a project source which connects to your data through Intelligence Server. or Attribute Creation Assistant.

you cannot proceed to the next step. you select the lookup. and the Project locale property match. The Project Creation Assistant creates an empty project in the metadata repository. 8 Enter a valid login ID and password and click OK. Proceed to the next section to determine the tables to be used in your project. Inc. From this list. 6 From the Project Source drop-down list. the language of the local machine (the LOCAL_MACHINE registry key). select Enable the guest user account for this project. Adding tables using the Warehouse Catalog The warehouse tables for a project determines the set of data available to be analyzed in the project. and relationship tables to use in your new © 2007 MicroStrategy. The Login dialog box opens. When these properties do not match. Creating the project 79 . fact.Project Design Guide Creating and Configuring a Project 4 5 To support anonymous authentication mode for guest users for this project. 7 Click OK. it can lead to inconsistencies in the language display. You use the Warehouse Catalog to add warehouse tables to your project. When you create a new project. The Warehouse Catalog queries the data source and lists the tables and columns that exist in it. select the project source in which you created the database instance to connect to your metadata repository. The Warehouse Catalog lists all the tables in the data source to which you are connected through your database instance and to which your database login has read privileges. The language check prevents these inconsistencies and ensures that the language display is consistent across the project. If you are not authorized by your database or system administrator to create projects in the data source you have selected. a language check ensures that the language settings of the user profile of the local machine (the CURRENT_USER registry key).

they become schema objects known as logical tables in MicroStrategy. aggregate tables. The Warehouse Database Instance dialog box opens. and are discussed in detail in Appendix C. Logical tables are representations of the tables that are available in the data warehouse. refer to the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. facts. Database instances and database logins are MicroStrategy objects that determine the warehouse to which a project connects. select Select tables from the Warehouse Catalog. To add and remove tables to the project using the Warehouse Catalog 1 In the Project Creation Assistant. including transformation tables. Inc. MicroStrategy schema objects such as attributes. Once tables are selected from the data source and added to your project. 80 Creating the project © 2007 MicroStrategy. The Warehouse Catalog opens. To learn more about these objects. 2 Select a database instance from the drop-down list and click OK.4 Creating and Configuring a Project Project Design Guide project. The database instance selected in this dialog box determines which data source is accessed. and partition mapping tables. . Logical Tables. You should also include all other tables needed to complete your project. and tables are abstractions built on top of the tables and columns in the data source. You can edit your database instance by clicking Edit. The database login you use must have read privileges so you are able to view the tables in the selected warehouse.

Warehouse Catalog options 6 Right-clicking any table provides you with additional Warehouse Catalog functionality. Inc. For more information on these abilities and how to use them. copy a table. Creating the project 81 . page 221.Project Design Guide Creating and Configuring a Project 4 3 The left side of the Warehouse Catalog lists all available tables and the number of rows each table contains. 5 To remove tables from your project. The list on the right shows all the tables currently being used in the project. © 2007 MicroStrategy. and click > to add the selected tables. see Managing warehouse and project tables. For example you can view rows in a table. select them from the right side and click < to remove them. if any: 4 From the left side. Click << to remove all the tables from your project. specify a table prefix. select the tables you want to add to the Warehouse Catalog. Click >> to add all the listed tables. or specify a database instance for a table.

and decide whether schema objects are mapped automatically or manually. you can still access the Warehouse Catalog to add additional tables. it is important to understand what facts and attributes are and the defining characteristics of each. Inc. This information is covered in Chapter 5. customize how tables and columns are read from the database system catalog. Follow the instructions outlined in Creating facts and attributes. For more information on these abilities and how to use them. For example. The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts and Chapter 6. page 83 to learn how to create these schema objects and configure additional schema-level settings for those objects. see Modifying data warehouse connection and operation defaults. The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes. however. you can change the database instance. Creating facts and attributes This step in the project creation process involves using the Project Creation Assistant to create two kinds of schema objects: facts and attributes. . page 220. page 226. display extra table and row information. For steps to access the Warehouse Catalog to add tables to a project. click Save and Close to save your changes to the Warehouse Catalog. 8 In the toolbar. 82 Creating facts and attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. The next step in the Project Creation Wizard involves creating schema objects: facts and attributes. This process can take some time to complete.4 Creating and Configuring a Project Project Design Guide 7 To set advanced options you can click Options on the Warehouse Catalog toolbar. page 82 and Configuring additional schema-level settings. The table definitions are written to the metadata. After exiting the Project Creation Assistant. see Adding and removing tables for a project. Before you create facts and attributes.

This information is covered in Chapter 8. aggregate tables. and attribute form expressions. These settings include: • Fact definitions: The Fact Editor allows you to create. Inc. page 134. which are schema objects used for time-series analysis. attribute forms. • • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. This is covered in Chapter 7. Attribute definitions: The Attribute Editor allows you to create and edit attributes. proceed to the chapters referenced above to complete the next steps in the project creation process. Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes. and the Warehouse Partition Mapping Editor. and partitioning and partition mappings: The Transformation Editor allows you to create transformations. Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project. and configure facts. Advanced configurations: These objects include transformations. Configuring additional schema-level settings 83 . Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons. The tools used to create aggregate tables and partitions are the Warehouse Catalog. the Metadata Partition Mapping Editor. page 91. edit.Project Design Guide Creating and Configuring a Project 4 Configuring additional schema-level settings The final step in the project creation process involves configuring additional schema-level settings to add more analytical depth to your schema objects and optimize the project as a whole. This is covered in Creating and modifying simple and advanced facts. This is covered in Adding and modifying attributes. which facilitate access to attribute and element browsing and drilling. Now that you have completed most of the key steps in creating a new project. Transformations are covered in Chapter 9. User hierarchies: The Hierarchy Editor allows you to create user hierarchies.

Keep in mind. see the MicroStrategy Web online help. . and Hyperion Essbase data sources. the project you deploy will contain only basic facts and attributes. Metrics. filters. For information about creating reports in MicroStrategy Desktop. see Appendix B. Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources. and other report objects such as filters. For information about connecting to OLAP cube sources. Proceed to the chapters listed above to add analytical depth and more functionality to your project. You can also begin creating reports in MicroStrategy Desktop and MicroStrategy Web. For information on how to use your own customized SQL statements to create reports.4 Creating and Configuring a Project Project Design Guide Deploying your project and creating reports After you create a project. reports. refer to the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. • 84 Deploying your project and creating reports © 2007 MicroStrategy. refer to the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide and the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. For a complete discussion of metrics. Note the following: • MicroStrategy allows you to connect to your SAP BW. Facts and attributes provide the backbone of the reports and documents created by report designers. and other report objects. that if you completed only the steps in this chapter. for creating reports in MicroStrategy Web. are beyond the scope of this guide. refer to the Deploying your Project with MicroStrategy Web chapter of the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. Microsoft Analysis Services. and metrics and attributes are essential components of reports. Inc. To learn more about how to deploy your project using MicroStrategy Web. custom groups. see the Creating Freeform SQL reports chapter in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. however. Facts are used to create metrics. you can deploy it to your user community using MicroStrategy Web. and prompts.

Facts generally represent the answers to the business questions on which users want to report. Facts form the basis for metrics. As the project designer. The facts you create in MicroStrategy allow users to access data stored in the data warehouse. Inc. They relate numeric data values from the data warehouse to the MicroStrategy reporting environment. 85 . For example. In the MicroStrategy environment. THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF BUSINESS DATA: FACTS Introduction Facts are one of the essential elements within the business data model. and the store and month represent attributes. In this case. facts are schema objects created by and shared between MicroStrategy users. © 2007 MicroStrategy.5 5. which are used in the majority of analyses and reports that users can create with MicroStrategy. facts are numeric data and attributes are contextual data for the facts. the amount of sales represents the fact. In a MicroStrategy project. Facts and attributes are necessary to define projects. you want to analyze the amount of sales at a certain store during January.

5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide you must create projects that contain facts and attributes. Facts are stored in the data warehouse in fact tables. These fact tables are composed of different columns. Facts are based on physical columns within tables in the data warehouse. as shown below. Inc. When fact information is requested for a report in MicroStrategy. that column is accessed to retrieve the necessary data. Users can then use these facts and attributes as building blocks for metrics and reports. 86 © 2007 MicroStrategy. . This data is used to create a metric (such as profit) which is a business measure. Each cell in the columns represents a specific piece of information.

Creating facts • © 2007 MicroStrategy. units sold. it can often be necessary to modify and create facts throughout the life cycle of a project.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 Like other schema objects such as attributes. simple facts as part of the initial project design effort or later in a project’s life cycle. page 88 covers steps to create multiple. Data warehouses contain different types of facts depending on the purpose of the data. While creating facts is a major step in the initial creation of a project. page 87) of this chapter. Facts such as Quantity and Item Cost could exist in a warehouse containing sales and distribution data. as well as highlight some advanced fact design techniques and procedures. Creating facts A fact has two common characteristics: it is numeric and it is aggregatable. using different techniques and MicroStrategy interfaces: • Simultaneously creating multiple. Unlike attributes. The later sections discuss conceptual information on facts. profit. simple facts. It is important to understand how to define facts because facts are the basis for almost all metrics. Examples of facts include sales dollars. A fact entry level is the lowest set of attributes at which a fact is stored. The procedures to perform these tasks are discussed in the first section (Creating facts. facts are logical MicroStrategy objects that correspond to physical columns and tables. This section provides steps to create facts at different phases of the project design process. and cost. For example. Facts are the actual data values stored at a specific fact level. Creating and modifying simple and advanced facts. 87 . facts do not describe data. Facts also allow you to create advanced metrics containing data that is not stored in the warehouse but can be derived by extending facts. facts such as Tenure and Compensation Cost could exist in a data warehouse that contains human resources data. page 91 covers steps to add and modify both simple and advanced facts for an existing project. Inc.

is used to add advanced features to facts that already exist or to create new simple or advanced facts as your project evolves. page 91. fact creation and modification can be done throughout the entire life cycle of a project. However.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide Simultaneously creating multiple. It allows you to create multiple facts in a single creation process. simple facts During your initial project design effort. Inc. • The Fact Editor. . You can also access the Fact Creation Wizard in MicroStrategy Desktop from the Schema menu. which is discussed in Creating and modifying simple and advanced facts. Facts can be created and modified using a number of various techniques. utilizing the following MicroStrategy tools: • The Fact Creation Wizard is a step-by-step interface that is typically used when you first create a project. 88 Creating facts © 2007 MicroStrategy. The Project Creation Assistant utilizes the Fact Creation Wizard to help you create the facts for your initial project creation effort. you can create multiple simple facts using the Project Creation Assistant and the Fact Creation Wizard.

3 The Column data type area allows you to select the column data types that are available as possible fact ID columns. Inc. For example.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 To create facts with the Fact Creation Wizard 1 In the Project Creation Assistant. The Fact Creation Wizard opens. 89 © 2007 MicroStrategy. a fact does not have description information. If the naming conventions in your warehouse do not conform to the defaults in the Fact Creation Rules page. The Fact Creation Rules page opens. Therefore. you can only select data types for the ID columns of your facts. as shown below: 2 Click Define Rules to set some basic fact creation rules. Select the check boxes for the data types to be included when the wizard searches the data warehouse for available fact columns. Creating facts . Unlike most attributes which can access multiple columns of description information. you may need to change these rules. select Create facts. if you select Character and Numeric and leave the remaining check boxes cleared. only columns whose data types are numeric or character-based are displayed in the Fact Creation Wizard as possible columns to use for your facts. Rules help automate and govern the fact creation process.

5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide 4 The Fact name area allows you to determine how to create default fact names. To continue creating a project with the Project Creation Assistant. . Click << to remove all the columns in your project. The selected fact definitions are stored in the metadata. 7 From the Available columns pane. – The Fact Creation Wizard cannot handle columns that hold the same information but have different column names (that is. select them from the Facts pane and click < to move them to the left side. 10 Review the summary information in the Finish page and click Finish to create the facts. 90 Creating facts © 2007 MicroStrategy. 5 Click OK to accept your rule changes and return to the Fact Creation Wizard. heterogeneous columns). 9 Click Next. Note the following: – You can rename any fact to make its name more user-friendly by right-clicking the fact and selecting Rename. Select the appropriate check boxes to create the desired default fact names. Fact column selection 6 Click Next. The Column Selection page opens. Inc. The Finish page opens. see Facts with different column names: Heterogeneous column names. that is. 8 To remove fact columns from your project. For more information about mapping facts to heterogeneous columns. page 129. select the fact columns to use for your facts and click > to add them to your project. whether to replace underscores in the fact name with spaces and whether the first letter is capitalized. Click >> to add all the listed columns. with columns that are not currently being used in the project listed in the Available columns pane. see Simultaneously creating multiple attributes. page 102.

You can use the Fact Editor to edit existing facts and create fact expressions. and configure other settings. you can use either the Fact Creation Wizard or the Fact Editor to create new facts in your project: • With the Fact Creation Wizard you can: Create simple facts Create multiple facts quickly Add a large number of facts during project creation • With the Fact Editor you can: Create simple and advanced facts Edit existing facts and configure additional schema-level settings The Fact Creation Wizard can create multiple facts quickly and easily. However. map multiple or heterogeneous columns. Typically. column aliases. To create facts with the Fact Creation Wizard 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. for creating most of the facts for the project. Creating one or more simple facts with the Fact Creation Wizard Although the Fact Creation Wizard is primarily used to create most of a project’s facts during initial project creation. you only use the Fact Creation Wizard as part of the initial project creation. log in to the project source that contains your project and expand your project. level extensions. © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 Creating and modifying simple and advanced facts After you have created a project. Creating facts 91 . you can use it to create one or more simple facts at the same time. Inc. it limits you to creating simple facts and does not allow you to edit existing facts.

The Fact Creation Wizard opens. 2 From the Folder List in MicroStrategy Desktop. Inc. page 89. see Permissions and Privileges of the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. you can create additional facts and modify existing facts with the Fact Editor. see Permissions and Privileges of the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. . For more information about privileges. 3 From the Schema menu.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide You must use a login that has Architect privileges. You must use a login that has Architect privileges. follow the procedures outlined in To create facts with the Fact Creation Wizard. select the project to which to add additional facts. You can also use the Fact Editor to add extensions to those facts and configure additional settings within them to support various analytical requirements. select Fact Creation Wizard. For more information about privileges. To create a simple fact with the Fact Editor 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. log in to the project source that contains your project and expand your project. The following procedure describes how to use the Fact Editor to create a simple fact based on a single fact column in a table. 2 From the Folder List in MicroStrategy Desktop. 92 Creating facts © 2007 MicroStrategy. select the project to which to add additional facts. To use the Fact Creation Wizard to add facts. Creating simple and advanced facts with the Fact Editor As your project evolves.

drag and drop a fact column into the Fact expression pane. Inc. • Automatic mapping means that MicroStrategy scans all of the tables in the project and selects all tables with the columns used in the fact expression as possible source tables for the fact. select Automatic or Manual. Using automatic mapping in the Attribute Editor helps you decide which tables to map your facts to when creating a fact. The Warehouse Catalog mapping methods (discussed in Mapping schema objects and calculating logical sizes for tables. and then Fact. – If you are creating a constant expression that is not based on a physical column in a project table. 5 From the Available columns pane. You then select which of those tables are used as source tables for the fact. with the Create New Fact Expression dialog box displayed on top of it. Manual mapping means that MicroStrategy scans all of the tables in the project and locates all tables with the columns used in the fact expression. select the tables for which you want your constant expression to apply. The source table is the table or logical view that contains the fact column on which you want to base a new fact. select the source table for the fact. You can then remove any tables mapped automatically or select other tables. • © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 231) determine whether attributes or facts are automatically mapped to new tables when they are added after an attribute or fact is created.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 3 From the File menu. 4 From the Source table drop-down list. – These mapping methods are different from the automatic mapping methods for the Warehouse Catalog. select New. The Fact Editor opens. Creating facts 93 . 6 In the Mapping area. – If the same column name does not contain the same data across different tables. manually select the appropriate source tables for each fact.

although the column name is the same in both tables (i. For detailed information about the options on each tab within the Fact Editor. Column aliases are discussed in Fact column names and data types: Column aliases. Inc. 7 Click OK to close the Create New Fact Expression dialog box. you must select the Manual mapping method so you can select the Fact_Sales table as a source table for the Revenue fact. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. Extensions: This tab allows you to create fact level extensions. in the Fact_Discount table. 94 Creating facts © 2007 MicroStrategy. Fact extensions are discussed in Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions. create column aliases. 8 Use the tabs of the Fact Editor to define fact expressions. Column Alias: This tab allows you to create a column alias for the fact. • Definition: This tab allows you to define fact expressions. Fact definitions are discussed in How facts are defined.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide For example. click Save and Close. However. page 105. . you must select the Manual mapping method so you can select the Fact_Discount table as a source table for the Discount fact. When creating the Revenue fact. In other words. as described below. page 97. If you use the Automatic mapping method in both cases. the Sales column contains discount data. the MicroStrategy SQL Engine may use the incorrect column for the facts. page 107. the columns contain different fact data in each table. and create extensions. Sales).e. In the Fact_Sales table. the Sales column contains revenue data. suppose you have a column named Sales. • • 9 When your changes are complete. which exists in both the Fact_Sales table and the Fact_Discount table. When creating the Discount fact.

2 Double-click the fact to open the Fact Editor and edit the fact. navigate to the location in which to save the fact. Inc.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 10 In the Save As dialog box. Modifying simple and advanced facts To modify an existing fact 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. select Update Schema to update the project schema. 11 From the Schema menu. Enter a name for the fact and click Save. © 2007 MicroStrategy. You can learn how to create more advanced facts in the various sections below. The fact is saved and the Fact Editor closes. Creating facts 95 . open the folder that contains the fact to modify.

page 97. MicroStrategy selects a default column alias depending on the type of fact. Fact definitions are discussed in detail in How facts are defined. Level extensions are very effective for advanced data modeling scenarios.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide The structure of facts As shown in the diagram below. Inc. • • 96 The structure of facts © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 107. Level extensions are discussed in detail in Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions. Column aliases are discussed in detail in Fact column names and data types: Column aliases. Every fact must have a column alias. page 105. even though it is stored at that level. facts are made up of the following components: • The fact definition is composed of one or more fact expressions. Every fact must have at least one expression. The column alias stores the column name MicroStrategy uses to generate SQL statements when creating temporary tables related to the fact. Fact level extensions allow facts stored in the data warehouse at one level to be reported at an unrelated level. unless you create a new column alias. . Extensions can also prevent a fact from being reported at a certain level.

The following table provides an example of a fact definition. In this case. While the Unit Price fact only has one expression. How facts are defined 97 . some facts use more advanced expressions to perform calculations on multiple columns of data to return a single fact. the fact expression maps the fact to the All_Sales columns in the LU_ITEM and ORDER_DETAIL tables in the warehouse. However. expression. How facts are defined A fact definition contains properties that define a fact and its components. and source tables. For a discussion of the tools used to created facts and procedures on how to use them. when you select the numeric column used to represent the fact. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Facts can be found in multiple tables in a warehouse schema. both the fact definition and column alias are automatically defined. and often must be calculated differently from one table to the next. the fact expression is simply the name of the column which holds the fact data. Inc. The fact definition is composed of at least one fact expression and basic information about the fact. Fact Name Unit Price Expression All_Sales Source Tables LU_ITEM ORDER_DETAIL In the example. expression.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 You create facts in MicroStrategy Desktop using the Fact Creation Wizard and the Fact Editor. During project creation with the Fact Creation Wizard. and the source tables it uses. including the fact name. see Creating facts. multiple expressions can exist within a fact definition. Level extensions are optional. The fact expression contained in the definition represents how the fact is calculated by MicroStrategy. which includes the fact’s name. page 87.

a fact expression represents a mapping to specific fact information in the warehouse. The following image illustrates a column in the fact table and the associated fact expressions: Valid fact expressions are formulas constructed from fact columns with or without numeric constants or mathematical operators. The mathematical operators that can be used in a fact expression are: • • • • Addition (+) Subtraction (-) Multiplication (*) Division (/) 98 How facts are defined © 2007 MicroStrategy. For each of the tables. . A fact definition must have one or more fact expressions. Regardless of how it is defined. Mapping physical columns to facts: Fact expressions A fact expression maps facts to physical columns in the warehouse. These expressions can be as simple as a fact column name from the warehouse or as sophisticated as a formula containing multiple fact column names and numeric constants. Inc.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide Note the following: • • Each fact expression relates to one or more related tables that contain the fact. fact expressions define how the fact is calculated.

Implicit facts and implicit fact expressions Implicit facts are virtual or constant facts that do not physically exist in the database. For detailed information about metrics. Inc. creates a derived fact. you are creating a fact © 2007 MicroStrategy. For example. These temporary columns allow you to keep track of how many rows are returned for a certain attribute.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 Note the following: • You can use the Fact Editor to create fact expressions. or setting the expression to be an absolute value. A fact can also be defined using an ApplySimple function. Apply functions are discussed in the Pass-Through Expressions appendix in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. page 91. you can use implicit fact expressions to create “temporary columns” in the database with a value of “1” for every row. as explained in the following sections. These steps are covered in Creating and modifying simple and advanced facts. Any operation on a column such as adding a constant. adding another column’s values. The implicit fact can have its expression defined as a constant value. • Most facts represent physical columns in the data warehouse. although nothing is saved in a table column. An implicit fact indicates a fact table from which to retrieve data. How facts are defined 99 . For example. some facts do not exist at all in the warehouse and are defined in other ways. In other words. Derived facts and derived fact expressions A derived fact has its value determined by an expression that contains more than just a column in a table. where you can sum the column holding the constant to create a COUNT. However. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. if you want to build a metric defined as Sum(1). you can define a fact equal to the constant “1”. You may also find it helpful to use implicit facts when building metrics.

you can create such analysis in MicroStrategy with the use of metrics. Using a single fact saves storage space and limits the number of SQL passes used in queries. Sales. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide from information that is available in the data warehouse. Metrics allow you to perform calculations and aggregations on your fact data. For a more generalized procedure to create derived facts. For example. Rather than creating a derived fact. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. For more information on what metrics are and how to create them. a table in your data warehouse contains the following elements: Fact Table 1 Item Quarter Quantity_Sold Price You can create a new fact. Example: creating derived facts The Cost fact in the MicroStrategy Tutorial contains the derived fact expression Qty_Sold * Unit_Cost. 100 How facts are defined © 2007 MicroStrategy. This expression implies that columns containing data about the quantity of items sold and the price of those units can be multiplied to produce a useful business calculation. Inc. . “How much did it cost the company to create the items purchased by customers?” The following procedure describes how to create a derived fact that uses the derived fact expression described above. the columns are used to answer the business question. In this case. by creating the following derived fact: Sales = Quantity_Sold * Price One advantage of creating a derived fact is that a derived fact allows one consistent fact to exist in the project in lieu of having to retrieve multiple intermediary facts from multiple tables.

7 From the Available columns list. with the Create New Fact Expression dialog box displayed on top of it. 8 Under Mapping method. 6 With the cursor in the Fact expression pane. and then select Fact. log in to the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. 9 Click Validate to check whether the syntax of the expression is correct. 5 From the Available columns pane. point to New. double-click the UNIT_PRICE column to add it to end of the fact expression. © 2007 MicroStrategy. The Fact Editor opens.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 To create a derived fact 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. 3 From the File menu. The expression should appear as shown below: 10 Click OK. 2 Navigate to the My Personal Objects folder. click * (multiplication operator) to add it to the expression. and open the My Objects folder. Inc. select the ORDER_DETAIL table. 4 From the Source table drop-down list. How facts are defined 101 . double-click the QTY_SOLD column to add it to the Fact expression pane on the right. select Automatic. The derived fact expression appears in the Fact expression pane in the Fact Editor.

at this point. However. In the example above. resulting in an accurate representation of the fact in the report. Inc. When you call for the information in a report through the use of a metric. The Save menu opens. 102 How facts are defined © 2007 MicroStrategy. creating a heterogeneous fact column name for dollar sales informs the system that the Dollar_Sales and Dollar_Sls columns represent the same fact. 13 When you create a fact for your project. two fact tables in a warehouse each contain columns for dollar sales. since this is only an example. Table 1 contains a fact called Dollar_Sales. Facts with different column names: Heterogeneous column names In your warehouse.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide 11 From the File menu. you can refer the same fact to multiple columns with different column names and from different tables that identify the same quantitative value. 12 Enter a name for the derived fact and click Save. select Save As. Table 2 includes a fact called Dollar_Sls. you must update the project schema. the same fact can access columns with different column names. These two items represent the same information. it is not necessary to update the schema. In the example below. . With heterogeneous column names. Table 1 Year Dollar_Sales Table 2 Month Dollar_Sls MicroStrategy allows you to identify heterogeneous fact column names for each fact. both fact columns are used in the SQL.

and open the My Objects folder. To create heterogeneous fact columns 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. they represent the same data and are therefore both mapped to the Unit Sold fact. 4 From the Source table drop-down list. In the procedure. 7 Click OK. double-click the QTY_SOLD column to add it to the Fact expression pane on the right. How facts are defined 103 . The following procedure describes how to create the Units Sold fact that already exists in MicroStrategy Tutorial. This is one of the tables in which a heterogeneous fact column for the Units Sold fact exists. 6 In the Mapping method area. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. 5 From the Available columns pane.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 Example: mapping heterogeneous fact columns The Units Sold fact in MicroStrategy Tutorial consists of two fact columns in the warehouse. Qty_Sold and Tot_Unit_Sales. and then select Fact. You must map heterogeneous fact columns to their corresponding facts to ensure that accurate and complete data is displayed on reports. The Fact Editor opens and the fact expression you just created appears in the Fact expression pane. you create the Units Sold fact and map its corresponding heterogeneous fact columns to it. Although these fact columns have different names and exist in different fact tables. log in to the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. 3 From the File menu. The Fact Editor opens. © 2007 MicroStrategy. point to New. 2 Navigate to the My Personal Objects folder. select Automatic. For a more generalized procedure to map heterogeneous fact columns. with the Create New Fact Expression dialog box displayed on top of it. Inc. select the ORDER_FACT table.

5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide Now you must add the other heterogeneous fact column as separate expression for the Units Sold fact. 8 Click New. Inc. 10 From the Available columns pane. select Automatic. since this is only an example. you must update the project schema. at this point. The Save menu opens. 12 Click OK. 11 In the Mapping method area. The Create New Fact Expression dialog box opens. select Save As. This is the other table in which a heterogeneous fact column for the Units Sold fact exists. However. . 104 How facts are defined © 2007 MicroStrategy. 15 When you create a fact for your project. it is not necessary to update the schema. The Fact Editor opens and the fact expression you just created appears in the Fact expression pane. select the CITY_CTR_SALES table. Now the Units Sold fact you are creating maps correctly to its heterogeneous fact columns. double-click the TOT_UNIT_SALES column to add it to the Fact expression pane on the right. 14 Enter a name for the new fact and click Save. 9 From the Source table drop-down list. 13 From the File menu.

[Start_Date_Id]. The SQL you create may be different. However. For example. you can define a fact to be the difference between two dates to perform a calculation such as the average number of days between a start and an end date. [End_Date_Id]) The expression syntax is specific to your database type. © 2007 MicroStrategy.#0. You could create this fact using the following expression: ApplySimple("DateDiff(day. the data type for a fact is inherited from the data type of the column on which the fact is defined in the data warehouse. Fact column names and data types: Column aliases 105 . By default. there are cases where you may need to change this.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 Fact column names and data types: Column aliases A column alias specifies both the name of the column to be used in temporary tables and the data type to be used for the fact. Inc. #1)". This syntax is specific to Microsoft SQL Server.

5 Select New to create a new column alias. To create a column alias for a fact This procedure assumes you have already created a fact with a valid fact expression for which to create a new column alias. 6 You can modify the following properties for the column alias: • Column name: The name for the column alias which is used in any SQL statements which include the fact column. 3 Select the Column Alias tab. The Column Editor .Column Selection dialog box opens. For a description of the different data types supported by MicroStrategy. Data type: The data type for the fact. To avoid the possibility of an error due to conflicting data types. see Appendix D. This is used when a temporary SQL table needs to be created for the calculation. You can use the Fact Editor to create column aliases. • 106 Fact column names and data types: Column aliases © 2007 MicroStrategy. click Modify. The Column Editor . the difference between the two dates. . is an integer.Definition dialog box opens. However. Data Types. the result of the calculation. that is.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide The data type for this fact is automatically set to a Date data type because the Start_Date_ID and End_Date_ID have Date data types. log in to the project source that contains the fact to create a new column alias for. Inc. 2 Right-click the fact and select Edit. then the system uses a Date data type and tries to insert integer data into this column. If you did not change the data type of the column alias. 4 In the Column alias area. The Fact Editor opens. 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. you should modify the column alias for the fact to change the default Date data type to an Integer data type. This can cause an error for some database platforms.

These attribute IDs imply that the fact is reported at the item and quarter levels by default. precision.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 • Depending on the data type selected. Fact Table 1 Item Quarter Quantity_Sold Price Level extensions are necessary when facts are stored in the data warehouse at one level and reported at different levels. 8 Click OK to save your changes and return to the Fact Editor. Inc.Column Selection dialog box. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 107 . you can specify the byte length. scale. 7 Click OK to save your changes and return to the Column Editor . bit length. see the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. or time scale for your column alias. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions Facts are stored at a particular business level in the warehouse. For a detailed description on each of these properties. For example. The level of a fact is defined by the attribute IDs present in the table. Every fact is tied to a set of attributes that may or may not © 2007 MicroStrategy. the fact table shown below contains several attribute IDs. including Item and Quarter. 9 Select Save and Close to save your changes.

5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide satisfy all users’ reporting requirements. To see if some call centers are selling significantly more items at a discount than other call centers. MicroStrategy can aggregate the cost fact data to the level of the year attribute because it is in the same hierarchy as the date attribute and at a higher level. page 118). For example. A fact extension is needed when a fact does not relate directly or indirectly to an attribute included on a report. However. 108 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. all attributes at a higher logical level in the hierarchy are available for use as well. you record a Discount fact at the Item/Date level. For example if you have a cost fact at the level of a date attribute in a time hierarchy. If the entry level of a fact is at the lowest level of a hierarchy. you have to extend the level of the Discount fact to the Call Center level. . That is. Inc. without the use of level extensions. facts require level extensions to be related to any attributes that are at a lower logical level in the same hierarchy than the entry level for a fact (see Lowering the level of fact data: Fact degradations. You can use level extensions to change a fact level and extend a fact level to a level in a completely different hierarchy. discounts apply to particular items on particular days. which is an attribute from a different hierarchy.

Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 Level extensions define how facts can be extended. a level extension must exist to relate the fact data to the attribute. page 114 Forcing facts to relate to attributes: Using cross product joins. You can create fact level extensions by using any of the following methods: • • • • • Defining a join on fact tables using table relations. lowered. there is no way to make a connection between the fact data and the attribute. You can use the Fact Editor to create level extensions. or disallowed to other attributes across the schema. and they tend to be used only in specific cases. you are allowing facts or attributes that have been captured at one level to be extended to other levels to meet reporting requirements. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 109 . page 122 You can find complete descriptions for each of these methods in the online help for the Level Extension Wizard in the Fact Editor. page 110 Defining a join on fact tables using fact relations. Before a metric containing a fact can be used with an attribute that is not in or related to the attribute’s entry level. This is because if a fact is stored at a level unrelated to an attribute on a report. a level extension must be defined for the fact. Level extensions are not required like the fact definition and column alias. Otherwise. page 118 Disallowing the reporting of a fact at a certain level. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. page 116 Lowering the level of fact data: Fact degradations. By creating a level extension.

The procedure also describes general principles of creating fact extensions which you can use to create fact extensions for the facts in your project.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide Defining a join on fact tables using table relations A table relation defines a join on tables. the MicroStrategy Tutorial project includes a Freight metric. In this example. For example. and ORDER_DETAIL contains the Item attribute’s identity column to extend the fact to Item. the Freight fact cannot be reported at the Item level. Notice that the ORDER_FACT and ORDER_DETAIL tables include Order-level Units Sold and Item-level Units Sold columns respectively. An allocation expression is required to extend Freight to the Item level. . These two columns are used to allocate the fact expression in the procedure below. you are creating a table relation to extend a fact. The following procedure steps through how to create the fact extension that has been created for the Freight fact of the Tutorial project. the ORDER_DETAIL table is used to create the Freight fact extension to Item because: 1 The ORDER_FACT and ORDER_DETAIL tables both contain the Order attribute’s identity column to join the tables. 110 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. The join is important as the table contains an attribute in the entry level and the attribute to which to extend. This metric has a table relation fact extension to the Item attribute. 2 The Freight fact cannot simply be joined with a table containing Item information to return a meaningful freight value for each item. A fact extension can be used to relate a fact to an attribute using a fact table. A fact extension is required to view freight values for each item included in an order. Since the ORDER_FACT table that defines Freight does not include the identity column for the Item attribute. Inc. When you specify a table to join with a fact.

Then select whether you want to: • Lower the fact entry level: define a fact degradation (see Lowering the level of fact data: Fact degradations. or disallow the fact entry level 6 Enter a name and a description for your fact extension (already provided). 2 Browse to the Facts folder and double-click the Freight fact to edit it. 3 Click the Extensions tab. and click Next. The Extended Attributes page opens. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 111 .Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 To define a fact extension with a table relation 1 In Desktop. log in to the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. this example steps through how the Freight fact extension Extension to Item was created. page 118) Extend the fact entry level: define a fact extension on a table relation. 5 Read the Welcome statement and click Next. extend. so select Extend the fact entry level. To lower. The General Information page opens. or a cross product join Disallow partially or completely the fact entry level: define a fact extension that does not allow a fact to be reported at a certain level (see Disallowing the reporting of a fact at a certain level. dynamic fact relation. © 2007 MicroStrategy. The Fact Editor opens. Inc. However. page 122) • • For this example you are creating a fact extension on a table relation. To create a new fact extension you would click New. 4 Select Extension to Item and click Modify. The Level Extension Wizard opens.

The Join Type page opens. The Table Selection page opens. Inc. the ORDER_DETAIL table is already selected. select Order and click Next. and click Next to continue defining your fact extension on a table relation. For this example Item is already selected. Click Next. 112 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. . For this example. Click Next. To select the table. choose the lowest level attribute in that hierarchy. To extend the fact so that it can be reported at any level in a hierarchy. and define the allocation expression 9 Select the table used to extend the fact to the new level. page 116) . 10 Select whether to allow Intelligence Server to dynamically select what attribute(s) to perform the join. Since you know that you want to join the ORDER_FACT and ORDER_DETAIL tables using the Order attribute. Select the relationship table dynamically: select a fact and join attributes. To select the type of fact extension 8 Select how you want to extend the fact: • • Specify the relationship table used to extend the fact: select a relationship table and join attributes. or manually select the attribute(s). page 114). • For this example select Specify the relationship table used to extend the fact.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide To select attributes to extend the fact to 7 Select the attributes you want to extend the fact to. allowing the fact to be reported at the new level. The Join Attributes Direction page opens. This allows the MicroStrategy Engine to select the table that includes the fact and join attributes you choose to create the fact extension (see Defining a join on fact tables using fact relations. The Extension Type page opens. Perform the extension through a cross product: select to apply a cross product join (see Forcing facts to relate to attributes: Using cross product joins. join attributes.

and Freight. the allocation expression is already provided.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 11 You can choose to join using the attribute.[FREIGHT] * a12. A more detailed description of why this occurs follows this procedure. Therefore. Promotion level. For this example. ((Freight * [Item-level Units Sold]) / [Order-level Units Sold]). The SQL generated for the report containing Order. Notice that the expression returns an average freight amount per item of an order. [ORDER_DETAIL] a12. Order. a12. Click Next. max(a13.[ITEM_ID] AS ITEM_ID. 12 Enter an allocation expression that calculates the fact at the new level. max(a11. sum(((a11. Item. Take a moment to review the allocation expression.[ITEM_ID] = a13. it joins ORDER_FACT and ORDER_DETAIL and considers the resulting table as one logical fact table at the Item. or join using the attribute and its children. In this case Order has no children.[ORDER_ID] and a12. [LU_ITEM] a13 where a11.[ITEM_ID] The SQL statement above is for an Access database. the extension of Freight provides an estimate of the freight for each item of an order. so you do not have to click the Join against arrow to change the default. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc.[ITEM_NAME]) AS ITEM_NAME. Item.[ORDER_ID] = a12.[QTY_SOLD]) / a11. and Freight (metric mapped to the Freight fact) is: select a11. not an exact calculation. Day. The SQL for your reports may vary depending on the type of DBMS you use.[ITEM_ID] group by a11. The Allocation page opens.[QTY_SOLD])) AS WJXBFS1 from [ORDER_FACT] a11.[ORDER_DATE]) AS ORDER_DATE.[ORDER_ID] AS ORDER_ID.[ORDER_ID]. a12. 13 Click Finish to create the fact extension. When the engine processes a report containing Order. Employee. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 113 .

. 114 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. If you want to provide exact values of data at a certain level. With a fact relation.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide To view how the fact extension is an estimation of freight values for each item of an order. review the values of the first order with an extra metric that calculates the number of each item type in an order shown below. rather than you having to select tables manually. This allows more flexibility in defining the relations. The larger freight values occur because more than one of the item type was included in the order. the table join is possible on any table that contains the fact. Defining a join on fact tables using fact relations Fact extensions can be defined by a fact relation instead of a table relation. Inc. since the MicroStrategy Engine is responsible for choosing the appropriate table to join. you most likely need to capture such data and store it in your data source. Notice that the Freight metric averages the amount of freight per item in an order. This illustrates how fact extensions often provide an estimation of values at a different level rather than an exact calculation.

select the Select the relationship table dynamically option and specify the tables to use for the extension. This option is set in the step immediately after To select the type of fact extension. you can create a fact relation using the Order Unit Sales fact. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 115 . © 2007 MicroStrategy. To extend the entry level of the Freight fact to Customer. page 110 after two summary tables are added to it. The engine can make the following joins. depending on the join attributes specified: • • • • Table 1 and Table 2 on Distribution Center. and Order Table 1 and Table 4 on Distribution Center Table 2 and Table 3 on Distribution Center Table 3 and Table 4 on Distribution Center The joins described above demonstrate how the join attributes can be either Distribution Center and Order or just Distribution Center. You can define the fact relation in the Level Extension Wizard which you can access from the Fact Editor. Open the Order Unit Sales fact and extend it to either Distribution Center and Order or just Distribution Center. Next. Inc. The MicroStrategy Engine tries to join a table containing Freight to a table containing Order Unit Sales.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 The following diagram shows the schema from the example in Defining a join on fact tables using table relations.

. The SQL for your reports may vary depending on the type of DBMS you use.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide page 112 in the procedure above. Customer. In a best fit join. As with table relations. When you specify a cross product join to relate a fact to an attribute. as explained above. sum(a1. The SQL generated for a report containing Distribution Center. if the only join attribute is Distribution Center. you are creating a Cartesian product of the lookup attribute. TABLE4 a2 where a1. and Freight is shown below.DIST_CENTER. The tables and attributes you specify in the wizard determine the different types of joins that are created. Forcing facts to relate to attributes: Using cross product joins You can use a cross product join when a join does not exist and you need to force a fact to relate to an attribute by extending the fact. a2. This method can produce incorrect data because data can be repeated and counted twice in some cases. a2.CUSTOMER The SQL statement above is for an Access database.DIST_CENTER = a2. The cross product join is an extension that allows a single fact value to relate to all elements of an unrelated attribute. the set of join attributes must contain the entire key of the left-hand-side fact table (Table 3 in the example SQL above). select a1. 116 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy.DIST_CENTER.Freight) from TABLE3 a1. MicroStrategy does not recommend using the cross product join. you can specify the best fit as the join strategy so that the engine calculates the joins.CUSTOMER. Since this method can be inefficient. Cross products should only be used when no other way to extend the fact exists. Inc.DIST_CENTER group by a1.

page 112 of the procedure above. For this example.DOLLAR_SALES) from TABLE1 a1. This option is set in the step immediately after To select the type of fact extension.DIST_CENTER. Distribution Center.CUSTOMER. Open the Dollar Sales fact and extend it to the Distribution Center attribute. a cross product join must be used. a2. TABLE2 a2 group by a1. The SQL generated for a report containing Customer.DIST_CENTER The SQL statement above is for an Access database. The SQL for your reports may vary depending on the type of DBMS you use. in the following schema. Inc. The MicroStrategy Engine always cross-joins the lookup tables of the attributes in the extension. select the Perform the extension through a cross product option. and Dollar Sales is: select a1. Next. sum(a2. You can define this cross product join in the Level Extension Wizard in the Fact Editor. Distribution Center does not relate to Dollar Sales: Table 1 Table 2 Order Customer Dollar Sales Distribution Center To report Dollar Sales by Distribution Center.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 For example. Notice that no join attributes are specified. you do not need to specify an allocation expression. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 117 .

. you can create more meaningful analysis with other fact data that is 118 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. This causes every employee to be listed with the same planned compensation value as the employee’s department. For example. you must degrade the fact to a lower level. the Human Resources Analysis Module of the MicroStrategy BIDK includes a Planned Compensation fact that is stored at the Department level. Inc. and has a fact degradation to the Employee level (the attributes. which lowers a fact level. This scenario may occur because you stored a fact at a level that is used most commonly in reports. However. now that Planned Compensation is available at the Employee level. However. is the logical opposite of aggregation. facts. you must support those users who wish to view and analyze the same fact data at a lower logical level. To view fact data at a lower logical level than the fact is stored at. The fact extension does not use an allocation expression to degrade Planned Compensation to the Employee level. as shown below: The analytical value of this fact degradation is not immediately recognizable. and metrics used in this example can all be found in this Analytics Module).5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide Lowering the level of fact data: Fact degradations Degradation.

as shown below: Without using a degradation of Planned Compensation to Employee. The following procedure steps through how to create the fact degradation that has been created for the Planned Compensation fact of the Human Resources Analysis Module. The metric Actual as % Planned Compensation has been created to calculate the actual compensation of an employee as a percentage of the planned compensation for the entire department of the employee. The procedure also describes general principles of creating fact degradations which you can use to create fact degradations for the facts in your project. log in to the Human Resources Analysis Module. To define a fact degradation 1 In Desktop. For example. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 stored at the Employee level. 2 Browse to the Facts / Compensation / Planning folder and double-click the Planned Compensation fact to edit it. The metric definition is ([Compensation Cost]/[Planned Compensation]). Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 119 . respectively. which performs a division of metrics defined from the Compensation Cost and Planned Compensation facts. The Fact Editor opens. you could not include Department and Employee on a report with these metrics and return accurate values. You can now view what percentage of your planned compensation per department has been spent per employee. the Compensation Cost fact is stored at the Employee level.

choose the lowest level attribute in that hierarchy. The Join Type page opens. The Level Extension Wizard opens. 4 Select Degradation to Employee and click Modify. To extend the fact so that it can be reported at any level in a hierarchy. Click Next. or a cross product join (see Defining a join on fact tables using table relations. page 110 and Defining a join on fact tables using fact relations.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide 3 Click the Extensions tab. Inc. The Extended Attributes page opens. The General Information page opens. 5 Read the Welcome statement and click Next. page 114) Disallow partially or completely the fact entry level: define a fact extension that does not allow a fact to be reported at a certain level (see Disallowing the reporting of a fact at a certain level. page 122) • For this example you are creating a fact degradation so select Lower the fact entry level. allowing the fact to be reported at the new level. For this example Employee is already selected. 6 Enter a name and a description for your fact extension (already provided). To create a new fact degradation you would click New. For this example. Then select whether you want to: • • Lower the fact entry level: define a fact degradation Extend the fact entry level: define a fact extension on a table relation. and click Next. 120 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. the Department attribute is already selected. Click Next. However. . The Join Attributes Direction page opens. 8 Select what attribute(s) to perform the join. this example steps through how the Planned Compensation fact degradation Degradation to Employee was created. 7 Select the attributes you want to degrade the fact to. dynamic fact relation.

or join using the attribute and its children.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 9 You can choose to join using the attribute. you can create a degradation on the fact to relate it to the monthly level. you must add an allocation expression. You select Month to be the attribute to which to degrade. While it is possible that the fact data would be the same for every month of the year. For example. the join is performed on the Department attribute and its children. This is similar in concept to choosing an aggregation function (Sum. and so on) when aggregating data to higher levels. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions . Inc. if your fact is stored at the yearly level and you want to report the data at the monthly level. page 121 for an example of using an allocation expression for a fact degradation. For this example. Such fact degradations should be used 121 © 2007 MicroStrategy. to change the definition of the fact in a level extension. By creating allocation expressions. Click Next. The Allocation page opens. 11 Click Finish to create the fact degradation. For example. consider the allocation expression fact/12 for a degradation from Year to Month. Using such an allocation expression would spread a year’s fact data evenly over the 12 months of that year. Allocation expressions are defined by operations you set on attributes and facts in the Level Extension Wizard in the Fact Editor. Fact degradations with allocation expressions Not all fact degradations can simply be lowered to a new level. You then specify that the allocation expression is fact/12. which allows the distribution of values according to a calculation you specify. you define how higher-level facts are degraded to lower-level attributes. you do not need to include an allocation expression. Avg. Fact degradations often produce data estimates rather than exact values for the fact data at lower logical levels. this is often an unlikely scenario. For this example. 10 Enter an allocation expression that calculates the fact at the new level. Ordinarily. See Fact degradations with allocation expressions.

you can disallow the lower levels. Suppose you create a fact called Sales at the Item level in the Product dimension and a metric called Sales as the sum of the Sales fact. however. an error is returned. Time. When you create a report containing the Month attribute and the Sales metric. extend. page 111 of the procedure to create a fact extension above. such as data that is stored at the Minute or Second level. if you have three years’ worth of data. To explicitly disallow an extension of the Sales fact to the Time dimension. indicating that the report cannot be run at that level. This option is set in the step immediately after To lower. The setting prevents unnecessary joins to lookup tables. Disallowing a fact to be extended to a level lower than the fact’s entry level due to unnecessary complexity and the cost of analyzing fact data at such a level is a common use for this feature. Consider a schema containing three dimensions: Geography. Disallowing the reporting of a fact at a certain level The Disallow partially or completely the fact entry level setting within the Fact Editor is like a lock which prevents a fact from being reported at a specific level. If a fact is stored at a level that is counterproductive to a query. the report fails because the disallow setting now prevents the cross-joins between the lookup tables and fact tables. With a disallow in place. This setting. After updating the schema and re-executing the report. does not affect normal joins. Inc. if you create a report and attempt to include the fact at the Minute or Second level. . the Analytical Engine does a dynamic cross-join and evaluates the report. The following examples describe instances in which disallowing a fact entry level can prove useful. querying at the Minute or Second level consumes too many resources and returns extensive data. or disallow the fact entry level. 122 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. you would use the Disallow partially or completely the fact entry level setting and select the lowest attribute in the Time dimension such as Day. and Product.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide only when fact data is not stored at a lower logical level and there is no way to directly relate the fact data to the lower logical level. For example.

