Project Design Guide

Version: 8.1.1
Document Number: 09330811

Fourth Edition, September 2007, version 8.1.1
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CONTENTS
Description of Guide ................................................................ xiii About this book .............................................................................xv How to find business scenarios and examples .......................xv Prerequisites .......................................................................... xvi Who should use this guide..................................................... xvi Resources.................................................................................... xvi Documentation....................................................................... xvi Education ............................................................................. xxiii Consulting ............................................................................ xxiii International support ............................................................ xxiii Technical Support ................................................................. xxv Feedback .................................................................................... xxx

1. BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform

Introduction.................................................................................. 1 Business intelligence architecture ................................................. 2 Source systems for data collection .......................................... 3 Extraction, transformation, and loading process...................... 4 Data warehouse for data storage and relational design .......... 5 The MicroStrategy platform ........................................................... 7 MicroStrategy metadata........................................................... 8 MicroStrategy Intelligence Server .......................................... 11 MicroStrategy Desktop........................................................... 11 MicroStrategy Web and Web Universal ................................. 13 MicroStrategy project ............................................................. 14 The project design process.......................................................... 15

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Project Design Guide

2. The Logical Data Model

Introduction................................................................................ 17 Facts: Business data and measurements.................................... 21 Attributes: Context for your levels of data.................................... 22 Attribute elements: Data level values..................................... 23 Attribute relationships ............................................................ 24 Hierarchies: Data relationship organization ................................. 25 Sample data model...................................................................... 26 Building a logical data model ....................................................... 26 User requirements ................................................................. 27 Existing source systems ........................................................ 28 Converting source data to analytical data.............................. 28 Logical data modeling conventions.............................................. 33 Unique identifiers ................................................................... 34 Cardinalities and ratios .......................................................... 35 Attribute forms ....................................................................... 36

3. Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model

Introduction................................................................................ 39 Columns: Data identifiers and values .......................................... 41 Tables: Physical groupings of related data.................................. 41 Uniquely identifying data in tables with key structures........... 42 Lookup tables: Attribute storage ............................................ 43 Relate tables: A unique case for relating attributes ............... 45 Fact tables: Fact data and levels of aggregation ................... 46 Homogeneous versus heterogeneous column naming.......... 49 Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage......................................................................................... 51 Highly normalized schema: Minimal storage space............... 52 Moderately normalized schema: Balanced storage space and query performance.......................................................... 54 Highly denormalized schema: Enhanced query performance........................................................................... 56 Design trade-offs ......................................................................... 59 Schema type comparisons .......................................................... 60

4. Creating and Configuring a Project

Introduction................................................................................ 63 Project connectivity components ................................................. 64 MicroStrategy metadata......................................................... 64 Metadata shell ....................................................................... 65 Project source ........................................................................ 65

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Database instance ................................................................. 67 Project.................................................................................... 67 Summary of project connectivity ............................................ 68 Creating a project ........................................................................ 68 Creating the metadata repository ................................................ 71 Connecting to the metadata repository and data source ............. 71 Connecting to the metadata repository .................................. 72 Connecting to a data source .................................................. 72 Creating the project ..................................................................... 73 Creating a test or prototype project using Project Builder...... 74 Creating a production project using Project Creation Assistant ................................................................................ 75 Creating facts and attributes........................................................ 82 Configuring additional schema-level settings .............................. 83 Deploying your project and creating reports ................................ 84

5. The Building Blocks of Introduction................................................................................ 85 Business Data: Facts Creating facts............................................................................... 87 Simultaneously creating multiple, simple facts ...................... 88 Creating and modifying simple and advanced facts .............. 91 The structure of facts ................................................................... 96 How facts are defined ................................................................. 97 Mapping physical columns to facts: Fact expressions ........... 98 Fact column names and data types: Column aliases ................ 105 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions.................................................................................. 107 Defining a join on fact tables using table relations............... 110 Defining a join on fact tables using fact relations................. 114 Forcing facts to relate to attributes: Using cross product joins ........................................................................ 116 Lowering the level of fact data: Fact degradations .............. 118 Disallowing the reporting of a fact at a certain level............. 122

6. The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes

Introduction.............................................................................. 125 Creating attributes ..................................................................... 129 Simultaneously creating multiple attributes.......................... 129 Adding and modifying attributes .......................................... 134 Unique sets of attribute information: Attribute elements ............ 140

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Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms ......... 143 Attribute form properties ...................................................... 146 Attribute form expressions ................................................... 147 Modifying attribute data types: Column aliases ................... 156 Attribute forms versus separate attributes ........................... 158 Attribute relationships ................................................................ 159 Viewing and editing the parents and children of attributes .............................................................................. 161 Supporting many-to-many and joint child relationships ....... 163 Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles ......... 175 Specifying attribute roles ..................................................... 177 Attributes with more than one ID column: Compound attributes .................................................................................... 183 Example: Creating compound attributes.............................. 184 Collections of attribute forms: Form groups............................... 186 Supporting compound attributes .......................................... 187 Displaying and organizing related forms.............................. 188 Using attributes to browse and report on data........................... 189 Setting how attribute forms are displayed by default ........... 191

7. Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes

Introduction.............................................................................. 193 Creating user hierarchies........................................................... 194 Types of hierarchies .................................................................. 196 System hierarchy: Project schema definition ....................... 197 User hierarchies: Logical business relationships ................. 197 Hierarchy organization............................................................... 198 Hierarchy structure............................................................... 199 Viewing hierarchies: Hierarchy Viewer ................................ 200 Configuring hierarchy display options........................................ 200 Controlling the display of attribute elements ........................ 201 Filtering attributes in a hierarchy.......................................... 203 Entry point............................................................................ 205 Hierarchy browsing .............................................................. 206 Using the Hierarchy Viewer and Table Viewer .......................... 211 Using the Hierarchy Viewer ................................................. 211 Using the Table Viewer........................................................ 213

8. Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project viii

Introduction.............................................................................. 215 Updating your MicroStrategy project schema............................ 216

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Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog ...................................................................................... 218 What should I know before I use the Warehouse Catalog? .............................................................................. 219 Accessing the Warehouse Catalog...................................... 219 Adding and removing tables for a project ............................ 220 Managing warehouse and project tables ............................. 221 Modifying data warehouse connection and operation defaults ................................................................................ 226 Customizing catalog SQL statements.................................. 233 Troubleshooting table and column messages ..................... 239 Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables ............. 241 When to use aggregate tables............................................. 242 Determining the frequency of queries at a specific level...... 246 Considering any related parent-child relationships .............. 246 Compression ratio................................................................ 247 Creating aggregate tables ................................................... 248 The size of tables in a project: Logical table size................. 249 Dividing tables to increase performance: Partition mapping...... 250 Server versus application partitioning .................................. 250 Metadata partition mapping ................................................. 251 Warehouse partition mapping .............................................. 254 Metadata versus warehouse partition mapping ................... 255

9. Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons

Introduction.............................................................................. 257 Creating transformations ........................................................... 258 Expression-based versus table-based transformations ....... 259 Building a table-based transformation ................................. 260 Building an expression-based transformation...................... 261 Transformation components ...................................................... 263 Transformation metrics and joint child attributes ....................... 265

A. MicroStrategy Tutorial Introduction.............................................................................. 267 What is the MicroStrategy Tutorial?........................................... 267 MicroStrategy Tutorial data model............................................. 271 Geography hierarchy ........................................................... 272 Products hierarchy ............................................................... 274 Customers hierarchy............................................................ 276 Time hierarchy ..................................................................... 277 Promotions hierarchy ........................................................... 278

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................................................................................................................................................. .......................... 330 Connecting to Essbase servers ...... 292 Understanding MicroStrategy architecture.......... 337 Configuring the XMLA Provider .................................................... 287 Sales fact tables ..................... 338 Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers.................................................................................................................... Inc............................................................. 343 Importing OLAP cubes....................... 311 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy.................................. 294 Authentication ... 340 Configuring the XMLA Provider .............. 344 Mapping OLAP cubes ..................................... 280 Geography schema .........................................................Contents Project Design Guide MicroStrategy Tutorial schema ............................... Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Introduction.................... 302 Supporting SAP BW variables .... 283 Products schema ........................... 317 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy....................................... 349 Creating metrics from OLAP cube data with MDX and compound metric techniques ............................ 308 SAP BW structures ........................................................ 327 Connecting to SAP BW servers on Windows ......... 322 Connecting to SAP BW servers................................................................................. 286 Promotions schema ...................................................................................... 291 MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources ........................................... 284 Customers schema ............ 298 Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy ...................................................... 341 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy............ 285 Time schema ..................... 288 B.................................................... 334 Configuring the XMLA Provider ............... 311 Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy .................................................................... 288 Miscellaneous fact tables.......................................................... 334 Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers................................................. 297 Understanding the SAP BW terminology ......................... 359 x © 2007 MicroStrategy..................................................................................................................................................................... 287 Inventory fact tables............................... 328 Connecting to SAP BW servers on UNIX and Linux....

................. 400 Using the Big Decimal data type......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 397 Format types...................................... 395 MicroStrategy data types ........................................ 395 Mapping of external data types to MicroStrategy data types.......... 427 © 2007 MicroStrategy.. 403 Index ...... Data Types Introduction............................ 376 Business case 1: Distinct attribute lookup table................. 370 How should I use logical tables? .......................................................................................................... 369 Logical tables.......... 376 Business case 2: Attribute form expression across multiple tables ... xi .... 371 Creating logical tables ....................... 373 Using SQL for logical views ............................ 401 Glossary ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 399 Big Decimal........................................................................ Inc........ 390 D........... Logical Tables Introduction.......Project Design Guide Contents C......................................................................................................... 389 Business case 5: Outer joins between attribute lookup tables... 377 Business case 3: Slowly changing dimensions............................. 378 Business case 4: One-to-many transformation tables ......................................... 398 Data type and format type compatibility... 375 Logical view examples......................................

Inc.Contents Project Design Guide xii © 2007 MicroStrategy. .

describes the major components involved in project creation and guides you through the process of creating a project in MicroStrategy. provides a brief introduction to business intelligence architecture and some of the main components within the MicroStrategy platform.PREFACE Description of Guide The MicroStrategy Project Design Guide provides comprehensive information on planning. The Logical Data Model. Chapter 3. xiii . BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform. Chapter 2. Chapter 4. creating. including the following: • Chapter 1. explores logical data modeling and how it can help you identify the different elements within your business data and plan your project. Creating and Configuring a Project. Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model. Inc. • • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. and modifying a project in MicroStrategy and covers a wide range of project-related topics. describes components of the physical warehouse schema such as columns and tables and explores how you can map components from the logical data model to components in the database to form the physical warehouse schema.

describes methods you can implement to better optimize and maintain your project for both the short and long term. provides a conceptual look at the structure of attributes and explores different types of attributes and how they relate to your business data. describes the structure of facts and explores different types of facts and how they relate to your business data. Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes. and a set of demonstration applications designed to illustrate the features of the MicroStrategy platform. . Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources. or Hyperion® Essbase® for use within MicroStrategy. discusses the different types of hierarchies in MicroStrategy.Preface Project Design Guide • Chapter 5. The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts. This chapter also covers all the steps necessary to create attributes for your project. Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project. Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons. • • xiv © 2007 MicroStrategy. discusses logical tables. • • • • The appendixes contain the following additional reference information. and how to create logical tables and views in MicroStrategy. which you may or may not require depending on your specific needs: • Appendix A. Logical Tables. Appendix B. MicroStrategy Tutorial. discusses the different types of transformations in MicroStrategy and describes how you can create transformations in your project. Chapter 8. Chapter 7. Microsoft® Analysis Services. This chapter also covers all the steps necessary to create facts for your project. Chapter 6. Chapter 9. The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes. Appendix C. Inc. which includes a metadata and warehouse. the different types of logical tables. provides information on the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. provides information about connecting to an OLAP Cube source such as SAP® BW. and explains how you can create user hierarchies to help organize and enhance your project.

each from a different business area. Business scenarios can be found in the Analytics Modules. Inc. Data Types. which is MicroStrategy’s sample warehouse. which are a set of sample analytics. metadata. and customer analysis. The Analytics Modules are part of a product bundle called the MicroStrategy Business Intelligence Developer Kit (BIDK). The following sections provide the location of additional examples. For examples of reporting functionality. Each module comes with a sample data model and a collection of packaged reports that allow dozens of analytical variations. provides information about the different data types in MicroStrategy. and describe the user roles the information in this book was designed for. Detailed examples of advanced reporting functionality can be found in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. How to find business scenarios and examples Within this guide. Example analysis includes such business areas as financial reporting.Project Design Guide Preface • Appendix D. About this book This book is divided into chapters that begin with a brief overview of the chapter’s content. many of the concepts discussed are accompanied by business scenarios or other descriptive examples. Information about the MicroStrategy Tutorial can be found in the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. About this book xv . see the MicroStrategy Tutorial. © 2007 MicroStrategy. list prerequisites for using this book. and project. human resources.

these two information sources provide different types of information. .Preface Project Design Guide Prerequisites Before working with this document. Manuals: MicroStrategy manuals provide • • • introductory information concepts checklists xvi Resources © 2007 MicroStrategy. and modify a MicroStrategy project using the MicroStrategy platform. create. you should be familiar with: • • the information provided in the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide the nature and structure of the data you want to use for your business intelligence application Who should use this guide This document is designed for all users who require an understanding of how to design. as described below. the following business intelligence application users should read this guide: • • Project Designers Database Administrators Resources Documentation MicroStrategy provides both manuals and online help. Inc. In short.

Linux. © 2007 MicroStrategy. The procedure to access them is below. If you do not have Acrobat Reader installed on your computer.0 or higher is required to view these documents. • MicroStrategy Quick Start Guide Overview of the installation and evaluation process. and using the MicroStrategy Evaluation Edition of the software. Resources xvii . • MicroStrategy Upgrade Guide Instructions to upgrade existing MicroStrategy products. and Analysis Products • MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide Information to install and configure MicroStrategy products on Windows. MicroStrategy Overview • Introduction to MicroStrategy: Evaluation Guide Instructions for installing.com. Reporting. Inc. Adobe Acrobat Reader 4. Manuals for Query. UNIX. you can download it from www.Project Design Guide Preface • • examples high-level procedures to get started Online help: MicroStrategy online help provides • • detailed steps to perform procedures descriptions of each option on every software screen Manuals The following manuals are available from your CD-ROM or the machine where MicroStrategy was installed.adobe. and HP platforms. as well as basic maintenance guidelines. configuring. and additional resources.

tune. hierarchies. . to analyze. • MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide Instructions to get started with MicroStrategy Desktop and MicroStrategy Web. and Outlook. PowerPoint®. Covers installation and configuration of MicroStrategy Mobile and how a designer working in MicroStrategy xviii Resources © 2007 MicroStrategy. building on information in the Basic Reporting Guide. and troubleshoot a MicroStrategy business intelligence system. Freeform SQL reports. maintain. • MicroStrategy Mobile User Guide Instructions for using MicroStrategy Mobile to view and analyze data. attributes. deploy. and understand facts. filters. Topics include reports. • MicroStrategy Report Services Document Creation Guide Instructions to design and create Report Services documents. and prompts. metrics. and prompts. • MicroStrategy Office User Guide Instructions for using MicroStrategy Office to work with MicroStrategy reports and documents in Microsoft® Excel. Inc. and how to analyze data in a report. and distribute business data. • MicroStrategy Project Design Guide Information to create and modify MicroStrategy projects. OLAP Cube reports. metrics.Preface Project Design Guide • MicroStrategy System Administration Guide Concepts and high-level steps to implement. transformations. building on information in the Basic Reporting Guide and Advanced Reporting Guide. format. Word. and perform other business tasks with MicroStrategy reports and documents on a mobile device. consolidations. custom groups. filters. advanced schemas. and project optimization. • MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide Instructions for advanced topics in the MicroStrategy system. Query Builder reports. Includes the basics for creating reports. Data Mining Services.

Project Design Guide Preface Desktop or MicroStrategy Web can create effective reports and documents for use with MicroStrategy Mobile. instructions to use functions in metrics. and troubleshoot Narrowcast Server. • MicroStrategy Narrowcast Server Installation and Configuration Guide Information to install and configure Narrowcast Server. tune. • MicroStrategy Web Services Administration Guide Concepts and tasks to install. Inc. examples of functions in business scenarios. Resources xix . • MicroStrategy Narrowcast Server Application Designer Guide Fundamentals of designing Narrowcast Server applications. configure. maintain. © 2007 MicroStrategy. and troubleshoot MicroStrategy Web Services. • MicroStrategy Narrowcast Server System Administrator Guide Concepts and high-level steps to implement. attribute forms. Manuals for Information Delivery and Alerting Products • MicroStrategy Narrowcast Server Getting Started Guide Instructions to work with the tutorial to learn Narrowcast Server interfaces and features. • MicroStrategy Functions Reference Function syntax and formula components. tune. filters. • MicroStrategy Narrowcast Server Upgrade Guide Instructions to upgrade an existing Narrowcast Server.

xx Resources © 2007 MicroStrategy. then Product Manuals. customization scenarios. To access installed online documentation 1 From the Windows Start menu. code samples. 2 Click the link for the desired manual. • MicroStrategy Web SDK The Web SDK is available in the MicroStrategy Developer Library. and embed Narrowcast Server functionality within other applications. Documents the Narrowcast Server Delivery Engine and Subscription Portal APIs.Preface Project Design Guide Manuals for Analytics Modules • • • • • • Business Intelligence Developer Kit (BIDK) Installation and Porting Guide Customer Analysis Module Reference Sales Force Analysis Module Reference Financial Reporting Analysis Module Reference Sales and Distribution Analysis Module Reference Human Resources Analysis Module Reference Software Development Kits • MicroStrategy Developer Library (MSDL) Information to understand the MicroStrategy SDK. choose Programs. Inc. . which is sold as part of the MicroStrategy SDK. • Narrowcast Server SDK Guide Instructions to customize Narrowcast Server functionality. object models. integrate Narrowcast Server with other systems. A Web page opens with a list of available manuals in PDF format. and so on. and the Narrowcast Server SPI. MicroStrategy. including details about architecture.

F1 key: Press F1 to see context-sensitive help addressing the function or task you are currently performing. Inc. click the Bookmarks and Page from the View menu. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Select Open this file from its current location. Online help MicroStrategy provides several ways to access online help: • • • Help button: Use the Help button at the bottom of most software screens to see context-sensitive help. Help menu: Select Contents and Index to see the main table of contents for the help system. Resources xxi .Project Design Guide Preface 3 Some documentation is provided in HTML help format. the File Download dialog box opens. If bookmarks are not visible on the left side of an Acrobat (PDF) document. When you select one of these guides. and click OK.

SHIFT+F1) A note icon indicates helpful information for specific situations. these should be read before continuing. UPPERCASE • keyboard command key (such as ENTER) • shortcut key (such as CTRL+V) Example: To bold the selected text. . Type bold Indicates • button names. Inc. check boxes. A warning icon alerts you to important information such as potential security risks. options. indicates variable information to be replaced by the user Example: The aggregation level is the level of calculation for the metric. press CTRL+B. Example: Type copy c:\filename d:\foldername\filename Courier font • • • • • • calculations code samples registry keys path and file names URLs messages displayed in the screen Example: Sum(revenue)/number of months. The following table lists these conventions. italic • new terms defined within the text and in the glossary • names of other product manuals • when part of a command syntax. + A keyboard command that calls for the use of more than one key (for example. Example: Type cmdmgr -f scriptfile. dialog boxes.scp and press ENTER.Preface Project Design Guide Documentation standards MicroStrategy online help and PDF manuals (available both online and in printed format) provides standards to help you identify concepts and procedures. and menus that are the focus of actions or part of a list of such GUI elements and their definitions • text to be entered by the user Example: Click Select Warehouse. lists. xxii Resources © 2007 MicroStrategy.

Offerings include complex security architecture designs. performance and tuning. visit www. A MicroStrategy business intelligence environment consists of the following components. currency symbols. and more. Many customers and partners from over 800 different organizations have benefited from MicroStrategy instruction. It also includes the availability of translated interfaces and documentation. For a detailed description of consulting offerings. decimal formats. visit www. International support MicroStrategy supports several locales.microstrategy. Support for a locale typically includes native database and operating system support.com/Consulting. The level of support is defined in terms of the components of a MicroStrategy business intelligence environment.com/Education.Project Design Guide Preface Education MicroStrategy Education Services provides a comprehensive curriculum and highly skilled education consultants. and statistics databases MicroStrategy Intelligence Server MicroStrategy Web server MicroStrategy Desktop client Web browser © 2007 MicroStrategy. strategic planning. and more.microstrategy. support for date formats. project and testing strategies and recommendations. For a detailed description of education offerings and course curriculums. Resources xxiii . Consulting MicroStrategy Consulting Services provides proven methods for delivering leading-edge technology solutions. Inc. metadata. collectively known as a configuration: • • • • • warehouse.

the Online Help is displayed in the same language that the user selects in the language prompt of the installation routine. German. . Please contact MicroStrategy Technical Support for more details. The following table lists the language selection possibilities for different installation cases. Chinese (simplified) and Swedish. Installation Fresh installation on a system in which MicroStrategy application has never been installed before Result The MicroStrategy Installation Wizard prompts you to select the language from the drop-down list. Repair or maintenance installation on a system on which MicroStrategy application has been installed before All subsequent executions of the installation routine are displayed in the language that you selected the first time you installed the product on the system.Preface Project Design Guide MicroStrategy is certified in homogeneous configurations (where all the components lie in the same locale) in the following languages: English (US).3 The user language preference that was set previously in version 7. In addition. translated versions of the online help files and product documentation are available in several of the above languages. Spanish. The user language in the product interface is the language that you select during installation. Japanese.2. Inc. French. The user language in the product interface is also the language that you selected the first time you installed the product on the system. Korean. Once the product is installed. xxiv Resources © 2007 MicroStrategy.2. A translated user interface is available in each of the above languages. MicroStrategy also provides limited support for heterogeneous configurations (where some of the components may lie in different locales). Portuguese (Brazilian). Upgrading an earlier installation from version 7.3 is the language of display of the installation routine and the user language of the product interface. Italian.

1. Paths to access each are described above. During installation. all subsequent executions of the installation routine for maintenance or for upgrade.microstrategy. and release notes. The installation routine is displayed in the selected language. online help. the installation Online Help is displayed in English only.2 or earlier. readme files.2. the MicroStrategy Installation Wizard prompts you to select the language from the drop-down list. including 7. the user language of the product interface language remains the same as the one set in the product interface before running the upgrade installation. However. Inc. 2 Consult the MicroStrategy Knowledge Base online at http://www.Project Design Guide Preface Installation Upgrading an earlier installation from version 7.com/support/ k_base/index. Besides. Completely uninstalling all the MicroStrategy products and installing the same version or a newer version If you uninstall all the products and install either the same version or a higher version again. Note: Even if you select a language from the language prompt in the installation routine. unless overridden by the command line parameter.x Result The MicroStrategy Installation Wizard prompts you to select the language from the drop-down list. Technical Support If you have questions about a specific MicroStrategy product.asp © 2007 MicroStrategy. Resources xxv . are displayed in the language that you selected during the upgrade installation. you should: 1 Consult the product guides. it has no effect on the default language of the product interfaces.

Preface Project Design Guide A technical administrator in your organization may be able to help you resolve your issues immediately. the Support Liaison may follow the steps below to ensure that issues are resolved quickly: 1 Verify that the issue is with MicroStrategy software and not a third party software.com/Support/ Expiration. Your company may request to change their Support Liaisons two times per year with prior written notice to MicroStrategy Technical Support. . All customer inquiries and case communications must come through these named individuals.com/ Support/Policies.asp. 2 Verify that the system is using a currently supported version of MicroStrategy software by checking the Product Support Expiration Schedule at http://www. MicroStrategy Technical Support may be contacted by your company’s Support Liaison.microstrategy.microstrategy. Your company may designate two employees to serve as their Support Liaisons. Refer to the terms of your purchase agreement to determine the type of support available to you. A Support Liaison is a person whom your company has designated as a point-of-contact with MicroStrategy’s support personnel. 3 If the resources listed in the steps above do not provide you with a solution. 4 Minimize the complexity of the system or project object definition to isolate the cause. To ensure the most effective and productive relationship with MicroStrategy Technical Support. Ensure issues are resolved quickly Before logging a case with MicroStrategy Technical Support. Inc. xxvi Resources © 2007 MicroStrategy. review the Policies and Procedures document posted at http://www. 3 Attempt to reproduce the issue and determine whether it occurs consistently. contact MicroStrategy Technical Support directly.

M. send e-mail or fax. These holidays reflect the national public holidays in each country. and Africa (EMEA) © 2007 MicroStrategy. or log a case using the Online Support Interface. when.com Fax: (703) 842–8709 Phone: (703) 848–8700 Hours: 9:00 A. Resources xxvii .com Fax: +44 (0) 208 396 0001 The European Technical Support Centre is closed on certain public holidays.–6:00 P. the Middle East.M. Inc.com Web: https://support. Eastern Time (1400–0000 GMT).M. North America E-mail: support@microstrategy. Phone: • United Kingdom: +44 (0) 208 396 0085 • Benelux: +31 20 346 9210 • Finland: +35 8 9 6937 9620 • France: +33 1 41 91 86 49 • Germany: +49 69 95096206 • Ireland: +35 3 1242 1522 • Italy: +39 02696 33 456 • Spain: +34 91 406 90 10 • International distributors: +44 (0) 208 396 0080 Hours: • United Kingdom: 9:00 A. Monday-Friday except holidays Europe.–7:00 P.microstrategy. GMT.–6:00 P. CET.M.M.microstrategy.com.microstrategy. 6 Discuss the issue with other users by posting a question about the issue on the MicroStrategy Customer Forum at https://forums.Project Design Guide Preface 5 Determine whether the issue occurs on a local machine or on multiple machines in the customer environment. The table on the following page shows where.com Web: https://support. Monday-Friday except holidays • Mainland Europe: 9:00 A. If your Support Liaison is unable to reach MicroStrategy Technical Support by phone during the hours of operation.M. and how to contact MicroStrategy Technical Support. they can leave a voicemail message. Monday–Friday except holidays E-mail: eurosupp@microstrategy.

these holidays reflect many U.–7:00 P. BST (Sao Paulo). Asia Pacific. During the course of troubleshooting and researching issues. .com Web: https://support. The individual Technical Support Centers are closed on certain public holidays.M.6303. or that assume that the designated Support Liaison has a security level that permits them to fully manipulate the MicroStrategy projects and has access to potentially sensitive project data such as security filter definitions. we recommend you designate Support Liaisons who have permissions to be MicroStrategy project administrators. please provide the following information: • xxviii Resources Personal information: © 2007 MicroStrategy.S. Australia. India.com Fax: +81 3 5456 5464 Phone: • Korea: +82 2 560 6565 • Singapore (supporting Singapore. national holidays. Inc. In Europe. China. JST (Tokyo). Taiwan. Monday–Friday except holidays Latin America Support Liaisons should contact the Technical Support Center from which they obtained their MicroStrategy software licenses or the Technical Support Center to which they have been designated. Although not a requirement. Hong Kong.microstrategy.8969 • Japan (supporting Japan. Required information when calling When contacting MicroStrategy Technical Support.Preface Project Design Guide Asia Pacific E-mail: apsupport@microstrategy. In North America.com Web: https://support. Monday-Friday except holidays E-mail: latamsupport@microstrategy.–6:00 P.microstrategy. New Zealand.M. and Latin America.com Fax: +55 11 3044 4088 Phone: LATAM (except Argentina): +55 11 3054 1010 Argentina: 0 800 444 MSTR Hours: 9:00 A. Pakistan. these holidays reflect the national public holidays in each country.M. and Sri Lanka): +65. MicroStrategy Technical Support personnel may make recommendations that require administrative privileges on the MicroStrategy projects. Malaysia. and all other Asia Pacific countries not listed in this section): +81 3 3511 6720 Hours: 9:00 A. This can eliminate security conflicts and improve case resolution time.M.

be prepared to provide the following additional information: • case number: Please keep a record of the number assigned to each case logged with MicroStrategy Technical Support.Project Design Guide Preface Name (first and last) Company and customer site (if different from company) Contact information (phone and fax numbers. error messages(s). Resources • • xxix . Inc. and be ready to provide it when inquiring about an existing case software version and product registration numbers of the MicroStrategy software products you are using case description: What causes the condition to occur? Does the condition occur sporadically or each time a certain action is performed? Does the condition occur on all machines or just on one? © 2007 MicroStrategy. they should also be prepared to provide the following: • • • • street address phone number fax number e-mail address To help the Technical Support representative work to resolve the problem promptly and effectively. including MicroStrategy software product(s) and versions Full description of the case including symptoms. and steps taken to troubleshoot the case thus far • Business/system impact If this is the Support Liaison’s first call. e-mail addresses) • Case details: Configuration information.

not all items listed below may be necessary): computer hardware specifications (processor speed. The Support Liaison should perform any agreed-upon actions before contacting MicroStrategy Technical Support again regarding the issue. If the Technical Support representative is responsible for an action item. The Support Liaison may call MicroStrategy Technical Support at any time to inquire about the status of the issue. a database move. . or a software upgrade)? If there was an error message. RAM. a major database load. and so on) network protocol used ODBC driver manufacturer and version database gateway software version (for MicroStrategy Web-related problems) browser manufacturer and version (for MicroStrategy Web-related problems) Web server manufacturer and version If the issue requires additional investigation or testing. Inc. what was its exact wording? What steps have you taken to isolate and resolve the issue? What were the results? • system configuration (the information needed depends on the nature of the problem.Preface Project Design Guide When did the condition first occur? What events took place immediately prior to the first occurrence of the condition (for example. disk space. Feedback Please send any comments or suggestions about user documentation for MicroStrategy products to: xxx Feedback © 2007 MicroStrategy. the Support Liaison and the MicroStrategy Technical Support representative should agree on certain action items to be performed.

com When you provide feedback to us. Your feedback is important to us as we prepare for future releases. Feedback xxxi .Project Design Guide Preface documentationfeedback@microstrategy. © 2007 MicroStrategy.com Send suggestions for product enhancements to: support@microstrategy. Inc. please include the name and version of the products you are currently using.

Preface Project Design Guide xxxii Feedback © 2007 MicroStrategy. . Inc.

1 . it is important to understand how business intelligence systems work and.1 1. BI ARCHITECTURE AND THE MICROSTRATEGY PLATFORM Introduction Before planning and creating a project in MicroStrategy. specifically. how the MicroStrategy platform interacts with your business data to provide a wide range of functionality. An optimum business intelligence application: • • • Gives users access to data at various levels of detail Allows users to request information and have it delivered to them accurately and quickly Provides a foundation for the proactive delivery of information to system subscribers © 2007 MicroStrategy. Business intelligence (BI) systems facilitate the analysis of volumes of complex data by providing the ability to view data from multiple perspectives. Inc.

1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide This chapter introduces you to the basic architecture of BI systems. Inc. Excel files. but other systems or files that capture or hold data of interest are also possible An extraction. as well as some of the components within the MicroStrategy platform that allow you to create and analyze your business intelligence. and loading (ETL) process A data warehouse—typically an online analytical processing (OLAP) system A business intelligence platform such as MicroStrategy • • • The diagram above illustrates the common setup for standardizing data from source systems and transferring that data into MicroStrategy. Microsoft Analysis Services. SAP BW. transformation. Business intelligence architecture A BI architecture has the following components: • A source system—typically an online transaction processing (OLTP) system. and other data sources. For more information on how MicroStrategy can access your data sources. Hyperion Essbase. . see Data warehouse for data storage and relational design. page 5. MicroStrategy can also access data from text files. 2 Business intelligence architecture © 2007 MicroStrategy.

manufacturing. telecommunications. A source system is usually the most significant site of online transaction processing (OLTP). An average bank offers several services such as account activity updates and loan disbursement. This processing is relied upon daily by nearly every industry. page 5. see Data warehouse for data storage and relational design. insertions. suppose one source system—a database file on the bank’s server—keeps track of deposits and withdrawals as they occur. inventory. Business intelligence architecture 3 . Each of these business services has a different and specific workflow. or deletions. website usage. and many others. Transactional processing involves the simple recording of transactions and other business data such as sales. and order processing. including health care.Project Design Guide BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform 1 Source systems for data collection Source systems refer to any system or file that captures or holds data of interest. Data formats are not necessarily uniform across systems. deposits. e-commerce. Data is aligned by application. This is in contrast to data warehouses which are often designed for reading data for analysis with a minimum number of updates. • • • Recall the example of a bank that relies on several source systems to store data related to the many services the bank offers. and therefore has many source systems to support these services. Data history is limited to recent or current data. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Meanwhile. Inc. as the system records huge volumes of data every day. OLTP systems are databases or mainframes that store real-time processing data and have the following characteristics: • Data access is optimized for frequent reading and writing. An example of data that benefits from this type of optimization is the number of credit card transactions that an OLTP system might record in a single day. For more information on data warehouse design. For example. A bank is an example of a business with many source systems. by business activities and workflow. a different source system—another file on the server—keeps track of each customer’s contact information. that is.

loan status. Each of these different sets of data is likely gathered by different source systems. transformation. Inc. you must enter the bank and perform the transaction with a bank teller. account balances. you can withdraw or deposit money as well as check on balances. This is because the operational systems supporting these two services are designed to perform specific tasks. to get a money order. eliminating unwanted data. and these two services require different operational systems. and loading (ETL) process. including the customer's ATM activity. and loading process The extraction. and loading (ETL) process represents all the steps necessary to move data from different source systems to an integrated data warehouse. loan status. However. The ETL process consolidates data so it can be stored in a data warehouse. and similar processes to standardize the format and structure of data. transformation. 3 The data is loaded into the data warehouse. This consolidation is achieved using the extraction. correcting typographical errors. 2 The data is transformed and prepared to be loaded into the data warehouse. Transformation procedures can include converting data types and names. Since 4 Business intelligence architecture © 2007 MicroStrategy. If a bank wants to see a unified view of a particular customer. transformation. such as a customer's ATM activity. . Extraction. The ETL process involves the following steps: 1 Data is gathered from various source systems. filling in incomplete data. and account balances.1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide At an automated teller machine (ATM). and money market account information. the customer information stored in each of these different systems must be consolidated. This process can be explained with the example of a bank that wants to consolidate a variety of information about a particular customer.

see Storing and analyzing data with alternative data sources. growth patterns. For more information on accessing data stored in alternative data sources. and then loads the data into the data warehouse. percent-to-total contributions. Data is rarely inserted. or deleted. You can integrate different types of data sources with MicroStrategy such as text files. MicroStrategy does not require that data be stored in a relational database. Data warehouses are usually based on relational databases or some form of relational database management system (RDBMS) platform.Project Design Guide BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform 1 each source system can have its own naming conventions. However. In combination with MicroStrategy tools and products. whereas data warehouses are usually designed and optimized for analytical processing. Analytical processing involves activities such as choosing to see sales data by month and selecting the applicable metric to calculate sales trends. The source systems described above. the ETL process extracts the data from the different banking source systems. Most data warehouses have the following characteristics: • Data access is typically read-only. updated. This is in contrast to most © 2007 MicroStrategy. are generally designed and optimized for transactional processing. the data warehouse also provides the foundation for a robust online analytical processing (OLAP) system. Data warehouse for data storage and relational design A well-designed and robust data warehouse is the source of data for the decision support system or business intelligence system. page 6. and profit analysis. Business intelligence architecture 5 . a language developed specifically to interact with RDBMS software. Inc. Excel files. such as OLTP systems. The most common action is the selection of data for analysis. and OLAP cubes. trend reporting. transforms it until it is standardized and consistent. These relational databases can be queried directly with Structured Query Language (SQL). the data that comes from one system may be inconsistent with the data that comes from another system. In this case. It enables its users to leverage the competitive advantage that the business intelligence provides.

page 4). see Chapter 2. MicroStrategy can also integrate with a number of alternative data sources. transformation. see Source systems for data collection. . and analysis.1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide OLTP source systems which must be able to handle frequent updates as data is gathered. For more information on the steps of the project design process. • • Data is aligned by business subjects. Data history extends long-term. usually two to five years. Microsoft Analysis Services. system. The following are different data source alternatives which MicroStrategy can integrate with: • OLAP cube sources: In MicroStrategy you can integrate with sets of data from SAP BW. A data warehouse is populated with data from the existing operational systems using an ETL process. transformation. which are referred to as 6 Business intelligence architecture © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. page 3. and refers specifically to using a database as your data source. Data formats are uniformly integrated using an ETL process (see Extraction. Defining a project’s logical data model and physical warehouse schema are important steps in preparing your data for a MicroStrategy project. and Hyperion Essbase. as explained in Extraction. The structure of data in a data warehouse and how it relates to your MicroStrategy environment can be defined and understood through a logical data model and physical warehouse schema. • • Storing and analyzing data with alternative data sources Along with integrating with relational databases. and loading process. and loading process. A data warehouse can be thought of as one type of data source. or storage location which stores data that is to be used in MicroStrategy for query. For more information on source systems. A data source is any file. Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model. page 4. which are a common type of data warehouse. reporting. The Logical Data Model and Chapter 3.

and report on data stored in text files and Excel files. page 11—an advanced. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. For more information on connecting to and integrating OLAP cube sources in MicroStrategy. you can query. page 13—a highly interactive user environment and a low-maintenance interface for reporting and analysis • • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 8—a repository that stores MicroStrategy object definitions and information about the data warehouse MicroStrategy Intelligence Server. page 11—an analytical server optimized for enterprise querying. • Text files and Excel files: With MicroStrategy’s Freeform SQL and Query Builder features. and OLAP analysis MicroStrategy Desktop. Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources. reporting. Windows-based environment providing a complete range of analytical functions designed to facilitate the deployment of reports MicroStrategy Web and Web Universal. For more information on using text files and Excel files with the Freeform SQL and Query Builder features. Some of the main components of the MicroStrategy platform include: • MicroStrategy metadata. deployment. and maintenance of business intelligence applications. As with OLAP cube sources described above. MicroStrategy can integrate with these data sources while simultaneously accessing a relational database effectively. see Appendix B. The MicroStrategy platform 7 . support. analyze. Inc. MicroStrategy can report against these alternative data sources while concurrently accessing a relational database to integrate all of your data into one cohesive project. The MicroStrategy platform A business intelligence platform offers a complete set of tools for the creation.Project Design Guide BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform 1 OLAP cube sources.

The sections that follow provide a brief overview of each of these components. see the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. . Inc. which together provide a flexible reporting environment The MicroStrategy platform components work together to provide an analysis and reporting environment to your user community. as shown in the following diagram.1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide • MicroStrategy project. page 14—where you build and store all schema objects and information you need to create application objects such as reports in the MicroStrategy environment. MicroStrategy metadata MicroStrategy metadata is a repository that stores MicroStrategy object definitions and information about your data warehouse. To learn how to administer and tune the MicroStrategy platform. refer to the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. For more detailed information about these and the other components that make up the MicroStrategy platform. The information is stored in a proprietary 8 The MicroStrategy platform © 2007 MicroStrategy.

reports. which are described below.Project Design Guide BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform 1 format within a relational database. views. • Configuration objects—Objects that provide important information or governing parameters for connectivity. groups. attributes. In general. You can build and manipulate several fundamentally different kinds of objects in MicroStrategy. Facts are discussed in more detail in Chapter 5. Schema objects include facts. The MicroStrategy platform 9 . metrics. and other objects which are stored in the Schema Objects folder in MicroStrategy Desktop’s folder list. As a general rule. report creation in MicroStrategy is achieved through using various types of objects which represent your data as report building blocks. and hierarchies are three essential pieces to any business intelligence application. Inc. and columns. These schema objects are often created and managed by a MicroStrategy architect: Facts relate numeric data values from the data warehouse to the MicroStrategy reporting environment. facts. and so on. The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts. configuration objects are created and maintained with the managers in MicroStrategy Desktop within the Administration icon. The metadata also stores the definitions of all objects created with MicroStrategy Desktop and Web such as templates. but are created by a project architect or administrator to configure and govern the platform. For more information about creating and administering configuration objects. These objects are not used directly for reporting. The metadata maps MicroStrategy objects—which are used to build reports and analyze data—to your data warehouse structures and data. The number of units sold is one example of a fact. hierarchies. Examples include database instances. which are analytical calculations that are displayed on a report. user privileges. users. see the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. such as tables. these objects. attributes. • © 2007 MicroStrategy. and so on. Facts are used to create metrics. Schema objects—Objects that are created in the application to correspond to database objects. Facts. and project administration. are all created and stored in the metadata repository.