If you re-execute the report. the engine sorts the extension conditions specified in some order and calculates the report based on the sorted order of extensions. You now disallow an extension on the Revenue fact for the Item attribute and update the schema. This is because Revenue exists at the same level as Item in the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. which is defined as sum of the Revenue fact.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 In the previous example. the report runs successfully. So you encounter only normal joins and no extensions. This is not an expected design condition. There must be a valid reason to disallow reporting a fact at a certain level. It is advisable to avoid fact definitions that contain contradictory extension definitions. disallowing the Revenue fact at the level it is stored at in the data warehouse does not make logical sense. for the Sales fact. The Disallow the fact entry level setting applies only to attributes that can be considered as extended attributes. Month. In this case. although the engine returns a valid SQL. This implies that the fact extension has not been disallowed. For example. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 123 . you can still see Revenue by Item. you create a report that contains the attributes Subcategory and Item and the Revenue metric. Inc. assume you specify an extension to the Month attribute and also disallow extension to Year which is a parent of the extended attribute. In this case. If you execute the report containing the Year attribute and Sales metric.

. Inc.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide 124 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy.

as well as a Revenue metric based on the Revenue fact. For example. the report displays your company’s revenue at the region. a substantial amount of information is available. © 2007 MicroStrategy. knowing where and when the sales took place provides the kind of analytical depth users require on a daily basis. Because of the attributes on the report. If you remove the attributes from the report. Year. THE CONTEXT OF YOUR BUSINESS DATA: ATTRIBUTES Introduction Business data represented by facts can offer little insight without the presence of business concepts and context. and Region attributes on the template. and year levels. month. While knowing your company’s total sales is useful. you can only find out how much revenue the company generated in total. When executed. which take the form of attributes in MicroStrategy. Inc.6 6. including which regions produced the least revenue and which years saw the highest growth in revenue. 125 . Attributes provide the business model with a context in which to report on and analyze facts. you have a report with the Month.

which comes after creating facts when using the Project Creation Assistant. attributes are normally identified by a unique ID column in a lookup table. Intelligence Server.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Creating attributes is an important step in the initial project design effort. sum(Sales) From Store_Fact Group By Store_ID. New user and application requirements make attribute creation and modification an important part of the entire project life cycle. using this report definition. instructs the engine how to build the SQL for that report. Inc. consider the following: Select Store_ID. The expressions of attributes and facts in the report define the SELECT clause of the SQL command. For example. In MicroStrategy reports. attributes are identified by the column headers of the reports. . In the data warehouse. Date. A report designer creates a report in part by determining these report column headers. Date 126 © 2007 MicroStrategy.

Customer First Name. sales information will be retrieved by store and date. page 143.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 In the SQL above. Inc. includes the Year attribute but lacks the detail of a similar report which includes the lower level attributes Month and Week. • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. The attributes and metrics in the report tell Intelligence Server where to look in the data warehouse for the information and how to create the SQL that will retrieve it. Customer Email. The lowest level attribute you include in a report. See Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms. A discussion about metrics. It is important to understand the data is still the same. such as a report at the Year level. such as Day. filters. page 159. report analyzers do not have to know SQL to extract information from a data warehouse. Because of this process. Attribute relationship: allows interaction of data at different conceptual levels and shows how data is related within a project. is the lowest level of detail reported. for the Customer attribute. Attribute expression: maps a MicroStrategy attribute form to one or more columns in the warehouse. page 147. and reports is beyond the scope of this guide and is covered in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. and Customer Last Name are examples of attribute forms. See Attribute relationships. 127 . Attributes can have multiple attribute forms. See Attribute form expressions. For example. it is just not aggregated. A high-level report. Attributes are defined by these properties: • Attribute form: contains an identifier or descriptor of an attribute.

The later sections discuss conceptual information on attributes. 128 © 2007 MicroStrategy. The procedures to perform these tasks are discussed in the first section (Creating attributes. it is often necessary to modify and create attributes throughout the life cycle of a project. Inc.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide The following diagram illustrates how the attribute properties listed above are related: While creating attributes is a major step in the initial creation of a project. as well as highlight some advanced attribute design techniques and procedures. page 129) of this chapter. .

using different techniques and MicroStrategy interfaces: • Simultaneously creating multiple attributes. which launches the Attribute Creation Wizard to complete the attribute creation tasks. page 129—steps to create multiple attributes as part of the initial project design effort or later in a project’s life cycle. Adding and modifying attributes. This includes adding advanced features such as attribute forms to attributes that already exist or adding new attributes as your project evolves.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Creating attributes An attribute is primarily used to group and aggregate fact data to add business context to the fact data. see To create a new project using the Project Creation Assistant. Creating attributes 129 . • Simultaneously creating multiple attributes During your initial project design effort. Inc. This section provides steps to create attributes at different phases of the project design process. © 2007 MicroStrategy. therefore. The ability to report on and analyze data requires data to have a business context. To create attributes using the Attribute Creation Wizard This procedure is part of an initial project creation effort using the Project Creation Assistant. page 134—steps to add and modify attributes for an existing project. creating attributes is a major step in any project design effort. you can create multiple attributes using the Attribute Creation Wizard. For steps to access the Project Creation Wizard.

2 Review the introduction page that is displayed. The Attribute Creation Rules page opens. 4 The Column data type area allows you to select the column data types to be available as possible attribute ID columns. 3 Click Define Rules to set some basic attribute creation rules. Change these rules if the naming or data type conventions in your warehouse do not conform to these defaults. click Create attributes. . The Attribute Creation Wizard uses these rules below to help automate the attribute creation process. as shown below. 1 In the Project Creation Assistant. The Attribute Creation Wizard opens.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide page 78. Select the check boxes for the data types that should be included when the wizard searches the data warehouse for available attribute ID columns. Define attribute creation rules These rules can make the process of choosing attribute columns and naming your attributes considerably easier. especially if you use consistent naming conventions and data types in your data warehouse. Inc. You can also access the Attribute Creation Wizard at any time in the development of a project from the Schema menu in MicroStrategy Desktop. 130 Creating attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy.

You should never use a column that has NULL or repeated values as the ID column for an attribute. Only those columns with data types that match those chosen in the rules you defined above appear on the ID Selection page. ID column selection An ID column is a column or group of columns that uniquely identifies each element of an attribute. When choosing the ID column for an attribute. © 2007 MicroStrategy. The columns that match the identifier naming convention that you set in the warehouse search rule above are automatically highlighted. 7 Click OK to accept your rule changes and return to the Attribute Creation Wizard. Creating attributes 131 . and LOOKUP for lookup tables. The defaults are ID for identifier columns.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 5 The Attribute name area allows you to determine how to create default attribute names. 8 Click Next. Inc. The ID Column Selection page opens. DESC for description columns. make sure that all values in the column are unique and that it does not contain NULL values. Doing so results in unexpected behavior and errors. You can select the appropriate check boxes to set the following default behaviors for creating attribute names: • • • Replace underscores in the attribute name with spaces Remove the word “ID” from the name Capitalize the first letter 6 The Warehouse search area determines naming conventions to help locate your warehouse objects.

select the attribute IDs in the Attributes pane and click < to move them to the Available columns pane. You are returned to the Attribute Creation Wizard. Create compound attributes A compound attribute is defined as an attribute with more than one column specified as the ID column.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide 9 From the Available columns pane. 132 Creating attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. For more information about mapping attributes to heterogeneous columns. Description column selection Description columns provide the data which gives context and meaning to your attributes. see Joining dissimilar column names: Heterogeneous mappings. page 183). Inc. 10 To create a compound attribute. complete the following steps: • • • Click Compound Attributes and then click Add. heterogeneous columns). page 153. . – The Attribute Creation Wizard cannot handle columns that hold the same information but have different column names (that is. select the columns to use for your attribute IDs and click > to add them to your project. Select the columns that are required to uniquely identify the compound attribute and click OK. This implies that more than one ID column is needed to uniquely identify the elements of that attribute (see Attributes with more than one ID column: Compound attributes. – To remove attribute ID columns from your project. The New Compound Attribute dialog box opens. Type a name for the attribute. Click >> to add all the listed columns. Note the following: – You can rename any attribute name to make it more user-friendly by right-clicking the attribute and selecting Rename.

14 Select the lookup table for each attribute. Lookup table selection Lookup tables are the physical representation of attributes. it may make sense to use the ID column as the description column. they provide the information for an attribute through data stored in their ID and description columns. click Next. Inc. the Relationship Definition page opens. The Lookup Table Selection page opens. you should choose the default lookup table for each attribute. Note the following: – In general. – Other attribute forms need to be created through the Attribute Editor after you complete steps in the Project Creation Assistant. for more information about attribute forms. the Compound Attribute Definition page opens. however. The table that follows the lookup naming convention that you set in the warehouse search rule is automatically selected.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 11 After adding all your attribute ID columns. 15 Click Next: • If you have created compound attributes. Specify the lookup table and description column for the compound attributes and click Next. Creating attributes 133 . page 136. In some cases. The Relationship Definition page opens. such as Year. In general. 13 Click Next when you are finished selecting description columns for attributes. The Description Column Selection page opens. 12 Select whether to use the ID or a different column for the description of the attribute. If you have not created a compound attribute. Refer to Adding attributes with the Attribute Editor. • © 2007 MicroStrategy. The column that meets the description naming convention that you set in the warehouse search rule is automatically selected. you should use the default description column for each attribute.

For more information on the different attribute relationship types. As a company evolves. click Next. State. The Finish page opens. This completes the initial creation of a project with the Project Creation Assistant. define child attributes: • • In the Attributes pane. The Select Children Attributes dialog box opens. the relationships between attributes should become apparent. one-to-many. select an attribute and click Add. like Location. In a logical data model. • 17 When you have defined children for all the attributes that need them. . When you design a logical data model for your project (see Chapter 2. select the relationship type for the attribute to its child attribute. In the Children of: attribute name pane. page 159. or Region are often grouped in a common hierarchy. you can also create and add attributes as they become necessary. Inc. The Logical Data Model). you specify the children and the type of relationship: one-to-one. whereas attributes in different hierarchies cannot be related. Adding and modifying attributes Just as you can add more facts to your project once you have created it. 18 Review the summary information in the Finish page and click Finish to create the attributes.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Relationship definition For each attribute. You are returned to the Attribute Creation Wizard. After you have completed the steps of the Attribute Creation Wizard. 16 For each attribute. so does its 134 Creating attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. Select the child attributes from the list of available child attributes and click OK. or many-to-many. see Attribute relationships. the attributes are created. Related attributes such as City. when attributes are in the same hierarchy they must be related to each other.

decides to extend its operations into Europe and Asia.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 reporting requirements. and attribute form expressions. However. with offices only in the United States. you only use the Attribute Creation Wizard as part of the initial project creation. map heterogeneous column names. It must then add these tables to its MicroStrategy project. which you use to create the first attributes for your project. when the company opens its offices in Europe and Asia. and create the appropriate attributes so report users can analyze business data for their appropriate country. • The Attribute Creation Wizard allows you to: Create simple attributes Create multiple attributes quickly Add a large number of attributes during project creation • The Attribute Editor allows you to: Create simple and advanced attributes Edit existing attributes and configure additional schema-level settings The Attribute Creation Wizard works well for building a large number of attributes initially. Creating attributes 135 . attribute forms. the company does not include lookup tables with information about different countries in its data warehouse. which allows you to define attributes. In general. You can create attributes with either the Attribute Creation Wizard. For example. You can use the Attribute Editor to edit existing attributes and create additional attribute forms. and so on. it must add lookup tables that contain data about its new offices to its warehouse. Before the shift overseas. configure additional settings. define advanced expressions. these requirements can lead to changes to the data warehouse as well as to the schema within its MicroStrategy projects. Inc. or the Attribute Editor. for creating most of the attributes for the project. a health care company. but you cannot use it to modify existing attributes or to define more advanced attributes. © 2007 MicroStrategy.

you may still find it useful if you need to create multiple attributes from remaining lookup columns in your warehouse. You can also use it to add new attributes to your project. choose Attribute Creation Wizard. 4 To create attributes with the Attribute Creation Wizard. The Attribute Creation Wizard opens. follow the steps outlined in Simultaneously creating multiple attributes. . log in to the project source that contains your project and expand your project. Inc. See the Permissions and Privileges appendix of the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide for more information. To create simple attributes in bulk using the Attribute Creation Wizard 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. 136 Creating attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. 3 From the Schema menu. Adding attributes with the Attribute Editor The Attribute Editor is used to add advanced features such as attribute forms to attributes that already exist. Follow the steps below to use the Attribute Creation Wizard to create simple attributes in bulk.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Adding attributes with the Attribute Creation Wizard Although the Attribute Creation Wizard is primarily used to create most of a project’s attributes during initial project creation. select the project to which to add new attributes. You must use a login that has Architect privileges. page 129. 2 From the Folder List.

Creating attributes 137 . 5 Click Validate to make sure your expression is valid. or select other tables. drag a column name from the Available columns pane to the Form expression pane. When you create an expression for an attribute form. with the Create New Form Expression dialog box displayed on top of it. or parentheses. To create a more advanced attribute form expression. 2 From the File menu. You do not have to include any operators. © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 147). select a table which contains the columns of data for the attribute. 3 From the Source table drop-down list.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 To create an attribute using the Attribute Editor 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. 6 Under Mapping Method. Click any operator in the Form expression toolbar to insert it into the expression. you are only required to select an available column and move it to the Form expression pane. use a combination of any of the following techniques: • • • Enter constants in double quotes. and then Attribute. 4 To create a simple attribute form expression (Attribute form expressions. You can then clear any tables mapped automatically. log in to the project source that contains your project and expand your project. Click f(x) in the Form expression toolbar to create a function using the Insert Function Wizard. The Attribute Editor opens. Inc. select Automatic or Manual: • Automatic mapping means that MicroStrategy scans all of the tables in the project and selects all tables with the columns used in the attribute form expression as possible source tables for the attribute form. select New. Its columns are listed in the Available Columns pane. functions.

select the check boxes of the tables to map to the attribute form. You then select which of those tables are used as source tables for the attribute form. Using automatic mapping in the Attribute Editor helps you decide which tables to map your attribute to when creating an attribute. Inc. The system maps the expression to each of the source tables. the default is Manual. A lookup table holds the information for an attribute. from which you can create attribute forms for the attribute (Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms. The Warehouse Catalog mapping methods (discussed in Mapping schema objects and calculating logical sizes for tables. page 143). . If you chose manual mapping. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. – These mapping methods are NOT the same as the automatic mapping methods for the Warehouse Catalog. 138 Creating attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 231) determine whether attributes or facts are automatically mapped to new tables when they are added after an attribute or fact is created. – A constant expression cannot use the automatic mapping method. select a table and click Set as Lookup to set the lookup table for the attribute. 9 In the Form general information area. type a name and description in the associated fields for the attribute form. For subsequent attributes.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide • Manual mapping means that MicroStrategy scans all of the tables in the project and locates all tables with the columns used in the attribute form expression. Note the following: – The mapping method defaults to Automatic for the first attribute or attribute form expression you create. 7 Click OK. 8 From the Source tables pane.

• Modifying attributes After creating an attribute. select a display type and a default sorting option from the associated drop-down lists. a warning message appears by default when you click OK in the Create New Attribute Form dialog box. you can modify the attribute at any time using the Attribute Editor. 15 From the Schema menu. This ensures that your project is updated to recognize the new attribute definition. select Save As. Inc. page 146. 12 Click OK. Click Save. 13 From the File menu. Enter a name for the derived fact. The Attribute Editor opens. For more information on custom groups. 14 Navigate to the folder in which to save the attribute. Custom groups are sorted by the Default sort of the form that appears first in the Report display forms. Creating attributes 139 . if you select a column with a non-numeric data type and set it as an ID column. see Attribute form properties. do one of the following: • Select a form category from the drop-down list. For a description of form categories. 11 In the Form format area. Therefore. © 2007 MicroStrategy. select Update Schema to update the project schema. refer to the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. The Save dialog box opens.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 10 In the Category used drop-down list. Click Modify to create a new form category. You cannot use the Attribute Creation Wizard to modify attributes. Using a column with a non-numeric data type as an ID column of an attribute can result in SQL generation issues.

You can then modify all the options available when creating and attribute in the Attribute Editor.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide To modify an existing attribute 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. open the folder that contains the attribute to modify. in the following diagram. The Attribute Editor opens. Customer is the attribute and New York NY. Baltimore BA. page 137. You can learn how to create more advanced attributes in the various sections below. For example. and Boston BN are elements of the attribute City: 140 Unique sets of attribute information: Attribute elements © 2007 MicroStrategy. 2 Double-click the attribute to edit. which is described in the previous procedure To create an attribute using the Attribute Editor. Inc. Unique sets of attribute information: Attribute elements Attribute elements are the unique sets of information or values of an attribute. .

the First Name and Last Name forms are used to identify the 141 © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 143). and so on which are defined by the attribute forms (see Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 The following example displays the physical warehouse table that stores elements and data for the Customer attribute. Each customer (attribute element) has its own set of information such as last name. Unique sets of attribute information: Attribute elements . as shown below: The Customer attribute is a good example to understand the components of an attribute and the concept of an attribute element. an attribute element is a unique set of information defined by the attribute forms of an attribute. For example. Attribute elements are identified by their browse forms. With the Customer attribute. each attribute element is an individual customer. which should be forms that provide a general description of the attribute element. in the image above. Each attribute element is a row in an attribute lookup table in your data warehouse. first name. Inc. As shown above. email address.

Attribute elements can be identified in logical data models. As shown below. Just as you would not refer to a customer by his or her street address. the attribute Division has multiple attribute elements. the report below (created from the Sales 142 Unique sets of attribute information: Attribute elements © 2007 MicroStrategy. you would not want to use the Address form to identify the Customer attribute elements. For more information on selecting the attribute forms used to identify attribute elements. Shoes. Inc. such as Men’s Clothing. attribute elements are displayed depending on the location of the attribute they are associated with. . see Using attributes to browse and report on data.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide attribute elements. page 189. and Sporting Goods: In MicroStrategy reports. For example.

Inc. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms Attribute forms are identifiers or descriptors of an attribute. Sales Organization and Year. Every attribute must have at least one form. The report above uses the common practice of putting the metrics (Sales Orders Quantity (Base Units) and Cost Sales Orders) on the columns of the report. page 33. Year is on the columns of the report along with its attribute elements such as 2005. and most have at least two: © 2007 MicroStrategy. The display of attributes and their attribute elements is also affected by the location of the metrics on the report. as explained in Logical data modeling conventions.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 and Distribute Analysis Module of the MicroStrategy BIDK) has two attributes. Sales Organization is on the rows of the report along with its attribute elements such as USA Central. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms 143 .

6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide • • The ID form (required) A description form Every attribute must have an ID form (identity form). In this case John Smith can have a value of 1 in the Customer_ID column and Fred Black can have a value of 2 in the Customer_ID column. Attributes also have description forms. Email is included as an additional descriptive form. To differentiate between two customers such as John Smith and Fred Black. Inc. These types of forms give context and information about the Customer attribute. each customer must have a different value for their identity column. . For example. ID forms serve to uniquely identify each attribute element from other elements for the same attribute. the Customer attribute’s ID form is Customer_ID. Some attributes can have additional descriptive forms that do not serve as the primary description form. which is a column of unique numeric values to identify each customer. as shown in the following diagram: 144 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. including the Customer Name and the Address forms. The Customer attribute in the MicroStrategy Tutorial has various forms. For the Customer attribute.

For example. the LU_CUSTOMER table records all of the attribute form data for the Customer attribute. Inc. identifying number for each customer (ID form) Customer_Full_Name: the full name of each customer (Description form) EMAIL: the email address for the specific customer (Additional description form) In this example. In such cases. In the warehouse. Name. one with the forms Customer_ID. SSN. you can choose a lookup table in the Attribute Editor from a list of tables existing in the project. Each table must have an ID form. you must map the appropriate columns to the same attribute to retrieve accurate and complete results when using an attribute on a report. and Email forms and the tables will join together through the ID columns because that is the column they have in common. When creating an attribute form. © 2007 MicroStrategy. a lookup table with three columns holds the following separate forms.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 In the data warehouse. Attributes must contain at least one ID form. Heterogeneous column names are discussed in Joining dissimilar column names: Heterogeneous mappings. the ID forms are used to join tables. described below: • • • Customer_ID: a unique. The attribute will have the Customer_ID. Name. page 153. The second lookup table contains Customer _ID and Email. and SSN. which uniquely identifies the attribute. two columns with different names can represent the same information about an attribute. The forms you create must have a reference to a lookup table and can include multiple expressions. two tables exist. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms 145 .

specifying a format type of Big Decimal allows users to preserve precision when qualifying on a form with more than 15 digits. the first attribute form with a default sort order is 146 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. or None. Desc. When you have attributes that require multiple description forms. Each attribute can have only one Desc form. it is a good practice to map the most commonly used or most important description form to the Desc form of the attribute.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Attribute form properties You must select properties for each form when you create forms in the Attribute Editor in MicroStrategy Desktop. Big Decimal is discussed in detail in Appendix D. While there is no difference in how a Desc attribute form and None attribute form are used in MicroStrategy. Inc. . below. For information on how attribute forms are sorted when multiple attribute forms of a single attribute define a default sort order. If you define multiple attribute forms of an attribute with ascending or descending sort orders. and None. mapping the most commonly used or most important description form can be helpful for project designers to quickly distinguish this attribute form from the other secondary forms. You can choose from Ascending. the other description forms must be mapped to None forms. For example. Data Types. • Default sorting of multiple attribute forms When creating attribute forms. • Format types control how the form is displayed and how filters are built. Default sort governs how the form is sorted by default when included in a report. see Default sorting of multiple attribute forms. There is no way to distinguish a Desc attribute form from a None attribute form on a MicroStrategy report. Descending. You can create new form categories in the Attribute Editor. The standard category options are ID. you can define the default sort order for each attribute form. These properties affect the display of the forms and include the following: • Categories help group the types of forms.

and other report objects are sorted. An attribute form expression defines what columns in the warehouse are used to represent the attribute form in SQL. These information units are called attribute forms. refer to the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. Each attribute form must have at least one expression. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms . If the first attribute form with a default sort order is not included on a report. then the second attribute form with a default sort order is used for sorting. For example. For more information on advanced sorting. Sorting defined for a report takes precedence over default sorting defined for attribute forms. This is because Last Name was created first and therefore is considered for sorting before the Address form. only Last Name has a default sort order set.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 used to sort the attribute on the report. and so on. If you remove the Last Name form from the report. For example. It is important to note that you can change how attribute forms are sorted from within a report. customers are sorted by their Last Name in ascending order. Modify the Address form so that it has a descending default sort order. Attribute form expressions Attributes act like holders of information and provide context for fact data. metrics. the Customer attribute holds information about the customer such as Name and Address. If you include Customer on a report with both Last Name and Address. the Customer attribute in the MicroStrategy Tutorial project has the five attribute forms shown below: Of these five attribute forms. Inc. 147 © 2007 MicroStrategy. In a report you can use advanced sorting to define how attribute forms. This is the default functionality for how attributes are sorted by their attribute forms on reports. customers are sorted by their address in descending order.

You can also create a form expression using Apply functions. The form expression for the Customer Last Name attribute form is CUST_LAST_NAME. These form expressions create virtual data by combining or using columns to generate the data.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide For example. +. Inc. The types of attribute form expressions are: • • Simple expressions. for example. the form expression for the Customer First Name attribute form is CUST_FIRST_NAME. page 150: Derived form expressions perform some type of mathematical calculation on columns in the data warehouse to create an attribute form. /. 148 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. *. Implicit expressions. Derived expressions. Although you can have multiple expressions in different tables. . page 148: Simple form expressions access data through columns in the data warehouse. These functions are discussed in the Pass-through Expressions appendix in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. Only implicit attributes do not include a column in the expression. and/or mathematical operators. • • Simple expressions A simple expression is based on a single warehouse column. Joining dissimilar column names: Heterogeneous mappings. constants. You can create expressions using attribute columns. page 155: Implicit form expressions do not relate directly to data stored in the data warehouse. -. page 153: Heterogeneous mappings allow you to use columns with different names in the data warehouse as the same attribute form. The definition of the simple expression includes the tables in which the column is found. since they only use the constants you declare. the CUST_FIRST_NAME and CUST_LAST_NAME columns in the warehouse provide information about first and last names respectively. In this instance. a form cannot have two different expressions in the same source table.

2 Navigate to the Schema Objects folder. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms 149 . the project designer must add the column containing the customer dates of birth as an additional attribute form of the Customer attribute. open the Attributes folder. The Attribute Editor opens. The expression for the ID form is the CATEGORY_ID column and the expression for the description form is the CATEGORY_DESC column. Both of these columns reside in the table LU_CATEGORY. and then the Customers folder. the date of birth data eventually becomes part of the retailer’s data warehouse and the appropriate lookup table is added to the retailer’s project in MicroStrategy. log in to the project source that contains the MicroStrategy Tutorial project and then log in to MicroStrategy Tutorial. ID and Description. This will enable report designers to display each customer’s date of birth alongside each customer’s name on reports. 3 Double-click the Customer attribute. both of which are defined by simple expressions. Inc. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Once gathered. including their dates of birth. The retailer’s customers provide a variety of information on the surveys.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 For example. At this point. Category is an attribute in the MicroStrategy Tutorial. It has two forms. Follow the procedure below to create Customer Birth Date as an attribute form in the Customer attribute. Example: creating an attribute form with a simple expression A retailer begins a promotion that offers customers 25% off of their purchases if they fill out a feedback survey on the company website. To create an attribute form with a simple expression 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. The retailer intends to analyze the data gathered from the surveys to better market their products in the future.

6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide 4 Click New. 8 In the Form general information area. mathematical operators. 5 From the Source table drop-down list. in the Name field. type Customer Birth Date. derived expressions are defined using one or more columns as well as other operators and values. 7 Click OK. The new Customer Birth Date attribute form is added to the Attribute form pane in the Attribute Editor. The mapping method is selected as Automatic by default. By calculating the difference between the columns Date of Birth and Current Date. 10 Click OK. you can create a derived attribute to calculate age or anniversaries. you can create an attribute to hold the age of a customer or an employee that has been derived from the two columns. the attribute’s value 150 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. adding another column. By creating an attribute to calculate age in this manner. close the Attribute Editor without saving your changes. functions. For example. Any operation on a column (such as adding a constant. This is the table that contains customers’ dates of birth. . Inc. 11 Because this is only an example. or setting the expression to be an absolute value) creates a derived expression. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. 9 From the Category used drop-down list. Derived expressions Derived expressions are created using a combination of warehouse columns. 6 Double-click the CUST_BIRTHDATE column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. select DATE since Customer Birth Date is neither the ID form of Customer nor the primary description form. and constants. While simple expressions have their value determined by just one column in a warehouse table. select the LU_CUSTOMER table. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens.

However. 2 Navigate to the Schema Objects folder. but you must make sure you use expressions that meet the requirements of your database-specific SQL syntax. Using the Customer attribute. the information is displayed as Jones. Example: creating an attribute form with a derived expression In your database. “ + CUST_FIRST_NAME Using this expression. Calculations and functions used in a derived expression can assist in deriving data from the database. As another example. you want reports to display a customer’s first name and last name together as a single entry on a report. First Name using the following syntax: CUST_LAST_NAME + “. open the Attributes folder. log in to the project source that contains the MicroStrategy Tutorial project and then log in to MicroStrategy Tutorial. the attribute would need to be updated every time a customer or an employee has a birthday. and then the Customers folder. Inc. If you created an attribute for age in which you included a constant number. © 2007 MicroStrategy. the SQL query and resulting report can fail. you store Customer names in two different columns. which consists of the two strings. You can achieve this using a derived form expression Name. To create an attribute form with a derived expression 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. CUST_FIRST_NAME and CUST_LAST_NAME. you could create a derived expression for Name in the format of Last Name. the syntax of the derived expression for Name reads: CUST_FIRST_NAME + “ “ + CUST_LAST_NAME On a report. Mary under the Name column. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms 151 . If you use syntax that is not supported by your database or other data source. this information is displayed as Mary Jones under the Name column.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 is automatically updated as the age changes.

14 Because this is only an example. 11 In the Form general information area. “ +. 5 From the Source table drop-down list. First Name is neither the ID form of Customer nor the primary description form. The Attribute Editor opens. The new attribute form is added to the Attribute form pane in the Attribute Editor. 12 From the Category used drop-down list. 10 Click OK. type Last Name. This is the table that contains customers’ first and last names. close the Attribute Editor without saving your changes. 152 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. select the LU_CUSTOMER table. . 8 Double-click the CUST_FIRST_NAME column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. First Name. 6 Double-click the CUST_LAST_NAME column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. Your expression should be defined as shown below. select None since Last Name. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. place the cursor to the right of [CUST_LAST_NAME] and type + “. 13 Click OK.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide 3 Double-click the Customer attribute. Inc. 4 Click New. 7 In the Form expression pane. in the Name field. 9 Select Automatic as the mapping method.

you can select as many or as few as you want to be used as part of the attribute’s definition. For example. you can view the chosen tables in the source Tables area to the right of the Form Expressions area. For example. However. Inc.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Joining dissimilar column names: Heterogeneous mappings Heterogeneous mapping allows Intelligence Server to perform joins on dissimilar column names. © 2007 MicroStrategy. most databases cannot join a data type of Text to a data type of Number. You can map Order_Date and Day_Date to the Day attribute—this ensures that both columns are used when information about the Day attribute is displayed on a report. Because different source systems may store information in various contexts. Of all the tables in which the columns exist. you can use heterogeneous mapping to map the Day attribute to all of the columns in the data warehouse that represent the same concept of Day. the ID form of the attribute Day contains two expressions. The Day_Date column occurs in the LU_DATE table and the Order_Date column occurs in the ORDER_DETAIL and ORDER_FACT tables. your company may have multiple columns in different tables that all represent the same business concept. depending on your database platform. The data types of columns used in a heterogeneous mapping for a given attribute must be identical or similar enough for your particular RDBMS to join them properly. in the MicroStrategy Tutorial. Each expression is linked to a set of source tables that contain the columns used in the expression. In the above example. In the Attribute Editor. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms 153 . you might be able to join columns with data types of Number and Integer. If you define more than one expression for a given form. heterogeneous mapping automatically occurs when tables and column names require it.

6 Double-click the DAY_DATE column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. 10 Double-click the ORDER_DATE column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. select the ORDER_DETAIL table. 4 Click New. Notice that there are now two expressions for the attribute form definition. log in to the project source that contains the MicroStrategy Tutorial project and then log in to MicroStrategy Tutorial. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. 7 Click OK. 8 Click New.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide To create an attribute form with a heterogeneous column mapping 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. both of which use different tables as the source of their information. 11 Click OK. The Attribute Editor opens. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. 5 From the Source table drop-down list. 2 Navigate to the Schema Objects folder. . select the LU_DAY table. and then the Time folder. The Create New Form Expression dialog box opens. 154 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. 3 Double-click the Day attribute. The Create New Form Expression dialog box opens. You could continue this process to add as many heterogeneous columns as part of one attribute form as necessary. The mapping method is selected as Automatic by default. The mapping method is selected as Automatic by default. 9 From the Source table drop-down list. Inc. open the Attributes folder.

The Rush Order attribute is defined by two expressions: the Rush_Order column in the Order_Fact table and the implicit expression “Y”. Suppose you want a report to display which orders are rush orders so you can better keep track of your shipments. select None since this is simply an example scenario. 14 Click OK. Implicit expressions are not defined by column names. which stands for “Yes. a “Y” is displayed in the Rush Order column. Implicit expressions While most attributes map directly to one or more physical columns in the warehouse. although nothing is saved in an actual column. Implicit attributes are not commonly used. Inc. the Rush Order attribute in MicroStrategy Tutorial is an example of an implicit attribute. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms 155 . they are defined by constants you specify. © 2007 MicroStrategy.” This implicit expression is used to keep track of which orders are rush orders. Implicit attributes are useful in analyzing and retrieving relevant information. RushOrder=‘Yes’. in the Name field. 15 Because this is only an example. For example. type Date Example. an implicit attribute is a virtual or constant attribute that does not physically exist in the warehouse. for each order that is a rush order. Such an attribute has an implicit expression. rather than being defined in terms of columns. which is a constant value. Some attribute definitions can be implied by the existence of a row in a certain table. close the Attribute Editor without saving your changes. for example. Any constant is acceptable.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 12 In the Form general information area. On a report with the Order and Rush Order attributes on the template. 13 From the Category used drop-down list. The new Date Example attribute form is added to the Attribute form pane in the Attribute Editor. but are useful in special cases such as the scenario described above. An implicit attribute such as Rush Order is useful for this purpose.

or page-by on the Account attribute. However. . Many database platforms have functions that can extract parts of a date from a Date data type. By doing so. you can create a Year attribute using the following form expression: ApplySimple("Year(#0)". which attempts to use a data type as similar as possible to the data type in your database or other data source (see Appendix D.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Modifying attribute data types: Column aliases A column alias is a new data type that you can specify in place of the default data type for a given attribute form. This inheritance is governed by MicroStrategy. drilling. The following are some examples of such cases. a column alias performs the same function as it does for facts. Another example could be a case in which your warehouse does not have a lookup table for year information. Because this column stores high-precision values. there are cases where you may need to change the data type. Data Types for more information on how MicroStrategy selects a matching data type). Big Decimal. For example. 0). you may need to use a different syntax. For attributes. Inc. depending on your database or data source type. SQL Server has a Year function that extracts just the year from a date. 156 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. In such a case. the data type for an attribute form is inherited from the data type of the column on which the form is defined. By default.[Date_Id]) The ApplySimple expression above is syntactically correct for SQL Server. you must modify the column alias for the attribute form and map it to a special data type. However. the precision can be preserved when performing filtering. They can also help you take more advantage of the data in your data warehouse. Column aliases allow you to specify a more appropriate data type that can help avoid errors in your SQL. but you would like to create a Year attribute. In your data warehouse you have a lookup table for an Accounts attribute where the ID is Account Number and the ID is stored in the database as DECIMAL(18.

the system uses a Date data type and tries to insert integer data into this column.Date_Id) CustCol_1. In addition to specifying the data type to be used for an attribute form. and so on). modify the column alias for the attribute form and change the default Date data type to an Integer data type. and it is an integer. the result of the calculation is a year.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 The data type for this attribute is automatically set to a Date data type. log in to the project source that contains the attribute to create a new column alias for. However. To create a column alias for an attribute This procedure assumes you have already created an attribute with a valid attribute expression for which to create a new column alias. When a temporary SQL table is created. The above example is a simple one. To avoid the possibility of an error due to conflicting data types. the column alias also lets you specify the column alias name to be used in the SQL generated by MicroStrategy. You can use the Attribute Editor to create column aliases. Inc. © 2007 MicroStrategy. The following piece of SQL shows. 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. page 147). the column alias for the attribute form defaults to CustCol (or CustCol_1. you can change the column alias name to be more meaningful.Tot_Dollar_Sales) WJXBFS1 FROM YR_CATEGORY_SLS a11 cross join TRANS_DATE_LW_LY a12 GROUP BY Year(a12. CustCol_2. in bold. such as 2002. but this can be useful for troubleshooting the SQL for a particularly complex report. While this does not create a problem in all database platforms. sum(a11. This is because Date_ID is a Date data type. where the column alias name is used: SELECT Year(a12. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms 157 .Date_Id) While the column alias name does not affect the actual results or your report. When you create a form expression using a custom expression or multiple columns (as discussed in Attribute form expressions. some databases will return an error. if you do not change the data type of the column alias.

Data Types. precision.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide 2 Right-click the attribute and select Edit. Attribute forms versus separate attributes Attribute forms can be considered as additional descriptions for an attribute. The Column Editor . see the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. • • 8 Click OK to save your changes and return to the Column Editor . 3 Select an attribute form and click Modify. you can specify the byte length. 5 In the Column alias area. For a description of the different data types supported by MicroStrategy.Definition dialog box opens. 9 Click OK to save your changes and return to the Attribute Editor. For a detailed description on each of these properties. scale. whereas attributes themselves can be considered as report elements or group-by elements that have a one-to-many or a many-to-many relationship with 158 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. Data type: The data type for the fact. The Modify Attribute Form dialog box opens. Inc. 4 Select the Column Alias tab.Column Selection dialog box. 10 Select Save and Close to save your changes. see Appendix D. bit length. 7 You can modify the following properties for the column alias: • Column name: The name for the column alias which is used in any SQL statements which include the fact column. The Attribute Editor opens. . The Column Editor . Depending on the data type selected. or time scale for your column alias. click Modify.Column Selection dialog box opens. 6 Select New to create a new column alias.

The parent-child relationships you create determine the system hierarchy within the project. these relationships define how the engine generates SQL. or the actual data values for an attribute. In general. and which tables are related to other tables. The data that you map to attributes can be represented as separate attributes or as an attribute form of an attribute. you should map data to an attribute form rather than a separate attribute if: • • There is a one-to-one relationship between an attribute and the data. A Cartesian join. however.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 other attributes. which is generally undesirable. is very database intensive as every row in one table is joined to every row in the other table. must include a metric based on a fact that is on or below the level of the two attributes. A report with two unrelated attributes. page 24. You can run a report with two attributes that are related—Country and City. dictate the relationships that you define between attributes. for example—without any problems. The implications of whether attributes are related become clear when you begin building reports. see Attribute forms. You do not group by the data. In other words. For more information on whether to model data as an attribute form or as a separate attribute. page 36. Inc. Attribute relationships 159 . © 2007 MicroStrategy. how tables and columns are joined and used. The decision to model data as an attribute form for a given attribute or as a separate attribute is usually determined during the logical data modeling phase of project design. or cross join. Attribute relationships You link directly related attributes to each other by defining parent-child relationships. Attribute elements. as explained in Attribute relationships. or else a Cartesian join occurs.

Inc. Many-to-many: Each element in the parent attribute can have multiple children and each child element in the child attribute can have multiple parents. after a project has already been created. A citizen can have only one Taxpayer ID and a Taxpayer ID can be assigned to only one citizen. Attributes of this type are often in the same hierarchy. One customer may have many accounts.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide In MicroStrategy Desktop. such as in the case of a joint checking account. For example. customers and accounts are an example of a many-to-many relationship. but a specific quarter can be in one year only. and so on. Attributes can be either related or unrelated to one another: • Related: A parent-child relationship is defined between two or more attributes. Year has a one-to-many relationship to quarter. In banking. A common example of a one-to-one relationship is citizen and Taxpayer ID. One year has many quarters. and these relationships are defined by the attribute elements that exist in the related attributes. The relationship is defined through the attribute’s lookup table or a relationship table. This assumes that quarters are defined with an accompanying year such as Q4 2006. and each account may be associated with many customers. Attributes can also be related to other attributes through a chain of attribute relationships. . as part of the initial project design effort and in Viewing and editing the parents and children of attributes. consider the Geography hierarchy of the Customer Analysis Analytics 160 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy. These are the most common types of attribute relationships. page 161. page 129. One-to-one: Each element in the parent attribute has one and only one corresponding element in the child attribute. Q1 2007. One-to-many: Each element in the parent attribute corresponds to one or more elements in the child attribute. Three types of direct relationships can exist between related attributes. This step is covered in Simultaneously creating multiple attributes. you can define relationships for the attributes in your project.

care must be taken when using unrelated attributes on a single report. For example. these attributes are relatively straightforward to deal with from a project design perspective. This SQL. these two attributes are related through Customer State. determines the output of a report. however. Unrelated attributes can exist together in fact tables. spent $2. How attributes relate to one another and the types of relationships they share define the system hierarchy which is used to generate SQL. • Unrelated: No parent-child relationship has been defined and the attributes are not related through a chain of attribute relationships.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Module of the MicroStrategy BIDK. A particular customer and a particular day only make sense together if a fact is associated with that combination. giving context to the fact. the Customer and Day attributes have no relationship to one another. Customer State. Customer Region and Customer State are directly related to each other and Customer State and Customer City also have a direct relationship. a certain customer. Viewing and editing the parents and children of attributes The relationships that exist between attributes rely on the parent-child specifications that you assign to attributes. which contains the attributes Customer Region. and Customer City: In this scenario. While Customer City is not directly related to Customer Region. Attribute relationships 161 . Inc. Don Addison. No relationship is present in the lookup tables or relationship tables for these attributes. In general. © 2007 MicroStrategy. For example.500 on January 5. 2003 on behalf of the health care company in which he works. In this case. in turn. This allows you to include Customer Region and Customer City on a report and view the different customer cities for each customer region.

. 2 Navigate to the Schema Objects folder. is the parent of Distribution Center and multiple distribution centers exist in each country. Also. and then the Geography folder. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. Country. So these two attributes have a one-to-many relationship. Assigning parent-child relationships to attributes allows you to connect attributes to one another in user hierarchies. The Call Center attribute is listed. as discussed in Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes. This means that only one call center exists in each distribution center. For a general procedure to view and edit the parents and children of an attribute. Follow the procedure below to view and edit the parents and children of the Distribution Center attribute. For example. along with the relationship type it shares with Distribution Center. when a report generates inaccurate SQL and results. in turn. However. the Distribution Center attribute is the parent of the Call Center attribute. viewing and changing parent-child relationships may be a necessary troubleshooting method. page 193. 3 Double-click the Distribution Center attribute. 162 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy. open the Attributes folder. To view and edit the parents and children of an attribute 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. log in to the project source that contains the MicroStrategy Tutorial project and then log in to MicroStrategy Tutorial. The Attribute Editor opens.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Parent-child relationships were designated when attributes were selected for the new project. and the relationship table in which the relationship exists. you can continue to make changes to the relationships between attributes even after creating your project. Inc. A one-to-one relationship exists between Distribution Center and Call Center. 4 Click the Children tab.

Before reading this section. While the topics are largely related to logical model design. © 2007 MicroStrategy. select One to Many from the Relationship type drop-down list. 6 You also want the relationship between the two attributes to be defined in the LU_Employee table instead of the LU_Call_Ctr table in which it is defined now. 5 To change the relationship type. The Logical Data Model and Chapter 3. To change the relationship table. Logical data models and physical warehouse schemas are discussed in Chapter 2. Supporting many-to-many and joint child relationships Two forms of attribute relationships. Inc. many-to-many relationships and joint child relationships. can introduce additional complexity to the schema and warehouse design process. and how to read and interpret them. Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model respectively. close the Distribution Center attribute without saving your changes. Attribute relationships 163 .Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Consider a scenario in which multiple call centers now exist in the same distribution center so they no longer have a one-to-one relationship. 7 Because this is only an example. in this case. you must change the relationship type between Call Center and Distribution Center. select the LU_Employee table from the Relationship table drop-down list. a working knowledge of physical schemas is helpful when dealing with the challenges involved with these topics. you should know what logical data models and physical warehouse schemas are. The following sections discuss the considerations you must make to ensure an effective warehouse design in light of the unique nature of these relationships. These chapters discuss how to plan and create a conceptual framework for your business intelligence data.

red socks. each salesperson can work in more than one calling center. Below are some real-life examples of many-to-many relationships which must be carefully handled in the data model and schema: • In a certain organization. each calling center has many salespeople. there are usually two business questions for which users want answers: 1 In what colors are certain items available? 2 How much of a particular item/color combination was sold? 164 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy. That is. One item can come in many colors—red hats. Potential problems with many-to-many relationships usually come in the following forms. and many types of cars can be associated with the same color.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Many-to-many relationships The presence of many-to-many relationships introduces complexity during the warehouse design process. you must make additional considerations to effectively plan your design. red shoes. many models of cars are produced. Inc. red hat. green hats—and one color can be associated with many items—red dress. In a car manufacturing plant. there are many colors for a single type of car. Likewise. • The following sections use the example of items and colors to demonstrate a many-to-many relationship and the options you have for dealing with them. blue hats. . and each comes in several colors. both of which can be avoided by correctly modeling the relationship: • • Loss of analytical capability Multiple counting Loss of analytical capability With the color/item many-to-many relationship. With the presence of many-to-many relationships.

In many-to-many relationships this is not feasible. Answering the second question requires a fact table that has sales information as well as color and item information. and date. The following diagram shows the lookup and relationship tables for item and color: The Rel_Color_Item table provides a row for every possible item/color combination.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Answering the first question requires a table that contains a list of all possible item/color combinations. Rather. color. a distinct relationship table needs to be present in your warehouse. Attribute relationships 165 . Recall that one-to-many relationships are usually in the child’s lookup table. Inc. but in addition it shows a simple fact table containing sales data keyed by item. © 2007 MicroStrategy. The following diagram shows the same scenario as before.

All of the attributes in the many-to-many relationship are not in the fact table. loss of analytical capability is only one challenge. In summary. . or a higher level than one of the attributes in the many-to-many relationship. to prevent any loss of analytical flexibility when dealing with a many-to-many attribute relationship. the following requirements must be met: • • A distinct relationship table to identify all the possible combinations of attribute elements between attributes Both the attribute ID columns in the fact table You can implement the above points in several different ways. • • 166 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy. Multiple counting When dealing with many-to-many relationships. Another equally significant issue is multiple counting. The relationship exists in a distinct relationship table. Multiple counting occurs when all of the following takes place: • You attempt to aggregate data to the level of one of the attributes in the many-to-many relationship. If you have item/color combinations that are available but that have never been sold.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide The fact table in the above diagram alone is not sufficient to answer the first question. this fact table cannot provide a complete list of item/color combinations to answer question one. page 168. which are discussed in Working with many-to-many relationships. Only item/color combinations that were actually sold—and therefore have sales recorded—can be retrieved from this table. Inc.

© 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. This query would require both the fact table—which has the sales information by item—and the relationship table—since color is not recorded in the fact table.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Recall the example from above. and socks—and that they come in three colors—red. and green—with the exception of socks. The following diagram shows this data in the lookup tables as well as some simple sales data: The risk of multiple counting occurs when you run a query requesting the sales by color. Attribute relationships 167 . effectively aggregating to the item attribute level in the many-to-many relationship. which come in only green and blue. but make the following change: remove color from the fact table. blue. dresses. Assume that there are three items—hats.

The sum includes all hats and all dresses.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide The difficulty lies in the fact that color is not in the fact table. You can use one of three techniques to provide physical support to answer the types of questions that cannot be answered accurately when using many-to-many relationships. The answer you get is $85. For example. This obviously leads to numbers that are higher than the true sales for red items. It is entirely possible that all the dresses sold are green. • What are the total sales for red items? You cannot determine an accurate answer. but the answer you will get based on the data in the fact table is $50. instead of calculating the sales of red items. seemingly simple questions can require you to take a number of steps to answer them when many-to-many relationships are involved. The three techniques all have differing levels of 168 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy. the query aggregates sales for all items that come in red according to the relationship table. Inc. which is the total for all hats and dresses. which can be calculated directly from the fact table. the following questions cannot all be answered accurately: • What are the total sales for hats? The answer is $35. There is no way to directly relate the sales of an item in the fact table to the color of that particular item. you cannot confirm this since color is not recorded in the fact table. however. For example. the correct answer is $0. Working with many-to-many relationships As you can see. including blue ones and green ones. • What are the total sales for red dresses? Again. since socks do not come in red. . If all the dresses sold are indeed green. using the given data. you cannot determine an accurate answer. The following section describes several ways to prevent multiple counting when dealing with many-to-many relationships.