All application objects can be created and maintained in MicroStrategy Desktop. • Application objects—Objects used to provide analysis of and insight into relevant data. custom groups. Hierarchies are discussed in more detail in Chapter 7. filters. Application objects include reports. In the example of regional sales in the Southeast.1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide Attributes represent the business context in which fact data is relevant. Information on creating application objects is in the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide and MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. Reports and documents can also be created and managed in MicroStrategy Web. The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes. documents. templates. It converts user requests into SQL queries and 10 The MicroStrategy platform © 2007 MicroStrategy. Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes. MicroStrategy metadata also facilitates the retrieval of data from the data warehouse when using MicroStrategy applications. Quarter. Attributes are used to define the level at which you want to view the numeric data on a report. . and so on. metrics. Southeast represents the attribute or context of the sales data. see MicroStrategy Web and Web Universal. Hierarchies are groupings of attributes so that they can be displayed to reflect their relationships to other attributes. page 13. MicroStrategy Intelligence Server evaluates the most efficient data retrieval scenario to provide excellent query performance. These groupings can help users make logical connections between attributes when reporting and analyzing data. For more information about MicroStrategy Web. The metadata enables the sharing of objects across MicroStrategy applications by providing a central repository for all object definitions. and prompts. Inc. Attributes are discussed in more detail in Chapter 6. One of the most common examples of a hierarchy is a time hierarchy which includes attributes such as Year. Month. Application objects are created using schema objects as building blocks.

and OLAP analysis. You can also add and define your own functions. MicroStrategy Desktop MicroStrategy Desktop is an advanced. refer to the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. refer to the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. The MicroStrategy platform 11 . Inc. © 2007 MicroStrategy. MicroStrategy Intelligence Server MicroStrategy Intelligence Server is an analytical server optimized for enterprise querying. See the MicroStrategy Functions Reference for details about these functions. reporting. MicroStrategy Desktop provides the project designer functionality essential to creating both schema and application objects necessary to serve the user communities of both MicroStrategy Desktop and Web. For information on how to install and configure MicroStrategy Intelligence Server. The important functions of MicroStrategy Intelligence Server are: • • • • Sharing objects Sharing data Managing the sharing of data and objects in a controlled and secure environment Protecting the information in the metadata MicroStrategy Intelligence Server also provides a library of over 150 different sophisticated mathematical and statistical functions. For a detailed description of MicroStrategy Intelligence Server functionality and tuning recommendations. Windows-based environment providing a complete range of analytical functionality designed to facilitate the deployment of reports.Project Design Guide BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform 1 translates the results of those SQL queries back into MicroStrategy objects such as reports and documents which can be easily analyzed and understood.

report designers and analysts can deploy them through different interfaces. thus providing access to your data. before application objects are created. For example. For information about the various components that comprise MicroStrategy Desktop. and metrics. Desktop provides the ability to modify one aspect of the application without affecting the others. MicroStrategy Web. If you need to change how to view your business information or how the data is modeled. Tables in MicroStrategy are references to tables in your data warehouse. and MicroStrategy Office. . hierarchies. which are in turn used to design reports. This modification is necessary if you have new requirements that require you to add or remove new levels of data in a hierarchy. You can change the structure of a business hierarchy by re-ordering it. graphical interface. Application objects such as reports are used to analyze and provide insight into the relevant data. Inc. without making any alterations to the database. It provides a unified environment for creating and maintaining business intelligence projects. including MicroStrategy Desktop. schema objects must first exist. • After reports have been created. refer to the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. Schema objects allow application objects to interact with the data warehouse to access the data for analysis. 12 The MicroStrategy platform © 2007 MicroStrategy. facts are used to create metrics. The following examples highlight some ways in which Desktop allows you to model your business intelligence applications: • Every report or query can automatically benefit from the tables you include in an application. The change automatically takes effect in the application. Facts. Desktop is where you can manage application objects such as reports. Projects are discussed in Chapter 4. attributes. One of the other functions of MicroStrategy Desktop is to create projects. and other schema objects are the building blocks for application objects such as reports and documents.1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide Desktop enables you to model applications using an intuitive. filters. However. Creating and Configuring a Project.

MicroStrategy Web and Web Universal MicroStrategy Web provides users with a highly interactive environment and a low-maintenance interface for reporting and analysis. Additional MicroStrategy definitions. quick deployment. Sun ONE®. analyze. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. IBM AIX®. MicroStrategy Web Universal is a version of MicroStrategy Web that provides the added benefits of also working with: • • • Operating systems such as Sun Solaris™. and HP-UX Application servers such as BEA WebLogic™. For information on advanced Desktop functionality. users can access. Inc. refer to the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. MicroStrategy Web provides ad-hoc querying. and rapid customization potential. Using the Web interface. industry-leading analysis. and share data through any web browser on many operating systems. making it easy for users to make informed business decisions. © 2007 MicroStrategy. including many project-related terms. see the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. Red Hat® Linux®.Project Design Guide BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform 1 For more information about creating application objects such as reports in MicroStrategy Desktop. IBM WebSphere®. For more information about deploying MicroStrategy Web. are discussed in Project connectivity components. page 64. and Apache Tomcat All web servers and browsers supported by MicroStrategy Web MicroStrategy Intelligence Server must be running for users to retrieve information from your data warehouse using MicroStrategy Web products. The MicroStrategy platform 13 . Oracle®.

reports. In MicroStrategy Desktop. and so on.1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide MicroStrategy project A project is where you build and store all schema objects and information you need to create application objects such as reports in the MicroStrategy environment. access control. Reporting objects include metrics. • • A project can contain any number of reports in addition to a number of other objects that support simple and advanced reporting requirements. and 14 The MicroStrategy platform © 2007 MicroStrategy. metrics. projects appear one level below project sources in the Folder List. . Defines the security scheme for the user community that accesses these objects. attributes. Projects are often used to separate data from a data warehouse into smaller sections of related data that fit user requirements. Security and other project-level administrative features are discussed in the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. security roles. Security objects include security filters. filters. A project also represents the intersection of a data source. and therefore the set of data available to be analyzed. Inc. prompts. a project the environment in which all related reporting is done. Schema objects are discussed in later chapters in this guide. Report objects are covered in the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide and the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. sales distribution. Conceptually. For example. and so on. hierarchies. which together provide a flexible reporting environment. including application objects such as filters. metadata repository. and reports that you can create using schema objects such as attributes and facts. you may have a project source separated into four different projects with analysis areas such as human resources. A project: • • Determines the set of data warehouse tables to be used. A project can contain many types of objects. and user community. Schema objects include facts. Contains all reporting objects used to create reports and analyze the data. inventory. privileges. and so on. Contains all schema objects used to interpret the data in those tables.

Some key concepts to understand before you begin creating a project are as follows: • A project is created within a specified metadata repository. one of the connections you create is between the project and your data warehouse. The project design process When you create a project in MicroStrategy Desktop. © 2007 MicroStrategy. The project’s warehouse location is specified by associating it with the appropriate database instance. In the project.Project Design Guide BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform 1 customer satisfaction. page 73. The project design process 15 . Inc. you can then create schema objects based on the columns and tables in the warehouse. determined by the project source through which you create the project. • The procedures associated with these concepts are explained in Creating the project. This allows all of your users in the human resources department to use the human resources project and they do not have to look through inventory data that they are not interested in.

. and project creation. Designing a project is very rarely a single. which are each covered in the following chapters: Notice that the project design process includes a feedback loop.1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide The diagram below shows this high-level view of data modeling. new user requirements and project enhancements require modification to the initial project design. It is important to keep this in mind as you design your project and plan for the next phase of development. As projects are deployed and tested. Inc. linear process. 16 The project design process © 2007 MicroStrategy. schema design and implementation.

You need to know where you are going and how to get there. A logical data model is a logical arrangement of data as experienced by the general user or business analyst. 17 . which arranges data for efficient database use. The logical data model graphically depicts the flow and structure of data in a business environment. This chapter describes one of the major components of data modeling: the logical data model. providing a way of organizing data so it can be analyzed from different business perspectives. THE LOGICAL DATA MODEL Conceptualizing your business model and the data on which to report Introduction Devising a model of your business data can help you analyze the structure of the data. how its various parts interact. This is different from the physical data model or warehouse schema. A logical data model is similar in concept to using a map and an itinerary when going on a trip. For example. Inc. You also need a plan that is visible and laid out correctly.2 2. and can also help you decide what you intend to learn from the data. a simple logical data model for a retail company can organize all necessary © 2007 MicroStrategy.

As the MicroStrategy platform does not require you to define dimensions explicitly. The reason that a logical data model must be independent of technology is because technology is changing so rapidly. This is the key concept of the logical data model. but the blueprint remains the same. product. If you are familiar with multidimensional data modeling. While a multidimensional data model must have at least one dimension. logical data modeling is similar to multidimensional data modeling. and you do not need to start over completely. Logical data models are independent of a physical data storage device. The more sophisticated and complex the reporting requirements and source data. the word logical is a more accurate term than multidimensional. 18 © 2007 MicroStrategy. . Inc. The scope and complexity of a logical data model depends on the requirements of the reporting needs of the user community and the availability of source data. What occurs under the logical data model can change with need or with technology. a logical data model may or may not have any explicitly defined dimensions.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide facts by store. which are three common business perspectives typically associated with a retail business. and time. the more complex the logical data model becomes.

19 . This process can help you think about the various elements that compose your company’s business data and how those elements relate to one another. conceptual. and relationships of data in a technical. Inc. © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 The logical data modeling process produces a diagram similar to the one shown in the following diagram: A logical data model represents the definition. characteristics. or business environment.

as shown in the following diagram: This chapter provides conceptual information about logical data models. and also general instructions and guidelines for creating these models. page 22 Hierarchies: Data relationship organization. page 21 Attributes: Context for your levels of data. A logical data model is a graphic representation of the following concepts: • • • Facts: Business data and measurements. This is usually one of the first steps in designing a project. Inc.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide Devising a logical data model for your business intelligence environment allows you to then consider various ways to physically store the business data in the data warehouse. page 25 20 © 2007 MicroStrategy. . the elements that exist within them.

CALL_CTR_ID in (5. For example. data. In a data warehouse.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 Facts: Business data and measurements One of the first things you do when you create a logical data model is to determine the facts. To those familiar with SQL.EMP_ID) WHERE a22. while you capture stock and inventory data in another system and track it weekly. Facts: Business data and measurements 21 . facts are schema objects that relate data values (typically numeric data) from the data warehouse to the MicroStrategy reporting environment. you can think of facts as business measurements. you can capture sales data in one system and track it daily.EMP_ID = a22. Inc. Inventory.ORDER_AMT) EMP_NAME FROM ORDER_FACT a21 JOIN LU_EMPLOYEE a22 ON (a21. in the following SQL statement. the ORDER_AMT column in the warehouse may correspond to the Order Amount fact in the MicroStrategy environment: SELECT sum(a21. and Account Balance are some examples of facts you can use as business measurements. Facts allow you to access data stored in a data warehouse and they form the basis for the majority of users’ analysis and report requirements. The rest of data modeling consists mostly of providing context for the data that facts provide access to. facts exist as columns within the fact tables. They can come from different source systems and they can have different levels of detail. For example. In MicroStrategy. such as SUM and AVG. Sales. 12) © 2007 MicroStrategy. 9. facts generally represent the numeric columns in database tables on which you perform SQL aggregations. Conceptually. or variables that are typically numeric and suitable for aggregation. Facts are the building blocks used to create business measurements or metrics from which to derive insight into your data.

To make the sales figure meaningful. the attributes must be identified. local. Metrics are discussed in detail in the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. consider the sales figures of your company.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide In addition. while ORDER_AMT is the fact. These columns are used to qualify and group fact data. such as national. if your sales data is stored at the day level.000. you can gather little useful information. Attributes: Context for your levels of data After the facts are determined.ORDER_AMT) represents a metric. you would need to know more about the source of that sales figure such as: • • • • A time frame for the sales Who and how many people contributed to the sales total What products were sold from which departments The scope of the sale. To those familiar with SQL. Fore a more complete discussion about facts. Attributes allow you to answer questions about a fact and provide a context for reporting and analyzing those facts. The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts. regional. a Month attribute allows you to see the same sales data summarized at the month level. which are business calculations often built using facts. or a single store Attributes provide context and levels for convenient summarization and qualification of your data to help answer the type of questions listed above. Inc. For example. . sum(a21. For example. attributes generally represent the non-numeric and non-aggregatable columns in database tables. If you were informed that your company had sales of $10. 22 Attributes: Context for your levels of data © 2007 MicroStrategy. They are used to answer business questions about facts at varying levels of detail. refer to Chapter 5.

in the following SQL statement. Inc. a Customer attribute allows you to see sales data at the customer level and you can qualify on the elements of the Customer attribute to see sales data for groups such as customers with last names beginning with the letter h. max(a12. For example. Attribute elements: Data level values Attribute elements are the unique values or contents of an attribute. attributes are used to build the report and the attribute elements are displayed in rows or columns on the executed report.200203) GROUP BY al1.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 For example. the MONTH_ID column in the warehouse maps to the Month attribute in the MicroStrategy environment: SELECT a11.200202. Attributes: Context for your levels of data 23 . On a report. © 2007 MicroStrategy.MONTH_ID Attribute forms contain additional descriptive information about a given attribute and are discussed in terms of the logical data model in Attribute forms.MONTH_DESC) MONTH_DESC. sum(a11.MONTH_ID = a12. Attribute elements also allow you to qualify on data to retrieve specific results. refer to Chapter 6. page 36. 2005 and 2006 are elements of the Year attribute while New York and London are elements of the City attribute.TOT_DOLLAR_SALES) DLRSALES FROM MNTH_CATEGORY_SLS a11 join LU_MONTH a12 on (a11.MONTH_ID) WHERE a11.MONTH_ID MONTH_ID.MONTH_ID in (200201. The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes. For a complete discussion about attributes. For example.

Although attribute elements are not included in the logical data model. as the project designer.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide The following diagram shows some examples of attributes and attribute elements. . Attribute relationships. Inc. as well as how each of them relates to the other attributes. and therefore no logical structure. Without relationships. By recognizing and understanding the elements of an attribute. Every direct relationship between attributes has two parts—a parent and a child. to have a solid understanding of all the attributes in the project. page 140. Attribute elements are discussed in more detail in Unique sets of attribute information: Attribute elements. A child must always have a parent and a parent can have multiple children. you can better design your data model and project. there is no interaction between data. Attribute relationships Building an effective project in MicroStrategy requires you. The relationships give meaning to the data by providing logical associations of attributes based on business rules. which are associations between attributes that specify how attributes are connected. are essential to the logical data model. they are necessary in understanding attribute relationships. The parent attribute is at a 24 Attributes: Context for your levels of data © 2007 MicroStrategy.

along with more detailed information about attribute relationships. Therefore. Month. are discussed in Attribute relationships. One year has many quarters and both attributes are in the Time hierarchy. However. Examples of related and unrelated attributes. In a logical data model. Year and Customer are related through a fact.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 higher logical level than the child is. In this case. Attributes in one hierarchy are not directly related to attributes in another hierarchy. Year is the parent attribute and Quarter is the child. in a relationship between Year and Quarter. Hierarchies: Data relationship organization 25 . Year and Quarter are attributes that are usually directly related to each other. and Day to form the Time hierarchy. It is the existence of a fact that ties the Time hierarchy to the Customer hierarchy. For example. Attributes are either related or unrelated to each other. page 159. They are identified by multiple attributes. page 26 below. attributes. there must be some way to determine how these two attributes are related. hierarchies contain attributes that are directly related to each other. facts exist at the intersection of hierarchies. Usually the best design for a hierarchy is to organize or group attributes into logical business areas. A graphical example of how facts. Hierarchies: Data relationship organization Hierarchies in a logical data model are ordered groupings of attributes arranged to reflect their relationship with other attributes. Inc. if you want to create a report that shows information about customer purchases in a particular year. For example. the fact is a customer purchase. © 2007 MicroStrategy. and hierarchies are related and form a complete logical data model is shown in the section Sample data model. which represent the level at which a fact is stored. For example. you can group the attributes Year. Year and Customer are attributes that are usually not in the same hierarchy and are not directly related to each other.

and hierarchies—a logical data model begins to take shape. The following diagram is an example of a logical data model: Building a logical data model The first thing you must do before creating a logical data model is study the factors that influence your design.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide For a complete discussion about hierarchies. refer to Chapter 7. Some of the things to consider when creating a logical data model are • • • User requirements Existing source systems Converting source data to analytical data 26 Sample data model © 2007 MicroStrategy. Sample data model When all of the components are placed in a single diagram—facts. relationships. Inc. . attributes. Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes.

When creating the logical data model. you must consider all the potential users and how to accommodate their varied requirements. In some cases. as explained in Existing source systems. lack of data in the source systems can limit user requirements. to satisfy user requirements. company executives are typically interested in overall trends and may want reports showing data aggregated across the company and over a long period of time. page 28. additional user requirements can be encountered after deploying a project as users encounter areas for enhancement. Sometimes. Inc. you can derive additional data not found in the source systems. where additional questions and concerns arise with each draft of the logical data model. Developing such a model involves the following: • • • Identification of user requirements Design of solutions Evaluation of those solutions Logical data modeling is a reiterative process. © 2007 MicroStrategy. However. In some cases.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 User requirements The primary goal of logical data modeling is to meet the needs of your users’ reporting requirements. Your user community can consist of people with vastly different requirements. These managers may want reports about their specific region or store over short-and long-terms. new user requirements may require you to modify the logical data model to better support the type of analysis and the retrieval of data that users demand. User requirements are an important part of the initial project design process. Building a logical data model 27 . Lower-level managers are typically more interested in data about their particular areas of responsibility. For example.

User requirements should drive the decision on what to include and what to exclude. Converting source data to analytical data If there are no existing systems and you are just beginning your data warehousing initiative. Existing data is usually abundant. consisting of a large number of facts and attributes. You must determine what facts and attributes in the existing data are necessary for supporting the decision support requirements of your user community. you may not find all the facts and attributes to meet your needs within the data itself. an insurance company’s transactional system records data by customer and city. In this case. The existing data should suggest a number of facts. users also want to see data at the monthly or yearly level. most logical models begin with an examination of the source data once existing systems are developed and 28 Building a logical data model © 2007 MicroStrategy. State and region do not appear in the existing source data and so you need to extract them from another source. but a substantial portion of the work in creating a suitable logical data model involves determining what additional components are required to satisfy the needs of the user community. For example. everything you find in the source data does not necessarily need to be included in the logical data model. attributes. you can build the logical data model based heavily on current user requirements. Although some data may not exist in a source system.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide Existing source systems Understanding what data is available is an important step in creating a logical data model. this does not mean that it should not be included in the logical data model. and relationships. you can plan additional attributes to provide the levels at which you intend to analyze the facts in your data model. However. Conversely. Inc. although data is stored at a daily level in the source system. While a review of your data is initially helpful in identifying components of your logical data model. but the business analysts want to see data for different states or regions. Additionally. .

page 31 Step 4: Define hierarchies. An ERD provides a graphical representation of the physical structure of the data in the source system. page 29 Step 2: Identify the attributes. However. meaning that a sale takes place in a particular store. page 30 Step 3: Determine attribute relationships. can be © 2007 MicroStrategy. Building a logical data model 29 . The source data usually has some sort of documented physical structure. page 32 The details in these steps are related to using an existing source system. For example. Remember that facts can be calculated and are usually numeric and aggregatable. or day level.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 implemented. A logical data model is similar in concept to an ERD. which lets you easily recognize tables and columns and the data stored in those columns. for a particular item. For example. sales and profit figures. on a particular day. in this guide the logical data model also takes into account how your data can be integrated into MicroStrategy to develop a business intelligence solution. After you have all the facts listed. sales facts are often stored at the store. determine the business level at which each fact is recorded. A product inventory fact. make a list of all data that can be represented as facts in MicroStrategy. Step 1: Identify the facts Using your existing data. Whether you start from nothing or have an existing source system to use. item. Inc. the steps to create a logical data model are as follows: • • • • Step 1: Identify the facts. in retail models. most OLTP systems have an entity relationship diagram (ERD). however. for example.

you can include an aggregate table that stores sales data at the year level (see Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables. These business levels become the attributes in your logical data model (see Step 2: Identify the attributes. Step 2: Identify the attributes Uncover attributes by considering the levels at which you would like to view the facts on your reports. 30 Building a logical data model © 2007 MicroStrategy. month. To improve performance and meet the requirements of the majority of your users. item. For example. This analysis requires MicroStrategy to aggregate the sales data from the day level to the year level. You can then design a Year attribute for your project.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide stored at the region. in the existing data there may be fact data recorded only at the day level. page 241). This practice is sometimes a reaction to user requirements established after project deployment. or week level. but such considerations should be taken into account during your initial project design initiative. They also want to view their data at the year. Start by looking at the levels at which each fact is recorded and build from there. your users are interested in analyzing data at more than just at the day level. page 30). Inc. This information may only be apparent to you after you deploy your project and you determine that a high percentage of your users are viewing sales data at the yearly level. and week levels. However. .

and so on. you must then determine which attributes are related to each other. This one-to-many relationship specifies that. Building a logical data model 31 . several dates exist. These attributes are all related to the Opportunity attribute because they all answer questions about opportunity information. From the reverse perspective the same relationship specifies that. if necessary. for every year.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 Be careful not to include more facts and attributes than necessary. and Month has a one-to-many relationship to Day. you can always add more attributes and facts later. For example. and for every month. Only include facts and attributes that can serve your user community. Year has a one-to-many relationship to Month. For example. Inc. several months exist. Opportunity Open Date. you should determine the type of relationship. Logical data modeling is an iterative process. Additionally. in the diagram below. Step 3: Determine attribute relationships Once you have identified your data to be defined as attributes in MicroStrategy. in the Sales Force Analysis Module of the MicroStrategy BIDK opportunity information is stored with an Opportunity attribute which is directly related to the attributes Opportunity Close Date. for a number of dates (in a © 2007 MicroStrategy. Primary Competitor. It is usually unnecessary to bring all data from the source system into the analytical environment.

If you define the attribute Month as simply the month name (Dec. only one month exists (in a form such as Dec 2005).2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide form such as 12/01/2005). This example may not accurately define how you store time information. think of hierarchies as logical arrangements of attributes into business areas. Step 4: Define hierarchies Hierarchies provide a structure for your data and can help your users easily and intuitively browse for related attributes and include them in a report. you can organize all time-related attributes into the Time hierarchy. and so on) then the relationship would become many-to-many. Consider the Year to Month attribute relationship type of one-to-many. You can 32 Building a logical data model © 2007 MicroStrategy. only one year exists. such as an ERD. it is likely that the documentation provides some additional details about the nature of the data and any inherent relationships. and for a number of months. For example. If you have documentation for the existing data. Jan 2006. page 24. . Jan. and so on) and not directly connected to a year (Dec 2005. Attribute relationships are discussed in detail in Attribute relationships. In the context of a logical data model. Inc.

Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 have a Customer hierarchy containing all attributes related to your customers and a Supplier hierarchy for all attributes related to supplier data. Logical data modeling conventions There are numerous logical data modeling conventions you can use to enhance your logical data model. Again. It is possible that all the data is directly related. These include: • • • Unique identifiers Cardinalities and ratios Attribute forms These logical modeling conventions can provide cues for system optimization opportunities. in which case you may have one big hierarchy. and make for a more robust logical data model. Inc. Although the user community is the ultimate beneficiary of a © 2007 MicroStrategy. Logical data modeling conventions 33 . help with system maintenance. you may have very few hierarchies or you may have many. Depending on the complexity of your data and the nature of your business. the requirements of your user community should help you determine what hierarchies are necessary.

Unique identifiers An additional modeling convention is to add unique identifiers for each attribute and fact. Each convention adds more information about the data to the logical data model. and advanced report designers. Unique identifiers denote the key that maps an attribute to its source data in the source system. . these conventions are primarily intended for project designers. Inc. Remember that facts are usually identified by multiple attributes and therefore will have multiple unique identifiers. This additional information can be particularly useful to a person learning about the system. This information can help define primary keys in the physical warehouse schema (see Uniquely identifying data in tables with key structures. Some attributes rely on more than 34 Logical data modeling conventions © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 42). The following diagram shows a logical data model with unique identifiers added.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide well-optimized and maintained system. administrators. when applicable.

For example. Inc. Cardinalities and ratios Another enhancement to the logical data model is the addition of cardinalities and ratios for each attribute. Logical data modeling conventions 35 .Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 one ID column to identify its elements. Cardinality is the number of unique elements for an attribute and ratios are the ratios between the cardinalities of related attributes. Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes. which are discussed in Chapter 7. Cardinalities help the database administrator estimate the size of the data warehouse and help project designers determine the best paths for users to navigate through the data using hierarchies in MicroStrategy. Ratios can be particularly helpful when trying to © 2007 MicroStrategy. note the Item attribute. which requires both the Item_ID and Class_ID columns to uniquely identify its elements.

this is because this information varies and is unpredictable.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide decide where creating aggregate tables will be most effective. The following diagram shows a logical data model which includes cardinalities and ratios. For example. 36 Logical data modeling conventions © 2007 MicroStrategy. Also note that the cardinality of some attributes such as Date of Birth are unknown. . Inc. Attribute forms Including attribute forms in your logical data model can help you get a more complete view of all of the information that is made available in your project. it is impossible to determine how many customers have different dates of birth in the warehouse. This additional information can be invaluable to database administrators and project designers. Note the cardinalities in the upper right corner of each attribute rectangle and the ratios next to some of the relationships between attributes.

they do not represent different levels within the Customer hierarchy. though. you store the following information about your customers: • • • • • Customer number (some numeric code used to uniquely identify customers) First name Last name Address Email address In your logical data model. you could have included each of these pieces of information as separate attributes. In reality. you can model these additional © 2007 MicroStrategy. Logical data modeling conventions 37 . each with a one-to-one relationship to the Customer attribute. Each element of the Customer attribute represents a different customer. these attributes simply provide additional information about the Customer attribute. and it is part of the Customer hierarchy. and in the data. For example.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 Attribute forms contain additional descriptive information about a given attribute. you create an attribute called Customer to represent customers in your system. When a one-to-one relationship exists between an attribute and one of its descriptions. Inc.

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pieces of descriptive information as attribute forms. The following diagram shows how you add attribute forms to a logical data model:

Attribute forms are discussed in terms of their role in MicroStrategy in Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms, page 143.

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Physical Warehouse Schema

WAREHOUSE STRUCTURE FOR YOUR LOGICAL DATA MODEL

Introduction
As discussed in the previous chapter, the logical data model can help you think about the logical structure of your business data and the many relationships that exist within that information. The physical warehouse schema is based on the logical data model. It is a detailed graphic representation of your business data as it is stored in the data warehouse. The physical warehouse schema organizes the logical data model in a method that makes sense from a database perspective. In contrast, the logical data model is a logical arrangement of data from the perspective of the general user or business analyst. For more information on what a logical data model is and how to create one, see Chapter 2, The Logical Data Model. The logical data model is only concerned with logical objects of the business model, such as Day, Item, Store, or Account. Several physical warehouse schemas can be derived from the same logical data model. The structure of the schema
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depends on how the data representing those logical objects are to be stored in the warehouse. For example you can store logical objects in the same table, in separate tables, duplicated across several tables, or in some other arrangement. While the logical data model tells you what facts and attributes to create, the physical warehouse schema tells you where the underlying data for those objects is stored. The physical warehouse schema describes how your data is stored in the data warehouse and how it can be retrieved for analysis. Creating a physical warehouse schema is the next step in organizing your business data before you create a project, as shown below:

The key components that make up the physical warehouse schema are columns and tables. Columns and tables in the physical warehouse schema represent facts and attributes from the logical data model. The rows in a table represent attribute elements and fact data.

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Columns: Data identifiers and values
Columns are fields in the warehouse that contain attribute and fact data. The types of columns are: • ID columns contain attribute element identification codes. These codes are typically numeric because computers can process numbers much more rapidly than text. All attributes must have an ID column. Description columns contain descriptions (text or numeric) of attribute elements. Description columns are optional. An ID column can serve a dual purpose as both an ID and description. Date is one example of an attribute that usually does not have a description column. The majority of attributes typically have an ID column and at least one description column. If an attribute has many attribute forms—additional descriptive information about a given attribute—they are represented by additional description columns. • Fact columns contain fact data.

Tables: Physical groupings of related data
The different types of tables are • • • Lookup tables: Attribute storage, page 43 Relate tables: A unique case for relating attributes, page 45 Fact tables: Fact data and levels of aggregation, page 46

While each type of table may function differently within the data warehouse, each type of table can be assigned a primary key that uniquely identifies the elements within the given table.

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Uniquely identifying data in tables with key structures
In relational databases, each table has a primary key that creates a unique value identifying each distinct data record or row. This applies to every type of table within the data warehouse. The types of keys that can be assigned to a table include: • • Simple key requires only one column to identify a record uniquely within a table. Compound key requires multiple columns to identify a unique record.

Which key structure you use to identify a unique attribute in a table depends on the nature of your data and business requirements. The following diagram shows how the different key structures can be used to identify a calling center.

The simple key shows how you can identify a calling center with only its Call_Ctr_id. This means that every calling center has its own unique ID. In the compound key, calling centers are identified by both Call_Ctr_id and Region_id. This means that two calling centers from different regions can share the same Call_Ctr_id. For example, there can be a calling center with ID 1 in region A, and another calling center with ID 1 in region B. In this case, you cannot identify a unique calling center without knowing both the Call_Ctr_id and the Region_id. Simple keys are generally easier to handle in the data warehouse than are compound keys because they require less storage space and they allow for simpler SQL. Compound

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keys tend to increase SQL query complexity, query time, and required storage space. However, compound keys have a more efficient ETL process. Which key structure you use for a particular attribute depends entirely on the nature of the data and your system. Consider what key structures work best when creating lookup tables in the physical warehouse schema.

Lookup tables: Attribute storage
Lookup tables are the physical representation of attributes. They provide the ability to aggregate data at different levels. Lookup tables store the information for an attribute in ID and description columns (see Columns: Data identifiers and values, page 41). Depending on how you choose to organize the physical schema, a lookup table can store information for one or more related attributes. If a table only stores data about one attribute, it is said to be a normalized table. If a table holds data about multiple attributes, it is said to be a denormalized table. The following diagram shows the different ways in which you can organize the same attribute information. Notice that the denormalized table holds the exact same data as the normalized tables. While the denormalized table consolidates

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information about attributes within one table, the normalized tables each contain only a subset of all of the information about the attributes.

You can use either structure for any table in the physical warehouse schema, though each structure has its advantages and disadvantages, as explained in the following sections and outlined in the table in Schema type comparisons, page 60.

Attribute relationships and lookup table structure
Attribute relationships are a major factor in determining the structure of lookup tables in a physical warehouse schema. In general, the following guidelines apply: • One-to-one relationships usually denote the existence of an attribute form. The description column of an attribute form should simply be included as an additional column in the attribute’s lookup table. Many-to-many relationships usually require the use of a relate table distinct from either attribute lookup table. A relate table should include the ID columns of the two attributes in question. For more information on how to use relate tables, see Relate tables: A unique case for relating attributes, page 45.

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Relate tables: A unique case for relating attributes
While lookup tables store information about attributes, relate tables store information about the relationship between two attributes. Relate tables contain the ID columns of two or more attributes, thus defining associations between them. Relate tables are often used to create relationships between attributes that have a many-to-many relationship to each other. With attributes whose direct relationship is one-to-many—in which every element of a parent attribute can relate to multiple elements of a child attribute—you define parent-child relationships by placing the ID column of the parent attribute in the lookup table of the child attribute. The parent ID column in the child table is called a foreign key. This technique allows you to define relationships between attributes in the attributes’ lookup tables, creating tables that function as both lookup tables and relate tables as shown in the following diagram:

In the case of a many-to-many relationship—in which multiple elements of a parent attribute can relate to multiple elements of a child attribute—you must create a separate relate table as shown in the following diagram:

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Fact tables: Fact data and levels of aggregation
Fact tables are used to store fact data. Since attributes provide context for fact values, both fact columns and attribute ID columns are included in fact tables. Facts help to link indirectly related attributes. The attribute ID columns included in a fact table represent the level at which the facts in that table are stored. For example, fact tables containing sales and inventory data look like the tables shown in the following diagram:

For more details on the level of aggregation of your fact data, see Fact table levels: The context of your data, page 48.

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The following diagram shows an example of a fact table and how you can create a derived fact column from base fact columns: In the example. and Discount fact columns. Also. the derived fact Tot_Dollar_Sales is created using the Qty_Sold. Inc.Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 Base fact columns versus derived fact columns The types of fact columns are base fact columns and derived fact columns: • Base fact columns are represented by a single column in a fact table. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Tables: Physical groupings of related data 47 . Unit_Price. including Item_Mnth_Sls and City_Ctr_Sls. the derived fact exists in several tables. The following diagram shows an example of a fact table and base fact columns: • Derived fact columns are created through a mathematical combination of other existing fact columns.

Day_id. see How facts are defined. The disadvantage is that derived fact columns require more storage space and more time during the ETL process. which translates into simpler SQL and a speedier query at report run time. Inc. . Fact table levels: The context of your data Facts and fact tables have an associated level based on the attribute ID columns included in the fact table. The advantage of storing derived fact columns in the warehouse is that the calculation of data is previously performed and stored separately. Metrics allow you to perform calculations and aggregations on fact data from one or more fact columns. the following image shows two facts with an Item/Day/Call Center level. The Item_id. and Call_Ctr_id columns in the table above represent practical levels at which sales and inventory data can be analyzed on a report. For more information on what metrics are and how to create them. You can create the same type of data analysis in MicroStrategy with the use of metrics. day. page 97. There are advantages and disadvantages to consider when deciding if you should create a derived fact column. derived fact columns can only contain fact columns from the same fact table. For more information on the different types of facts in MicroStrategy and how they are defined. 48 Tables: Physical groupings of related data © 2007 MicroStrategy. and call center levels because those levels exist as ID columns in the fact table. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. The Sales and Inventory facts can be analyzed at the item. For example.3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide Because facts in different fact tables are typically stored at different levels.

© 2007 MicroStrategy. Tables: Physical groupings of related data 49 . For example. You must be able to support fact reporting at the business levels which users require. Inc. These naming inconsistencies occur because source systems use different naming conventions to name the data they collect. Fact tables should only include attribute ID columns that represent levels at which you intend to analyze the specific fact data. Homogeneous versus heterogeneous column naming Suppose the data warehouse has information from two source systems. Though the Region_id and Reg_id columns have different names. The levels at which facts are stored become especially important when you begin to have complex queries with multiple facts in multiple tables that are stored at levels different from one another. notice that the table above does not include the Customer_id column. this is because analyzing inventory data at the customer level does not result in a practical business calculation. they store the same data: information about regions. This is called heterogeneous column naming. and in one source system regions are identified by column name Region_id and in the other the column name is Reg_id. and when a reporting request involves still a different level.Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 You do not need to include more lookup column IDs than are necessary for a given fact table. as shown in the diagram below.

you must map both the Region_id and Reg_id columns to the attribute so all information about regions is calculated correctly and displayed on reports when the Region attribute is used. This is called homogeneous column naming. it is a good idea for columns that contain the same data to have the same column name. . This explains why the same information about regions is represented by two columns with different names. For consistency. For example. Inc. consider the heterogeneous column names that may exist in your source systems.3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide The data for the Lookup_Region table came from a different source system than the data for the Lookup_Call_Ctr and the source systems have different naming conventions. the Region_ID column has the same name in both tables. heterogeneous columns must be mapped to their corresponding facts and attributes. as shown in the following diagram: 50 Tables: Physical groupings of related data © 2007 MicroStrategy. When you define facts and attributes in MicroStrategy Desktop. In this case. if you create a Region attribute given the tables in the example above. In order for reports to retrieve accurate and complete results.

How you choose to structure the warehouse depends on the nature of your data.Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 Just as it is possible for the same attribute data to exist in different lookup tables. it is also possible for the same fact data to exist in different fact tables. Inc. as shown below: Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage There are many ways to structure your data warehouse and no method is inherently right or wrong. the available storage space. or a combination of them. and the requirements of your user community. These schema types are: • • • Highly normalized schema: Minimal storage space Moderately normalized schema: Balanced storage space and query performance Highly denormalized schema: Enhanced query performance Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage © 2007 MicroStrategy. Typically. one of the schema types. A fact column may or may not have the same name in different tables. 51 . is used to organize the physical schema to enhance query performance while maintaining and acceptable amount of data storage space.

Dist_Ctr_id. The schema examples that follow show data at the Item/Call Center/Date level. Inc. the number of joins required to build your queries affects the performance of those queries.3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide In each of these schemas a base fact table and any number of aggregate fact tables are used (For more information on aggregate fact tables. Fact table keys consist of attribute keys relevant to the level of data stored in the table. • Highly normalized schema: Minimal storage space The following diagram is an example of a highly normalized schema. • Joins are SQL operations that are required to combine two tables together in order to retrieve data. data only has to be updated in a single place. see Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables. the sections below are meant to give a description of the most common or general schema types that are used to develop a physical warehouse schema. lookup tables contain unique developer-designed attribute keys. When comparing the different schema types. such as Call_Ctr_desc. page 241). . With no data redundancy. but as with any operation performed on your data warehouse. These operations are necessary. and 52 Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage © 2007 MicroStrategy. They also contain attribute description columns. In highly normalized schemas. However. as shown in the figure below. such as Call_Ctr_id. The sections below are not meant to be an exhaustive list of all possible schema types. Dist_Ctr_desc. and Region_id. Data redundancy also makes updating data a more intensive and difficult process because data resides in multiple places. you should keep in mind the following concepts: • Redundant data can cause a couple of drawbacks. The most obvious drawback is that redundant data requires more storage space to hold the same amount of data as a system with no redundancy.

Also. Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage 53 .Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 Region_desc. © 2007 MicroStrategy. such as Dist_Ctr_id in the Lookup_Call_Ctr table. the lookup table for an attribute contains the ID column of the parent attribute. Inc.

This is because each table contains only a small amount of information about a given attribute. When accessing higher-level lookup tables such as Lookup_Region in the example above. Inc. therefore. Moderately normalized schema: Balanced storage space and query performance The following diagram shows an example of a moderately normalized schema. The difference 54 Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage © 2007 MicroStrategy. there is a drawback to using only small tables in the data warehouse. This schema type has the same basic structure as the highly normalized schema. However. numerous joins are required to retrieve information about the higher-level tables. . multiple tables must be joined until the required column is found.3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide The following diagram shows what physical lookup tables look like in the warehouse: One benefit of using a highly normalized schema is that it requires minimal storage space in the warehouse because of it uses smaller lookup tables than the other schema types.

Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage 55 . Region_id is included in the Lookup_Call_Ctr table. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc.Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 here is the higher-level attribute ID columns are present within all tables of related attributes. For example.

the tables within this type of schema take up some redundant storage space in the warehouse. since some tables contain the same ID columns (as shown above with the Region_ID column). fewer joins are required when retrieving information about an attribute. Because the ID columns of both the parents and grandparents of an attribute exist in multiple tables. However. Using a moderately normalized schema provides a balance between the pros and cons of normalized and denormalized schema types. With 56 Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage © 2007 MicroStrategy. .3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide The fact table structure within a moderately normalized schema is identical to that of the highly normalized schema. Highly denormalized schema: Enhanced query performance The following diagram is an example of a highly denormalized schema. The following diagram shows what the physical lookup tables look like in the warehouse. Inc. A highly denormalized schema has the same basic structure as the other two schema types.

this schema type requires the largest amount of storage space within the warehouse because of its large lookup tables. For example. and Region along with Sales Dollars in the same report while only having to join the Lookup_Call_CTR and Fact_Sales tables. Distribution Center. Inc. Using a highly denormalized schema further reduces the joins necessary to retrieve attribute descriptions. but the description columns are present as well.Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 this type. Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage 57 . However. Region_desc is included in the Lookup_Call_Ctr table. This is possible because Lookup_Call_CTR contains all information (including description data) for Call Center as well as for Distribution Center and Region. © 2007 MicroStrategy. High denormalized schemas also cause the highest level of data redundancy. you can include the descriptions of Call Center. For example. not only are higher-level attribute ID columns present within all related tables.

each hierarchy (for example. the lookup tables are consolidated so that every attribute ID and description column for a given hierarchy exists in one table. the amount of join operations are reduced by using a star schema. as shown below. as shown below: As with any schema type model there are advantages and disadvantages to using a star schema. geography) consists of several lookup tables. . star schemas can often 58 Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage © 2007 MicroStrategy. However. In a star schema.3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide Star schema: Consolidating lookup tables When using the highly denormalized schema. Arranging the warehouse schema this way produces a star schema. Inc. it is possible to eliminate most of the lookup tables and leave just a few. A star schema can also reduce the amount of storage space necessary in a highly denormalized schema. Recall that in a highly denormalized schema. As with a highly denormalized schema type. In this type of schema. however. only one lookup table is used to contain all of the attribute IDs and description columns for a given hierarchy.

For example. Design trade-offs Constructing a logical data model and physical warehouse schema is an iterative process of compromises and trade-offs. Design trade-offs 59 . You must decide which factors are most important in your particular environment and weigh them against the other factors. This results in an increased load on the warehouse. However. Each of these categories affects the others. if you have the storage space necessary to accommodate data in a star schema it may seem that you would never want to normalize your schema. The following diagram shows the three major requirements that must be balanced to create an effective system. Inc. SQL queries directed at a consolidated table require the use of a DISTINCT operator and these types of queries tend to be very © 2007 MicroStrategy. you will have to create an extensive data model and schema to support those requirements. If you try to satisfy every single user requirement from the simplest to the most complex. and greater maintenance for the database administrator.Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 require large lookup tables that can take a more time to search than the smaller tables that are used in the other schema types. slower query performance.

Inc. In addition to the previous points. One hierarchy can be highly normalized while another can be highly denormalized. you may need higher level lookup tables to take advantage of aggregate tables.3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide expensive in terms of database resources and processing time. The table below compares the different schema types. Schema Type Highly normalized schema Lookup Table Structure • Attribute ID • Attribute description column • ID column of parent • Attribute ID • Attribute description column • ID column of parent • ID column of grandparents Advantages Minimal storage space and minimal data redundancy which makes updating data less intensive than for the other schema types Greatly reduces the number of joins necessary to relate an attribute to its grandparents as compared to a highly normalized schema Disadvantages Requires numerous joins to retrieve information from higher-level lookup tables Moderately normalized schema Requires some redundant storage 60 Schema type comparisons © 2007 MicroStrategy. which are discussed in Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables. For more comparisons between the different schema types described in this chapter. The use of a resource-intensive DISTINCT query could therefore negate any performance gain achieved by reducing the number of joins between higher-level lookup tables. see the following section Schema type comparisons. . page 241. page 60. You can even use different schema types within the same hierarchy. Schema type comparisons One way to achieve a balance of the various trade-offs in your schema design is to use a variety of schema types in your physical warehouse schema.

Schema type comparisons 61 . you can learn about these same schema objects in terms of how they exist in the MicroStrategy environment. Inc. As facts and attributes are the cornerstones of the reports you intend to create using MicroStrategy. © 2007 MicroStrategy. it is essential to understand the structure of each of these schema objects before creating a project.Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 Schema Type Highly denormalized schema Lookup Table Structure • Attribute ID • Attribute description column • ID column of parent • description column of parent • ID column of grandparents • description column of grandparents • Consolidates an entire hierarchy into a single lookup table Advantages Further reduces joins necessary to retrieve attribute descriptions as compared to a moderately normalized schema Disadvantages Requires the most storage space and redundant data requires a more intensive process to update Star schema • Further reduces joins necessary to retrieve attribute descriptions as compared to a moderately normalized schema • Requires less storage space and data redundancy than a highly denormalized schema and thus data is easier to update Large lookup tables can negatively affect query performance when searching tables and requiring DISTINCT operations to be performed Now that you have gained an understanding of data modeling and the roles of facts and attributes.

Inc.3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide 62 Schema type comparisons © 2007 MicroStrategy. .

63 . For more information about the © 2007 MicroStrategy. see Chapter 1. access the MicroStrategy Tutorial provided with the MicroStrategy platform. Inc. CREATING AND CONFIGURING A PROJECT Introduction Once you create a logical model of your business data and arrange the data within the data warehouse. It is ready to be used and requires no additional configuration tasks.4 4. you are ready to create a project in MicroStrategy. BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform. For definitions and descriptions of the components within the MicroStrategy platform that allow you to create and analyze your business intelligence applications. The Tutorial is a sample data warehouse and demonstration project you can use to learn about the various features of the MicroStrategy platform. This chapter guides you through the first few major steps involved in creating a project in MicroStrategy. To see a sample project.

4 Creating and Configuring a Project Project Design Guide Tutorial. 64 Project connectivity components © 2007 MicroStrategy. Project connectivity components This section defines some of the basic terminology used in project creation in MicroStrategy Desktop. Metadata is stored in a relational database with a predefined structure. refer to the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. MicroStrategy metadata All schema objects. see Appendix A. configuration objects. application objects. The RDBMS for the metadata and warehouse do not need to be the same. To view the structure of the MicroStrategy Tutorial. MicroStrategy Tutorial. . It is intended to familiarize you with some of the terms discussed in this guide. Inc. and project settings are stored in the MicroStrategy metadata.

Project connectivity components 65 . and password to a metadata repository. Inc. A connection to a metadata repository is achieved in one of two ways: • Direct or two-tier mode ( ): Connects to the metadata by specifying a DSN. login. © 2007 MicroStrategy. the necessary tables to hold the data must be present. You should not connect directly to the metadata unless you are implementing a prototype environment. the project source appears in the Folder List with an icon that varies depending on the type of connection it represents. page 71. MicroStrategy strongly suggests you always connect to the metadata through Intelligence Server because of the security and scalability it provides. This first step in the project creation process is outlined in Creating the metadata repository. You create the metadata shell with the MicroStrategy Configuration Wizard. It is highly recommended that you never use direct mode connection in a production environment. In MicroStrategy Desktop. then MicroStrategy. The metadata shell is the set of blank tables that are created when you initially implement a MicroStrategy business intelligence environment. which creates the blank tables and populates some of the tables with basic initialization data. and then select ReadMe. To view the readme from the Start menu select Programs.Project Design Guide Creating and Configuring a Project 4 You can find the list of supported RDBMS platforms in the readme file that is installed with MicroStrategy products. Metadata shell Before you can populate the metadata repository with data. Project source The project source is a configuration object which represents a connection to a metadata repository.

A project source may contain any number of projects. After the connection to the metadata is established. . every object definition you create within this project source is stored in this metadata. and configuration objects from any number of projects defined within this project source (see MicroStrategy metadata. MicroStrategy Desktop is the second tier. This includes application objects. A four-tier connection is a Server (three-tier) connection in conjunction with MicroStrategy Web deployed on a web server. Intelligence Server is a necessary part of any production project.4 Creating and Configuring a Project Project Design Guide • Server or three-tier mode( ): Connects to the metadata by pointing to an Intelligence Server definition. page 8 for definitions of these object types). Intelligence Server. and ensures metadata integrity. A project source connects to a single metadata repository. and MicroStrategy Desktop. For these reasons. the same metadata repository can be accessed by multiple project sources. enforces security. and Intelligence Server is the third tier. 66 Project connectivity components © 2007 MicroStrategy. which in turn governs and validates the connection to the metadata. Inc. Intelligence Server manages all connections to databases. schema objects. This is the type of connection used to create a production-ready project in MicroStrategy. The following diagram illustrates Server connectivity between a MicroStrategy metadata repository. However. The project metadata is the first tier.

Connecting to a data source through a database instance is explained in detail in Connecting to a data source. page 72. For information on database instances. © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide Creating and Configuring a Project 4 Database instance The database instance is a configuration object that represents a connection to a data source. page 14. For more information on what a project is in MicroStrategy. Project A project is where you build and store all schema objects and information you need to create application objects such as reports in the MicroStrategy environment. When you define a project. see MicroStrategy project. you specify the data source location by creating and selecting a database instance with the appropriate connection parameters. A project also represents the intersection of a data source. Project connectivity components 67 . metadata repository. and user community. Inc. see the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide.

4 Creating and Configuring a Project Project Design Guide Summary of project connectivity With a firm understanding of the MicroStrategy metadata. 1 Creating the metadata repository The metadata repository contains the objects and definitions associated with your project. Bear this process in mind as you proceed through the rest of this guide. project sources. It acts as the 68 Creating a project © 2007 MicroStrategy. and projects. Inc. database instances. you can begin to build an understanding of how these various pieces work together to provide an integrated business intelligence environment as shown in the following diagram. Creating a project The following procedure describes the main steps to create a MicroStrategy project. These steps provide you with a high-level view of the project creation process. .

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intermediary between your business data and your reporting environment. Therefore, the first step in the project creation process is to create a metadata repository. For detailed instructions, see Creating the metadata repository, page 71. 2 Connecting to the metadata repository and data source Once the metadata repository is created and populated with initialization data, you must establish connections to both the metadata repository and data source. For detailed instructions, see Connecting to the metadata repository and data source, page 71. 3 Creating the project Having created a metadata repository and established the necessary connections between the different parts of your MicroStrategy environment, you are ready to create the basic definition of your project. For detailed instructions, see Creating the project, page 73. 4 Creating facts and attributes Schema objects such as facts and attributes are the basic components of the logical structure of a project. The business data your user community wants to report on is represented by schema objects in MicroStrategy. Therefore, it is necessary to setup schema objects before reports can be created. This step is covered in Creating facts and attributes, page 82 of this chapter. You can use Query Builder or Freeform SQL to create schema objects as you design reports. For more information for these features, see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide.

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5 Configuring additional schema-level settings Once you create the initial schema objects, you can configure additional schema-level settings that allow you to add complexity and depth to objects in your project and to the project as a whole. For example, you can create advanced facts and attributes to retrieve specific result sets. You can also use attributes to create time-series analysis schema objects called transformations and implement various tools to optimize and maintain your project over time. For information about: • • • Advanced fact creation, see Creating and modifying simple and advanced facts, page 91. Advanced attribute creation, see Adding and modifying attributes, page 134. Hierarchies and hierarchy creation, see Chapter 7, Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes. Transformations and transformation creation, see Chapter 9, Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons. Project optimization and maintenance, see Chapter 8, Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project. The steps listed above relate to the process of creating a project which connects to a database or other data source such as a text file or Excel file. MicroStrategy also supports connecting to data stored in SAP BW, Microsoft Analysis Services 2000 and 2005, and Hyperion Essbase systems. When integrated with MicroStrategy, these systems are referred to as OLAP cube sources. You can connect to any of these OLAP cube sources to report and analyze the data concurrently within a project that also connects to a database, or you can create a a standalone connection to your OLAP cube source (see Appendix B, Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources).

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Creating the metadata repository
Your first step in project creation is to create a metadata repository. This repository stores all the objects necessary to support your project. You can create an empty metadata repository in the database location of your choice using the Metadata Tables option in the Configuration Wizard. Before proceeding to the next section, make sure your metadata repository exists in a non-Microsoft Access database. An Access database is unsuitable for a production project. Create a metadata repository using the guidelines outlined in the Configuring and Connecting Intelligence Server chapter of the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. When you create the metadata repository, MicroStrategy creates a default configuration in the repository. The default configuration populates the tables with the basic data required for the metadata, such as the default project folder structure and basic connection information. These tables are populated with your project information during the project creation step in the Project Creation Assistant, outlined in Creating the project, page 73. For instructions on creating a metadata repository in a database, see the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide.

Connecting to the metadata repository and data source
Once you have created a metadata repository, your next step is to connect MicroStrategy Desktop to the metadata repository and to your data source.

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Connecting to the metadata repository
You connect to the metadata repository in MicroStrategy Desktop or Web through a project source. Recall that a project source is a pointer to a metadata repository. It connects either through a DSN that points to the appropriate database location or by pointing to an instance of Intelligence Server which, in turn, points to the metadata repository location. To configure Intelligence Server and establish a server connection between the metadata, Intelligence Server, and MicroStrategy Desktop, follow the steps in the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide.

Connecting to a data source
A data source contains the business data from which you intend to gain analytical insight. Once you connect to the metadata repository through Intelligence Server, your next step is to create a connection to the data source to which your project can connect. You connect to the data source by creating a database instance in MicroStrategy Desktop. Create a database instance using the procedures outlined in the Configuring and Connecting Intelligence Server chapter of the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. When you create a project, you must assign a database instance to that project. A project specifies only one database instance at a time, but a database instance can be assigned to multiple projects.

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MicroStrategy also allows you to connect to your SAP BW, Microsoft Analysis Services, and Hyperion Essbase data sources. For information about connecting to these OLAP cube sources, see Appendix B, Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources.

Creating the project
You can now begin building the MicroStrategy project that connects to the metadata repository and data source. Project creation involves creating a basic project definition and creating your project’s first schema objects. There are several methods for creating and editing a project, which includes: • Creating a test or prototype project using Project Builder With Project Builder, you can build project prototypes for proof-of-concept tests with your own data. Project Builder is best suited for creating a test project, and it is not intended to create production projects. • Creating a production project using Project Creation Assistant This section guides you through the creation of a production-ready MicroStrategy project. The following table compares the main features of both the Project Creation Assistant and Project Builder. Use the table to determine the project creation tool that best suits your needs.
Features Intended audience Project type Complexity Project Creation Assistant Advanced users Production-ready or other large projects Extensive features require more project design knowledge Project Builder Newer users Test or basic projects Easier to use but fewer features

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Features

Project Creation Assistant Advanced; can create the following objects and more: • multiple tables, attributes, and facts at once • attributes with many-to-many and joint child relationships A variety of databases and other data sources

Project Builder Limited; cannot be used to create multiple schema objects at once, but can be used to create basic hierarchies and metrics

Functionality

Metadata repository type Metric and report creation

Microsoft Access

No, must be done after project creation Yes, basic metrics and reports only

Creating a test or prototype project using Project Builder
Project Builder is a wizard that allows you to create simple MicroStrategy projects quickly and efficiently. Project Builder was created with speed in mind; thus it provides only a subset of the features and functionality of the Project Creation Assistant. It allows you to rapidly create user hierarchies and simple metrics and reports. With Project Builder, you can build project prototypes for proof-of-concept tests with your own data and simple yet functional projects. To create a project for your production environment, it is highly recommended you follow the steps outlined in Creating a production project using Project Creation Assistant, page 75. The Project Creation Assistant can add greater functionality and capability to your project in your production environment. To learn more about Project Builder, proceed through this section. You can also refer to the Introduction to MicroStrategy: Evaluation Guide and the Project Builder online help (press F1 from within Project Builder).

Using Project Builder
By default, Project Builder uses a Microsoft Access database for the metadata repository. A Microsoft Access database is suitable for creating the metadata repository for a prototype

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project, but not a production project. You should not use Microsoft Access for anything other than a proof-of-concept or demonstration type of application. You can use Project Mover to move a demonstration project into a production-ready database (see the System Administration Guide.) Project Builder contains the following options that assist you in creating a prototype project: • My Database allows you to name the project and select the database that contains the business information you want to analyze with the project you create. My Business Model allows you to identify relationships that define the business information in your database. Project Builder uses this structure to help you analyze the data. My Reports allows you to use the attributes and metrics you defined using My Business Model, to create a variety of reports. These reports are based on pre-defined templates. You can also preview and run the reports. You can learn about creating and designing reports in more detail in the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. To access Project Builder from the Start menu select Programs, then MicroStrategy, then Desktop, and then select Project Builder.

Creating a production project using Project Creation Assistant
This section describes how to create a Server-connected (three-tier) project for your production setup using MicroStrategy Desktop. It is assumed you intend to implement Intelligence Server in your business intelligence environment as the means of connecting to your project as opposed to using a two-tier setup.

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Creating a project using the Project Creation Assistant in MicroStrategy Desktop provides advanced functionalities and greater complexity to your project than Project Builder. It allows you to create a new project and add the following objects to it or to an existing project: • • • Tables Facts Attributes

With the Project Creation Assistant you create and configure a project and some of the essential schema objects that reside within it. The intended audience for this tool includes experienced project creators who have planned all their facts, attributes, and data relationships. This information is covered elsewhere in this guide. For a listing of information covered in specific chapters, see Planning your project below. The main advantage of the Project Creation Assistant over Project Builder is its ability to create multiple schema objects at once. Since you can efficiently add multiple tables and develop numerous attributes and facts, it is especially useful for large projects which contain many tables and schema objects. With the Project Creation Assistant you can also create attributes with many-to-many relationships.

Planning your project
Before using the Project Creation Assistant, you should plan your project and consider the following: • The logical data model you intend to use for this project; logical data models are covered in Chapter 2, The Logical Data Model. The tables to use in the project; physical warehouse schema models are covered in Chapter 3, Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model. The facts to include in the project and the data types used to identify them; facts are covered in Chapter 5, The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts.

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The attributes to create in the project and the data types used to identify them, including: The description column name for each attribute. Any other attribute forms for each attribute. The child attributes for each attribute. Attributes are covered in Chapter 6, The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes.

Creating a new project using the Project Creation Assistant
Once you have planned your project and completed the prerequisites, you can use the Project Creation Assistant to build the project and populate the metadata based on the data structures present in your data warehouse. The steps of the Project Creation Assistant are: 1 Initialize/create the project. Initializing the project means giving the project a name and selecting the metadata repository in which to create the project—that is, the project source. After you specify these settings, the shell of a project is created in the metadata. This configures the folder structure and default connectivity settings. Be aware that this process can take some time to complete. 2 Select tables from the Warehouse Catalog. In this step, you use the Warehouse Catalog to specify which data warehouse tables to include in your project. 3 Create facts. 4 Create attributes. You should complete all the steps in the Project Creation Assistant at the same time. While you can save an incomplete project definition, you cannot finish creating it later with the Project Creation Assistant. Instead, you must complete it using the
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such as the Warehouse Catalog. select Create New Project. The default document directory for a project is the directory location to store all HTML documents. Fact Creation Assistant. 78 Creating the project © 2007 MicroStrategy. For more details on how to setup HTML documents for a project. 2 From the Schema menu. 4 Enter the name. . and default document directory location for the project.4 Creating and Configuring a Project Project Design Guide appropriate interface. Inc. description. or Attribute Creation Assistant. To create a new project using the Project Creation Assistant 1 Log in to a project source in MicroStrategy Desktop. see the Configuring and Connecting Intelligence Server chapter of the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. see the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. The New Project page opens. as shown below: 3 Click Create project. The Project Creation Assistant opens. To create a project source which connects to your data through Intelligence Server.

Creating the project 79 . you select the lookup. it can lead to inconsistencies in the language display. From this list. and relationship tables to use in your new © 2007 MicroStrategy. The Warehouse Catalog lists all the tables in the data source to which you are connected through your database instance and to which your database login has read privileges. You use the Warehouse Catalog to add warehouse tables to your project. The Login dialog box opens. a language check ensures that the language settings of the user profile of the local machine (the CURRENT_USER registry key). Proceed to the next section to determine the tables to be used in your project. select the project source in which you created the database instance to connect to your metadata repository. 8 Enter a valid login ID and password and click OK. If you are not authorized by your database or system administrator to create projects in the data source you have selected. 6 From the Project Source drop-down list. the language of the local machine (the LOCAL_MACHINE registry key). Adding tables using the Warehouse Catalog The warehouse tables for a project determines the set of data available to be analyzed in the project. The Project Creation Assistant creates an empty project in the metadata repository. The Warehouse Catalog queries the data source and lists the tables and columns that exist in it. fact. When these properties do not match. When you create a new project. Inc. select Enable the guest user account for this project. The language check prevents these inconsistencies and ensures that the language display is consistent across the project.Project Design Guide Creating and Configuring a Project 4 5 To support anonymous authentication mode for guest users for this project. 7 Click OK. and the Project locale property match. you cannot proceed to the next step.

The Warehouse Database Instance dialog box opens. The database login you use must have read privileges so you are able to view the tables in the selected warehouse. To learn more about these objects. MicroStrategy schema objects such as attributes. they become schema objects known as logical tables in MicroStrategy.4 Creating and Configuring a Project Project Design Guide project. . refer to the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. Inc. To add and remove tables to the project using the Warehouse Catalog 1 In the Project Creation Assistant. Logical Tables. Logical tables are representations of the tables that are available in the data warehouse. including transformation tables. select Select tables from the Warehouse Catalog. aggregate tables. facts. and are discussed in detail in Appendix C. and partition mapping tables. Once tables are selected from the data source and added to your project. 80 Creating the project © 2007 MicroStrategy. Database instances and database logins are MicroStrategy objects that determine the warehouse to which a project connects. You can edit your database instance by clicking Edit. The database instance selected in this dialog box determines which data source is accessed. 2 Select a database instance from the drop-down list and click OK. and tables are abstractions built on top of the tables and columns in the data source. The Warehouse Catalog opens. You should also include all other tables needed to complete your project.

Warehouse Catalog options 6 Right-clicking any table provides you with additional Warehouse Catalog functionality. Inc. 5 To remove tables from your project. The list on the right shows all the tables currently being used in the project. page 221. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Creating the project 81 . select them from the right side and click < to remove them.Project Design Guide Creating and Configuring a Project 4 3 The left side of the Warehouse Catalog lists all available tables and the number of rows each table contains. Click << to remove all the tables from your project. or specify a database instance for a table. For example you can view rows in a table. select the tables you want to add to the Warehouse Catalog. copy a table. see Managing warehouse and project tables. Click >> to add all the listed tables. specify a table prefix. For more information on these abilities and how to use them. if any: 4 From the left side. and click > to add the selected tables.

. customize how tables and columns are read from the database system catalog. Creating facts and attributes This step in the project creation process involves using the Project Creation Assistant to create two kinds of schema objects: facts and attributes. This information is covered in Chapter 5. For more information on these abilities and how to use them. Before you create facts and attributes. page 220. The next step in the Project Creation Wizard involves creating schema objects: facts and attributes. After exiting the Project Creation Assistant. Follow the instructions outlined in Creating facts and attributes. The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts and Chapter 6. see Adding and removing tables for a project. click Save and Close to save your changes to the Warehouse Catalog. For example. For steps to access the Warehouse Catalog to add tables to a project. Inc. This process can take some time to complete. page 226.4 Creating and Configuring a Project Project Design Guide 7 To set advanced options you can click Options on the Warehouse Catalog toolbar. you can change the database instance. 8 In the toolbar. 82 Creating facts and attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 83 to learn how to create these schema objects and configure additional schema-level settings for those objects. page 82 and Configuring additional schema-level settings. however. you can still access the Warehouse Catalog to add additional tables. and decide whether schema objects are mapped automatically or manually. The table definitions are written to the metadata. The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes. display extra table and row information. see Modifying data warehouse connection and operation defaults. it is important to understand what facts and attributes are and the defining characteristics of each.

which facilitate access to attribute and element browsing and drilling. • • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. This information is covered in Chapter 8. Attribute definitions: The Attribute Editor allows you to create and edit attributes. This is covered in Creating and modifying simple and advanced facts. page 91. and the Warehouse Partition Mapping Editor.Project Design Guide Creating and Configuring a Project 4 Configuring additional schema-level settings The final step in the project creation process involves configuring additional schema-level settings to add more analytical depth to your schema objects and optimize the project as a whole. aggregate tables. proceed to the chapters referenced above to complete the next steps in the project creation process. page 134. and configure facts. Transformations are covered in Chapter 9. Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons. Configuring additional schema-level settings 83 . Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project. This is covered in Adding and modifying attributes. which are schema objects used for time-series analysis. These settings include: • Fact definitions: The Fact Editor allows you to create. and partitioning and partition mappings: The Transformation Editor allows you to create transformations. edit. User hierarchies: The Hierarchy Editor allows you to create user hierarchies. The tools used to create aggregate tables and partitions are the Warehouse Catalog. Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes. This is covered in Chapter 7. Advanced configurations: These objects include transformations. and attribute form expressions. Inc. Now that you have completed most of the key steps in creating a new project. the Metadata Partition Mapping Editor. attribute forms.

Note the following: • MicroStrategy allows you to connect to your SAP BW. see the MicroStrategy Web online help. custom groups. For information on how to use your own customized SQL statements to create reports. Facts are used to create metrics. For a complete discussion of metrics.4 Creating and Configuring a Project Project Design Guide Deploying your project and creating reports After you create a project. however. For information about connecting to OLAP cube sources. are beyond the scope of this guide. and other report objects such as filters. and Hyperion Essbase data sources. that if you completed only the steps in this chapter. Microsoft Analysis Services. Inc. Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources. . Metrics. and metrics and attributes are essential components of reports. • 84 Deploying your project and creating reports © 2007 MicroStrategy. see Appendix B. refer to the Deploying your Project with MicroStrategy Web chapter of the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. To learn more about how to deploy your project using MicroStrategy Web. refer to the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide and the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. reports. Facts and attributes provide the backbone of the reports and documents created by report designers. for creating reports in MicroStrategy Web. refer to the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. For information about creating reports in MicroStrategy Desktop. and other report objects. and prompts. You can also begin creating reports in MicroStrategy Desktop and MicroStrategy Web. the project you deploy will contain only basic facts and attributes. Keep in mind. see the Creating Freeform SQL reports chapter in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. you can deploy it to your user community using MicroStrategy Web. filters. Proceed to the chapters listed above to add analytical depth and more functionality to your project.

which are used in the majority of analyses and reports that users can create with MicroStrategy. The facts you create in MicroStrategy allow users to access data stored in the data warehouse. facts are schema objects created by and shared between MicroStrategy users. They relate numeric data values from the data warehouse to the MicroStrategy reporting environment. As the project designer. Facts and attributes are necessary to define projects.5 5. 85 . Facts generally represent the answers to the business questions on which users want to report. In the MicroStrategy environment. facts are numeric data and attributes are contextual data for the facts. For example. you want to analyze the amount of sales at a certain store during January. THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF BUSINESS DATA: FACTS Introduction Facts are one of the essential elements within the business data model. Inc. © 2007 MicroStrategy. and the store and month represent attributes. In this case. In a MicroStrategy project. Facts form the basis for metrics. the amount of sales represents the fact.

as shown below. .5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide you must create projects that contain facts and attributes. Each cell in the columns represents a specific piece of information. 86 © 2007 MicroStrategy. Users can then use these facts and attributes as building blocks for metrics and reports. Facts are stored in the data warehouse in fact tables. that column is accessed to retrieve the necessary data. When fact information is requested for a report in MicroStrategy. Facts are based on physical columns within tables in the data warehouse. Inc. These fact tables are composed of different columns. This data is used to create a metric (such as profit) which is a business measure.

This section provides steps to create facts at different phases of the project design process. A fact entry level is the lowest set of attributes at which a fact is stored. facts such as Tenure and Compensation Cost could exist in a data warehouse that contains human resources data. units sold. Inc. While creating facts is a major step in the initial creation of a project. Facts such as Quantity and Item Cost could exist in a warehouse containing sales and distribution data. Creating and modifying simple and advanced facts. page 88 covers steps to create multiple. For example. simple facts. facts do not describe data. using different techniques and MicroStrategy interfaces: • Simultaneously creating multiple. Unlike attributes.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 Like other schema objects such as attributes. Examples of facts include sales dollars. 87 . The procedures to perform these tasks are discussed in the first section (Creating facts. page 87) of this chapter. Creating facts • © 2007 MicroStrategy. simple facts as part of the initial project design effort or later in a project’s life cycle. It is important to understand how to define facts because facts are the basis for almost all metrics. Facts also allow you to create advanced metrics containing data that is not stored in the warehouse but can be derived by extending facts. The later sections discuss conceptual information on facts. as well as highlight some advanced fact design techniques and procedures. Facts are the actual data values stored at a specific fact level. it can often be necessary to modify and create facts throughout the life cycle of a project. facts are logical MicroStrategy objects that correspond to physical columns and tables. profit. Data warehouses contain different types of facts depending on the purpose of the data. Creating facts A fact has two common characteristics: it is numeric and it is aggregatable. and cost. page 91 covers steps to add and modify both simple and advanced facts for an existing project.

page 91. simple facts During your initial project design effort. which is discussed in Creating and modifying simple and advanced facts. 88 Creating facts © 2007 MicroStrategy. You can also access the Fact Creation Wizard in MicroStrategy Desktop from the Schema menu. • The Fact Editor. fact creation and modification can be done throughout the entire life cycle of a project. you can create multiple simple facts using the Project Creation Assistant and the Fact Creation Wizard. However. Inc. The Project Creation Assistant utilizes the Fact Creation Wizard to help you create the facts for your initial project creation effort. utilizing the following MicroStrategy tools: • The Fact Creation Wizard is a step-by-step interface that is typically used when you first create a project. is used to add advanced features to facts that already exist or to create new simple or advanced facts as your project evolves. It allows you to create multiple facts in a single creation process. .5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide Simultaneously creating multiple. Facts can be created and modified using a number of various techniques.

The Fact Creation Rules page opens. If the naming conventions in your warehouse do not conform to the defaults in the Fact Creation Rules page. Select the check boxes for the data types to be included when the wizard searches the data warehouse for available fact columns. select Create facts. Therefore. if you select Character and Numeric and leave the remaining check boxes cleared. you may need to change these rules. Unlike most attributes which can access multiple columns of description information. Inc. as shown below: 2 Click Define Rules to set some basic fact creation rules. 89 © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 To create facts with the Fact Creation Wizard 1 In the Project Creation Assistant. Rules help automate and govern the fact creation process. you can only select data types for the ID columns of your facts. For example. Creating facts . The Fact Creation Wizard opens. a fact does not have description information. only columns whose data types are numeric or character-based are displayed in the Fact Creation Wizard as possible columns to use for your facts. 3 The Column data type area allows you to select the column data types that are available as possible fact ID columns.

5 Click OK to accept your rule changes and return to the Fact Creation Wizard. 90 Creating facts © 2007 MicroStrategy. Click >> to add all the listed columns.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide 4 The Fact name area allows you to determine how to create default fact names. Note the following: – You can rename any fact to make its name more user-friendly by right-clicking the fact and selecting Rename. see Simultaneously creating multiple attributes. heterogeneous columns). that is. For more information about mapping facts to heterogeneous columns. . The selected fact definitions are stored in the metadata. To continue creating a project with the Project Creation Assistant. Click << to remove all the columns in your project. 7 From the Available columns pane. – The Fact Creation Wizard cannot handle columns that hold the same information but have different column names (that is. page 102. page 129. with columns that are not currently being used in the project listed in the Available columns pane. select them from the Facts pane and click < to move them to the left side. see Facts with different column names: Heterogeneous column names. Fact column selection 6 Click Next. 8 To remove fact columns from your project. The Column Selection page opens. whether to replace underscores in the fact name with spaces and whether the first letter is capitalized. 10 Review the summary information in the Finish page and click Finish to create the facts. Select the appropriate check boxes to create the desired default fact names. The Finish page opens. Inc. select the fact columns to use for your facts and click > to add them to your project. 9 Click Next.

for creating most of the facts for the project. Creating one or more simple facts with the Fact Creation Wizard Although the Fact Creation Wizard is primarily used to create most of a project’s facts during initial project creation. level extensions. map multiple or heterogeneous columns. To create facts with the Fact Creation Wizard 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. you can use it to create one or more simple facts at the same time. © 2007 MicroStrategy. you only use the Fact Creation Wizard as part of the initial project creation. Inc. column aliases. it limits you to creating simple facts and does not allow you to edit existing facts. You can use the Fact Editor to edit existing facts and create fact expressions. Typically. log in to the project source that contains your project and expand your project. and configure other settings. you can use either the Fact Creation Wizard or the Fact Editor to create new facts in your project: • With the Fact Creation Wizard you can: Create simple facts Create multiple facts quickly Add a large number of facts during project creation • With the Fact Editor you can: Create simple and advanced facts Edit existing facts and configure additional schema-level settings The Fact Creation Wizard can create multiple facts quickly and easily. Creating facts 91 . However.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 Creating and modifying simple and advanced facts After you have created a project.

log in to the project source that contains your project and expand your project. 3 From the Schema menu. You can also use the Fact Editor to add extensions to those facts and configure additional settings within them to support various analytical requirements. For more information about privileges. page 89. You must use a login that has Architect privileges. For more information about privileges. 2 From the Folder List in MicroStrategy Desktop. To create a simple fact with the Fact Editor 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. 92 Creating facts © 2007 MicroStrategy. see Permissions and Privileges of the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. follow the procedures outlined in To create facts with the Fact Creation Wizard.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide You must use a login that has Architect privileges. select Fact Creation Wizard. The Fact Creation Wizard opens. select the project to which to add additional facts. see Permissions and Privileges of the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. Creating simple and advanced facts with the Fact Editor As your project evolves. To use the Fact Creation Wizard to add facts. The following procedure describes how to use the Fact Editor to create a simple fact based on a single fact column in a table. select the project to which to add additional facts. Inc. you can create additional facts and modify existing facts with the Fact Editor. 2 From the Folder List in MicroStrategy Desktop. .

Using automatic mapping in the Attribute Editor helps you decide which tables to map your facts to when creating a fact. and then Fact. page 231) determine whether attributes or facts are automatically mapped to new tables when they are added after an attribute or fact is created. You then select which of those tables are used as source tables for the fact. Manual mapping means that MicroStrategy scans all of the tables in the project and locates all tables with the columns used in the fact expression. The Warehouse Catalog mapping methods (discussed in Mapping schema objects and calculating logical sizes for tables. – If the same column name does not contain the same data across different tables. – If you are creating a constant expression that is not based on a physical column in a project table. • Automatic mapping means that MicroStrategy scans all of the tables in the project and selects all tables with the columns used in the fact expression as possible source tables for the fact. drag and drop a fact column into the Fact expression pane. select Automatic or Manual. The source table is the table or logical view that contains the fact column on which you want to base a new fact. You can then remove any tables mapped automatically or select other tables. manually select the appropriate source tables for each fact. select New. 5 From the Available columns pane.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 3 From the File menu. • © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. select the source table for the fact. Creating facts 93 . with the Create New Fact Expression dialog box displayed on top of it. The Fact Editor opens. select the tables for which you want your constant expression to apply. 4 From the Source table drop-down list. – These mapping methods are different from the automatic mapping methods for the Warehouse Catalog. 6 In the Mapping area.

e. the columns contain different fact data in each table. However. • • 9 When your changes are complete. Fact definitions are discussed in How facts are defined. 7 Click OK to close the Create New Fact Expression dialog box. the Sales column contains revenue data. as described below. Sales). you must select the Manual mapping method so you can select the Fact_Sales table as a source table for the Revenue fact. Column Alias: This tab allows you to create a column alias for the fact. suppose you have a column named Sales. Fact extensions are discussed in Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions. For detailed information about the options on each tab within the Fact Editor. Column aliases are discussed in Fact column names and data types: Column aliases. • Definition: This tab allows you to define fact expressions. page 107. click Save and Close. page 105. you must select the Manual mapping method so you can select the Fact_Discount table as a source table for the Discount fact. If you use the Automatic mapping method in both cases. and create extensions. the Sales column contains discount data. the MicroStrategy SQL Engine may use the incorrect column for the facts. . page 97. Inc. 8 Use the tabs of the Fact Editor to define fact expressions. When creating the Revenue fact. In the Fact_Sales table. In other words. which exists in both the Fact_Sales table and the Fact_Discount table. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. although the column name is the same in both tables (i. in the Fact_Discount table. 94 Creating facts © 2007 MicroStrategy. Extensions: This tab allows you to create fact level extensions.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide For example. create column aliases. When creating the Discount fact.

select Update Schema to update the project schema. You can learn how to create more advanced facts in the various sections below. Creating facts 95 .Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 10 In the Save As dialog box. Inc. open the folder that contains the fact to modify. The fact is saved and the Fact Editor closes. 2 Double-click the fact to open the Fact Editor and edit the fact. Modifying simple and advanced facts To modify an existing fact 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. 11 From the Schema menu. navigate to the location in which to save the fact. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Enter a name for the fact and click Save.

Level extensions are discussed in detail in Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions. page 105. Every fact must have at least one expression. page 97. • • 96 The structure of facts © 2007 MicroStrategy.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide The structure of facts As shown in the diagram below. MicroStrategy selects a default column alias depending on the type of fact. even though it is stored at that level. Level extensions are very effective for advanced data modeling scenarios. Fact definitions are discussed in detail in How facts are defined. Fact level extensions allow facts stored in the data warehouse at one level to be reported at an unrelated level. Every fact must have a column alias. unless you create a new column alias. Extensions can also prevent a fact from being reported at a certain level. facts are made up of the following components: • The fact definition is composed of one or more fact expressions. Inc. Column aliases are discussed in detail in Fact column names and data types: Column aliases. The column alias stores the column name MicroStrategy uses to generate SQL statements when creating temporary tables related to the fact. . page 107.

The fact definition is composed of at least one fact expression and basic information about the fact. multiple expressions can exist within a fact definition. The fact expression contained in the definition represents how the fact is calculated by MicroStrategy. While the Unit Price fact only has one expression. the fact expression maps the fact to the All_Sales columns in the LU_ITEM and ORDER_DETAIL tables in the warehouse. For a discussion of the tools used to created facts and procedures on how to use them.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 You create facts in MicroStrategy Desktop using the Fact Creation Wizard and the Fact Editor. Fact Name Unit Price Expression All_Sales Source Tables LU_ITEM ORDER_DETAIL In the example. page 87. During project creation with the Fact Creation Wizard. and often must be calculated differently from one table to the next. see Creating facts. both the fact definition and column alias are automatically defined. which includes the fact’s name. How facts are defined A fact definition contains properties that define a fact and its components. expression. However. The following table provides an example of a fact definition. Level extensions are optional. How facts are defined 97 . and source tables. Inc. some facts use more advanced expressions to perform calculations on multiple columns of data to return a single fact. and the source tables it uses. when you select the numeric column used to represent the fact. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Facts can be found in multiple tables in a warehouse schema. including the fact name. In this case. expression. the fact expression is simply the name of the column which holds the fact data.

A fact definition must have one or more fact expressions. Inc. These expressions can be as simple as a fact column name from the warehouse or as sophisticated as a formula containing multiple fact column names and numeric constants. The following image illustrates a column in the fact table and the associated fact expressions: Valid fact expressions are formulas constructed from fact columns with or without numeric constants or mathematical operators. fact expressions define how the fact is calculated. For each of the tables. a fact expression represents a mapping to specific fact information in the warehouse. . Mapping physical columns to facts: Fact expressions A fact expression maps facts to physical columns in the warehouse.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide Note the following: • • Each fact expression relates to one or more related tables that contain the fact. The mathematical operators that can be used in a fact expression are: • • • • Addition (+) Subtraction (-) Multiplication (*) Division (/) 98 How facts are defined © 2007 MicroStrategy. Regardless of how it is defined.

page 91. • Most facts represent physical columns in the data warehouse. For detailed information about metrics. although nothing is saved in a table column. For example. For example. How facts are defined 99 . as explained in the following sections. You may also find it helpful to use implicit facts when building metrics. Any operation on a column such as adding a constant. The implicit fact can have its expression defined as a constant value. you can use implicit fact expressions to create “temporary columns” in the database with a value of “1” for every row. Implicit facts and implicit fact expressions Implicit facts are virtual or constant facts that do not physically exist in the database. you can define a fact equal to the constant “1”. adding another column’s values. However. In other words. you are creating a fact © 2007 MicroStrategy. An implicit fact indicates a fact table from which to retrieve data. creates a derived fact. if you want to build a metric defined as Sum(1). Derived facts and derived fact expressions A derived fact has its value determined by an expression that contains more than just a column in a table. A fact can also be defined using an ApplySimple function. where you can sum the column holding the constant to create a COUNT. Inc. some facts do not exist at all in the warehouse and are defined in other ways. These temporary columns allow you to keep track of how many rows are returned for a certain attribute. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. These steps are covered in Creating and modifying simple and advanced facts. or setting the expression to be an absolute value. Apply functions are discussed in the Pass-Through Expressions appendix in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 Note the following: • You can use the Fact Editor to create fact expressions.

. In this case. Example: creating derived facts The Cost fact in the MicroStrategy Tutorial contains the derived fact expression Qty_Sold * Unit_Cost. Inc. the columns are used to answer the business question. “How much did it cost the company to create the items purchased by customers?” The following procedure describes how to create a derived fact that uses the derived fact expression described above. This expression implies that columns containing data about the quantity of items sold and the price of those units can be multiplied to produce a useful business calculation. For example. by creating the following derived fact: Sales = Quantity_Sold * Price One advantage of creating a derived fact is that a derived fact allows one consistent fact to exist in the project in lieu of having to retrieve multiple intermediary facts from multiple tables. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide from information that is available in the data warehouse. Metrics allow you to perform calculations and aggregations on your fact data. 100 How facts are defined © 2007 MicroStrategy. For more information on what metrics are and how to create them. For a more generalized procedure to create derived facts. a table in your data warehouse contains the following elements: Fact Table 1 Item Quarter Quantity_Sold Price You can create a new fact. Rather than creating a derived fact. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. Sales. Using a single fact saves storage space and limits the number of SQL passes used in queries. you can create such analysis in MicroStrategy with the use of metrics.

7 From the Available columns list. select Automatic. The derived fact expression appears in the Fact expression pane in the Fact Editor.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 To create a derived fact 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. 8 Under Mapping method. with the Create New Fact Expression dialog box displayed on top of it. log in to the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. and open the My Objects folder. point to New. The expression should appear as shown below: 10 Click OK. and then select Fact. double-click the UNIT_PRICE column to add it to end of the fact expression. 5 From the Available columns pane. double-click the QTY_SOLD column to add it to the Fact expression pane on the right. click * (multiplication operator) to add it to the expression. 4 From the Source table drop-down list. 3 From the File menu. 6 With the cursor in the Fact expression pane. 2 Navigate to the My Personal Objects folder. How facts are defined 101 . select the ORDER_DETAIL table. The Fact Editor opens. 9 Click Validate to check whether the syntax of the expression is correct.

select Save As. . two fact tables in a warehouse each contain columns for dollar sales. Table 1 contains a fact called Dollar_Sales. 102 How facts are defined © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. at this point. it is not necessary to update the schema. Table 1 Year Dollar_Sales Table 2 Month Dollar_Sls MicroStrategy allows you to identify heterogeneous fact column names for each fact. you must update the project schema. With heterogeneous column names. These two items represent the same information. Table 2 includes a fact called Dollar_Sls. In the example below. The Save menu opens. When you call for the information in a report through the use of a metric. In the example above. since this is only an example. creating a heterogeneous fact column name for dollar sales informs the system that the Dollar_Sales and Dollar_Sls columns represent the same fact.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide 11 From the File menu. resulting in an accurate representation of the fact in the report. Facts with different column names: Heterogeneous column names In your warehouse. 13 When you create a fact for your project. 12 Enter a name for the derived fact and click Save. However. the same fact can access columns with different column names. you can refer the same fact to multiple columns with different column names and from different tables that identify the same quantitative value. both fact columns are used in the SQL.

3 From the File menu. 7 Click OK. 4 From the Source table drop-down list. log in to the MicroStrategy Tutorial project.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 Example: mapping heterogeneous fact columns The Units Sold fact in MicroStrategy Tutorial consists of two fact columns in the warehouse. For a more generalized procedure to map heterogeneous fact columns. The Fact Editor opens. select the ORDER_FACT table. The following procedure describes how to create the Units Sold fact that already exists in MicroStrategy Tutorial. and then select Fact. © 2007 MicroStrategy. In the procedure. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. Although these fact columns have different names and exist in different fact tables. with the Create New Fact Expression dialog box displayed on top of it. The Fact Editor opens and the fact expression you just created appears in the Fact expression pane. double-click the QTY_SOLD column to add it to the Fact expression pane on the right. This is one of the tables in which a heterogeneous fact column for the Units Sold fact exists. you create the Units Sold fact and map its corresponding heterogeneous fact columns to it. they represent the same data and are therefore both mapped to the Unit Sold fact. point to New. 5 From the Available columns pane. select Automatic. How facts are defined 103 . Qty_Sold and Tot_Unit_Sales. 2 Navigate to the My Personal Objects folder. and open the My Objects folder. To create heterogeneous fact columns 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. You must map heterogeneous fact columns to their corresponding facts to ensure that accurate and complete data is displayed on reports. 6 In the Mapping method area. Inc.

at this point. 13 From the File menu. it is not necessary to update the schema. 15 When you create a fact for your project. The Create New Fact Expression dialog box opens.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide Now you must add the other heterogeneous fact column as separate expression for the Units Sold fact. 14 Enter a name for the new fact and click Save. However. you must update the project schema. 104 How facts are defined © 2007 MicroStrategy. The Fact Editor opens and the fact expression you just created appears in the Fact expression pane. select the CITY_CTR_SALES table. Inc. 12 Click OK. double-click the TOT_UNIT_SALES column to add it to the Fact expression pane on the right. 8 Click New. 11 In the Mapping method area. The Save menu opens. . This is the other table in which a heterogeneous fact column for the Units Sold fact exists. 10 From the Available columns pane. 9 From the Source table drop-down list. Now the Units Sold fact you are creating maps correctly to its heterogeneous fact columns. select Save As. since this is only an example. select Automatic.

Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 Fact column names and data types: Column aliases A column alias specifies both the name of the column to be used in temporary tables and the data type to be used for the fact. [End_Date_Id]) The expression syntax is specific to your database type. This syntax is specific to Microsoft SQL Server. Inc. #1)". Fact column names and data types: Column aliases 105 . © 2007 MicroStrategy. the data type for a fact is inherited from the data type of the column on which the fact is defined in the data warehouse. [Start_Date_Id]. you can define a fact to be the difference between two dates to perform a calculation such as the average number of days between a start and an end date. For example. However. You could create this fact using the following expression: ApplySimple("DateDiff(day. there are cases where you may need to change this. By default.#0. The SQL you create may be different.