Attribute relationships 169 . and flexibility is always a trade-off with complexity. Method 1 requires you to create a separate relationship table (in this case. you need to have data in the source system as to what the color is of each item sold. If this additional data was never captured in the source system. the SQL Engine uses the related table when no metric is included on the report.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 flexibility. For example. All of the following methods require additional data in the fact table. Method 1 This method is the most straightforward way to effectively manage many-to-many relationships. If you make both of the above physical implementations. © 2007 MicroStrategy. the two fundamental components remain in place in one form or another: • • A relationship table to define the attribute relationship Both the attribute’s ID columns in the fact table MicroStrategy builds the rules that MicroStrategy SQL Engine uses to generate SQL when a report request is made. Inc. the fact table is used to answer the query. you cannot fully resolve the many-to-many relationship to calculate the amount of sales for items of a certain color. When a metric is included. Rel_Color_Item) and add both attribute IDs to the fact table as shown in the following diagram. In all cases. This means that you must capture the additional data in the source system.

Here the many-to-many relationship is converted into a compound attribute relationship. Inc. or vice versa. While this method eliminates the need for a separate relationship table. you add both attribute IDs. which gives it a 170 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy. rather than two Here you must create a new attribute. Also.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Method 2 Method 2 eliminates the many-to-many relationship and the need for a distinct relationship table. you lose the ability to view items independent of color. lower in level than either Color or Item. You treat one attribute as a child of the other and have a compound key for the lower level attribute. . in this case Item_ID and Color_ID. Method 3 Method 3 is the most versatile solution and has the following characteristics: • • • Further simplifies the compound attribute relationship from Method 2 into a simple attribute relationship Provides the ability to view item and color together or independently Requires only one attribute column in the fact table for complete flexibility. to the fact table as shown in the following diagram. This attribute is essentially a concatenation of Color and Item.

particularly common in retail data models or situations. They do not fit neatly into the modeling schemes you have learned about thus far. Attribute relationships 171 . you can use this single value in the fact table. The major difference is that the distinct relationship table from Method 1 has an additional column. you only need to include this new child attribute SKU. or qualities. Joint child relationships Some attributes exist at the intersection of other indirectly related attributes. as well as possibly adding complexity to the ETL process. Joint child relationships connect special attributes that are sometimes called cross-dimensional attributes. as shown in the following diagram. © 2007 MicroStrategy. This is the SKU attribute. rather than including Color and Item in the fact table. like facts. This method is actually quite similar to Method 1. text facts. The major disadvantage of Method 3 lies in creating the new attribute if your business model does not already use a similar structure. Consequently. These relationships can be modeled and conceptualized like traditional attributes but. Such attributes are called joint children. Finally. which extends the relationship of each item/color combination into a single value. Inc. they exist at the intersection of multiple attribute levels.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 one-to-many relationship between itself and each of its parent attributes. SKU.

you might create 172 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy. In this case. In this case. Therefore. A business might run this promotion around Valentine's Day and again at Christmas time. if flags are referenced in your source system documentation. these are likely candidates for joint child relationships. and Quarter. An example of a promotion might be a “Red Sale” where all red items are on sale. Joint child relationships are really another type of many-to-many relationship where one attribute has a many-to-many relationship to two otherwise unrelated attributes. Supporting joint child relationships One way to resolve a many-to-many relationship is to have a relationship table for the attributes involved in the many-to-many relationships. Promotion has a many-to-many relationship to both Item and Quarter. as shown in the following diagram. . For example. consider the relationship between three attributes: Promotion. Inc. Item.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Many source systems refer to these special attributes as flags.

Inc. Attribute relationships 173 . these tables are not sufficient to answer the following more detailed and insightful questions: • • What items were in what promotions in a given quarter? In what quarters was a certain item involved in a certain type of promotion? To answer these questions. one to relate Promotion and Item. you must combine the two relationship tables. it does not necessarily have to be in its own. creating one table to relate all three attributes. The relationship in the distinct relationship table must exist for a joint child relationship to be properly defined. you can build the relationship directly into the fact table. © 2007 MicroStrategy. The second relates Promotion and Quarter as shown in the following diagram. However. These two tables are sufficient to answer questions such as: • • What items have been in what promotions? What quarters have had what promotions? However.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 two relationship tables. Defining the relationship directly in the lookup table for the parent of the joint child—in this case. Promotion—would be fine. distinct relationship table. Alternatively.

174 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. This ensures that when you need to join the fact table to the parent attribute of a joint child relationship—for example. to see sales by promotion—the join will always use both joint children rather than just one or the other. The Promotion attribute is related to a particular Item-Quarter pair. Notice that a joint child relationship can be one-to-many or many-to-many. If you have a joint child relationship in your data. It is important to notice the relationship between the three attributes. it is important for you to define it in MicroStrategy so that you get the correct data for reports that use the parent attribute in a joint child attribute. This is the essence of a joint child relationship and is shown in the following diagram. as opposed to it being related to Item and Quarter separately. .6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide In these examples. The issues with many-to-many relationships—loss of analytical capability and multiple counting—also apply to many-to-many joint child relationships.

Creating two separate lookup tables would create redundancy. the attributes are essentially playing different attribute roles. and column. © 2007 MicroStrategy. LU_AIRPORT. You need to support the logical concepts of an origin airport and a destination airport. AIRPORT_ID. For example. When multiple attributes are defined using the same lookup table and column. and thus take up more storage space and be harder to maintain. but you do not want to create two separate lookup tables with identical data. notice that the attributes Origin Airport and Destination Airport are defined using the same lookup table. Inc. in the following image. it is understood that destination airport data differs from origin airport data. Suppose you define two attributes that have the same data definition but play different roles in your business model.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles Attribute roles allow you to use the same data to define and support two separate attributes. Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles 175 . Although it makes sense to see JFK as either an origin or destination airport on a report. How an attribute plays multiple roles depends on the specific attribute.

however. In one case. a separate column exists for each of their roles. you must create an attribute in the logical model for each of the roles. State is another example of an attribute that can have two roles since it relates to both the Vendor and Store attributes. such as description. If you identify that one of your attributes needs to play multiple roles. location. . it refers to the 176 Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. If a report designer places both the Origin Airport and Destination Airport attributes on a report to obtain the number of flights that originated from MIA and arrived at LGA. or various aspects about them. as explained in Specifying attribute roles.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide The Origin Airport and Destination Airport attributes share the same attribute forms. In the following diagram. as shown below. an empty result set is returned. In the fact table. and so on. This ensures that a report with attributes playing multiple roles returns correct data. page 177. the fact columns are ORIGIN_AIRPORT_ID and DESTINATION_AIRPORT_ID. This occurs because the SQL statement tries to obtain the description of an airport that is both MIA and LGA at the same time (Airport_ID = "MIA" AND Airport_ID = "LGA").

To create unique attributes. The SQL statement tries to obtain the description of a state that is both Arkansas and New York simultaneously. generating the empty result set. The State attribute is therefore said to be playing two roles. Automatic recognition is enabled by the VLDB © 2007 MicroStrategy. Specifying attribute roles To see both roles on the same report. In an OLTP system. as shown in the above diagram. In the data warehouse. you must treat them as different attributes. Inc. For example. roles are most often implemented as a single table.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 location of a vendor. you have the following options: • Automatic attribute role recognition. a query involving both Vendor State and Store State needs to use the State table twice in the same query. The results may be blank if the data warehouse structure was set up incorrectly. they must have different attribute names. a report is created to display vendors from Arkansas who sold to New York stores. where you create multiple attributes that have the same lookup table and allow MicroStrategy to automatically detect the multiple roles. it refers to the location of a store. That is. Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles 177 . In the other.

If you create more than this number of attributes. it is easier to use automatic attribute role recognition.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide property Engine Attribute Role Options at the database instance level. you can have a maximum of 99 attributes defined on the same column of the same lookup table. an attribute must be created in the logical model for each of the roles. MicroStrategy recommends that you take advantage of automatic role recognition if you do not know the details of the modeling logic or the database. for example. however. as Ship Month and Order Month. Automatic recognition does not work if the attributes are in the same hierarchy. is enabled). For example. and are unable to update the project schema or restart Intelligence Server. You can use either automatic attribute role recognition or explicit table aliasing to create the attribute roles. If you are new to MicroStrategy. 178 Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles © 2007 MicroStrategy. • Explicit table aliasing. Month is the attribute that has multiple roles. in the State example provided above. the two State attributes do not have a common child attribute. In summary. refer to the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. Inc. where you create multiple logical tables pointing to the same physical table and define those two logical tables as the lookup tables for the two attributes. meaning that a child attribute is shared. Engine Attribute Role Options. . If you are upgrading or have a very complex schema. it may be the better alternative. Table aliasing provides advanced users with more control. In this example. you encounter an error. Remember this rule to help you identify attribute roles: If you want to see the same attribute multiple times on one report. if you identify that any one of your attributes needs to play multiple roles. For more information. the attribute has multiple roles. In a MicroStrategy project in which automatic attribute role recognition is enabled (meaning that the database instance-level VLDB property.

the logical model must reflect that.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Using automatic attribute role recognition In the data warehouse. the request is. Consider the following sample desired report: Vendor_State_ID=15 (Arkansas) Metrics Vendor State Vendor Store Store State Dollar Sales In this case. a query involving both Vendor State and Store State needs to use the State table twice in the same query to get correct results. You can set up two attributes. “Show me total sales by Store State for all my vendors in Arkansas (Store State ID = 15). The resulting SQL code contains a self-join with the LU_State table. which in most cases simply represents a column or columns in a lookup table. using different attribute names for the same expression. Automatic role recognition works only when the attributes use exactly the same expression. Store State and Vendor State. Automatic recognition allows these two attributes. to access the same lookup table. can be used for both © 2007 MicroStrategy. LU_State. both of which use the same lookup table. Since the state in which a vendor resides and the state in which one of the stores is located are two different things. Vendor State and Store State. The logical model would look like the following: Note that both roles for the State attribute are included in the logical model so that “State” can be considered from two different perspectives. Inc. Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles 179 .” The same lookup table.

found in the database instance-level VLDB Properties under Query Optimization. The two attributes refer to the same columns of that table. Store State and Vendor State. . the State attribute is said to play two roles: it refers to both the location of a vendor as well as the location of a store. In this case. just as it would if you used automatic recognition: 180 Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles © 2007 MicroStrategy. you must select the Engine Attribute Role Options. See the MicroStrategy Desktop online help or the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide for steps to set this VLDB property. The logical model would look like the following. so advanced users are encouraged to take advantage of this solution. When you use explicit table aliasing to designate attributes that have multiple roles. both roles for the State attribute are included in the logical model so that State can be considered from two different perspectives.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide attributes. Explicitly aliasing tables to specify attribute roles Explicit table aliasing provides more robust functionality than automatic recognition. An attribute such as State can play more than one role in the data warehouse. it can represent the Vendor State or the Store State. To use automatic attribute role recognition. Inc. if attribute roles are used.

Inc. If you use explicit table aliasing for the Store attribute.State_Desc as State_Desc SELECT a13. you create separate lookup tables in the schema. LU_State.State_Desc as State_Desc FROM LU_State a12 LU_State a13 © 2007 MicroStrategy. as shown in the following diagram. Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles 181 . the two lookup tables LU_State_Store and LU_State_Vendor are used. one table (LU_State_Store) contains the attribute Store State while the other (LU_State_Vendor) contains Vendor State. but point them each to the same physical table. as shown by this sample SQL: SELECT a12.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 The difference between automatic recognition and explicit table aliasing is that when you use explicit table aliasing. the report accesses the same physical table. Consider the following sample desired report that should provide data about the total sales by Store State for all vendors in Arkansas (Store State ID = 15): Vendor_State_ID=15 (Arkansas) Metrics Vendor State Vendor Store Store State Dollar Sales When explicit table aliasing is used. Since they are just different names for the same physical table. for both state names.

select Rename. 182 Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles © 2007 MicroStrategy. Table aliases are one kind of logical table. Logical Tables. In the case above. 5 Right-click the LU_State table and select Create Table Alias. 2 Navigate to the Schema Objects folder. 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. Create the attributes 7 Select the Attributes folder. You can use the same high-level procedure and concepts as guidelines to create attribute roles in your project setup. . An LU_State(1) table is created. allowing you to rename a copy of the same table. select Rename. and rename the table as LU_State_Store. you would select the LU_State_Store table for the Store State attribute and LU_State_Vendor for Vendor State. 4 Right-click LU_State(1). log in to the project source that contains the MicroStrategy Tutorial project and then log into MicroStrategy Tutorial. 3 Right-click the LU_State table and select Create Table Alias. When you are ready to create new attributes—as in the example discussed above—you can map the appropriate table to each attribute.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide You create table aliases in the Schema Objects/Tables folder in MicroStrategy Desktop. 6 Right-click LU_State(1). Inc. To create attribute roles with explicit table aliasing This procedure provides steps to re-create the example of explicit table aliasing described in this section. When you create a table alias. For information about logical tables. and rename the table as LU_State_Vendor. the selected table is copied. refer to Appendix C. and then select the Tables folder. An LU_State(1) table is created.

This implies that more than one ID column is needed to uniquely identify the elements of that attribute. you build a compound © 2007 MicroStrategy. select the LU_State_Store table. Attributes with more than one ID column: Compound attributes 183 . You must make sure to map any State Store attribute forms to columns from the LU_State_Store table. select New. otherwise the attributes cannot have separate roles. 16 Create a Vendor State attribute with the same sub-procedure (Create the attributes. 14 Click New to map any other columns to attribute forms for the State Store attribute. The Attribute Editor opens. and then Attribute. 11 Select Manual mapping and click OK. Generally. double-click STATE_ID. Attributes with more than one ID column: Compound attributes A compound attribute is an attribute with more than one column specified as the ID column. Inc. 10 In the Available columns pane. except you must use the LU_State_Vendor table instead of the LU_State_Store table. 15 Save the State Store attribute once you are finished mapping attribute forms to columns of the LU_State_Store table. page 182) used to create State Store above. 9 From the Source table drop-down list. 13 Click OK. 12 In the Source tables pane. The Create New Form Expression dialog box opens. select LU_State_Store. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. Do NOT select the LU_State_Vendor table as a source table.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 8 From the File menu.

They should also use the same lookup table. To uniquely identify a distribution center. page 186. The item shirt has an Item_ID of 1. For information about form groups. regardless of country. Distribution Center. creating a compound attribute. with two attribute forms. The same Distribution Center identification numbers can exist for different distribution centers. see Collections of attribute forms: Form groups. You can create a compound attribute. there are different shirts. In the relational database. to uniquely identify a man’s shirt. Inc. . one must know two details about the distribution center: the ID of the distribution center and the country in which it exists. When defining the ID form. and children’s. Item_ID and Class_ID must be grouped together. Class and Item. However. ID and Description. All of the ID forms of the compound attribute should be grouped together using form groups. Class is the parent of Item and has a one-to-many relationship with it. The values in the Item_ID column do not uniquely identify an item. select the source table columns for Country ID and Distribution Center ID. Example: Creating compound attributes Distribution Center is an example of a compound attribute in the MicroStrategy Tutorial. Therefore. It is an attribute that requires that two different columns are specified as the ID column. This creates a unique identifier for each distribution center. both the Country_ID and Dist_Ctr_ID columns must be mapped to the Distribution Center attribute to ensure that data about distribution centers is displayed correctly and completely on a report.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide attribute when your logical data model reflects that a compound key relationship is present. 184 Attributes with more than one ID column: Compound attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. each distribution center has a unique identification number. Therefore. a retail project has two attributes. For example. a compound key is a primary key that consists of more than one database column. women’s. This data is represented by the Dist_Ctr_ID and Country_ID columns respectively. depending on the class—men’s. but in the same country.

type Country ID. Inc. This is the table in which the two ID columns of Distribution Center reside. For a general procedure to create compound attributes. and then Attribute. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. click New to create the other attribute ID form. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. To create the Distribution Center compound attribute 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. and open the My Objects folder. The Attribute Editor opens. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. in the Name field. Attributes with more than one ID column: Compound attributes 185 . 8 Keep all other defaults. and click OK.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Follow the procedure below to create the Distribution Center compound attribute. 9 In the Attribute Editor. 2 Navigate to the My Personal Objects folder. 10 Double-click the DIST_CTR_ID column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. This attribute form maps to the distribution center ID column necessary to complete the definition of the Distribution Center attribute. select the LU_DIST_CTR table. 4 From the Source table drop-down list. select New. 11 Select Automatic mapping and click OK. 7 In the Form general information area. 5 Double-click the COUNTRY_ID column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. log in to the project source that contains the MicroStrategy Tutorial project and then log into MicroStrategy Tutorial. © 2007 MicroStrategy. 3 From the File menu. 6 Select Automatic mapping and click OK. with the Create New Form Expression dialog box displayed on top of it.

186 Collections of attribute forms: Form groups © 2007 MicroStrategy. Create a form group 14 A dialog box notifies you that another form (in this case. page 186. You must designate this attribute form as an ID column so that it can be combined with the Country_ID form to create one unique identifier ID for the Distribution Center attribute. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. You can also use form groups to link similar forms together so that they are displayed together on a report. 13 In the Form category section. type Distribution Center ID Number. 16 Because this is only an example. For basic information and examples about form groups. . refer to Collections of attribute forms: Form groups. which are attributes with more than one column specified as the ID column. In general. Collections of attribute forms: Form groups A form group is a grouping of attribute forms that are related in a way that justifies combining the forms into a single form. This is necessary when creating compound attributes. You must create a form group to create a compound key.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide 12 In the Form general information area. Click Yes. COUNTRY_ID) is already using the ID form category and that you must create a form group to combine the two ID columns. type Distribution Center and click OK. Click OK. close the Distribution Center attribute without saving your changes. in the Name field. Inc. you create form groups to create compound attributes. which identifies that an attribute form requires more than one ID column to uniquely identify its elements. 15 In the Name field. select ID from the Category drop-down list. with the form group you created in the Attribute forms pane. The Attribute Editor opens.

Inc. one needs information from both the Country_ID and Dist_Ctr_ID tables. To uniquely identify a distribution center. This is because all countries identify distribution centers with numbers starting at 1. France which has a Dist_Ctr_ID=1 as well. Collections of attribute forms: Form groups 187 . © 2007 MicroStrategy. Therefore. choose the same form category for both forms—you are then prompted to name your new form group. a compound attribute is created by using a form group to group together two forms to create the attribute’s ID. and you also have a distribution center in Paris. When you create a form group. the included forms are joined together and act as one form. you have a distribution center in London. page 185. you can design a uniquely defined form that groups two or more forms under an attribute. In the MicroStrategy Tutorial. England which has Dist_Ctr_ID=1. For example.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Supporting compound attributes Compound attributes are required when an attribute requires two or more columns to uniquely identify its elements. To uniquely identify the two distribution centers you must include the Country_ID as part of the attribute ID. see the procedure To create the Distribution Center compound attribute. For an example of creating a form group (form group creation is a subtask of the complete procedure). When you create a form group. By grouping forms. the Distribution Center attribute is identified using a form group that combines these two forms. In the Attribute Editor. Distribution Center is an example of a compound attribute.

page 185. Inc. 188 Collections of attribute forms: Form groups © 2007 MicroStrategy. the form group in the diagram below joins the forms Last_Name and First_Name to create the form group Name for the attribute Customer: By grouping these two forms. the user can simply display the Name form and the report then includes both the customers’ first and last names.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Displaying and organizing related forms Form groups are also used to conveniently organize common attribute forms that can be paired on a report. You can group two or more attribute forms together while creating the attribute forms as described in To create the Distribution Center compound attribute. . as described in the procedure below. For example. To group attribute forms as a form group 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. You can also group two or more attribute forms as a form group after creating all of the attribute forms. log in to the project source that contains the MicroStrategy Tutorial project and then log into MicroStrategy Tutorial.

7 In the Form general information area. and then the Item folder. 9 Click OK. Using attributes to browse and report on data Once attributes are built.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 2 Navigate to the Schema Objects folder. do not save the changes to the Item attribute. type Item Name2. 11 In the Name field. A form group which includes an item’s name and foreign name is created for the Item attribute. Using attributes to browse and report on data 189 . Inc. select None. in the Category used drop-down list. in the Name field. The Attribute Editor opens. 8 In the Form category area. The Attribute Editor opens. Each © 2007 MicroStrategy. and users place an attribute on a report to display details about the particular attribute and how it relates to fact data. 3 Double-click the Item attribute. open the Attributes folder. they are used in two primary ways—browsing and reporting. Since this is only an example of how to create a form group. 10 Select the Item Name 2 and Foreign Name attribute forms. and then right-click the selected attribute forms and select Group. Users browse through attributes to locate an attribute to use on a report. The Create New Form Expression dialog box opens. 5 Double-click the ITEM_NAME column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. type Item and Foreign Name and click OK. 6 Select Automatic mapping and click OK. 4 Select New. The Attribute Editor opens. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens.

You can modify the attribute forms displayed by: • Right-clicking an attribute on a report or template and selecting the desired attribute forms 190 Using attributes to browse and report on data © 2007 MicroStrategy. You can do this on a report-by-report basis. If Description is selected as the attribute form. If a report lists the cities in which you have stores. Inc. you select a different set of values for display. such as Chicago. This separation allows for greater attribute display flexibility depending on the application. a report includes Region as an attribute. Therefore. You must choose a default attribute display for browsing and another for reporting. The only exception is if you create multiple attribute forms. By selecting different forms for the attribute.chicago. or project-wide. An attribute’s report display forms determine which attribute forms are displayed by default when the report is executed. For example you can include a cities URL attribute form as a browse attribute form so that your users can choose to display the form on a report. that is. When creating attributes. default for each attribute. You can also select which attribute forms are retrieved with the report results but not displayed on the grid. you can add the attribute forms in Report Objects to the report without re-executing the report. Browse forms are the attribute forms that appear as a user browses through the element list of an attribute in the Data Explorer in a project. then you might choose to display the Long Description form. but you still must specify the global. instead of the URL attribute form. If ID is selected as the attribute form.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide attribute can be displayed in a variety of forms so you must specify the default display of each of the attributes in the project. all forms are included as report display forms and browse forms by default. the display could be a name. the display could be a number such as four. For example. www. Report display forms are the attribute forms that appear as columns in a completed report. In Grid view. the first form you create is not included as a report display or browse form. . These browse forms are found in the Report Objects pane. browse forms identify attribute elements. such as Northwest.com.

Inc. You can also determine which attribute forms are displayed when browsing a project with the Data Explorer. Follow the example procedure below to set one of the Distribution Center attribute’s forms to be displayed in reports and while browsing the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. displays the actual name of the Distribution Center such as “San Diego. the distribution center names. For example. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Setting how attribute forms are displayed by default You can generally display attribute forms in a number of ways. Country_ID and Dist_Ctr_ID. you can specify whether the identification number of each distribution center. the Dist_Ctr_ID form shows the identification numbers of specific distribution centers in the data warehouse. selecting Attribute Display to open the Attribute Display dialog box For steps to display attribute forms on a report or template.” You can use the Attribute Editor to determine how the attribute forms are displayed on a report. The ID form group is made up of two separate ID columns. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. In the case of the Distribution Center attribute. however. Using attributes to browse and report on data 191 . Displayed on a report. the Distribution Center attribute in the MicroStrategy Tutorial consists of an ID form group and a Description form. For a general procedure to set how attribute forms are displayed by default.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 • From the Data menu. or both are displayed. see the online help and the section below. The Description form of Distribution Center.

The ID 2 form in the Available forms pane represents the distribution centers’ identification numbers. page 209. See the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide for details. and then the Geography folder. when the Distribution Center attribute is used on a report. The Data Explorer makes hierarchies available for users to facilitate placing objects on reports. . the description form of the Distribution Center is set as the only display form. You can also determine how attributes are displayed while users are editing and viewing reports. Inc. On the right. The Data Explorer is discussed in Enabling hierarchy browsing in reports: Data Explorer. in the Report display forms pane. 3 Click the Display tab. 2 Double-click the Distribution Center attribute. This means that. • 192 Using attributes to browse and report on data © 2007 MicroStrategy. close the Attribute Editor without saving your changes. 4 You can set the ID 2 form to be displayed in the following ways: • To set the ID 2 form as a form that is displayed on a report by default: Select ID 2 from the Available forms pane and click the top > button to add the form to the Report display forms pane on the right.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide To display an attribute form in reports and in the Data Explorer 1 In the MicroStrategy Tutorial. The Attribute Editor opens. open the Attributes folder. To set the ID 2 form so it is displayed in the Data Explorer when a user browses the Distribution Center attribute: Select ID 2 from the Available forms pane and click the bottom > button to add the form to the Browse forms pane on the right. the actual names of the distribution centers are displayed. navigate to the Schema Objects folder. 5 Because this is only an example.

Month. These types of hierarchies include the system hierarchy and the user hierarchy. you learned how to use hierarchies to group related attributes in practical business areas. Inc.7 7. 193 . CREATING HIERARCHIES TO ORGANIZE AND BROWSE ATTRIBUTES Introduction Hierarchies are groupings of attributes that can be displayed. and Year attributes. to reflect the relationships that exist between the attributes in a project. either ordered or unordered. you can include a Time hierarchy in your model that consists of Day. In Chapter 2. For example. The Logical Data Model. The system hierarchy is automatically created when you create a project and is maintained by the © 2007 MicroStrategy. Week. This chapter discusses hierarchies as they exist in the MicroStrategy environment and provides information on the two different types of hierarchies in MicroStrategy.

Creating user hierarchies In MicroStrategy Desktop. page 196. For information on user hierarchies and system hierarchies. 194 Creating user hierarchies © 2007 MicroStrategy. see Types of hierarchies. This chapter explores how to create and configure user hierarchies in MicroStrategy and provides additional information about hierarchy functionality in MicroStrategy Desktop. you create user hierarchies using the Hierarchy Editor. . Inc. Follow the procedure below to learn how to create a user hierarchy.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide relationships that exist among the project’s schema objects. The user hierarchy is a hierarchy which you create specifically for your report designers.

2 In the Folder List. If arrows do not appear between attributes you know are related. and then the Data Explorer folder. Inc. select the attributes to use in the hierarchy and click the arrow to add them to the Selected objects window. Once you save and re-open the hierarchy. © 2007 MicroStrategy. and update the schema. If the Use as a drill hierarchy check box at the bottom of the Hierarchy Editor is selected. an entry point. and then Hierarchy.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 To create a new user hierarchy 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. or filtered. Drill hierarchies are discussed in Drilling using hierarchies. 4 From the File menu. page 209. select Show Details. To do so. select New. 6 In the Hierarchy Editor. you can view the details of each attribute in the hierarchy. The Hierarchy Editor opens. assign the appropriate parent or child relationship to the attributes. you must edit the attribute(s) in the Attribute Editor. arrows appear between related attributes. followed immediately by the Select Objects dialog box. log into the project source that contains your project and open the project. Type a name for the hierarchy. The attributes you selected appear in the Hierarchy Viewer. Click OK to close the Select Attributes dialog box. page 161. The arrows that connect certain attributes denote the presence of a relationship between the connected attributes. Creating user hierarchies 195 . navigate to and open the Schema Objects folder. 7 Click Save and Close. This procedure is covered in Viewing and editing the parents and children of attributes. in the Available objects window. from the View menu. These details include whether or not the attribute is locked. 5 In the Select Attributes dialog box. 3 Open the Hierarchies folder. a dialog box opens notifying you that the hierarchy you are about to save is drillable in reports.

it is automatically created in Desktop when you create a project. 9 Update the project schema by selecting Update Schema from the Schema menu. navigate to the location in which you want to save the hierarchy. Inc. Steps to create user hierarchies are discussed in Creating user hierarchies.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide 8 In the Save As dialog box. you must place it in the Data Explorer sub-folder within the Hierarchies folder. The ordering and grouping of attributes. You do not need to create the system hierarchy. • 196 Types of hierarchies © 2007 MicroStrategy. it does not define ordering or grouping among attributes. Types of hierarchies The two types of hierarchies that exist in MicroStrategy include: • System hierarchy: The system hierarchy is created according to the relationships defined between the attributes in your project. This type of hierarchy is created to provide flexibility in element browsing and report drilling. arranged in specific ways that make sense to a business organization. is defined in user hierarchies. page 194. among other configurations. You can save user hierarchies in any folder. However. you can easily change the design of a user hierarchy to include additional attributes or limit user access to certain attributes. User hierarchy: User hierarchies are named sets of attributes and their relationships to each other. As the structure of your business intelligence evolves. Although the system hierarchy specifies an ordered set of all attributes in the project. to make the user hierarchy available for element browsing in the Data Explorer. . They are user-defined and do not need to follow the logical data model.

For example. page 211. you can double-click Year to get to Quarter and double-click Quarter to get to Month. When you browse the attributes in the Data Explorer. arranged in specific sequences for a logical business organization. the only hierarchy it contains is the system hierarchy. User hierarchies: Logical business relationships User hierarchies are sets of attributes and their relationships. The Hierarchy Viewer is discussed in detail in Using the Hierarchy Viewer. The system hierarchy is useful in determining relationships between all objects in the project. These report objects are discussed in detail in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. You can view the system hierarchy in the Data Explorer or in the Hierarchy Viewer. and Day attributes. Quarter. Any attributes that are not assigned to a user hierarchy remain available to the system as report objects. or when you define attribute children in the Project Creation Assistant. When you first create a project. Month. filter conditions. Types of hierarchies 197 . The system hierarchy cannot be edited but is updated every time you add or remove attribute children or parents in the Attribute Editor. but not the Hierarchy Editor. and so on. and components of consolidations. The system hierarchy holds information on the relationships between attributes in the project. Inc. You can access the Hierarchy Viewer from Graphical View in the Schema menu. It contains all of the attributes in the project and is actually part of the schema definition. You create user hierarchies to define the browse and drill relationships between attributes.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 System hierarchy: Project schema definition The system hierarchy is the default hierarchy that MicroStrategy sets up for you each time you create a project. you can create a Time hierarchy that contains the Year. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Attributes from the system hierarchy do not need to be part of an explicitly-defined user hierarchy.

Inc. and you can create any number of user hierarchies for each project. The Customer hierarchy also groups together the attributes Company. up to Year. The example below demonstrates the Location and Customer hierarchies. You can create user hierarchies in the Hierarchy Editor using one or more attributes from the system hierarchy. if the user drills on the Quarter attribute in a report. or across to an attribute within another hierarchy. A user hierarchy is the only type of hierarchy you can define.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide Whereas browsing occurs through the Data Explorer. you can place related attributes into hierarchies by their level. This allows users to more easily locate attributes in a project and navigate from one attribute to another. State. 198 Hierarchy organization © 2007 MicroStrategy. Within the Location hierarchy. he or she can drill down to Month. You should define user hierarchies that correspond to specific areas of your company business model and data warehouse schema. City. and Customer. . For example. Hierarchy organization The best design for a user hierarchy is to organize or group attributes into logical business areas. in drilling the user actually chooses to move to higher or lower levels on a report or move across to levels within different hierarchies. For example. and Store are organized according to their relationships to each other. Contact.

if you only include Store in the Region hierarchy. then the only options for drilling or browsing are the Region and Store levels. Inc. In the example below. State. © 2007 MicroStrategy. as in the second example. there are two instances of the Region hierarchy. Hierarchy organization 199 . and Store on a report. The rest of this chapter discusses user hierarchies and how to create and configure them in your project. only the user hierarchy allows you to logically define and order groups of attributes. you are developing a working design of the display and browse functions of the attributes. Hierarchy structure While both a system hierarchy and user hierarchy allow you to navigate attributes in your project. However. This hierarchy allows you to create drilling and browsing options to the lower levels to view Region. keep in mind that hierarchies do not have to be separate from one another or necessarily follow the dimensional structure of your logical data model. When you group attributes together into user hierarchies.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 When creating user hierarchies. One hierarchy demonstrates Region having multiple States and the States having multiple Stores.

Only data satisfying the filter criteria is displayed (see Filtering attributes in a hierarchy. page 201). page 206). the connections between the attributes represent the parent-child relationships. A filter on a hierarchy acts like a filter in a report. You can use the Hierarchy Editor to configure each of these properties. . The Hierarchy Viewer is accessed from the Graphical View option in the Schema menu.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide Viewing hierarchies: Hierarchy Viewer The Hierarchy Viewer graphically represents user hierarchies and the system hierarchy. Configuring hierarchy display options Each attribute in a user hierarchy has properties that affect how that attribute is displayed and accessed in a hierarchy. or limited (see Controlling the display of attribute elements. page 203). its decreased scale allows you to navigate through the entire project. The element display may be locked. the connections show the browse paths between the attributes. Inc. In user hierarchies. The Aerial perspective provides an overview of hierarchies. as shown in the following procedures: • Element Display: Determines the elements a user can see. The Hierarchy Viewer is discussed in further detail in Using the Hierarchy Viewer. unlocked. page 211. Entry Point/Not an Entry Point: Specifies whether the user can begin browsing in this hierarchy using this attribute (see Entry point. page 205). Represented by lines that connect one attribute to others (see Hierarchy browsing. Attribute Filters: Specifies whether the data retrieved and displayed should be complete or filtered by any specific criteria. • • • 200 Configuring hierarchy display options © 2007 MicroStrategy. Browse Attributes: Shows the attributes to which users can browse from a given attribute. In the system hierarchy.

When you set the element display to locked. Controlling the display of attribute elements Locked/Unlocked attribute elements Locking a hierarchy prevents a user from viewing all elements of the specific attribute and any lower level attributes in the hierarchy. The Order attribute may be locked in order to prevent unauthorized users from accessing sensitive information about customer orders. Inc. he or she cannot view information about each customer’s order. You can lock the hierarchy to restrict the user from viewing elements and lower level attributes for security reasons or to better manage lengthy hierarchies. Configuring hierarchy display options 201 . For example. While the user can view the attribute elements of Customer Region and Customer City.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 The following sections explain these properties and how to use the Hierarchy Editor to configure each. Anything higher in the hierarchy is still visible. A hierarchy is referred to as locked when at least one attribute within that hierarchy has the Element Display option set to Locked. By restricting the view of attribute elements and lower level attributes in the Data Explorer. a padlock icon appears next to the attribute name. the attribute Order is locked in the Data Explorer sample shown below. you can prevent the expansion of long attribute element lists that can consume system resources. © 2007 MicroStrategy.

Instead of loading all attribute elements at once. You can also lock and unlock attributes when you edit them in the Display tab of the Attribute Editor. select Element display. However. if the attribute Year is locked in the Attribute Editor. Inc. A padlock icon appears next to the locked attribute. and then Locked. Limited attribute elements Another way to restrict users from viewing attribute elements in the Data Explorer is to limit the number of elements that appear at one time. 3 To lock an attribute. The padlock icon is removed from the attribute. not any user hierarchies that contain the attributes. from the right-click menu. For example. click Save and Close. you can set the limit to five or ten at a time. 4 To unlock a locked attribute. and users can now view the elements of this attribute. Also. retrieving a large number of elements at once can negatively impact system performance. This method is useful when there are extensive attribute elements in a hierarchy. 5 In the Hierarchy Editor. 202 Configuring hierarchy display options © 2007 MicroStrategy. from the right-click menu. . The Hierarchy Editor opens. no elements for Year display in the Data Explorer when Year is expanded. and then Unlocked.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide To lock or unlock an attribute in a hierarchy 1 Double-click the hierarchy to edit. select Element display. and users can no longer view elements of this attribute. 2 Right-click the attribute to lock or unlock. this locks and unlocks the attributes within the system hierarchy. The user can then click the arrows to see the next set of elements for that attribute. 6 Update the project schema by selecting Update Schema from the Schema menu.

5 Update the project schema by selecting Update Schema from the Schema menu. the Chocolate subcategory. right-click the attribute to limit. type the number of elements you want to see at one time and click OK. Inc. 4 In the Hierarchy Editor. shown below. contains many items. a limit of five items has been set. 2 From the right-click menu. To limit the display of attributes in a hierarchy 1 In the Hierarchy Editor. The following graphic displays this view in the Data Explorer. and then Limit. select Element display. refer to the Filters chapter in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide to understand what filters are and how to create them in MicroStrategy. Configuring hierarchy display options 203 . For example. 3 In the Limit dialog box. You can add filters to a hierarchy to control how data is retrieved and displayed. click Save and Close.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 For example. Filtering attributes in a hierarchy Before reading this section. Rather than displaying all of them at once and overwhelming the user. With a filter you can choose exactly which attribute elements to display in a hierarchy. you can filter a hierarchy so that data for only one © 2007 MicroStrategy.

you are limiting the elements of the data returned when you browse the Data Explorer. Filters make data retrieval faster by only allowing specific data to be displayed. limit the elements a user is allowed to see and therefore. click OK. Inc. you want to view only those customers who are younger than 30 years old. Filters. and view the Customer hierarchy in the Data Explorer. and the user is unable to see additional data in the hierarchy. 2 In the Hierarchy Editor.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide quarter is displayed. Filters increase efficiency when retrieving data because you can limit user access to parts of a hierarchy when you apply filters to attributes. perform a type of security. . Creating a limited hierarchy reduces the number of elements displayed at one time. however. Update the project schema. Only those customers younger than 30 years old are displayed. First. The filters allow the Data Explorer to display only the criteria you select. When adding filters to an attribute in a hierarchy. create a filter on Customer Age less than 30. right-click the attribute to filter and select Define Attribute Filters. You cannot use a prompt-based filter to filter a hierarchy. 3 If a tip about filtering opens. you need to make sure that each filter is relevant to the attribute’s information. In the Hierarchy Editor. For example. Each attribute in the hierarchy can have multiple filters applied to it. or data for only a few days of one quarter. To apply a filter to an attribute in a hierarchy 1 Create a filter in MicroStrategy Desktop. 204 Configuring hierarchy display options © 2007 MicroStrategy. When filtering attributes in a hierarchy. See the MicroStrategy Desktop online help for more details. MicroStrategy does not validate that the associated filter makes sense on that attribute. add the filter to the Customer attribute.

Entry point An entry point is a shortcut to an attribute in the Data Explorer. select the filters to apply and click > to add them to the Selected objects list. If you set a locked attribute as an entry point. elements for each Year. To create entry points in a hierarchy 1 In the Hierarchy Editor. it still appears in the hierarchy but with a padlock icon. If you are seeking Week 24. click Save and Close. you are creating a shorter route to access that attribute. 2006. Configuring hierarchy display options 205 . opens. Q2. an element for each Quarter. it appears in its normal position within the hierarchy structure. If an attribute is not set to be an entry point. When you click on 2006. but are unable to access elements or attributes below that level. right-click the attribute to set as an entry point. 6 In the Hierarchy Editor.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 4 In the Select Filters dialog box. the hierarchy. Q3. 5 Click OK to close the Select Filters dialog box. the attribute Week appears in the Data Explorer at the same level as Year. For example. © 2007 MicroStrategy. This is especially useful when accessing frequently-used attributes. and Q4. You can see the locked attribute. a typical hierarchy is Time. the attributes. When you click on Time. Creating an entry point grants users faster access to the attribute without having to browse through multiple attributes to reach different levels in a hierarchy. open. and 2005. The attribute to which you applied the filter appears in the hierarchy with a filter icon. such as Q1. which is Week. When you set an attribute to be an entry point. in the Available objects list. If you set the attribute Week as an entry point. you need to open several levels of attributes to reach the correct data level. such as 2007. and their elements appear in the Data Explorer. When you create a user hierarchy. Inc.

Some of the attributes in the Hierarchy Viewer may already be set as entry points. select Set as entry point. click Save and Close. you can define the relationships between them. Hierarchy browsing Once you choose which attributes to place in a hierarchy. and Item are the attributes that comprise the user hierarchy Catalog Items. Category is a parent attribute of Category and Category is the child attribute of Category. the hierarchy resembles the example below. in the hierarchy below. .7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide 2 From the right-click menu. showing the parent/child relationships between the attributes. Category. These relationships determine how users can browse the attributes from the Hierarchies folder. Subcategory. 4 Update the project schema by selecting Update Schema from the Schema menu. For example. 3 In the Hierarchy Editor. To remove an entry point from an attribute. For example. 206 Configuring hierarchy display options © 2007 MicroStrategy. select Remove Entry Point from the right-click menu. if Catalog. Inc. attributes set as entry points are denoted by a green check.

When you apply browse attributes to attributes in a hierarchy. Subcategory Subcategory Catalog. see Enabling hierarchy browsing in reports: Data Explorer. For each attribute in a hierarchy. Item The addition of these browse attributes allows users to see the Subcategory elements directly from the Catalog attribute. Browse attributes are attributes you specify a user can directly browse to from a given attribute in the user hierarchy. Specifically: Hierarchy Attribute Catalog Category Subcategory Item Browse Attribute(s) Category. page 209. Attributes in a hierarchy can have both browsing and drilling relationships between them. without having to first browse down through the Category © 2007 MicroStrategy. you are specifying what levels of detail are visible when browsing the Data Explorer. Including hierarchies in the Data Explorer makes the hierarchies available for reports and to users in the project. you can assign one or more browse attributes to it. Inc. some of these attributes have been assigned a browse attribute.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 A user hierarchy does not need to have these direct relationships defined. For more information on including hierarchies in the Data Explorer. Configuring hierarchy display options 207 . It can simply be a collection of attributes. Using the example above.

208 Configuring hierarchy display options © 2007 MicroStrategy. The ability to browse more directly through the hierarchy can be represented as shown below. the hierarchy described above resembles the example below. . In the Data Explorer.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide attributes to get to Subcategory. Inc. Users can now view the subcategories in the catalog without first having to browse through the categories.

You can make user hierarchies available for drilling. You can save user hierarchies in any folder. reports can allow users to drill down. on the new report. on a report with the Year attribute and Revenue metric. Inc. up. if they need to. This option enables you to determine. For example. drilling is enabled in the Time hierarchy. the user can drill down on the Year attribute to a lower level attribute such as the Month attribute.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 Enabling hierarchy browsing in reports: Data Explorer You can make hierarchies available for browsing and including in reports by storing the hierarchies in the Data Explorer. which is located in the Schema Objects folder. the system hierarchy for that project is automatically placed in the Data Explorer. Revenue data is reported at the Month level. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Drilling using hierarchies Drilling is a function in MicroStrategy reports that allows users to browse different levels of attributes along specified paths. which contains the two attributes. to make a user hierarchy available for browsing in the Data Explorer you must place it in the Data Explorer folder—a subfolder of the Hierarchies folder. Configuring hierarchy display options 209 . However. the attributes to which users can drill from other attributes. The Data Explorer is a tool in the Object Browser that holds the system hierarchy and the user hierarchies. When a user selects a drilling path in a report. Depending on the level of the attributes included in the drilling specification. This allows a user to drill down from Year to Month and. When you create a new project. drill back up from Month to Year. the report refreshes to display the selected level of detail. at a project level. A new report is automatically executed. Moving hierarchies to and from this folder also allows you to keep some hierarchies visible to users while hiding others. In the example of the Year and Month attributes. and across to different levels of detail.

the default drill path is defined by the System Hierarchy. which means that you can access the elements of Subcategory without having to necessarily access the elements of Catalog in Data Explorer. . For example. 210 Configuring hierarchy display options © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 206 for more details about browsing attributes. in the following hierarchy. If you enable drilling in this hierarchy. 2 At the bottom of the Hierarchy Editor. Therefore. 4 Update the project schema by selecting Update Schema from the Schema menu. Subcategory is a browse attribute of Catalog. click Save and Close. See Hierarchy browsing. select the Use as a drill hierarchy check box. Inc. If a user hierarchy is not enabled. you must enable the user hierarchy to be used as a drill hierarchy in the Hierarchy Editor. you can think of browsing paths in a user hierarchy as potential drilling paths. you can drill from Catalog down to Subcategory—and any other browse attributes of Catalog—on a report. 3 In the Hierarchy Editor.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide To enable a user hierarchy as a drill path. To enable drilling in a user hierarchy 1 Open the hierarchy in which to enable drilling.

When a user right-clicks on Year and selects Drill Down. You can use the Hierarchy Viewer to view either the system hierarchy or any of your user hierarchies. Using the Hierarchy Viewer and Table Viewer 211 . see Entry point. The Table Viewer is another tool within MicroStrategy Architect that provides you with a bird’s eye view of some of the information within your project. You can see all of the entry points into a hierarchy at once. the attribute Week appears in the drill-down list. MicroStrategy Architect gives you the ability to view the system hierarchy as well as all of your user hierarchies in a single place. to facilitate user browsing and report development. but rather the structure of the user hierarchy as defined by a project designer. Using the Hierarchy Viewer and Table Viewer Through the Hierarchy Viewer. It is used to view all of the tables in your project graphically. Inc. For instance. When you view a user hierarchy. Additional information on drilling is available in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. you can see the actual relationships between attributes. • When you view the system hierarchy. Using the Hierarchy Viewer The Hierarchy Viewer allows you to select the hierarchy you want to examine. as defined by the system when the project was created. • The Hierarchy Viewer gives you flexibility over how much of a given hierarchy you choose to view at once. you do not see true attribute relationships. For details on entry points. page 205. © 2007 MicroStrategy. assume Week is a browsing attribute assigned to Year. the hierarchy contributes to the drilling path of any attributes in it. and also allows you direct access to the attributes that comprise it. or you may select only one at a time.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 After a user hierarchy is enabled for drilling.

from the Schema menu. from the View menu. 2 Select Edit. In the Hierarchy Viewer. When you access a hierarchy’s attributes directly. 2 Select Hierarchies. 212 Using the Hierarchy Viewer and Table Viewer © 2007 MicroStrategy. To view the system hierarchy in the Hierarchy Viewer 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. To view a user hierarchy in the Hierarchy Viewer 1 In the Hierarchy Viewer. the Aerial perspective provides an overview of the hierarchies in your project. To edit an attribute from the Hierarchy Viewer 1 In the Hierarchy Viewer. See Entry point. See Entry point. right-click the attribute to edit. 2 Attributes that have a green check mark next to them are entry points. The green squares indicate attributes that are entry points. page 205 for more details on creating entry points. select Aerial perspective. select Graphical View. Inc. To access Aerial perspective mode in the Hierarchy Viewer 1 In the Hierarchy Viewer. . from the Hierarchy menu. An aerial view of the hierarchy you are currently viewing is displayed. select the hierarchy to view. Its decreased scale allows you to navigate through the entire project. you can define them as entry points.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide The Hierarchy Viewer also gives you direct access to any of the attributes in the hierarchy you choose to view. page 205 for more details on creating entry points.

See The size of tables in a project: Logical table size. Click a section of the aerial view display to shift your view of a hierarchy to that particular section. Using the Table Viewer The Table Viewer allows you to view all of the tables in your project as well as the joins and/or relationships between those tables and the names of the individual columns in each table. from the Schema menu. Inc. 2 Select Tables. as described above. They represent and indicate how Architect sees the tables that were brought into the project when it was created. The tables that are displayed here are logical tables. 2 In the Table Viewer. If you make changes to the actual tables in the data warehouse. © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 249 for information on updating logical table structures. To view your project’s tables in the Table Viewer 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. Using the Hierarchy Viewer and Table Viewer 213 . select Graphical View. To view more or less information about each table in the project 1 Open the Table Viewer.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 2 The hierarchy in the Hierarchy Viewer shifts according to where you navigate in the aerial view. you will need to update the logical table structure. select Options.

7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide 3 From the Options menu. Inc. depending on what you want to see in the Table Viewer: • • • • • Show joins Use circular joins Show relationships Show relationship types Show columns 214 Using the Hierarchy Viewer and Table Viewer © 2007 MicroStrategy. . select or clear the options for any of the following.

you are ready to start thinking about ways to better maintain the project and optimize it for both the short and long term. You can find this information in the sections listed below: • Updating your MicroStrategy project schema. you will need to make various schema changes. OPTIMIZING AND MAINTAINING YOUR PROJECT Introduction Once your MicroStrategy project is set up and populated with schema objects. 215 . and using partition mapping. creating aggregate tables. you must update your project schema. © 2007 MicroStrategy. To see any enhancements and changes to your project schema. and explains how to use these methods to enhance your project. This chapter introduces you to maintenance and optimization concepts such as tuning the interaction between your data warehouse and your project. Inc.8 8. page 216—As you continue to enhance the design and functionality of your project.

Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables. reduce input/output and other resource requirements. fact levels. You can also tune the interaction between your data warehouse and your MicroStrategy project to bring your data into MicroStrategy in a way that meets your requirements. Although the concepts are related.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide • Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog. the project schema is not the same as the physical warehouse schema. and so on within the project. This can include adding new tables to your project or removing tables that are no longer used. . • • Updating your MicroStrategy project schema All of the schema objects—facts. transformations. the project schema refers to an internal map that MicroStrategy uses to keep track of attribute relationships. and minimize the amount of data that must be aggregated and sorted at run time. page 241—Aggregate tables store data at higher levels than the data was originally collected in the data warehouse. attributes. page 250—Partition mapping involves the division of large logical tables into smaller physical tables. your project must reflect these changes. table sizes. hierarchies. Dividing tables to increase performance: Partition mapping. You can do any of the following to update your project schema: 216 Updating your MicroStrategy project schema © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. and so on—in your project come together to form your project’s schema. These summary tables provide quicker access to frequently-used data. Rather. Whenever you make any changes to a schema object you must indicate to MicroStrategy that new schema object definitions have been included and that these definitions need to be loaded into memory. page 218—As your data warehouse changes to meet new data logging requirements. Partitions improve query performance by minimizing the number of tables and records within a table that must be read to satisfy queries issued against the warehouse.

You can also update the schema with the last saved settings by clicking the Update Schema icon in the toolbar. if in direct (2-tier) mode. or deleted a schema object. • Recalculate project client object cache size: Use this option to update the object cache size for the project. Recalculate table logical sizes: Use this option to use MicroStrategy Desktop’s algorithm to recalculate logical table sizes and override any modifications that you have made to logical table sizes. • 3 Click Update. © 2007 MicroStrategy. from the Schema menu. if in server-connected (3-tier) mode. Manually update the schema. Inc. To manually update the schema 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. modified. 2 In the Schema Update dialog box. Logical table sizes are a significant part of how the MicroStrategy SQL Engine determines the tables to use in a query. select or clear the following check boxes: • • Update schema logical information: Use this option if you added. Disconnect and reconnect to the project or the project source. Manually updating the schema allows you to determine which specific elements of the schema are updated. Updating your MicroStrategy project schema 217 . select Update Schema.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 • • • Stop and restart MicroStrategy Intelligence Server. Recalculate table keys and fact entry levels: Use this option if you changed the key structure of a table or if you changed the level at which a fact is stored.

you can select the tables to add to your project. Every project can have a unique set of warehouse tables. as later.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog This section discusses how the Warehouse Catalog can control the interaction between the data warehouse and the database instance for a project. Adding tables through Project Builder is useful only when you are creating a project for the first time. page 233 Troubleshooting table and column messages. page 220 Managing warehouse and project tables. Inc. and the default SQL statements used for each database. The Warehouse Catalog is better for maintaining the warehouse tables used for an existing project. the structure of the SQL catalogs. adding tables in the project through Project Builder can become a cumbersome process. . You can add warehouse tables to your project with the Warehouse Catalog or MicroStrategy Project Builder. page 219 Adding and removing tables for a project. From this list. The Warehouse Catalog queries the data warehouse and lists the tables and columns that exist in it. page 219 Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. This section covers the following topics: • • • • • • • What should I know before I use the Warehouse Catalog?. page 226 Customizing catalog SQL statements. This section also discusses customizing catalog SQL statements. page 221 Modifying data warehouse connection and operation defaults. page 239 218 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy.

then Desktop. Hyperion Essbase. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 219 .Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 Note the following: • You can also add tables to a project using MicroStrategy Query Builder. then to MicroStrategy. For more information about privileges see the Permissions and Privileges appendix of the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. point to Programs. For more information. refer to Appendix B. and expand your project. and then select Desktop. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. You can connect to OLAP cube sources such as SAP BW. 2 Log in to the project source that contains your project in MicroStrategy Desktop. the OLAP Cube Catalog handles tasks similar to the Warehouse Catalog. Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources. You must use a login that has Architect privileges. In this case. • What should I know before I use the Warehouse Catalog? Before you begin using the Warehouse Catalog. you need to be familiar with: • • Your schema. For more information on Query Builder. and Microsoft Analysis Services instead of a relational database. so you know how the information in your data warehouse should be brought into MicroStrategy How to create a project Accessing the Warehouse Catalog To access the Warehouse Catalog 1 On the Windows Start menu.

Adding and removing tables for a project As you become aware of the additional needs of report designers and users. select the tables you want to add to the Warehouse Catalog. Log in to the project source that contains your project in MicroStrategy Desktop. Inc. To remove tables—From the left side. Click >> to add all the listed tables. To add or remove tables after creating a project 1 Access the Warehouse Catalog for your project as described in To access the Warehouse Catalog. page 219. and expand your project. it may become necessary to add additional tables from the data warehouse to your project. Also. and click > to add the selected tables. as your project matures. Click >> to add all the listed tables. select the tables you want to add to the Warehouse Catalog.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide 3 Select a project and then from the Schema menu. You can access the Warehouse Catalog at any time to add additional tables from your data warehouse to your project and remove tables from your project. select Warehouse Catalog. . The list on the right shows all the tables already being used in the project: • To add tables—From the left side. The Warehouse Catalog opens after it retrieves the table information from the warehouse database. you may need to remove tables from your project that are no longer used and are taking up space in the metadata. and click > to add the selected tables. • 220 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. 2 The left side of the Warehouse Catalog lists all available tables and the number of rows each table contains.

You can remove tables from the project by double-clicking the tables or by selecting the tables and then clicking <. The Warehouse Catalog has the following sections: • Tables available in the warehouse: Displays tables that are located in the warehouse.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 3 In the toolbar. click Save and Close to save your changes to the Warehouse Catalog. Warehouse Catalog has the following menu options. This process can take some time to complete. You can add or remove all the tables from one section to the other by clicking << and >> buttons. by selecting Update Schema. As you make changes to the tables in the warehouse. Inc. but have not been included in the project. To access the Warehouse Catalog for a project. The table definitions are written to the metadata. page 219. Description • © 2007 MicroStrategy. you need to periodically load the updates into the Warehouse Catalog. see Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. Tables being used in the project: Displays tables that have been selected to be part of the project. You can update it by selecting Read the Warehouse Catalog from the Actions menu. Managing warehouse and project tables The Warehouse Catalog allows you to view tables that have been included in the project. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 221 . Menu File • Save Saves the current settings and status of the Warehouse Catalog. as well as those tables that are available in the warehouse but have not been included in the project. 4 Update the project schema from the Schema menu. You can add tables to the project by double-clicking the tables or by selecting the tables and then clicking >.

Displays the list of tables referred to by the selected partition mapping table in the Table Partitions dialog box. Displays MicroStrategy help options Some of these options are also available through toolbar buttons and through right-click menus for quick access. Viewing table structure To view the table structure of a table. . Displays the structure of a table selected in the Warehouse Catalog. This option is enabled when a partition mapping table is selected. page 227 of this appendix. For more information. Allows you to add or remove a table prefix for the selected table. Allows you to assign or update a database instance for the project. right-click any table in the Warehouse Catalog (see Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. see Data warehouse connection and read operations.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide Menu • Exit Tools • View Partitions Description Exits the Warehouse Catalog. Calculates the number of rows in the selected tables. page 219) and choose Table Structure from the 222 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. • Table Structure • Calculate Table Row Count • Table Prefix • Table Database Instances • Import Prefix • Options Actions • Read the Warehouse Catalog Help Allows you to update and reflect the changes done to tables in the warehouse. automatic mapping. Inc. Allows you to import the prefixes from the warehouse table name space. row calculation. and so on. Allows you to specify various settings for the Warehouse Catalog such as changing the database instance. changing or assigning default table prefixes and structures.

The Warehouse Catalog opens.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 shortcut menu. The table structure of the selected table is displayed in the dialog box. When the data type of one or more columns is modified. you get a warning message of this change. You can also select Table Structure from the Tools menu. delete. Some examples of these type of changes are when you add. page 223). Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 223 . page 219). Updating table structure Whenever the structure of the warehouse table changes you have to update the table structure in the Warehouse Catalog for the changes to reflect in the MicroStrategy system. To update the structure of a table 1 Access the Warehouse Catalog for your project (see Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. 2 In the Tables being used in the project list. which provides the following options: • • Click OK to apply the change to this column in all the tables it appears. right-click the table that has changed and select Update Structure. Click Cancel to undo all data type changes. The dialog box displays the columns available in the selected table and the data type of each column. Inc. This option is selected by default. or rename a column in a table associated with a project. © 2007 MicroStrategy. The warning message appears only if you have selected the Display a warning if the columns data types are modified when updating the table structure option in the Warehouse Catalog Options dialog box. You can also click Update Structure to reflect any recent changes done to that table (see Updating table structure. This action results in no changes being applied to any tables or columns.

– Click Save and Close to save the changes and close the Fact Editor. you have to manually update the facts that use this column. The procedure for manually updating the fact is as follows: – Right-click the fact and select Edit.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide If the data type of one or more columns is modified. – Select the fact expression and click Modify. You are returned to the Fact Editor. Then. you receive a message warning of this change. you have to manually update the schema objects that depend on the outdated structure. – Repeat the first to steps of this procedure to open the Warehouse Catalog and update the table structure. The Fact Editor opens. the table structure is only partially updated with the Update Structure command. if you rename a column in a table. • 224 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. • If no object definitions have changed. The Schema Update dialog box opens. If any of the object definitions have changed. the warehouse structure gets updated completely with the Update Structure command. this would apply if you rename a column in the table and the column is not being used in any fact expression. . For example. Verify the changes from the information dialog box that opens and click OK to apply the change in this column to all the tables in which it appears. Inc. – From the Schema menu. The Modify Fact Expression dialog box opens. select Update Schema. – From the list of source tables select the source table from which the fact has been created. – Click Update. 3 Click Save and Close to close the Warehouse Catalog dialog box. Edit the fact expression and click OK. For example.

© 2007 MicroStrategy. For example. you need to define two database instances. Viewing sample data To view sample data from a table. In the Warehouse Catalog. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 225 . click Reload table values. you must set the secondary database instance for any tables that are found in the secondary database. The first 100 rows of the table are returned as sample data in the Values dialog box. right-click a table in the Warehouse Catalog (see Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. To refresh the table data. The default database instance for the project is set to be the primary database. page 219) and choose Show Sample Data from the shortcut menu. one for the primary database and another for the secondary database. MicroStrategy products know how to generate SQL for each table. One of them is the primary database and the other is the secondary database. which is used to support database gateways. Inc.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 – Click Save and Close to save the changes and close the Warehouse Catalog dialog box. Specifying a secondary database to support database gateways MicroStrategy allows you to specify a secondary database instance for a table. The primary database receives all SQL requests and passes them to the correct database. You can also select Show Sample Data from the Tools menu. This way. in your environment you might have a gateway between two databases such as an Oracle database and a DB2 database. From the perspective of MicroStrategy products in this environment.

and name spaces Mapping schema objects and calculating logical sizes for tables 226 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. 4 Select one or more Secondary Database Instances. changing or assigning default table prefixes and structures. Inc.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide To specify a secondary database for a table 1 Access the Warehouse Catalog for your project (see Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. Modifying data warehouse connection and operation defaults You can specify various settings for data warehouse connection and operation defaults using the Warehouse Catalog. The Warehouse Catalog Options dialog box opens. row calculation. row counts. . The settings are available from the Warehouse Catalog. automatic mapping. You cannot select the primary database instance as a secondary database instance. page 219 for steps to access the Warehouse Catalog). The Available Database Instances dialog box opens. select the primary database instance for the table. Example settings include changing the database instance. and so on. 6 From the toolbar. by choosing Options from the Tools menu (see Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. page 219). 3 In the Primary Database Instance drop-down list. (in the pane on the right side) and select Table Database Instances. which allows you to perform the following tasks: • • • Data warehouse connection and read operations Displaying table prefixes. 5 Click OK to accept your changes and return to the Warehouse Catalog. select Save and Close to save your changes and close the Warehouse Catalog. The Warehouse Catalog opens. 2 Right-click a table being used in the project.

Clicking Settings allows you to directly edit the catalog SQL statements that are used to retrieve the list of available tables from the Warehouse Catalog and the columns for the selected tables. Inc. the Settings option is disabled. see the online help. You can make these type of modification from the Catalog category. You could restrict the information returned. for example. • Read Settings: You can customize the SQL that reads the Warehouse Catalog for every platform except Microsoft Access. The default catalog SQL retrieves a DISTINCT list of tables and columns from all users. or if it does but needs to be modified. Refer to the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide for more information on either of these dialog boxes.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 Data warehouse connection and read operations You can modify the database instance and database login used to connect the data warehouse to a project. as well as change how the database catalog tables are read. Custom Database Login: You can either select the database login or clear the login to use no database login. The Database Instance Wizard opens. If the desired database instance does not appear in the Database Instance box. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 227 . Database Instance: You can select the database instance for the Warehouse Catalog from the drop-down list. by © 2007 MicroStrategy. The General tab of the Database Instances dialog box opens. When connected to a Microsoft Access data source. For more information on the database login. which is divided into the following subcategories: • Warehouse Connection: Select the desired database instance to use for the project as well as the custom database login. – Click New to create a new database instance. you can select from the following: – Click Edit to modify the selected database instance.

. it may redefine the data type for a column included in the project. Column Merging Options: When you add a new table to your data warehouse. This setting should be cleared when the number of PMTs in the project is so large that reading their structure is causing performance problems when opening the Warehouse Catalog. For more information. If performance is more important than obtaining the row count.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide specifying certain conditions and table owners (see Customizing catalog SQL statements. By default this option is selected. Automatically update information for all Partition Mapping tables when reading the database catalog: Select this option to read the latest information for the partition mapping tables (PMTs) currently present in the project. Inc. By default this option is selected. By default this option is selected when you open the Warehouse Catalog for the first time. Ignore current table name space when reading from the database catalog and update using new table name space: This option allows you to switch between warehouses found in different database name spaces. do not select this option as it will have a negative effect on performance. page 232 of this appendix. your project includes a table named Table1 that has 228 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. The check for the data type change is only performed when updating a table’s structure. page 233). You can also select the following check boxes: Count the number of rows for all tables when reading the database catalog: Select this option if you want to control whether or not the Warehouse Catalog should get the number of rows each table has when loading from the data warehouse. see Ignoring table name spaces when migrating tables. This option is helpful when you want to identify fact tables and aggregation tables. Display a warning if the column data types are modified when updating the table structure: Select this option if you want to be warned when the data type for a column stored in the project is different from the one read from the data warehouse. For example. By default this option is selected.

In the example above. – Use most recent data type: This option updates the column data type to use the most recent column definition. – Use maximum denominator data type: This option updates the column data type to use the data type with the largest precision or scale. the column data type for C1 would be changed to char(4). the column data types are modified to maintain a consistent schema in one of three ways. a column is changed from data type char to data type integer. When you update the table structure. The options below do not handle the merge if the data type has changed to an incompatible data type. a warning is displayed and you are asked if you want to use the new data type. This example is used to illustrate the options described below. the column data type for C1 would be changed to char(4) since Table2 was added after Table1. but it has column C1 set to data type char(4). In the example above. as illustrated in the image below. If the data type has changed to an incompatible data type. Inc. © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 column C1 of data type char(1). depending on the option you select. as defined in Table2. Then a new table named Table2 is added to the project. If the data type has been changed to a different compatible data type. the data type with the largest precision or scale is used. This is because char(4) has a higher precision than char(1) defined in Table1. For example. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 229 .

the Warehouse Catalog reads the 230 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. and name spaces. which allows the columns to have different data types. This option can cause unwanted schema changes and should be used only when necessary. . and name spaces You can choose to show or hide table prefixes. Manual: This option sets the Warehouse Catalog tables to be read only when the read catalog action is selected. By default this option is selected. column C1 uses the char(1) data type for Table1. From the example above. • Read Mode: The Warehouse Catalog can be automatically read upon opening the Warehouse Catalog. including new tables added to the project.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide – Do not merge: This option renames the column in the newly added table. You have the following options: Display table prefixes in the main dialog: Select this option to display all prefixes in table names. Displaying table prefixes. or restricted to only be read when a read is manually requested: Automatic: This option sets the Warehouse Catalog tables to be read as soon as the catalog browser is loaded. by using the View category. Automatically define prefixes for all tables that are added to this project: This setting enables/disables the following options: – Set a prefix based on the warehouse table name space or owner (import prefix): When this option is selected. This category is divided into the following subcategories: • Table Prefixes: You can specify whether table prefixes are displayed in table names and how prefixes are automatically defined for tables that are added to the project. Column C1 in Table2 is defined as a separate copy of C1 and uses the char(4) data type. row counts. Inc. row counts.

By default. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 231 . Mapping schema objects and calculating logical sizes for tables The Schema category is divided into the following subcategories: • Automatic Mapping: When you add new tables to the Warehouse Catalog. using the following options: © 2007 MicroStrategy. – Modify prefix list: You can create a new tables prefix or delete an existing prefix by selecting this option. and associates it with the table being added. • Table Row Counts: You can show or hide the number of rows per table. this option is selected and table name spaces are shown. using the check box: Display the number of rows per table: You can show or hide the values calculated for the number of rows for the tables. see the online help. The Table Prefixes dialog box opens. • Table Name Spaces: You can show or hide the name space for each table. By default. This option is only active when the database supports prefixes. creates a prefix having the same text as the name space. – Set a default prefix: Select this to add a prefix to tables when they are added to a project. using the check box: Display the name space for each table (if applicable): You can show or hide the owner or table name space where the table is located in the warehouse. You can select the default prefix from the Default prefix box drop-down list or create a new table prefix by clicking Modify prefix list.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 name space for each table being added. Inc. this option is selected and the number of rows are shown. For more information on modifying the prefix list. you can determine whether existing schema objects in the project are mapped to these new tables automatically.

Ignoring table name spaces when migrating tables It is a common practice to establish a secondary warehouse with less information than the primary warehouse for development and testing. With the Map schema objects to new tables automatically option selected. Inc. Do not map schema objects to the new tables: Objects in the schema are not automatically mapped to tables you add to the project. These automatic mapping methods are only applied to existing schema objects when tables are added to the Warehouse Catalog.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide Map schema objects to new tables automatically: Existing objects in the schema automatically map to tables you add to the project. you change the project to point to the primary warehouse. Then a new table which includes a YEAR_ID column is added to the Warehouse Catalog. For example. the Warehouse Catalog automatic mapping settings do not determine whether the attribute and table are automatically mapped. the attribute Year with an attribute form mapped to YEAR_ID is included in a project. Automatically mapping tables to schema objects when adding attributes or facts to a project is controlled by the Attribute Editor and Fact Editor. If the table was added to the Warehouse Catalog first and then the attribute was created. Do not calculate table logical sizes: Logical sizes are not calculated for the tables you add to the project. . • Table Logical Sizes: You can select whether the Warehouse Catalog calculates logical sizes for new tables using one of the following options: Calculate the logical table sizes automatically: Logical sizes are automatically calculated for tables you add to the project. Before going into production. respectively. 232 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. the Year attribute is automatically mapped when the new table is added.

the Warehouse Catalog saves information to the appropriate table name space. The table name space provides an extra piece of information that uniquely identifies the table. 233 © 2007 MicroStrategy. If the check box is cleared. which is a way of organizing database tables into different storage spaces. and the table is actually stored as admin. You now have two tables dbo. the Warehouse Catalog recognizes the two tables as the same table and saves the new table name space information. If you select this option.LU_STORE in the new production warehouse.LU_STORE. DB2. Thus. Customizing catalog SQL statements In all supported warehouse platforms other than Microsoft Access. MicroStrategy uses SQL statements to query the relational database management system (RDBMS) catalog tables to obtain warehouse catalog information. This is because the Warehouse Catalog is looking for a table named dbo.LU_STORE and admin. the Warehouse Catalog defaults to identifying the table by both table name space and table name. the Warehouse Catalog ignores the current table name space when it reads the catalog information. and their data types.LU_STORE. When you add tables to a project. The Warehouse Catalog interprets the table as already in the project and not found in the new warehouse. Inc.Read Settings options subcategory. This setting allows you to migrate much more easily between warehouses. This information includes catalog tables.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 Most database management systems (Oracle. To solve this problem. For instance. This can cause a problem when you migrate from a warehouse that resides in a certain table name space to another warehouse in a different table name space. and others) support the concept of a table name space. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog . You can find this option in the Warehouse Catalog Options dialog box under the Catalog . select the Ignore current table name space when reading from the database catalog and update using new table name space check box. This method allows you to repeat the same table name in different table name spaces. you can have LU_STORE in a table name space called dbo and another table LU_STORE in another table name space called admin. columns.

The MicroStrategy Warehouse Catalog can be configured to read the catalog information in one. This option is recommended only if the catalog SQL is well customized to limit the amount of data returned by it. Inc. The structure of individual tables is read only when the table is selected. but both can be customized in the Warehouse Catalog Options dialog box. a similar ODBC call is used for the Generic DBMS database type. the name Catalog Table SQL refers to the catalog SQL to retrieve the tables in the warehouse.or two-pass SQL mode. the first SQL used in a two-pass catalog retrieval. The name Full Catalog SQL refers to the SQL used to read all the tables and columns in one pass. so an ODBC call must be used to retrieve information about tables and columns in Access. 234 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. . The two retrieval options use different catalog SQL. Microsoft Access does not have catalog tables. This is the recommended option for interactive warehouse catalog building because no unnecessary catalog information is read from the database. on the other hand.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide These catalog SQL statements vary from platform to platform and can be customized according to the characteristics of the specific warehouse. but you can choose to use custom catalog SQL for the generic type if you wish. One-pass SQL mode. In the following sections. In two-pass SQL mode. it first reads only the tables from the database. which increases processing speed. reads all the tables and columns in one SQL statement. that is. By default.

A table name space is a partition of the database installation in which table names are unique. this name space can be the name of the database. page 235 Structure of Catalog Table SQL.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 To customize a catalog SQL. Inc. The table name space is optional. or a combination of both database and owner. the owner of the table. page 238 The table name space In a typical RDBMS platform. you must understand several important concepts and procedures: • • • • • • The table name space. page 236 Modifying catalog SQL. A customized catalog SQL can omit the name space if duplicate table names do not present a problem in the warehouse database. page 237 Default catalog SQL. You can leave this template in the customized SQL if you want the catalog SQL to yield © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 236 Structure of Full Catalog SQL. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 235 . This helps you to avoid confusing tables that share the same table name. page 235 SQL placeholder strings and incomplete catalog SQL. a table name does not uniquely identify it in a particular database installation. Depending on the type of RDBMS. a name space gives each table a unique name. SQL placeholder strings and incomplete catalog SQL The default system catalog SQL can contain certain placeholder strings that can be resolved at run time or must be completed manually by the user. In both the Catalog Table SQL and Full Catalog SQL. These placeholders are: • #LOGIN_NAME#—This placeholder is automatically replaced at run time with the login name used to connect to the database.

only the table name column is required. must be replaced with the name of the schema in which the database tables reside. The column that identifies the table name space uses the SQL column alias NAME_SPACE. Each row of the SQL result must uniquely identify a table. used with DB2 AS/400. Structure of Catalog Table SQL Catalog Table SQL is expected to return two columns. #?Schema_Name?#—This catalog SQL placeholder is an incomplete SQL string that must be completed by the user before it can be executed.0: SELECT DISTINCT OWNER NAME_SPACE. one identifying the name space of the table and the other the name of the table. Duplicates are not allowed. The command #?Database_Name?#. used with Teradata. must be replaced with the name of the database containing the database tables. Otherwise. #?Schema_Name?#. this template is replaced with the name of the database user who owns the warehouse tables of interest. .8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide different results depending on the warehouse login used. The following example is the default Catalog Table SQL for Oracle 8. The string starts with #? and ends with ?#. The following aliases identify each column returned: • • NAME_SPACE (optional): the table name space TAB_NAME (required): name of the table 236 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. depending on the RDBMS platform and the customization. TABLE_NAME TAB_NAME FROM ALL_TAB_COLUMNS WHERE OWNER = '#LOGIN_NAME#' Structure of Full Catalog SQL Full Catalog SQL is expected to return between five and seven columns. If a name space is not provided. The column that identifies the table name has the alias TAB_NAME. Inc. • #?Database_Name?#.

sysusers WHERE T.length DATA_LEN.type in ('U'. page 219).0: SELECT U.scale DATA_SCALE FROM sysobjects T. C. Inc. The following example is the default Full Catalog SQL for Microsoft SQL Server 7. syscolumns C. C. and then by TAB_NAME. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 237 . The Warehouse Catalog opens. 2 Modifying catalog SQL You can customize and modify the catalog SQL that is run against your database for each project.name COL_NAME. if available.uid ORDER BY 1.type DATA_TYPE.name NAME_SPACE. © 2007 MicroStrategy.prec DATA_PREC.id = C. To modify the catalog SQL for your project 1 Access the Warehouse Catalog for your project (see Accessing the Warehouse Catalog.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 • • • • • COL_NAME (required): name of the column DATA_TYPE (required): a string or a number that identifies the major data type of the column DATA_LEN (required): a number that describes the length or size of the column data DATA_PREC (optional): a number that describes the precision of the column data DATA_SCALE (optional): a number that describes the scale of a floating point column data Full Catalog SQL must return its rows ordered first by NAME_SPACE. T. The catalog SQL can be modified in the Warehouse Catalog options for your project.id and T.name TAB_NAME. C. 'V') AND T.uid = U. C. C.

The top pane controls the Catalog Table SQL and the bottom pane controls the Full Catalog SQL. select Options. Inc.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide 2 From the Tools menu. Default catalog SQL When customizing the catalog SQL that is executed on your database. the catalog SQL options are displayed as shown below. it is recommended you consult the default catalog SQL that MicroStrategy uses to support different database 238 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. The Catalog . The catalog SQL settings are unavailable if your project is connected to a Microsoft Access database. 4 Click the Settings button. . 3 Expand the Catalog Category. The Warehouse Catalog Options dialog box opens.Read Settings options are displayed. and select Read Settings.

The bottom pane controls the Full Catalog SQL. This allows you to save any modifications you have made previously to the catalog SQL statements. A dialog box for the catalog SQL options is displayed. • • You can use the default catalog SQL statements or compare and combine them with your own customized catalog SQL statements. and then compare them to the default statements you are about to generate. 2 Generate and view the default catalog SQL for your database platform. Troubleshooting table and column messages You may encounter the following messages while using the Warehouse Catalog: © 2007 MicroStrategy. cut and paste the SQL statements in the two panes into any text editor. Any text in the panes is overwritten with the default catalog SQL statements: • To generate and view the default Catalog Table SQL for your database platform. which retrieves a list of available tables in the Warehouse Catalog. To generate and view the default catalog SQL 1 Access the catalog SQL options for your project (see Modifying catalog SQL. You can generate the default catalog SQL in MicroStrategy for the database platform your project connects to.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 platforms. click the upper-most Use Default button. Before performing the next step. which retrieves column information for the selected tables. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 239 . To generate and view the default Full Catalog SQL for your database platform. click the bottom-most Use Default button. page 237). Inc. • The top pane controls the Catalog Table SQL.

This can result in SQL errors when running reports that need data from a “missing” table. you get a warning message showing the table name. 240 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. Remove the table from the project. However the definition in the project may be inconsistent with the real physical structure in the warehouse. column name. . If there are any dependencies. Columns data type changed When the table structure is updated for one or more tables in which the column data types have been changed. and you have the option to proceed or cancel the operation. a message is shown which explains that the table structure update cannot proceed because the table was not found in the warehouse. Two cases can be seen: • When the Warehouse Catalog is starting and retrieving the table information from the data warehouse and it detects that one or more tables already in the project are missing. the Warehouse Catalog does not check for any dependencies until you save the changes. In this case. it displays an error message which gives you the following options: Leave the Table in the project: This leaves everything as is in the project metadata.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide • • • Tables missing Columns data type changed Columns missing Tables missing This happens when one or more tables already in the project are removed from the data warehouse. they are presented to you. • When the Warehouse Catalog tries to update the structure of a table that is missing in the warehouse. Inc. no changes occur and the original table structure remains intact. In this case.

The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts. MicroStrategy creates aggregates only on fact tables since lookup tables and relationship tables are usually significantly smaller. Columns missing Missing columns are detected when Update Structure is performed. Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables 241 . Inc. and new data type. To understand aggregate tables. The Logical Data Model.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 original data type. while retaining the traditional power of ROLAP to directly query the database to answer any questions. This section describes how and why aggregate tables are used. You can click Cancel at any time to undo all data type changes. You are asked to remove the mapping before continuing with the update structure and original table structure is restored. you should be familiar with fact tables in the context of data modeling and data warehousing. Column is mapped to a schema object: If this is the case. If this happens. then a message is displayed that gives details on objects. the Warehouse Catalog checks for the following: • • Column is not mapped to any schema object: If this is the case. For more information on these topics. Aggregate tables provide quicker access to frequently requested information. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Chapter 3. then no error message is shown. see Chapter 2. Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model. which are mapped to the missing column and the update structure operation is canceled. and Chapter 5. This results in no changes being applied to the tables and columns. Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables Aggregate tables are summary tables that store data at higher levels than it was stored when the data was initially captured and saved.

MOLAP is not scalable for large projects because of the difficulty of maintaining every possible combination of aggregates as the number of attributes and the amount of data increases. This combined solution allows questions to be answered on the fly and is also scalable for large databases. Inc. the MicroStrategy SQL Engine. Users can ask any question that is supported by the data in their warehouse and then analyze the results until they find a precise answer. CPU. . RAM. 242 Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables © 2007 MicroStrategy. MicroStrategy’s solution is the use of aggregate tables to provide quicker access to frequently-accessed data while still retaining the power to answer any user query.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide When to use aggregate tables MicroStrategy uses optimized SQL to query the relational database directly to answer users’ questions. in combination with aggregate tables and caching. The disadvantage to this relational OLAP (ROLAP) methodology is that accessing huge fact tables can be potentially time-consuming. Multidimensional OLAP (MOLAP) is sometimes considered by some to be the answer to this problem. Aggregate tables are advantageous because they • • • • • Reduce input/output. However. can produce results at about the same speed as MOLAP. and swapping requirements Eliminate the need to perform dynamic calculations Decrease the number of physical disk reads and the number of records that must be read to satisfy a query Minimize the amount of data that must be aggregated and sorted at run time Move time-intensive calculations with complicated logic or significant computations into a batch routine from dynamic SQL executed at report run time In summary.

A report requesting month-level data is executed. must occur. Inc. Aggregation can also be completed before reports are executed. the rolling up of data. The daily values from the fact table are selected. Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables 243 . as in the previous example. By default. as shown below. and added to produce the monthly totals. the results of the aggregation are stored in an aggregate table. © 2007 MicroStrategy. If sales data is frequently requested at the month level. that is. sales data is stored by day in a fact table. For example.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 Aggregation versus pre-aggregation Whenever the display level of data on a report must differ from the level at which the data is initially captured. This process is called pre-aggregation. sorted. an aggregate table with the sales data rolled up to the month level is useful. You can build these pre-aggregated—or aggregate—tables as part of the ETL process. aggregation. aggregation occurs dynamically with a SQL statement at report run-time.

8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide Pre-aggregation eliminates the reading. and calculation of data from many database rows in a large. If the daily sales fact table is the lowest-level fact table and contains atomic-level data. an aggregate table is any fact table whose data is derived by aggregating data from an existing base table. lower-level fact table at run time. That is. Inc. . This ensures that all possible 244 Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables © 2007 MicroStrategy. every possible combination of aggregate associations must be generated when the multidimensional cube is built. sorting. as shown in the following example. it requires a completely aggregated schema to answer most questions. Degree of aggregation While MOLAP can provide fast performance when it answers a question. In these terms. it is referred to as a base table.

if the aggregate table is useful in answering frequently-asked queries. Sparse aggregation refers to the fact that a given project only requires as many aggregate fact tables as is useful to its users. the degree of aggregation can be as dense or as sparse as is appropriate for your users. and therefore is not very scalable. Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables 245 . Build aggregate tables only if they can benefit users. This scenario becomes very difficult to maintain as the number of attributes and the amount of data increase. page 247 • © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. the space in the RDBMS does not need to be consumed and the resources to build that table during the batch process do not need to be used. its presence provides a response as fast as a MOLAP system can provide. page 246 The compression ratio—Compression ratio. Consider the following factors when deciding whether to create aggregate tables: • • The frequency of queries at that level—Determining the frequency of queries at a specific level. That is. A densely aggregated warehouse has a large number of aggregate tables while a sparsely aggregated warehouse has fewer. page 246 The relationship between the parent and child—Considering any related parent-child relationships. provides much greater flexibility than MOLAP. Also. since the creation and maintenance of aggregate tables requires additional work by the database administrator. In a ROLAP environment. Not every attribute level or hierarchy intersection is suitable for pre-aggregation. ROLAP. Only the aggregate combinations that you determine are beneficial must be created. if a certain aggregate combination is rarely or never used. However.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 questions can be answered. therefore. do not waste database space for tables that will not be used.

based on the key combinations in a relationship table. eliminate it from the warehouse. and loading process. see the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. the query must use item-level data and summarize the department data dynamically. Once your warehouse is in production. If any table is not used. Inc. However. as well as the database backup routines. when the parent-child relationship is altered. However. MicroStrategy Enterprise Manager allows you to easily track table usage. the department aggregate tables would not be used in this situation. For more information on Enterprise Manager. trace the usage of any aggregate tables to determine how frequently they are used in a day-to-day business environment. Therefore. the child records are usually summarized into the parent record.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide Determining the frequency of queries at a specific level Build aggregate tables only if they can be useful to your users. Considering any related parent-child relationships When an aggregate table is created. translation. . consider the following hierarchy: A summary of data at the department level seems to be a good candidate for an aggregate table. usefulness is not always easy to quantify. If aggregate tables are never accessed. For example. they consume disk space and impose unnecessary burdens on the extraction. In any hierarchical relationship. all 246 Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables © 2007 MicroStrategy. if users frequently want to exclude inactive items.

Aggregate tables that contain dynamic relationships must be recalculated every time a change is made. maintaining aggregate tables is very easy. Dynamic relationships When the relationship between parent and child elements change. consume resources. reclassification. Inc. time hierarchies are seldom dynamic—days do not migrate into different weeks. Frequent changes can mean aggregate tables are not optimal for this situation. In these cases. For example. Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables 247 . Static relationships When elements rarely or never change relationships. These changes often occur because of organizational restructuring. or the addition. or discontinuation of items or services. Also. a store can decide to reclassify the department to which items belong. rolling up an entire hierarchy can avoid many problems with relationship changes. It is not affected by a reorganization within the geography hierarchy. the table size. such as sum or average. Compression ratio The process of data aggregation applies an aggregate function. and complicate the batch process. The average number of child records combined to calculate one parent record is called the © 2007 MicroStrategy. Whether these relationships are dynamic or static change how they are aggregated into tables. For example. the relationship is called dynamic.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 tables that hold that relationship or data relevant to it must be updated. For example. If the tables are large. and the impact on the batch process. and then balance the disadvantages against the advantages of having an aggregate table. and fiscal weeks do not move into different months. this process can take time. they are a part of static relationships. geographical realignment. Consider the frequency of the changes. to a set of child records to produce a single parent record. a table contains one value for the sum of all stores.

if the compression ratio is 4:1. Inc. Recall that some of the reasons to build aggregate tables include the reduction of disk I/O and the number of records that must be dynamically sorted and aggregated. To determine when pre-aggregation is worthwhile for your system. 248 Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables © 2007 MicroStrategy. In contrast. you must balance the importance of speed of query response time and the availability of disk space and resources to maintain the schema. since it represents the decrease in records that must be read to respond to a query at that level. the aggregate table reduces the number of records by 3/4 and uses only 1/4 of the storage space. the resource demands placed on the database server by dynamic aggregations decrease and therefore so does the effectiveness of pre-aggregation.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide compression ratio. the compression ratio suggests that an aggregate table can provide more efficient queries. for smaller base tables. One measure of effectiveness of an aggregate table can be estimated from this number. page 35. pre-aggregating data is effective only if the compression ratio is significant. Therefore. When the number of elements differs significantly between two attributes in the same hierarchy. . as outlined in the following procedure. refer to Cardinalities and ratios. Creating aggregate tables You can integrate aggregate tables in your project using the Warehouse Catalog in MicroStrategy Desktop. For example. if the compression ratio is 3:2. the aggregate table requires 2/3 of the base table’s storage space but yields only a 1/3 reduction in the number of records. Also. For more information on ratios.

Suppose the base fact table contains millions of rows of transaction-level detail. These size assignments are stored in the metadata and are calculated based on the table columns and their corresponding attributes. For steps to add tables using the Warehouse Catalog. The size of tables in a project: Logical table size MicroStrategy Desktop assigns a size to every table in the project when you first add them to the project.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 To use an aggregate table in an existing project 1 Using the Warehouse Catalog. have only higher-level or summary data. Changing the logical table size The initial logical table size is based on the number of attribute columns and the various levels at which they exist in their respective hierarchies. that contains enough data to answer the query. When you run a report. when either could provide the answer to a query? The answer is logical table size. Because Desktop uses the conceptual or logical attribute definitions when assigning sizes. this measurement is known as the logical table size. Architect automatically adds it to the definitions of your existing attributes and facts. however. Inc. Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables 249 . based on logical table size. In other words. 2 Use the new table in the desired fact expressions and attribute form expressions. add the table to the project. If your aggregate table structure is consistent with your base fact table structure. page 220. The other tables. see Adding and removing tables for a project. the Analytical Engine chooses the smallest of all tables. Architect is aggregate-aware. Because the attribute levels are lower in the base fact © 2007 MicroStrategy. How does Architect know to use the aggregate table rather than the base fact table.

Partitioning by time limits growth of the database tables and increases stability. see the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. tables are partitioned at the database level. this division is based on a definable data level. not where the tables are split. The terms “application” and “server” refer to what manages the partitioned tables. a table with a higher-level attribute should be smaller in size. Logical tables are discussed in detail in Appendix C. Inc. Therefore. partitions improve the speed and efficiency of database queries. the Logical Table Editor allows you to alter the logical table sizes based on their true relative sizes. Time is the most common category for partitioning databases. this is not always true in a real warehouse.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide table. Either way. By distributing usage across multiple tables. Server versus application partitioning Partitioning can be managed by either the database server or the MicroStrategy application. the table as a whole is assigned a higher value for the logical table size than are the summary tables with higher-level attributes. Partitions improve query performance by minimizing the number of tables and records within a table that must be read to satisfy queries issued against the warehouse. Dividing tables to increase performance: Partition mapping Partition mapping involves the division of large logical tables into smaller physical tables. 250 Dividing tables to increase performance: Partition mapping © 2007 MicroStrategy. For steps to use the Logical Table Editor. Of course. Logically. such as month or department. . Logical Tables.

251 © 2007 MicroStrategy. MicroStrategy manages the mapping between the logical table and the physical tables. the partitioning is transparent to MicroStrategy. MicroStrategy. The original fact table is not physically broken into smaller tables. such as time or geography. MicroStrategy supports two types of partitioning: • • Metadata partition mapping. Dividing tables to increase performance: Partition mapping . page 254—uses a specialized warehouse table to determine which table to access Metadata partition mapping Metadata partition mapping is the mapping of partitions where the mapping of partitions is performed and maintained in the project metadata by the application. Instead.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 Server-level partitioning The database server. page 251—stores the mapping information in the project metadata Warehouse partition mapping. in application-level partitioning the relational database is unaware of the partitioned tables. the database server logically partitions the table according to parameters specified by the database administrator. in this case. A partition base table (PBT) is a warehouse table that contains one part of a larger set of data. rather than the RDBMS server. You do not need to take any action in MicroStrategy to support the partitioning. This approach makes it easier for you to specify a flexible partitioning schema. manages the partition tables. Inc. rather than MicroStrategy. Application-level partitioning In application-level partitioning the application. Partition tables are usually divided along logical lines. Since only the logical table is displayed to the end user. manages the partitioned tables in RDBMS server-level partitioning. Refer to your database documentation for details on server partitioning for your particular platform. In contrast.

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Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project

Project Design Guide

In metadata partition mapping, you specify one or more partitioning attributes in the Metadata Partition Mapping Editor. Next you define what attribute elements within those attributes should point to which PBT. You create all of the rules for choosing the appropriate PBT here and the rules are stored in the MicroStrategy metadata. For steps to create a metadata partition mapping, refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help.

Homogenous and heterogeneous partitions
Metadata partitions can be homogenous or heterogeneous. With heterogeneous partitioning, the PBTs can have different amounts of data stored in them at different levels. For example, one table can contain six months of sales data, while another stores an entire year. The PBT level, or key, refers to how the data is stored. For example, sales data for the current year can be stored at the daily level, while historical sales data is saved by month only. Heterogeneous partitions can therefore require additional long-term maintenance and organization because the data contained in them is stored at various levels throughout the partition. MicroStrategy stores one PBT level for each partition. If all the PBTs within a partition are not stored at the same level, the highest PBT level is used as the PBT level of the partition. For instance, if all the sales data in the previous example is stored in one partition, you cannot access current sales at the day level. This is because the PBT level for the partition is month, which is higher than day. If you save current data in a partition at the daily level and the historical data in another partition at the month level, you are able to fully access the data. In contrast, homogenous partitions must have the same amount of data stored at the same PBT level. The logical structure of the PBTs must be the same, that is, they must have the same facts and attributes defined. To continue with the previous examples, each table must store one year of data at the month level. Homogeneous partitions work well for frequently-accessed data such as information about the previous year.

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When you define the particular PBT to which an attribute is linked in MicroStrategy, you do not need to specify whether or not the PBT is homogeneous or heterogeneous. MicroStrategy makes the distinction automatically depending, in part, on how the data is stored in the PBT.

Data slices
After PBTs are created, you define a data slice. The data slice acts as a filter that describes what portions of data are placed in the partition table. Based on this data slice, the MicroStrategy engine knows which table to get data from when generating the SQL. A data slice holds the parameters that a partition is based upon, for example, Month=January. Instead of retrieving data for all months, the server knows to access a particular table that contains the data for January only. By creating a data slice with the partition, you can retrieve specific data quickly without time-consuming joins and searches. It is important to create a reasonable and valid data slice because MicroStrategy cannot verify its accuracy or relevance. The data slice must make sense for the data. A poorly crafted data slice can lead to errors from generating incorrect SQL and retrieving the wrong data. Data slicing displays and can be modified only for the metadata partitioning. Each partition mapping table must include at least one data slice. In a heterogeneous mapping, data slices can exist at different levels and can be composed of different keys.

Attribute qualifications
To create data slices, you use attribute qualifications. Attribute qualifications are types of filters that are applied to attribute forms. These qualifications allow you to limit the type and amount of data that is returned for a report. For example, if you create a report that contains the attribute Country but you want to return only the data for France, you can create a qualification on the attribute Country and select France as the element that appears on the report.

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For steps to create a data slice, refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help.

Warehouse partition mapping
Warehouse partition mapping is the mapping of partitions, where the mapping is performed by and maintained in the data warehouse. You can define a warehouse partition by using the MicroStrategy Warehouse Catalog to add a table with a special structure. This table contains the map for the partition, and is stored in the warehouse. Warehouse partitions divide tables physically along any number of attributes, although this is not visible to the user. Warehouse partitions must be homogenous, unlike metadata partitions, so that the same amount of data is stored at the same PBT level and the same facts and attributes are defined. Homogenous partitioning divides data of equal levels, like January and February. A sample fact table and warehouse partitioning table are shown below for months. Note how the data exists at equal levels, for example, different months of the same year.

The original fact table, which contains all of the data, is not brought into the project. Rather, the database administrator creates multiple smaller physical tables in the data warehouse. Each table contains a subset of the data in the original fact table. The database administrator is responsible for keeping the partitions consistent and up-to-date. He or

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she must also create and maintain a partition mapping table (PMT), which is used to identify and keep track of the partitioned base tables as part of a logical whole. After the PMT is created, when you run a report in Desktop or Web that requires information from one of the PBTs, the Query Engine first runs a pre-query to the PMT to determine which PBT to access to bring the data back for the report. The pre-query requests the PBT names associated with the attribute IDs from the filtering criteria. When it finds the name of the PBT, it calls the SQL Engine to write the appropriate SQL for the warehouse. When using warehouse partition mapping, it is usually not necessary to bring in the individual PBT tables into the project. Doing so can cause errors if such tables are mistakenly mapped directly to schema objects. You should only include the PMT table in the project. With this strategy you can map all related schema objects to the PMT, which then accesses the correct PBT in the warehouse. Note the following: • • There are no data slices in a warehouse partition. MicroStrategy supports warehouse partitions on both upgraded and newly created projects. These are added using the Warehouse Catalog Browser. For steps to add warehouse partitions, refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help.

Metadata versus warehouse partition mapping
Metadata partition mapping does not require any additional tables in the warehouse. Metadata partition mapping is generally recommended over warehouse partition mapping in MicroStrategy. However, if you already have warehouse partition tables set up and are migrating to a newer version of MicroStrategy, you can continue to use the warehouse partitions. If you are creating partitions for the first time, however, it is recommended you implement metadata partition mapping.

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Metadata partition mapping is recommended because you create the rules in MicroStrategy that the Query Engine uses to generate the SQL to run reports. Because you create the partitions directly in the metadata, it is easier to maintain. Metadata partition mapping also allows both heterogeneous and homogenous partitions, unlike warehouse partition mapping. With heterogeneous partitions, the PBTs can have different amounts of data stored in them at different levels. Only homogenous partitions can be used in warehouse partition mapping. For steps to map partitions, refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help.

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9.

CREATING TRANSFORMATIONS TO DEFINE TIME-BASED AND OTHER COMPARISONS

Introduction
Suppose you want to compare how much revenue your company grew last year to how much it grew this year. This type of analysis, called a TY/LY comparison (This Year versus Last Year), is a commonly used form of time-series analysis and is relevant to many different industries, including retail, banking, and telecommunications. Transformations—schema objects you can create using attributes in your project—are one of the many MicroStrategy techniques used to perform time-series analysis. To calculate a variance or a growth percentage such as last year’s revenue versus this year’s revenue, it is very convenient to use a transformation. Transformations are often the most generic approach and can be reused and applied to other time-series analyses. To use a transformation, a report designer creates a metric and applies the transformation to it. This chapter discusses the different types of transformations and how to create them. It is assumed that you have some understanding of what metrics are, as transformation metrics
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are discussed in this chapter. For information on metrics and using transformations in metrics and reports, see the Metrics chapter of the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide.