This is used when a temporary SQL table needs to be created for the calculation. The Column Editor . You can use the Fact Editor to create column aliases. 5 Select New to create a new column alias. is an integer. If you did not change the data type of the column alias. Inc. The Column Editor . you should modify the column alias for the fact to change the default Date data type to an Integer data type. click Modify. that is. The Fact Editor opens. log in to the project source that contains the fact to create a new column alias for. For a description of the different data types supported by MicroStrategy. However. To avoid the possibility of an error due to conflicting data types. . • 106 Fact column names and data types: Column aliases © 2007 MicroStrategy. Data type: The data type for the fact. Data Types. then the system uses a Date data type and tries to insert integer data into this column. 2 Right-click the fact and select Edit.Column Selection dialog box opens. 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. the result of the calculation. the difference between the two dates. This can cause an error for some database platforms.Definition dialog box opens. see Appendix D. 6 You can modify the following properties for the column alias: • Column name: The name for the column alias which is used in any SQL statements which include the fact column. 4 In the Column alias area. To create a column alias for a fact This procedure assumes you have already created a fact with a valid fact expression for which to create a new column alias.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide The data type for this fact is automatically set to a Date data type because the Start_Date_ID and End_Date_ID have Date data types. 3 Select the Column Alias tab.

or time scale for your column alias. For a detailed description on each of these properties. The level of a fact is defined by the attribute IDs present in the table.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 • Depending on the data type selected. Every fact is tied to a set of attributes that may or may not © 2007 MicroStrategy. Fact Table 1 Item Quarter Quantity_Sold Price Level extensions are necessary when facts are stored in the data warehouse at one level and reported at different levels. the fact table shown below contains several attribute IDs. 8 Click OK to save your changes and return to the Fact Editor. precision. bit length. 9 Select Save and Close to save your changes. 7 Click OK to save your changes and return to the Column Editor .Column Selection dialog box. including Item and Quarter. Inc. For example. scale. These attribute IDs imply that the fact is reported at the item and quarter levels by default. see the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions Facts are stored at a particular business level in the warehouse. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 107 . you can specify the byte length.

A fact extension is needed when a fact does not relate directly or indirectly to an attribute included on a report. However. you have to extend the level of the Discount fact to the Call Center level.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide satisfy all users’ reporting requirements. without the use of level extensions. which is an attribute from a different hierarchy. That is. You can use level extensions to change a fact level and extend a fact level to a level in a completely different hierarchy. 108 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. you record a Discount fact at the Item/Date level. discounts apply to particular items on particular days. page 118). To see if some call centers are selling significantly more items at a discount than other call centers. facts require level extensions to be related to any attributes that are at a lower logical level in the same hierarchy than the entry level for a fact (see Lowering the level of fact data: Fact degradations. For example. all attributes at a higher logical level in the hierarchy are available for use as well. Inc. For example if you have a cost fact at the level of a date attribute in a time hierarchy. . If the entry level of a fact is at the lowest level of a hierarchy. MicroStrategy can aggregate the cost fact data to the level of the year attribute because it is in the same hierarchy as the date attribute and at a higher level.

you are allowing facts or attributes that have been captured at one level to be extended to other levels to meet reporting requirements. Otherwise. Level extensions are not required like the fact definition and column alias. or disallowed to other attributes across the schema. page 110 Defining a join on fact tables using fact relations. a level extension must be defined for the fact. page 114 Forcing facts to relate to attributes: Using cross product joins. You can create fact level extensions by using any of the following methods: • • • • • Defining a join on fact tables using table relations. Inc. page 122 You can find complete descriptions for each of these methods in the online help for the Level Extension Wizard in the Fact Editor. page 116 Lowering the level of fact data: Fact degradations. a level extension must exist to relate the fact data to the attribute. By creating a level extension. there is no way to make a connection between the fact data and the attribute. Before a metric containing a fact can be used with an attribute that is not in or related to the attribute’s entry level. and they tend to be used only in specific cases. This is because if a fact is stored at a level unrelated to an attribute on a report. You can use the Fact Editor to create level extensions. © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 Level extensions define how facts can be extended. lowered. page 118 Disallowing the reporting of a fact at a certain level. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 109 .

The procedure also describes general principles of creating fact extensions which you can use to create fact extensions for the facts in your project. 2 The Freight fact cannot simply be joined with a table containing Item information to return a meaningful freight value for each item. you are creating a table relation to extend a fact. In this example. Notice that the ORDER_FACT and ORDER_DETAIL tables include Order-level Units Sold and Item-level Units Sold columns respectively. An allocation expression is required to extend Freight to the Item level. Inc. A fact extension can be used to relate a fact to an attribute using a fact table. For example. and ORDER_DETAIL contains the Item attribute’s identity column to extend the fact to Item. The join is important as the table contains an attribute in the entry level and the attribute to which to extend. the MicroStrategy Tutorial project includes a Freight metric. Since the ORDER_FACT table that defines Freight does not include the identity column for the Item attribute. These two columns are used to allocate the fact expression in the procedure below. . The following procedure steps through how to create the fact extension that has been created for the Freight fact of the Tutorial project.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide Defining a join on fact tables using table relations A table relation defines a join on tables. A fact extension is required to view freight values for each item included in an order. the ORDER_DETAIL table is used to create the Freight fact extension to Item because: 1 The ORDER_FACT and ORDER_DETAIL tables both contain the Order attribute’s identity column to join the tables. the Freight fact cannot be reported at the Item level. 110 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. This metric has a table relation fact extension to the Item attribute. When you specify a table to join with a fact.

The Level Extension Wizard opens. or a cross product join Disallow partially or completely the fact entry level: define a fact extension that does not allow a fact to be reported at a certain level (see Disallowing the reporting of a fact at a certain level. 4 Select Extension to Item and click Modify. page 118) Extend the fact entry level: define a fact extension on a table relation. 2 Browse to the Facts folder and double-click the Freight fact to edit it. © 2007 MicroStrategy. 5 Read the Welcome statement and click Next. To create a new fact extension you would click New. this example steps through how the Freight fact extension Extension to Item was created. Then select whether you want to: • Lower the fact entry level: define a fact degradation (see Lowering the level of fact data: Fact degradations. page 122) • • For this example you are creating a fact extension on a table relation. or disallow the fact entry level 6 Enter a name and a description for your fact extension (already provided). 3 Click the Extensions tab. and click Next. Inc. extend. dynamic fact relation. To lower. However. The Fact Editor opens. log in to the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. The General Information page opens.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 To define a fact extension with a table relation 1 In Desktop. so select Extend the fact entry level. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 111 . The Extended Attributes page opens.

Click Next. Since you know that you want to join the ORDER_FACT and ORDER_DETAIL tables using the Order attribute. and define the allocation expression 9 Select the table used to extend the fact to the new level. and click Next to continue defining your fact extension on a table relation.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide To select attributes to extend the fact to 7 Select the attributes you want to extend the fact to. . Inc. page 114). To select the table. Click Next. 10 Select whether to allow Intelligence Server to dynamically select what attribute(s) to perform the join. For this example. Perform the extension through a cross product: select to apply a cross product join (see Forcing facts to relate to attributes: Using cross product joins. The Extension Type page opens. This allows the MicroStrategy Engine to select the table that includes the fact and join attributes you choose to create the fact extension (see Defining a join on fact tables using fact relations. • For this example select Specify the relationship table used to extend the fact. To extend the fact so that it can be reported at any level in a hierarchy. 112 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. Select the relationship table dynamically: select a fact and join attributes. or manually select the attribute(s). join attributes. The Table Selection page opens. choose the lowest level attribute in that hierarchy. select Order and click Next. The Join Type page opens. The Join Attributes Direction page opens. For this example Item is already selected. page 116) . To select the type of fact extension 8 Select how you want to extend the fact: • • Specify the relationship table used to extend the fact: select a relationship table and join attributes. the ORDER_DETAIL table is already selected. allowing the fact to be reported at the new level.

Employee. 13 Click Finish to create the fact extension. Item. the extension of Freight provides an estimate of the freight for each item of an order.[ITEM_ID] AS ITEM_ID. [ORDER_DETAIL] a12. so you do not have to click the Join against arrow to change the default. [LU_ITEM] a13 where a11. Day. The Allocation page opens. Notice that the expression returns an average freight amount per item of an order. © 2007 MicroStrategy.[FREIGHT] * a12. and Freight.[QTY_SOLD]) / a11.[ORDER_ID] and a12. not an exact calculation. Take a moment to review the allocation expression. it joins ORDER_FACT and ORDER_DETAIL and considers the resulting table as one logical fact table at the Item. For this example. A more detailed description of why this occurs follows this procedure.[ITEM_NAME]) AS ITEM_NAME. Promotion level. and Freight (metric mapped to the Freight fact) is: select a11. In this case Order has no children. sum(((a11.[ORDER_ID]. the allocation expression is already provided. max(a13. or join using the attribute and its children. ((Freight * [Item-level Units Sold]) / [Order-level Units Sold]).[ITEM_ID] group by a11. The SQL generated for the report containing Order.[ORDER_DATE]) AS ORDER_DATE.[ORDER_ID] = a12. Click Next. a12.[QTY_SOLD])) AS WJXBFS1 from [ORDER_FACT] a11.[ITEM_ID] = a13. Therefore. When the engine processes a report containing Order. max(a11. Item. Order.[ORDER_ID] AS ORDER_ID. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 113 . a12.[ITEM_ID] The SQL statement above is for an Access database. Inc. The SQL for your reports may vary depending on the type of DBMS you use.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 11 You can choose to join using the attribute. 12 Enter an allocation expression that calculates the fact at the new level.

you most likely need to capture such data and store it in your data source. . Defining a join on fact tables using fact relations Fact extensions can be defined by a fact relation instead of a table relation. This allows more flexibility in defining the relations. Notice that the Freight metric averages the amount of freight per item in an order. With a fact relation. Inc. This illustrates how fact extensions often provide an estimation of values at a different level rather than an exact calculation. rather than you having to select tables manually. 114 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. review the values of the first order with an extra metric that calculates the number of each item type in an order shown below.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide To view how the fact extension is an estimation of freight values for each item of an order. The larger freight values occur because more than one of the item type was included in the order. the table join is possible on any table that contains the fact. since the MicroStrategy Engine is responsible for choosing the appropriate table to join. If you want to provide exact values of data at a certain level.

The MicroStrategy Engine tries to join a table containing Freight to a table containing Order Unit Sales. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 115 . This option is set in the step immediately after To select the type of fact extension. Next. you can create a fact relation using the Order Unit Sales fact. select the Select the relationship table dynamically option and specify the tables to use for the extension. You can define the fact relation in the Level Extension Wizard which you can access from the Fact Editor. The engine can make the following joins. Inc. To extend the entry level of the Freight fact to Customer. depending on the join attributes specified: • • • • Table 1 and Table 2 on Distribution Center. page 110 after two summary tables are added to it. and Order Table 1 and Table 4 on Distribution Center Table 2 and Table 3 on Distribution Center Table 3 and Table 4 on Distribution Center The joins described above demonstrate how the join attributes can be either Distribution Center and Order or just Distribution Center. © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 The following diagram shows the schema from the example in Defining a join on fact tables using table relations. Open the Order Unit Sales fact and extend it to either Distribution Center and Order or just Distribution Center.

sum(a1. Since this method can be inefficient.DIST_CENTER group by a1. a2. The SQL for your reports may vary depending on the type of DBMS you use. MicroStrategy does not recommend using the cross product join. select a1. In a best fit join. and Freight is shown below.DIST_CENTER = a2. TABLE4 a2 where a1. 116 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. The cross product join is an extension that allows a single fact value to relate to all elements of an unrelated attribute.CUSTOMER The SQL statement above is for an Access database. When you specify a cross product join to relate a fact to an attribute. Inc. The tables and attributes you specify in the wizard determine the different types of joins that are created. as explained above. Cross products should only be used when no other way to extend the fact exists. The SQL generated for a report containing Distribution Center. Customer. the set of join attributes must contain the entire key of the left-hand-side fact table (Table 3 in the example SQL above). This method can produce incorrect data because data can be repeated and counted twice in some cases. if the only join attribute is Distribution Center. you are creating a Cartesian product of the lookup attribute.Freight) from TABLE3 a1. As with table relations. Forcing facts to relate to attributes: Using cross product joins You can use a cross product join when a join does not exist and you need to force a fact to relate to an attribute by extending the fact.CUSTOMER.DIST_CENTER.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide page 112 in the procedure above.DIST_CENTER. . a2. you can specify the best fit as the join strategy so that the engine calculates the joins.

© 2007 MicroStrategy.DOLLAR_SALES) from TABLE1 a1. This option is set in the step immediately after To select the type of fact extension.DIST_CENTER The SQL statement above is for an Access database. Next. The MicroStrategy Engine always cross-joins the lookup tables of the attributes in the extension. The SQL for your reports may vary depending on the type of DBMS you use. You can define this cross product join in the Level Extension Wizard in the Fact Editor. and Dollar Sales is: select a1.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 For example. a2. Inc. sum(a2. For this example. Distribution Center does not relate to Dollar Sales: Table 1 Table 2 Order Customer Dollar Sales Distribution Center To report Dollar Sales by Distribution Center. select the Perform the extension through a cross product option. Notice that no join attributes are specified. a cross product join must be used. Open the Dollar Sales fact and extend it to the Distribution Center attribute. Distribution Center. in the following schema. you do not need to specify an allocation expression.DIST_CENTER. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 117 . The SQL generated for a report containing Customer. TABLE2 a2 group by a1. page 112 of the procedure above.CUSTOMER.

you can create more meaningful analysis with other fact data that is 118 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. To view fact data at a lower logical level than the fact is stored at. you must degrade the fact to a lower level. However.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide Lowering the level of fact data: Fact degradations Degradation. This scenario may occur because you stored a fact at a level that is used most commonly in reports. the Human Resources Analysis Module of the MicroStrategy BIDK includes a Planned Compensation fact that is stored at the Department level. Inc. is the logical opposite of aggregation. now that Planned Compensation is available at the Employee level. facts. . you must support those users who wish to view and analyze the same fact data at a lower logical level. as shown below: The analytical value of this fact degradation is not immediately recognizable. and has a fact degradation to the Employee level (the attributes. For example. which lowers a fact level. The fact extension does not use an allocation expression to degrade Planned Compensation to the Employee level. and metrics used in this example can all be found in this Analytics Module). This causes every employee to be listed with the same planned compensation value as the employee’s department. However.

The metric definition is ([Compensation Cost]/[Planned Compensation]). Inc. The following procedure steps through how to create the fact degradation that has been created for the Planned Compensation fact of the Human Resources Analysis Module. The Fact Editor opens. The metric Actual as % Planned Compensation has been created to calculate the actual compensation of an employee as a percentage of the planned compensation for the entire department of the employee. 2 Browse to the Facts / Compensation / Planning folder and double-click the Planned Compensation fact to edit it. respectively. log in to the Human Resources Analysis Module. as shown below: Without using a degradation of Planned Compensation to Employee. For example. you could not include Department and Employee on a report with these metrics and return accurate values. the Compensation Cost fact is stored at the Employee level. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 119 . © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 stored at the Employee level. The procedure also describes general principles of creating fact degradations which you can use to create fact degradations for the facts in your project. which performs a division of metrics defined from the Compensation Cost and Planned Compensation facts. You can now view what percentage of your planned compensation per department has been spent per employee. To define a fact degradation 1 In Desktop.

For this example. 4 Select Degradation to Employee and click Modify. To extend the fact so that it can be reported at any level in a hierarchy. 7 Select the attributes you want to degrade the fact to. Click Next. 120 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. 5 Read the Welcome statement and click Next. page 114) Disallow partially or completely the fact entry level: define a fact extension that does not allow a fact to be reported at a certain level (see Disallowing the reporting of a fact at a certain level. choose the lowest level attribute in that hierarchy. Click Next. For this example Employee is already selected.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide 3 Click the Extensions tab. this example steps through how the Planned Compensation fact degradation Degradation to Employee was created. Then select whether you want to: • • Lower the fact entry level: define a fact degradation Extend the fact entry level: define a fact extension on a table relation. dynamic fact relation. The Join Type page opens. The Level Extension Wizard opens. . page 110 and Defining a join on fact tables using fact relations. allowing the fact to be reported at the new level. and click Next. page 122) • For this example you are creating a fact degradation so select Lower the fact entry level. The Join Attributes Direction page opens. the Department attribute is already selected. The Extended Attributes page opens. or a cross product join (see Defining a join on fact tables using table relations. The General Information page opens. 8 Select what attribute(s) to perform the join. However. 6 Enter a name and a description for your fact extension (already provided). To create a new fact degradation you would click New.

Such fact degradations should be used 121 © 2007 MicroStrategy. While it is possible that the fact data would be the same for every month of the year. this is often an unlikely scenario. if your fact is stored at the yearly level and you want to report the data at the monthly level. consider the allocation expression fact/12 for a degradation from Year to Month. you define how higher-level facts are degraded to lower-level attributes. For this example. 11 Click Finish to create the fact degradation. Click Next. to change the definition of the fact in a level extension. The Allocation page opens. Fact degradations with allocation expressions Not all fact degradations can simply be lowered to a new level. Avg. Using such an allocation expression would spread a year’s fact data evenly over the 12 months of that year. For example. Allocation expressions are defined by operations you set on attributes and facts in the Level Extension Wizard in the Fact Editor. Ordinarily. See Fact degradations with allocation expressions. you do not need to include an allocation expression. This is similar in concept to choosing an aggregation function (Sum. you must add an allocation expression.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 9 You can choose to join using the attribute. By creating allocation expressions. Fact degradations often produce data estimates rather than exact values for the fact data at lower logical levels. the join is performed on the Department attribute and its children. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions . 10 Enter an allocation expression that calculates the fact at the new level. and so on) when aggregating data to higher levels. which allows the distribution of values according to a calculation you specify. For this example. Inc. or join using the attribute and its children. You select Month to be the attribute to which to degrade. For example. you can create a degradation on the fact to relate it to the monthly level. page 121 for an example of using an allocation expression for a fact degradation. You then specify that the allocation expression is fact/12.

the Analytical Engine does a dynamic cross-join and evaluates the report. When you create a report containing the Month attribute and the Sales metric. if you have three years’ worth of data. extend. This setting. After updating the schema and re-executing the report. and Product. you would use the Disallow partially or completely the fact entry level setting and select the lowest attribute in the Time dimension such as Day. page 111 of the procedure to create a fact extension above. Disallowing a fact to be extended to a level lower than the fact’s entry level due to unnecessary complexity and the cost of analyzing fact data at such a level is a common use for this feature. the report fails because the disallow setting now prevents the cross-joins between the lookup tables and fact tables. To explicitly disallow an extension of the Sales fact to the Time dimension. querying at the Minute or Second level consumes too many resources and returns extensive data. if you create a report and attempt to include the fact at the Minute or Second level. . however. For example. If a fact is stored at a level that is counterproductive to a query. Inc. Consider a schema containing three dimensions: Geography. Disallowing the reporting of a fact at a certain level The Disallow partially or completely the fact entry level setting within the Fact Editor is like a lock which prevents a fact from being reported at a specific level. or disallow the fact entry level. such as data that is stored at the Minute or Second level. The following examples describe instances in which disallowing a fact entry level can prove useful. indicating that the report cannot be run at that level. you can disallow the lower levels. an error is returned. The setting prevents unnecessary joins to lookup tables. 122 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. This option is set in the step immediately after To lower. Time. Suppose you create a fact called Sales at the Item level in the Product dimension and a metric called Sales as the sum of the Sales fact.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide only when fact data is not stored at a lower logical level and there is no way to directly relate the fact data to the lower logical level. does not affect normal joins. With a disallow in place.

So you encounter only normal joins and no extensions. This implies that the fact extension has not been disallowed. The Disallow the fact entry level setting applies only to attributes that can be considered as extended attributes. you create a report that contains the attributes Subcategory and Item and the Revenue metric. If you execute the report containing the Year attribute and Sales metric. In this case. Month. disallowing the Revenue fact at the level it is stored at in the data warehouse does not make logical sense. the engine sorts the extension conditions specified in some order and calculates the report based on the sorted order of extensions. the report runs successfully. You now disallow an extension on the Revenue fact for the Item attribute and update the schema. which is defined as sum of the Revenue fact. For example. Inc. There must be a valid reason to disallow reporting a fact at a certain level. you can still see Revenue by Item. This is not an expected design condition.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 In the previous example. © 2007 MicroStrategy. If you re-execute the report. In this case. This is because Revenue exists at the same level as Item in the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. for the Sales fact. although the engine returns a valid SQL. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 123 . assume you specify an extension to the Month attribute and also disallow extension to Year which is a parent of the extended attribute. It is advisable to avoid fact definitions that contain contradictory extension definitions.

. Inc.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide 124 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy.

you have a report with the Month. and year levels. Attributes provide the business model with a context in which to report on and analyze facts. When executed. THE CONTEXT OF YOUR BUSINESS DATA: ATTRIBUTES Introduction Business data represented by facts can offer little insight without the presence of business concepts and context. the report displays your company’s revenue at the region. and Region attributes on the template. Year. including which regions produced the least revenue and which years saw the highest growth in revenue. you can only find out how much revenue the company generated in total. a substantial amount of information is available. If you remove the attributes from the report. which take the form of attributes in MicroStrategy. knowing where and when the sales took place provides the kind of analytical depth users require on a daily basis. as well as a Revenue metric based on the Revenue fact. While knowing your company’s total sales is useful. © 2007 MicroStrategy. For example.6 6. Because of the attributes on the report. month. 125 . Inc.

Date. instructs the engine how to build the SQL for that report. attributes are normally identified by a unique ID column in a lookup table. Intelligence Server. Date 126 © 2007 MicroStrategy. In MicroStrategy reports. using this report definition. which comes after creating facts when using the Project Creation Assistant. attributes are identified by the column headers of the reports. For example. New user and application requirements make attribute creation and modification an important part of the entire project life cycle. . consider the following: Select Store_ID. In the data warehouse. A report designer creates a report in part by determining these report column headers. Inc. sum(Sales) From Store_Fact Group By Store_ID.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Creating attributes is an important step in the initial project design effort. The expressions of attributes and facts in the report define the SELECT clause of the SQL command.

and Customer Last Name are examples of attribute forms. and reports is beyond the scope of this guide and is covered in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. It is important to understand the data is still the same. for the Customer attribute. For example. Inc. • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. report analyzers do not have to know SQL to extract information from a data warehouse. See Attribute form expressions. page 159. such as Day.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 In the SQL above. Because of this process. it is just not aggregated. The lowest level attribute you include in a report. 127 . A high-level report. A discussion about metrics. Customer First Name. sales information will be retrieved by store and date. is the lowest level of detail reported. See Attribute relationships. Attributes are defined by these properties: • Attribute form: contains an identifier or descriptor of an attribute. Attribute relationship: allows interaction of data at different conceptual levels and shows how data is related within a project. page 143. Customer Email. The attributes and metrics in the report tell Intelligence Server where to look in the data warehouse for the information and how to create the SQL that will retrieve it. filters. page 147. Attribute expression: maps a MicroStrategy attribute form to one or more columns in the warehouse. See Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms. such as a report at the Year level. includes the Year attribute but lacks the detail of a similar report which includes the lower level attributes Month and Week. Attributes can have multiple attribute forms.

The later sections discuss conceptual information on attributes. Inc. . it is often necessary to modify and create attributes throughout the life cycle of a project. 128 © 2007 MicroStrategy. as well as highlight some advanced attribute design techniques and procedures. page 129) of this chapter. The procedures to perform these tasks are discussed in the first section (Creating attributes.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide The following diagram illustrates how the attribute properties listed above are related: While creating attributes is a major step in the initial creation of a project.

which launches the Attribute Creation Wizard to complete the attribute creation tasks. The ability to report on and analyze data requires data to have a business context. For steps to access the Project Creation Wizard. page 129—steps to create multiple attributes as part of the initial project design effort or later in a project’s life cycle. This includes adding advanced features such as attribute forms to attributes that already exist or adding new attributes as your project evolves. therefore. To create attributes using the Attribute Creation Wizard This procedure is part of an initial project creation effort using the Project Creation Assistant. see To create a new project using the Project Creation Assistant. Adding and modifying attributes. you can create multiple attributes using the Attribute Creation Wizard. Inc. creating attributes is a major step in any project design effort.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Creating attributes An attribute is primarily used to group and aggregate fact data to add business context to the fact data. Creating attributes 129 . using different techniques and MicroStrategy interfaces: • Simultaneously creating multiple attributes. • Simultaneously creating multiple attributes During your initial project design effort. page 134—steps to add and modify attributes for an existing project. © 2007 MicroStrategy. This section provides steps to create attributes at different phases of the project design process.

especially if you use consistent naming conventions and data types in your data warehouse. You can also access the Attribute Creation Wizard at any time in the development of a project from the Schema menu in MicroStrategy Desktop.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide page 78. Change these rules if the naming or data type conventions in your warehouse do not conform to these defaults. . The Attribute Creation Wizard opens. Select the check boxes for the data types that should be included when the wizard searches the data warehouse for available attribute ID columns. 130 Creating attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. 1 In the Project Creation Assistant. 4 The Column data type area allows you to select the column data types to be available as possible attribute ID columns. as shown below. Define attribute creation rules These rules can make the process of choosing attribute columns and naming your attributes considerably easier. Inc. 2 Review the introduction page that is displayed. 3 Click Define Rules to set some basic attribute creation rules. The Attribute Creation Rules page opens. The Attribute Creation Wizard uses these rules below to help automate the attribute creation process. click Create attributes.

You can select the appropriate check boxes to set the following default behaviors for creating attribute names: • • • Replace underscores in the attribute name with spaces Remove the word “ID” from the name Capitalize the first letter 6 The Warehouse search area determines naming conventions to help locate your warehouse objects. © 2007 MicroStrategy. You should never use a column that has NULL or repeated values as the ID column for an attribute.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 5 The Attribute name area allows you to determine how to create default attribute names. The defaults are ID for identifier columns. When choosing the ID column for an attribute. The ID Column Selection page opens. Inc. DESC for description columns. 7 Click OK to accept your rule changes and return to the Attribute Creation Wizard. ID column selection An ID column is a column or group of columns that uniquely identifies each element of an attribute. Creating attributes 131 . make sure that all values in the column are unique and that it does not contain NULL values. 8 Click Next. Doing so results in unexpected behavior and errors. Only those columns with data types that match those chosen in the rules you defined above appear on the ID Selection page. and LOOKUP for lookup tables. The columns that match the identifier naming convention that you set in the warehouse search rule above are automatically highlighted.

heterogeneous columns).6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide 9 From the Available columns pane. Type a name for the attribute. The New Compound Attribute dialog box opens. . see Joining dissimilar column names: Heterogeneous mappings. Select the columns that are required to uniquely identify the compound attribute and click OK. This implies that more than one ID column is needed to uniquely identify the elements of that attribute (see Attributes with more than one ID column: Compound attributes. page 183). – To remove attribute ID columns from your project. 10 To create a compound attribute. 132 Creating attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. Create compound attributes A compound attribute is defined as an attribute with more than one column specified as the ID column. Description column selection Description columns provide the data which gives context and meaning to your attributes. For more information about mapping attributes to heterogeneous columns. Click >> to add all the listed columns. complete the following steps: • • • Click Compound Attributes and then click Add. You are returned to the Attribute Creation Wizard. select the columns to use for your attribute IDs and click > to add them to your project. Note the following: – You can rename any attribute name to make it more user-friendly by right-clicking the attribute and selecting Rename. page 153. – The Attribute Creation Wizard cannot handle columns that hold the same information but have different column names (that is. select the attribute IDs in the Attributes pane and click < to move them to the Available columns pane. Inc.

Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 11 After adding all your attribute ID columns. Note the following: – In general. 12 Select whether to use the ID or a different column for the description of the attribute. you should use the default description column for each attribute. The Lookup Table Selection page opens. Refer to Adding attributes with the Attribute Editor. however. the Compound Attribute Definition page opens. The column that meets the description naming convention that you set in the warehouse search rule is automatically selected. such as Year. Specify the lookup table and description column for the compound attributes and click Next. In general. you should choose the default lookup table for each attribute. 15 Click Next: • If you have created compound attributes. 14 Select the lookup table for each attribute. the Relationship Definition page opens. they provide the information for an attribute through data stored in their ID and description columns. The table that follows the lookup naming convention that you set in the warehouse search rule is automatically selected. – Other attribute forms need to be created through the Attribute Editor after you complete steps in the Project Creation Assistant. Inc. 13 Click Next when you are finished selecting description columns for attributes. In some cases. Creating attributes 133 . The Description Column Selection page opens. Lookup table selection Lookup tables are the physical representation of attributes. click Next. The Relationship Definition page opens. If you have not created a compound attribute. for more information about attribute forms. it may make sense to use the ID column as the description column. page 136. • © 2007 MicroStrategy.

page 159. or many-to-many. so does its 134 Creating attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. This completes the initial creation of a project with the Project Creation Assistant. Inc. the attributes are created. Adding and modifying attributes Just as you can add more facts to your project once you have created it. The Logical Data Model). or Region are often grouped in a common hierarchy. In the Children of: attribute name pane. see Attribute relationships. one-to-many. the relationships between attributes should become apparent. Related attributes such as City. select the relationship type for the attribute to its child attribute. • 17 When you have defined children for all the attributes that need them.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Relationship definition For each attribute. You are returned to the Attribute Creation Wizard. As a company evolves. you specify the children and the type of relationship: one-to-one. In a logical data model. The Finish page opens. Select the child attributes from the list of available child attributes and click OK. When you design a logical data model for your project (see Chapter 2. define child attributes: • • In the Attributes pane. 16 For each attribute. After you have completed the steps of the Attribute Creation Wizard. . like Location. when attributes are in the same hierarchy they must be related to each other. 18 Review the summary information in the Finish page and click Finish to create the attributes. The Select Children Attributes dialog box opens. whereas attributes in different hierarchies cannot be related. click Next. State. you can also create and add attributes as they become necessary. select an attribute and click Add. For more information on the different attribute relationship types.

for creating most of the attributes for the project. Inc. For example. you only use the Attribute Creation Wizard as part of the initial project creation. the company does not include lookup tables with information about different countries in its data warehouse. but you cannot use it to modify existing attributes or to define more advanced attributes. You can use the Attribute Editor to edit existing attributes and create additional attribute forms. In general. when the company opens its offices in Europe and Asia. decides to extend its operations into Europe and Asia. or the Attribute Editor. and so on. Before the shift overseas. it must add lookup tables that contain data about its new offices to its warehouse. configure additional settings. • The Attribute Creation Wizard allows you to: Create simple attributes Create multiple attributes quickly Add a large number of attributes during project creation • The Attribute Editor allows you to: Create simple and advanced attributes Edit existing attributes and configure additional schema-level settings The Attribute Creation Wizard works well for building a large number of attributes initially. and create the appropriate attributes so report users can analyze business data for their appropriate country. which allows you to define attributes. with offices only in the United States. However.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 reporting requirements. map heterogeneous column names. define advanced expressions. It must then add these tables to its MicroStrategy project. © 2007 MicroStrategy. which you use to create the first attributes for your project. and attribute form expressions. a health care company. You can create attributes with either the Attribute Creation Wizard. these requirements can lead to changes to the data warehouse as well as to the schema within its MicroStrategy projects. Creating attributes 135 . attribute forms.

follow the steps outlined in Simultaneously creating multiple attributes. Follow the steps below to use the Attribute Creation Wizard to create simple attributes in bulk. select the project to which to add new attributes. 4 To create attributes with the Attribute Creation Wizard. page 129. You must use a login that has Architect privileges. 2 From the Folder List. you may still find it useful if you need to create multiple attributes from remaining lookup columns in your warehouse. . 3 From the Schema menu. To create simple attributes in bulk using the Attribute Creation Wizard 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. 136 Creating attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. You can also use it to add new attributes to your project. Adding attributes with the Attribute Editor The Attribute Editor is used to add advanced features such as attribute forms to attributes that already exist. The Attribute Creation Wizard opens.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Adding attributes with the Attribute Creation Wizard Although the Attribute Creation Wizard is primarily used to create most of a project’s attributes during initial project creation. log in to the project source that contains your project and expand your project. choose Attribute Creation Wizard. See the Permissions and Privileges appendix of the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide for more information. Inc.

5 Click Validate to make sure your expression is valid. or parentheses. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Its columns are listed in the Available Columns pane. Click f(x) in the Form expression toolbar to create a function using the Insert Function Wizard. Creating attributes 137 . you are only required to select an available column and move it to the Form expression pane. 6 Under Mapping Method. Inc. with the Create New Form Expression dialog box displayed on top of it. You can then clear any tables mapped automatically. and then Attribute. select a table which contains the columns of data for the attribute.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 To create an attribute using the Attribute Editor 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. drag a column name from the Available columns pane to the Form expression pane. The Attribute Editor opens. Click any operator in the Form expression toolbar to insert it into the expression. 4 To create a simple attribute form expression (Attribute form expressions. functions. When you create an expression for an attribute form. select New. use a combination of any of the following techniques: • • • Enter constants in double quotes. 3 From the Source table drop-down list. You do not have to include any operators. or select other tables. 2 From the File menu. log in to the project source that contains your project and expand your project. select Automatic or Manual: • Automatic mapping means that MicroStrategy scans all of the tables in the project and selects all tables with the columns used in the attribute form expression as possible source tables for the attribute form. To create a more advanced attribute form expression. page 147).

– A constant expression cannot use the automatic mapping method. Inc. The Warehouse Catalog mapping methods (discussed in Mapping schema objects and calculating logical sizes for tables. 8 From the Source tables pane. If you chose manual mapping. For subsequent attributes. 7 Click OK.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide • Manual mapping means that MicroStrategy scans all of the tables in the project and locates all tables with the columns used in the attribute form expression. select the check boxes of the tables to map to the attribute form. . Using automatic mapping in the Attribute Editor helps you decide which tables to map your attribute to when creating an attribute. A lookup table holds the information for an attribute. the default is Manual. 138 Creating attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. The system maps the expression to each of the source tables. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. page 143). from which you can create attribute forms for the attribute (Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms. type a name and description in the associated fields for the attribute form. You then select which of those tables are used as source tables for the attribute form. select a table and click Set as Lookup to set the lookup table for the attribute. 9 In the Form general information area. Note the following: – The mapping method defaults to Automatic for the first attribute or attribute form expression you create. page 231) determine whether attributes or facts are automatically mapped to new tables when they are added after an attribute or fact is created. – These mapping methods are NOT the same as the automatic mapping methods for the Warehouse Catalog.

a warning message appears by default when you click OK in the Create New Attribute Form dialog box. Creating attributes 139 . 11 In the Form format area. 14 Navigate to the folder in which to save the attribute. Custom groups are sorted by the Default sort of the form that appears first in the Report display forms. For a description of form categories. 15 From the Schema menu. you can modify the attribute at any time using the Attribute Editor.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 10 In the Category used drop-down list. Using a column with a non-numeric data type as an ID column of an attribute can result in SQL generation issues. 12 Click OK. The Save dialog box opens. select a display type and a default sorting option from the associated drop-down lists. 13 From the File menu. select Update Schema to update the project schema. Therefore. select Save As. You cannot use the Attribute Creation Wizard to modify attributes. This ensures that your project is updated to recognize the new attribute definition. The Attribute Editor opens. Enter a name for the derived fact. refer to the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. see Attribute form properties. Inc. Click Save. do one of the following: • Select a form category from the drop-down list. page 146. Click Modify to create a new form category. • Modifying attributes After creating an attribute. if you select a column with a non-numeric data type and set it as an ID column. For more information on custom groups. © 2007 MicroStrategy.

Customer is the attribute and New York NY. You can learn how to create more advanced attributes in the various sections below. For example. Inc. The Attribute Editor opens. Baltimore BA. You can then modify all the options available when creating and attribute in the Attribute Editor. and Boston BN are elements of the attribute City: 140 Unique sets of attribute information: Attribute elements © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 137. which is described in the previous procedure To create an attribute using the Attribute Editor. in the following diagram. Unique sets of attribute information: Attribute elements Attribute elements are the unique sets of information or values of an attribute. open the folder that contains the attribute to modify. .6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide To modify an existing attribute 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. 2 Double-click the attribute to edit.

Each customer (attribute element) has its own set of information such as last name. Inc.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 The following example displays the physical warehouse table that stores elements and data for the Customer attribute. Unique sets of attribute information: Attribute elements . email address. As shown above. Attribute elements are identified by their browse forms. an attribute element is a unique set of information defined by the attribute forms of an attribute. which should be forms that provide a general description of the attribute element. With the Customer attribute. page 143). the First Name and Last Name forms are used to identify the 141 © 2007 MicroStrategy. first name. as shown below: The Customer attribute is a good example to understand the components of an attribute and the concept of an attribute element. For example. Each attribute element is a row in an attribute lookup table in your data warehouse. and so on which are defined by the attribute forms (see Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms. each attribute element is an individual customer. in the image above.

the report below (created from the Sales 142 Unique sets of attribute information: Attribute elements © 2007 MicroStrategy. attribute elements are displayed depending on the location of the attribute they are associated with. page 189. you would not want to use the Address form to identify the Customer attribute elements. As shown below. see Using attributes to browse and report on data. Just as you would not refer to a customer by his or her street address. and Sporting Goods: In MicroStrategy reports. For example. For more information on selecting the attribute forms used to identify attribute elements. Inc. Shoes. the attribute Division has multiple attribute elements.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide attribute elements. such as Men’s Clothing. Attribute elements can be identified in logical data models. .

as explained in Logical data modeling conventions.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 and Distribute Analysis Module of the MicroStrategy BIDK) has two attributes. Year is on the columns of the report along with its attribute elements such as 2005. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms Attribute forms are identifiers or descriptors of an attribute. page 33. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms 143 . Sales Organization is on the rows of the report along with its attribute elements such as USA Central. and most have at least two: © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. The display of attributes and their attribute elements is also affected by the location of the metrics on the report. The report above uses the common practice of putting the metrics (Sales Orders Quantity (Base Units) and Cost Sales Orders) on the columns of the report. Sales Organization and Year. Every attribute must have at least one form.

Attributes also have description forms. The Customer attribute in the MicroStrategy Tutorial has various forms. For the Customer attribute. Email is included as an additional descriptive form. To differentiate between two customers such as John Smith and Fred Black. These types of forms give context and information about the Customer attribute. Inc. ID forms serve to uniquely identify each attribute element from other elements for the same attribute. including the Customer Name and the Address forms. the Customer attribute’s ID form is Customer_ID. which is a column of unique numeric values to identify each customer. In this case John Smith can have a value of 1 in the Customer_ID column and Fred Black can have a value of 2 in the Customer_ID column. Some attributes can have additional descriptive forms that do not serve as the primary description form. each customer must have a different value for their identity column.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide • • The ID form (required) A description form Every attribute must have an ID form (identity form). as shown in the following diagram: 144 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. . For example.

The attribute will have the Customer_ID. page 153. described below: • • • Customer_ID: a unique. For example. the ID forms are used to join tables. Each table must have an ID form. two columns with different names can represent the same information about an attribute. and Email forms and the tables will join together through the ID columns because that is the column they have in common. and SSN. The forms you create must have a reference to a lookup table and can include multiple expressions. which uniquely identifies the attribute. Heterogeneous column names are discussed in Joining dissimilar column names: Heterogeneous mappings. In the warehouse. you can choose a lookup table in the Attribute Editor from a list of tables existing in the project. two tables exist. The second lookup table contains Customer _ID and Email. Inc. SSN. one with the forms Customer_ID. identifying number for each customer (ID form) Customer_Full_Name: the full name of each customer (Description form) EMAIL: the email address for the specific customer (Additional description form) In this example. a lookup table with three columns holds the following separate forms. Name. When creating an attribute form. © 2007 MicroStrategy. you must map the appropriate columns to the same attribute to retrieve accurate and complete results when using an attribute on a report. In such cases. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms 145 . Attributes must contain at least one ID form. the LU_CUSTOMER table records all of the attribute form data for the Customer attribute.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 In the data warehouse. Name.

Big Decimal is discussed in detail in Appendix D. Desc. and None. the other description forms must be mapped to None forms. • Default sorting of multiple attribute forms When creating attribute forms. When you have attributes that require multiple description forms. You can create new form categories in the Attribute Editor. There is no way to distinguish a Desc attribute form from a None attribute form on a MicroStrategy report. see Default sorting of multiple attribute forms. below. For example. Inc. • Format types control how the form is displayed and how filters are built.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Attribute form properties You must select properties for each form when you create forms in the Attribute Editor in MicroStrategy Desktop. These properties affect the display of the forms and include the following: • Categories help group the types of forms. For information on how attribute forms are sorted when multiple attribute forms of a single attribute define a default sort order. mapping the most commonly used or most important description form can be helpful for project designers to quickly distinguish this attribute form from the other secondary forms. Descending. specifying a format type of Big Decimal allows users to preserve precision when qualifying on a form with more than 15 digits. Data Types. you can define the default sort order for each attribute form. or None. it is a good practice to map the most commonly used or most important description form to the Desc form of the attribute. the first attribute form with a default sort order is 146 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. Each attribute can have only one Desc form. If you define multiple attribute forms of an attribute with ascending or descending sort orders. While there is no difference in how a Desc attribute form and None attribute form are used in MicroStrategy. You can choose from Ascending. . Default sort governs how the form is sorted by default when included in a report. The standard category options are ID.

This is because Last Name was created first and therefore is considered for sorting before the Address form. the Customer attribute holds information about the customer such as Name and Address. and other report objects are sorted. This is the default functionality for how attributes are sorted by their attribute forms on reports. If you remove the Last Name form from the report. then the second attribute form with a default sort order is used for sorting. refer to the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. Modify the Address form so that it has a descending default sort order. If the first attribute form with a default sort order is not included on a report. only Last Name has a default sort order set. Each attribute form must have at least one expression. and so on. It is important to note that you can change how attribute forms are sorted from within a report. Sorting defined for a report takes precedence over default sorting defined for attribute forms. For example. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms . customers are sorted by their address in descending order. An attribute form expression defines what columns in the warehouse are used to represent the attribute form in SQL. customers are sorted by their Last Name in ascending order. These information units are called attribute forms. metrics. If you include Customer on a report with both Last Name and Address. Inc. For example. 147 © 2007 MicroStrategy. Attribute form expressions Attributes act like holders of information and provide context for fact data. For more information on advanced sorting.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 used to sort the attribute on the report. the Customer attribute in the MicroStrategy Tutorial project has the five attribute forms shown below: Of these five attribute forms. In a report you can use advanced sorting to define how attribute forms.

The types of attribute form expressions are: • • Simple expressions. These functions are discussed in the Pass-through Expressions appendix in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. page 153: Heterogeneous mappings allow you to use columns with different names in the data warehouse as the same attribute form. /. The form expression for the Customer Last Name attribute form is CUST_LAST_NAME. Derived expressions. *. -. • • Simple expressions A simple expression is based on a single warehouse column. the form expression for the Customer First Name attribute form is CUST_FIRST_NAME. Inc. and/or mathematical operators. . page 155: Implicit form expressions do not relate directly to data stored in the data warehouse. +. Although you can have multiple expressions in different tables. 148 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. In this instance. a form cannot have two different expressions in the same source table. The definition of the simple expression includes the tables in which the column is found. You can create expressions using attribute columns. Implicit expressions. the CUST_FIRST_NAME and CUST_LAST_NAME columns in the warehouse provide information about first and last names respectively. page 150: Derived form expressions perform some type of mathematical calculation on columns in the data warehouse to create an attribute form. since they only use the constants you declare. page 148: Simple form expressions access data through columns in the data warehouse. Only implicit attributes do not include a column in the expression.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide For example. for example. You can also create a form expression using Apply functions. constants. These form expressions create virtual data by combining or using columns to generate the data. Joining dissimilar column names: Heterogeneous mappings.