Creating transformations
A transformation is a schema object that typically maps a specified time period to another time period, applying an offset value, such as current month minus one month. Usually defined by a project designer, transformations are used in the definition of a metric to alter the behavior of that metric. Such a metric is referred to as a transformation metric. For example, time-related transformations are commonly used in metrics to compare values at different times, such as this year versus last year or current date versus month-to-date. Any transformation can be included as part of the definition of a metric and multiple transformations can be applied to the same metric. Transformation metrics are beyond the scope of this guide; for information about transformation metrics, refer to the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. Recall the example used in the introduction, the TY/LY comparison. To calculate this year’s revenue, you can use the Revenue metric in conjunction with a filter for this year. Similarly, to calculate last year's revenue, you can use the Revenue metric in conjunction with a filter for last year. However, a more flexible alternative is to use a previously created Last Year transformation in the definition of a new metric, last year’s revenue. With a single filter, on 2003 for example, the two metrics Revenue and Last Year Revenue give you results for 2003 and 2002, respectively. Since a transformation represents a rule, it can describe the effect of that rule for different levels. For instance, the Last Year transformation intuitively describes how a specific year relates to the year before. It can in addition express how each month of a year corresponds to a month of the prior year. In the same way, the transformation can describe how each day of a year maps to a day of the year before. This information defines the transformation and abstracts all cases into a

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generic concept. That is, you can use a single metric with a last year transformation regardless of the time attribute contained on the report. While transformations are most often used for discovering and analyzing time-based trends in your data, not all transformations have to be time-based. An example of a non-time-based transformation is This Catalog/Last Catalog, which might use Catalog_ID-1 to perform the transformation.

Expression-based versus table-based transformations
The definition of the association between an original value and a transformed one can be represented in an expression that uses columns of the warehouse, constants, arithmetic operators, and mathematical functions. This is known as an expression-based transformation. However, it is sometimes desirable to precalculate these values and store them in a table designed for the transformation. This method is sometimes referred to as a table-based transformation. The advantage of a table-based transformation is the possible use of indexing to speed query times. Another advantage is that table-based transformations provide additional flexibility beyond what formula expressions can produce. The drawback of this kind of transformation is that it requires the creation and management of an additional table in the warehouse. However, once the table is created, it usually significantly decreases the query time. Returning to the TY/LY example, you have the option of using a simple formula such as Year_ID - 1 in the definition of the transformation or precalculating the data and storing it in a column in a table. A table-based transformation is required when a many-to-many transformation is performed. An example is a year-to-date calculation. A significant advantage to the dynamic calculation of an expression-based transformation is that the database administrator does not have to create and maintain a transformation table. The drawback is that the system must perform the calculation every time.

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A single transformation can use a combination of table-based and expression-based transformations. For example, you can create a last year transformation based on Year and Month. The ID of the Year attribute is in the format YYYY, so the transformation can use the expression Year_ID - 1. The ID for the Month attribute is in the format ‘MonthName,’ so you cannot easily use a mathematical expression. You must use a table instead. The following sections walk you through creating both a table-based transformation and an expression-based one.

Building a table-based transformation
The following example shows how to create a last year transformation based on a lookup table in MicroStrategy Tutorial, which pairs each year with the previous year. This transformation is used in the report displayed below, which compares revenue for this year and last year.

Creating the transformation metric and the report are discussed in the Transformation metrics section in the Metrics chapter of the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide.

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then double-click Year.Define a new member attribute expression dialog box opens. 6 Click OK. Building an expression-based transformation This example shows how to create a last year transformation using an expression rather than a table. 2004. 4 Select the LU_Year table from the Table drop-down list. For example. 3 Double-click Time to open the folder. Creating transformations 261 . which maps this year to last year. The Year .Project Design Guide Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons 9 To create a last year transformation based on a table 1 Log in to the project source that contains your project in MicroStrategy Desktop and expand your project. 5 Double-click the PREV_YEAR_ID column to place it in the expression box. A report designer can now use the transformation in a revenue metric to calculate last year’s revenue. point to New. The table's columns appear in the Available columns list. 2 From the File menu. You have now created the transformation. so the previous year is simply Year_ID minus one. Name the transformation Last Year (Table). © 2007 MicroStrategy. then create a report using that transformation metric to obtain last year’s revenue. Inc. The Year_ID is in the format YYYY. one subtracted from the year 2005 results in the previous year. 7 Click Save and Close on the toolbar. Notice that this table contains a previous year column. and select Transformation. The Transformation Editor opens with the Select a Member Attribute dialog box displayed.

5 Type -1 in the expression box. 4 Double-click the YEAR_ID column to place it in the expression box. creating the transformation metric and the report are discussed in the Transformation metrics section in the Metrics chapter of the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. The Year . 2 Double-click Time to open the folder. The table's columns appear in the Available columns list. Inc. from the File menu. and select Transformation. 3 Select the LU_Year table from the Table drop-down list. .9 Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons Project Design Guide This transformation is added to the report shown in the table-based transformation example above.Define a new member attribute expression dialog box opens. then double-click Year. The transformation will subtract 1 from the Year ID to calculate last year’s ID. To create a last year transformation based on an expression 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. Again. point to New. The Transformation Editor opens with the Select a Member Attribute dialog box displayed. 262 Creating transformations © 2007 MicroStrategy. The resulting report is displayed below.

this is the transformation table defining the relationship. For example. The message “Valid expression” appears with a green check mark. in the Last Year transformation in the MicroStrategy Tutorial. 8 Click Save and Close on the toolbar. and Day. that is. and Day. each member expression is based on a specific table. 7 Click OK. You have now created the last year transformation. then add it to the report created in the previous example. © 2007 MicroStrategy. For example. for the member attributes Year. in the Last Year transformation. respectively. the member attributes are Year. Quarter. the member tables are LU_YEAR. Transformation components All transformations have the following components: • Member attributes: This component contains the attributes to which the transformation applies. Quarter. A report designer can now use the transformation in a revenue metric to calculate last year’s revenue. the different levels to which the rule applies. Name the transformation Last Year (Expression). For an expression-based transformation. Inc. LU_MONTH. Month. For a table-based transformation. • Member tables: These tables store the data for the member attributes. and LU_DAY. LU_QUARTER. • Member expressions: Each member attribute has a corresponding expression. Transformation components 263 . generally the lookup table corresponding to the attribute being transformed.Project Design Guide Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons 9 6 Click Validate. Month.

” One day or month this year maps exactly to one day or month from last year. For example. However. In fact. In the most generic case. this is simply a column from a specific warehouse table specifically populated with data supporting the transformation. arithmetic operators. in the case of a many-to-many transformation. For example. this expression uses constants. many other dates are included in the year-to-date calculation. For example. For a table-based transformation. Many-to-many transformations can lead to double-counting scenarios. this approach provides considerable flexibility in the transformation definition. consider YearToDate defined as a many-to-many transformation and Revenue (YTD) as a transformation metric. For instance. The rule is then not encapsulated in an expression but directly in the data of the column. . and PREV_YEAR_ID. in the Last Year transformation. These are all columns from the lookup tables set in the Member tables field. Since the data defines the rule. • Mapping type: This component determines how the transformation is created based on the nature of the data. Many-to-many: A typical many-to-many relationship is year-to-date. you can create a Last Year transformation using Year_ID-1 as the expression. a separate table is required. Inc. the member expressions are LY_DAY_DATE. typically the attribute ID column. and columns from the warehouse. this is a mathematical expression. many cases can exist where the data is not conducive to such calculation. if you store Month as 200001 (January 2000). you cannot subtract one and receive December 1999 as the result. LY_QUARTER_ID.9 Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons Project Design Guide For an expression-based transformation. For one date. It is particularly effective when no straightforward formula can express the rule. mathematical functions. LY_MONTH_ID. The mapping can be one of the following: One-to-one: A typical one-to-one relationship is “last year to this year. Suppose this metric is used on 264 Transformation components © 2007 MicroStrategy.

the joint child attribute Promotion is added to the previous report. Transformation metrics and joint child attributes Review the discussion of joint child attributes and relationships in Joint child relationships. For more information about joint child attributes. The report displays the quarter. a range of dates is specified in the filter. as shown below: When a joint child attribute—an attribute that exists at the intersection of other indirectly related attributes—is added. In a report. a conflict arises. a report contains Quarter and the transformation metric Last Year’s Revenue. with the previous year’s revenue. Transformation metrics and joint child attributes 265 . a transformation metric displays the current attribute with transformed data. In this instance. see Joint child relationships. Each quarter is displayed. the Revenue (YTD) metric will double count. the © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 171. page 171 before proceeding in this section. which is the member attribute on the template. In the report. For example.Project Design Guide Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons 9 a report that does not include the Day attribute. that is. the values for the transformation. Inc. The joint child attribute cannot be transformed because not all of its joint children—Quarter and Item—are time-related. For example.

since the Valentine’s Day promotion was not run in 2002.9 Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons Project Design Guide promotion associated with a given quarter. the Valentine’s Day promotion is not listed for Q1 2002 despite the existence of the last year transformation. not the attributes. 266 Transformation metrics and joint child attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. In summary. and the revenue data from the date-promotion combination. displaying transformed data. transformations “transform” metric values such as Revenue. Notice that the Valentine’s Day promotion existed in 2003 but not in 2002. the Valentine’s Day-Q1 2002 combination cannot be displayed on the report. A sample report is shown below: The displayed attributes should still be current. since the joint child attribute Promotion essentially exists in both the time dimension and a non-time dimension. again. Inc. While you may want to see it listed for 2002. but not attributes such as Promotion. . That is. remember that only the metric values are transformed. This is the case because. minus one year. it is not intuitive how the transformation should be performed. However.

What is the MicroStrategy Tutorial? The MicroStrategy Tutorial is a MicroStrategy project.A A. Inc. the project is the environment in which all related reporting is done. metadata repository. metrics. and functions. MICROSTRATEGY TUTORIAL Introduction This appendix provides information on the MicroStrategy Tutorial. You create projects that users access to run reports. © 2007 MicroStrategy. filters. Conceptually. including the data model and physical warehouse schema. A project is the highest-level of intersection of a data warehouse. and a set of demonstration applications designed to illustrate the features of the MicroStrategy platform. and user community. which includes a metadata and warehouse. A typical project contains reports. What is the MicroStrategy Tutorial? 267 .

Human Resources Analysis. and Time. or Call Center. Promotions. Sales and Profitability Analysis. production and operational reports. Products. invoices and statements. movies and music. Brand Managers. Inc. managed metrics reports. the Billing Managers folder contains an Invoice report and a customer-level transaction detail report. and business reports. © 2007 MicroStrategy. such as Customer.A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide The theme of the MicroStrategy Tutorial project is a retail store for the time 2003 to 2006 that sells electronics. District Sales Managers. such as scorecards and dashboards. Geography. • • • MicroStrategy Tutorial reporting areas MicroStrategy Tutorial reports are grouped into four folders: • Business Roles: This folder contains subfolders that reflect different types of business intelligence users within an organization. They are a sampling of the types of reporting documents that can be built using MicroStrategy Report Services. Products. Regional Sales Managers. Each subfolder contains reports that would be of interest to the type of business user for which the subfolder is named. Options to create reports from MicroStrategy Desktop and MicroStrategy Web focusing on a particular analysis area. Employee. and Supplier Analysis. For instance. and Suppliers. including Billing Managers. Inventory. and the Brand Managers subfolder contains a report called Brand Performance by Region. The Supplier folder contains a Supplier Sales report. books. Category Managers. Numerous customers and purchased items. Inventory and Supply Chain Analysis. 268 What is the MicroStrategy Tutorial? . Enterprise Performance Management. The key features include the following: • Hierarchies—Customer. Category. Reporting areas: Customer Analysis. Operations Managers. Company Executives. Each hierarchy can be viewed graphically through MicroStrategy Desktop and MicroStrategy Web. Time. • Enterprise Reporting Documents: This folder contains various examples of different types of standard enterprise reporting documents.

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MicroStrategy Platform Capabilities: This folder contains examples of many of the sophisticated capabilities within the MicroStrategy platform. Evaluators of the software, as well as customers, can use the examples to get a better feel for many of the platform’s capabilities. Customers can use the examples to guide their own development. The subfolders under these folders are named according to the capabilities that their reports exemplify. For instance, the Graph Styles folder contains examples of most of the graph types that can be created in MicroStrategy, and the Analytics and Data Mining folder contains examples of Linear Regression models built within MicroStrategy.

Subject Areas: This folder contains reports that are categorized further by topic. Topics covered include Customer Analysis, Enterprise Performance Management, Human Resource Analysis, Inventory and Supply Chain Analysis, Sales and Profitability Analysis, and Supplier Analysis. Customer Analysis: Reports analyzing the customer base, studying areas such as Customer Income, Customer Counts, Revenue per Customer, and Revenue Growth. Enterprise Performance Management: Reports containing information on revenue amounts, trends and forecasts, profits, profit margins, and profit forecasts. These reports make it easy for an executive at any level of the company to understand how the company is performing as a whole or at the region, category, and subcategory levels. Human Resource Analysis: Reports containing information on employees, including headcount, birthdays, length of employment, and the top five employees by revenue. These reports are based on employees, time, geography, and sales. The Human Resources Analysis reports provide insight into human capital so that managers can boost the efficiency and effectiveness of their employees. Human Resource Representatives can highlight under-performing employees and misallocated headcount. Managers at all levels can focus on the

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performance of their employees, drill down to an individual employee detail level, view trends, and extract intelligence not otherwise evident. Inventory and Supply Chain Analysis: Reports containing information based on supplier, product, cost, revenue and profit, such as Inventory and Unit Sales, or Inventory Received from Suppliers by Quarter. The Inventory reports track inventory information within the company and through to suppliers. Essentially, these reports show how many units of an item are on hand, how many are expected from a particular supplier, and how many units have been sold. Inventory reports are used to ensure that the supply chain is as efficient as possible. Using these reports, employees can analyze trends and details, quickly adjust inventory and distribution, and understand underlying supply chain costs and inefficiencies. Sales and Profitability Analysis: Reports analyzing revenue and profit from multiple perspectives. Examples include Sales by Region, Revenue over Time, and Brand Performance by Region. The Product Sales reports allow managers and analysts to monitor and analyze sales trends, track corporate revenue goals, compare store-to-store performance, and respond more quickly and accurately to feedback from the marketplace. In turn, executives can analyze sales trends and details, quickly adjust pricing and promotions, identify product affinities and key profit centers, and understand costs and revenue trends. Supplier Analysis: Reports containing supplier, sales, profit, and revenue information, such as Brand Sales by Supplier, Supplier Sell-Through Percentage, and Units Sold and Profit by Supplier. The Supplier reports allow managers and analysts to monitor and analyze vendor performance so that they can quickly identify performance problems. These reports track brands and items sold that came from a particular vendor. They also correlate profit and revenue information with particular suppliers so that relationships with key vendors can be strengthened.

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These reports and documents are located in the Public Objects/Reports folder of the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. Once the areas of analysis are determined, a data model is created.

MicroStrategy Tutorial data model
A logical data model graphically depicts the flow and structure of data in a business environment. It provides a way of organizing facts so that they can be analyzed from different business perspectives. For example, a simple logical data model for a retail company can organize all necessary facts by store, product, and time, which are the three common business perspectives typically associated with retail business. For detailed information about data modeling, see Chapter 2, The Logical Data Model. For MicroStrategy Tutorial, the areas of analysis discussed earlier, Customer Analysis, Human Resources Analysis, and so on, are organized into the following hierarchical groupings: • • • • • Geography Products Customers Time Promotions

These MicroStrategy Tutorial hierarchies are displayed on the following pages for your reference.

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Data modeling notations
The following notations are used in graphical depictions of hierarchies.
Symbol Indicates entry point Definition An entry point is a shortcut to an attribute element in the Data Explorer. Creating an entry point grants you faster access to the attribute without having to browse through multiple attributes to reach different levels of the hierarchy.

attribute

A data level defined by the system architect and associated with one or more columns in the data warehouse lookup table. Attributes include data classifications like Region, Order, Customer, Age, Item, City, and Year. They provide a handle for aggregating and filtering at a given level. An attribute relationship in which every element of a parent attribute relates to multiple elements of a child attribute, while every element of the child attribute relates to only one element of the parent. The one-to-many attribute relationship is the most common in data models.

one-to-many relationship

Geography hierarchy
The Geography hierarchy contains attributes, such as Country and Region, as well as Distribution Center, Call Center, and employee-specific attributes. It is easy to understand why Country and Region are in the Geography hierarchy, but what about Distribution Center, Call Center, and the employee-related attributes? The data used in MicroStrategy Tutorial is based upon a fictitious company that sells electronics, movies, music, and books. The company does not have physical stores, but instead does its business from catalog and Web sales. Customers review the products in a printed or online catalog and call in their order over the phone. The order is then processed by an employee located at one of the call centers. The order is then fulfilled by a distribution center that holds the correct item and sends it through one of the shippers.

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The Geography hierarchy contains the following attributes.
Attribute Country Region Call Center Distribution Center Manager Employee Experience Hire Date Salary Employee Age Employee Birth Date Employee Description Countries where the company does or hopes to do business in the future. Also refers to countries where employees work. Each country is split into regions. Where product phone-in orders are taken. Each call center is located in a different city. The location where product orders are sent out to customers. Currently, each is located in the same city as the call center it services. Person responsible for a specific call center. The number of years an employee has worked for the organization. The date on which a particular employee was hired. The amount of money an employee makes per year. The age of each employee. The date each employee was born. The lowest level in the Geography hierarchy, representing the individual responsible for each order placed. Example USA, Spain, France. Central, Northeast, Southwest. Atlanta, Boston, Charleston. Miami, New Orleans, Fargo. Peter Rose, Alice Cooper. 3, 5, 6. 2/16/97, 3/15/99. 24,000, 35,000. 29, 36, 52. 5/6/66, 1/1/77. Jennifer Lee, Laura Kelly.

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Refer to the following image to see how all these attributes are organized into the MicroStrategy Tutorial Geography hierarchy.

Products hierarchy
The products hierarchy contains attributes, such as Category, Brand, Catalog, and Supplier. The Products hierarchy contains the following attributes.
Attribute Category Subcategory Description Products are organized into categories at the highest level. Used to further differentiate a subset of products within a category. Example Electronics, Music. Business, Cameras, Drama.

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Attribute Warranty Brand Catalog Supplier Discontinued Code Item

Description The time period in months during which a manufacturer repairs a broken item (specific to Narrowcast Server). The manufacturer or artist for a particular product. The medium used to sell products. The distributor for a set of brands. 0 = discontinued product, 1 = non-discontinued product. The individual product sold.

Example 3, 5. Ayn Rand, 3Com, Sony. Spring 2002, Fall 2003. McGraw Hill, Disney Studios. 0, 1 The Great Gatsby, Sony Discman.

Refer to the following image to see how all these attributes are organized into the MicroStrategy Tutorial Products hierarchy.

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Customers hierarchy
The Customers hierarchy contains customer demographic and purchase information, such as Customer Age, Income Bracket, Payment Method, and Ship Date. The Customers hierarchy contains the following attributes.
Attribute Customer Country Customer Region Customer State Customer City Customer Age Customer Birth Date Income Bracket Zip Code Customer Shipper Rush Order Description The highest level of differentiation for where Customers live The highest level of differentiation for where customers live. Each Customer Region is divided into multiple States. Each Customer State is broken down into cities. The age of a particular customer at a current point in time. The date on which the Customer was born. The salary range reported by the customer. The lowest level of differentiation for where customers live. The name of the individual customer. The vendor used to send products to the customer. (Currently not implemented in the project.) Indicates whether a customer chose to expedite delivery of an order. The way a customer pays for an order. The date on which an order is shipped from the distribution center. The tracking number associated with a particular group of items purchased. Amex, Check. 9/15/02, 3/26/03. 167, 2635. Example USA, Spain, France Northeast, South, France. Maine, North Dakota. Albany, Chicago, Memphis. 26, 38, 59. 8/4/50, 4/30/72. $31,000 - 40,000, $61,000 70,000. 07026, 36303. Selene Allen, Chad Laurie. Pronto Packages, MailFast.

Payment Method Ship Date Order

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Refer to the following image to see how all these attributes are organized into the MicroStrategy Tutorial Customers hierarchy.

Time hierarchy
The Time hierarchy contains time-specific attributes, Year, Quarter, Month, and Day.

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A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide The Time hierarchy contains the following attributes. Promotions hierarchy The Promotions hierarchy contains Promotion and Promotion Type. Aug 03. Calendar month of purchase. Jul 02. Calendar quarter of purchase. Example 2002. 12/26/03. 5/14/02. . Inc. Q2 02. Month of purchase. November. Attribute Year Quarter Month of Year Month Day Description Calendar year of purchase. January. Q3 03. Refer to the following image to see how all these attributes are organized into the MicroStrategy Tutorial Time hierarchy. 2003. 278 MicroStrategy Tutorial data model © 2007 MicroStrategy. Calendar date of purchase. This hierarchy is useful for recording whether a sale was a promotional purchase.

2/16/03 2/19/03. Viewing the MicroStrategy Tutorial data model Although the MicroStrategy Tutorial data model is displayed in the previous pages.) Type of discount period offered (Sale type). Attribute Promotion Type Promotion Description (Currently not implemented in the project. Inc. © 2007 MicroStrategy. (Currently not implemented in the project. Refer to the following image to see how all these attributes are organized into the MicroStrategy Tutorial Promotions hierarchy. Labor Day. Example Mother’s Day.Project Design Guide MicroStrategy Tutorial A The Promotions hierarchy contains the following attributes. You must log on as an Administrator.) Date range for a particular discount period under which an item is purchased (Sales Date). To view the MicroStrategy Tutorial data model 1 If you are not already using the MicroStrategy Tutorial.9/4/02. MicroStrategy Tutorial data model 279 . 9/1/02 . you can also view it directly in the product. log on to the project source containing the MicroStrategy Tutorial and expand the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. Specify the user name as Administrator and provide a blank password to complete these steps.

click Auto arrange in the toolbar. and then choose Hierarchies.A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide 2 From the Schema menu. physical characteristics. select it from the Entry Point drop-down list in the toolbar. After the data model is created. technical. This does not affect the browse order. the HierarchiesMicroStrategy Tutorial dialog box opens. select it from the Hierarchy drop-down list on the toolbar. 5 To view the entire hierarchy in the window. this saved view is displayed. but allows you to view the hierarchy in a way meaningful to you. 280 MicroStrategy Tutorial schema © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. . Once loaded. and interrelationships. It is a graphic-intensive technique that results in a data model representing the definition. and relationships of data in a business. characteristics. point to Graphical View. The next time you open the Hierarchy Viewer. 8 To save the layout view of the hierarchy. the next step is to create the schema. 6 You can rearrange the attributes by dragging and dropping them. click Fit in window from the toolbar. click Save in the toolbar. 7 To return to the default view. or conceptual environment. 3 To view a different hierarchy. MicroStrategy Tutorial schema A schema is a logical and physical definition of warehouse data elements. 4 To focus on a different entry point. The logical data model is a picture of all the pieces of information necessary to understand your data and how it relates to your business.

Project Design Guide MicroStrategy Tutorial A The physical warehouse schema is based on the logical data model. Inc. MicroStrategy Tutorial schema 281 . Symbol LU_ Indicates Definition a lookup table A database table used to uniquely identify attribute elements. refer to earlier chapters in this guide. They typically consist of descriptions of dimensions. Several physical warehouse schemas can be derived from the same logical data model. While the logical data model tells you what facts and attributes to create. The physical warehouse schema describes how your data is stored in the data warehouse. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Item. or Account. The MicroStrategy Tutorial schema is divided into the following parts: • • • • • • Geography Products Customers Time Promotions Fact tables Schema notations The following notations are used in the graphical depictions of the MicroStrategy Tutorial schema. the set of columns required to uniquely identify a record in a table. including data types. a primary key In a relational database. such as Day. This appendix shows the physical warehouse schema. Store. For more detailed information on the physical schema. the physical warehouse schema tells you where the underlying data for those objects is stored. Lookup tables are usually joined to fact tables in order to group the numeric facts in the fact table by dimensional attributes in the lookup tables.

The number of individual items bought by customers. The basic facts from which all metrics in the MicroStrategy Tutorial were created from are listed below. Inc. Unit price . thus defining associations between them. The number of individual items remaining at the close of each month. Fact tables may contain atomic or summarized data.A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide Symbol REL_ Indicates a relationship table Definition While lookup tables store information about one or more attributes. Begin on hand The number of individual items available at the beginning of each month. . The amount of money charged to expedite delivery service. Fact Cost Discount End on hand Description The total amount charged by the supplier to the company. The number of individual items acquired from a supplier. Also referred to as a PMT. The schema also contains fact tables. A monetary reduction made from a regular price. The amount of money charged by the supplier to the company per individual item purchased.unit cost. PMT_ a partition A warehouse table that contains information used to identify the mapping table partitioned base tables as part of a logical whole. The total income produced by a given source accounting for all product sales deducting discounts. A fact table is a database table containing numeric data that may be aggregated along one or more dimensions. relate tables store information about the relationship between two attributes. Relate tables contain the ID columns of two or more attributes. Freight Profit Revenue Rush Charge Unit Cost Unit Price Unit Profit Units Received Units Sold The compensation paid for the transportation of goods. The excess of the selling price of goods over their cost. 282 MicroStrategy Tutorial schema © 2007 MicroStrategy. The amount of money charged by the company to the customer per individual item sold.

Inc. MicroStrategy Tutorial schema 283 .Project Design Guide MicroStrategy Tutorial A Geography schema © 2007 MicroStrategy.

A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide Products schema 284 MicroStrategy Tutorial schema © 2007 MicroStrategy. . Inc.

Project Design Guide MicroStrategy Tutorial A Customers schema © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. MicroStrategy Tutorial schema 285 .

. Inc.A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide Time schema 286 MicroStrategy Tutorial schema © 2007 MicroStrategy.

MicroStrategy Tutorial schema 287 . Inc.Project Design Guide MicroStrategy Tutorial A Promotions schema Sales fact tables © 2007 MicroStrategy.

Inc.A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide Inventory fact tables Miscellaneous fact tables 288 MicroStrategy Tutorial schema © 2007 MicroStrategy. .

then Logical View. 2 From the Schema menu. You must login as an Administrator to complete these steps.Project Design Guide MicroStrategy Tutorial A Viewing the MicroStrategy Tutorial schema Although the MicroStrategy Tutorial physical schema is displayed in the previous pages. 3 To switch to the logical view. and then choose Tables. Inc. the TablesMicroStrategy Tutorial dialog box opens with the physical view displayed. point to Graphical View. Use circular joins: Select whether to use circular joins. To view the MicroStrategy Tutorial schema 1 If you are not already using the Tutorial. use the following options from the Options menu: • • Show joins: Select whether to connect the tables to represent the joins between the table columns. 4 To change display preferences for the physical view. Show column data types: Select whether to show the data type and size for each column. select View. use the following options from the Options menu: • • • • Show joins: Select whether to connect the tables to represent the joins between the warehouse tables. log in to the project source containing the MicroStrategy Tutorial and expand the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. 5 To change display preferences for the logical view. MicroStrategy Tutorial schema 289 . Show table prefixes: Select whether to display the table prefix as part of the table name. Once loaded. Use circular joins: Select whether to use circular joins. © 2007 MicroStrategy. you can also view it or the logical schema directly in the product.

The next time you open the Table Viewer.A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide • • Show relationships: Choose whether to map the relationships between the tables. this saved view is displayed. • 6 To switch back to the physical view. 8 You can rearrange the tables by dragging and dropping them. Inc. 11 To copy the layout view. click Auto arrange in the toolbar. 7 To view the entire schema in the window. then Physical View. Show columns: Select whether to display the warehouse columns that define each attribute. 9 To return to the default view. and many-to-many relationships. one-to-many. click the Fit in window button on the toolbar. select Copy as Metafile from the File menu. Show relationship types: Choose whether to differentiate between one-to-one. . click Save in the toolbar. select View. 290 MicroStrategy Tutorial schema © 2007 MicroStrategy. as a link between the logical and physical views. 10 To save the layout view of the tables. many-to-one. This does not affect the relationships or joins. but allows you to view the tables in a way meaningful to you.

and Microsoft Analysis Services Introduction Many companies have both a data warehouse and an OLAP cube source such as SAP Business Intelligence Warehouse (SAP BW). Integration with Analysis Services 2000. this appendix discusses the following topics: • • MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources. and Essbase uses XML for Analysis (XMLA). that can concurrently access OLAP cube sources and the data warehouse effectively. such as MicroStrategy. 291 . Inc. Analysis Services 2005. Microsoft Analysis Services (Analysis Services). This system setup requires an integrated business intelligence (BI) solution. SAP BW. page 292 Understanding the SAP BW terminology. The integration with SAP BW uses SAP’s OLAP Business Application Programming Interface (BAPI). Hyperion Essbase. Specifically. or Hyperion Essbase (Essbase). page 298 © 2007 MicroStrategy.B CONNECTING TO OLAP CUBE SOURCES B. This appendix describes how MicroStrategy Intelligence Server integrates with these products using MultiDimensional Expressions (MDX).

5 and SAP BI 7.1 and 3.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • • • • • • • • • Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy. page 337 Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers. • • • Microsoft Analysis Services 2000 Microsoft Analysis Services 2005 Hyperion Essbase 7. page 322 Connecting to SAP BW servers. in addition to relational databases. and bring the data into one single MicroStrategy project. Inc.0. page 334 Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers. page 327 Connecting to Essbase servers. page 340 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy. page 317 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy. page 311 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy. page 302 Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy. MicroStrategy refers to SAP BW/SAP BI OLAP cube sources as SAP BW. page 343 MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources MicroStrategy provides a rich set of functionality ranging from OLAP Services and Report Services to Narrowcast capabilities. all of which can be exposed via a unified Web interface. Using the MicroStrategy standard interface.1 292 MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources © 2007 MicroStrategy. These additional OLAP cube sources include the following: • SAP BW 3. Intelligence Server can join data from different OLAP cube sources.0 With version 7. SAP has renamed SAP BW to SAP BI. .

the OLAP BAPI provides an open interface through which Intelligence Server can access the SAP BW data. To access the data. each of these products is simply another data warehouse that holds data for report generation.org and is the basis for the MicroStrategy implementation.5. Version 1. As SAP’s proprietary API for accessing SAP BW data and functionality. cell data. An MDX expression returns a multidimensional result set (dataset) that consists of axis data. you can get the best out of both products. including the following: © 2007 MicroStrategy. This data is stored in cubes or other SAP objects.microsoft. SAP BW obtains data from R/3. Defined by Microsoft. or another SAP data source system. refer to http://msdn.1 of the specification is available at www. For more information on MDX syntax. and MicroStrategy Web and SDK are certified to run with SAP Enterprise Portal through iView Packages. With the SAP BW OLAP BAPI Certification on MicroStrategy 8. SEM. MicroStrategy Intelligence Server is certified to connect and execute reports against SAP BW cubes. see the MicroStrategy readme. If you use OLAP cube sources and MicroStrategy as your combined BI solution.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B For MicroStrategy’s support status with the OLAP cube sources listed above.3. CRM.0. Analysis Services and Essbase store data in cubes obtained from various sources.com/ and search for MDX. Likewise. MicroStrategy has chosen to use the OLAP BAPI approach because it is the most native interface that SAP provides. MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources 293 . and properties data. Rather. With the Powered by Net Weaver Certification on MicroStrategy 7i -7. MDX is similar to SQL but is used to query cubes. Inc.xmla. The XMLA integration provides a Web Service interface for OLAP and data mining functions. integration allows MicroStrategy to gain additional data sources for analysis. the Intelligence Server generates MDX. MicroStrategy Web Universal is certified to run on SAP Web Application Server. It is important to understand that the MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources does not change the overall structure of the MicroStrategy product. In other words.

as illustrated in the following diagram. refer to the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. all of which can be accessed through MicroStrategy Web. see the Troubleshooting the System chapter of the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. Inc. For information on Freeform SQL and Query Builder reporting. Freeform SQL. Report Services. Analysis Services. Understanding MicroStrategy architecture The MicroStrategy platform offers OLAP Services. Essbase. Support for SAP BW. and Query Builder provides additional mechanisms for pulling data into the MicroStrategy platform for analysis. it is treated in the same 294 MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources © 2007 MicroStrategy.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • • • • • Access to OLAP cube sources and a regular data warehouse Five styles of BI Custom development of reports and applications Transaction-level analysis Integration with other systems via Web Services For troubleshooting and diagnostics logging routines related to OLAP cube sources. . Once the data is retrieved. Data is pulled from multiple OLAP cube sources using MDX and operational systems using Freeform SQL or Query Builder. and Narrowcast Server functionality.

which was represented by the database instance. each pointing to a data warehouse. This means that core MicroStrategy capabilities are available no matter what the original data source is. shown below. Object model in MicroStrategy 7i In the 7i metadata model.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B manner as data pulled from the relational data warehouse. One database instance could be referenced by multiple projects in a configuration. Each project contained one project schema that held the logical model for that project. To understand the current MicroStrategy architecture better. you could have multiple MicroStrategy projects. Inc. MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources 295 . it is helpful to review the basic object model of MicroStrategy 7i and how various data sources were accessed then. © 2007 MicroStrategy.

B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide When a report was executed. 296 MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources © 2007 MicroStrategy. which is a logical placeholder for a physical cube that exists in an OLAP cube source. but the only source is the data warehouse. note that instead of pointing to the project schema. a Report Services document can contain multiple datasets. You can create multiple reports to run against one cube. Object model in MicroStrategy 8 The MicroStrategy 8 model shown below highlights how a project can be extended to access OLAP cube sources through a separate database instance. . the SQL Engine would implicitly reference the schema to determine which table(s) should be queried. In addition. However. due to the structure in OLAP cube sources where queries can only be run against one cube at a time. each OLAP cube report points directly to one cube in MicroStrategy. Each report can only reference one specific cube. each of which can represent a distinct OLAP cube source. Inc. and a single MicroStrategy project can reference multiple database instances.

For information on Freeform SQL and Query Builder reports.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B The model also shows how you can include any number of standard reports. Freeform SQL reports. MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources 297 . and OLAP cube reports in one Report Services document. By bringing these different types of reports together inside a document. Inc. For information on Report Services documents. refer to the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. refer to the MicroStrategy Document Creation Guide. Authentication Most of the standard MicroStrategy platform authentication features also apply to OLAP cube sources and OLAP cube reports. report designers can create rich reports and analytics that take advantage of data from both data warehouses and OLAP cube sources. Query Builder reports. described as follows: © 2007 MicroStrategy.

it is recommended that you use connection mapping or pass-through authentication. For a comprehensive and detailed explanation on SAP BW objects. NT authentication: used for database logins are not supported with OLAP cube sources. Inc. page 302. Warehouse pass-through authentication: is supported in the same way as for relational data providers. . This is explained in Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy. refer to your SAP documentation. then the same login information must be applicable to all sources. relational databases or OLAP cube sources. but not to the cube sources. • • • For information on authentication in general. Connection mapping: is supported the same way as for standard MicroStrategy reports. Some of these terms are provided in the following section. In addition. you need to be familiar with the terms that are used to describe the SAP BW objects. NT Authentication can be used to authenticate the user to the Intelligence Server. specific connection mappings may be designated for each database instance and user or group combination. Further information is provided later in this appendix on how the SAP BW objects are related to those in the MicroStrategy environment. To enforce OLAP cube source security in MicroStrategy. for example. refer to the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. If multiple sources are configured for warehouse pass-through execution. 298 Understanding the SAP BW terminology © 2007 MicroStrategy. Understanding the SAP BW terminology Before looking in depth into how MicroStrategy integrates with SAP BW.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • Standard authentication and LDAP authentication: are supported independent of the data source that is being used.

select the Allow External Access to This Query check box under the Extended tab in the SAP Query Properties dialog box in the Query Analyzer • © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. ODS object: is an operational data store object.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B • InfoObject: are the building blocks for individual cubes. three InfoCubes or two ODS objects. Any existing query can be released for analysis within MicroStrategy. InfoProvider: is a generic term defining all SAP BW data structures available for reporting and analysis purposes such as the following: InfoCube: is a multi-dimensional cube. which are roughly equivalent to attributes and facts in a MicroStrategy project. Query cubes generally offer better performance than InfoCubes because they are smaller and can be scheduled and cached within SAP BW. A query cube includes characteristics (dimensions/attributes) and key figures (metrics) from its source provider. for example. ODS objects are flat relational tables and are similar to MicroStrategy fact tables. The fact table at the center of an InfoCube contains the data available for analysis. which is described below. for example. Data is organized by dimension and stored physically in a star schema. MultiProvider: is a logical union of two or more InfoProviders that are used to combine data from two different subject areas. InfoSets. Query cubes also provide MicroStrategy users access to additional InfoProviders including ODS objects. finance or sales. To release a query for analysis in MicroStrategy. InfoCubes define a specific domain of analysis in special areas. • • InfoCube: is the primary object that SAP BW uses to store data for analysis. They include objects such as characteristics and key figures. Understanding the SAP BW terminology 299 . Query cube (or query): defines a subset of data from an InfoCube or another InfoProvider. and MultiProviders. The relationship between the InfoCube and the query cube is very similar to how a MicroStrategy report includes a subset of modeled attributes and metrics that are available in the data warehouse.

quantities. hierarchies can be associated with a specific characteristic within SAP BW. There are five types of key figures: amount. a Sales Region characteristic can have North. You can also create calculated key figures and restricted key figures in the query definition in the Business Explorer. This is a different paradigm from MicroStrategy’s model where each attribute defines its own level. Defined in the Query Designer. and formulas. However. variables can be of such types as characteristic values. customer group. they are presented with the traditional attribute-based parent-child relationships. and master data attributes. Inc. Hierarchy: is a way of defining the relationships among elements within a characteristic. When the query is executed. and number of call centers. ODS objects. and time. © 2007 MicroStrategy. With this option enabled. such as revenue. Central. such as sales region. Variable: is used as a parameter of a query in SAP BW. texts. fiscal year. all of which can be used in InfoCubes. these variables are filled with values by the system or by the user. designers can quickly access existing query cubes and business content when working in MicroStrategy. the Item characteristic might have a hierarchy that includes Category. In addition. numbers. when the levels of a hierarchy are viewed in MicroStrategy. This is similar to creating derived metrics and conditional metrics within the MicroStrategy environment. when each characteristic is translated into a cube. • • 300 Understanding the SAP BW terminology . SAP BW characteristics are similar to MicroStrategy attributes. but it is equivalent to an attribute form in MicroStrategy. date. it is treated as a separate dimension for analysis. and period. and finally Item. For example. These hierarchies are also available when you work with a cube in MicroStrategy.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide interface. • Characteristic: provides classification possibilities for a dataset. as noted later. profit. hierarchy nodes. SAP BW also has an object called an attribute. hierarchies. • Key figure: describes numeric data. For example. and South specifications. product. However. Subcategory.

where you define queries. and free characteristics. rows. refer to documentation provided by SAP BW. columns. Inc. you also need to have a basic understanding of the SAP Query Designer. including all of the published query cubes. When working in MicroStrategy. For more information. you will find a list of available cubes for reporting. Understanding the SAP BW terminology 301 . page 308. In addition. © 2007 MicroStrategy. You can select and combine InfoObjects or reusable structures for an InfoProvider and specify the view of the data (query view) by distributing them to filters. For more information on variables. and MultiProviders. When the OLAP cube is used to create a MicroStrategy report. Besides the above-mentioned terminology. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. InfoCubes. see Supporting SAP BW variables. For step-by-step instructions on how to create MicroStrategy reports from the data in SAP BW cubes.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B When an OLAP cube is imported into a MicroStrategy project. standard prompts can also be created for this report. all the variables in this cube are represented as prompts. the report inherits all those prompts.

Thus. Inc. The ODBO model is similar to SAP’s standard model. keep in mind how those objects appear in ODBO. when thinking about SAP objects. it is helpful to understand how SAP’s metadata model is translated into MicroStrategy’s metadata model.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy As a Web or Desktop Analyst. 302 Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. ODBO stands for OLE database for OLAP and is a protocol defined by Microsoft. ODBO defines an object model that is used in conjunction with MDX to query cubes. However. you can treat SAP BW reports as if they were standard MicroStrategy reports. if you are a report designer. . but not identical. The translation process involves the following steps: 1 From SAP BW to ODBO: SAP exposes its query cubes and InfoCubes to Intelligence Server through the ODBO model.

SAP BW ---> InfoCube ODBO ---> catalog MicroStrategy (catalog) • SAP BW: InfoCube Each InfoCube that has queries associated with it is exposed as a catalog in ODBO. The following image demonstrates how SAP BW objects are exposed in ODBO and then how they are related to objects in the MicroStrategy environment. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy 303 . Inc. Query cubes are accessed through their respective InfoCube catalogs.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B 2 From ODBO to MicroStrategy: After SAP objects are translated into the ODBO model. The following sub-sections—each starting with a table—describe each level of comparison from top to bottom as shown in the above illustration. You can then interact with SAP content while working within the paradigm that is consistent with the rest of MicroStrategy’s products. they are then translated into the MicroStrategy metadata model.

ODBO catalogs are exposed in a few editors when selecting and managing cubes. and query cubes. MultiProviders. • MicroStrategy: not supported SAP BW ---> InfoCube/ query cube ODBO ---> cube MicroStrategy cube • • • SAP BW: InfoCube/query cube ODBO: cube MicroStrategy: cube A MicroStrategy cube is an object that is used to map the levels of an SAP BW cube into the MicroStrategy environment. a MicroStrategy cube maps the physical columns of an SAP BW cube to attributes and metrics. Catalogs in MicroStrategy are represented in a folder. The cube can be used to represent InfoCubes. Inc. • MicroStrategy: (Catalog) Each catalog includes one InfoCube and associated query cubes. 304 Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. . Cubes are treated in a manner very similar to tables in the MicroStrategy metadata. In the same way that a regular table maps the physical columns of a relational table to attributes and metrics. SAP BW ---> N/A ODBO ---> schema MicroStrategy N/A • • SAP BW: not supported ODBO: schema Schema in ODBO provides another grouping mechanism.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • ODBO: Catalog Catalogs are used to group cubes. if any. Therefore.

For example. which represents months just like it does in MicroStrategy. all dimensions in cubes coming from SAP BW are shared. Each characteristic (dimension) has at least one hierarchy with two levels: the first level is an aggregate of all the data. For example. They can only be seen inside the SAP BEx Query Designer when you build a query cube. Time and Geography are dimensions along which you can slice data. these same levels could either be specifically defined as part of the hierarchy. Inc. This hierarchy defines a number of levels including Year. A characteristic can have any number of additional hierarchies. A characteristic appears as a dimension for MicroStrategy users. you can build a Time hierarchy that is attached to the Month characteristic. each with an arbitrary number of levels. Quarter. and the second level is the detailed data. Each characteristic in SAP is modeled as a dimension in ODBO and is shared across cubes. © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B SAP BW ---> characteristic ODBO ---> dimension MicroStrategy dimension • SAP BW: characteristic Characteristics in SAP BW are similar to attributes in MicroStrategy. The SAP BW characteristic hierarchies appear as hierarchies to MicroStrategy users. an InfoCube might include the Month characteristic. • ODBO: dimension A dimension in ODBO defines a logical category of analysis. Shared dimensions allow a designer to use only one definition for a dimension across multiple cubes. and Month. or they could be other characteristics that are used to define the levels of this one hierarchy. However. For more information. see the following sub-section. Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy 305 . Therefore. Dimensions in SAP BW are used to group characteristics and are not exposed through the ODBO interface. For example.

Measures in ODBO are called key figures in SAP BW. It is used to group attributes and define parent-child relationships. and they are represented as physical columns. architects have the option to rename the levels of a cube with a more readable convention. MicroStrategy reuses the hierarchy objects to represent both dimensions and hierarchies from ODBO. Inc. • MicroStrategy: dimension A dimension object in MicroStrategy is very similar to an ODBO dimension. SAP BW ---> virtual level ODBO ---> level MicroStrategy attribute • SAP BW: virtual level Levels are generated automatically based on either the definition of the characteristic or the hierarchies associated with a characteristic. In MicroStrategy. In this way. measures are simply one more dimension of a cube. SAP BW ---> hierarchy ODBO ---> hierarchy MicroStrategy hierarchy • • • SAP BW: hierarchy ODBO: hierarchy MicroStrategy: hierarchy Hierarchies are used to group attributes (levels) together and define the relationships between these attributes. Region Level 02. SAP BW levels have names such as Region Level 01.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Measures (metrics) are stored in a special measure dimension. The inclusion of the term “Level” is an SAP BW convention. . and so on. which are very similar to metrics in MicroStrategy. 306 Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy.

SAP BW ---> characteristic value ODBO ---> member MicroStrategy (attribute element) • • • SAP BW: characteristic value ODBO: member MicroStrategy: (attribute element) Element values come from either the database or a cube. In SAP BW. SAP BW ---> characteristic attribute ODBO ---> property MicroStrategy attribute form • • • SAP BW: characteristic attribute ODBO: property MicroStrategy: attribute form Attribute forms provide additional information about a given attribute. the Customer attribute may have the forms First Name and Last Name. SAP BW also supports navigational attributes. This concept also applies to ODBO and SAP BW. each ODBO level generates two physical columns and forms in MicroStrategy—ID and DESC.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B • • ODBO: level MicroStrategy: attribute (ID/DESC) MicroStrategy attributes map to ODBO levels. Inc. forms are sometimes referred to directly as attributes. For example. However. Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy 307 . © 2007 MicroStrategy. For example. 2003 and 2004 are elements of the Year attribute. These attributes are presented as distinct dimensions when working in MicroStrategy.

refer to your SAP documentation. . On top of the “inherited” variable prompts. variables are represented as prompts in the MicroStrategy environment. 308 Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. you must remove them before importing the cube into MicroStrategy. For more information. Otherwise. hierarchy nodes. an error occurs when you attempt to import the SAP BW cube. these variables are filled with values. For detailed information on variables. SAP BW variables of type Replacement Path cannot be imported into MicroStrategy. 2 When a MicroStrategy report is created using a MicroStrategy OLAP cube. There are several types of variables. Originally created in an SAP query cube. Only variables with the Manual Entry/Default processing type are presented to users for resolution. If your SAP BW cube included variables of type Replacement Path.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Supporting SAP BW variables Variables are used in SAP BW to enter values as parameters for the queries on a cube. Variable types with the Customer Exit/SAP Exit and Authorization processing types are automatically resolved by the SAP BW system. When the query is being executed. additional standard MicroStrategy prompts can also be created for the report. and formula elements. including characteristic values. the report inherits the prompts included in the OLAP cube. variables are automatically turned into prompts in the MicroStrategy OLAP cube. The conversion process involves the following general steps: 1 When an SAP query cube is imported into a MicroStrategy project. see the Prompts section of the Creating OLAP Cube Reports chapter of the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. Inc. hierarchies. texts.

Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Mapping between variables and prompts can be viewed in the OLAP Cube Catalog. including Variable Name. or Map the variable to a prompt in an existing MicroStrategy project. © 2007 MicroStrategy. In the OLAP Cube Catalog. In addition. Inc. as shown in the following image. Default Low. in addition to cube names. and Variable Ordinal. Default Low Description. The OLAP Cube Catalog lists all the prompts that were converted from variables. using the right-mouse click you can Edit the prompt in the Prompt Generation Wizard. dimensions. Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy 309 . Details about this variable in SAP BW are displayed on the Variable tab. and measures/key figures. Variable Type. Rename the prompt. you can view any variable’s properties by right-clicking its name and then selecting Properties. Selection Type. Entry Type.

. Both single and multiple selection are supported. If you use any SAP BW key date variables in your query. a prompt is displayed only once.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide One prompt can be mapped to more than one variable across cubes. For more information about prompts in OLAP cube reports. so it is distinguished from a simple characteristic variable on date. SAP Variable Type ---> Characteristic Value variable Hierarchy variable MicroStrategy Prompt Element list prompt or attribute qualification prompt N/A Notes See the note below for more information. Qualifications in the Including section cause the data to be brought into the query. Not available from SAP BW. while those in the Excluding section restrict the data from being displayed in the query. When executing a Report Services document with multiple datasets using these cubes. Inc. The following table contains information on how the different types of SAP BW variables are mapped to MicroStrategy prompts. This is especially useful if you want to get a summary of the variable elements that are used in answering the variable prompts. you can view the prompt details in the Report Details pane in the Report Editor. Not supported. After an OLAP cube report is executed. 310 Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. No major changes. you need to manually set the variable’s property in the OLAP Cube Catalog. This allows the same prompt answer to be used to resolve multiple variables during document execution. To be consistent with the SAP functionality. Hierarchy Node variable Hierarchy element list prompt Text variable Formula variable N/A Value prompt: all types Characteristic value variables offer an “Including/Excluding” option. see the Prompts section of the Creating OLAP Cube Reports chapter of the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. the MicroStrategy interface qualifies on the key value of each element by default.

each of which is represented as a single flat dimension with one level. Each element of a key figure structure is represented as a unique metric in the MicroStrategy environment.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Set the properties for key date variables 1 Right-click the variable name and select Properties. you cannot drill down into the elements of characteristic structures. you can treat OLAP cube reports from an Essbase OLAP cube as if they were standard MicroStrategy reports. © 2007 MicroStrategy. and then click OK. it is helpful to understand how Essbase’s metadata model is translated into MicroStrategy’s metadata model. In addition to key figure structures. a query could also have characteristic structures. Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy 311 . SAP BW structures Structures in an SAP BW query cube define the two axes of a query (rows and columns) and are of two types: key figure structures and characteristic structures. This representation is consistent with how characteristic variables are represented in SAP BW through the OLAP Business Application Programming Interface (BAPI). 2 On the Variable tab. select the Set Key Date check box. if you are a report designer. However. The Properties [variable name] dialog box is displayed. In a MicroStrategy report. Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy As a Web or Desktop Analyst. Inc.

When thinking about Essbase objects. Inc. The following image demonstrates how Essbase objects are exposed in XMLA and then how they are related to objects in the MicroStrategy environment. they are then translated into the MicroStrategy metadata model.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide The translation process involves the following steps: 1 From Essbase to XMLA: Essbase exposes its databases through the XMLA model which is derived from the ODBO model used by SAP. keep in mind how those objects appear in XMLA. 312 Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. You can then interact with Essbase content while working within the paradigm that is consistent with the rest of MicroStrategy’s products. . 2 From XMLA to MicroStrategy: After Essbase objects are translated into the XMLA model. XMLA defines an object model that is used in conjunction with MDX to query cubes. The Essbase model predates XMLA so there are some differences.

XMLA catalogs are exposed in editors when selecting and managing cubes. Catalogs in MicroStrategy are represented as a folder. Inc.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B The following subsections (each starting with a table) describe each level of comparison from top to bottom as shown in the above illustration. • XMLA: catalog Catalogs are used to group cubes. • MicroStrategy: (catalog) Each catalog includes one application and associated databases. Essbase ---> Application XMLA ---> catalog MicroStrategy (catalog) • Essbase: Application Each Application is exposed as a catalog in XMLA. if any. Therefore. Databases are accessed through their respective catalogs. Essbase ---> N/A XMLA ---> schema MicroStrategy N/A • • Essbase: not supported XMLA: schema Schema in XMLA provides another grouping mechanism. Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy 313 . • MicroStrategy: not supported Essbase ---> database XMLA ---> cube MicroStrategy cube • • Essbase: database XMLA: cube © 2007 MicroStrategy.

Cubes are treated in a manner very similar to tables in the MicroStrategy metadata. In this way. Essbase ---> dimension XMLA ---> dimension MicroStrategy dimension • Essbase: dimension In Essbase. • XMLA: dimension A dimension in XMLA defines a logical category of analysis. The dimension therefore is both the highest level member in the dimension and the dimension itself. measures are simply one more dimension of a cube. For example. Inc. Each dimension has a single hierarchy with the number of levels determined by the greatest depth in the outline.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • MicroStrategy: cube A MicroStrategy cube is an object that is used to map the levels of an Essbase cube into the MicroStrategy environment. A MicroStrategy cube maps the physical columns of an Essbase cube to attributes and metrics in the same way that a regular table maps the physical columns of a relational table to attributes and metrics. a dimension represents the highest consolidation level in the database outline. Measures (metrics) are stored in a special measure dimension. Measures in ODBO are the members of the dimension of type=Accounts in Essbase. The cube represents an Essbase database. Each dimension has a single root node or member and is a child of the outline root node which is the database. . These can be raw data or formulas with associated calculation or aggregation rules. An Essbase dimension appears as a dimension for MicroStrategy users. • MicroStrategy: dimension 314 Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. Time and Geography are dimensions along which you can slice data.

As a result. Essbase ---> level XMLA ---> level MicroStrategy attribute • Essbase: level Levels group together members in an Essbase database outline.Levels(0). Inc. Therefore the dimension is the same as the hierarchy in Essbase. It is used to group attributes and define parent-child relationships. • • XMLA: hierarchy MicroStrategy: hierarchy Hierarchies are used to group attributes (levels) together and define the relationships between these attributes. MicroStrategy reuses the hierarchy objects to represent both dimensions and hierarchies from XMLA. the outline defines a single hierarchy. Essbase ---> dimension XMLA ---> hierarchy MicroStrategy hierarchy • Essbase: dimension An Essbase dimension is defined as part of the database outline. Essbase levels may have default names such as Time. • • XMLA: level MicroStrategy: attribute (ID/DESC) © 2007 MicroStrategy. architects have the option to rename the levels of a cube with a more readable convention. The outline is a hierarchical structure of database members with a parent containing its children.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B A dimension object in MicroStrategy is very similar to an XMLA dimension. In MicroStrategy. Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy 315 .

3 does not return any properties in the XMLA property schema rowset. properties can be defined for a database as user defined attributes or attribute dimensions and used in an MDX statement. For example.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide MicroStrategy attributes map to XMLA levels. each XMLA level generates the two physical columns and forms ID and DESC in MicroStrategy. Essbase ---> member XMLA ---> member MicroStrategy attribute element • • • Essbase: member XMLA: member MicroStrategy: attribute element Element values come from either the database or a cube. Essbase ---> N/A XMLA ---> property MicroStrategy attribute form • Essbase: N/A Essbase as of version 7. Inc. However. For example.1. • • XMLA: property MicroStrategy: attribute form Attribute forms provide additional information about a given attribute. Until they are returned as rows in the property schema rowset they are not available as attribute forms in MicroStrategy. 2003 and 2004 are elements of the Year attribute. However. the Customer attribute may have the forms First Name and Last Name. 316 Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. .

The translation process involves the following steps: 1 From Analysis Services 2000 to XMLA: Analysis Services 2000 exposes its cubes through the XMLA model which is derived from the ODBO model. XMLA defines an object model that is used in conjunction with MDX to query cubes. it is helpful to understand how Analysis Services 2000’s metadata model is translated into MicroStrategy’s metadata model.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy Microsoft Analysis Services 2000 (Analysis Services 2000) cubes are exposed directly for XMLA access. Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy 317 . If you are a report designer. Inc. they are then translated into the MicroStrategy metadata model. © 2007 MicroStrategy. 2 From XMLA to MicroStrategy: After Analysis Services 2000 objects are translated into the XMLA model. You can then interact with Analysis Services 2000 content while working within the paradigm that is consistent with the rest of MicroStrategy’s products.

. • MicroStrategy: (catalog) 318 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. Therefore.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide The following image demonstrates how Analysis Services 2000 objects are exposed in XMLA and then how they are related to objects in the MicroStrategy environment. XMLA catalogs are exposed in editors when selecting and managing cubes. Cubes are accessed through their respective catalogs. Inc. • XMLA: catalog Catalogs are used to group cubes. Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> database catalog MicroStrategy (catalog) • Analysis Services 2000: database Each database is exposed as a catalog in XMLA. The following sub-sections—each starting with a table—describe each level of comparison from top to bottom as shown in the above illustration.

Cubes are treated in a manner very similar to tables in the MicroStrategy metadata. In the same way that a regular table maps the physical columns of a relational table to attributes and metrics. if any. Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> N/A schema MicroStrategy N/A • • Analysis Services 2000: not supported XMLA: schema Schema in XMLA provides another grouping mechanism.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Each catalog includes one database and associated cubes. a MicroStrategy cube maps the physical columns of an Analysis Services 2000 cube to attributes and metrics. Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy 319 . Inc. Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> dimension dimension MicroStrategy dimension • Analysis Services 2000: dimension © 2007 MicroStrategy. Catalogs in MicroStrategy are represented as a folder. • MicroStrategy: not supported Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> cube cube MicroStrategy cube • • • Analysis Services 2000: cube XMLA: cube MicroStrategy: cube A MicroStrategy cube is an object that is used to map the levels of an Analysis Services 2000 cube into the MicroStrategy environment. The cube represents an Analysis Services 2000 cube.

Time and Geography are dimensions along which you can slice data. • XMLA: dimension A dimension in XMLA defines a logical category of analysis. MicroStrategy reuses the hierarchy objects to represent both dimensions and hierarchies from XMLA.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide In Analysis Services 2000. 320 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. Measures in XMLA are the members of the Measures dimension in Analysis Services 2000. related dimensions can be grouped together so that they represent hierarchies of the same dimension from an XMLA perspective. measures are simply one more dimension of a cube. It is used to group attributes and define parent-child relationships. An Analysis Services 2000 dimension appears as a dimension for MicroStrategy users. In this way. • MicroStrategy: dimension A dimension object in MicroStrategy is very similar to an XMLA dimension. • • XMLA: hierarchy MicroStrategy: hierarchy Hierarchies are used to group attributes (levels) together and define the relationships between these attributes. These can be columns in the table or calculated members represented by formulas with associated aggregation rules. For example. . Each dimension can have one or more hierarchies. Measures (metrics) are stored in a special measure dimension. Inc. a dimension is defined from one or more tables of data. Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> dimension hierarchy MicroStrategy hierarchy • Analysis Services 2000: dimension Using a structured naming approach.

For example. • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. However.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> level level MicroStrategy attribute • Analysis Services 2000: level Levels are mapped to columns in a table and are organized into hierarchies and dimensions. 2003 and 2004 are elements of the Year attribute. Member properties are returned in the XMLA property schema rowset. each XMLA level generates two physical columns and forms in MicroStrategy—ID and DESC. Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> member member MicroStrategy attribute element • • • Analysis Services 2000: member XMLA: member MicroStrategy: attribute element Element values come from a cube. Inc. Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> member property property MicroStrategy attribute form • Analysis Services 2000: member property A member property is a descriptive piece of information associated with the element of a level. XMLA: property MicroStrategy: attribute form Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy 321 . • • XMLA: level MicroStrategy: attribute (ID/DESC) MicroStrategy attributes map to XMLA levels.

Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy Microsoft Analysis Services 2005 (Analysis Services 2005) has a unique modeling approach for building cubes. XMLA defines an object model that is used in conjunction with MDX to query cubes. Inc. 322 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. 2 From XMLA to MicroStrategy: After Analysis Services 2005 objects are translated into the XMLA model.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Attribute forms provide additional information about a given attribute. they are then translated into the MicroStrategy metadata model. . The translation process involves the following steps: 1 From Analysis Services 2005 to XMLA: Analysis Services 2005 exposes its cubes through the XMLA model which is derived from the ODBO model. You can then interact with Analysis Services 2005 content while working within the paradigm that is consistent with the rest of MicroStrategy’s products. For example. the Customer attribute may have the forms First Name and Last Name. This section is limited to information on the basic cube object and how it relates to the XMLA model.

Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> database catalog MicroStrategy (catalog) • Analysis Services 2005: database Each database is exposed as a catalog in XMLA. Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy 323 . Therefore.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B The following image demonstrates how Analysis Services 2005 objects are exposed in XMLA and then how they are related to objects in the MicroStrategy environment. XMLA catalogs are exposed in editors when selecting and managing cubes. Cubes are accessed through their respective catalogs. The following sub-sections—each starting with a table—describe each level of comparison from top to bottom as shown in the above illustration. Inc. • XMLA: catalog Catalogs are used to group cubes. • MicroStrategy: (catalog) © 2007 MicroStrategy.

Inc. The cube represents an Analysis Services 2005 cube. Cubes are treated in a manner very similar to tables in the MicroStrategy metadata. a MicroStrategy cube maps the physical columns of an Analysis Services 2005 cube to attributes and metrics. In the same way that a regular table maps the physical columns of a relational table to attributes and metrics. if any. . Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> N/A schema MicroStrategy N/A • • Analysis Services 2005: not supported XMLA: schema Schema in XMLA provides another grouping mechanism. Catalogs in MicroStrategy are represented as a folder. • • XMLA: cube MicroStrategy: cube A MicroStrategy cube is an object that is used to map the levels of an Analysis Services 2005 cube into the MicroStrategy environment. • MicroStrategy: not supported Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> perspective cube MicroStrategy cube • Analysis Services 2005: perspective A perspective in Analysis Services 2005 is a view of the defined cube and the list of perspectives includes the original cube.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Each catalog includes one database and associated cubes. 324 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy.

These can be columns in the data source table or calculated members represented by formulas with associated aggregation rules. It is used to group attributes and define parent-child relationships. a data source does not always map directly to the tables in a relational database. All columns in the tables are eligible to become attributes of the dimension. Unlike Analysis Services 2000. • XMLA: dimension A dimension in XMLA defines a logical category of analysis. Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy 325 . In this way. Each dimension can have one or more hierarchies. An Analysis Services 2005 dimension appears as a dimension for MicroStrategy users. Each attribute is used to define a hierarchy within the dimension and multi-level hierarchies can be defined as well. Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> hierarchy hierarchy MicroStrategy hierarchy © 2007 MicroStrategy. For example. Measures (metrics) are stored in a special measure dimension. measures are simply one more dimension of a cube. Time and Geography are dimensions along which you can slice data. a dimension is defined from one or more data source tables. • MicroStrategy: dimension A dimension object in MicroStrategy is very similar to an XMLA dimension. Inc.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> dimension dimension MicroStrategy dimension • Analysis Services 2005: dimension In Analysis Services 2005. Measures in XMLA are the members of the Measures dimension in Analysis Services 2005.

Inc. each XMLA level generates two physical columns and forms in MicroStrategy—ID and DESC. • • XMLA: hierarchy MicroStrategy: hierarchy Hierarchies are used to group attributes (levels) together and define the relationships between these attributes. Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> level level MicroStrategy attribute • Analysis Services 2005: level Each attribute in a hierarchy becomes a level. 326 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. . • • XMLA: level MicroStrategy: attribute (ID/DESC) MicroStrategy attributes map to XMLA levels. MicroStrategy reuses the hierarchy objects to represent both dimensions and hierarchies from XMLA. 2003 and 2004 are elements of the Year attribute. Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> member member MicroStrategy attribute element • • • Analysis Services 2005: member XMLA: member MicroStrategy: attribute element Element values come from a cube. For example.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • Analysis Services 2005: hierarchy Analysis Services 2005 allows the definition of one or more hierarchies within a dimension as collections of attributes which become levels of the hierarchy. However.

Inc.0. Connecting to SAP BW servers In addition to relational databases. and 7. you need to establish a connection to the SAP BW system. For more information on establishing a connection to SAP BW. Member properties are returned in the XMLA property schema rowset. • • XMLA: property MicroStrategy: attribute form Attribute forms provide additional information about a given attribute.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> member property property MicroStrategy attribute form • Analysis Services 2005: member property Attributes can be related as member properties when defining the levels of a dimension.1. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. For example. 3. Before creating any reports using the SAP BW data. MicroStrategy can also use SAP BW as a data source to conduct enterprise reporting and analysis. This section discusses how to connect to SAP BW servers in the following environments: • • Connecting to SAP BW servers on Windows Connecting to SAP BW servers on UNIX and Linux © 2007 MicroStrategy. Connecting to SAP BW servers 327 . For any late-breaking changes to the certification status of connecting to various SAP BW versions. the Customer attribute may have the forms First Name and Last Name. MicroStrategy certifies connecting to SAP BW 3.5. see the MicroStrategy readme.

on the Advanced tab.” Depending on your system and SAP BW setup.com/~form/sapnet?_SHOR TKEY=01100035870000463649 MicroStrategy certifies version 2.dll Sapjcorfc. See SAP Note 684106 for details on how to install them. . Take the following steps to connect to SAP BW servers in Windows. you may have to perform some extra configuration and troubleshooting steps to connect to SAP BW servers.1. you are required to install the new Visual Studio .sap.NET C/C++ run-time libraries on Windows platforms. refer to the Tech Note TN5800-800-0559. For more information. To connect to SAP BW servers on Windows 1 Open the SAP Service Marketplace and download the SAP Java Connector.0. 3 Place the following SAP Java Connector files in any directory that is referenced in the Path environment variable: • • Librfc32.1.11. 2 Install the SAP Java Connector. You can use the following URL to download the Java Connector: https://service.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Connecting to SAP BW servers on Windows Important note from SAP: “Starting with JCo 2. select Environment Variables. In 328 Connecting to SAP BW servers © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc.3 and also supports more recent versions.4 and JCo 2.dll Locate the Path environment variable from your machine’s System Properties dialog (right-click on My Computer and select Properties).

System Number from the SAP BW system. locate Path. Client Number from the SAP BW system. select a database connection or create a new database connection that provides the following information as required: • • • • Application Server is the name of the SAP BW Server or IP address.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B the list of System Variables. Connecting to SAP BW servers 329 . SAP Router String if you use an SAP Router. as shown below. C:\Program files\Common files\MicroStrategy. Verify that the directory is included in the value for the Path variable. © 2007 MicroStrategy. 7 Select New. select Database Instance Manager. 4 Place the Sapjco.jar in the Common Files MicroStrategy folder. Inc. For example. 6 From the folder list. The Database Instance editor opens. and then Database Instance from the File menu. open a project source and expand Administration from the folder list. To specify database connection parameters 9 For the database instance. To create a database instance for your SAP BW connection 5 In Desktop. 8 Create a database instance with SAP BW as the database connection type.

. For more information.sap. refer to the MicroStrategy online help. For more information. you may have to perform some extra configuration and troubleshooting steps to connect to SAP BW servers. You can use either the Database Instances Editor or the Database Instance Wizard to create a database instance for SAP BW. EN is the language code for English. To specify a database login 10 Create a database login with the user and password to use to connect to SAP BW. Inc. refer to the MicroStrategy Tech Note TN5300-802-0734. For example.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • Language is the language code provided by your SAP administrator. Connecting to SAP BW servers on UNIX and Linux Take the following steps to connect to SAP BW servers in UNIX. To connect to SAP BW servers on UNIX/Linux 1 Open the SAP Service Marketplace and download the SAP Java Connector. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. You can use the following URL to download the Java Connector: https://service. Note the following: • • You can get the above information from your SAP Logon. Depending on your system and SAP BW setup. For more detailed steps on creating a database instance and related components to connect to SAP BW.com/~form/sapnet?_SHOR TKEY=01100035870000463649 330 Connecting to SAP BW servers © 2007 MicroStrategy.

AIX librfccm.so sapjco. For example. The default is Read Only. and create a new directory for them.sh file and enter the information for XXXX_SAP_LIBRARY_PATH=’’. This information indicates where the server needs to point to use the downloaded files. For example. 2 Select the zip file for the platform you want to use and unzip it.so sapjco.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B • MicroStrategy certifies version 2.3 and also supports more recent versions.jar Linux librfccm. You can type the command “chmod+wx SAP. Open the SAP. Connecting to SAP BW servers 331 .so libsapjcorfc.sh” in the UNIX/Linux console.jar SUN librfccm. /opt/var/MicroStrategy/SAP.so sapjco.so libsapjcorfc. for AIX: # # set up the environment for SAP # XXXX_SAP_LIBRARY_PATH='/opt/var/MicroStr ategy/SAP' if [ -n "${XXXX_SAP_LIBRARY_PATH}" ].jar 4 Edit the SAP.sh by doing the following: • Add the Write and Execute privileges to this file. Inc. then xxxx_append_path LD_LIBRARY_PATH "${XXXX_SAP_LIBRARY_PATH:?}" export LD_LIBRARY_PATH fi • © 2007 MicroStrategy.sh file in the MicroStrategy installation directory [INSTALL_PATH]/env/SAP. copy them onto your machine. For example. use the command gunzip [file name] or gzip [file name].o libsapjcorfc.1. 3 Search for the files listed in the following table.

8 From the folder list. Inc. and then Database Instance from the File menu. 5 Add sapjco. Make sure you have Write privilege to this directory. To create a database instance for your SAP BW connection 7 In Desktop (available only in Windows). /install/jar. select Database Instance Manager.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide For example. then xxxx_append_path LIBPATH "${XXXX_SAP_LIBRARY_PATH:?}" export LIBPATH fi • Save the file. 332 Connecting to SAP BW servers © 2007 MicroStrategy. open a project source and expand Administration from the folder list. for Solaris: # # set up the environment for SAP # XXXX_SAP_LIBRARY_PATH='/opt/var/MicroStr ategy/SAP’ if [ -n "${XXXX_SAP_LIBRARY_PATH}" ]. 9 Select New. 6 Restart the server to get the latest updates. The Database Instance editor opens.jar to the installation directory. .

Connecting to SAP BW servers 333 . © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B 10 Create a database instance with SAP BW as the database connection type. Inc. To specify database connection parameters 11 For the database instance. You can also refer to Tech Note TN5300-802-0734 for more information on setting up SAP BW with Intelligence Server Universal. if you use an SAP Router System Number from the SAP BW system Client Number from the SAP BW system Language: the language code provided by your SAP administrator. For more information. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. EN for English Note the following: • • You can get the above information from your SAP Logon. You can use either the Database Instances Editor or the Database Instance Wizard to create a database instance for SAP BW. for example. select a database connection or create a new database connection that provides the following information as required: • • • • • Application Server: name of the SAP BW Server or IP address SAP Router String. as shown below.

Inc. A Discover request supports queries to metadata and the results are packaged in a DiscoverResponse message. Before creating any reports using the Essbase data. For information on how to use the XMLA Connectivity Test Tool. You can think of XMLA as a Web Service that supports metadata and data queries against an OLAP Cube source. you need to establish a connection to the Essbase servers. MicroStrategy can also use Essbase as a data source to conduct enterprise reporting and analysis. For more detailed steps on creating a database instance and related components to connect to SAP BW.xmla. Connecting to Essbase servers In addition to relational databases. Configuring the XMLA Provider The material in this section assumes familiarity with the XMLA 1. 334 Connecting to Essbase servers © 2007 MicroStrategy. . The Execute request queries cube data and results are returned in an ExecuteResponse message.1 specification found at www. This section discusses how to connect to Essbase servers in the Windows or UNIX/Linux environment.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide To specify a database login 12 Create a database login with the user and password to use to connect to SAP BW. refer to MicroStrategy Tech Note TN1100-000-0635. refer to the MicroStrategy online help. and the configuration of the XMLA provider for each of these products.org. You can perform a test of the XMLA connection to your OLAP cube servers completely separate of any MicroStrategy dependencies with the XMLA Connectivity Test Tool provided with your MicroStrategy installation.

1 on the application server machine to verify that access is available to the Essbase server via the Service Console. The application server that hosts the Hyperion XMLA provider must enable anonymous access to the XMLA application. refer to your 3rd-party documentation. The web application server may be installed on a different machine from the Essbase server. The Hyperion XMLA provider supports BEA WebLogic 6. Connecting to Essbase servers 335 . Information for correctly installing the XMLA provider can be found in the 3rd-party documentation for Hyperion’s Enterprise Deployment Services product. • • • • Creating a database instance Perform the following steps to connect to Hyperion Essbase servers. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Install Hyperion Enterprise Deployment Services 7.1 provider is correctly deployed and security settings are configured correctly. Note the following: • For the latest information on the 3rd-party connection prerequisites given below. Inc. see MicroStrategy Tech Note TN5300-802-0794.1 and Apache Tomcat. The Hyperion XMLA Provider must be installed and configured on a compatible web application server.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Make sure the XMLA 1. You should receive a confirmation from the provider that includes a display of currently configured properties. Consult your 3rd-party documentation for further details on system requirements and the latest updates. You can verify it is working by connecting to the provider URL from your browser. For information on installation procedures.

http://fully-qualified-machinename:8080/ xmla/EssbaseXmlForAnalysis. 2 Expand Administration from the Folder List and select Database Instance Manager.domain.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide To create a database instance for Essbase 1 From the Desktop Folder List. select a database connection or create a new database connection that provides the following information as required: • URL: This is the URL of the XMLA Provider that was configured for HTTP access. To specify database connection parameters 5 For the database instance. Inc. The fully-qualified-machinename is usually of the form machine. You can also use the IP address as the fully-qualified-machinename. 3 From the File menu. connect to a project source. and then Database Instance.com. select New. .company. as shown below. The Database Instance editor opens. For Essbase the URL is most likely case sensitive. • DSI: The DataSourceInfo (DSI) value is of the form: 336 Connecting to Essbase servers © 2007 MicroStrategy. 4 Create a database instance with Hyperion Essbase as the database connection type. For example.

A cube in XMLA is a database in Essbase. This section discusses how to connect to Analysis Services 2000 servers in the Windows or UNIX/Linux environment.Data source=<machine name> The value is split between the DSI setting and an additional connection string parameters setting. MicroStrategy can also use Analysis Services 2000 as a data source to conduct enterprise reporting and analysis. you should check that you meet all of the requirements listed in the tech note TN5200-802-0540. You can perform a test of the XMLA connection to your OLAP cube servers completely separate of any MicroStrategy dependencies with the XMLA 337 • © 2007 MicroStrategy. • Catalog: The Essbase Catalog value is the Essbase Application containing the database you want to work with in MicroStrategy. you need to establish a connection to the Analysis Services 2000 servers. Before creating any reports using the Analysis Services 2000 data. To specify a database login 6 Create a database login with the user and password to use to connect to the Web service hosting the Essbase XML Provider. For more detailed steps on creating a database instance and related components to connect to Analysis Services. Note the following: • Before connecting to your Analysis Services 2000 servers. Use the Essbase Administration Console to view the applications and databases available on the server. refer to the MicroStrategy online help. Inc. Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers . Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers In addition to relational databases.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Provider=Essbase.

You can think of XMLA as a Web service that supports metadata and data queries against an OLAP Cube source. Make sure the XMLA 1.1 specification found at www. You can verify Analysis Services 2000 is working by connecting to the provider URL from your browser. Information for correctly installing the XMLA provider can be found in your Microsoft documentation. open a project source and expand Administration from the folder list. . For information on how to use the XMLA Connectivity Test Tool.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Connectivity Test Tool provided with your MicroStrategy installation. Configuring the XMLA Provider The material in this section assumes familiarity with the XMLA 1. Creating a database instance Perform the following steps to connect to Microsoft Analysis Services 2000 servers. 338 Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers © 2007 MicroStrategy. The Execute request queries cube data and results are returned in an ExecuteResponse message. Creating a database instance for Analysis Services 2000 1 In Desktop. A Discover request supports queries to metadata and the results are packaged in a DiscoverResponse message. refer to MicroStrategy Tech Note TN1100-000-0635. 2 From the folder list. Inc. and the configuration of the XMLA provider for each of these products.org. select Database Instance Manager.xmla. You should receive an XML response indicating that the site is available as an XMLA provider.1 provider is correctly deployed and security settings are configured correctly.

4 Create a database instance with Microsoft Analysis Services as the database connection type. as shown below.company. • © 2007 MicroStrategy. http://fully-qualified-machinename/xmla/ msxisapi. Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers 339 . For example. For Analysis Services XMLA running on IIS. select New. You can also use the IP address as the fully-qualified-machinename. and then Database Instance. • DSI: With Analysis Services 2000 the DataSourceInfo (DSI) value is the configuration setting for your data source labeled as DataSourceName in the datasources.xml file. Catalog: Use Microsoft’s Analysis Manager to view the Analysis Server containing the cubes you want to work with in MicroStrategy. the URL is not case-sensitive. select a database connection or create a new database connection that provides the following information as required: • URL: This is the URL of the XMLA Provider that was configured for HTTP access.com. Inc. The Database Instance Editor opens.dll The fully-qualified-machinename is usually of the form machine. To specify database connection parameters 5 For the database instance. The database that contains the cube becomes the catalog for XMLA.domain.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B 3 From the File menu.

refer to MicroStrategy Tech Note TN1100-000-0635. Before creating any reports using the Analysis Services 2005 data. Note the following: • Before connecting to your Analysis Services 2005 servers. For more detailed steps on creating a database instance and related components to connect to Analysis Services. Inc. • 340 Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers © 2007 MicroStrategy. you need to establish a connection to the Analysis Services 2005 servers. . MicroStrategy can also use Analysis Services 2005 as a data source to conduct enterprise reporting and analysis. Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers In addition to relational databases.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide To specify a database login 6 Create a database login with the user and password to use to connect to Analysis Services. refer to the tech note TN5300-802-0755. refer to the MicroStrategy online help. You can perform a test of the XMLA connection to your OLAP cube servers completely separate of any MicroStrategy dependencies with the XMLA Connectivity Test Tool provided with your MicroStrategy installation. you should check that you meet all of the requirements listed in the tech note TN5200-802-0542. For information on setting up authentication for Intelligence Server with Analysis Services. For information on how to use the XMLA Connectivity Test Tool. This section discusses how to connect to Analysis Services 2005 servers in the Windows or UNIX/Linux environment.

select New. Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers 341 . The Execute request queries cube data and results are returned in an ExecuteResponse message. However. XMLA is the native access method for Analysis Services 2005. Creating a database instance for Analysis Services 2005 1 In Desktop. open a project source and expand Administration from the folder list. only the TCP/IP transport is configured. Creating a database instance Perform the following steps to connect to Microsoft Analysis Services 2005 servers.org. and then Database Instance. which includes configuring security settings. You can think of XMLA as a Web Service that supports metadata and data queries against an OLAP Cube source. © 2007 MicroStrategy. A Discover request supports queries to metadata and the results are packaged in a DiscoverResponse message. and the configuration of the XMLA provider for each of these products. 3 From the File menu.1 specification found at www. Inc. by default.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Configuring the XMLA Provider The material in this section assumes familiarity with the XMLA 1. The Database Instance Editor opens.xmla. 2 From the folder list. Follow Microsoft documentation to make sure that the XMLA provider is correctly configured for HTTP access. select Database Instance Manager. Information for correctly installing the XMLA provider can be found in your Microsoft documentation.

To specify database connection parameters 5 For the database instance. as shown below. http://fully-qualified-machinename/xmla/ msmdpump. Inc. • DSI: For Analysis Services 2005.company. select a database connection or create a new database connection that provides the following information as required: • URL: This is the URL of the XMLA Provider that was configured for HTTP access. 342 Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers © 2007 MicroStrategy. Catalog: Use Microsoft’s SQL Server Management Studio to view the Analysis Server which contains the cubes to work with in MicroStrategy. the URL is not case sensitive. The database that contains the cube becomes the catalog for XMLA.com. For example. Unlike Analysis Services 2000. You can also use the IP address as the fully-qualified-machinename. .dll The fully-qualified-machinename is usually of the form machine. each URL will be configured to support only one data source. the DSI entry can be left blank. For Analysis Services 2005 XMLA running on IIS. • To specify a database login 6 Create a database login with the user and password to use to connect to Analysis Services.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide 4 Create a database instance with Microsoft Analysis Services as the database connection type.domain.

you can start working with the OLAP cube data in MicroStrategy. Note the following: • Once an OLAP cube is imported. For more detailed steps on creating a database instance and related components to connect to Analysis Services. To learn how to create a database instance for an OLAP cube source. For more information. page 359. The OLAP Cube Catalog is available only after an OLAP cube source database instance has been created. refer to the tech note TN5300-802-0755. Like the Warehouse Catalog. Inc. you can remap an OLAP cube to MicroStrategy objects and create metrics within an OLAP cube with the OLAP Cube Editor. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy Once you understand the relationships among the objects in an OLAP cube source and MicroStrategy and connect to your OLAP cube source. page 327 – Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers. where you can import OLAP cubes and remap the OLAP cubes before you create any OLAP cube reports. page 337 © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B For information on setting up authentication for Intelligence Server with Analysis Services. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 343 . refer to Chapter 5. The best place to start is with the OLAP Cube Catalog. see one of the following sections: • – Connecting to SAP BW servers. For information on setting OLAP cube schema loading options for an OLAP cube source database instance. the OLAP Cube Catalog can be accessed from the Schema menu on Desktop. see Mapping OLAP cubes. page 349 and Creating metrics from OLAP cube data with MDX and compound metric techniques. refer to the MicroStrategy online help. Configuring and Connecting to Intelligence Server of the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide.

When you open the OLAP Cube Catalog. Inc. . 344 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. Configuring and Connecting to Intelligence Server of the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. by default. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help (search for “OLAP Cube Catalog”). For information on setting OLAP cube schema loading options for an OLAP cube source database instance.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide – Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers. as shown in the image below. You can choose to load the schema for imported OLAP cubes when Intelligence Server starts or during OLAP cube report execution. page 340 – Connecting to Essbase servers. OLAP cubes can be imported into a MicroStrategy project only by an architect with the “Import OLAP cube” privilege. Importing OLAP cubes OLAP cube importing is performed on the Cube Selection tab. refer to Chapter 5. Using the plus (+) or minus (-) sign next to a catalog name. SAP BW is used as the OLAP cube source but the procedure is similar for Analysis Services and Essbase. under their respective catalog names in the Available Cubes pane. you can expand or hide the cubes contained in this catalog. For details on how to use the OLAP Cube Catalog. page 334 This section discusses how you can use the OLAP Cube Catalog to bring the OLAP cube data into a MicroStrategy project and what functions you can perform once the data is brought into MicroStrategy. all the OLAP cubes are displayed.

2 From the Schema menu. see MicroStrategy Tech Note TN4100-802-1879. Inc. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 345 . To import OLAP cubes 1 In Desktop. For details on how to make Analysis Services cubes available for import in the OLAP Cube Catalog. you may have to modify some permissions in Analysis Services.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B A catalog is marked with an icon showing a folder containing a cube. select OLAP Cube Catalog. an InfoCube is marked with a cube icon in blue. log in to a project that is connected to an OLAP cube source. © 2007 MicroStrategy. If you create new cubes in Analysis Services and the cubes are not being displayed in the OLAP Cube Catalog. and a query cube is marked with a cube icon in green.

click the double arrows (>>).) Once the data is mapped to MicroStrategy objects. You can edit. the imported OLAP cubes are displayed in the Selected Cubes pane on the right. Select Find from the Edit menu or click the Find icon on the toolbar to open the Find dialog box to search for a specific OLAP cube that you want to import. and select an OLAP cube source database instance to connect to. To import all OLAP cubes. If you have multiple OLAP cube source database instances created for the project. Inc. 4 From the Catalog drop-down list. you can build reports that access the imported OLAP cubes. 8 Click Save to save your progress. 346 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • If you have a single OLAP cube source database instance created for the project. click OK. and the OLAP Cube Catalog opens. select the OLAP cube to import. After importing OLAP cubes. You can also select All to display the OLAP cubes for all catalogs. 6 Use one of the following methods to import the OLAP cubes: • • To import the selected OLAP cubes. create. a Database Instance dialog box opens. • 3 Select the Cube Selection tab. The catalog contains all the OLAP cubes associated with it. Once you select a valid OLAP cube source database instance. 5 Click the plus (+) sign to expand the catalog folder and display the OLAP cubes in the Available Cubes pane on the left. using this dialog box. click the single arrow (>). . you can use the OLAP Cube Catalog to map the OLAP cube data to MicroStrategy objects (see Mapping OLAP cubes. 7 Once imported. page 349. the OLAP Cube Catalog opens.

under the associated MicroStrategy project. you choose OLAP cubes for your report from the Select Cube dialog box. when a new characteristic or key figure has been added to the InfoCube in SAP BW you can use the Update Structure option to update the MicroStrategy OLAP cube to include these modifications. a Data Explorer for that OLAP cube source is added to the MicroStrategy project. you can right-click any OLAP cube in the Selected Cubes pane. Once the first OLAP cube for an OLAP cube source is imported into MicroStrategy. This dialog box can also be used by an architect with the “Import OLAP cubes” privilege to import cubes by using the Retrieve cubes option. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 347 . This option is available only after a database © 2007 MicroStrategy. and select Remove [cube name]. Inc. Importing OLAP cubes during report creation When you create an OLAP cube report. you can also select the Update Structure option to synchronize with the updated definition of cube structures in the OLAP cube source. For example. Using the right-mouse click. You can find the Data Explorer in the Folder List of Desktop.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B To remove an OLAP cube.

metrics.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide instance has been defined. You can click Find at the bottom of this dialog box to open the Find dialog box. Inc. Managed objects When an OLAP cube is imported into a project. from the Tools menu select Options. . and then select the Display Managed Objects option so that managed objects are displayed in the 348 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. see the related sections above on connecting to the different OLAP cube sources. columns. For details. and so on) are created to describe the OLAP cube. However. For detailed information. managed objects (attributes. In the Search for Objects dialog box. where you can search for a specific cube for your report by the cube’s name. A managed object is just like a normal object except that it is created by the system and is stored in a special system folder that is hidden from users. tables. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. one way to access managed objects is by using the Search for Objects function from the Tools menu on Desktop.

a MicroStrategy OLAP cube is created that maps to the definition of the source cube in the OLAP cube source. For example. Once the managed objects are listed in the search result. contains all the metadata information necessary to define a logical model and physical model. instead of a single table. such as attributes and facts. you can simply select a cube by using the OLAP Cube Catalog or Select Cube dialog box. To do this. In the context of OLAP cube sources. After you have imported an OLAP cube. the architect can then define a logical and physical model in the MicroStrategy metadata. need to add an OLAP cube to a project in MicroStrategy. Mapping OLAP cubes When an architect defines a project. By default. much of the process centers on identifying logical entities. as described in Importing OLAP cubes. see the Managing Your Applications chapter of the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. The removal of unused managed objects is usually performed by an administrator. an architect might identify that the key for the Customer attribute exists in the table LU_CUSTOMER. When you. you can perform the same mapping tasks available in the Cube Mapping tab of the OLAP Cube Catalog by editing the OLAP cube with the OLAP Cube Editor. such as SAP BW.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B search result. and hierarchies that reflect the data and levels of the imported OLAP cube. A managed object can be removed once it is no longer referenced by another object in the project. you can rename or edit any of them by right-clicking its name. Once the logical entities are identified. are new and are part of the project. right-click an OLAP cube in Desktop and select Edit. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 349 . metrics. page 344. For more information on removing a database instance and its related managed objects. referred to as managed objects. an OLAP cube. Although these objects. as the architect. Inc. they © 2007 MicroStrategy. When an OLAP cube is imported into MicroStrategy. Intelligence Server creates new attributes. This model is referenced by the SQL Engine to generate SQL at run time. that exist in physical tables.

page 356. it can be used to build reports and documents in MicroStrategy. see the Managing Your Applications chapter of the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. you can remap OLAP cube data to existing attributes in a MicroStrategy project rather than new managed objects. This allows data to be joined across sources in Report Services documents. For more information on the benefits of remapping OLAP cube data to project attributes.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide are not related to the project’s schema and schema objects (see Managed objects above. Once an OLAP cube is mapped. Remapping OLAP cube data to existing attributes can also facilitate the use of MicroStrategy features such as security filters. If you decide to discontinue the use of OLAP cube reports. For steps on how to perform these schema cleanup tasks. 350 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy.) For example. which ensures that a consistent logical model is maintained. you can remove the OLAP cube source database instance and all of its associated managed objects. see the Reporting on External Data Sources: OLAP Cube Reports chapter of the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. In addition. Inc. A new schema is created for each OLAP cube source database instance used in a MicroStrategy project. see Why do you need to remap OLAP cubes?. a new managed object named Year has no relation to the Year attribute in the Tutorial project connected to the data warehouse. For more information on managed objects in OLAP cube reports. .

the characteristic (dimension) is located at the very top with a green chart and box symbol. and attributes are represented by a green symbol with two side-by-side rectangles. with the same symbols for hierarchies and attributes as in standard reports. For SAP BW. you can use the plus (+) sign next to the attribute levels to display the attribute forms. only the ID and DESC forms are automatically mapped for each attribute. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 351 . • In the Physical View column. As shown in the image above: • The Physical View in the left-hand column represents the cube structure in the OLAP Cube Source. hierarchy is below the dimension with a green stacked boxes symbol.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Using the Cube Mapping feature in the OLAP Cube Catalog shown below. By default. The Logical View in the right-hand column represents the equivalent structure in MicroStrategy. Inc. © 2007 MicroStrategy. you can map attribute forms for each attribute contained in the imported cube.

note that when you select Edit. . MicroStrategy retrieves the column data type through MDX. the Prompt Generation Wizard is displayed. This can be the case even with ID columns of data that are of a 352 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. However. and Description in SAP BW. page 308. Check the Properties of the characteristic or key figure. Technical Name. Use the Display All Columns icon on the toolbar to show additional attribute forms in the Physical View column and then map each one to an attribute form in the Logical View pane. Rename the attribute or metric so it has a different name in the MicroStrategy project from the name of the characteristic or key figure it is mapped to in SAP BW. only the ID and DESC forms are displayed. the columns are often returned as a string of characters. refer to Supporting SAP BW variables. you can perform the following manipulations by right-clicking the name in the Logical view column: • Edit the attribute or metric. For more information. In the case of OLAP cube data that is mapped to attributes. The Show Technical Names option applies to SAP BW OLAP cubes only. • • • For variables. you can view the information on its Name. This option opens the Attribute Editor to edit attributes and the Metric Editor to edit metrics. This is because variables in SAP BW are represented as prompts in MicroStrategy. Map the characteristic or key figure to an existing attribute or metric in the MicroStrategy project. For MicroStrategy attributes and metrics. In the Properties dialog box.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide By default. Inc. You can also use the Show Technical Names icon on the toolbar to display the SAP BW terms for each attribute and its attribute forms. you can also perform the above-mentioned manipulations. An ID form must be mapped for each attribute. Manually setting column data types for OLAP cube data When OLAP cube data is mapped to MicroStrategy objects.

By setting the Product ID attribute form to read the OLAP cube data as an integer. you have OLAP cube data that is mapped to a Product attribute in MicroStrategy. The following procedure uses the OLAP Cube Catalog. The ID attribute form for Product is returned as a string. You can access the OLAP Cube Editor by right-clicking an imported OLAP cube and selecting Edit. but you know that its associated OLAP cube column is of type integer. You can perform this task during the initial import and mapping procedure for an OLAP cube with the OLAP Cube Catalog.1. © 2007 MicroStrategy. or as a later modification with the OLAP Cube Editor. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 353 .0 you can manually select the column data type that is applied to a column of OLAP cube data mapped to an attribute. This allows the OLAP cube data to be correctly represented in MicroStrategy and facilitates the grouping of related attributes as the same attribute in a Report Services document. For example. To manually set column data types for OLAP cube data You manually set column data types for OLAP cube data when you are mapping OLAP cube data to MicroStrategy objects. Starting in MicroStrategy 8. but the same steps apply for the OLAP Cube Editor. OLAP cube data that is mapped to MicroStrategy metrics is automatically converted to a numeric data type and thus does not need its column data type to be manually set. Returning data such as ID columns of attributes as strings can make it impossible to group attributes with common data as the same attribute in Report Services documents. You can do this same mapping for another OLAP cube and create reports including the Product attribute.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B numeric type such as integer. starting with the step to expand data in the Physical view column. Inc. you can then include the two OLAP cube reports as datasets of a Report Services document and group the two Product attributes.

• • If the project connects to only one OLAP cube source. select OLAP Cube Catalog. The OLAP cube data is displayed in the pane below. page 337 Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers. expand the OLAP cube data until you find the OLAP cube column data for which to manually set the data type. select the OLAP cube source database instance you want to connect to and click OK. page 327 Connecting to Essbase servers. 354 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. 7 Right-click the OLAP cube column data and select Data Type. 4 Select the Cube Mapping tab. 6 In the Physical view column. The Cube Mapping tab opens. 5 From the Catalog\Cube drop-down list. For information on connecting to an OLAP cube source. If the project connects to more than one OLAP cube source the Database Instance dialog box opens. Inc. The OLAP Cube Catalog: Cube Selection tab opens. 8 Clear the Use default from source check box. see one of the following sections depending on your OLAP cube source: • • • • Connecting to SAP BW servers.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide 1 Log in to a project that is connected to an OLAP cube source. The Column Editor — Definition dialog box opens. page 334 Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers. select the OLAP cube you want to map to MicroStrategy objects. page 340 2 From the Schema menu. 3 Move all OLAP cubes you want to import from the Available Cubes pane to the Selected Cubes pane by using the > button. . From the Select the Database Instance drop-down list. the OLAP Cube Catalog: Cube Selection tab opens.

Quarter. in a Time hierarchy that includes Year. Inc. • • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. 11 Click OK to save your changes and return to the OLAP Cube Catalog. For example. However. 10 Depending on the data type selected. and Item but Item number 22 does not have a Subcategory associated with it. 12 Click Save and Close to save your changes to the OLAP cube and exit the OLAP Cube Catalog. all hierarchies of an OLAP cube are treated as balanced hierarchies. and Item each branch would descend to a particular item. Subcategory. Subcategory. and ragged are used to describe the different set of characteristics of hierarchical sets of data. For example. For example. • Balanced hierarchies have an equal number of levels in each branch of the hierarchy. Unbalanced hierarchies have at least one branch that does not descend to the lowest level. and Month one branch might only have data down to the Quarter level. select which data type to map the OLAP cube data as. When Category. a Product hierarchy may contain the levels Category. Unbalanced and ragged hierarchies include at least one branch that does not descend to the lowest level and one branch that includes a skipped level.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B 9 From the Data type drop-down list. The terms balanced. Unbalanced and ragged hierarchies By default. specify the byte length. Subcategory. Ragged hierarchies have at least one branch that includes a member whose logical parent is not the level above that member. in a Product hierarchy that includes Category. if you know that the structure of a hierarchy is unbalanced or ragged you must set the hierarchy’s properties to reflect its structure. and Item are displayed on the report there is an empty cell for the Subcategory of Item number 22. and scale for the data type. unbalanced. precision. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 355 .

Set a hierarchy as unbalanced or ragged 1 In the OLAP Cube Catalog. The word “(Unbalanced)” will be displayed next to the name of the hierarchy in the Logical View column. please refer to MicroStrategy Tech Note TN1100-000-0636. 2 On the Hierarchies tab. Inc. Date form support for MDX properties You can support mapping MicroStrategy date forms to MDX property data of the date data type by performing a special modification of a VLDB property. The Properties dialog box is displayed. For detailed steps on mapping and remapping objects from OLAP cube sources to MicroStrategy objects. A hierarchy in the Physical View column is represented with a green stacked boxes symbol. metrics. Why do you need to remap OLAP cubes? Although you can use the automatically generated managed object attributes. . and hierarchies you may want to remap OLAP cube data to existing attributes in the MicroStrategy project for the following reasons: 356 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. select the check box This hierarchy is unbalanced or ragged and then click OK. For information on how to support these date forms and qualifications. This modification also allows you to perform date qualifications on the mapped MDX property data. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help (search for the “Mapping OLAP cubes” topic).B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide The steps below are necessary for any unbalanced or ragged hierarchy to prevent inaccurate results when applying certain types of filters. right-click the hierarchy name in the Physical View column and select Properties.

For example. they can be remapped to project attributes that participate in the ROLAP schema. When should you remap cubes? Although you can remap the columns either when an OLAP cube is first imported or later on after you have created a project. MicroStrategy security filters can be applied to attributes in OLAP cube reports. For example. but the nature of the cube is not changed. Remapping simply replaces the managed object attributes that are used to represent the OLAP cube’s structure with attributes in an existing MicroStrategy project. three OLAP cubes can share the same managed object metric named Revenue. In the case of attributes. However. Data can be joined across sources within a Report Services document. For example. metrics and hierarchies can only be remapped to other managed object metrics and hierarchies that are mapped to OLAP cube source data. © 2007 MicroStrategy. the security filter on Year is applied.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B • Report designers can integrate the logical model of the project with the data in the imported OLAP cube. Administrators can search for dependents and manage access control lists (ACLs) for attributes that map both to the data warehouse and an OLAP cube source. Inc. it is recommended that you do the remapping initially so that subsequent users can take advantage of the mapping. then Year can be used to group the data within a document. thus creating a relation between the two sets of data. If a user with a security filter on Year runs the OLAP cube report that contains Year. if an OLAP cube report and a standard report both use the Year attribute. • • • You can remap the levels of an OLAP cube. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 357 . This also prevents maintenance issues because reports need to be modified if an OLAP cube is remapped after the report is created. you can map an OLAP cube level to the Year attribute in your project.

C u b e A ttr ib u te s C u s to m e r R e g io n P r o je c t A ttr ib u te s R e g io n Ye a r C u b e Ye a r Q u a r te r M onth of Ye a r C u s to m e r S ta te C u b e Q u a r te r C a ll C e n te r M onth C ube M o nth C u s to m e r C ity E m p lo ye e Da y Example 2: Partially mapped cube After an OLAP cube source has been included in MicroStrategy as an OLAP cube. and Month. and Month information for both your 358 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. This feature allows you to quickly start creating reports for your OLAP cube data. you can create a Report Services document that contains Year. Quarter. . With this technique. Quarter. The difference between the two examples is that the OLAP cube has been partially remapped so that it shares the attributes Year. you cannot join data from these different sources in a Report Services document and you cannot support project security filters in OLAP cube reports. and the one on the right exists in a MicroStrategy project. Since this relation is not created. Although both models have a Time hierarchy. you can map the attributes within the OLAP cube to existing project attributes. shown in the diagram below. also shows two logical models. Example 2. The drawback with this setup is that you cannot create a relation between your OLAP cube data and your project data.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Example 1: Unmapped cube You can map managed object attributes for your OLAP cubes instead of using project attributes. none of the individual attributes are shared. The one on the left exists in a specific OLAP cube. The diagram below shows two logical models.

Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 359 . You can also use basic arithmetic expressions to create these advanced metrics from OLAP cube data. when a level is remapped. changes to the Time dimension apply to OLAP cubes in the project that contain this dimension. Therefore. any security filters for Year. see the Designing Documents chapter of the MicroStrategy Report Services Document Creation Guide. In this case. you can take advantage of MDX (MultiDimensional eXpressions) to create advanced metrics. Metrics created with MDX combine the robust set of MDX functions and expressions with MicroStrategy analytical tools such as prompts. Quarter.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B data warehouse and OLAP cube sources. Therefore. Metrics created to map to your OLAP cube data are related only to their associated OLAP cube. For information on creating calculated expressions. Creating metrics from OLAP cube data with MDX and compound metric techniques When you map your OLAP cube data into MicroStrategy. Inc. Cu b e A ttrib u te s C usto m e r R e gio n Proje c t A ttrib u te s R e gio n Ye a r Ye a r Q ua rte r M o nt h o f Ye a r C usto m e r S ta te Q ua rte r C a ll C e nte r M o nt h M o nt h C usto m e r C ity Em plo ye e Da y The dimensions of OLAP cubes are always shared. that change applies to all the OLAP cubes that share that dimension. © 2007 MicroStrategy. In addition. and Month are applied to OLAP cube reports that include these mapped attributes. these metrics cannot be directly integrated with data from a separate relational data source. except by using calculated expressions in Report Services documents.

page 366). Inc.*. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. • MDX customization: Rather than relying only on MicroStrategy to create MDX to return data from your OLAP cube source.5. where Discount is a metric mapped to data in the OLAP cube. page 363. To use MDX to create your calculated measures you must enclose MDX in double quotes (“”).-. Once you create metrics using these techniques you can include them in your MicroStrategy reports and report filters in the same ways that you can include any MicroStrategy metric. where Revenue and Total Expenses are both metrics.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide You can create metrics that map to OLAP cube data using either of the following techniques: • Compound metrics: A compound metric is any MicroStrategy metric with an expression that includes a MicroStrategy metric and an arithmetic expression. You can use MicroStrategy analytical and aggregation functions with metrics mapped to OLAP cube data only if the metric you create is defined as a smart metric. The metrics created in this way for an OLAP cube are stored in a Compound Metrics folder within the Metrics folder for the OLAP cube. 360 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy./. to build a Profit metric. The MDX you create is passed to your OLAP cube source to be executed and to return the data. For general information on smart metrics. For tips and insights on how to build analysis with MDX in MicroStrategy. and so on).Total Expenses. The expression can be as simple as a metric multiplied by a constant value. If you do not make the metric a smart metric you can only use basic operators (+. This technique allows you to use MDX functions and flexibility to query and report on your OLAP cube data. you can create your own custom MDX to return data for a metric. You can also use prompts in these compound and custom MDX metrics (see Using prompts within OLAP cube metrics. see How to build analysis into metrics with custom MDX. see the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. such as Discount * 1. For examples of smart metrics. . These metrics can also reference multiple MicroStrategy metrics within the OLAP cube with an expression such as Revenue . You can reference one or more MicroStrategy metrics mapped to OLAP cube data using custom MDX just as you can with a standard arithmetic expression.

page 340 2 From the Schema menu. After right-clicking an OLAP cube and selecting Edit to access the OLAP Cube Editor. • • If the project connects to only one OLAP cube source. select OLAP Cube Catalog. © 2007 MicroStrategy. The OLAP Cube Catalog: Cube Selection tab opens. The following procedure uses the OLAP Cube Catalog. starting with the step to access the Edit menu. the steps below apply for the OLAP Cube Editor. page 334 Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers. select the OLAP cube source database instance to connect to and click OK. 4 Select the Cube Mapping tab. depending on your OLAP cube source: • • • • Connecting to SAP BW servers. From the Select the Database Instance drop-down list. 3 Move all the OLAP cubes to import from the Available Cubes pane to the Selected Cubes pane by using the > button. the OLAP Cube Catalog: Cube Selection tab opens. see one of the following sections. page 327 Connecting to Essbase servers. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 361 . If the project connects to more than one OLAP cube source the Database Instance dialog box opens.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B You can create these metrics during the initial importing and mapping procedure of your OLAP cube data with the OLAP Cube Catalog. To create a metric from OLAP cube data with MDX and compound metric techniques 1 Log in to a project that is connected to an OLAP cube source. These metrics can also be created as a later modification to an OLAP cube with the OLAP Cube Editor. For information on connecting to an OLAP cube source. page 337 Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers. Inc.

. enter your custom MDX in the Definition pane of the Metric Editor.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide 5 From the Catalog\Cube drop-down list. The Metric Editor opens. it does not validate the syntax of the expression. you can simply drag and drop metrics from the OLAP cube’s Metrics folder. you can enter the following: “[Measures]. 9 In the Object name text field. 8 Click Save and Close. 6 From the Edit menu. For example. You can use MicroStrategy analytical and aggregation functions with metrics mapped to OLAP cube data only if the metric you create is defined as a smart metric. Validating MDX verifies that the entire expression is enclosed in double quotes. 10 Click Save to save your metric. page 366. The OLAP cube data is displayed in the pane below. select the OLAP cube to map to MicroStrategy objects. select Add New Compound Metric. and MicroStrategy analytical and aggregation functions. Inc. arithmetic operators. enter a name for your metric. For example.5” You cannot validate MDX in the Metric Editor as you can for a standard expression that is not enclosed by double quotes. if you have Revenue and Cost metrics in your OLAP cube you can create the expression Revenue . 362 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. • If you are creating a metric using custom MDX. 7 Create the expression for your metric: • If you are creating a compound metric. Make sure to enclose the entire expression in double quotes.[Discount Amount] * 1. The Save As dialog box opens.Cost to create a Profit metric. while also including any required constants. see Using prompts within OLAP cube metrics. For an example of creating a metric that includes a prompt.

[Total Sales]” is valid syntax for a metric defined with MDX. TN5200-81x-2342—How to write a custom metric formula in MDX to ignore grouping on a cube dimension in MicroStrategy 8. Be aware that MicroStrategy does not validate any custom MDX created by users to build metrics for OLAP cubes.1. © 2007 MicroStrategy.1. This allows you to further combine the analysis capabilities of MDX and MicroStrategy.1. Inc. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 363 . This section provides some tips and best practices on how to build analysis into metrics with custom MDX. MDX syntax and functionality is not described in depth in this section. To use MDX to create your metrics you must enclose MDX in double quotes (“”).1. For additional best practices and examples.x TN5200-81x-2344—How to write a custom metric formula in MDX to implement a transformation in MicroStrategy 8. “[Measures]. How to build analysis into metrics with custom MDX You can build sophisticated analysis into your OLAP cube metrics by creating your own custom MDX. only basic principles of analysis with the use of MDX and MicroStrategy is provided.x TN5200-81x-2343—How to write a custom metric formula in MDX to filter on an attribute in MicroStrategy 8. refer to the following MicroStrategy Tech Notes: • • TN5200-81x-2345—How to create customized metric expressions for OLAP cube sources in MicroStrategy 8.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B 11 Click Save and Close to save your changes to the OLAP cube.x.x Creating such analysis requires appropriate knowledge of both MDX and MicroStrategy. • • Basics Creating your own custom MDX allows you to draw further analysis from your OLAP cube source into MicroStrategy. For example.

you can also display revenue for a certain category such as electronics. Conditional metrics Using MDX.[Profit])” This expression returns year-to-date values by quarter for profit data. For example. A conditional metric allows you to apply a filter to only one metric on a report while not affecting the other metrics. as shown in the report below. When you include an MDX function in your custom MDX.CurrentMember). For example. along with viewing your total revenue on a report.06” Along with these simple expressions. the function is passed to the OLAP cube source and processed as a pass-through function. the following expression applies a multiplier to the Total Sales data: “[Measures]. [Measures]. .[Total Sales] * . Report designers can include these metrics on reports to view multiple perspectives of data on the same report.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide The expression shown above is a simple expression that returns the Total Sales data from an OLAP cube. Inc. you can create conditional metrics in MicroStrategy from your OLAP cube data. you can also utilize MDX functions to create more advanced analysis. you can use the MDX year-to-date (YTD) function to create transformation-style analysis on your OLAP cube data. For example. as shown below: “sum(YTD([Quarter]. In 364 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. You can also perform basic arithmetic in your MDX.

you can include prompts in your MDX to provide dynamic analysis on your OLAP cube data. The report shown below uses this metric to compare total revenue with electronics revenue.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B the example expression below.[Revenue].[Category]. you can create the same metric to return electronics revenue for only the year 2006. [2006])” Prompts All of the MDX examples in the sections above are static expressions. For example. a second condition on the year is included by adding another comma and conditional expression: “([Measures]. Inc.[Year]. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Prompts are objects in MicroStrategy that provide users the ability to dynamically select what data is returned to their report to analyze. You can include more than one condition for each metric.[2])” In the example above.[2]. bold highlights the part of the expression (including the comma) that applies the condition to the revenue data: “([Measures]. The values that identify data depend on how you have defined data in your OLAP cube source. The example below shows the basic structure of an ApplySimple statement to create metrics with custom MDX. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 365 .[Category]. meaning they will produce the same MDX every time. 2 identifies the electronics category. In the example expression below.[Revenue]. Using the ApplySimple function.

For example. the prompts are displayed to the user for completion. page 364.[Total Sales] / #0)” . see the Using prompts within OLAP cube metrics section below. The syntax for including a prompt as an object to replace a placeholder is ?promptname. you must use the ApplySimple function to 366 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. allowing users to determine the data to see on the report. you can also include MicroStrategy prompts with the metrics.?valueprompt) In the example syntax above. you can simply include a prompt in the metric definition. ApplySimple(“([Measures]. ApplySimple(“([Measures].object1. You can also use this technique with the conditional metrics techniques described in Conditional metrics. For metrics created with compound metric techniques without any custom MDX. ?elementlistprompt) For more information on and a procedure for creating metrics in OLAP cubes with prompts. you can include an element list prompt on the Category attribute of the OLAP cube as shown below. .#0)”.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide ApplySimple(“MDX expression with placeholders for objects”. For metrics created using MDX expressions... rather than always returning the revenue data for electronics. When the metrics are included on a report and the report is run.object0.[Revenue]. #0 is a placeholder in the MDX expression for the value prompt. Using prompts within OLAP cube metrics If you are creating new metrics in your OLAP cube. you can allow users to choose what category to view revenue for.objectN) A simple application of this technique is to use a constant value prompt in your project as a multiplier of metric data as shown below... This adds flexibility to your queries. To provide this analysis to users. Inc.

© 2007 MicroStrategy.#0)”.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B include prompts in the metric definition. Users can then choose to view revenue data for different categories such as Books or Music.[Revenue]. 2 Enter your expression in the Definition pane of the Metric Editor. which is conditional on an element list prompt answered by the user running the report. The following types of prompts can be included with metrics built from custom expressions: • • • Element list prompts defined on an attribute of the associated OLAP cube Value prompts Object prompts defined on objects of the associated OLAP cube To use prompts within OLAP cube metrics 1 Follow the steps in the procedure above (To create a metric from OLAP cube data with MDX and compound metric techniques. Inc. page 361) until the step to create an expression for the metric. The Save As dialog box opens. In this example it is assumed that CategoryElementPrompt is the name of an element list prompt in the project that references a Category attribute within the OLAP cube. you can enter expressions similar to the following: • ([Discount Amount] * ?constantprompt) This expression applies a special discount amount. Make sure to enclose the entire expression in double quotes. entered by the user running the report. • ApplySimple(“([Measures]. ?CategoryElementPrompt) This expression creates a Revenue metric. In this example it is assumed that constantprompt is the name of a value prompt in the project and Discount Amount is a metric within the OLAP cube. 3 Click Save and Close. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 367 . For example.

. enter a name for your metric. you need to also delete those reports or remove the Profit metric from the reports before you can remove the Profit metric from the OLAP cube. If the Profit metric is included on any reports. If a compound metric of an OLAP cube has been added to any reports. you must first remove the Profit Margin metric. You can remove the compound metric from the report rather than deleting the report. and you can then remove the metric from the OLAP cube. 368 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. When you try to remove a metric with dependent metrics. Once this metric is created in your OLAP cube. This removes the dependency between the metric and the report. 6 Click Save and Close to save your changes to the OLAP cube and exit the OLAP Cube Catalog. a search for dependent objects is automatically triggered. If you try to remove the Profit metric. Then you can remove the metric. Removing compound metrics from OLAP cubes When you remove metrics based on multiple metrics of an OLAP cube. and its data is automatically mapped to MicroStrategy metrics. You must remove all of the metrics and reports which depend on the metric you are trying to remove. 5 Click Save to save your metric and return to the OLAP Cube Catalog. you import an OLAP cube. dependencies may need to be resolved before you can remove the metric. a list of metrics that are dependent on the metric you are removing is returned. and the Profit Margin metric is returned. For example. This makes the Profit Margin metric dependent on the Profit metric. To remove the Profit metric. a list of reports that depend on the metric is also returned.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide 4 In the Object name text field. you create a Profit Margin metric that uses the Profit metric you just created. You then create a new compound metric named Profit within the OLAP cube by subtracting the OLAP cube’s cost data from its revenue data.

There are three types of logical tables in the MicroStrategy environment: logical tables. Inc. with a focus on how you can use the logical view feature to take advantage of the enhanced schema support in MicroStrategy. and logical views. While logical tables are set up in a project by using the Warehouse Catalog. logical views are defined using SQL queries against the data warehouse.C C. table aliases. LOGICAL TABLES Introduction Logical tables represent tables in the data warehouse. 369 . This chapter introduces you to the different types of logical tables. logical views are created using the Table Editor. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Different from the logical tables. which point to physical tables in the data warehouse.

In the MicroStrategy Tutorial. Using the Logical Table Editor. A table alias is created outside of the Warehouse Catalog. 370 Logical tables © 2007 MicroStrategy. While physical tables in a data warehouse consist of columns. page 175). you can define your logical view using the SQL statement as well as view the content of all the logical tables and their associated warehouse tables. 2 Table alias: is an additional logical table that points directly to an existing physical table. 3 Logical view: is a logical table that points to a SQL statement instead of directly to a physical table. the whole SQL query is displayed in the place of physical tables as for Type 1 logical tables. Table aliasing is used to create attribute roles (see Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles. A logical table is created for each physical table that is imported into a project. using the Warehouse Catalog. Once created.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide Logical tables Logical tables are MicroStrategy objects that form the foundation of a schema. and other schema objects can be defined. logical tables and all the other schema objects are stored in the Schema Objects folder. logical tables in the MicroStrategy schema consist of attributes and facts. A table alias can have a different name from the physical table. This type of logical table maps directly to physical tables in the data warehouse. One physical table can have more than one table aliases. Logical views are created using the Table Editor. It does not point directly to a physical table and is defined using a SQL query against the warehouse. Inc. the logical view can be used in the same way as the Type 1 logical table. There are three types of logical tables: 1 Logical table: is a logical representation of a table that the Engine uses to generate SQL. These attributes and facts are part of the report definition that the MicroStrategy Engine refers to when a report is executed. facts. based on which attributes. . These physical tables are referenced in the SQL that is generated for the report. The logical view is also referenced in the SQL that is generated for the report.

For step-by-step instructions. Basically. Logical views are a little different from the above-mentioned logical tables and table aliases for the following reasons: • • • Logical views do not map directly to physical tables in the data warehouse. For example. if the Customer table is used to represent both Ship to Customer and Bill to Customer. When an attribute plays more than one role. you can create MicroStrategy schema objects. For more information on how to use the Warehouse Catalog. you need to create an attribute in the logical model for each of the roles. you can create a table alias to resolve the double usage case. please refer to the MicroStrategy online help (search for “Warehouse Catalog”). which is accessed from the Schema menu.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C How should I use logical tables? The most common logical tables are the ones that are imported into the project from the data warehouse using the Warehouse Catalog. For detailed information on attribute roles. To create a table alias. First. Logical views are defined using SQL queries. One way to do this is to create explicit table aliases. Based on these tables. How should I use logical tables? 371 . such as attributes and facts. you create multiple logical tables pointing to the same physical table and define those logical tables as the lookup tables for the attributes in different roles. then define the new attributes using the appropriate tables. Inc. right-click the logical table name and select Create Table Alias. page 175. Logical views are created from scratch. please refer to the MicroStrategy online help (search for “Step-by-step instructions to create a table alias”). © 2007 MicroStrategy. create a table alias by copying an existing logical table and giving it a new or different name. please refer to Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles. instead of being imported from a data warehouse or duplicated from existing logical tables.

The Update Schema option can be accessed from the Schema menu.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide However. such as the following: • • • • Slowly-changing dimensions Attribute form expressions from multiple tables Consolidated dimension tables Recursive hierarchies For common usage examples. once logical views are created. . please refer to Logical view examples. table aliases. There are many common modeling scenarios that are easier to manage with the use of logical views. The biggest benefit of using logical views is that you can model a MicroStrategy schema that cannot be supported with only the physical database structures in the warehouse. Inc. This means that you can use the logical views to build attributes and facts and that you can also create table aliases for the logical views. 372 How should I use logical tables? © 2007 MicroStrategy. or logical views to the project. Whenever you create or add logical tables. they can be used in the same way as the regular logical tables (brought into the project using the Warehouse Catalog). you need to update the schema. page 376.

Creating logical tables 373 .Project Design Guide Logical Tables C Creating logical tables Most logical tables are brought into the project by using the Warehouse Catalog. Creating a Logical View involves a few simple steps that require you to provide your own SQL statement and map the columns in the statement to the correct data types (see the following information). For detailed instructions. As illustrated in the following image. Object Browser lists all tables and columns that have been imported into the project. The SQL statement panel is where you type in your SQL query. please refer to the online help (search for “Creating logical views”). Inc. One way to access the Table Editor is to select New from the File menu and choose Logical Table. while the Mapping panel is where you map for the columns returned by the SQL query. Detailed instructions on how to create them are provided in the online help (search for “Tables”). and table aliases are created by duplicating existing logical tables. Logical views. are created in MicroStrategy Desktop using the Table Editor. Any physical table in the project database instance can be used in the SELECT statement. on the other hand. © 2007 MicroStrategy.

5 Select a Data Type for the column by using the drop-down list. The names of the columns must match exactly the column aliases defined in the SQL statement. If you used an existing column in the mapping in Step 5. 3 Click Add to map columns returned by the SQL statement. Keep in mind that if you change the data type. select New and then Logical Table. The Table Editor is displayed with the Physical View tab selected by default. the order of the columns does not have to match the order in which the column aliases appear in the SQL statement. you can also drag and drop columns from the Object Browser to the Column Object cell. You can drag and drop columns from the Object Browser to insert into the statement). Inc. . Alternatively. type in your SQL statement. By doing this. you map an existing column to the logical view. you inherited the data type of that column. 374 Creating logical tables © 2007 MicroStrategy. 2 In the SQL Statement panel. these expressions cannot be nested in the SQL because this would result in invalid SQL syntax. Although common table expressions (CTEs) are also supported for some databases. However. the change will affect all the tables with that column. This creates a new column.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide To create a logical table in the Table Editor 1 From the File menu. Please check your database for best usage. 4 Type in the column name under Column Object. It is recommended that you use derived tables to define logical views because the logical view SQL syntax becomes nested inside SQL statements generated by the Engine.

Project Design Guide Logical Tables C 6 Modify the Precision and Scale of the column. It is your responsibility to ensure the accuracy and validity of your SQL statements. For best usage. please check your database. In the SQL generated for a report. CTEs. Inc. Therefore. The Engine generates derived table syntax to represent the logical view. select Update Schema to ensure that the new logical table is loaded into the project. the logical view is logged instead. the statistics log does not contain any information about the actual physical tables accessed. The same holds true if you use a view in the database. Using SQL for logical views Since SQL queries are the key to creating logical views. it inserts the name of the table into the FROM clause. It is recommended that you use derived tables to define logical views. Because the MicroStrategy Engine does not parse through the SQL syntax. 7 Save and close the logical table. In addition. logical views are generated as either a derived table or a common table expression (CTE) depending on the type of database that you use. 8 From the Schema menu. © 2007 MicroStrategy. When the Engine needs to use a logical table that maps directly to a physical database table. if applicable. you should be experienced with using SQL before you use the logical view feature. however. For a logical view—which maps to a SQL statement—the Engine inserts the SQL syntax in the FROM clause. make sure that your RDBMS is optimized to answer the query that you create. are not nested in the SQL because this would result in invalid SQL syntax. Derived tables are advantageous because they are nested in the SQL generated by the Engine. in which case table objects accessed would are not logged either. Creating logical tables 375 . although CTEs are also supported by some databases. you should also understand that the SQL query entered for logical views is not modified in any way by MicroStrategy.

Business case 1: Distinct attribute lookup table Many star schemas feature a single lookup table that is shared by all the attributes in one dimension (see the following example). If there is no distinct list of attribute elements. in one-SQL-pass reports.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide The results of logical views are not cached. The following is an example lookup table for Store. often two problems arise: • The model cannot support fact tables at the level of attributes that are not keys. Market. the MicroStrategy Engine joins the fact table with one lookup table and does the aggregation. This restriction applies to summary tables as well as to intermediate results that may be generated by the SQL Engine. the logical view simply appears as additional syntax in the report SQL generated by MicroStrategy. thus affecting element browsing requests that display a list of attribute elements. Inc. when populating pick lists for prompts. Usually. and Region. for example. Logical view examples The following business cases are intended to help you understand how you can use the logical view feature in your applications. Lookup_store Store_ID Store_Name Market_ID Market_Name Region_ID Region_Name Level 376 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. While it is possible to model a schema with such a dimension table. you may double count if you have to join to a table where that attribute is part of the key. . • Too many rows in the dimension table may slow down the SELECT DISTINCT query.

Usually.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C In this table. a11. Inc. When it is joined with a Market-level fact table (Market_Sales).a11. For example. Market and Region are not the keys. To avoid that.Market_ID Group by a11. Therefore.Market_Name Business case 2: Attribute form expression across multiple tables Customers often request the ability to generate an attribute form expression across multiple tables. the case is on Date columns.Market_ID. the following report SQL is generated: Select a11.Market_ID. you want to define an attribute based on the Date difference between two Date columns (Ship_Date and Order_Date) in two different tables as follows. Logical view examples 377 . you can use the Logical View feature to define another logical table Lookup_Market as follows: Select Market_ID.Region_ID from Lookup_Store where level=1) a11. Market_Name. SUM(a12. F_Table1 Ship_Date Order_ID Fact1 © 2007 MicroStrategy. a direct join between the fact table and the above lookup table may result in double-counting. Market_Name.Market_Desc. if the requested fact table is at the Market or Region level.Region_ID From Lookup_store Where level=1 Then use this table as the lookup table for Market.Sales) From (select Market_ID. Market_Sales a12 Where a11.Market_ID = a12.

Fact2 From F_table1. Ralph Kimball has been particularly influential in describing dimensional modeling techniques for SCDs (see The Data Warehouse Toolkit. Kimball has further coined different distinctions among ways to handle SCDs in a dimensional model. you can use the following SQL query to create a logical table to calculate the Date difference and then define the attribute on that new column: Select Ship_Date-Order_Date Cycle_time.Order_ID. a Type I SCD 378 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. SCDs are well documented in the data warehousing literature. and a new attribute can be defined on the Cycle_Time column. for instance). . a company may annually reorganize their sales organization or recast their product hierarchy for each retail season. For example.Order_ID The new logical table (logical view) looks like the following table. Inc. For example. Logical view Cycle_Time Order_ID Fact1 Fact2 Business case 3: Slowly changing dimensions Slowly changing dimensions (SCDs) are a common characteristic in many business intelligence environments. Indeed. if dimensional relationships change more frequently. Usually.Order_ID=F_table2. F_table2 Where F_table1. F_table1.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide F_Table2 Order_Date Order_ID Fact2 Using the Logical View feature. “Slowly” typically means after several months or even years. it may be better to model separate dimensions. Fact1. dimensional hierarchies are presented as independent of time.

They also provide you an easy way to specify which type of analysis you would like to perform. show me sales by District according to the way Districts are organized today. a Type II SCD preserves the history of a dimensional relationship. • The techniques described here provide the flexibility to perform either type of analysis. Inc. page 43. The discussion below is based on an example sales organization that changes slowly in time as the territories are reorganized. sales representatives switch districts in time. show me sales by District according to the way Districts were organized at the time the sales transactions occurred. As-is vs. For example. “As-was” analysis presents a historical view of the slowly changing relationships. and so forth.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C presents only the current view of a dimensional relationship. as-was analysis One of the capabilities available with slowly changing dimensions is the ability to perform either “as-is” analysis or “as-was” analysis: • “As-is” analysis presents a current view of the slowly changing relationships. please refer to Lookup tables: Attribute storage. For information on compound keys. In the example below. Logical view examples 379 . For example. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Sales Rep Jones moved from District 37 to District 39 on 1/1/2004. for example. and Kelly moved from District 38 to 39 on 7/1/2004. Example 1: Compound key with Effective Date and End Date One way to physically store an SCD is to employ Effective Date and End Date columns that capture the period of time during which each element relationship existed.

such as a transaction date. LVW_CURRENT_ORG 380 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. . FACT_TABLE Sales_Rep_ID 1 2 3 1 2 3 2 3 4 Trans_Dt 9/1/2003 9/10/2003 9/15/2003 3/1/2004 3/10/2004 3/15/2004 9/5/2004 9/15/2004 9/20/2004 Sales 100 200 150 200 250 300 125 275 150 To specify the MicroStrategy schema 1 Create a logical view to represent just the current District-Sales Rep relationships.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide LU_SALES_REP Sales_Rep_ID 1 2 3 4 1 3 Sales_Rep_Name Jones Smith Kelly Madison Jones Kelly District_ID 37 37 38 38 39 39 Eff_Dt 1/1/1900 1/1/1900 1/1/1900 1/1/1900 1/1/2004 7/1/2004 End_Dt 12/31/2003 12/31/2099 6/30/2004 12/31/2099 12/31/2099 12/31/2099 When using this type of dimensional lookup table. the fact table must include a date field. Inc.

which captures the Sales Rep-District relationships that existed at the time the transactions occurred. LVW_CURRENT_ORG – Child: Sales Rep • Historical District: – @ID = district_id. 4 Define the following attributes: • Sales Rep: – @ID = sales_rep_id.Eff_Dt and L. @Desc = district_name © 2007 MicroStrategy.Trans_Dt between L.End_Dt group by District_ID.Sales_Rep_ID = F.Sales_Rep_ID) where F. District_ID from LU_SALES_REP where End_Dt = '12/31/2099' 2 Create another logical view that performs the “as-was” join between the lookup table and fact table. LVW_HIST_DISTRICT_SALES select District_ID. @Desc = district_name – Tables: LU_CURRENT_DISTRICT (lookup).Project Design Guide Logical Tables C select Sales_Rep_ID. Trans_Dt 3 Create a table alias LU_CURRENT_DISTRICT for LU_DISTRICT. FACT_TABLE • Current District: – @ID = district_id. LVW_CURRENT_ORG. The resulting view is an “as-was” or historical view. @Desc = sales_rep_name – Tables: LU_SALES_REP (lookup). Inc. sum(sales) sales from LU_SALES_REP L join FACT_TABLE F on(L. Logical view examples 381 . resulting in a fact view at the District level. Trans_Dt.

. LVW_HIST_DISTRICT_SALES – Child: Sales Rep • Date: – @ID = date_id. LU_SALES_REP.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide – Tables: LU_DISTRICT (lookup). LVW_HIST_DISTRICT_SALES • Month: – @ID = MONTH_ID – Tables: LU_TIME (lookup) 5 Define the Sales fact: • • Expression: sales Tables: FACT_TABLE. LVW_HIST_DISTRICT_SALES 6 Define the metric as required: • Sales: SUM(sales) The result of this is a logical schema that looks like the following: LU_CURRENT_DISTRICT LU_CURRENT_ORG LU_SALES_REP FACT_TABLE Current District Sales Rep Current District Sales Rep Historical District Sales Rep Date Sales LU_TIME Date LVW_HISTORICAL_ DISTRICT_SALES Month Historical District Date Sales 382 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. FACT_TABLE. trans_dt – Tables: LU_TIME (lookup) .

District_Name) District_Name.Date_ID) join LU_DISTRICT a13 on (a11. a12.District_ID =a13.SALES) WJXBFS1 From (select District_ID.Month_ID Month_ID. Inc. Trans_dt) a11 join LU_TIME a12 on (a11. max(a13.Distrcit_ID.trans_dt between L. Sales Resulting SQL Select a11. Report definition: Current District.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C As-was analysis Specify the “as-was” analysis by using the Historical District attribute on reports: • • Report definition: Historical District.Month_ID • Report results As-is analysis Specify the “as-is” analysis by using the Current District attribute on reports: • • © 2007 MicroStrategy.District_ID District_ID. a12.Trans_dt = a12. Sales Resulting SQL Logical view examples 383 .District_ID) group by a11.Sales_rep_ID = F. Month. Month.END_DT group by District_ID. sum(a11.sum(sales) sales from LU_SALES_REP L join FACT_TABLE F on (L. Trans_dt.Sales_rep_ID) where F.EFF_DT and L.

.District_ID) group by a12.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide select a12.District_ID = a14.Date_ID) join LU_DISTRICT a14 on (a12. a13. a13. max (a14. Another common characteristic is to include an indicator field that identifies the current relationship records.Trans_dt = a13. LU_SALES_REP Sales_Rep_CD 1 2 3 Sales_Rep_ID 1 2 3 Sales_Rep_Name Jones Smith Kelly District_ID 37 37 38 Current_Flag 0 1 0 384 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. An example set of records is shown below.Month_ID Month_ID.Sales_Rep_ID = a12. District_ID from LU_SALES_REP where END_DT = '12/31/2099')a12 on (a11.District_ID. sum(a11.SALES) WJXBFS1 from FACT_TABLE a11 join (select Sales_rep_ID.Month_ID • Report result Example 2: New surrogate key for each changing element A more flexible way to physically store a SCD is to employ surrogate keys and introduce new rows in the dimension table whenever a dimensional relationship changes.Sales_Rep_ID) join LU_TIME a13 on (a11.District_Name) District_Name.District_ID District_ID. Inc.

A transaction date field may or may not exist. LVW_CURRENT_ORG select Sales_rep_ID. Logical view examples 385 . the fact table must also include the surrogate key. District_ID from LU_SALES_REP where Current_flag = 1 2 Create a table alias LU_CURRENT_DISTRICT for LU_DISTRICT. FACT_TABLE Sale-Rep_CD 1 2 3 5 2 3 2 6 4 Sale 100 200 150 200 250 300 125 275 150 Specifying the MicroStrategy schema 1 Create a logical view to represent just the current District-Sales Rep relationship.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C Sales_Rep_CD 4 5 6 Sales_Rep_ID 4 1 3 Sales_Rep_Name Madison Jones Kelly District_ID 38 39 39 Current_Flag 1 1 1 When using this type of dimensional lookup table. Inc. © 2007 MicroStrategy.

trans_dt – Tables: LU_TIME (lookup).C Logical Tables Project Design Guide 3 Define the following attributes: • Sales Rep Surrogate: – @ID = sales_rep_cd – Tables: LU_SALES_REP (lookup). FACT_TABLE • Month: – @ID = MONTH_ID – Tables: LU_TIME (lookup) – Child: Date 4 Define the Sales fact: • Expression: sales 386 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. LVW_CURRENT_ORG – Child: Sales Rep Surrogate • Current District: – @ID = district_id. @Desc = sales_rep_name – Tables: LU_SALES_REP (lookup). . @Desc = district_name – Tables: LU_DISTRICT (lookup). @Desc = district_name – Tables: LU_CURRENT_DISTRICT (lookup). LVW_CURRENT_ORG – Child: Sales Rep • Historical District: – @ID = district_id. Inc. LU_SALES_REP – Child: Sales Rep • Date: – @ID = date_id. FACT_TABLE • Sales Rep: – @ID = sales_rep_id.

Logical view examples 387 .Trans_dt = a13. sum(a11.SALES) WJXBFS1 from FACT_TABLE a11 join LU_SALES_REP a12 on (a11.Sales_Rep_CD) join LU_TIME a13 on (a11.Month_ID Month_ID. Inc.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C • Tables: FACT_TABLE. Sales Resulting SQL select a12.Sales_Rep_CD = a12. max(a14.District_ID = © 2007 MicroStrategy. a13.Date_ID) join LU_DISTRICT a14 on (a12.Distrcit_Name) Distrcit_Name. Month. LVW_HIST_DISTRICT_SALES 5 Define the metric as required: • Sales: SUM(sales) The result is a logical schema as follows: LU_CURRENT_DISTRICT LU_CURRENT_ORG LU_SALES_REP FACT_TABLE LU_TIME Current District Sales Rep Current District Sales Rep Surrogate Sale rep Historical District Sales Rep Surrogate Date Sales Date Month LVW_HISTORICAL_ DISTRICT_SALES Historical District As-was analysis Specify the “as-was” analysis by using the Historical District attribute on reports: • • Report definition: Historical District.District_ID District_ID.

District_ID.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide a14.Month_ID 388 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc.District_ID) group by a12.Sales_Rep_ID = a13.District_ID.Sales_Rep_CD) join (select Sales_rep_ID. Month. a14.Month_ID Month_ID.Distrcit_Name) District_Name.District_ID District_ID.Month_ID • Report results As-is analysis Specify the “as-is” analysis by using the Current District attribute on reports: • • Report definition: Current District.Trans_dt = a14. District_ID from LU_SALES_REP where current_flag = 1) a13 on (a12. .Sales_Rep_ID) join LU_TIME a14 on (a11. a14. max(a15. Sales Resulting SQL: select a13.District_ID = a15.Date_ID) join LU_DISTRICT a15 on (a13.SALES) WJXBFS1 from FACT_TABLE a11 join LU_SALES_REP a12 on (a11.District_ID) group by a13. a13.Sales_Rep_CD = a12. sum(a11.

day_date >= B. Select day_date day_date. Inc. such as Last Month. Select A. one-to-many transformations require tables in the database that map each date to all the previous dates that make up “month-to-date”. The SQL below can be used to define a logical MTD_DATE table. Although one-to-one transformations. then you can use the logical view approach to address this issue as long as you already have a lookup table for the Day attribute.day_date And YEAR(A.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C • Report result Business case 4: One-to-many transformation tables In order to support time-series analysis. such as month-to-date and year-to-date calculations. B. can be defined in terms of an expression. B. lu_day B Where A.day_date) The same technique can be used to define a year-t0-date transformation.day_date) = YEAR(B.day_date day_date. lu_day B Where A.day_date mtd_date From lu_day A. The MTD transformation can then be defined using the MTD_DATE column.day_date >= B. Logical view examples 389 . which contains the Day attribute.day_date ytd_date From lu_day A.day_date And MONTH(A.day_date) © 2007 MicroStrategy.day_date)= MONTH(B. you need to define transformations. If you do not already have such a table in the warehouse and your circumstances do not allow you to add additional tables to the database.

C Logical Tables Project Design Guide Business case 5: Outer joins between attribute lookup tables A common request is the ability to generate an outer join between attribute lookup tables for a report that contains only attributes (that is. Dawson. Mary Walker. consider the tables below.. .. One of the reports you probably would like to create may look like the following: Employee Gonzalez. Martha .. Department Marketing Finance R&D Finance . Abraham Walker. which means not all employees have contacts on record. For example. you could model an attribute hierarchy as follows: • • • Business Unit -< Department -< Employee Hire Date -< Employee Emergency Contact -< Employee In addition. George . the relationship between Employees and Emergency Contacts is such that each employee may have up to one contact. EMPLOYEE EMP_ID FIRST_NAME LAST_NAME HIRE_DATE DEPT_ID EMERGENCY CONTACT EMP_ID CONTACT_FIRST_NAME CONTACT_LAST_NAME CONTACT_PHONE_NUMBER DEPARTMENT DEPT_ID DEPT_NAME BUS_UNIT_ID Given this structure. James Dawson. Emergency Contact Phone Number NULLS are displayed for employees who do not have emergency contacts. 555-1212 555-3456 555-9876 .... John Larkins. Jane Taylor.. no metrics). 390 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc..

you would not get the desired output: • Employee: @ID = EMP_ID. the SQL generated would join the EMPLOYEE table to the EMERGENCY_CONTACT table. described as follows. @[Last Name] = CONTACT_LAST_NAME Tables: EMERGENCY_CONTACT (lookup) Child: Employee Using the above model. EMPLOYEE Child: Employee • Hire Date: @ID = HIRE_DATE Tables: EMPLOYEE (lookup) Child: Employee • Emergency Contact: @ID = CONTACT_PHONE_NUMBER. Logical view examples 391 . @[Last Name] = LAST_NAME Tables: EMPLOYEE (lookup). EMERGENCY_CONTACT • Department: @ID = DEPT_ID Tables: DEPARTMENT (lookup). you can perform an outer join using a logical view. © 2007 MicroStrategy. @[First Name] = FIRST_NAME.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C However. Inc. and only those employees who have emergency contacts would appear in the final result. @[First Name] = CONTACT_FIRST_NAME. if you model the attributes as described below. In order to see all employees.

E. LVW_EMERGENCY_CONTACT 392 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. E. you can use the following SQL and the list of columns to map to the view: select E. @[Last Name] = LAST_NAME Tables: EMPLOYEE (lookup).CONTACT_LAST_NAME. EMPLOYEE).FIRST_NAME.LAST_NAME. C. Inc. .CONTACT_PHONE_NUMBER from EMPLOYEE E left outer join EMERGENCY_CONTACT C on (E.EMP_ID = C.EMP_ID. C. C. @[First Name] = FIRST_NAME.DEPT_ID.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide Using a logical view for an outer join To perform an outer join for the case described above. The new logical table LVW_EMERGENCY_CONTACT can then be used to define attributes as follows: • Employee: @ID = EMP_ID.HIRE_DATE.CONTACT_FIRST_NAME. E.EMP_ID) LVW_EMERGENCY_CONTACT EMP_ID FIRST_NAME LAST_NAME HIRE_DATE DEPT_ID CONTACT_FIRST_NAME CONTACT_LAST_NAME CONTACT_PHONE_NUMBER Make sure to include all columns from the original child table (for example. E.

@[First Name] = CONTACT_FIRST_NAME. LVW_EMERGENCY_CONTACT Child: Employee The Employee attribute is not represented in the original EMERGENCY_CONTACT table and all attributes represented in the EMPLOYEE table are also represented in the LVW_EMERGENCY_CONTACT table. © 2007 MicroStrategy. @[Last Name] = CONTACT_LAST_NAME Tables: EMERGENCY_CONTACT (lookup). LVW_EMERGENCY_CONTACT Child: Employee • Emergency Contact: @ID = CONTACT_PHONE_NUMBER. The technique does not work when the lookup tables should sometimes be outer joined and sometimes be inner joined. Inc. LVW_EMERGENCY_CONTACT Child: Employee • Hire Date: @ID = HIRE_DATE Tables: EMPLOYEE (lookup). EMPLOYEE.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C • Department: @ID = DEPT_ID Tables: DEPARTMENT (lookup). Also note that if we run a report that includes only the Employee attribute. and NULLs will be returned for any employees who do not have emergency contacts. Now if we run a report with Employee and Emergency Contact attributes. the EMPLOYEE table will be outer joined to the EMERGENCY_CONTACT table. Logical view examples 393 . This technique is applicable any time that the lookup tables should always be outer joined. it will be executed against the EMPLOYEE table. the EMERGENCY_CONTACT table will be joined only when necessary.

Inc. .C Logical Tables Project Design Guide 394 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy.

© 2007 MicroStrategy. DATA TYPES Introduction To generate SQL or retrieve data from data sources.D D. MicroStrategy generalizes them into a set of MicroStrategy-specific data types. MicroStrategy must be aware of the data types that exist in your database. Each column from your database becomes associated with a MicroStrategy data type. MicroStrategy automatically maps the columns within those tables to MicroStrategy-specific data types. Inc. Mapping of external data types to MicroStrategy data types When you create a project and add tables from your data warehouse to the MicroStrategy Warehouse Catalog. Mapping of external data types to MicroStrategy data types 395 . As each RDBMS supports a different set of data types.

a column within that table has a data type of “SMALLINT. Inc. 396 Mapping of external data types to MicroStrategy data types © 2007 MicroStrategy. because each database names data types in different ways. Therefore.pds) in any way. in part. refer to MicroStrategy Technical Note TN5200-7X0-0166. . and generating the correct syntax for literals. as with custom groups. In your relational database. for example. Data types that may be conceptually the same can have different names. The MicroStrategy data type stores data values internally and in the metadata repository and is later used during SQL generation when defining intermediate tables.” MicroStrategy maps this column to a MicroStrategy-specific data type. For information about how your relational database’s data types are mapped to MicroStrategy data types and the specific mappings that pertain to your RDBMS. It is strongly recommended that you do not alter the mapping file (DTMAPPING. Suppose you add a table to the Warehouse Catalog. and data mart tables.D Data Types Project Design Guide This external-to-internal mapping is necessary.” This allows MicroStrategy to maintain a consistent SQL generation process. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. “INTEGER. The data type is also used whenever multi-pass SQL is used. For more information about data marts and custom groups. MicroStrategy must map every column brought into the project schema to an internal data type.

MicroStrategy data types 397 . Similar to ANSI FLOAT. Char Fixed-length character strings. Similar to ANSI NUMERIC. Similar to ANSI DOUBLE PRECISION. Similar to ANSI TIME. Similar to ANSI BLOB. Similar to ANSI TIMESTAMP. Similar to ANSI BIT. all columns in the database are automatically mapped to one of the following MicroStrategy data types. Similar to ANSI REAL. Similar to ANSI INTEGER. Timestamp Combinations of calendar date and time of day.Project Design Guide Data Types D MicroStrategy data types When the data warehouse catalog is read from the Warehouse Catalog. LongVarChar Large strings of characters. Decimal Fixed point numbers up to 15 digits of precision. Time Time of day. Fixed-length bit strings. Similar to ANSI DECIMAL. Unsigned Unsigned integer values. Similar to ANSI CLOB. Data Type Big Decimal Binary Description High-precision fixed point numbers. Real 4-byte floating point numbers. Numeric Fixed point numbers up to 15 digits of precision. LongVarBin Large strings of bits. Similar to ANSI DATE. Float 4-byte floating point numbers. Similar to ANSI CHAR. Integer Signed integer values. Inc. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Date Calendar dates. Double 8-byte floating point numbers.

Information is stored and displayed in the form of an e-mail address. Varchar Variable-length character strings. page 400. Inc. see Big Decimal. The attribute form format types are described in the following table. it implies that the data type in the database has not mapped to one of the MicroStrategy data types. Information is stored and displayed as dates in a sequential form to perform calculations on the dates. It represents dates in the MM/DD/YYYY format. If the Warehouse Catalog displays a column with data type as Unknown. Similar to ANSI BIT VARYING. Date Datetime Email HTML Tag Number 398 Format types © 2007 MicroStrategy. The date follows the MM/DD/YYYY format and time follows the HH:MM:SS format. Information is stored and displayed as an HTML tag. . Similar to ANSI VARCHAR.D Data Types Project Design Guide Data Type Varbin Description Variable-length bit strings. which specifies how attribute form values should be displayed on MicroStrategy interfaces. Information is stored and displayed in a number format. which represents high-precision fixed point numbers. Format Type Big Decimal Description Information is stored and displayed in the Big Decimal form. You specify the format type of an attribute form in the Form Format: Type drop-down menu in the Attribute Editor. Format types Attribute forms are also associated with a MicroStrategy format type. Information is stored and displayed both as date and time in the format specific to the data. For more information about Big Decimal.