2 Navigate to the Schema Objects folder. Both of these columns reside in the table LU_CATEGORY. log in to the project source that contains the MicroStrategy Tutorial project and then log in to MicroStrategy Tutorial. Follow the procedure below to create Customer Birth Date as an attribute form in the Customer attribute. and then the Customers folder. The Attribute Editor opens. both of which are defined by simple expressions. Category is an attribute in the MicroStrategy Tutorial. The expression for the ID form is the CATEGORY_ID column and the expression for the description form is the CATEGORY_DESC column. It has two forms. ID and Description. the date of birth data eventually becomes part of the retailer’s data warehouse and the appropriate lookup table is added to the retailer’s project in MicroStrategy. To create an attribute form with a simple expression 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. Example: creating an attribute form with a simple expression A retailer begins a promotion that offers customers 25% off of their purchases if they fill out a feedback survey on the company website. Once gathered. including their dates of birth. the project designer must add the column containing the customer dates of birth as an additional attribute form of the Customer attribute. © 2007 MicroStrategy. The retailer intends to analyze the data gathered from the surveys to better market their products in the future.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 For example. At this point. open the Attributes folder. 3 Double-click the Customer attribute. This will enable report designers to display each customer’s date of birth alongside each customer’s name on reports. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms 149 . The retailer’s customers provide a variety of information on the surveys. Inc.

7 Click OK. While simple expressions have their value determined by just one column in a warehouse table.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide 4 Click New. . By calculating the difference between the columns Date of Birth and Current Date. functions. close the Attribute Editor without saving your changes. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. type Customer Birth Date. By creating an attribute to calculate age in this manner. Derived expressions Derived expressions are created using a combination of warehouse columns. 9 From the Category used drop-down list. or setting the expression to be an absolute value) creates a derived expression. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. For example. you can create a derived attribute to calculate age or anniversaries. This is the table that contains customers’ dates of birth. select DATE since Customer Birth Date is neither the ID form of Customer nor the primary description form. and constants. select the LU_CUSTOMER table. 5 From the Source table drop-down list. 10 Click OK. Any operation on a column (such as adding a constant. 8 In the Form general information area. you can create an attribute to hold the age of a customer or an employee that has been derived from the two columns. derived expressions are defined using one or more columns as well as other operators and values. mathematical operators. 6 Double-click the CUST_BIRTHDATE column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. adding another column. The new Customer Birth Date attribute form is added to the Attribute form pane in the Attribute Editor. The mapping method is selected as Automatic by default. the attribute’s value 150 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. 11 Because this is only an example. in the Name field. Inc.

Inc. Using the Customer attribute. First Name using the following syntax: CUST_LAST_NAME + “. CUST_FIRST_NAME and CUST_LAST_NAME. open the Attributes folder. 2 Navigate to the Schema Objects folder. log in to the project source that contains the MicroStrategy Tutorial project and then log in to MicroStrategy Tutorial. the syntax of the derived expression for Name reads: CUST_FIRST_NAME + “ “ + CUST_LAST_NAME On a report. this information is displayed as Mary Jones under the Name column. the information is displayed as Jones. Mary under the Name column. Example: creating an attribute form with a derived expression In your database. “ + CUST_FIRST_NAME Using this expression. Calculations and functions used in a derived expression can assist in deriving data from the database. you want reports to display a customer’s first name and last name together as a single entry on a report. you could create a derived expression for Name in the format of Last Name. If you use syntax that is not supported by your database or other data source. which consists of the two strings. the SQL query and resulting report can fail.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 is automatically updated as the age changes. To create an attribute form with a derived expression 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. the attribute would need to be updated every time a customer or an employee has a birthday. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms 151 . As another example. © 2007 MicroStrategy. you store Customer names in two different columns. However. You can achieve this using a derived form expression Name. If you created an attribute for age in which you included a constant number. and then the Customers folder. but you must make sure you use expressions that meet the requirements of your database-specific SQL syntax.

select None since Last Name. 12 From the Category used drop-down list. “ +. 10 Click OK. 5 From the Source table drop-down list. 11 In the Form general information area. in the Name field. First Name. Inc. . 7 In the Form expression pane. 152 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. The new attribute form is added to the Attribute form pane in the Attribute Editor. type Last Name. First Name is neither the ID form of Customer nor the primary description form. 6 Double-click the CUST_LAST_NAME column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. close the Attribute Editor without saving your changes. 9 Select Automatic as the mapping method. This is the table that contains customers’ first and last names. select the LU_CUSTOMER table. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. The Attribute Editor opens. 13 Click OK. 4 Click New. 14 Because this is only an example. 8 Double-click the CUST_FIRST_NAME column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. place the cursor to the right of [CUST_LAST_NAME] and type + “.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide 3 Double-click the Customer attribute. Your expression should be defined as shown below.

Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Joining dissimilar column names: Heterogeneous mappings Heterogeneous mapping allows Intelligence Server to perform joins on dissimilar column names. you might be able to join columns with data types of Number and Integer. Of all the tables in which the columns exist. in the MicroStrategy Tutorial. In the above example. your company may have multiple columns in different tables that all represent the same business concept. heterogeneous mapping automatically occurs when tables and column names require it. For example. most databases cannot join a data type of Text to a data type of Number. Inc. You can map Order_Date and Day_Date to the Day attribute—this ensures that both columns are used when information about the Day attribute is displayed on a report. the ID form of the attribute Day contains two expressions. However. Each expression is linked to a set of source tables that contain the columns used in the expression. © 2007 MicroStrategy. depending on your database platform. The Day_Date column occurs in the LU_DATE table and the Order_Date column occurs in the ORDER_DETAIL and ORDER_FACT tables. For example. Because different source systems may store information in various contexts. If you define more than one expression for a given form. you can select as many or as few as you want to be used as part of the attribute’s definition. The data types of columns used in a heterogeneous mapping for a given attribute must be identical or similar enough for your particular RDBMS to join them properly. you can view the chosen tables in the source Tables area to the right of the Form Expressions area. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms 153 . In the Attribute Editor. you can use heterogeneous mapping to map the Day attribute to all of the columns in the data warehouse that represent the same concept of Day.

6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide To create an attribute form with a heterogeneous column mapping 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. both of which use different tables as the source of their information. Notice that there are now two expressions for the attribute form definition. 10 Double-click the ORDER_DATE column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. The Create New Form Expression dialog box opens. 11 Click OK. 5 From the Source table drop-down list. 9 From the Source table drop-down list. The mapping method is selected as Automatic by default. 2 Navigate to the Schema Objects folder. select the LU_DAY table. . 6 Double-click the DAY_DATE column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. Inc. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. select the ORDER_DETAIL table. 3 Double-click the Day attribute. open the Attributes folder. The mapping method is selected as Automatic by default. 154 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. 4 Click New. You could continue this process to add as many heterogeneous columns as part of one attribute form as necessary. 8 Click New. The Attribute Editor opens. The Create New Form Expression dialog box opens. log in to the project source that contains the MicroStrategy Tutorial project and then log in to MicroStrategy Tutorial. 7 Click OK. and then the Time folder.

13 From the Category used drop-down list. RushOrder=‘Yes’. rather than being defined in terms of columns. Implicit expressions are not defined by column names. which stands for “Yes. Inc. in the Name field. 15 Because this is only an example. for each order that is a rush order. close the Attribute Editor without saving your changes. for example. they are defined by constants you specify. Some attribute definitions can be implied by the existence of a row in a certain table. type Date Example.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 12 In the Form general information area. Any constant is acceptable. Implicit expressions While most attributes map directly to one or more physical columns in the warehouse. which is a constant value. but are useful in special cases such as the scenario described above. Implicit attributes are not commonly used. For example.” This implicit expression is used to keep track of which orders are rush orders. an implicit attribute is a virtual or constant attribute that does not physically exist in the warehouse. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms 155 . The Rush Order attribute is defined by two expressions: the Rush_Order column in the Order_Fact table and the implicit expression “Y”. select None since this is simply an example scenario. An implicit attribute such as Rush Order is useful for this purpose. The new Date Example attribute form is added to the Attribute form pane in the Attribute Editor. a “Y” is displayed in the Rush Order column. On a report with the Order and Rush Order attributes on the template. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Suppose you want a report to display which orders are rush orders so you can better keep track of your shipments. the Rush Order attribute in MicroStrategy Tutorial is an example of an implicit attribute. although nothing is saved in an actual column. 14 Click OK. Such an attribute has an implicit expression. Implicit attributes are useful in analyzing and retrieving relevant information.

but you would like to create a Year attribute. 156 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy.[Date_Id]) The ApplySimple expression above is syntactically correct for SQL Server. For example. . Another example could be a case in which your warehouse does not have a lookup table for year information. They can also help you take more advantage of the data in your data warehouse.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Modifying attribute data types: Column aliases A column alias is a new data type that you can specify in place of the default data type for a given attribute form. Big Decimal. This inheritance is governed by MicroStrategy. which attempts to use a data type as similar as possible to the data type in your database or other data source (see Appendix D. However. you can create a Year attribute using the following form expression: ApplySimple("Year(#0)". For attributes. the precision can be preserved when performing filtering. In your data warehouse you have a lookup table for an Accounts attribute where the ID is Account Number and the ID is stored in the database as DECIMAL(18. the data type for an attribute form is inherited from the data type of the column on which the form is defined. In such a case. The following are some examples of such cases. Column aliases allow you to specify a more appropriate data type that can help avoid errors in your SQL. SQL Server has a Year function that extracts just the year from a date. Data Types for more information on how MicroStrategy selects a matching data type). a column alias performs the same function as it does for facts. By default. drilling. Inc. However. Because this column stores high-precision values. you must modify the column alias for the attribute form and map it to a special data type. By doing so. depending on your database or data source type. 0). you may need to use a different syntax. Many database platforms have functions that can extract parts of a date from a Date data type. there are cases where you may need to change the data type. or page-by on the Account attribute.

but this can be useful for troubleshooting the SQL for a particularly complex report.Date_Id) While the column alias name does not affect the actual results or your report. and it is an integer. However.Date_Id) CustCol_1. © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 147). log in to the project source that contains the attribute to create a new column alias for. You can use the Attribute Editor to create column aliases. the column alias also lets you specify the column alias name to be used in the SQL generated by MicroStrategy. The following piece of SQL shows. The above example is a simple one. the result of the calculation is a year. To avoid the possibility of an error due to conflicting data types. modify the column alias for the attribute form and change the default Date data type to an Integer data type.Tot_Dollar_Sales) WJXBFS1 FROM YR_CATEGORY_SLS a11 cross join TRANS_DATE_LW_LY a12 GROUP BY Year(a12.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 The data type for this attribute is automatically set to a Date data type. This is because Date_ID is a Date data type. and so on). To create a column alias for an attribute This procedure assumes you have already created an attribute with a valid attribute expression for which to create a new column alias. where the column alias name is used: SELECT Year(a12. in bold. Inc. such as 2002. When a temporary SQL table is created. if you do not change the data type of the column alias. sum(a11. the column alias for the attribute form defaults to CustCol (or CustCol_1. you can change the column alias name to be more meaningful. When you create a form expression using a custom expression or multiple columns (as discussed in Attribute form expressions. While this does not create a problem in all database platforms. 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. some databases will return an error. the system uses a Date data type and tries to insert integer data into this column. In addition to specifying the data type to be used for an attribute form. CustCol_2. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms 157 .

6 Select New to create a new column alias. For a detailed description on each of these properties.Definition dialog box opens. 7 You can modify the following properties for the column alias: • Column name: The name for the column alias which is used in any SQL statements which include the fact column. or time scale for your column alias. Inc. Data type: The data type for the fact. you can specify the byte length. whereas attributes themselves can be considered as report elements or group-by elements that have a one-to-many or a many-to-many relationship with 158 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. Data Types. 4 Select the Column Alias tab. 3 Select an attribute form and click Modify. 5 In the Column alias area. The Attribute Editor opens. see Appendix D. bit length.Column Selection dialog box opens. . • • 8 Click OK to save your changes and return to the Column Editor .6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide 2 Right-click the attribute and select Edit. scale. see the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. precision. Depending on the data type selected.Column Selection dialog box. 10 Select Save and Close to save your changes. click Modify. 9 Click OK to save your changes and return to the Attribute Editor. The Column Editor . For a description of the different data types supported by MicroStrategy. Attribute forms versus separate attributes Attribute forms can be considered as additional descriptions for an attribute. The Modify Attribute Form dialog box opens. The Column Editor .

these relationships define how the engine generates SQL. dictate the relationships that you define between attributes. how tables and columns are joined and used. you should map data to an attribute form rather than a separate attribute if: • • There is a one-to-one relationship between an attribute and the data. or cross join. Attribute relationships You link directly related attributes to each other by defining parent-child relationships. for example—without any problems. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Attribute elements. In general. which is generally undesirable. as explained in Attribute relationships. Inc. however. The data that you map to attributes can be represented as separate attributes or as an attribute form of an attribute. You do not group by the data. or the actual data values for an attribute. Attribute relationships 159 . A report with two unrelated attributes. or else a Cartesian join occurs. see Attribute forms. In other words. The parent-child relationships you create determine the system hierarchy within the project. must include a metric based on a fact that is on or below the level of the two attributes. You can run a report with two attributes that are related—Country and City. page 24. is very database intensive as every row in one table is joined to every row in the other table. The decision to model data as an attribute form for a given attribute or as a separate attribute is usually determined during the logical data modeling phase of project design. page 36. The implications of whether attributes are related become clear when you begin building reports.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 other attributes. A Cartesian join. For more information on whether to model data as an attribute form or as a separate attribute. and which tables are related to other tables.

and these relationships are defined by the attribute elements that exist in the related attributes. These are the most common types of attribute relationships. One year has many quarters. This assumes that quarters are defined with an accompanying year such as Q4 2006. Three types of direct relationships can exist between related attributes. . after a project has already been created. you can define relationships for the attributes in your project. Many-to-many: Each element in the parent attribute can have multiple children and each child element in the child attribute can have multiple parents. such as in the case of a joint checking account. as part of the initial project design effort and in Viewing and editing the parents and children of attributes. page 161. A citizen can have only one Taxpayer ID and a Taxpayer ID can be assigned to only one citizen. Inc. In banking. but a specific quarter can be in one year only. Attributes can be either related or unrelated to one another: • Related: A parent-child relationship is defined between two or more attributes. One-to-one: Each element in the parent attribute has one and only one corresponding element in the child attribute. page 129. The relationship is defined through the attribute’s lookup table or a relationship table. Q1 2007. and each account may be associated with many customers. and so on. One customer may have many accounts. customers and accounts are an example of a many-to-many relationship. Year has a one-to-many relationship to quarter. Attributes can also be related to other attributes through a chain of attribute relationships. For example. A common example of a one-to-one relationship is citizen and Taxpayer ID. This step is covered in Simultaneously creating multiple attributes.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide In MicroStrategy Desktop. Attributes of this type are often in the same hierarchy. One-to-many: Each element in the parent attribute corresponds to one or more elements in the child attribute. consider the Geography hierarchy of the Customer Analysis Analytics 160 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy.

In general. in turn. Customer Region and Customer State are directly related to each other and Customer State and Customer City also have a direct relationship.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Module of the MicroStrategy BIDK. Viewing and editing the parents and children of attributes The relationships that exist between attributes rely on the parent-child specifications that you assign to attributes. spent $2. This allows you to include Customer Region and Customer City on a report and view the different customer cities for each customer region. which contains the attributes Customer Region. 2003 on behalf of the health care company in which he works. the Customer and Day attributes have no relationship to one another. Inc. Customer State. these attributes are relatively straightforward to deal with from a project design perspective. determines the output of a report. A particular customer and a particular day only make sense together if a fact is associated with that combination. For example. however. How attributes relate to one another and the types of relationships they share define the system hierarchy which is used to generate SQL. While Customer City is not directly related to Customer Region. • Unrelated: No parent-child relationship has been defined and the attributes are not related through a chain of attribute relationships. Don Addison. Attribute relationships 161 . and Customer City: In this scenario. In this case. a certain customer. these two attributes are related through Customer State. © 2007 MicroStrategy. This SQL. giving context to the fact. No relationship is present in the lookup tables or relationship tables for these attributes. care must be taken when using unrelated attributes on a single report. Unrelated attributes can exist together in fact tables.500 on January 5. For example.

162 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy. you can continue to make changes to the relationships between attributes even after creating your project. The Call Center attribute is listed. viewing and changing parent-child relationships may be a necessary troubleshooting method. 2 Navigate to the Schema Objects folder. Country. To view and edit the parents and children of an attribute 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. Follow the procedure below to view and edit the parents and children of the Distribution Center attribute. page 193. along with the relationship type it shares with Distribution Center. Inc. A one-to-one relationship exists between Distribution Center and Call Center. Assigning parent-child relationships to attributes allows you to connect attributes to one another in user hierarchies. So these two attributes have a one-to-many relationship. and the relationship table in which the relationship exists. 4 Click the Children tab. . open the Attributes folder. when a report generates inaccurate SQL and results. is the parent of Distribution Center and multiple distribution centers exist in each country. the Distribution Center attribute is the parent of the Call Center attribute. and then the Geography folder. For example. For a general procedure to view and edit the parents and children of an attribute. as discussed in Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. However. 3 Double-click the Distribution Center attribute. This means that only one call center exists in each distribution center.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Parent-child relationships were designated when attributes were selected for the new project. The Attribute Editor opens. log in to the project source that contains the MicroStrategy Tutorial project and then log in to MicroStrategy Tutorial. in turn. Also.

and how to read and interpret them. 6 You also want the relationship between the two attributes to be defined in the LU_Employee table instead of the LU_Call_Ctr table in which it is defined now. Attribute relationships 163 . a working knowledge of physical schemas is helpful when dealing with the challenges involved with these topics. in this case. many-to-many relationships and joint child relationships. These chapters discuss how to plan and create a conceptual framework for your business intelligence data. 5 To change the relationship type. Before reading this section. select One to Many from the Relationship type drop-down list. you must change the relationship type between Call Center and Distribution Center. Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model respectively. 7 Because this is only an example. © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Consider a scenario in which multiple call centers now exist in the same distribution center so they no longer have a one-to-one relationship. close the Distribution Center attribute without saving your changes. Logical data models and physical warehouse schemas are discussed in Chapter 2. The following sections discuss the considerations you must make to ensure an effective warehouse design in light of the unique nature of these relationships. The Logical Data Model and Chapter 3. can introduce additional complexity to the schema and warehouse design process. select the LU_Employee table from the Relationship table drop-down list. Supporting many-to-many and joint child relationships Two forms of attribute relationships. While the topics are largely related to logical model design. Inc. you should know what logical data models and physical warehouse schemas are. To change the relationship table.

many models of cars are produced. red hat. there are usually two business questions for which users want answers: 1 In what colors are certain items available? 2 How much of a particular item/color combination was sold? 164 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Many-to-many relationships The presence of many-to-many relationships introduces complexity during the warehouse design process. and many types of cars can be associated with the same color. each salesperson can work in more than one calling center. Potential problems with many-to-many relationships usually come in the following forms. and each comes in several colors. green hats—and one color can be associated with many items—red dress. red socks. • The following sections use the example of items and colors to demonstrate a many-to-many relationship and the options you have for dealing with them. . blue hats. you must make additional considerations to effectively plan your design. red shoes. In a car manufacturing plant. One item can come in many colors—red hats. each calling center has many salespeople. Below are some real-life examples of many-to-many relationships which must be carefully handled in the data model and schema: • In a certain organization. That is. there are many colors for a single type of car. Inc. Likewise. both of which can be avoided by correctly modeling the relationship: • • Loss of analytical capability Multiple counting Loss of analytical capability With the color/item many-to-many relationship. With the presence of many-to-many relationships.

Attribute relationships 165 .Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Answering the first question requires a table that contains a list of all possible item/color combinations. Inc. The following diagram shows the lookup and relationship tables for item and color: The Rel_Color_Item table provides a row for every possible item/color combination. In many-to-many relationships this is not feasible. and date. a distinct relationship table needs to be present in your warehouse. Recall that one-to-many relationships are usually in the child’s lookup table. Answering the second question requires a fact table that has sales information as well as color and item information. The following diagram shows the same scenario as before. © 2007 MicroStrategy. color. Rather. but in addition it shows a simple fact table containing sales data keyed by item.

this fact table cannot provide a complete list of item/color combinations to answer question one. the following requirements must be met: • • A distinct relationship table to identify all the possible combinations of attribute elements between attributes Both the attribute ID columns in the fact table You can implement the above points in several different ways. which are discussed in Working with many-to-many relationships. All of the attributes in the many-to-many relationship are not in the fact table.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide The fact table in the above diagram alone is not sufficient to answer the first question. or a higher level than one of the attributes in the many-to-many relationship. to prevent any loss of analytical flexibility when dealing with a many-to-many attribute relationship. The relationship exists in a distinct relationship table. If you have item/color combinations that are available but that have never been sold. In summary. loss of analytical capability is only one challenge. • • 166 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy. Multiple counting When dealing with many-to-many relationships. Another equally significant issue is multiple counting. Multiple counting occurs when all of the following takes place: • You attempt to aggregate data to the level of one of the attributes in the many-to-many relationship. Inc. Only item/color combinations that were actually sold—and therefore have sales recorded—can be retrieved from this table. . page 168.

but make the following change: remove color from the fact table. blue.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Recall the example from above. and socks—and that they come in three colors—red. dresses. Assume that there are three items—hats. and green—with the exception of socks. Inc. Attribute relationships 167 . This query would require both the fact table—which has the sales information by item—and the relationship table—since color is not recorded in the fact table. © 2007 MicroStrategy. which come in only green and blue. effectively aggregating to the item attribute level in the many-to-many relationship. The following diagram shows this data in the lookup tables as well as some simple sales data: The risk of multiple counting occurs when you run a query requesting the sales by color.

If all the dresses sold are indeed green. using the given data. you cannot determine an accurate answer.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide The difficulty lies in the fact that color is not in the fact table. . The three techniques all have differing levels of 168 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy. since socks do not come in red. Inc. the correct answer is $0. This obviously leads to numbers that are higher than the true sales for red items. however. seemingly simple questions can require you to take a number of steps to answer them when many-to-many relationships are involved. It is entirely possible that all the dresses sold are green. which is the total for all hats and dresses. but the answer you will get based on the data in the fact table is $50. There is no way to directly relate the sales of an item in the fact table to the color of that particular item. the query aggregates sales for all items that come in red according to the relationship table. which can be calculated directly from the fact table. Working with many-to-many relationships As you can see. For example. • What are the total sales for red items? You cannot determine an accurate answer. For example. instead of calculating the sales of red items. The following section describes several ways to prevent multiple counting when dealing with many-to-many relationships. • What are the total sales for red dresses? Again. you cannot confirm this since color is not recorded in the fact table. including blue ones and green ones. The answer you get is $85. You can use one of three techniques to provide physical support to answer the types of questions that cannot be answered accurately when using many-to-many relationships. The sum includes all hats and all dresses. the following questions cannot all be answered accurately: • What are the total sales for hats? The answer is $35.

This means that you must capture the additional data in the source system. If this additional data was never captured in the source system.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 flexibility. the two fundamental components remain in place in one form or another: • • A relationship table to define the attribute relationship Both the attribute’s ID columns in the fact table MicroStrategy builds the rules that MicroStrategy SQL Engine uses to generate SQL when a report request is made. Rel_Color_Item) and add both attribute IDs to the fact table as shown in the following diagram. you cannot fully resolve the many-to-many relationship to calculate the amount of sales for items of a certain color. If you make both of the above physical implementations. you need to have data in the source system as to what the color is of each item sold. the SQL Engine uses the related table when no metric is included on the report. the fact table is used to answer the query. © 2007 MicroStrategy. In all cases. For example. Method 1 This method is the most straightforward way to effectively manage many-to-many relationships. and flexibility is always a trade-off with complexity. Method 1 requires you to create a separate relationship table (in this case. When a metric is included. Attribute relationships 169 . All of the following methods require additional data in the fact table. Inc.

6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Method 2 Method 2 eliminates the many-to-many relationship and the need for a distinct relationship table. in this case Item_ID and Color_ID. rather than two Here you must create a new attribute. While this method eliminates the need for a separate relationship table. Here the many-to-many relationship is converted into a compound attribute relationship. . you lose the ability to view items independent of color. which gives it a 170 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy. lower in level than either Color or Item. This attribute is essentially a concatenation of Color and Item. You treat one attribute as a child of the other and have a compound key for the lower level attribute. or vice versa. you add both attribute IDs. Also. Inc. Method 3 Method 3 is the most versatile solution and has the following characteristics: • • • Further simplifies the compound attribute relationship from Method 2 into a simple attribute relationship Provides the ability to view item and color together or independently Requires only one attribute column in the fact table for complete flexibility. to the fact table as shown in the following diagram.

like facts. or qualities. Attribute relationships 171 . Joint child relationships connect special attributes that are sometimes called cross-dimensional attributes. you only need to include this new child attribute SKU. The major disadvantage of Method 3 lies in creating the new attribute if your business model does not already use a similar structure. Finally. These relationships can be modeled and conceptualized like traditional attributes but. particularly common in retail data models or situations. as well as possibly adding complexity to the ETL process. they exist at the intersection of multiple attribute levels. This is the SKU attribute. Such attributes are called joint children. SKU. Consequently. Joint child relationships Some attributes exist at the intersection of other indirectly related attributes. rather than including Color and Item in the fact table. They do not fit neatly into the modeling schemes you have learned about thus far. text facts.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 one-to-many relationship between itself and each of its parent attributes. Inc. This method is actually quite similar to Method 1. which extends the relationship of each item/color combination into a single value. as shown in the following diagram. The major difference is that the distinct relationship table from Method 1 has an additional column. © 2007 MicroStrategy. you can use this single value in the fact table.

A business might run this promotion around Valentine's Day and again at Christmas time. In this case. In this case. you might create 172 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy. and Quarter. Promotion has a many-to-many relationship to both Item and Quarter.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Many source systems refer to these special attributes as flags. Supporting joint child relationships One way to resolve a many-to-many relationship is to have a relationship table for the attributes involved in the many-to-many relationships. Therefore. Inc. if flags are referenced in your source system documentation. . Item. An example of a promotion might be a “Red Sale” where all red items are on sale. Joint child relationships are really another type of many-to-many relationship where one attribute has a many-to-many relationship to two otherwise unrelated attributes. these are likely candidates for joint child relationships. consider the relationship between three attributes: Promotion. For example. as shown in the following diagram.

The relationship in the distinct relationship table must exist for a joint child relationship to be properly defined. you must combine the two relationship tables. Alternatively. these tables are not sufficient to answer the following more detailed and insightful questions: • • What items were in what promotions in a given quarter? In what quarters was a certain item involved in a certain type of promotion? To answer these questions. one to relate Promotion and Item. creating one table to relate all three attributes. you can build the relationship directly into the fact table. The second relates Promotion and Quarter as shown in the following diagram. However. Promotion—would be fine. Inc. it does not necessarily have to be in its own. Defining the relationship directly in the lookup table for the parent of the joint child—in this case.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 two relationship tables. Attribute relationships 173 . distinct relationship table. These two tables are sufficient to answer questions such as: • • What items have been in what promotions? What quarters have had what promotions? However. © 2007 MicroStrategy.

it is important for you to define it in MicroStrategy so that you get the correct data for reports that use the parent attribute in a joint child attribute.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide In these examples. The Promotion attribute is related to a particular Item-Quarter pair. The issues with many-to-many relationships—loss of analytical capability and multiple counting—also apply to many-to-many joint child relationships. Notice that a joint child relationship can be one-to-many or many-to-many. to see sales by promotion—the join will always use both joint children rather than just one or the other. This is the essence of a joint child relationship and is shown in the following diagram. . 174 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. If you have a joint child relationship in your data. as opposed to it being related to Item and Quarter separately. This ensures that when you need to join the fact table to the parent attribute of a joint child relationship—for example. It is important to notice the relationship between the three attributes.

© 2007 MicroStrategy. When multiple attributes are defined using the same lookup table and column. You need to support the logical concepts of an origin airport and a destination airport. Inc. How an attribute plays multiple roles depends on the specific attribute. in the following image. For example. but you do not want to create two separate lookup tables with identical data. the attributes are essentially playing different attribute roles.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles Attribute roles allow you to use the same data to define and support two separate attributes. AIRPORT_ID. LU_AIRPORT. and thus take up more storage space and be harder to maintain. Suppose you define two attributes that have the same data definition but play different roles in your business model. notice that the attributes Origin Airport and Destination Airport are defined using the same lookup table. it is understood that destination airport data differs from origin airport data. Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles 175 . Creating two separate lookup tables would create redundancy. and column. Although it makes sense to see JFK as either an origin or destination airport on a report.

or various aspects about them. If you identify that one of your attributes needs to play multiple roles. page 177. you must create an attribute in the logical model for each of the roles. This ensures that a report with attributes playing multiple roles returns correct data. Inc. a separate column exists for each of their roles. In the fact table. In the following diagram. it refers to the 176 Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles © 2007 MicroStrategy. such as description. the fact columns are ORIGIN_AIRPORT_ID and DESTINATION_AIRPORT_ID. This occurs because the SQL statement tries to obtain the description of an airport that is both MIA and LGA at the same time (Airport_ID = "MIA" AND Airport_ID = "LGA"). If a report designer places both the Origin Airport and Destination Airport attributes on a report to obtain the number of flights that originated from MIA and arrived at LGA. however. as explained in Specifying attribute roles. location.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide The Origin Airport and Destination Airport attributes share the same attribute forms. as shown below. and so on. an empty result set is returned. . In one case. State is another example of an attribute that can have two roles since it relates to both the Vendor and Store attributes.

The results may be blank if the data warehouse structure was set up incorrectly. Automatic recognition is enabled by the VLDB © 2007 MicroStrategy. where you create multiple attributes that have the same lookup table and allow MicroStrategy to automatically detect the multiple roles. The SQL statement tries to obtain the description of a state that is both Arkansas and New York simultaneously. you must treat them as different attributes. it refers to the location of a store. Inc. In an OLTP system. they must have different attribute names. a report is created to display vendors from Arkansas who sold to New York stores. you have the following options: • Automatic attribute role recognition. In the other. Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles 177 . In the data warehouse. a query involving both Vendor State and Store State needs to use the State table twice in the same query. as shown in the above diagram. To create unique attributes. Specifying attribute roles To see both roles on the same report. generating the empty result set. For example.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 location of a vendor. That is. roles are most often implemented as a single table. The State attribute is therefore said to be playing two roles.

and are unable to update the project schema or restart Intelligence Server. in the State example provided above. for example. you can have a maximum of 99 attributes defined on the same column of the same lookup table. Table aliasing provides advanced users with more control. Automatic recognition does not work if the attributes are in the same hierarchy. If you are upgrading or have a very complex schema. it may be the better alternative. • Explicit table aliasing. as Ship Month and Order Month. where you create multiple logical tables pointing to the same physical table and define those two logical tables as the lookup tables for the two attributes. however. Inc. . the two State attributes do not have a common child attribute. Remember this rule to help you identify attribute roles: If you want to see the same attribute multiple times on one report. is enabled). the attribute has multiple roles. In summary. meaning that a child attribute is shared. MicroStrategy recommends that you take advantage of automatic role recognition if you do not know the details of the modeling logic or the database. You can use either automatic attribute role recognition or explicit table aliasing to create the attribute roles.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide property Engine Attribute Role Options at the database instance level. In this example. you encounter an error. refer to the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. an attribute must be created in the logical model for each of the roles. Month is the attribute that has multiple roles. If you are new to MicroStrategy. Engine Attribute Role Options. For more information. 178 Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles © 2007 MicroStrategy. In a MicroStrategy project in which automatic attribute role recognition is enabled (meaning that the database instance-level VLDB property. if you identify that any one of your attributes needs to play multiple roles. it is easier to use automatic attribute role recognition. For example. If you create more than this number of attributes.

Vendor State and Store State. The logical model would look like the following: Note that both roles for the State attribute are included in the logical model so that “State” can be considered from two different perspectives.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Using automatic attribute role recognition In the data warehouse. You can set up two attributes. Automatic recognition allows these two attributes. Since the state in which a vendor resides and the state in which one of the stores is located are two different things. using different attribute names for the same expression. Consider the following sample desired report: Vendor_State_ID=15 (Arkansas) Metrics Vendor State Vendor Store Store State Dollar Sales In this case. Automatic role recognition works only when the attributes use exactly the same expression. a query involving both Vendor State and Store State needs to use the State table twice in the same query to get correct results. “Show me total sales by Store State for all my vendors in Arkansas (Store State ID = 15). LU_State. to access the same lookup table. can be used for both © 2007 MicroStrategy. the logical model must reflect that. which in most cases simply represents a column or columns in a lookup table. both of which use the same lookup table. Store State and Vendor State.” The same lookup table. Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles 179 . The resulting SQL code contains a self-join with the LU_State table. the request is. Inc.

6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide attributes. The logical model would look like the following. See the MicroStrategy Desktop online help or the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide for steps to set this VLDB property. so advanced users are encouraged to take advantage of this solution. Inc. both roles for the State attribute are included in the logical model so that State can be considered from two different perspectives. In this case. An attribute such as State can play more than one role in the data warehouse. Store State and Vendor State. When you use explicit table aliasing to designate attributes that have multiple roles. the State attribute is said to play two roles: it refers to both the location of a vendor as well as the location of a store. To use automatic attribute role recognition. you must select the Engine Attribute Role Options. just as it would if you used automatic recognition: 180 Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles © 2007 MicroStrategy. . found in the database instance-level VLDB Properties under Query Optimization. The two attributes refer to the same columns of that table. if attribute roles are used. it can represent the Vendor State or the Store State. Explicitly aliasing tables to specify attribute roles Explicit table aliasing provides more robust functionality than automatic recognition.

you create separate lookup tables in the schema. Inc. If you use explicit table aliasing for the Store attribute. as shown in the following diagram. one table (LU_State_Store) contains the attribute Store State while the other (LU_State_Vendor) contains Vendor State.State_Desc as State_Desc FROM LU_State a12 LU_State a13 © 2007 MicroStrategy. Consider the following sample desired report that should provide data about the total sales by Store State for all vendors in Arkansas (Store State ID = 15): Vendor_State_ID=15 (Arkansas) Metrics Vendor State Vendor Store Store State Dollar Sales When explicit table aliasing is used. as shown by this sample SQL: SELECT a12.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 The difference between automatic recognition and explicit table aliasing is that when you use explicit table aliasing. Since they are just different names for the same physical table. LU_State. the two lookup tables LU_State_Store and LU_State_Vendor are used. the report accesses the same physical table. Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles 181 . but point them each to the same physical table. for both state names.State_Desc as State_Desc SELECT a13.

To create attribute roles with explicit table aliasing This procedure provides steps to re-create the example of explicit table aliasing described in this section. allowing you to rename a copy of the same table. Table aliases are one kind of logical table. and rename the table as LU_State_Store. select Rename. you would select the LU_State_Store table for the Store State attribute and LU_State_Vendor for Vendor State.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide You create table aliases in the Schema Objects/Tables folder in MicroStrategy Desktop. 4 Right-click LU_State(1). 2 Navigate to the Schema Objects folder. log in to the project source that contains the MicroStrategy Tutorial project and then log into MicroStrategy Tutorial. For information about logical tables. and then select the Tables folder. the selected table is copied. 3 Right-click the LU_State table and select Create Table Alias. 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. An LU_State(1) table is created. . When you create a table alias. 182 Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles © 2007 MicroStrategy. refer to Appendix C. 6 Right-click LU_State(1). 5 Right-click the LU_State table and select Create Table Alias. and rename the table as LU_State_Vendor. When you are ready to create new attributes—as in the example discussed above—you can map the appropriate table to each attribute. Create the attributes 7 Select the Attributes folder. You can use the same high-level procedure and concepts as guidelines to create attribute roles in your project setup. Logical Tables. An LU_State(1) table is created. Inc. In the case above. select Rename.

You must make sure to map any State Store attribute forms to columns from the LU_State_Store table. Attributes with more than one ID column: Compound attributes A compound attribute is an attribute with more than one column specified as the ID column. select the LU_State_Store table. and then Attribute. 14 Click New to map any other columns to attribute forms for the State Store attribute. you build a compound © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 182) used to create State Store above. 10 In the Available columns pane. 15 Save the State Store attribute once you are finished mapping attribute forms to columns of the LU_State_Store table. Inc. Generally. Attributes with more than one ID column: Compound attributes 183 . 9 From the Source table drop-down list. This implies that more than one ID column is needed to uniquely identify the elements of that attribute. double-click STATE_ID. 13 Click OK. except you must use the LU_State_Vendor table instead of the LU_State_Store table. select New. 12 In the Source tables pane. otherwise the attributes cannot have separate roles.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 8 From the File menu. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. 11 Select Manual mapping and click OK. 16 Create a Vendor State attribute with the same sub-procedure (Create the attributes. The Create New Form Expression dialog box opens. Do NOT select the LU_State_Vendor table as a source table. select LU_State_Store. The Attribute Editor opens.

The values in the Item_ID column do not uniquely identify an item. select the source table columns for Country ID and Distribution Center ID. Inc. women’s. 184 Attributes with more than one ID column: Compound attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. creating a compound attribute. ID and Description. there are different shirts. Class is the parent of Item and has a one-to-many relationship with it. to uniquely identify a man’s shirt. This data is represented by the Dist_Ctr_ID and Country_ID columns respectively. each distribution center has a unique identification number. both the Country_ID and Dist_Ctr_ID columns must be mapped to the Distribution Center attribute to ensure that data about distribution centers is displayed correctly and completely on a report. For example. Therefore. and children’s. To uniquely identify a distribution center. The same Distribution Center identification numbers can exist for different distribution centers. They should also use the same lookup table. page 186. Distribution Center. one must know two details about the distribution center: the ID of the distribution center and the country in which it exists. see Collections of attribute forms: Form groups. Class and Item. For information about form groups. It is an attribute that requires that two different columns are specified as the ID column. with two attribute forms. When defining the ID form. In the relational database. You can create a compound attribute. . Example: Creating compound attributes Distribution Center is an example of a compound attribute in the MicroStrategy Tutorial. but in the same country. depending on the class—men’s. a compound key is a primary key that consists of more than one database column. This creates a unique identifier for each distribution center. The item shirt has an Item_ID of 1. Therefore. a retail project has two attributes. regardless of country. However.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide attribute when your logical data model reflects that a compound key relationship is present. All of the ID forms of the compound attribute should be grouped together using form groups. Item_ID and Class_ID must be grouped together.

© 2007 MicroStrategy. select New. This attribute form maps to the distribution center ID column necessary to complete the definition of the Distribution Center attribute. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. in the Name field. 4 From the Source table drop-down list. and then Attribute. 3 From the File menu. with the Create New Form Expression dialog box displayed on top of it. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. This is the table in which the two ID columns of Distribution Center reside.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Follow the procedure below to create the Distribution Center compound attribute. 6 Select Automatic mapping and click OK. To create the Distribution Center compound attribute 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. 5 Double-click the COUNTRY_ID column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. 8 Keep all other defaults. select the LU_DIST_CTR table. For a general procedure to create compound attributes. and click OK. 7 In the Form general information area. Attributes with more than one ID column: Compound attributes 185 . 10 Double-click the DIST_CTR_ID column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. and open the My Objects folder. type Country ID. 2 Navigate to the My Personal Objects folder. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. log in to the project source that contains the MicroStrategy Tutorial project and then log into MicroStrategy Tutorial. 9 In the Attribute Editor. Inc. click New to create the other attribute ID form. 11 Select Automatic mapping and click OK. The Attribute Editor opens.

page 186. You must create a form group to create a compound key. . You must designate this attribute form as an ID column so that it can be combined with the Country_ID form to create one unique identifier ID for the Distribution Center attribute. 13 In the Form category section. This is necessary when creating compound attributes. close the Distribution Center attribute without saving your changes. Inc. select ID from the Category drop-down list. The Attribute Editor opens. type Distribution Center ID Number. Click Yes. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. Click OK. in the Name field. which identifies that an attribute form requires more than one ID column to uniquely identify its elements. type Distribution Center and click OK. 16 Because this is only an example. Collections of attribute forms: Form groups A form group is a grouping of attribute forms that are related in a way that justifies combining the forms into a single form. you create form groups to create compound attributes. which are attributes with more than one column specified as the ID column. Create a form group 14 A dialog box notifies you that another form (in this case. You can also use form groups to link similar forms together so that they are displayed together on a report. with the form group you created in the Attribute forms pane. 15 In the Name field. refer to Collections of attribute forms: Form groups.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide 12 In the Form general information area. 186 Collections of attribute forms: Form groups © 2007 MicroStrategy. In general. COUNTRY_ID) is already using the ID form category and that you must create a form group to combine the two ID columns. For basic information and examples about form groups.

you can design a uniquely defined form that groups two or more forms under an attribute. When you create a form group. © 2007 MicroStrategy. and you also have a distribution center in Paris. In the MicroStrategy Tutorial. For example.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Supporting compound attributes Compound attributes are required when an attribute requires two or more columns to uniquely identify its elements. a compound attribute is created by using a form group to group together two forms to create the attribute’s ID. When you create a form group. France which has a Dist_Ctr_ID=1 as well. see the procedure To create the Distribution Center compound attribute. Inc. To uniquely identify a distribution center. one needs information from both the Country_ID and Dist_Ctr_ID tables. England which has Dist_Ctr_ID=1. In the Attribute Editor. Therefore. Collections of attribute forms: Form groups 187 . the included forms are joined together and act as one form. By grouping forms. This is because all countries identify distribution centers with numbers starting at 1. you have a distribution center in London. choose the same form category for both forms—you are then prompted to name your new form group. Distribution Center is an example of a compound attribute. To uniquely identify the two distribution centers you must include the Country_ID as part of the attribute ID. the Distribution Center attribute is identified using a form group that combines these two forms. For an example of creating a form group (form group creation is a subtask of the complete procedure). page 185.

the user can simply display the Name form and the report then includes both the customers’ first and last names. You can also group two or more attribute forms as a form group after creating all of the attribute forms.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Displaying and organizing related forms Form groups are also used to conveniently organize common attribute forms that can be paired on a report. . as described in the procedure below. Inc. You can group two or more attribute forms together while creating the attribute forms as described in To create the Distribution Center compound attribute. the form group in the diagram below joins the forms Last_Name and First_Name to create the form group Name for the attribute Customer: By grouping these two forms. For example. page 185. To group attribute forms as a form group 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. log in to the project source that contains the MicroStrategy Tutorial project and then log into MicroStrategy Tutorial. 188 Collections of attribute forms: Form groups © 2007 MicroStrategy.