You are warned in the Attribute Editor whenever you have selected a format type that is incompatible with the data type of your column. In the Column Alias tab. a warning message appears notifying you of the incompatibility. for example—you must also change the format type of the attribute. or GIF. Information is stored and displayed in a text format. © 2007 MicroStrategy. When you return to the Definition pane in the Attribute Editor. URL Data type and format type compatibility If you change the MicroStrategy data type of one of the columns in your project—using a column alias. Inc. Data type and format type compatibility 399 . you edit the ID form of the Year attribute in the Attribute Editor. For example. such as bitmap. doing so can still result in SQL generation issues. The data type of your column must be consistent with the format type you select because SQL generation issues can occur if the format type and data type are incompatible. Information is stored and displayed as either an absolute or a relative Universal Resource Locator. you create a new column alias and assign it the “Date” data type. JPG. However. you must select an appropriate format type from the Form Format: Type drop-down menu. This format type must be compatible with the data type you assigned in the Column Alias tab. Information is stored and displayed as time in the HH:MM:SS format.Project Design Guide Data Types D Format Type Picture Text Time Description stored and displayed the form of an image file. If you select a format type that is incompatible with the data type and click OK to exit the Attribute Editor. you notice that the Year attribute is assigned an “Integer” data type. This displays only the time and not the date. Although you have the option to continue by clicking Yes.

such as BIGINT and 400 Big Decimal © 2007 MicroStrategy. Text depending on data Picture. Picture Big Decimal Big Decimal is a MicroStrategy-specific data type that allows users to support high-precision attribute ID values that have more than 15 digits of precision. URL. Data Type Big Decimal Binary Char Date Decimal Double Float Integer LongVarBin LongVarChar Numeric Real Time Timestamp Unsigned Varbin Varchar Compatible Format Types Big Decimal Number. Different format types are compatible with different data types given the specific data in your column. Text Number Number Time. URL. Datetime Datetime. E-mail. E-mail. HTML Tag Date. some of the data type-format type combinations below may not work with your specific data. Therefore. Text Text. Inc.D Data Types Project Design Guide The following chart is intended to guide you in assigning format types that are compatible with the data type you have assigned to a column. Date or Time depending on data Number Picture. Text. HTML Tag. Datetime Number Number Number Number Picture. Picture Text. .

You must use the Big Decimal data type to handle these values. you can define a filter as "Customer@ID exactly #12345678#". and page-by may not return results. Attribute form: If you change the column data type to Big Decimal on the Column Alias tab in the Attribute Editor. scale) data types. follow the rules listed below: • Constant: You can force a constant to be stored as a Big Decimal value by enclosing it in hash marks. • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. such as account numbers and other long integers. because these data values have higher precision and cannot be stored in normal numeric data types. Examples of such attribute ID values are account numbers. credit card numbers.Project Design Guide Data Types D DECIMAL (precision. These numeric columns can have more than 15 digits of precision. The WHERE clause in the report SQL statement in drill reports may truncate numbers starting from the 16th digit. MicroStrategy preserves the precision of attribute ID values and attribute ID forms when displaying IDs and performing operations such as filtering. For example. you may see numbers truncated starting with the 16th digit. Inc. drilling. Attribute ID: Follow the steps in the topic Defining attributes with high-precision ID forms in the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. Using the Big Decimal data type With the Big Decimal data type. and long integers. Big Decimal 401 . even though 12345678 does not necessarily require the Big Decimal data type. If you do not associate high-precision database fields with the Big Decimal data type. You can define attributes that are identified by numeric columns in the database. you must also select Big Decimal as the form format type in the Form format: Type drop-down menu in the Definition tab. For more information about these operations. When using the Big Decimal data type. and page-by. see the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide.

Number formatting strings are not supported on the Web. or metric values are displayed in Graph view. the metric is subtotaled. s) or NUMERIC(p. #1234567890123456#. When qualifying on a Big Decimal metric. 402 Big Decimal © 2007 MicroStrategy. you must explicitly identify high-precision constants by enclosing the value within hash (#) symbols. Inc. consider the following drawbacks: Precision is lost when any Analytical Engine calculation is performed. .D Data Types Project Design Guide • Metric: Although it is possible to define Big Decimal as the data type for metric values. This is because Big Decimal should only be used when the column is used as an attribute ID form. the metric is used in a calculated field in a document. For example. s) columns to the Big Decimal MicroStrategy data type even when the precision is greater than 15. Note that the Warehouse Catalog does not automatically map DECIMAL(p. Some number formatting strings are not supported in MicroStrategy Desktop.

the application rather than partition the database server manages the partition tables. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Reports and documents can also be created and manipulated in MicroStrategy Web. documents. MIN. The definition of application objects such as reports. Compare database-level partition. Examples include SUM. templates. and prompts are derived from schema objects. Inc. MAX. metrics. MicroStrategy supports two methods of application-level partitioning: metadata partition mapping and warehouse partition mapping. aggregate table A fact table that stores data that has been aggregated along one or more dimensions. filters.GLOSSARY aggregate function A numeric function that acts on a column of data and produces a single result. application object An object used to provide analysis of and insight into relevant data. All of these objects can be built and manipulated in MicroStrategy Desktop. aggregate function 403 . See pre-aggregation. application-level In application-level partitioning. and AVG. COUNT. custom groups.

Last Name. Age. Inc. ID. and Year. Name. . See also: • • • • • • attribute element attribute form child attribute constant attribute derived attribute parent attribute attribute element A unique set of information for an attribute. and Abbreviation could be forms of the attribute Customer. and March are elements of the attribute Month. For example. attribute form A mapping to the columns in the warehouse that are used to expression represent a specific attribute form in SQL.Glossary Project Design Guide attribute A data level defined by the system architect and associated with one or more columns in a data warehouse lookup table. February. Every attribute supports its own collection of forms. Attributes include data classifications like Region. defined by the attribute forms. Long Description. 404 attribute © 2007 MicroStrategy. attribute role A database column that is used to define more than one attribute. attribute form One of several columns associated with an attribute that are different aspects of the same thing. attribute relationship See relationship. Order. January. New York and Dallas are elements of the attribute City. They provide a means for aggregating and filtering at a given level. Item. Billing City and Shipping City are two attributes that have the same table and columns defined as a lookup table. Customer. For example. City.

Results from the data warehouse are stored separately and can be used by new job requests that require the same data. In the MicroStrategy environment. See also: • • column row base fact column A fact column represented by a single column in a fact table. the job is submitted to the database for processing. Inc. and custom groups—along each axis. browse attribute An attribute a user can directly browse to from a given attribute in a user hierarchy. when a user runs a report for the first time. axis 405 . There are three axes—Row. if the results of that report are cached. Column. cardinality The number of unique elements for an attribute.Project Design Guide Glossary axis A vector along which data is displayed. metrics. business intelligence A system that facilitates the analysis of volumes of complex (BI) system data by providing the ability to view data from multiple perspectives. whose execution is faster because they need not run against the database. consolidations. When a user defines a template for a report. he places template units—attributes. This is normally done for frequently requested reports. the results can be returned immediately without having to wait for the database to process the job the next time the report is run. dimensions. cache A special data store holding recently accessed information for quick future access. However. © 2007 MicroStrategy. and Page.

For example.Glossary Project Design Guide child attribute The lower-level attribute in an attribute relationship. compound key In a relational database. . 2) The set of fields of a given name and data type in all the rows of a given table. This is used to determine where aggregate tables would have the greatest impact. Column aliases also include the data type to be used for the fact and allow you to modify the names of existing metrics for use in data mart reports without affecting the original metric. 406 child attribute © 2007 MicroStrategy. the compression of ratio between monthly data and yearly data is 12:1. Inc. The larger the compression ratio between two attributes. the specific name of the column to be used in temporary tables and SQL statements. See also: • • parent attribute relationship column 1) A one-dimensional vertical array of values in a table. a primary key consisting of more than one database column. See also: • • axis row column alias In a fact definition. 3) MicroStrategy object in the schema layer that can represent one or more physical table columns or no columns. compound attribute An attribute that has more than one key (ID) form. the more you stand to gain by creating an aggregate table that pre-calculates the higher-level data. compression ratio The average number of child records combined to calculate one parent record.

constant attribute See implicit attribute. database instances. which refers more specifically to using a database as your data source. See also data source. and analysis. system.Project Design Guide Glossary conditionality Conditionality of a metric enables you to associate an existing filter object with the metric so that only data that meets the filter conditions is included in the calculation. reporting. Inc. Users can navigate through hierarchies of attributes that are defined by the administrator to find the data they need. data source A data source is any file. 2) A copy of transaction data specifically structured for query. containing the historical data of an enterprise. and Hyperion Essbase. it organizes data and allows coordinated updates and loads. A data warehouse can be thought of as one type of data source. database login IDs. conditionality 407 . reporting. or storage location which stores data that is to be used in MicroStrategy for query. configuration object A MicroStrategy object appearing in the system layer and usable across multiple projects. schedules. typically very large. Used for decision support or business intelligence. Other data sources include text files. Excel files. and analysis. Data Explorer A portion of the interface used to browse through data contained in the warehouse. Configuration objects include these object types: users. See also: • • data warehouse OLAP cube source data warehouse 1) A database. and OLAP cube sources such as SAP BW. Microsoft Analysis Services 2000 and 2005. © 2007 MicroStrategy.

2. Inc. . derived metric A metric based on data already available in a report. A MicroStrategy object created in MicroStrategy Desktop that represents a connection to the warehouse. such as the data warehouse DSN. lower attribute level. It is calculated by Intelligence Server. and other data warehouse specific information. derived attribute An attribute calculated from a mathematical operation on columns in a warehouse table. not in the database. calculations on other metrics. For example. derived fact column A fact column created through a mathematical combination of other existing fact columns.Glossary Project Design Guide database instance 1. Compare allocation. Although it is technically possible to have more than one instance running on a machine. that is. degradation A type of fact extension in which values at one level of aggregation are reported at a second. Age might be calculated from this expression: Current Date–Birth Date Compare implicit attribute. there is usually only one instance per machine. A database instance specifies warehouse connection information. description column Optional columns that contain text descriptions of attribute elements. Database server software running on a particular machine. 408 database instance © 2007 MicroStrategy. Login ID and password. Use a derived metric to perform column math. on report data after it has been returned from the database.

reclassification. For example. entry level The lowest level set of attributes at which a fact is available for analysis. Inc. a shortcut to an attribute in the Data Explorer which is helpful in allowing users to more easily access frequently-used attributes in the Data Explorer. These changes often occur because of organizational restructuring. or the addition. © 2007 MicroStrategy. viewing the list of months in a year. geographical realignment. entry point In a user hierarchy. which lets you easily recognize tables and columns and the data stored in those columns. or discontinuation of items or services. drill 409 . The new data is retrieved by re-querying the Intelligent Cube or database at a different attribute or fact level. For example.Project Design Guide Glossary drill A method of obtaining supplementary information after a report has been executed. a store may decide to reclassify the department to which items belong. element browsing Navigating through hierarchies of attribute elements. entity relationship A diagram that provides a graphical representation of the diagram (ERD) physical structure of the data in the source system. See also: • • • • • page-by pivot sort subtotal surf dynamic relationship When the relationship between elements of parent and child attributes changes.

1) The process used to populate a data warehouse from transformation. See also metric. A filter is composed of at least one qualification. Examples include "Region = Northeast" or "Revenue > $1 million". A filter is normally implemented in the SQL WHERE clause. which is the actual condition that must be met for the data to be included on a report. fact column A column in a database table that contains fact data. and loading (ETL) © 2007 MicroStrategy. 410 extraction. fact table A database table containing numeric data that can be aggregated along one or more dimensions. or inventory quantities in counts. Facts can have multiple fact expressions. transformation. Using a filter on a report narrows the data to consider only the information that is relevant to answer your business question. and disparate existing database systems. fact expression A mapping of facts to physical columns in the warehouse. since a report queries the database against all the data stored in the data warehouse. loading (ETL) 2) Third-party software used to facilitate such a process. Fact expressions can be as simple as a fact column name from the warehouse or as sophisticated as a formula containing fact columns and numeric constants.Glossary Project Design Guide extraction. Inc. Fact tables can contain atomic or summarized data. often numeric and typically aggregatable. or sales in dollars. fact 1) A measurement value. Multiple qualifications in a single filter are combined using logical operators. filter A MicroStrategy object that specifies the conditions that the data must meet to be included in the report results. 2) A schema object representing a column in a data warehouse table and containing basic or aggregated numbers—usually prices. . stored in a data warehouse.

For example. though. ID column A column that contains attribute element identification codes. Such an attribute has its expression defined as a constant value. heterogeneous column Columns in different tables in a database that store the same naming data but have different names. All attributes must have an ID column. The order of the attributes is typically—though not always—defined such that a higher attribute has a one-to-many relationship with its child attributes. hierarchy A set of attributes defining a meaningful path for element browsing or drilling. highly denormalized Schema type where not only are higher-level attribute ID schema columns present within all related tables. though nothing is saved in a column. you may wish to create columns in the database with a value of 1 for every row to get around COUNT limitations. form group 411 © 2007 MicroStrategy. but the description columns are present as well. one column named Customer in one table and one named Customer Name in a different table. both containing customer names. For example. because in the Attribute Editor. homogeneous column Columns in different tables of a database that contain the naming same data and have the same column name. A form group must be created to create a compound key. Inc. which identifies that an attribute form requires more than one ID column to uniquely identify its elements. implicit attribute An attribute that does not physically exist in the database because it is created at the application level.Project Design Guide Glossary form group A grouping of attribute forms that are related in a way that justifies combining the forms into a single form. highly normalized Schema type where lookup tables contain unique schema developer-designed attribute keys. See also compound key. You do not have to actually create the column. .

you can use constant attributes to create a COUNT to keep track of the number of rows returned. locked hierarchy A hierarchy that has at least one attribute that may not be browsed by end users. They typically consist of descriptions of dimensions. promotion has a many-to-many relationship to both item and quarter. as opposed to the physical data model or warehouse schema. item. consider the relationship between three attributes: promotion. Hierarchies are usually locked if there are so many attribute elements that element browsing is not usable. joint children Joint child relationships are another type of many-to-many relationship where one attribute has a many-to-many relationship to two otherwise unrelated attributes.Glossary Project Design Guide you can just enter a “1” in the expression to create a count. logical data model A graphical representation of data that is arranged logically for the general user. . When analyzing data. 412 joint children © 2007 MicroStrategy. Implicit attributes are useful in analyzing and retrieving information. Any constant is acceptable. which arranges data for efficient database use. they exist at the intersection of multiple attribute levels. You can use constant attributes when building metrics. Compare derived attribute. Lookup tables are usually joined to fact tables to group the numeric facts in the fact table by dimensional attributes in the lookup tables. lookup table A database table used to uniquely identify attribute elements. where you can sum the column holding the constant to create a COUNT. A business might run this promotion around Valentine's Day (Q1) and again at Christmas time (Q4). and quarter. In this case. but like facts. An example of a promotion might be a “Red Sale” where all red items are on sale. Inc.For example. These relationships can be modeled and conceptualized like traditional attributes.

many-to-many An attribute relationship in which multiple elements of a parent attribute can relate to multiple elements of a child attribute. © 2007 MicroStrategy. and needs to the underlying database structure. managed object 413 .Project Design Guide Glossary managed object A schema object unrelated to the project schema. and (2) every element of the child attribute can relate to multiple elements of the parent. and OLAP cube reports. which is created by the system and stored in a separate system folder. Managed objects are used to map data to attributes. terms. It can even be held in a different RDBMS. Inc. and vice versa. See also metadata shell. Query Builder. See also: • • • • one-to-one one-to-many many-to-one relationship many-to-one An attribute relationship in which (1) multiple elements of a parent attribute relate to only one element of a child attribute. hierarchies and other schema objects for Freeform SQL. Metadata can reside on the same server as the data warehouse or on a different database server. See also: • • • • one-to-one one-to-many many-to-many relationship metadata A repository whose data associates the tables and columns of a data warehouse with user-defined attributes and facts to enable the mapping of the business view. metrics.

moderately normalized Schema type having the same basic structure as the highly schema normalized schema. See also metadata. an application that allows for the distribution of personalized business information to subscribed users.[Cost] 2) The MicroStrategy object that contains the metric definition. In MicroStrategy. The startup code initiates the primary thread of a process by passing the main function address to the operating system. . For example: sum(dollar_sales) or [Sales] . and so on. file services. but here the higher-level attribute ID columns are present within all related tables. When the primary thread terminates. printers. the process terminates. metrics. facts. See also fact. multithreaded Characteristic of a process that supports the simultaneous execution of multiple threads. narrowcast application In a business intelligence environment. reports. MOLAP Multidimensional online analytical processing. facts. including folders. More concretely. 414 metadata shell © 2007 MicroStrategy. and mobile devices. object Conceptually. or other metrics. metric 1) A business calculation defined by an expression built with functions. Narrowcast Server is a proactive information delivery server that allows for this distribution of information through e-mail.Glossary Project Design Guide metadata shell A set of blank tables that are created when you initially implement a MicroStrategy business intelligence environment. attributes. SMS. an object is the highest grouping level of information about one concept. an object is any item that can be selected and manipulated. used by the user to achieve the goal of specified data analysis. Inc.

Project Design Guide Glossary OLAP cube An OLAP cube is a collection or set of data retrieved from an OLAP cube source. See also OLAP cube source. MicroStrategy can integrate with OLAP cube source data as well as access data from a relational database concurrently. and analyze data with MicroStrategy. which is imported into MicroStrategy and mapped to various objects to allow query. reporting. Microsoft Analysis Services. OLAP cube source When integrated with MicroStrategy. and analysis on the data. the third-party tools SAP BW. while every element of the child attribute relates to only one element of the parent. and Hyperion Essbase are referred to as OLAP cube sources. You can import and map data from these different OLAP cube sources in MicroStrategy to query. OLAP cube 415 . See also: • • OLAP cube data source one-to-many An attribute relationship in which every element of a parent attribute can relate to multiple elements of a child attribute. Inc. See also: • • • • one-to-one many-to-many many-to-one relationship © 2007 MicroStrategy. The one-to-many attribute relationship is the most common in data models. report on.

. only a slice of the cube can be seen at any one time. the user can page through the cube. databases or mainframes that store transactional processing (OTLP) data. and vice versa. percent to total contributions. Inc. Since a grid is two-dimensional. consolidations. trend reporting. or deposits. and profit analysis. Transactional processing involves the simple recording of transactions such as sales. inventory. See also: • • • • one-to-many many-to-one many-to-many relationship online analytical A system with analytical processing that involves activities processing (OLAP) such as manipulating transaction records to calculate sales trends. and metrics on a third axis called the Page axis. See also: • • • • • drill pivot sort subtotal surf 416 one-to-one © 2007 MicroStrategy. online transaction Typically. The slice is characterized by the choice of elements on the Page axis. page-by Segmenting data in a grid report by placing available attributes. By varying the selection of elements.Glossary Project Design Guide one-to-one An attribute relationship in which every element of the parent attribute relates to exactly one element of the child attribute. withdrawals. growth patterns.

See also: • • • • relationship one-to-many many-to-one many-to-many partition base table A warehouse table that contains one part of a larger set of data. Partitions minimize the number of tables and records within a table that must be read to satisfy queries issued against the warehouse. See also partition mapping. By distributing usage across multiple tables. such as time or geography. while the opposite is not necessarily true. Inc. such as month or department. Partition tables are usually divided along logical lines. partitions improve the speed and efficiency of database queries. © 2007 MicroStrategy. See also: • • child attribute relationship partial relationship An attribute relationship in which elements of one attribute relate to elements of a second attribute. parent attribute 417 .Project Design Guide Glossary parent attribute The higher-level attribute in an attribute relationship with one or more children. partition mapping The division of large logical tables into smaller physical tables based on a definable data level. Also referred to as a PBT.

It organizes the logical data model in a method that make sense from a database perspective. and so on). consolidations) on different axes. Web. metrics. it knows to forward those calls to the Intelligence Server port number that is specified in the call. and hence the associated data. . See also: • • partition base table partition mapping physical warehouse A detailed graphic representation of your business data as it schema is stored in the data warehouse. Command Manager. See also: • • • • • drill page-by sort subtotal surf port number The port number is how a server process identifies itself on the machine on which it is running. For example. 418 partition mapping table © 2007 MicroStrategy. Also referred to as a PMT. when the Intelligence Server machine receives a network call from a client (Desktop. Inc. Narrowcast Server. pivot To reconfigure data on a grid report by placing report objects (attributes. Subset of cross-tab. See also schema. Also. to reconfigure a grid report by interchanging row and column headers.Glossary Project Design Guide partition mapping table A warehouse table that contains information used to identify the partitioned base tables as part of a logical whole.

process An executing application comprising one or more threads. project 1) The highest-level intersection of a data warehouse. pre-aggregation 419 . metadata repository. as defined in (1). A server project source is a 3-tier connection to a MicroStrategy Intelligence Server. 2) An object containing the definition of a project. containing reports. In most cases. that is completed before reports are run. Processes use temporary private address spaces and control operating system resources such as files. dynamic memory allocations. The project object is specified when requesting the establishment of a session. metrics. the Catalog Server uses it to obtain table sample values and row counts.Project Design Guide Glossary pre-aggregation Aggregation. it should match the name space field since it is used to qualify on a specific table belonging to a certain owner or name space. One project source can contain many projects and the administration tools found at the project source level are used to monitor and administer all projects in the project source. or the calculation of numeric data at a specific attribute level. See also: • • aggregate table aggregation prefix A prefix is stored in the project metadata associated with a table or tables and is used by the Engine to generate SQL. Also. © 2007 MicroStrategy. and user community. project source Defines a connection to the metadata repository and is used by various MicroStrategy products to access projects. and synchronization objects. with the results stored in an aggregate table. Inc. and functions. See also table name space. A direct project source is a two-tier connection directly to a metadata repository. Prefixes can be defined and modified from the Warehouse Catalog interface. pipes. filters.

The leading RDBMS products are Oracle. and administer a relational database. thus defining associations between them. .Glossary Project Design Guide prompt 1) MicroStrategy object in the report definition that is incomplete by design. The parent attribute is referred to as a “quality” because its definition is complete only with the intersection of its joint children. amount. 2) In general. AND NOT. and then set how to combine the qualifications using the logical operators AND. ratio The relationship in quantity. The user is asked during the resolution phase of report execution to provide an answer that completes the information. OR. 420 prompt © 2007 MicroStrategy.” qualification The actual condition that must be met for data to be included on a report. a window requesting user input. Inc. IBM DB2 and Microsoft SQL Server. See also cardinality. update. or size between the cardinalities of related attributes. relate table A table containing the ID columns of two or more attributes. as in “type login ID and password at the prompt. and OR NOT. relational database A relational database management system (RDBMS) is a management system program that lets you create. You can create multiple qualifications for a single filter or custom group. Qualifications are used in filters and custom groups. A typical example with a filter is choosing a specific attribute on which to qualify. A relational database is a collection of data items organized as a set of formally-described tables from which data can be accessed or reassembled in many different ways without having to reorganize the database tables. Examples include "Region = Northeast" or "Revenue > $1 million". quality relationship The relationship between a parent attribute and two or more “joint child” attributes.

See also: • • filter template report creation The process of building reports from existing. City is a child attribute of State. report design The process of building reports from basic report components using the Report Editor in MicroStrategy Desktop or MicroStrategy Web. relationship 421 . Inc. See also: • • • • • • • • parent attribute child attribute partial relationship quality relationship one-to-one one-to-many many-to-one many-to-many report The central focus of any decision support investigation. analyze that data. For example.Project Design Guide Glossary relationship An association specifying the nature of the connection between one attribute (the parent) and one or more other attributes (the children). predesigned reports in MicroStrategy Desktop or in MicroStrategy Web. © 2007 MicroStrategy. a report allows users to query for data. and then present it in a visually pleasing manner.

metric. 2) The layout or structure of a database system. that relates the information in the logical data model and physical warehouse schema to the MicroStrategy environment. schema object A MicroStrategy object created. and transformations. Schema objects directly reflect the warehouse structure and include attributes. a primary key that requires only one column to uniquely identify a record within a table. operators. and so forth. server definition A MicroStrategy object stored in the metadata containing information about the configuration of an Intelligence Server. . 422 row © 2007 MicroStrategy. These objects are developed in MicroStrategy Architect. the schema defines the tables. tables.Glossary Project Design Guide row The horizontal axis of a report. The attribute and fact columns in those tables are considered part of the schema itself. hierarchies. functions. shortcut object A MicroStrategy object that represents a link to any other MicroStrategy object such as report. In relational databases. See also: • • axis column schema 1) The set of tables in a data warehouse associated with a logical data model. usually by a project designer. partition mappings. facts. which can be accessed from MicroStrategy Desktop. and the relationships between fields and tables. Inc. simple key In a relational database. server instance The combination of an Intelligence Server running with a particular server definition. the fields in each table. filter.

drill page-by pivot sort surf sort 423 . Structured Query The query language standardized in 1986 by the American Language (SQL) National Standards Institute (ANSI) and used to request information from tables in a relational database and to manipulate the tables’ structure and data.Project Design Guide Glossary sort Arranging data according to some characteristic of the data itself (alphabetical descending. See also: • • • • • drill page-by pivot subtotal surf source system Any system or file that captures or holds data of interest. Inc. star schema A highly denormalized physical warehouse schema in which lookup tables are consolidated so that every attribute ID and description column for a given hierarchy exists in one table. statistics tables Tables that are used to record a variety of statistical information about the usage and performance of a MicroStrategy system. subtotal A totaling operation performed for a portion of a result set. numeric ascending. and so forth). See also: • • • • • © 2007 MicroStrategy.

This field cannot be modified from the product since it is actually stored in the warehouse. and functions to existing analysis objects. and so on) that defines the columns of data to be included in the result set. The layout and format of these objects are defined within the template's view definition. . metrics. 424 surf © 2007 MicroStrategy. table size The estimated size of a database table in terms of number of rows. See also: • • • • • drill page-by pivot sort subtotal system hierarchy The superset hierarchy containing all attributes in a project.Glossary Project Design Guide surf To add filters. This is needed to uniquely identify each table saved in the project when comparing table information in the metadata to the real one in the warehouse. attribute elements. metrics. Compare user hierarchy. table name space A field that is read from the warehouse catalog and used to organize databases. Each table object in the metadata stores the name space or owner from which it came. it is not explicitly created but is automatically deduced by the MicroStrategy platform from all information available to it. Unlike a browse hierarchy. custom groups. attributes. Inc. template The data definition portion of the template consists of the group of objects (attribute.

For example. user hierarchy A named set of attributes and their relationships. Although the vast majority are based on time.Project Design Guide Glossary transformation A schema object that maps a specified time period to another time period. a transformation can also map different objects. such as this year versus last year or current date versus month-to-date. transformation 425 . such as defunct product codes to new ones. threshold Used to create conditional formatting for metric values. transformation metric An otherwise simple metric that takes the properties of the transformation applied to it. virtual cube 1) In an OLAP data model. format that cell to have a blue background with bold type. a conceptual. a virtual cube does not perform data retrieval and consequently lacks the performance problems and size limitations associated with a physical cube. such as current month minus one month. For example. Inc. arranged in specific sequences for a logical business organization. Time transformations are used in metrics to compare values at different times. applying an offset value. but a definition of the virtual cube structure is stored in MicroStrategy metadata. Unlike a physical cube. 2) The result of mapping a logical data model to an OLE DB for OLAP multidimensional model after hierarchies and metrics have been selected from a project. Add a transformation for last year and the metric now calculates last year’s total sales. A virtual cube maps MicroStrategy objects such as hierarchies and metrics to OLE DB for OLAP objects. © 2007 MicroStrategy. They are user-defined and are used to define the browse and drill relationships between attributes. a metric calculates total sales. if revenue is greater than $200. No physical cube is created or loaded. multidimensional representation of data.

Inc.Glossary Project Design Guide 426 virtual cube © 2007 MicroStrategy. .

212 aggregate function defined on 247 aggregate table defined on 241 advantages 242 base table 244 compression ratio 248 effectiveness 248 integrate into project 249 logical table size 249 parent-child relationship 246 pre-aggregation 243 query frequency 246 aggregate-aware 249 aggregation defined on 243 degree of 244 dense 244 dynamic 243 sparse 244 alias attribute column 156 © 2007 MicroStrategy. 180 allocation expression 121 Analysis Services 2000 catalog 339 connecting to 337 DSI 339 metadata models 317 relating objects to MicroStrategy 317 URL 339 Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy cube 319 database 318 database instance 338 dimension 319. 320 level 321 member property 321 relating objects 317 Analysis Services 2005 catalog 342 connecting to 340 DSI 342 hierarchy 326 relating objects to MicroStrategy 322 URL 342 427 . Inc. fact column 96.INDEX A accessing Project Creation Assistant 78 Warehouse Catalog 219 adding tables to a project 79 aerial perspective of hierarchy 200. 105 table 178.

MicroStrategy 294 atomic defined on 244 attribute defined on 10 Attribute Creation Wizard 129 Attribute Editor 135 browse form 190 cardinality 35 child 24 column alias 156 component.Index Project Design Guide Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy cube 322 database 323 database instance 341 dimension 325 level 326 member 326 member property 327 perspective 324 relating objects 322 analysis. Attribute Creation Wizard about 129 using 130 Attribute Editor about 135 creating attribute forms 146 creating attributes 136 updating hierarchies 197 attribute element defined on 23 about 140 © 2007 MicroStrategy. report display form 190 role. See report display form and browse form. 428 . derived attribute 150 derived expression 150 display 189 element. Inc. heterogeneous mapping 153 identifying 30 implicit. attribute constant 155 in hierarchy 25 joint child relationship 171 many-to-many relationship 160. See attribute relationship. compound 183 compound key 184 creating in Project Creation Assistant 130 creating using Attribute Editor 136 cross-dimensional. See attribute role. See joint-child relationship. See attribute form. 128 qualification 253 ratio 35 relationship. See report display form and browse form. 164 MicroStrategy to Analysis Services 2000 321 MicroStrategy to Analysis Services 2005 326 MicroStrategy to Essbase 315 MicroStrategy to SAP BW 307 multiple counting in relationship 166 nonrelated 161 one-to-many relationship 160 one-to-one relationship 160 overview 22 parent 24 properties 127. See attribute element. expression 127 filtering in a hierarchy 203 form. time-series 257 application for Essbase 313 application-level partition defined on 251 architecture. simple expression 148 system hierarchy 159 attribute component.

characteristic attribute vs. See hierarchy. attribute form 307 characteristic value 307 characteristics. SAP BW 300 child attribute 24 class. See hierarchy. See column data type. Inc. . derived fact 47 description 41 fact 41 heterogeneous naming 49 homogeneous naming 50 ID 41 physical warehouse schema 40.Project Design Guide Index for Analysis Services 2000 321 for Analysis Services 2005 326 for Essbase 316 for SAP BW 307 overview 23 attribute form defined on 37 creating using Attribute Editor 146 display 189 expression 147 for Analysis Services 2000 321 for Analysis Services 2005 327 for Essbase 316 for SAP BW 307 group 186 qualification 253 attribute relationship defined on 24 about 159 as property of attribute 127 identifying 31 in lookup table 44 overview 24 attribute role defined on 175 automatic recognition 179 automatic recognition of 177 explicit table alias 178. 223 base fact column 47 data type. column defined on 41. 180 authenticating OLAP cube reports 297 automatic attribute role recognition 177 about 207 enabling in a hierarchy 209 building a logical data model 26 business intelligence (BI) system defined on 1 C calculating growth percentage 257 variance 257 calculating logical table sizes 231 cardinality for an attribute 35 Cartesian join 159 catalog for Analysis Services 2000 318 for Analysis Services 2005 323 for Essbase 313 for SAP BW 304 SQL 234 category. 41 column alias attribute 156 429 B base fact column 47 base table defined on 244 pre-aggregation 243 BI architecture 2 browse attribute 207 form 190 browsing © 2007 MicroStrategy.

105 column data type changed 240 manually setting for OLAP cube 352 compound attribute defined on 183 creating 184 compound key defined on 42 and compound attributes 184 compound metric. creating for OLAP cube 359 compression ratio defined on 248 Configuration Wizard 71 connecting to a database 227 to Analysis Services 2000 337 to Analysis Services 2005 340 to Essbase 334 to SAP BW 327 consolidating lookup tables 58 constant attribute 155 creating attributes 136 compound attributes 184 compound metric for OLAP cube 359 facts 87 logical data model 26 project 75 creating hierarchies 194 cross product join 116 cross-dimensional attribute. read operations 227 secondary 225 database instance defined on 67 for Analysis Services 2000 338 for Analysis Services 2005 341 for Essbase 335 for SAP BW 329 for SAP BW (UNIX/Linux) 333 database management system 233 degradation defined on 118 dense aggregation 244 derived 430 © 2007 MicroStrategy. . Inc. See joint child relationship. See logical data model.Index Project Design Guide fact 96. 209 data model. See project source. See database instance. cube 319 for Analysis Services 2000 319 for Analysis Services 2005 324 for Essbase 314 for SAP BW 304 mapping 349 customizing catalog SQL 233 D Data Explorer defined on 209 about 209 enabling hierarchy browsing 196. data provider. data slice 253 data source defined on 6 data type and mapping 395 Big Decimal 400 changed in column 240 high-precision 400 warehouse catalog 397 data warehouse defined on 5 and physical schema 39 connecting to 72 schema type 51 structure 51 Warehouse Catalog 218 database 323 connection operations 227 custom login 227 gateway support 225 instance.

See entity relationship diagram. 6 F fact defined on 85 allocation expression 121 base fact column 47 column defined on 41 column alias 96. 105 creating 87 cross product join 116 degradation defined on 118 derived 99 derived fact column 47 disallowing 122 expression 98 extension 107 Fact Creation Wizard 88 fact definition 96. transformation. direct access approach 292 disallowing fact entry level 122 drilling using hierarchies 209 dynamic aggregation 243 dynamic relationship defined on 247 E element. 320 for Analysis Services 2005 325 for Essbase 314. attribute 140 entity relationship diagram (ERD) defined on 29 entity. See MicroStrategy Desktop. dimension for Analysis Services 2000 319. See hierarchy. 180 expression map 98 expression. entry level defined on 87 entry point 205 ERD. 315 level 315 © 2007 MicroStrategy. transformation. Inc. example data model sample 26 physical schema 289 project 267 table data sample 225 explicit table alias 178.Project Design Guide Index attribute 150 fact 99 fact column 47 description column defined on 41 Desktop. 92 fact entry level 87 431 . Essbase catalog 337 connecting to 334 database instance 335 DSI (DataSourceInfo) 336 metadata models 311 relating objects to MicroStrategy 311 URL 336 Essbase to MicroStrategy application 313 database 313 dimension 314. and loading. See extraction. 97 Fact Editor 88. level 107 extraction. member 316 relating objects 311 ETL. and loading (ETL) process defined on 4. fact 98 expression-based transformation 259 creating 261 member expressions 264 member tables 263 extension. 315 for SAP BW 306 See also hierarchy.

200. See fact table.Index Project Design Guide fact relation 114 heterogeneous fact column 102 identifying 29 implicit 99 in hierarchy 25 level extension 96. fact column defined on 41 base 47 derived 47 heterogeneous 102 Fact Creation Wizard 88 Fact Editor 88. 93 fact expression 98 fact table defined on 86 column naming 51 in a warehouse 46 level 48 overview 21 filtered hierarchy 203 flag 172 form attribute form 143 expression 147 group 186 G gateway support for database 225 growth percentage calculation 257 H heterogeneous attribute mapping 153 column naming defined on 49 432 fact column 102 partition mapping 252 hierarchy defined on 193 aerial perspective 212 and the Data Explorer 196. 209 Attribute Editor 197 attribute filter 203 attributes in 25 browse attribute 207 browsing 207 browsing. 210 Hierarchy Viewer 200 in a logical data model 25 in SAP BW 300 limited 202 locked 201 organization 198 Project Creation Assistant 197 ragged 355 See also dimension. 210 Hierarchy Viewer 200 © 2007 MicroStrategy. structure 199 system hierarchy 197 unbalanced 355 user hierarchy 197 Hierarchy Editor 198. enabling 209 creating 194 defining 32 displaying 201 drilling 209 entry point 205 facts in 25 filtering attributes in 203 for Analysis Services 2000 320 for Analysis Services 2005 326 for Essbase 315 for SAP BW 306 Hierarchy Editor 198. 107 overview 21 table 46 table relation 110 table. . Inc. 200.

custom 227 lookup table defined on 43 attribute relationships and 44 consolidating 58 many-to-many relationship 44 one-to-one relationship 44 K key compound 42 figures 300 simple 42 M managed object 349 managed objects OLAP cubes 348 many-to-many relationship defined on 160 design considerations 164 example 32 lookup table 44 relate table 45 many-to-many transformation 433 L level extension 107 for Analysis Services 2000 321 © 2007 MicroStrategy. 254 Hyperion Essbase. 330 join. cross product 116 joint child attribute transformation metrics 265 joint child relationship 171 joint children defined on 171 for Analysis Services 2005 326 for Essbase 315 virtual 306 limited hierarchy 202 locating OLAP cubes 348 locked hierarchy defined on 201 logical data model defined on 17 attributes in 24 building 26 cardinality 35 conventions 33 design factors 59 for MicroStrategy Tutorial 271. 304 InfoObjects 299 InfoProviders 299 international technical support xxiii J Java Connector 328.Project Design Guide Index highly denormalized schema 57 higher level lookup tables 58 highly normalized schema 52 homogeneous column naming 50 partition mapping 252. . I implicit attribute 155 fact 99 importing OLAP cubes 343. 344 InfoCube 303. Inc. 280 ratio 35 sample 26 schema type 51 source of structure 29 unique identifier 34 Logical Table Editor 250 logical table size 249 login. See Essbase.

member attributes 263 expressions 263 for Analysis Services 2000 321 for Analysis Services 2005 326 for Essbase 316 property. MicroStrategy architecture 294 object model 7i 295 object model 8 296 MicroStrategy Desktop 11 MicroStrategy metadata. . See metadata. Inc. See Project Builder. See MultiDimensional Expressions. MicroStrategy to Analysis Services 2000 317 attribute 321 attribute element 321 attribute form 321 catalog 318 cube 319 dimension 320 hierarchy 320 MicroStrategy to Analysis Services 2005 322 attribute 326 attribute element 326 attribute form 327 catalog 323 cube 324 dimension 325 hierarchy 326 MicroStrategy to Essbase 311 434 © 2007 MicroStrategy. See Analysis Services 2005. MicroStrategy Project Builder. See Analysis Services 2000. tables 263 member property for Analysis Services 2000 321 for Analysis Services 2005 327 metadata defined on 8 connecting to 72 shell 65 table 71 metadata model Analysis Services 2000 317 Essbase 311 SAP BW 302 metadata partition mapping attribute qualification 253 data slice 253 overview 251 versus warehouse partition mapping 255 metadata shell defined on 65 metric creating compound metrics for OLAP cube data 359 creating with custom MDX 359 prompts within custom MDX 366 removing compound metrics from OLAP cubes 368 transformations 258 Microsoft Analysis Services 2000.Index Project Design Guide and table-based transformations 259 double-counting 264 mapping OLAP cubes 343 OLAP cubes examples 358 schema objects in Warehouse Catalog 231 mapping type about 264 many-to-many 264 one-to-one 264 MDX. Microsoft Analysis Services 2005. See member property.

viewing 279 logical data model 271. 343 OLAP Cube Editor 349 OLAP cube reports authentication 297 managed objects 348 OLTP 3 one-to-many relationship defined on 160 example 31 relate table 45 N nonrelated attributes 161 normalized schema 53. See OLAP cube. general 280 view physical schema 289 MicroStrategy Web Universal 13 migrating tables 232 moderately normalized schema 54 MOLAP defined on 242 multidimensional data model. user 10 ODS object 299 OLAP BAPI certification 293 Cube Catalog 309 Cube Editor 349 cube. MultiDimensional Expressions about 291 remapping objects 356 multiple counting 164 MultiProviders 299 O object models in MicroStrategy 7i 295 in MicroStrategy 8 296 using SAP direct access 296 object.Project Design Guide Index attribute 315 attribute element 316 attribute form 316 catalog 313 cube 314 dimension 314 hierarchy 315 MicroStrategy to SAP BW 302 attribute 307 attribute element 307 attribute form 307 catalog 304 cube 304 dimension 306 hierarchy 306 MicroStrategy Tutorial 267 data model. 55 © 2007 MicroStrategy. OLAP cube defined on 343 creating compound metrics 359 creating metrics with custom MDX 359 importing 344 integration 292 manually setting column data type 352 mapping 349 prompts within custom MDX metrics 366 remapping 356 removing 347 removing compound metrics 368 searching for 348 source 291 unbalanced and ragged hierarchies 355 OLAP Cube Catalog 309. Inc. 435 . 280 physical warehouse schema 281 schema. See logical data model.

255 partition base table 255 server-level 251 table 222. integrating 248 creating 75 data warehouse 79 integrating aggregate tables 248 managing tables for 220 planning 76 Project Builder 74 Project Creation Assistant 78. Inc. See OLTP. See partition mapping table. 255 partition mapping defined on 250 application-level 251 attribute qualification 253 data slice 253 heterogeneous 252 homogeneous 252. defined on 255 types 251 warehouse 254. 436 pre-aggregation defined on 243 aggregate table 241 base table 244 compression ratio 248 integrate aggregate table 249 logical table size 249 parent-child relationship 246 query frequency 246 prefix 230 project defined on 14 adding tables to 79. opening Project Creation Assistant 78 Warehouse Catalog 219 Operational Data Store object. 255 PBT. 254 metadata 251. See OLAP. online transaction processing. perspective 324 physical warehouse schema defined on 39 design factors 59 for MicroStrategy Tutorial 281 sample 289 planning a project 76 PMT. See partition base table. P parent attribute 24 parent-child relationship 246 dynamic 247 overview 25 static 247 partition base table defined on 251. 80 aggregate table. 80 removing tables from 80 sample project 267 schema 216 source. in metrics with custom MDX 366 properties for SAP BW 311 Q qualification for an attribute form 253 quality. See project source tables. 197 project source defined on 65 connecting to 72 creating 77 prompt. managing 220 Warehouse Catalog 79 warehouse tables in 79 Project Builder 74 Project Creation Assistant 77. .Index Project Design Guide one-to-one relationship defined on 160 lookup table 44 online analytical processing. See joint child relationship.See ODS object. © 2007 MicroStrategy.

343 query cubes 299 relating objects to MicroStrategy 302 SAP. Inc. 308 SAP BW to MicroStrategy characteristic attribute 307 characteristic value 307 characteristics 305 hierarchy 306 InfoCube 303. 330 key figures 300 mapping cubes 349 metadata models 302 OLAP Cube Catalog 309. 437 .Project Design Guide Index query cubes 299 query frequency 246 R ragged hierarchy 355 ratio for an attribute 35 RDBMS defined on 5 server-level partitioning 251 read operations for database 227 relate table 45 related attributes. 333 hierarchies 300 InfoObjects 299 InfoProviders 299 Java Connector 328. 304 relating objects 302 virtual level 306 SAP. relating objects to MicroStrategy from Analysis Services 2000 317 from Analysis Services 2005 322 from Essbase 311 from SAP BW 302 relation. configuring 331 schema for project 216 highly denormalized 57 highly normalized 53 MicroStrategy Tutorial project 280 moderately normalized 55 object 14 physical warehouse defined on 39 star 58 © 2007 MicroStrategy. See RDBMS. See attribute relationship.sh 331 structures 311 terminology 298 variable properties 309 variables 300. fact 114 relational database management system.sh. relationship dynamic 247 many-to-many 164 parent-child 246 relate table 45 static 247 remapping OLAP cubes 356 removing compound metric from OLAP cube 368 OLAP cube 347 table from project 80 report display form 190 row count for table 230 S SAP BW characteristics 300 connecting to 327 on UNIX/Linux 330 on Windows 328 database instance 329.

261 many-to-many 259 mapping types 264 member attributes 263 member expressions 263 member tables 263 438 © 2007 MicroStrategy. 5. 228 name spaces 230 physical warehouse schema 40 prefixes 230 primary key 42 relation 110 row counts 230 sample data 225 simple key 42 size defined on 249 summary 241 transformation 259 updating structure 223 viewing structure 222 warehouse tables in Project Creation Assistant 79 table-based member expressions 264 transformations 259 creating 260 member tables 263 technical support xxv international xxiii text fact. time-series analysis 257 transformation defined on 258 components 263 double-counting 264 expression-based 259. See technical support. See SQL. See joint child relationship. See schema type. . Inc. summary table 241 support. system hierarchy 159. 44 managing for a project 221 migrating 232 name space 222.Index Project Design Guide type. updating 217 schema type 51 comparison 60 searching for OLAP cubes 348 server-level partitioning 251 simple expression 148 key 42 source system defined on 3. 86 key 42 Logical Table Editor 250 lookup 43. 180 calculating logical sizes 231 calculating size 231 compound key 42 fact table defined on 46. 28 sparse aggregation 244 SQL defined on 5 attributes and columns in 22 catalog 233 default catalog SQL 239 facts and columns in 21 star schema 58 static relationship defined on 247 structure in SAP BW query cube 311 of hierarchy 199 of table 222 Structured Query Language. defined on 197 T table adding to a project 79 aggregate 241 alias 178.

260 transformation metric defined on 258 joint child attributes 265 troubleshooting column data type changed 240 column missing 241 data warehouse connection 239 tables missing 240 V variables overview 300 properties. W Warehouse Catalog accessing 219 column missing 241 connection operations 227 data types 240 database gateway support 225 default catalog SQL 239 displaying information 230 managing 221 mapping schema objects 231 read operations 227 troubleshooting 239 updating table structure 223 usage and settings 218 viewing table structure 222 warehouse partition mapping overview 254 partition base table 255 partition mapping table 255 versus metadata partition mapping 255 warehouse table in Project Creation Assistant 79 439 . connecting to SAP BW 330 updating project schema 217 updating table structure 223 URL for Analysis Services 2000 339 for Analysis Services 2005 342 for Essbase 336 user defined object. user hierarchy defined on 197 browse attribute 207 browsing 207 browsing. metrics 258 one-to-one mapping types 264 table-based 259.Project Design Guide Index metric. enabling 209 creating 194 displaying 201 drilling 209 entry point 205 filtering attributes in 203 limited 202 locked 201 structure 199 user object 10 using attribute form vs characteristic attribute 158 © 2007 MicroStrategy. See fact expression. See transformation metric. Inc. setting 311 supporting 308 variance calculation 257 viewing sample data model 279 sample table data 225 sample warehouse schema 289 table structure 222 virtual level 306 U unbalanced and ragged hierarchy 355 unique identifier 34 UNIX/Linux.

Inc.Index Project Design Guide warehouse. . physical schema defined on 39. 281 Windows. connecting to SAP BW 327 X XMLA 293 Analysis Services 2000 317 Analysis Services 2005 322 Essbase 312 provider for Analysis Services 2000 338 provider for Analysis Services 2005 341 provider for Essbase 335 440 © 2007 MicroStrategy.

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