Using attributes to browse and report on data Once attributes are built. 7 In the Form general information area. 5 Double-click the ITEM_NAME column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. The Attribute Editor opens. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. in the Category used drop-down list. in the Name field. type Item and Foreign Name and click OK. do not save the changes to the Item attribute. open the Attributes folder. The Attribute Editor opens. 8 In the Form category area. and users place an attribute on a report to display details about the particular attribute and how it relates to fact data. and then right-click the selected attribute forms and select Group. Inc. 10 Select the Item Name 2 and Foreign Name attribute forms. type Item Name2. 4 Select New. 9 Click OK. The Create New Form Expression dialog box opens. select None. they are used in two primary ways—browsing and reporting. 3 Double-click the Item attribute.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 2 Navigate to the Schema Objects folder. A form group which includes an item’s name and foreign name is created for the Item attribute. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. Using attributes to browse and report on data 189 . Users browse through attributes to locate an attribute to use on a report. 6 Select Automatic mapping and click OK. 11 In the Name field. Each © 2007 MicroStrategy. The Attribute Editor opens. and then the Item folder. Since this is only an example of how to create a form group.

the display could be a number such as four. instead of the URL attribute form. the first form you create is not included as a report display or browse form. a report includes Region as an attribute. or project-wide. the display could be a name. Report display forms are the attribute forms that appear as columns in a completed report. Inc.com. such as Northwest. default for each attribute. For example. When creating attributes. If a report lists the cities in which you have stores. You can also select which attribute forms are retrieved with the report results but not displayed on the grid. You can do this on a report-by-report basis. You can modify the attribute forms displayed by: • Right-clicking an attribute on a report or template and selecting the desired attribute forms 190 Using attributes to browse and report on data © 2007 MicroStrategy. By selecting different forms for the attribute. The only exception is if you create multiple attribute forms. Therefore. then you might choose to display the Long Description form. If ID is selected as the attribute form. but you still must specify the global.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide attribute can be displayed in a variety of forms so you must specify the default display of each of the attributes in the project. that is. you select a different set of values for display. For example you can include a cities URL attribute form as a browse attribute form so that your users can choose to display the form on a report. You must choose a default attribute display for browsing and another for reporting. If Description is selected as the attribute form. This separation allows for greater attribute display flexibility depending on the application. . you can add the attribute forms in Report Objects to the report without re-executing the report. Browse forms are the attribute forms that appear as a user browses through the element list of an attribute in the Data Explorer in a project. www. all forms are included as report display forms and browse forms by default.chicago. These browse forms are found in the Report Objects pane. browse forms identify attribute elements. In Grid view. such as Chicago. An attribute’s report display forms determine which attribute forms are displayed by default when the report is executed.

In the case of the Distribution Center attribute. You can also determine which attribute forms are displayed when browsing a project with the Data Explorer. Displayed on a report. the distribution center names. For example. see the online help and the section below. you can specify whether the identification number of each distribution center. the Distribution Center attribute in the MicroStrategy Tutorial consists of an ID form group and a Description form. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. selecting Attribute Display to open the Attribute Display dialog box For steps to display attribute forms on a report or template. Country_ID and Dist_Ctr_ID.” You can use the Attribute Editor to determine how the attribute forms are displayed on a report. the Dist_Ctr_ID form shows the identification numbers of specific distribution centers in the data warehouse. Using attributes to browse and report on data 191 . For a general procedure to set how attribute forms are displayed by default.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 • From the Data menu. The Description form of Distribution Center. The ID form group is made up of two separate ID columns. Setting how attribute forms are displayed by default You can generally display attribute forms in a number of ways. however. © 2007 MicroStrategy. or both are displayed. Follow the example procedure below to set one of the Distribution Center attribute’s forms to be displayed in reports and while browsing the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. Inc. displays the actual name of the Distribution Center such as “San Diego.

2 Double-click the Distribution Center attribute. You can also determine how attributes are displayed while users are editing and viewing reports. This means that. open the Attributes folder. The Attribute Editor opens. 3 Click the Display tab. close the Attribute Editor without saving your changes. and then the Geography folder. page 209. navigate to the Schema Objects folder. • 192 Using attributes to browse and report on data © 2007 MicroStrategy. 5 Because this is only an example. 4 You can set the ID 2 form to be displayed in the following ways: • To set the ID 2 form as a form that is displayed on a report by default: Select ID 2 from the Available forms pane and click the top > button to add the form to the Report display forms pane on the right. . See the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide for details. the actual names of the distribution centers are displayed. in the Report display forms pane. the description form of the Distribution Center is set as the only display form. The Data Explorer is discussed in Enabling hierarchy browsing in reports: Data Explorer. Inc. when the Distribution Center attribute is used on a report. The ID 2 form in the Available forms pane represents the distribution centers’ identification numbers.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide To display an attribute form in reports and in the Data Explorer 1 In the MicroStrategy Tutorial. On the right. The Data Explorer makes hierarchies available for users to facilitate placing objects on reports. To set the ID 2 form so it is displayed in the Data Explorer when a user browses the Distribution Center attribute: Select ID 2 from the Available forms pane and click the bottom > button to add the form to the Browse forms pane on the right.

The Logical Data Model. you can include a Time hierarchy in your model that consists of Day. you learned how to use hierarchies to group related attributes in practical business areas. either ordered or unordered. The system hierarchy is automatically created when you create a project and is maintained by the © 2007 MicroStrategy. These types of hierarchies include the system hierarchy and the user hierarchy.7 7. 193 . to reflect the relationships that exist between the attributes in a project. For example. and Year attributes. In Chapter 2. CREATING HIERARCHIES TO ORGANIZE AND BROWSE ATTRIBUTES Introduction Hierarchies are groupings of attributes that can be displayed. This chapter discusses hierarchies as they exist in the MicroStrategy environment and provides information on the two different types of hierarchies in MicroStrategy. Week. Month. Inc.

For information on user hierarchies and system hierarchies. Creating user hierarchies In MicroStrategy Desktop. you create user hierarchies using the Hierarchy Editor. The user hierarchy is a hierarchy which you create specifically for your report designers. 194 Creating user hierarchies © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 196. Follow the procedure below to learn how to create a user hierarchy. . Inc.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide relationships that exist among the project’s schema objects. see Types of hierarchies. This chapter explores how to create and configure user hierarchies in MicroStrategy and provides additional information about hierarchy functionality in MicroStrategy Desktop.

and then the Data Explorer folder. The attributes you selected appear in the Hierarchy Viewer. This procedure is covered in Viewing and editing the parents and children of attributes. navigate to and open the Schema Objects folder. assign the appropriate parent or child relationship to the attributes. and update the schema. from the View menu. page 209.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 To create a new user hierarchy 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. you must edit the attribute(s) in the Attribute Editor. Once you save and re-open the hierarchy. 4 From the File menu. an entry point. Type a name for the hierarchy. followed immediately by the Select Objects dialog box. 3 Open the Hierarchies folder. If arrows do not appear between attributes you know are related. log into the project source that contains your project and open the project. select Show Details. 7 Click Save and Close. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Creating user hierarchies 195 . or filtered. The arrows that connect certain attributes denote the presence of a relationship between the connected attributes. select the attributes to use in the hierarchy and click the arrow to add them to the Selected objects window. These details include whether or not the attribute is locked. The Hierarchy Editor opens. Click OK to close the Select Attributes dialog box. 6 In the Hierarchy Editor. 5 In the Select Attributes dialog box. and then Hierarchy. If the Use as a drill hierarchy check box at the bottom of the Hierarchy Editor is selected. Inc. 2 In the Folder List. Drill hierarchies are discussed in Drilling using hierarchies. arrows appear between related attributes. page 161. select New. you can view the details of each attribute in the hierarchy. in the Available objects window. a dialog box opens notifying you that the hierarchy you are about to save is drillable in reports. To do so.

page 194. you must place it in the Data Explorer sub-folder within the Hierarchies folder. among other configurations. arranged in specific ways that make sense to a business organization. The ordering and grouping of attributes. User hierarchy: User hierarchies are named sets of attributes and their relationships to each other. Types of hierarchies The two types of hierarchies that exist in MicroStrategy include: • System hierarchy: The system hierarchy is created according to the relationships defined between the attributes in your project. Although the system hierarchy specifies an ordered set of all attributes in the project. it does not define ordering or grouping among attributes. is defined in user hierarchies. • 196 Types of hierarchies © 2007 MicroStrategy. 9 Update the project schema by selecting Update Schema from the Schema menu. navigate to the location in which you want to save the hierarchy. . However. This type of hierarchy is created to provide flexibility in element browsing and report drilling. You can save user hierarchies in any folder. You do not need to create the system hierarchy. to make the user hierarchy available for element browsing in the Data Explorer. you can easily change the design of a user hierarchy to include additional attributes or limit user access to certain attributes. They are user-defined and do not need to follow the logical data model. As the structure of your business intelligence evolves. Inc. Steps to create user hierarchies are discussed in Creating user hierarchies. it is automatically created in Desktop when you create a project.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide 8 In the Save As dialog box.

Types of hierarchies 197 . User hierarchies: Logical business relationships User hierarchies are sets of attributes and their relationships. The system hierarchy cannot be edited but is updated every time you add or remove attribute children or parents in the Attribute Editor. filter conditions. The Hierarchy Viewer is discussed in detail in Using the Hierarchy Viewer.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 System hierarchy: Project schema definition The system hierarchy is the default hierarchy that MicroStrategy sets up for you each time you create a project. When you first create a project. page 211. and components of consolidations. When you browse the attributes in the Data Explorer. It contains all of the attributes in the project and is actually part of the schema definition. but not the Hierarchy Editor. the only hierarchy it contains is the system hierarchy. For example. and Day attributes. Any attributes that are not assigned to a user hierarchy remain available to the system as report objects. These report objects are discussed in detail in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. Inc. You create user hierarchies to define the browse and drill relationships between attributes. Quarter. You can view the system hierarchy in the Data Explorer or in the Hierarchy Viewer. The system hierarchy is useful in determining relationships between all objects in the project. you can create a Time hierarchy that contains the Year. arranged in specific sequences for a logical business organization. and so on. You can access the Hierarchy Viewer from Graphical View in the Schema menu. you can double-click Year to get to Quarter and double-click Quarter to get to Month. Attributes from the system hierarchy do not need to be part of an explicitly-defined user hierarchy. Month. The system hierarchy holds information on the relationships between attributes in the project. or when you define attribute children in the Project Creation Assistant. © 2007 MicroStrategy.

he or she can drill down to Month. For example. in drilling the user actually chooses to move to higher or lower levels on a report or move across to levels within different hierarchies. You should define user hierarchies that correspond to specific areas of your company business model and data warehouse schema. A user hierarchy is the only type of hierarchy you can define. up to Year. This allows users to more easily locate attributes in a project and navigate from one attribute to another. The example below demonstrates the Location and Customer hierarchies. Hierarchy organization The best design for a user hierarchy is to organize or group attributes into logical business areas. and Customer.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide Whereas browsing occurs through the Data Explorer. The Customer hierarchy also groups together the attributes Company. For example. you can place related attributes into hierarchies by their level. and Store are organized according to their relationships to each other. Inc. Within the Location hierarchy. or across to an attribute within another hierarchy. if the user drills on the Quarter attribute in a report. 198 Hierarchy organization © 2007 MicroStrategy. City. and you can create any number of user hierarchies for each project. . State. You can create user hierarchies in the Hierarchy Editor using one or more attributes from the system hierarchy. Contact.

if you only include Store in the Region hierarchy. and Store on a report. Hierarchy organization 199 . One hierarchy demonstrates Region having multiple States and the States having multiple Stores. © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 When creating user hierarchies. When you group attributes together into user hierarchies. Inc. State. However. only the user hierarchy allows you to logically define and order groups of attributes. then the only options for drilling or browsing are the Region and Store levels. keep in mind that hierarchies do not have to be separate from one another or necessarily follow the dimensional structure of your logical data model. This hierarchy allows you to create drilling and browsing options to the lower levels to view Region. The rest of this chapter discusses user hierarchies and how to create and configure them in your project. as in the second example. you are developing a working design of the display and browse functions of the attributes. Hierarchy structure While both a system hierarchy and user hierarchy allow you to navigate attributes in your project. In the example below. there are two instances of the Region hierarchy.

The Hierarchy Viewer is discussed in further detail in Using the Hierarchy Viewer. page 201). A filter on a hierarchy acts like a filter in a report. Only data satisfying the filter criteria is displayed (see Filtering attributes in a hierarchy. Attribute Filters: Specifies whether the data retrieved and displayed should be complete or filtered by any specific criteria. as shown in the following procedures: • Element Display: Determines the elements a user can see. page 205). Represented by lines that connect one attribute to others (see Hierarchy browsing. . Browse Attributes: Shows the attributes to which users can browse from a given attribute. Inc. or limited (see Controlling the display of attribute elements. page 203). In user hierarchies. its decreased scale allows you to navigate through the entire project. page 211. unlocked. You can use the Hierarchy Editor to configure each of these properties. The Aerial perspective provides an overview of hierarchies. The element display may be locked. page 206). The Hierarchy Viewer is accessed from the Graphical View option in the Schema menu. • • • 200 Configuring hierarchy display options © 2007 MicroStrategy. Configuring hierarchy display options Each attribute in a user hierarchy has properties that affect how that attribute is displayed and accessed in a hierarchy. the connections show the browse paths between the attributes. the connections between the attributes represent the parent-child relationships.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide Viewing hierarchies: Hierarchy Viewer The Hierarchy Viewer graphically represents user hierarchies and the system hierarchy. Entry Point/Not an Entry Point: Specifies whether the user can begin browsing in this hierarchy using this attribute (see Entry point. In the system hierarchy.

Configuring hierarchy display options 201 . the attribute Order is locked in the Data Explorer sample shown below. Controlling the display of attribute elements Locked/Unlocked attribute elements Locking a hierarchy prevents a user from viewing all elements of the specific attribute and any lower level attributes in the hierarchy. By restricting the view of attribute elements and lower level attributes in the Data Explorer.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 The following sections explain these properties and how to use the Hierarchy Editor to configure each. you can prevent the expansion of long attribute element lists that can consume system resources. a padlock icon appears next to the attribute name. While the user can view the attribute elements of Customer Region and Customer City. The Order attribute may be locked in order to prevent unauthorized users from accessing sensitive information about customer orders. When you set the element display to locked. You can lock the hierarchy to restrict the user from viewing elements and lower level attributes for security reasons or to better manage lengthy hierarchies. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Anything higher in the hierarchy is still visible. Inc. A hierarchy is referred to as locked when at least one attribute within that hierarchy has the Element Display option set to Locked. he or she cannot view information about each customer’s order. For example.

and users can no longer view elements of this attribute. Limited attribute elements Another way to restrict users from viewing attribute elements in the Data Explorer is to limit the number of elements that appear at one time. Also. The user can then click the arrows to see the next set of elements for that attribute. from the right-click menu. and users can now view the elements of this attribute. this locks and unlocks the attributes within the system hierarchy. retrieving a large number of elements at once can negatively impact system performance. However. . not any user hierarchies that contain the attributes. you can set the limit to five or ten at a time. no elements for Year display in the Data Explorer when Year is expanded. 4 To unlock a locked attribute. and then Unlocked. You can also lock and unlock attributes when you edit them in the Display tab of the Attribute Editor. 3 To lock an attribute. click Save and Close.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide To lock or unlock an attribute in a hierarchy 1 Double-click the hierarchy to edit. select Element display. if the attribute Year is locked in the Attribute Editor. For example. Instead of loading all attribute elements at once. The Hierarchy Editor opens. A padlock icon appears next to the locked attribute. This method is useful when there are extensive attribute elements in a hierarchy. 5 In the Hierarchy Editor. 202 Configuring hierarchy display options © 2007 MicroStrategy. and then Locked. from the right-click menu. 6 Update the project schema by selecting Update Schema from the Schema menu. The padlock icon is removed from the attribute. Inc. 2 Right-click the attribute to lock or unlock. select Element display.

type the number of elements you want to see at one time and click OK. 5 Update the project schema by selecting Update Schema from the Schema menu. The following graphic displays this view in the Data Explorer. contains many items. a limit of five items has been set. the Chocolate subcategory. To limit the display of attributes in a hierarchy 1 In the Hierarchy Editor. shown below. you can filter a hierarchy so that data for only one © 2007 MicroStrategy. Configuring hierarchy display options 203 . refer to the Filters chapter in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide to understand what filters are and how to create them in MicroStrategy. You can add filters to a hierarchy to control how data is retrieved and displayed. For example. With a filter you can choose exactly which attribute elements to display in a hierarchy. click Save and Close.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 For example. 2 From the right-click menu. right-click the attribute to limit. 4 In the Hierarchy Editor. 3 In the Limit dialog box. Inc. Rather than displaying all of them at once and overwhelming the user. and then Limit. Filtering attributes in a hierarchy Before reading this section. select Element display.

First. Filters increase efficiency when retrieving data because you can limit user access to parts of a hierarchy when you apply filters to attributes. To apply a filter to an attribute in a hierarchy 1 Create a filter in MicroStrategy Desktop. create a filter on Customer Age less than 30. perform a type of security. you are limiting the elements of the data returned when you browse the Data Explorer. See the MicroStrategy Desktop online help for more details. however. The filters allow the Data Explorer to display only the criteria you select. In the Hierarchy Editor. MicroStrategy does not validate that the associated filter makes sense on that attribute. For example. and view the Customer hierarchy in the Data Explorer. . Inc. Creating a limited hierarchy reduces the number of elements displayed at one time. Update the project schema. Only those customers younger than 30 years old are displayed. or data for only a few days of one quarter. When adding filters to an attribute in a hierarchy. 204 Configuring hierarchy display options © 2007 MicroStrategy. 3 If a tip about filtering opens. and the user is unable to see additional data in the hierarchy. you need to make sure that each filter is relevant to the attribute’s information.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide quarter is displayed. Filters make data retrieval faster by only allowing specific data to be displayed. add the filter to the Customer attribute. click OK. Each attribute in the hierarchy can have multiple filters applied to it. 2 In the Hierarchy Editor. Filters. limit the elements a user is allowed to see and therefore. right-click the attribute to filter and select Define Attribute Filters. You cannot use a prompt-based filter to filter a hierarchy. you want to view only those customers who are younger than 30 years old. When filtering attributes in a hierarchy.

Q3. If you are seeking Week 24. To create entry points in a hierarchy 1 In the Hierarchy Editor. When you click on 2006. the hierarchy. This is especially useful when accessing frequently-used attributes. which is Week. You can see the locked attribute. If you set a locked attribute as an entry point. you are creating a shorter route to access that attribute. Creating an entry point grants users faster access to the attribute without having to browse through multiple attributes to reach different levels in a hierarchy. opens. When you create a user hierarchy. When you click on Time. Configuring hierarchy display options 205 . For example. right-click the attribute to set as an entry point. you need to open several levels of attributes to reach the correct data level. click Save and Close. it appears in its normal position within the hierarchy structure. such as Q1. When you set an attribute to be an entry point. it still appears in the hierarchy but with a padlock icon. elements for each Year. Inc. and their elements appear in the Data Explorer. © 2007 MicroStrategy. a typical hierarchy is Time. 6 In the Hierarchy Editor. the attributes. but are unable to access elements or attributes below that level. The attribute to which you applied the filter appears in the hierarchy with a filter icon. 5 Click OK to close the Select Filters dialog box. the attribute Week appears in the Data Explorer at the same level as Year. select the filters to apply and click > to add them to the Selected objects list. such as 2007. Entry point An entry point is a shortcut to an attribute in the Data Explorer. 2006. open. If you set the attribute Week as an entry point. If an attribute is not set to be an entry point. and Q4.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 4 In the Select Filters dialog box. and 2005. Q2. an element for each Quarter. in the Available objects list.

206 Configuring hierarchy display options © 2007 MicroStrategy. 3 In the Hierarchy Editor. attributes set as entry points are denoted by a green check. Hierarchy browsing Once you choose which attributes to place in a hierarchy. These relationships determine how users can browse the attributes from the Hierarchies folder. To remove an entry point from an attribute. select Remove Entry Point from the right-click menu. For example. showing the parent/child relationships between the attributes. click Save and Close. the hierarchy resembles the example below. Category. Inc. and Item are the attributes that comprise the user hierarchy Catalog Items. For example. you can define the relationships between them. Category is a parent attribute of Category and Category is the child attribute of Category. in the hierarchy below. Subcategory.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide 2 From the right-click menu. 4 Update the project schema by selecting Update Schema from the Schema menu. . select Set as entry point. if Catalog. Some of the attributes in the Hierarchy Viewer may already be set as entry points.

Inc. see Enabling hierarchy browsing in reports: Data Explorer. you are specifying what levels of detail are visible when browsing the Data Explorer. For more information on including hierarchies in the Data Explorer. some of these attributes have been assigned a browse attribute. you can assign one or more browse attributes to it. Using the example above. For each attribute in a hierarchy. without having to first browse down through the Category © 2007 MicroStrategy. When you apply browse attributes to attributes in a hierarchy. Attributes in a hierarchy can have both browsing and drilling relationships between them. Configuring hierarchy display options 207 . Specifically: Hierarchy Attribute Catalog Category Subcategory Item Browse Attribute(s) Category. It can simply be a collection of attributes. Subcategory Subcategory Catalog.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 A user hierarchy does not need to have these direct relationships defined. Including hierarchies in the Data Explorer makes the hierarchies available for reports and to users in the project. Browse attributes are attributes you specify a user can directly browse to from a given attribute in the user hierarchy. page 209. Item The addition of these browse attributes allows users to see the Subcategory elements directly from the Catalog attribute.

7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide attributes to get to Subcategory. . Inc. the hierarchy described above resembles the example below. In the Data Explorer. 208 Configuring hierarchy display options © 2007 MicroStrategy. The ability to browse more directly through the hierarchy can be represented as shown below. Users can now view the subcategories in the catalog without first having to browse through the categories.

if they need to. reports can allow users to drill down. on the new report. at a project level. the attributes to which users can drill from other attributes. the report refreshes to display the selected level of detail. You can save user hierarchies in any folder. The Data Explorer is a tool in the Object Browser that holds the system hierarchy and the user hierarchies. the user can drill down on the Year attribute to a lower level attribute such as the Month attribute. When a user selects a drilling path in a report. on a report with the Year attribute and Revenue metric. drilling is enabled in the Time hierarchy. This option enables you to determine. For example. which contains the two attributes. A new report is automatically executed. You can make user hierarchies available for drilling. Revenue data is reported at the Month level. Depending on the level of the attributes included in the drilling specification. to make a user hierarchy available for browsing in the Data Explorer you must place it in the Data Explorer folder—a subfolder of the Hierarchies folder. © 2007 MicroStrategy. drill back up from Month to Year. This allows a user to drill down from Year to Month and. In the example of the Year and Month attributes. When you create a new project. which is located in the Schema Objects folder. Inc. the system hierarchy for that project is automatically placed in the Data Explorer. However. and across to different levels of detail. Configuring hierarchy display options 209 . Moving hierarchies to and from this folder also allows you to keep some hierarchies visible to users while hiding others. Drilling using hierarchies Drilling is a function in MicroStrategy reports that allows users to browse different levels of attributes along specified paths.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 Enabling hierarchy browsing in reports: Data Explorer You can make hierarchies available for browsing and including in reports by storing the hierarchies in the Data Explorer. up.

210 Configuring hierarchy display options © 2007 MicroStrategy. For example. Therefore. in the following hierarchy. page 206 for more details about browsing attributes. select the Use as a drill hierarchy check box. you can think of browsing paths in a user hierarchy as potential drilling paths. you can drill from Catalog down to Subcategory—and any other browse attributes of Catalog—on a report. If you enable drilling in this hierarchy. which means that you can access the elements of Subcategory without having to necessarily access the elements of Catalog in Data Explorer. 4 Update the project schema by selecting Update Schema from the Schema menu. 3 In the Hierarchy Editor. the default drill path is defined by the System Hierarchy. . To enable drilling in a user hierarchy 1 Open the hierarchy in which to enable drilling. Inc. you must enable the user hierarchy to be used as a drill hierarchy in the Hierarchy Editor. 2 At the bottom of the Hierarchy Editor. If a user hierarchy is not enabled.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide To enable a user hierarchy as a drill path. See Hierarchy browsing. Subcategory is a browse attribute of Catalog. click Save and Close.

but rather the structure of the user hierarchy as defined by a project designer. you can see the actual relationships between attributes. to facilitate user browsing and report development. page 205. The Table Viewer is another tool within MicroStrategy Architect that provides you with a bird’s eye view of some of the information within your project. When a user right-clicks on Year and selects Drill Down. the hierarchy contributes to the drilling path of any attributes in it. MicroStrategy Architect gives you the ability to view the system hierarchy as well as all of your user hierarchies in a single place. Using the Hierarchy Viewer and Table Viewer Through the Hierarchy Viewer. assume Week is a browsing attribute assigned to Year. You can see all of the entry points into a hierarchy at once. you do not see true attribute relationships. as defined by the system when the project was created. the attribute Week appears in the drill-down list. You can use the Hierarchy Viewer to view either the system hierarchy or any of your user hierarchies. Inc. When you view a user hierarchy. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Using the Hierarchy Viewer The Hierarchy Viewer allows you to select the hierarchy you want to examine. and also allows you direct access to the attributes that comprise it. For instance. For details on entry points. or you may select only one at a time. • When you view the system hierarchy. see Entry point. It is used to view all of the tables in your project graphically.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 After a user hierarchy is enabled for drilling. Using the Hierarchy Viewer and Table Viewer 211 . • The Hierarchy Viewer gives you flexibility over how much of a given hierarchy you choose to view at once. Additional information on drilling is available in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide.

When you access a hierarchy’s attributes directly. To view a user hierarchy in the Hierarchy Viewer 1 In the Hierarchy Viewer. The green squares indicate attributes that are entry points. page 205 for more details on creating entry points. you can define them as entry points. 212 Using the Hierarchy Viewer and Table Viewer © 2007 MicroStrategy. See Entry point. 2 Select Edit. 2 Select Hierarchies. 2 Attributes that have a green check mark next to them are entry points. To access Aerial perspective mode in the Hierarchy Viewer 1 In the Hierarchy Viewer. Inc. the Aerial perspective provides an overview of the hierarchies in your project. In the Hierarchy Viewer. An aerial view of the hierarchy you are currently viewing is displayed. To view the system hierarchy in the Hierarchy Viewer 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. from the Hierarchy menu. Its decreased scale allows you to navigate through the entire project. See Entry point. right-click the attribute to edit. select the hierarchy to view. from the Schema menu. page 205 for more details on creating entry points. from the View menu. To edit an attribute from the Hierarchy Viewer 1 In the Hierarchy Viewer. select Graphical View.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide The Hierarchy Viewer also gives you direct access to any of the attributes in the hierarchy you choose to view. select Aerial perspective. .

They represent and indicate how Architect sees the tables that were brought into the project when it was created. select Options. To view your project’s tables in the Table Viewer 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 2 The hierarchy in the Hierarchy Viewer shifts according to where you navigate in the aerial view. as described above. The tables that are displayed here are logical tables. you will need to update the logical table structure. 2 In the Table Viewer. If you make changes to the actual tables in the data warehouse. page 249 for information on updating logical table structures. Inc. from the Schema menu. 2 Select Tables. See The size of tables in a project: Logical table size. Using the Hierarchy Viewer and Table Viewer 213 . To view more or less information about each table in the project 1 Open the Table Viewer. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Using the Table Viewer The Table Viewer allows you to view all of the tables in your project as well as the joins and/or relationships between those tables and the names of the individual columns in each table. select Graphical View. Click a section of the aerial view display to shift your view of a hierarchy to that particular section.

depending on what you want to see in the Table Viewer: • • • • • Show joins Use circular joins Show relationships Show relationship types Show columns 214 Using the Hierarchy Viewer and Table Viewer © 2007 MicroStrategy. .7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide 3 From the Options menu. Inc. select or clear the options for any of the following.

creating aggregate tables. OPTIMIZING AND MAINTAINING YOUR PROJECT Introduction Once your MicroStrategy project is set up and populated with schema objects. you must update your project schema. To see any enhancements and changes to your project schema.8 8. and explains how to use these methods to enhance your project. you will need to make various schema changes. Inc. and using partition mapping. 215 . You can find this information in the sections listed below: • Updating your MicroStrategy project schema. © 2007 MicroStrategy. This chapter introduces you to maintenance and optimization concepts such as tuning the interaction between your data warehouse and your project. page 216—As you continue to enhance the design and functionality of your project. you are ready to start thinking about ways to better maintain the project and optimize it for both the short and long term.

These summary tables provide quicker access to frequently-used data. page 218—As your data warehouse changes to meet new data logging requirements. attributes. the project schema refers to an internal map that MicroStrategy uses to keep track of attribute relationships. fact levels. • • Updating your MicroStrategy project schema All of the schema objects—facts. You can also tune the interaction between your data warehouse and your MicroStrategy project to bring your data into MicroStrategy in a way that meets your requirements. . and so on—in your project come together to form your project’s schema. and so on within the project. transformations. the project schema is not the same as the physical warehouse schema. Although the concepts are related. page 250—Partition mapping involves the division of large logical tables into smaller physical tables. page 241—Aggregate tables store data at higher levels than the data was originally collected in the data warehouse. Partitions improve query performance by minimizing the number of tables and records within a table that must be read to satisfy queries issued against the warehouse. Rather. hierarchies. and minimize the amount of data that must be aggregated and sorted at run time. Whenever you make any changes to a schema object you must indicate to MicroStrategy that new schema object definitions have been included and that these definitions need to be loaded into memory. You can do any of the following to update your project schema: 216 Updating your MicroStrategy project schema © 2007 MicroStrategy.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide • Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog. table sizes. reduce input/output and other resource requirements. Inc. This can include adding new tables to your project or removing tables that are no longer used. Dividing tables to increase performance: Partition mapping. Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables. your project must reflect these changes.

Recalculate table logical sizes: Use this option to use MicroStrategy Desktop’s algorithm to recalculate logical table sizes and override any modifications that you have made to logical table sizes. Disconnect and reconnect to the project or the project source. You can also update the schema with the last saved settings by clicking the Update Schema icon in the toolbar. Updating your MicroStrategy project schema 217 . 2 In the Schema Update dialog box. select or clear the following check boxes: • • Update schema logical information: Use this option if you added. To manually update the schema 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. © 2007 MicroStrategy. modified. select Update Schema. Recalculate table keys and fact entry levels: Use this option if you changed the key structure of a table or if you changed the level at which a fact is stored. Manually updating the schema allows you to determine which specific elements of the schema are updated. from the Schema menu. Manually update the schema.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 • • • Stop and restart MicroStrategy Intelligence Server. if in direct (2-tier) mode. Logical table sizes are a significant part of how the MicroStrategy SQL Engine determines the tables to use in a query. • 3 Click Update. Inc. or deleted a schema object. • Recalculate project client object cache size: Use this option to update the object cache size for the project. if in server-connected (3-tier) mode.

page 220 Managing warehouse and project tables. Inc. You can add warehouse tables to your project with the Warehouse Catalog or MicroStrategy Project Builder. page 226 Customizing catalog SQL statements. This section also discusses customizing catalog SQL statements. From this list. page 233 Troubleshooting table and column messages. the structure of the SQL catalogs. . page 219 Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. Every project can have a unique set of warehouse tables. This section covers the following topics: • • • • • • • What should I know before I use the Warehouse Catalog?. page 239 218 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. Adding tables through Project Builder is useful only when you are creating a project for the first time. and the default SQL statements used for each database. The Warehouse Catalog queries the data warehouse and lists the tables and columns that exist in it. as later. page 219 Adding and removing tables for a project. The Warehouse Catalog is better for maintaining the warehouse tables used for an existing project. you can select the tables to add to your project.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog This section discusses how the Warehouse Catalog can control the interaction between the data warehouse and the database instance for a project. page 221 Modifying data warehouse connection and operation defaults. adding tables in the project through Project Builder can become a cumbersome process.

In this case. point to Programs. then to MicroStrategy. For more information about privileges see the Permissions and Privileges appendix of the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. Hyperion Essbase. Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources. You must use a login that has Architect privileges. then Desktop. and expand your project. and Microsoft Analysis Services instead of a relational database. • What should I know before I use the Warehouse Catalog? Before you begin using the Warehouse Catalog. 2 Log in to the project source that contains your project in MicroStrategy Desktop. For more information. For more information on Query Builder. you need to be familiar with: • • Your schema. refer to Appendix B. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 219 . so you know how the information in your data warehouse should be brought into MicroStrategy How to create a project Accessing the Warehouse Catalog To access the Warehouse Catalog 1 On the Windows Start menu. Inc. and then select Desktop.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 Note the following: • You can also add tables to a project using MicroStrategy Query Builder. © 2007 MicroStrategy. You can connect to OLAP cube sources such as SAP BW. the OLAP Cube Catalog handles tasks similar to the Warehouse Catalog. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide.

you may need to remove tables from your project that are no longer used and are taking up space in the metadata. To remove tables—From the left side. Inc. it may become necessary to add additional tables from the data warehouse to your project. select the tables you want to add to the Warehouse Catalog. To add or remove tables after creating a project 1 Access the Warehouse Catalog for your project as described in To access the Warehouse Catalog. The list on the right shows all the tables already being used in the project: • To add tables—From the left side. and click > to add the selected tables. The Warehouse Catalog opens after it retrieves the table information from the warehouse database. Click >> to add all the listed tables. and click > to add the selected tables.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide 3 Select a project and then from the Schema menu. select Warehouse Catalog. You can access the Warehouse Catalog at any time to add additional tables from your data warehouse to your project and remove tables from your project. page 219. • 220 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. Click >> to add all the listed tables. as your project matures. 2 The left side of the Warehouse Catalog lists all available tables and the number of rows each table contains. . Adding and removing tables for a project As you become aware of the additional needs of report designers and users. select the tables you want to add to the Warehouse Catalog. Log in to the project source that contains your project in MicroStrategy Desktop. Also. and expand your project.

but have not been included in the project. see Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. Menu File • Save Saves the current settings and status of the Warehouse Catalog. You can update it by selecting Read the Warehouse Catalog from the Actions menu. by selecting Update Schema. Inc. you need to periodically load the updates into the Warehouse Catalog.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 3 In the toolbar. Tables being used in the project: Displays tables that have been selected to be part of the project. The Warehouse Catalog has the following sections: • Tables available in the warehouse: Displays tables that are located in the warehouse. You can remove tables from the project by double-clicking the tables or by selecting the tables and then clicking <. Managing warehouse and project tables The Warehouse Catalog allows you to view tables that have been included in the project. Description • © 2007 MicroStrategy. click Save and Close to save your changes to the Warehouse Catalog. 4 Update the project schema from the Schema menu. To access the Warehouse Catalog for a project. as well as those tables that are available in the warehouse but have not been included in the project. This process can take some time to complete. You can add tables to the project by double-clicking the tables or by selecting the tables and then clicking >. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 221 . You can add or remove all the tables from one section to the other by clicking << and >> buttons. Warehouse Catalog has the following menu options. The table definitions are written to the metadata. As you make changes to the tables in the warehouse. page 219.

Calculates the number of rows in the selected tables. Allows you to specify various settings for the Warehouse Catalog such as changing the database instance. Allows you to import the prefixes from the warehouse table name space. see Data warehouse connection and read operations. Inc. Displays MicroStrategy help options Some of these options are also available through toolbar buttons and through right-click menus for quick access. This option is enabled when a partition mapping table is selected.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide Menu • Exit Tools • View Partitions Description Exits the Warehouse Catalog. Displays the list of tables referred to by the selected partition mapping table in the Table Partitions dialog box. Viewing table structure To view the table structure of a table. Displays the structure of a table selected in the Warehouse Catalog. . Allows you to assign or update a database instance for the project. and so on. page 227 of this appendix. row calculation. Allows you to add or remove a table prefix for the selected table. page 219) and choose Table Structure from the 222 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. automatic mapping. • Table Structure • Calculate Table Row Count • Table Prefix • Table Database Instances • Import Prefix • Options Actions • Read the Warehouse Catalog Help Allows you to update and reflect the changes done to tables in the warehouse. changing or assigning default table prefixes and structures. right-click any table in the Warehouse Catalog (see Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. For more information.

Updating table structure Whenever the structure of the warehouse table changes you have to update the table structure in the Warehouse Catalog for the changes to reflect in the MicroStrategy system. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 223 . page 223). When the data type of one or more columns is modified. page 219). Some examples of these type of changes are when you add. Click Cancel to undo all data type changes. You can also click Update Structure to reflect any recent changes done to that table (see Updating table structure. You can also select Table Structure from the Tools menu. This option is selected by default. delete. you get a warning message of this change. The warning message appears only if you have selected the Display a warning if the columns data types are modified when updating the table structure option in the Warehouse Catalog Options dialog box. This action results in no changes being applied to any tables or columns. 2 In the Tables being used in the project list. © 2007 MicroStrategy. which provides the following options: • • Click OK to apply the change to this column in all the tables it appears. The dialog box displays the columns available in the selected table and the data type of each column. Inc. The table structure of the selected table is displayed in the dialog box.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 shortcut menu. To update the structure of a table 1 Access the Warehouse Catalog for your project (see Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. right-click the table that has changed and select Update Structure. The Warehouse Catalog opens. or rename a column in a table associated with a project.

The procedure for manually updating the fact is as follows: – Right-click the fact and select Edit. – From the list of source tables select the source table from which the fact has been created. For example. 3 Click Save and Close to close the Warehouse Catalog dialog box. The Schema Update dialog box opens. Then. • 224 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. – From the Schema menu. • If no object definitions have changed. – Select the fact expression and click Modify. the table structure is only partially updated with the Update Structure command. you receive a message warning of this change. You are returned to the Fact Editor. if you rename a column in a table. – Click Save and Close to save the changes and close the Fact Editor. . Inc. you have to manually update the schema objects that depend on the outdated structure. – Click Update. For example. the warehouse structure gets updated completely with the Update Structure command.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide If the data type of one or more columns is modified. The Modify Fact Expression dialog box opens. this would apply if you rename a column in the table and the column is not being used in any fact expression. Edit the fact expression and click OK. you have to manually update the facts that use this column. If any of the object definitions have changed. select Update Schema. Verify the changes from the information dialog box that opens and click OK to apply the change in this column to all the tables in which it appears. The Fact Editor opens. – Repeat the first to steps of this procedure to open the Warehouse Catalog and update the table structure.

In the Warehouse Catalog.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 – Click Save and Close to save the changes and close the Warehouse Catalog dialog box. The primary database receives all SQL requests and passes them to the correct database. page 219) and choose Show Sample Data from the shortcut menu. To refresh the table data. in your environment you might have a gateway between two databases such as an Oracle database and a DB2 database. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Viewing sample data To view sample data from a table. Specifying a secondary database to support database gateways MicroStrategy allows you to specify a secondary database instance for a table. For example. Inc. click Reload table values. The default database instance for the project is set to be the primary database. One of them is the primary database and the other is the secondary database. one for the primary database and another for the secondary database. From the perspective of MicroStrategy products in this environment. The first 100 rows of the table are returned as sample data in the Values dialog box. You can also select Show Sample Data from the Tools menu. you need to define two database instances. which is used to support database gateways. right-click a table in the Warehouse Catalog (see Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 225 . MicroStrategy products know how to generate SQL for each table. you must set the secondary database instance for any tables that are found in the secondary database. This way.

Example settings include changing the database instance. changing or assigning default table prefixes and structures. The Warehouse Catalog opens. 6 From the toolbar. by choosing Options from the Tools menu (see Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. automatic mapping. page 219 for steps to access the Warehouse Catalog).8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide To specify a secondary database for a table 1 Access the Warehouse Catalog for your project (see Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. You cannot select the primary database instance as a secondary database instance. The Available Database Instances dialog box opens. The settings are available from the Warehouse Catalog. (in the pane on the right side) and select Table Database Instances. 3 In the Primary Database Instance drop-down list. 5 Click OK to accept your changes and return to the Warehouse Catalog. row calculation. 4 Select one or more Secondary Database Instances. The Warehouse Catalog Options dialog box opens. page 219). and name spaces Mapping schema objects and calculating logical sizes for tables 226 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. which allows you to perform the following tasks: • • • Data warehouse connection and read operations Displaying table prefixes. row counts. and so on. . Modifying data warehouse connection and operation defaults You can specify various settings for data warehouse connection and operation defaults using the Warehouse Catalog. Inc. select the primary database instance for the table. 2 Right-click a table being used in the project. select Save and Close to save your changes and close the Warehouse Catalog.

When connected to a Microsoft Access data source. – Click New to create a new database instance. which is divided into the following subcategories: • Warehouse Connection: Select the desired database instance to use for the project as well as the custom database login. see the online help. Custom Database Login: You can either select the database login or clear the login to use no database login. for example. the Settings option is disabled. For more information on the database login. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 227 . You can make these type of modification from the Catalog category. Inc. Clicking Settings allows you to directly edit the catalog SQL statements that are used to retrieve the list of available tables from the Warehouse Catalog and the columns for the selected tables. by © 2007 MicroStrategy. Database Instance: You can select the database instance for the Warehouse Catalog from the drop-down list. • Read Settings: You can customize the SQL that reads the Warehouse Catalog for every platform except Microsoft Access. you can select from the following: – Click Edit to modify the selected database instance. as well as change how the database catalog tables are read. or if it does but needs to be modified. If the desired database instance does not appear in the Database Instance box.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 Data warehouse connection and read operations You can modify the database instance and database login used to connect the data warehouse to a project. Refer to the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide for more information on either of these dialog boxes. The default catalog SQL retrieves a DISTINCT list of tables and columns from all users. You could restrict the information returned. The Database Instance Wizard opens. The General tab of the Database Instances dialog box opens.

By default this option is selected. . By default this option is selected when you open the Warehouse Catalog for the first time. it may redefine the data type for a column included in the project. For more information. You can also select the following check boxes: Count the number of rows for all tables when reading the database catalog: Select this option if you want to control whether or not the Warehouse Catalog should get the number of rows each table has when loading from the data warehouse. do not select this option as it will have a negative effect on performance. Display a warning if the column data types are modified when updating the table structure: Select this option if you want to be warned when the data type for a column stored in the project is different from the one read from the data warehouse. If performance is more important than obtaining the row count. Automatically update information for all Partition Mapping tables when reading the database catalog: Select this option to read the latest information for the partition mapping tables (PMTs) currently present in the project. page 233). page 232 of this appendix. see Ignoring table name spaces when migrating tables. This setting should be cleared when the number of PMTs in the project is so large that reading their structure is causing performance problems when opening the Warehouse Catalog.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide specifying certain conditions and table owners (see Customizing catalog SQL statements. Ignore current table name space when reading from the database catalog and update using new table name space: This option allows you to switch between warehouses found in different database name spaces. The check for the data type change is only performed when updating a table’s structure. By default this option is selected. This option is helpful when you want to identify fact tables and aggregation tables. By default this option is selected. For example. Inc. Column Merging Options: When you add a new table to your data warehouse. your project includes a table named Table1 that has 228 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy.

the column data type for C1 would be changed to char(4). the data type with the largest precision or scale is used. When you update the table structure. – Use most recent data type: This option updates the column data type to use the most recent column definition. In the example above. the column data types are modified to maintain a consistent schema in one of three ways.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 column C1 of data type char(1). In the example above. If the data type has changed to an incompatible data type. as defined in Table2. the column data type for C1 would be changed to char(4) since Table2 was added after Table1. © 2007 MicroStrategy. The options below do not handle the merge if the data type has changed to an incompatible data type. If the data type has been changed to a different compatible data type. but it has column C1 set to data type char(4). depending on the option you select. a warning is displayed and you are asked if you want to use the new data type. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 229 . Inc. This example is used to illustrate the options described below. – Use maximum denominator data type: This option updates the column data type to use the data type with the largest precision or scale. a column is changed from data type char to data type integer. This is because char(4) has a higher precision than char(1) defined in Table1. For example. Then a new table named Table2 is added to the project. as illustrated in the image below.

row counts. . by using the View category. Automatically define prefixes for all tables that are added to this project: This setting enables/disables the following options: – Set a prefix based on the warehouse table name space or owner (import prefix): When this option is selected. which allows the columns to have different data types. You have the following options: Display table prefixes in the main dialog: Select this option to display all prefixes in table names. Manual: This option sets the Warehouse Catalog tables to be read only when the read catalog action is selected. • Read Mode: The Warehouse Catalog can be automatically read upon opening the Warehouse Catalog. Displaying table prefixes. Inc. and name spaces You can choose to show or hide table prefixes.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide – Do not merge: This option renames the column in the newly added table. the Warehouse Catalog reads the 230 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. including new tables added to the project. or restricted to only be read when a read is manually requested: Automatic: This option sets the Warehouse Catalog tables to be read as soon as the catalog browser is loaded. By default this option is selected. This category is divided into the following subcategories: • Table Prefixes: You can specify whether table prefixes are displayed in table names and how prefixes are automatically defined for tables that are added to the project. row counts. and name spaces. column C1 uses the char(1) data type for Table1. This option can cause unwanted schema changes and should be used only when necessary. From the example above. Column C1 in Table2 is defined as a separate copy of C1 and uses the char(4) data type.

Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 231 . Mapping schema objects and calculating logical sizes for tables The Schema category is divided into the following subcategories: • Automatic Mapping: When you add new tables to the Warehouse Catalog. You can select the default prefix from the Default prefix box drop-down list or create a new table prefix by clicking Modify prefix list. By default. and associates it with the table being added. using the check box: Display the name space for each table (if applicable): You can show or hide the owner or table name space where the table is located in the warehouse. By default. The Table Prefixes dialog box opens. • Table Row Counts: You can show or hide the number of rows per table. see the online help. you can determine whether existing schema objects in the project are mapped to these new tables automatically. – Set a default prefix: Select this to add a prefix to tables when they are added to a project. using the following options: © 2007 MicroStrategy. this option is selected and table name spaces are shown. • Table Name Spaces: You can show or hide the name space for each table. Inc.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 name space for each table being added. This option is only active when the database supports prefixes. this option is selected and the number of rows are shown. creates a prefix having the same text as the name space. using the check box: Display the number of rows per table: You can show or hide the values calculated for the number of rows for the tables. For more information on modifying the prefix list. – Modify prefix list: You can create a new tables prefix or delete an existing prefix by selecting this option.

8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide Map schema objects to new tables automatically: Existing objects in the schema automatically map to tables you add to the project. • Table Logical Sizes: You can select whether the Warehouse Catalog calculates logical sizes for new tables using one of the following options: Calculate the logical table sizes automatically: Logical sizes are automatically calculated for tables you add to the project. . Inc. Do not calculate table logical sizes: Logical sizes are not calculated for the tables you add to the project. Ignoring table name spaces when migrating tables It is a common practice to establish a secondary warehouse with less information than the primary warehouse for development and testing. Before going into production. Then a new table which includes a YEAR_ID column is added to the Warehouse Catalog. the Warehouse Catalog automatic mapping settings do not determine whether the attribute and table are automatically mapped. 232 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. respectively. If the table was added to the Warehouse Catalog first and then the attribute was created. you change the project to point to the primary warehouse. With the Map schema objects to new tables automatically option selected. the attribute Year with an attribute form mapped to YEAR_ID is included in a project. the Year attribute is automatically mapped when the new table is added. Do not map schema objects to the new tables: Objects in the schema are not automatically mapped to tables you add to the project. Automatically mapping tables to schema objects when adding attributes or facts to a project is controlled by the Attribute Editor and Fact Editor. For example. These automatic mapping methods are only applied to existing schema objects when tables are added to the Warehouse Catalog.

and their data types. and the table is actually stored as admin.Read Settings options subcategory. select the Ignore current table name space when reading from the database catalog and update using new table name space check box. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog . If the check box is cleared. the Warehouse Catalog saves information to the appropriate table name space. columns. To solve this problem.LU_STORE and admin.LU_STORE. This information includes catalog tables. MicroStrategy uses SQL statements to query the relational database management system (RDBMS) catalog tables to obtain warehouse catalog information. The Warehouse Catalog interprets the table as already in the project and not found in the new warehouse. which is a way of organizing database tables into different storage spaces. The table name space provides an extra piece of information that uniquely identifies the table. You can find this option in the Warehouse Catalog Options dialog box under the Catalog . you can have LU_STORE in a table name space called dbo and another table LU_STORE in another table name space called admin. This can cause a problem when you migrate from a warehouse that resides in a certain table name space to another warehouse in a different table name space. For instance. If you select this option.LU_STORE in the new production warehouse. This method allows you to repeat the same table name in different table name spaces. When you add tables to a project. Customizing catalog SQL statements In all supported warehouse platforms other than Microsoft Access. This setting allows you to migrate much more easily between warehouses.LU_STORE. This is because the Warehouse Catalog is looking for a table named dbo. and others) support the concept of a table name space. DB2. Thus. 233 © 2007 MicroStrategy. You now have two tables dbo. Inc. the Warehouse Catalog defaults to identifying the table by both table name space and table name. the Warehouse Catalog ignores the current table name space when it reads the catalog information.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 Most database management systems (Oracle. the Warehouse Catalog recognizes the two tables as the same table and saves the new table name space information.

a similar ODBC call is used for the Generic DBMS database type. the name Catalog Table SQL refers to the catalog SQL to retrieve the tables in the warehouse.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide These catalog SQL statements vary from platform to platform and can be customized according to the characteristics of the specific warehouse. The name Full Catalog SQL refers to the SQL used to read all the tables and columns in one pass. on the other hand. but you can choose to use custom catalog SQL for the generic type if you wish. but both can be customized in the Warehouse Catalog Options dialog box. In the following sections. Microsoft Access does not have catalog tables. This option is recommended only if the catalog SQL is well customized to limit the amount of data returned by it. One-pass SQL mode. it first reads only the tables from the database. the first SQL used in a two-pass catalog retrieval. This is the recommended option for interactive warehouse catalog building because no unnecessary catalog information is read from the database. 234 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. The MicroStrategy Warehouse Catalog can be configured to read the catalog information in one. . that is. By default. which increases processing speed. Inc. reads all the tables and columns in one SQL statement. In two-pass SQL mode.or two-pass SQL mode. so an ODBC call must be used to retrieve information about tables and columns in Access. The two retrieval options use different catalog SQL. The structure of individual tables is read only when the table is selected.

These placeholders are: • #LOGIN_NAME#—This placeholder is automatically replaced at run time with the login name used to connect to the database. page 238 The table name space In a typical RDBMS platform. page 236 Modifying catalog SQL. A customized catalog SQL can omit the name space if duplicate table names do not present a problem in the warehouse database. Depending on the type of RDBMS. Inc. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 235 . This helps you to avoid confusing tables that share the same table name. page 235 Structure of Catalog Table SQL. or a combination of both database and owner. You can leave this template in the customized SQL if you want the catalog SQL to yield © 2007 MicroStrategy. SQL placeholder strings and incomplete catalog SQL The default system catalog SQL can contain certain placeholder strings that can be resolved at run time or must be completed manually by the user. you must understand several important concepts and procedures: • • • • • • The table name space. this name space can be the name of the database. page 236 Structure of Full Catalog SQL.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 To customize a catalog SQL. The table name space is optional. a table name does not uniquely identify it in a particular database installation. page 235 SQL placeholder strings and incomplete catalog SQL. a name space gives each table a unique name. page 237 Default catalog SQL. the owner of the table. A table name space is a partition of the database installation in which table names are unique. In both the Catalog Table SQL and Full Catalog SQL.

must be replaced with the name of the schema in which the database tables reside. used with Teradata.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide different results depending on the warehouse login used. Structure of Catalog Table SQL Catalog Table SQL is expected to return two columns. • #?Database_Name?#. this template is replaced with the name of the database user who owns the warehouse tables of interest. must be replaced with the name of the database containing the database tables. The string starts with #? and ends with ?#. Duplicates are not allowed. The following example is the default Catalog Table SQL for Oracle 8. only the table name column is required. used with DB2 AS/400. depending on the RDBMS platform and the customization.0: SELECT DISTINCT OWNER NAME_SPACE. The column that identifies the table name has the alias TAB_NAME. Inc. one identifying the name space of the table and the other the name of the table. The following aliases identify each column returned: • • NAME_SPACE (optional): the table name space TAB_NAME (required): name of the table 236 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. . The command #?Database_Name?#. The column that identifies the table name space uses the SQL column alias NAME_SPACE. Each row of the SQL result must uniquely identify a table. #?Schema_Name?#—This catalog SQL placeholder is an incomplete SQL string that must be completed by the user before it can be executed. TABLE_NAME TAB_NAME FROM ALL_TAB_COLUMNS WHERE OWNER = '#LOGIN_NAME#' Structure of Full Catalog SQL Full Catalog SQL is expected to return between five and seven columns. Otherwise. #?Schema_Name?#. If a name space is not provided.

The following example is the default Full Catalog SQL for Microsoft SQL Server 7. page 219).type DATA_TYPE.uid ORDER BY 1. and then by TAB_NAME. The catalog SQL can be modified in the Warehouse Catalog options for your project.name TAB_NAME. C. 2 Modifying catalog SQL You can customize and modify the catalog SQL that is run against your database for each project.type in ('U'.uid = U.name NAME_SPACE. C. © 2007 MicroStrategy.name COL_NAME. Inc. C.0: SELECT U.scale DATA_SCALE FROM sysobjects T. The Warehouse Catalog opens. T. 'V') AND T.length DATA_LEN.prec DATA_PREC. if available.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 • • • • • COL_NAME (required): name of the column DATA_TYPE (required): a string or a number that identifies the major data type of the column DATA_LEN (required): a number that describes the length or size of the column data DATA_PREC (optional): a number that describes the precision of the column data DATA_SCALE (optional): a number that describes the scale of a floating point column data Full Catalog SQL must return its rows ordered first by NAME_SPACE. To modify the catalog SQL for your project 1 Access the Warehouse Catalog for your project (see Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 237 . syscolumns C. sysusers WHERE T. C.id and T. C.id = C.

3 Expand the Catalog Category. it is recommended you consult the default catalog SQL that MicroStrategy uses to support different database 238 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. The Warehouse Catalog Options dialog box opens. select Options.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide 2 From the Tools menu. . The top pane controls the Catalog Table SQL and the bottom pane controls the Full Catalog SQL. Inc. The Catalog . the catalog SQL options are displayed as shown below. and select Read Settings.Read Settings options are displayed. The catalog SQL settings are unavailable if your project is connected to a Microsoft Access database. Default catalog SQL When customizing the catalog SQL that is executed on your database. 4 Click the Settings button.

page 237). The bottom pane controls the Full Catalog SQL. A dialog box for the catalog SQL options is displayed. click the bottom-most Use Default button. • • You can use the default catalog SQL statements or compare and combine them with your own customized catalog SQL statements. To generate and view the default Full Catalog SQL for your database platform. Troubleshooting table and column messages You may encounter the following messages while using the Warehouse Catalog: © 2007 MicroStrategy. To generate and view the default catalog SQL 1 Access the catalog SQL options for your project (see Modifying catalog SQL. This allows you to save any modifications you have made previously to the catalog SQL statements. and then compare them to the default statements you are about to generate. Inc. Before performing the next step. Any text in the panes is overwritten with the default catalog SQL statements: • To generate and view the default Catalog Table SQL for your database platform. which retrieves column information for the selected tables. 2 Generate and view the default catalog SQL for your database platform. You can generate the default catalog SQL in MicroStrategy for the database platform your project connects to. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 239 . click the upper-most Use Default button. cut and paste the SQL statements in the two panes into any text editor. which retrieves a list of available tables in the Warehouse Catalog. • The top pane controls the Catalog Table SQL.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 platforms.

you get a warning message showing the table name. the Warehouse Catalog does not check for any dependencies until you save the changes. Columns data type changed When the table structure is updated for one or more tables in which the column data types have been changed. Two cases can be seen: • When the Warehouse Catalog is starting and retrieving the table information from the data warehouse and it detects that one or more tables already in the project are missing. they are presented to you. In this case. Inc. Remove the table from the project. In this case. and you have the option to proceed or cancel the operation. This can result in SQL errors when running reports that need data from a “missing” table. However the definition in the project may be inconsistent with the real physical structure in the warehouse. If there are any dependencies. • When the Warehouse Catalog tries to update the structure of a table that is missing in the warehouse. 240 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. a message is shown which explains that the table structure update cannot proceed because the table was not found in the warehouse. it displays an error message which gives you the following options: Leave the Table in the project: This leaves everything as is in the project metadata. no changes occur and the original table structure remains intact. column name. .8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide • • • Tables missing Columns data type changed Columns missing Tables missing This happens when one or more tables already in the project are removed from the data warehouse.

you should be familiar with fact tables in the context of data modeling and data warehousing. Inc. and Chapter 5. To understand aggregate tables. You are asked to remove the mapping before continuing with the update structure and original table structure is restored. The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts. while retaining the traditional power of ROLAP to directly query the database to answer any questions. For more information on these topics. Chapter 3. If this happens. then a message is displayed that gives details on objects. This section describes how and why aggregate tables are used. Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables 241 .Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 original data type. see Chapter 2. Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables Aggregate tables are summary tables that store data at higher levels than it was stored when the data was initially captured and saved. which are mapped to the missing column and the update structure operation is canceled. and new data type. Aggregate tables provide quicker access to frequently requested information. Column is mapped to a schema object: If this is the case. Columns missing Missing columns are detected when Update Structure is performed. The Logical Data Model. You can click Cancel at any time to undo all data type changes. the Warehouse Catalog checks for the following: • • Column is not mapped to any schema object: If this is the case. MicroStrategy creates aggregates only on fact tables since lookup tables and relationship tables are usually significantly smaller. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model. then no error message is shown. This results in no changes being applied to the tables and columns.

in combination with aggregate tables and caching. This combined solution allows questions to be answered on the fly and is also scalable for large databases.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide When to use aggregate tables MicroStrategy uses optimized SQL to query the relational database directly to answer users’ questions. Multidimensional OLAP (MOLAP) is sometimes considered by some to be the answer to this problem. MicroStrategy’s solution is the use of aggregate tables to provide quicker access to frequently-accessed data while still retaining the power to answer any user query. However. and swapping requirements Eliminate the need to perform dynamic calculations Decrease the number of physical disk reads and the number of records that must be read to satisfy a query Minimize the amount of data that must be aggregated and sorted at run time Move time-intensive calculations with complicated logic or significant computations into a batch routine from dynamic SQL executed at report run time In summary. can produce results at about the same speed as MOLAP. Aggregate tables are advantageous because they • • • • • Reduce input/output. MOLAP is not scalable for large projects because of the difficulty of maintaining every possible combination of aggregates as the number of attributes and the amount of data increases. Users can ask any question that is supported by the data in their warehouse and then analyze the results until they find a precise answer. Inc. the MicroStrategy SQL Engine. 242 Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables © 2007 MicroStrategy. The disadvantage to this relational OLAP (ROLAP) methodology is that accessing huge fact tables can be potentially time-consuming. CPU. . RAM.

sales data is stored by day in a fact table. the results of the aggregation are stored in an aggregate table.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 Aggregation versus pre-aggregation Whenever the display level of data on a report must differ from the level at which the data is initially captured. as shown below. Inc. must occur. and added to produce the monthly totals. The daily values from the fact table are selected. Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables 243 . By default. Aggregation can also be completed before reports are executed. an aggregate table with the sales data rolled up to the month level is useful. A report requesting month-level data is executed. For example. that is. © 2007 MicroStrategy. sorted. You can build these pre-aggregated—or aggregate—tables as part of the ETL process. aggregation occurs dynamically with a SQL statement at report run-time. aggregation. the rolling up of data. This process is called pre-aggregation. If sales data is frequently requested at the month level. as in the previous example.

every possible combination of aggregate associations must be generated when the multidimensional cube is built. Inc. an aggregate table is any fact table whose data is derived by aggregating data from an existing base table. That is. sorting. In these terms. it is referred to as a base table. and calculation of data from many database rows in a large. This ensures that all possible 244 Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables © 2007 MicroStrategy. . Degree of aggregation While MOLAP can provide fast performance when it answers a question. If the daily sales fact table is the lowest-level fact table and contains atomic-level data. as shown in the following example. it requires a completely aggregated schema to answer most questions. lower-level fact table at run time.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide Pre-aggregation eliminates the reading.

the degree of aggregation can be as dense or as sparse as is appropriate for your users. Sparse aggregation refers to the fact that a given project only requires as many aggregate fact tables as is useful to its users. ROLAP. That is. page 247 • © 2007 MicroStrategy. therefore. page 246 The relationship between the parent and child—Considering any related parent-child relationships. and therefore is not very scalable. its presence provides a response as fast as a MOLAP system can provide. Build aggregate tables only if they can benefit users. In a ROLAP environment. Consider the following factors when deciding whether to create aggregate tables: • • The frequency of queries at that level—Determining the frequency of queries at a specific level. A densely aggregated warehouse has a large number of aggregate tables while a sparsely aggregated warehouse has fewer. However. Only the aggregate combinations that you determine are beneficial must be created. Not every attribute level or hierarchy intersection is suitable for pre-aggregation. Inc. since the creation and maintenance of aggregate tables requires additional work by the database administrator.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 questions can be answered. the space in the RDBMS does not need to be consumed and the resources to build that table during the batch process do not need to be used. page 246 The compression ratio—Compression ratio. provides much greater flexibility than MOLAP. Also. Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables 245 . if a certain aggregate combination is rarely or never used. do not waste database space for tables that will not be used. This scenario becomes very difficult to maintain as the number of attributes and the amount of data increase. if the aggregate table is useful in answering frequently-asked queries.

In any hierarchical relationship.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide Determining the frequency of queries at a specific level Build aggregate tables only if they can be useful to your users. Considering any related parent-child relationships When an aggregate table is created. eliminate it from the warehouse. the child records are usually summarized into the parent record. based on the key combinations in a relationship table. If any table is not used. For more information on Enterprise Manager. consider the following hierarchy: A summary of data at the department level seems to be a good candidate for an aggregate table. and loading process. Once your warehouse is in production. translation. For example. . However. when the parent-child relationship is altered. they consume disk space and impose unnecessary burdens on the extraction. the query must use item-level data and summarize the department data dynamically. trace the usage of any aggregate tables to determine how frequently they are used in a day-to-day business environment. if users frequently want to exclude inactive items. all 246 Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables © 2007 MicroStrategy. see the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. MicroStrategy Enterprise Manager allows you to easily track table usage. as well as the database backup routines. usefulness is not always easy to quantify. the department aggregate tables would not be used in this situation. However. Therefore. If aggregate tables are never accessed. Inc.

this process can take time. time hierarchies are seldom dynamic—days do not migrate into different weeks. Dynamic relationships When the relationship between parent and child elements change. a table contains one value for the sum of all stores. to a set of child records to produce a single parent record. geographical realignment. For example. maintaining aggregate tables is very easy. The average number of child records combined to calculate one parent record is called the © 2007 MicroStrategy. and fiscal weeks do not move into different months. Frequent changes can mean aggregate tables are not optimal for this situation. they are a part of static relationships. the relationship is called dynamic. consume resources.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 tables that hold that relationship or data relevant to it must be updated. These changes often occur because of organizational restructuring. If the tables are large. In these cases. and the impact on the batch process. Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables 247 . Also. For example. Inc. or the addition. the table size. rolling up an entire hierarchy can avoid many problems with relationship changes. Compression ratio The process of data aggregation applies an aggregate function. such as sum or average. Whether these relationships are dynamic or static change how they are aggregated into tables. For example. a store can decide to reclassify the department to which items belong. Static relationships When elements rarely or never change relationships. Consider the frequency of the changes. or discontinuation of items or services. reclassification. Aggregate tables that contain dynamic relationships must be recalculated every time a change is made. and complicate the batch process. and then balance the disadvantages against the advantages of having an aggregate table. It is not affected by a reorganization within the geography hierarchy.

refer to Cardinalities and ratios. 248 Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables © 2007 MicroStrategy. For example. For more information on ratios. Recall that some of the reasons to build aggregate tables include the reduction of disk I/O and the number of records that must be dynamically sorted and aggregated. if the compression ratio is 3:2. In contrast. the aggregate table reduces the number of records by 3/4 and uses only 1/4 of the storage space. Creating aggregate tables You can integrate aggregate tables in your project using the Warehouse Catalog in MicroStrategy Desktop. Inc. To determine when pre-aggregation is worthwhile for your system. as outlined in the following procedure. . the aggregate table requires 2/3 of the base table’s storage space but yields only a 1/3 reduction in the number of records. Therefore.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide compression ratio. pre-aggregating data is effective only if the compression ratio is significant. since it represents the decrease in records that must be read to respond to a query at that level. for smaller base tables. the compression ratio suggests that an aggregate table can provide more efficient queries. Also. if the compression ratio is 4:1. you must balance the importance of speed of query response time and the availability of disk space and resources to maintain the schema. One measure of effectiveness of an aggregate table can be estimated from this number. the resource demands placed on the database server by dynamic aggregations decrease and therefore so does the effectiveness of pre-aggregation. page 35. When the number of elements differs significantly between two attributes in the same hierarchy.

add the table to the project. Because the attribute levels are lower in the base fact © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 220. Because Desktop uses the conceptual or logical attribute definitions when assigning sizes. however. that contains enough data to answer the query. Changing the logical table size The initial logical table size is based on the number of attribute columns and the various levels at which they exist in their respective hierarchies. When you run a report.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 To use an aggregate table in an existing project 1 Using the Warehouse Catalog. The other tables. this measurement is known as the logical table size. Inc. These size assignments are stored in the metadata and are calculated based on the table columns and their corresponding attributes. Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables 249 . have only higher-level or summary data. the Analytical Engine chooses the smallest of all tables. In other words. Architect automatically adds it to the definitions of your existing attributes and facts. Architect is aggregate-aware. If your aggregate table structure is consistent with your base fact table structure. see Adding and removing tables for a project. The size of tables in a project: Logical table size MicroStrategy Desktop assigns a size to every table in the project when you first add them to the project. 2 Use the new table in the desired fact expressions and attribute form expressions. based on logical table size. For steps to add tables using the Warehouse Catalog. Suppose the base fact table contains millions of rows of transaction-level detail. when either could provide the answer to a query? The answer is logical table size. How does Architect know to use the aggregate table rather than the base fact table.

For steps to use the Logical Table Editor. the Logical Table Editor allows you to alter the logical table sizes based on their true relative sizes. this is not always true in a real warehouse. Either way. Time is the most common category for partitioning databases. Of course. Logical Tables. this division is based on a definable data level. not where the tables are split.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide table. Inc. Server versus application partitioning Partitioning can be managed by either the database server or the MicroStrategy application. a table with a higher-level attribute should be smaller in size. Partitions improve query performance by minimizing the number of tables and records within a table that must be read to satisfy queries issued against the warehouse. the table as a whole is assigned a higher value for the logical table size than are the summary tables with higher-level attributes. By distributing usage across multiple tables. 250 Dividing tables to increase performance: Partition mapping © 2007 MicroStrategy. partitions improve the speed and efficiency of database queries. Dividing tables to increase performance: Partition mapping Partition mapping involves the division of large logical tables into smaller physical tables. . see the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. The terms “application” and “server” refer to what manages the partitioned tables. Logically. tables are partitioned at the database level. Logical tables are discussed in detail in Appendix C. such as month or department. Partitioning by time limits growth of the database tables and increases stability. Therefore.

rather than the RDBMS server. such as time or geography. MicroStrategy supports two types of partitioning: • • Metadata partition mapping. Partition tables are usually divided along logical lines.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 Server-level partitioning The database server. Instead. the partitioning is transparent to MicroStrategy. Since only the logical table is displayed to the end user. Application-level partitioning In application-level partitioning the application. The original fact table is not physically broken into smaller tables. MicroStrategy. MicroStrategy manages the mapping between the logical table and the physical tables. 251 © 2007 MicroStrategy. the database server logically partitions the table according to parameters specified by the database administrator. In contrast. Dividing tables to increase performance: Partition mapping . in application-level partitioning the relational database is unaware of the partitioned tables. manages the partitioned tables in RDBMS server-level partitioning. Inc. rather than MicroStrategy. in this case. A partition base table (PBT) is a warehouse table that contains one part of a larger set of data. Refer to your database documentation for details on server partitioning for your particular platform. You do not need to take any action in MicroStrategy to support the partitioning. This approach makes it easier for you to specify a flexible partitioning schema. manages the partition tables. page 254—uses a specialized warehouse table to determine which table to access Metadata partition mapping Metadata partition mapping is the mapping of partitions where the mapping of partitions is performed and maintained in the project metadata by the application. page 251—stores the mapping information in the project metadata Warehouse partition mapping.

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Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project

Project Design Guide

In metadata partition mapping, you specify one or more partitioning attributes in the Metadata Partition Mapping Editor. Next you define what attribute elements within those attributes should point to which PBT. You create all of the rules for choosing the appropriate PBT here and the rules are stored in the MicroStrategy metadata. For steps to create a metadata partition mapping, refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help.

Homogenous and heterogeneous partitions
Metadata partitions can be homogenous or heterogeneous. With heterogeneous partitioning, the PBTs can have different amounts of data stored in them at different levels. For example, one table can contain six months of sales data, while another stores an entire year. The PBT level, or key, refers to how the data is stored. For example, sales data for the current year can be stored at the daily level, while historical sales data is saved by month only. Heterogeneous partitions can therefore require additional long-term maintenance and organization because the data contained in them is stored at various levels throughout the partition. MicroStrategy stores one PBT level for each partition. If all the PBTs within a partition are not stored at the same level, the highest PBT level is used as the PBT level of the partition. For instance, if all the sales data in the previous example is stored in one partition, you cannot access current sales at the day level. This is because the PBT level for the partition is month, which is higher than day. If you save current data in a partition at the daily level and the historical data in another partition at the month level, you are able to fully access the data. In contrast, homogenous partitions must have the same amount of data stored at the same PBT level. The logical structure of the PBTs must be the same, that is, they must have the same facts and attributes defined. To continue with the previous examples, each table must store one year of data at the month level. Homogeneous partitions work well for frequently-accessed data such as information about the previous year.

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When you define the particular PBT to which an attribute is linked in MicroStrategy, you do not need to specify whether or not the PBT is homogeneous or heterogeneous. MicroStrategy makes the distinction automatically depending, in part, on how the data is stored in the PBT.

Data slices
After PBTs are created, you define a data slice. The data slice acts as a filter that describes what portions of data are placed in the partition table. Based on this data slice, the MicroStrategy engine knows which table to get data from when generating the SQL. A data slice holds the parameters that a partition is based upon, for example, Month=January. Instead of retrieving data for all months, the server knows to access a particular table that contains the data for January only. By creating a data slice with the partition, you can retrieve specific data quickly without time-consuming joins and searches. It is important to create a reasonable and valid data slice because MicroStrategy cannot verify its accuracy or relevance. The data slice must make sense for the data. A poorly crafted data slice can lead to errors from generating incorrect SQL and retrieving the wrong data. Data slicing displays and can be modified only for the metadata partitioning. Each partition mapping table must include at least one data slice. In a heterogeneous mapping, data slices can exist at different levels and can be composed of different keys.

Attribute qualifications
To create data slices, you use attribute qualifications. Attribute qualifications are types of filters that are applied to attribute forms. These qualifications allow you to limit the type and amount of data that is returned for a report. For example, if you create a report that contains the attribute Country but you want to return only the data for France, you can create a qualification on the attribute Country and select France as the element that appears on the report.

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For steps to create a data slice, refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help.

Warehouse partition mapping
Warehouse partition mapping is the mapping of partitions, where the mapping is performed by and maintained in the data warehouse. You can define a warehouse partition by using the MicroStrategy Warehouse Catalog to add a table with a special structure. This table contains the map for the partition, and is stored in the warehouse. Warehouse partitions divide tables physically along any number of attributes, although this is not visible to the user. Warehouse partitions must be homogenous, unlike metadata partitions, so that the same amount of data is stored at the same PBT level and the same facts and attributes are defined. Homogenous partitioning divides data of equal levels, like January and February. A sample fact table and warehouse partitioning table are shown below for months. Note how the data exists at equal levels, for example, different months of the same year.

The original fact table, which contains all of the data, is not brought into the project. Rather, the database administrator creates multiple smaller physical tables in the data warehouse. Each table contains a subset of the data in the original fact table. The database administrator is responsible for keeping the partitions consistent and up-to-date. He or

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she must also create and maintain a partition mapping table (PMT), which is used to identify and keep track of the partitioned base tables as part of a logical whole. After the PMT is created, when you run a report in Desktop or Web that requires information from one of the PBTs, the Query Engine first runs a pre-query to the PMT to determine which PBT to access to bring the data back for the report. The pre-query requests the PBT names associated with the attribute IDs from the filtering criteria. When it finds the name of the PBT, it calls the SQL Engine to write the appropriate SQL for the warehouse. When using warehouse partition mapping, it is usually not necessary to bring in the individual PBT tables into the project. Doing so can cause errors if such tables are mistakenly mapped directly to schema objects. You should only include the PMT table in the project. With this strategy you can map all related schema objects to the PMT, which then accesses the correct PBT in the warehouse. Note the following: • • There are no data slices in a warehouse partition. MicroStrategy supports warehouse partitions on both upgraded and newly created projects. These are added using the Warehouse Catalog Browser. For steps to add warehouse partitions, refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help.

Metadata versus warehouse partition mapping
Metadata partition mapping does not require any additional tables in the warehouse. Metadata partition mapping is generally recommended over warehouse partition mapping in MicroStrategy. However, if you already have warehouse partition tables set up and are migrating to a newer version of MicroStrategy, you can continue to use the warehouse partitions. If you are creating partitions for the first time, however, it is recommended you implement metadata partition mapping.

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Metadata partition mapping is recommended because you create the rules in MicroStrategy that the Query Engine uses to generate the SQL to run reports. Because you create the partitions directly in the metadata, it is easier to maintain. Metadata partition mapping also allows both heterogeneous and homogenous partitions, unlike warehouse partition mapping. With heterogeneous partitions, the PBTs can have different amounts of data stored in them at different levels. Only homogenous partitions can be used in warehouse partition mapping. For steps to map partitions, refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help.

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9.

CREATING TRANSFORMATIONS TO DEFINE TIME-BASED AND OTHER COMPARISONS

Introduction
Suppose you want to compare how much revenue your company grew last year to how much it grew this year. This type of analysis, called a TY/LY comparison (This Year versus Last Year), is a commonly used form of time-series analysis and is relevant to many different industries, including retail, banking, and telecommunications. Transformations—schema objects you can create using attributes in your project—are one of the many MicroStrategy techniques used to perform time-series analysis. To calculate a variance or a growth percentage such as last year’s revenue versus this year’s revenue, it is very convenient to use a transformation. Transformations are often the most generic approach and can be reused and applied to other time-series analyses. To use a transformation, a report designer creates a metric and applies the transformation to it. This chapter discusses the different types of transformations and how to create them. It is assumed that you have some understanding of what metrics are, as transformation metrics
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are discussed in this chapter. For information on metrics and using transformations in metrics and reports, see the Metrics chapter of the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide.

Creating transformations
A transformation is a schema object that typically maps a specified time period to another time period, applying an offset value, such as current month minus one month. Usually defined by a project designer, transformations are used in the definition of a metric to alter the behavior of that metric. Such a metric is referred to as a transformation metric. For example, time-related transformations are commonly used in metrics to compare values at different times, such as this year versus last year or current date versus month-to-date. Any transformation can be included as part of the definition of a metric and multiple transformations can be applied to the same metric. Transformation metrics are beyond the scope of this guide; for information about transformation metrics, refer to the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. Recall the example used in the introduction, the TY/LY comparison. To calculate this year’s revenue, you can use the Revenue metric in conjunction with a filter for this year. Similarly, to calculate last year's revenue, you can use the Revenue metric in conjunction with a filter for last year. However, a more flexible alternative is to use a previously created Last Year transformation in the definition of a new metric, last year’s revenue. With a single filter, on 2003 for example, the two metrics Revenue and Last Year Revenue give you results for 2003 and 2002, respectively. Since a transformation represents a rule, it can describe the effect of that rule for different levels. For instance, the Last Year transformation intuitively describes how a specific year relates to the year before. It can in addition express how each month of a year corresponds to a month of the prior year. In the same way, the transformation can describe how each day of a year maps to a day of the year before. This information defines the transformation and abstracts all cases into a

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generic concept. That is, you can use a single metric with a last year transformation regardless of the time attribute contained on the report. While transformations are most often used for discovering and analyzing time-based trends in your data, not all transformations have to be time-based. An example of a non-time-based transformation is This Catalog/Last Catalog, which might use Catalog_ID-1 to perform the transformation.

Expression-based versus table-based transformations
The definition of the association between an original value and a transformed one can be represented in an expression that uses columns of the warehouse, constants, arithmetic operators, and mathematical functions. This is known as an expression-based transformation. However, it is sometimes desirable to precalculate these values and store them in a table designed for the transformation. This method is sometimes referred to as a table-based transformation. The advantage of a table-based transformation is the possible use of indexing to speed query times. Another advantage is that table-based transformations provide additional flexibility beyond what formula expressions can produce. The drawback of this kind of transformation is that it requires the creation and management of an additional table in the warehouse. However, once the table is created, it usually significantly decreases the query time. Returning to the TY/LY example, you have the option of using a simple formula such as Year_ID - 1 in the definition of the transformation or precalculating the data and storing it in a column in a table. A table-based transformation is required when a many-to-many transformation is performed. An example is a year-to-date calculation. A significant advantage to the dynamic calculation of an expression-based transformation is that the database administrator does not have to create and maintain a transformation table. The drawback is that the system must perform the calculation every time.

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A single transformation can use a combination of table-based and expression-based transformations. For example, you can create a last year transformation based on Year and Month. The ID of the Year attribute is in the format YYYY, so the transformation can use the expression Year_ID - 1. The ID for the Month attribute is in the format ‘MonthName,’ so you cannot easily use a mathematical expression. You must use a table instead. The following sections walk you through creating both a table-based transformation and an expression-based one.

Building a table-based transformation
The following example shows how to create a last year transformation based on a lookup table in MicroStrategy Tutorial, which pairs each year with the previous year. This transformation is used in the report displayed below, which compares revenue for this year and last year.

Creating the transformation metric and the report are discussed in the Transformation metrics section in the Metrics chapter of the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide.

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7 Click Save and Close on the toolbar. For example. Name the transformation Last Year (Table). 2004. 2 From the File menu. and select Transformation. then create a report using that transformation metric to obtain last year’s revenue. 4 Select the LU_Year table from the Table drop-down list. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Notice that this table contains a previous year column. The table's columns appear in the Available columns list. Creating transformations 261 .Define a new member attribute expression dialog box opens.Project Design Guide Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons 9 To create a last year transformation based on a table 1 Log in to the project source that contains your project in MicroStrategy Desktop and expand your project. Inc. The Year_ID is in the format YYYY. The Year . You have now created the transformation. 3 Double-click Time to open the folder. The Transformation Editor opens with the Select a Member Attribute dialog box displayed. point to New. then double-click Year. so the previous year is simply Year_ID minus one. A report designer can now use the transformation in a revenue metric to calculate last year’s revenue. 6 Click OK. one subtracted from the year 2005 results in the previous year. 5 Double-click the PREV_YEAR_ID column to place it in the expression box. Building an expression-based transformation This example shows how to create a last year transformation using an expression rather than a table. which maps this year to last year.

The Year . and select Transformation.Define a new member attribute expression dialog box opens. creating the transformation metric and the report are discussed in the Transformation metrics section in the Metrics chapter of the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. The resulting report is displayed below. point to New. 2 Double-click Time to open the folder. then double-click Year. from the File menu. The transformation will subtract 1 from the Year ID to calculate last year’s ID. 4 Double-click the YEAR_ID column to place it in the expression box. The table's columns appear in the Available columns list. Again. 262 Creating transformations © 2007 MicroStrategy. 5 Type -1 in the expression box. The Transformation Editor opens with the Select a Member Attribute dialog box displayed. 3 Select the LU_Year table from the Table drop-down list. Inc.9 Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons Project Design Guide This transformation is added to the report shown in the table-based transformation example above. To create a last year transformation based on an expression 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. .

the member tables are LU_YEAR. and Day. For example. Month. generally the lookup table corresponding to the attribute being transformed. Transformation components 263 . for the member attributes Year. • Member expressions: Each member attribute has a corresponding expression. The message “Valid expression” appears with a green check mark. in the Last Year transformation in the MicroStrategy Tutorial. the different levels to which the rule applies. Inc. Month. and Day. in the Last Year transformation. and LU_DAY. © 2007 MicroStrategy. • Member tables: These tables store the data for the member attributes. For a table-based transformation. A report designer can now use the transformation in a revenue metric to calculate last year’s revenue. For example. the member attributes are Year. You have now created the last year transformation. Quarter. LU_QUARTER. LU_MONTH. 8 Click Save and Close on the toolbar. Quarter. Name the transformation Last Year (Expression).Project Design Guide Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons 9 6 Click Validate. this is the transformation table defining the relationship. each member expression is based on a specific table. Transformation components All transformations have the following components: • Member attributes: This component contains the attributes to which the transformation applies. For an expression-based transformation. 7 Click OK. that is. then add it to the report created in the previous example. respectively.

In fact. Suppose this metric is used on 264 Transformation components © 2007 MicroStrategy. and PREV_YEAR_ID. and columns from the warehouse. The mapping can be one of the following: One-to-one: A typical one-to-one relationship is “last year to this year. this expression uses constants. mathematical functions. Since the data defines the rule. For instance. In the most generic case. arithmetic operators. many cases can exist where the data is not conducive to such calculation.” One day or month this year maps exactly to one day or month from last year. The rule is then not encapsulated in an expression but directly in the data of the column. this is simply a column from a specific warehouse table specifically populated with data supporting the transformation.9 Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons Project Design Guide For an expression-based transformation. a separate table is required. . For a table-based transformation. Many-to-many: A typical many-to-many relationship is year-to-date. if you store Month as 200001 (January 2000). this is a mathematical expression. However. many other dates are included in the year-to-date calculation. For example. consider YearToDate defined as a many-to-many transformation and Revenue (YTD) as a transformation metric. Inc. typically the attribute ID column. For one date. • Mapping type: This component determines how the transformation is created based on the nature of the data. you cannot subtract one and receive December 1999 as the result. These are all columns from the lookup tables set in the Member tables field. you can create a Last Year transformation using Year_ID-1 as the expression. the member expressions are LY_DAY_DATE. LY_QUARTER_ID. For example. this approach provides considerable flexibility in the transformation definition. LY_MONTH_ID. in the Last Year transformation. in the case of a many-to-many transformation. Many-to-many transformations can lead to double-counting scenarios. For example. It is particularly effective when no straightforward formula can express the rule.

In a report. the values for the transformation. a report contains Quarter and the transformation metric Last Year’s Revenue. In this instance. In the report.Project Design Guide Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons 9 a report that does not include the Day attribute. the © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 171. a transformation metric displays the current attribute with transformed data. that is. Each quarter is displayed. page 171 before proceeding in this section. with the previous year’s revenue. Transformation metrics and joint child attributes Review the discussion of joint child attributes and relationships in Joint child relationships. For example. as shown below: When a joint child attribute—an attribute that exists at the intersection of other indirectly related attributes—is added. Inc. a range of dates is specified in the filter. Transformation metrics and joint child attributes 265 . The joint child attribute cannot be transformed because not all of its joint children—Quarter and Item—are time-related. For more information about joint child attributes. For example. a conflict arises. The report displays the quarter. which is the member attribute on the template. the joint child attribute Promotion is added to the previous report. see Joint child relationships. the Revenue (YTD) metric will double count.

the Valentine’s Day promotion is not listed for Q1 2002 despite the existence of the last year transformation. since the Valentine’s Day promotion was not run in 2002. since the joint child attribute Promotion essentially exists in both the time dimension and a non-time dimension. remember that only the metric values are transformed. not the attributes. This is the case because.9 Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons Project Design Guide promotion associated with a given quarter. Inc. . A sample report is shown below: The displayed attributes should still be current. In summary. and the revenue data from the date-promotion combination. the Valentine’s Day-Q1 2002 combination cannot be displayed on the report. it is not intuitive how the transformation should be performed. Notice that the Valentine’s Day promotion existed in 2003 but not in 2002. but not attributes such as Promotion. displaying transformed data. minus one year. again. 266 Transformation metrics and joint child attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. transformations “transform” metric values such as Revenue. However. That is. While you may want to see it listed for 2002.

Conceptually. You create projects that users access to run reports. and user community. including the data model and physical warehouse schema. metrics. MICROSTRATEGY TUTORIAL Introduction This appendix provides information on the MicroStrategy Tutorial.A A. What is the MicroStrategy Tutorial? The MicroStrategy Tutorial is a MicroStrategy project. A typical project contains reports. A project is the highest-level of intersection of a data warehouse. the project is the environment in which all related reporting is done. and a set of demonstration applications designed to illustrate the features of the MicroStrategy platform. © 2007 MicroStrategy. What is the MicroStrategy Tutorial? 267 . Inc. and functions. which includes a metadata and warehouse. filters. metadata repository.

and the Brand Managers subfolder contains a report called Brand Performance by Region. and business reports.A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide The theme of the MicroStrategy Tutorial project is a retail store for the time 2003 to 2006 that sells electronics. Sales and Profitability Analysis. managed metrics reports. © 2007 MicroStrategy. the Billing Managers folder contains an Invoice report and a customer-level transaction detail report. • Enterprise Reporting Documents: This folder contains various examples of different types of standard enterprise reporting documents. Options to create reports from MicroStrategy Desktop and MicroStrategy Web focusing on a particular analysis area. such as Customer. Geography. For instance. Time. Brand Managers. Employee. The Supplier folder contains a Supplier Sales report. invoices and statements. Inventory and Supply Chain Analysis. Regional Sales Managers. books. Reporting areas: Customer Analysis. 268 What is the MicroStrategy Tutorial? . Inc. production and operational reports. • • • MicroStrategy Tutorial reporting areas MicroStrategy Tutorial reports are grouped into four folders: • Business Roles: This folder contains subfolders that reflect different types of business intelligence users within an organization. Each hierarchy can be viewed graphically through MicroStrategy Desktop and MicroStrategy Web. Category. and Supplier Analysis. Operations Managers. including Billing Managers. Human Resources Analysis. Company Executives. Each subfolder contains reports that would be of interest to the type of business user for which the subfolder is named. Products. They are a sampling of the types of reporting documents that can be built using MicroStrategy Report Services. and Suppliers. Category Managers. movies and music. Inventory. or Call Center. Enterprise Performance Management. Promotions. and Time. Products. District Sales Managers. The key features include the following: • Hierarchies—Customer. such as scorecards and dashboards. Numerous customers and purchased items.

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MicroStrategy Platform Capabilities: This folder contains examples of many of the sophisticated capabilities within the MicroStrategy platform. Evaluators of the software, as well as customers, can use the examples to get a better feel for many of the platform’s capabilities. Customers can use the examples to guide their own development. The subfolders under these folders are named according to the capabilities that their reports exemplify. For instance, the Graph Styles folder contains examples of most of the graph types that can be created in MicroStrategy, and the Analytics and Data Mining folder contains examples of Linear Regression models built within MicroStrategy.

Subject Areas: This folder contains reports that are categorized further by topic. Topics covered include Customer Analysis, Enterprise Performance Management, Human Resource Analysis, Inventory and Supply Chain Analysis, Sales and Profitability Analysis, and Supplier Analysis. Customer Analysis: Reports analyzing the customer base, studying areas such as Customer Income, Customer Counts, Revenue per Customer, and Revenue Growth. Enterprise Performance Management: Reports containing information on revenue amounts, trends and forecasts, profits, profit margins, and profit forecasts. These reports make it easy for an executive at any level of the company to understand how the company is performing as a whole or at the region, category, and subcategory levels. Human Resource Analysis: Reports containing information on employees, including headcount, birthdays, length of employment, and the top five employees by revenue. These reports are based on employees, time, geography, and sales. The Human Resources Analysis reports provide insight into human capital so that managers can boost the efficiency and effectiveness of their employees. Human Resource Representatives can highlight under-performing employees and misallocated headcount. Managers at all levels can focus on the

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performance of their employees, drill down to an individual employee detail level, view trends, and extract intelligence not otherwise evident. Inventory and Supply Chain Analysis: Reports containing information based on supplier, product, cost, revenue and profit, such as Inventory and Unit Sales, or Inventory Received from Suppliers by Quarter. The Inventory reports track inventory information within the company and through to suppliers. Essentially, these reports show how many units of an item are on hand, how many are expected from a particular supplier, and how many units have been sold. Inventory reports are used to ensure that the supply chain is as efficient as possible. Using these reports, employees can analyze trends and details, quickly adjust inventory and distribution, and understand underlying supply chain costs and inefficiencies. Sales and Profitability Analysis: Reports analyzing revenue and profit from multiple perspectives. Examples include Sales by Region, Revenue over Time, and Brand Performance by Region. The Product Sales reports allow managers and analysts to monitor and analyze sales trends, track corporate revenue goals, compare store-to-store performance, and respond more quickly and accurately to feedback from the marketplace. In turn, executives can analyze sales trends and details, quickly adjust pricing and promotions, identify product affinities and key profit centers, and understand costs and revenue trends. Supplier Analysis: Reports containing supplier, sales, profit, and revenue information, such as Brand Sales by Supplier, Supplier Sell-Through Percentage, and Units Sold and Profit by Supplier. The Supplier reports allow managers and analysts to monitor and analyze vendor performance so that they can quickly identify performance problems. These reports track brands and items sold that came from a particular vendor. They also correlate profit and revenue information with particular suppliers so that relationships with key vendors can be strengthened.

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These reports and documents are located in the Public Objects/Reports folder of the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. Once the areas of analysis are determined, a data model is created.

MicroStrategy Tutorial data model
A logical data model graphically depicts the flow and structure of data in a business environment. It provides a way of organizing facts so that they can be analyzed from different business perspectives. For example, a simple logical data model for a retail company can organize all necessary facts by store, product, and time, which are the three common business perspectives typically associated with retail business. For detailed information about data modeling, see Chapter 2, The Logical Data Model. For MicroStrategy Tutorial, the areas of analysis discussed earlier, Customer Analysis, Human Resources Analysis, and so on, are organized into the following hierarchical groupings: • • • • • Geography Products Customers Time Promotions

These MicroStrategy Tutorial hierarchies are displayed on the following pages for your reference.

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Data modeling notations
The following notations are used in graphical depictions of hierarchies.
Symbol Indicates entry point Definition An entry point is a shortcut to an attribute element in the Data Explorer. Creating an entry point grants you faster access to the attribute without having to browse through multiple attributes to reach different levels of the hierarchy.

attribute

A data level defined by the system architect and associated with one or more columns in the data warehouse lookup table. Attributes include data classifications like Region, Order, Customer, Age, Item, City, and Year. They provide a handle for aggregating and filtering at a given level. An attribute relationship in which every element of a parent attribute relates to multiple elements of a child attribute, while every element of the child attribute relates to only one element of the parent. The one-to-many attribute relationship is the most common in data models.

one-to-many relationship

Geography hierarchy
The Geography hierarchy contains attributes, such as Country and Region, as well as Distribution Center, Call Center, and employee-specific attributes. It is easy to understand why Country and Region are in the Geography hierarchy, but what about Distribution Center, Call Center, and the employee-related attributes? The data used in MicroStrategy Tutorial is based upon a fictitious company that sells electronics, movies, music, and books. The company does not have physical stores, but instead does its business from catalog and Web sales. Customers review the products in a printed or online catalog and call in their order over the phone. The order is then processed by an employee located at one of the call centers. The order is then fulfilled by a distribution center that holds the correct item and sends it through one of the shippers.

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The Geography hierarchy contains the following attributes.
Attribute Country Region Call Center Distribution Center Manager Employee Experience Hire Date Salary Employee Age Employee Birth Date Employee Description Countries where the company does or hopes to do business in the future. Also refers to countries where employees work. Each country is split into regions. Where product phone-in orders are taken. Each call center is located in a different city. The location where product orders are sent out to customers. Currently, each is located in the same city as the call center it services. Person responsible for a specific call center. The number of years an employee has worked for the organization. The date on which a particular employee was hired. The amount of money an employee makes per year. The age of each employee. The date each employee was born. The lowest level in the Geography hierarchy, representing the individual responsible for each order placed. Example USA, Spain, France. Central, Northeast, Southwest. Atlanta, Boston, Charleston. Miami, New Orleans, Fargo. Peter Rose, Alice Cooper. 3, 5, 6. 2/16/97, 3/15/99. 24,000, 35,000. 29, 36, 52. 5/6/66, 1/1/77. Jennifer Lee, Laura Kelly.

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Refer to the following image to see how all these attributes are organized into the MicroStrategy Tutorial Geography hierarchy.

Products hierarchy
The products hierarchy contains attributes, such as Category, Brand, Catalog, and Supplier. The Products hierarchy contains the following attributes.
Attribute Category Subcategory Description Products are organized into categories at the highest level. Used to further differentiate a subset of products within a category. Example Electronics, Music. Business, Cameras, Drama.

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Attribute Warranty Brand Catalog Supplier Discontinued Code Item

Description The time period in months during which a manufacturer repairs a broken item (specific to Narrowcast Server). The manufacturer or artist for a particular product. The medium used to sell products. The distributor for a set of brands. 0 = discontinued product, 1 = non-discontinued product. The individual product sold.

Example 3, 5. Ayn Rand, 3Com, Sony. Spring 2002, Fall 2003. McGraw Hill, Disney Studios. 0, 1 The Great Gatsby, Sony Discman.

Refer to the following image to see how all these attributes are organized into the MicroStrategy Tutorial Products hierarchy.

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Customers hierarchy
The Customers hierarchy contains customer demographic and purchase information, such as Customer Age, Income Bracket, Payment Method, and Ship Date. The Customers hierarchy contains the following attributes.
Attribute Customer Country Customer Region Customer State Customer City Customer Age Customer Birth Date Income Bracket Zip Code Customer Shipper Rush Order Description The highest level of differentiation for where Customers live The highest level of differentiation for where customers live. Each Customer Region is divided into multiple States. Each Customer State is broken down into cities. The age of a particular customer at a current point in time. The date on which the Customer was born. The salary range reported by the customer. The lowest level of differentiation for where customers live. The name of the individual customer. The vendor used to send products to the customer. (Currently not implemented in the project.) Indicates whether a customer chose to expedite delivery of an order. The way a customer pays for an order. The date on which an order is shipped from the distribution center. The tracking number associated with a particular group of items purchased. Amex, Check. 9/15/02, 3/26/03. 167, 2635. Example USA, Spain, France Northeast, South, France. Maine, North Dakota. Albany, Chicago, Memphis. 26, 38, 59. 8/4/50, 4/30/72. $31,000 - 40,000, $61,000 70,000. 07026, 36303. Selene Allen, Chad Laurie. Pronto Packages, MailFast.

Payment Method Ship Date Order

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Refer to the following image to see how all these attributes are organized into the MicroStrategy Tutorial Customers hierarchy.

Time hierarchy
The Time hierarchy contains time-specific attributes, Year, Quarter, Month, and Day.

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Calendar date of purchase. Calendar quarter of purchase. This hierarchy is useful for recording whether a sale was a promotional purchase. Attribute Year Quarter Month of Year Month Day Description Calendar year of purchase.A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide The Time hierarchy contains the following attributes. 2003. January. Q3 03. Q2 02. 5/14/02. 12/26/03. Example 2002. Month of purchase. . November. Refer to the following image to see how all these attributes are organized into the MicroStrategy Tutorial Time hierarchy. Calendar month of purchase. Jul 02. Aug 03. 278 MicroStrategy Tutorial data model © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. Promotions hierarchy The Promotions hierarchy contains Promotion and Promotion Type.

(Currently not implemented in the project. Refer to the following image to see how all these attributes are organized into the MicroStrategy Tutorial Promotions hierarchy. Specify the user name as Administrator and provide a blank password to complete these steps. Attribute Promotion Type Promotion Description (Currently not implemented in the project. log on to the project source containing the MicroStrategy Tutorial and expand the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. MicroStrategy Tutorial data model 279 . you can also view it directly in the product. © 2007 MicroStrategy.) Date range for a particular discount period under which an item is purchased (Sales Date).) Type of discount period offered (Sale type). Inc. 2/16/03 2/19/03. You must log on as an Administrator.Project Design Guide MicroStrategy Tutorial A The Promotions hierarchy contains the following attributes. 9/1/02 . To view the MicroStrategy Tutorial data model 1 If you are not already using the MicroStrategy Tutorial. Viewing the MicroStrategy Tutorial data model Although the MicroStrategy Tutorial data model is displayed in the previous pages.9/4/02. Labor Day. Example Mother’s Day.

click Auto arrange in the toolbar. this saved view is displayed. It is a graphic-intensive technique that results in a data model representing the definition. Once loaded. 280 MicroStrategy Tutorial schema © 2007 MicroStrategy. 7 To return to the default view. the next step is to create the schema. and relationships of data in a business. select it from the Entry Point drop-down list in the toolbar. Inc.A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide 2 From the Schema menu. physical characteristics. but allows you to view the hierarchy in a way meaningful to you. 4 To focus on a different entry point. MicroStrategy Tutorial schema A schema is a logical and physical definition of warehouse data elements. select it from the Hierarchy drop-down list on the toolbar. point to Graphical View. click Fit in window from the toolbar. 8 To save the layout view of the hierarchy. This does not affect the browse order. 3 To view a different hierarchy. 5 To view the entire hierarchy in the window. After the data model is created. and then choose Hierarchies. The logical data model is a picture of all the pieces of information necessary to understand your data and how it relates to your business. and interrelationships. characteristics. click Save in the toolbar. The next time you open the Hierarchy Viewer. . 6 You can rearrange the attributes by dragging and dropping them. or conceptual environment. technical. the HierarchiesMicroStrategy Tutorial dialog box opens.

refer to earlier chapters in this guide. MicroStrategy Tutorial schema 281 . a primary key In a relational database. the set of columns required to uniquely identify a record in a table. Symbol LU_ Indicates Definition a lookup table A database table used to uniquely identify attribute elements. Inc. This appendix shows the physical warehouse schema. Store. Item.Project Design Guide MicroStrategy Tutorial A The physical warehouse schema is based on the logical data model. Several physical warehouse schemas can be derived from the same logical data model. The physical warehouse schema describes how your data is stored in the data warehouse. While the logical data model tells you what facts and attributes to create. or Account. such as Day. the physical warehouse schema tells you where the underlying data for those objects is stored. including data types. They typically consist of descriptions of dimensions. © 2007 MicroStrategy. For more detailed information on the physical schema. Lookup tables are usually joined to fact tables in order to group the numeric facts in the fact table by dimensional attributes in the lookup tables. The MicroStrategy Tutorial schema is divided into the following parts: • • • • • • Geography Products Customers Time Promotions Fact tables Schema notations The following notations are used in the graphical depictions of the MicroStrategy Tutorial schema.

The basic facts from which all metrics in the MicroStrategy Tutorial were created from are listed below. The number of individual items remaining at the close of each month. Begin on hand The number of individual items available at the beginning of each month. Fact Cost Discount End on hand Description The total amount charged by the supplier to the company. Also referred to as a PMT. The amount of money charged by the supplier to the company per individual item purchased. Unit price . relate tables store information about the relationship between two attributes. The schema also contains fact tables. Freight Profit Revenue Rush Charge Unit Cost Unit Price Unit Profit Units Received Units Sold The compensation paid for the transportation of goods. Relate tables contain the ID columns of two or more attributes. A fact table is a database table containing numeric data that may be aggregated along one or more dimensions. The amount of money charged to expedite delivery service. Fact tables may contain atomic or summarized data. The total income produced by a given source accounting for all product sales deducting discounts. .unit cost. The number of individual items bought by customers. PMT_ a partition A warehouse table that contains information used to identify the mapping table partitioned base tables as part of a logical whole. A monetary reduction made from a regular price. The amount of money charged by the company to the customer per individual item sold. thus defining associations between them. Inc. 282 MicroStrategy Tutorial schema © 2007 MicroStrategy. The number of individual items acquired from a supplier.A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide Symbol REL_ Indicates a relationship table Definition While lookup tables store information about one or more attributes. The excess of the selling price of goods over their cost.

MicroStrategy Tutorial schema 283 .Project Design Guide MicroStrategy Tutorial A Geography schema © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc.

Inc. .A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide Products schema 284 MicroStrategy Tutorial schema © 2007 MicroStrategy.

Project Design Guide MicroStrategy Tutorial A Customers schema © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. MicroStrategy Tutorial schema 285 .

. Inc.A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide Time schema 286 MicroStrategy Tutorial schema © 2007 MicroStrategy.

MicroStrategy Tutorial schema 287 .Project Design Guide MicroStrategy Tutorial A Promotions schema Sales fact tables © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc.

A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide Inventory fact tables Miscellaneous fact tables 288 MicroStrategy Tutorial schema © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. .

Use circular joins: Select whether to use circular joins. 4 To change display preferences for the physical view.Project Design Guide MicroStrategy Tutorial A Viewing the MicroStrategy Tutorial schema Although the MicroStrategy Tutorial physical schema is displayed in the previous pages. select View. 5 To change display preferences for the logical view. you can also view it or the logical schema directly in the product. 3 To switch to the logical view. To view the MicroStrategy Tutorial schema 1 If you are not already using the Tutorial. Use circular joins: Select whether to use circular joins. log in to the project source containing the MicroStrategy Tutorial and expand the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. Show column data types: Select whether to show the data type and size for each column. point to Graphical View. 2 From the Schema menu. and then choose Tables. use the following options from the Options menu: • • • • Show joins: Select whether to connect the tables to represent the joins between the warehouse tables. Show table prefixes: Select whether to display the table prefix as part of the table name. Once loaded. © 2007 MicroStrategy. You must login as an Administrator to complete these steps. Inc. then Logical View. use the following options from the Options menu: • • Show joins: Select whether to connect the tables to represent the joins between the table columns. the TablesMicroStrategy Tutorial dialog box opens with the physical view displayed. MicroStrategy Tutorial schema 289 .

10 To save the layout view of the tables.A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide • • Show relationships: Choose whether to map the relationships between the tables. • 6 To switch back to the physical view. 9 To return to the default view. Show relationship types: Choose whether to differentiate between one-to-one. this saved view is displayed. 11 To copy the layout view. The next time you open the Table Viewer. one-to-many. . as a link between the logical and physical views. click Auto arrange in the toolbar. then Physical View. Inc. select Copy as Metafile from the File menu. but allows you to view the tables in a way meaningful to you. click the Fit in window button on the toolbar. 8 You can rearrange the tables by dragging and dropping them. click Save in the toolbar. many-to-one. Show columns: Select whether to display the warehouse columns that define each attribute. select View. 290 MicroStrategy Tutorial schema © 2007 MicroStrategy. This does not affect the relationships or joins. 7 To view the entire schema in the window. and many-to-many relationships.

This appendix describes how MicroStrategy Intelligence Server integrates with these products using MultiDimensional Expressions (MDX). this appendix discusses the following topics: • • MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources. such as MicroStrategy. Inc. This system setup requires an integrated business intelligence (BI) solution. page 298 © 2007 MicroStrategy. Microsoft Analysis Services (Analysis Services). Analysis Services 2005. and Microsoft Analysis Services Introduction Many companies have both a data warehouse and an OLAP cube source such as SAP Business Intelligence Warehouse (SAP BW). Specifically. page 292 Understanding the SAP BW terminology. SAP BW. that can concurrently access OLAP cube sources and the data warehouse effectively.B CONNECTING TO OLAP CUBE SOURCES B. Hyperion Essbase. 291 . or Hyperion Essbase (Essbase). The integration with SAP BW uses SAP’s OLAP Business Application Programming Interface (BAPI). and Essbase uses XML for Analysis (XMLA). Integration with Analysis Services 2000.

Intelligence Server can join data from different OLAP cube sources. page 327 Connecting to Essbase servers. page 322 Connecting to SAP BW servers. page 311 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy.0.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • • • • • • • • • Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy. page 340 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy.5 and SAP BI 7.0 With version 7. SAP has renamed SAP BW to SAP BI. and bring the data into one single MicroStrategy project. page 343 MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources MicroStrategy provides a rich set of functionality ranging from OLAP Services and Report Services to Narrowcast capabilities. Using the MicroStrategy standard interface.1 and 3. page 337 Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers. • • • Microsoft Analysis Services 2000 Microsoft Analysis Services 2005 Hyperion Essbase 7.1 292 MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources © 2007 MicroStrategy. in addition to relational databases. all of which can be exposed via a unified Web interface. page 317 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy. page 302 Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy. Inc. MicroStrategy refers to SAP BW/SAP BI OLAP cube sources as SAP BW. page 334 Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers. These additional OLAP cube sources include the following: • SAP BW 3. .

SAP BW obtains data from R/3.0. SEM. or another SAP data source system. With the Powered by Net Weaver Certification on MicroStrategy 7i -7. refer to http://msdn.3. integration allows MicroStrategy to gain additional data sources for analysis. MDX is similar to SQL but is used to query cubes. you can get the best out of both products.1 of the specification is available at www. MicroStrategy Web Universal is certified to run on SAP Web Application Server. It is important to understand that the MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources does not change the overall structure of the MicroStrategy product. In other words.xmla.com/ and search for MDX. Defined by Microsoft. Inc. An MDX expression returns a multidimensional result set (dataset) that consists of axis data. As SAP’s proprietary API for accessing SAP BW data and functionality. cell data. If you use OLAP cube sources and MicroStrategy as your combined BI solution. Version 1. MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources 293 . each of these products is simply another data warehouse that holds data for report generation. see the MicroStrategy readme.5. including the following: © 2007 MicroStrategy. Likewise. The XMLA integration provides a Web Service interface for OLAP and data mining functions. the Intelligence Server generates MDX.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B For MicroStrategy’s support status with the OLAP cube sources listed above. With the SAP BW OLAP BAPI Certification on MicroStrategy 8. and MicroStrategy Web and SDK are certified to run with SAP Enterprise Portal through iView Packages. the OLAP BAPI provides an open interface through which Intelligence Server can access the SAP BW data. To access the data. For more information on MDX syntax. This data is stored in cubes or other SAP objects. Analysis Services and Essbase store data in cubes obtained from various sources. MicroStrategy has chosen to use the OLAP BAPI approach because it is the most native interface that SAP provides. CRM. Rather. MicroStrategy Intelligence Server is certified to connect and execute reports against SAP BW cubes.org and is the basis for the MicroStrategy implementation.microsoft. and properties data.

Report Services. For information on Freeform SQL and Query Builder reporting. and Query Builder provides additional mechanisms for pulling data into the MicroStrategy platform for analysis. Freeform SQL. and Narrowcast Server functionality.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • • • • • Access to OLAP cube sources and a regular data warehouse Five styles of BI Custom development of reports and applications Transaction-level analysis Integration with other systems via Web Services For troubleshooting and diagnostics logging routines related to OLAP cube sources. refer to the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. as illustrated in the following diagram. Support for SAP BW. Once the data is retrieved. Data is pulled from multiple OLAP cube sources using MDX and operational systems using Freeform SQL or Query Builder. Analysis Services. Inc. . Understanding MicroStrategy architecture The MicroStrategy platform offers OLAP Services. Essbase. it is treated in the same 294 MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources © 2007 MicroStrategy. all of which can be accessed through MicroStrategy Web. see the Troubleshooting the System chapter of the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide.

One database instance could be referenced by multiple projects in a configuration. each pointing to a data warehouse. shown below. © 2007 MicroStrategy. you could have multiple MicroStrategy projects. To understand the current MicroStrategy architecture better. Object model in MicroStrategy 7i In the 7i metadata model.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B manner as data pulled from the relational data warehouse. Inc. Each project contained one project schema that held the logical model for that project. This means that core MicroStrategy capabilities are available no matter what the original data source is. which was represented by the database instance. MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources 295 . it is helpful to review the basic object model of MicroStrategy 7i and how various data sources were accessed then.

and a single MicroStrategy project can reference multiple database instances. note that instead of pointing to the project schema. Inc. Object model in MicroStrategy 8 The MicroStrategy 8 model shown below highlights how a project can be extended to access OLAP cube sources through a separate database instance. which is a logical placeholder for a physical cube that exists in an OLAP cube source. each of which can represent a distinct OLAP cube source.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide When a report was executed. You can create multiple reports to run against one cube. each OLAP cube report points directly to one cube in MicroStrategy. a Report Services document can contain multiple datasets. due to the structure in OLAP cube sources where queries can only be run against one cube at a time. Each report can only reference one specific cube. but the only source is the data warehouse. 296 MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources © 2007 MicroStrategy. the SQL Engine would implicitly reference the schema to determine which table(s) should be queried. . In addition. However.

refer to the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. For information on Freeform SQL and Query Builder reports. report designers can create rich reports and analytics that take advantage of data from both data warehouses and OLAP cube sources. Query Builder reports. Freeform SQL reports. described as follows: © 2007 MicroStrategy. MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources 297 . For information on Report Services documents. refer to the MicroStrategy Document Creation Guide. Inc. and OLAP cube reports in one Report Services document.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B The model also shows how you can include any number of standard reports. By bringing these different types of reports together inside a document. Authentication Most of the standard MicroStrategy platform authentication features also apply to OLAP cube sources and OLAP cube reports.

specific connection mappings may be designated for each database instance and user or group combination. NT authentication: used for database logins are not supported with OLAP cube sources. relational databases or OLAP cube sources. For a comprehensive and detailed explanation on SAP BW objects. Connection mapping: is supported the same way as for standard MicroStrategy reports. Further information is provided later in this appendix on how the SAP BW objects are related to those in the MicroStrategy environment. . Understanding the SAP BW terminology Before looking in depth into how MicroStrategy integrates with SAP BW. then the same login information must be applicable to all sources. but not to the cube sources. Inc. Warehouse pass-through authentication: is supported in the same way as for relational data providers. NT Authentication can be used to authenticate the user to the Intelligence Server.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • Standard authentication and LDAP authentication: are supported independent of the data source that is being used. • • • For information on authentication in general. To enforce OLAP cube source security in MicroStrategy. it is recommended that you use connection mapping or pass-through authentication. refer to your SAP documentation. refer to the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. If multiple sources are configured for warehouse pass-through execution. for example. page 302. you need to be familiar with the terms that are used to describe the SAP BW objects. 298 Understanding the SAP BW terminology © 2007 MicroStrategy. Some of these terms are provided in the following section. This is explained in Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy. In addition.

Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B • InfoObject: are the building blocks for individual cubes. Understanding the SAP BW terminology 299 . They include objects such as characteristics and key figures. InfoProvider: is a generic term defining all SAP BW data structures available for reporting and analysis purposes such as the following: InfoCube: is a multi-dimensional cube. A query cube includes characteristics (dimensions/attributes) and key figures (metrics) from its source provider. three InfoCubes or two ODS objects. for example. The relationship between the InfoCube and the query cube is very similar to how a MicroStrategy report includes a subset of modeled attributes and metrics that are available in the data warehouse. Query cubes also provide MicroStrategy users access to additional InfoProviders including ODS objects. ODS object: is an operational data store object. InfoSets. finance or sales. InfoCubes define a specific domain of analysis in special areas. Query cube (or query): defines a subset of data from an InfoCube or another InfoProvider. • • InfoCube: is the primary object that SAP BW uses to store data for analysis. MultiProvider: is a logical union of two or more InfoProviders that are used to combine data from two different subject areas. which is described below. The fact table at the center of an InfoCube contains the data available for analysis. Query cubes generally offer better performance than InfoCubes because they are smaller and can be scheduled and cached within SAP BW. for example. select the Allow External Access to This Query check box under the Extended tab in the SAP Query Properties dialog box in the Query Analyzer • © 2007 MicroStrategy. Any existing query can be released for analysis within MicroStrategy. Inc. To release a query for analysis in MicroStrategy. Data is organized by dimension and stored physically in a star schema. which are roughly equivalent to attributes and facts in a MicroStrategy project. ODS objects are flat relational tables and are similar to MicroStrategy fact tables. and MultiProviders.

designers can quickly access existing query cubes and business content when working in MicroStrategy. the Item characteristic might have a hierarchy that includes Category. This is a different paradigm from MicroStrategy’s model where each attribute defines its own level. and South specifications. but it is equivalent to an attribute form in MicroStrategy. Defined in the Query Designer.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide interface. numbers. variables can be of such types as characteristic values. and time. You can also create calculated key figures and restricted key figures in the query definition in the Business Explorer. date. such as revenue. Subcategory. These hierarchies are also available when you work with a cube in MicroStrategy. they are presented with the traditional attribute-based parent-child relationships. ODS objects. fiscal year. hierarchy nodes. hierarchies. and number of call centers. • Key figure: describes numeric data. Inc. When the query is executed. • • 300 Understanding the SAP BW terminology . and period. profit. such as sales region. product. Hierarchy: is a way of defining the relationships among elements within a characteristic. and master data attributes. quantities. when the levels of a hierarchy are viewed in MicroStrategy. There are five types of key figures: amount. these variables are filled with values by the system or by the user. it is treated as a separate dimension for analysis. SAP BW characteristics are similar to MicroStrategy attributes. when each characteristic is translated into a cube. hierarchies can be associated with a specific characteristic within SAP BW. all of which can be used in InfoCubes. However. For example. However. • Characteristic: provides classification possibilities for a dataset. Central. SAP BW also has an object called an attribute. and finally Item. a Sales Region characteristic can have North. For example. customer group. This is similar to creating derived metrics and conditional metrics within the MicroStrategy environment. and formulas. texts. In addition. as noted later. Variable: is used as a parameter of a query in SAP BW. © 2007 MicroStrategy. With this option enabled.

the report inherits all those prompts. see Supporting SAP BW variables. You can select and combine InfoObjects or reusable structures for an InfoProvider and specify the view of the data (query view) by distributing them to filters. and MultiProviders. refer to documentation provided by SAP BW. When working in MicroStrategy. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. In addition. Besides the above-mentioned terminology. Understanding the SAP BW terminology 301 . When the OLAP cube is used to create a MicroStrategy report. where you define queries.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B When an OLAP cube is imported into a MicroStrategy project. For step-by-step instructions on how to create MicroStrategy reports from the data in SAP BW cubes. and free characteristics. rows. you also need to have a basic understanding of the SAP Query Designer. columns. For more information on variables. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. all the variables in this cube are represented as prompts. standard prompts can also be created for this report. InfoCubes. For more information. you will find a list of available cubes for reporting. including all of the published query cubes. page 308.

The ODBO model is similar to SAP’s standard model. 302 Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. . Thus. if you are a report designer.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy As a Web or Desktop Analyst. ODBO defines an object model that is used in conjunction with MDX to query cubes. it is helpful to understand how SAP’s metadata model is translated into MicroStrategy’s metadata model. However. but not identical. when thinking about SAP objects. you can treat SAP BW reports as if they were standard MicroStrategy reports. Inc. keep in mind how those objects appear in ODBO. ODBO stands for OLE database for OLAP and is a protocol defined by Microsoft. The translation process involves the following steps: 1 From SAP BW to ODBO: SAP exposes its query cubes and InfoCubes to Intelligence Server through the ODBO model.

Inc.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B 2 From ODBO to MicroStrategy: After SAP objects are translated into the ODBO model. SAP BW ---> InfoCube ODBO ---> catalog MicroStrategy (catalog) • SAP BW: InfoCube Each InfoCube that has queries associated with it is exposed as a catalog in ODBO. Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy 303 . they are then translated into the MicroStrategy metadata model. Query cubes are accessed through their respective InfoCube catalogs. The following image demonstrates how SAP BW objects are exposed in ODBO and then how they are related to objects in the MicroStrategy environment. The following sub-sections—each starting with a table—describe each level of comparison from top to bottom as shown in the above illustration. © 2007 MicroStrategy. You can then interact with SAP content while working within the paradigm that is consistent with the rest of MicroStrategy’s products.

In the same way that a regular table maps the physical columns of a relational table to attributes and metrics. MultiProviders. 304 Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. .B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • ODBO: Catalog Catalogs are used to group cubes. SAP BW ---> N/A ODBO ---> schema MicroStrategy N/A • • SAP BW: not supported ODBO: schema Schema in ODBO provides another grouping mechanism. Inc. • MicroStrategy: (Catalog) Each catalog includes one InfoCube and associated query cubes. a MicroStrategy cube maps the physical columns of an SAP BW cube to attributes and metrics. Cubes are treated in a manner very similar to tables in the MicroStrategy metadata. Therefore. The cube can be used to represent InfoCubes. and query cubes. ODBO catalogs are exposed in a few editors when selecting and managing cubes. • MicroStrategy: not supported SAP BW ---> InfoCube/ query cube ODBO ---> cube MicroStrategy cube • • • SAP BW: InfoCube/query cube ODBO: cube MicroStrategy: cube A MicroStrategy cube is an object that is used to map the levels of an SAP BW cube into the MicroStrategy environment. Catalogs in MicroStrategy are represented in a folder. if any.

Quarter. For example. and Month. This hierarchy defines a number of levels including Year. you can build a Time hierarchy that is attached to the Month characteristic. For example. © 2007 MicroStrategy. A characteristic appears as a dimension for MicroStrategy users. However. these same levels could either be specifically defined as part of the hierarchy. which represents months just like it does in MicroStrategy. Each characteristic in SAP is modeled as a dimension in ODBO and is shared across cubes. Each characteristic (dimension) has at least one hierarchy with two levels: the first level is an aggregate of all the data. Therefore.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B SAP BW ---> characteristic ODBO ---> dimension MicroStrategy dimension • SAP BW: characteristic Characteristics in SAP BW are similar to attributes in MicroStrategy. Dimensions in SAP BW are used to group characteristics and are not exposed through the ODBO interface. an InfoCube might include the Month characteristic. or they could be other characteristics that are used to define the levels of this one hierarchy. Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy 305 . and the second level is the detailed data. The SAP BW characteristic hierarchies appear as hierarchies to MicroStrategy users. each with an arbitrary number of levels. Time and Geography are dimensions along which you can slice data. They can only be seen inside the SAP BEx Query Designer when you build a query cube. A characteristic can have any number of additional hierarchies. see the following sub-section. For more information. • ODBO: dimension A dimension in ODBO defines a logical category of analysis. For example. Inc. all dimensions in cubes coming from SAP BW are shared. Shared dimensions allow a designer to use only one definition for a dimension across multiple cubes.

measures are simply one more dimension of a cube. SAP BW ---> virtual level ODBO ---> level MicroStrategy attribute • SAP BW: virtual level Levels are generated automatically based on either the definition of the characteristic or the hierarchies associated with a characteristic. 306 Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. Measures in ODBO are called key figures in SAP BW. SAP BW levels have names such as Region Level 01. Inc. In this way.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Measures (metrics) are stored in a special measure dimension. MicroStrategy reuses the hierarchy objects to represent both dimensions and hierarchies from ODBO. SAP BW ---> hierarchy ODBO ---> hierarchy MicroStrategy hierarchy • • • SAP BW: hierarchy ODBO: hierarchy MicroStrategy: hierarchy Hierarchies are used to group attributes (levels) together and define the relationships between these attributes. . It is used to group attributes and define parent-child relationships. • MicroStrategy: dimension A dimension object in MicroStrategy is very similar to an ODBO dimension. and so on. which are very similar to metrics in MicroStrategy. architects have the option to rename the levels of a cube with a more readable convention. In MicroStrategy. and they are represented as physical columns. The inclusion of the term “Level” is an SAP BW convention. Region Level 02.

SAP BW ---> characteristic value ODBO ---> member MicroStrategy (attribute element) • • • SAP BW: characteristic value ODBO: member MicroStrategy: (attribute element) Element values come from either the database or a cube. SAP BW also supports navigational attributes. In SAP BW. the Customer attribute may have the forms First Name and Last Name. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. For example. For example. 2003 and 2004 are elements of the Year attribute. However. This concept also applies to ODBO and SAP BW. forms are sometimes referred to directly as attributes.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B • • ODBO: level MicroStrategy: attribute (ID/DESC) MicroStrategy attributes map to ODBO levels. SAP BW ---> characteristic attribute ODBO ---> property MicroStrategy attribute form • • • SAP BW: characteristic attribute ODBO: property MicroStrategy: attribute form Attribute forms provide additional information about a given attribute. Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy 307 . These attributes are presented as distinct dimensions when working in MicroStrategy. each ODBO level generates two physical columns and forms in MicroStrategy—ID and DESC.

Otherwise. and formula elements. additional standard MicroStrategy prompts can also be created for the report. hierarchy nodes. SAP BW variables of type Replacement Path cannot be imported into MicroStrategy. There are several types of variables. variables are automatically turned into prompts in the MicroStrategy OLAP cube. an error occurs when you attempt to import the SAP BW cube. 308 Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. see the Prompts section of the Creating OLAP Cube Reports chapter of the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. the report inherits the prompts included in the OLAP cube.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Supporting SAP BW variables Variables are used in SAP BW to enter values as parameters for the queries on a cube. If your SAP BW cube included variables of type Replacement Path. these variables are filled with values. 2 When a MicroStrategy report is created using a MicroStrategy OLAP cube. texts. Inc. When the query is being executed. refer to your SAP documentation. Variable types with the Customer Exit/SAP Exit and Authorization processing types are automatically resolved by the SAP BW system. hierarchies. Originally created in an SAP query cube. . The conversion process involves the following general steps: 1 When an SAP query cube is imported into a MicroStrategy project. For detailed information on variables. On top of the “inherited” variable prompts. For more information. variables are represented as prompts in the MicroStrategy environment. including characteristic values. Only variables with the Manual Entry/Default processing type are presented to users for resolution. you must remove them before importing the cube into MicroStrategy.

as shown in the following image. and Variable Ordinal. In addition. using the right-mouse click you can Edit the prompt in the Prompt Generation Wizard. Inc. in addition to cube names. Rename the prompt. and measures/key figures. Selection Type. Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy 309 . Entry Type. In the OLAP Cube Catalog. Variable Type. Default Low. Details about this variable in SAP BW are displayed on the Variable tab. © 2007 MicroStrategy. dimensions. including Variable Name. or Map the variable to a prompt in an existing MicroStrategy project.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Mapping between variables and prompts can be viewed in the OLAP Cube Catalog. Default Low Description. you can view any variable’s properties by right-clicking its name and then selecting Properties. The OLAP Cube Catalog lists all the prompts that were converted from variables.

For more information about prompts in OLAP cube reports. so it is distinguished from a simple characteristic variable on date. The following table contains information on how the different types of SAP BW variables are mapped to MicroStrategy prompts. When executing a Report Services document with multiple datasets using these cubes. while those in the Excluding section restrict the data from being displayed in the query. 310 Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. Hierarchy Node variable Hierarchy element list prompt Text variable Formula variable N/A Value prompt: all types Characteristic value variables offer an “Including/Excluding” option. see the Prompts section of the Creating OLAP Cube Reports chapter of the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. If you use any SAP BW key date variables in your query.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide One prompt can be mapped to more than one variable across cubes. the MicroStrategy interface qualifies on the key value of each element by default. This allows the same prompt answer to be used to resolve multiple variables during document execution. you can view the prompt details in the Report Details pane in the Report Editor. Both single and multiple selection are supported. Inc. . No major changes. After an OLAP cube report is executed. This is especially useful if you want to get a summary of the variable elements that are used in answering the variable prompts. To be consistent with the SAP functionality. a prompt is displayed only once. Qualifications in the Including section cause the data to be brought into the query. Not available from SAP BW. SAP Variable Type ---> Characteristic Value variable Hierarchy variable MicroStrategy Prompt Element list prompt or attribute qualification prompt N/A Notes See the note below for more information. Not supported. you need to manually set the variable’s property in the OLAP Cube Catalog.

Inc.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Set the properties for key date variables 1 Right-click the variable name and select Properties. you cannot drill down into the elements of characteristic structures. select the Set Key Date check box. and then click OK. Each element of a key figure structure is represented as a unique metric in the MicroStrategy environment. Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy 311 . it is helpful to understand how Essbase’s metadata model is translated into MicroStrategy’s metadata model. a query could also have characteristic structures. © 2007 MicroStrategy. In a MicroStrategy report. 2 On the Variable tab. The Properties [variable name] dialog box is displayed. Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy As a Web or Desktop Analyst. In addition to key figure structures. you can treat OLAP cube reports from an Essbase OLAP cube as if they were standard MicroStrategy reports. SAP BW structures Structures in an SAP BW query cube define the two axes of a query (rows and columns) and are of two types: key figure structures and characteristic structures. each of which is represented as a single flat dimension with one level. However. if you are a report designer. This representation is consistent with how characteristic variables are represented in SAP BW through the OLAP Business Application Programming Interface (BAPI).

2 From XMLA to MicroStrategy: After Essbase objects are translated into the XMLA model. You can then interact with Essbase content while working within the paradigm that is consistent with the rest of MicroStrategy’s products. The following image demonstrates how Essbase objects are exposed in XMLA and then how they are related to objects in the MicroStrategy environment. keep in mind how those objects appear in XMLA. 312 Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide The translation process involves the following steps: 1 From Essbase to XMLA: Essbase exposes its databases through the XMLA model which is derived from the ODBO model used by SAP. . The Essbase model predates XMLA so there are some differences. Inc. When thinking about Essbase objects. they are then translated into the MicroStrategy metadata model. XMLA defines an object model that is used in conjunction with MDX to query cubes.

Inc. Catalogs in MicroStrategy are represented as a folder.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B The following subsections (each starting with a table) describe each level of comparison from top to bottom as shown in the above illustration. XMLA catalogs are exposed in editors when selecting and managing cubes. Therefore. Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy 313 . if any. Databases are accessed through their respective catalogs. • MicroStrategy: (catalog) Each catalog includes one application and associated databases. Essbase ---> N/A XMLA ---> schema MicroStrategy N/A • • Essbase: not supported XMLA: schema Schema in XMLA provides another grouping mechanism. • XMLA: catalog Catalogs are used to group cubes. • MicroStrategy: not supported Essbase ---> database XMLA ---> cube MicroStrategy cube • • Essbase: database XMLA: cube © 2007 MicroStrategy. Essbase ---> Application XMLA ---> catalog MicroStrategy (catalog) • Essbase: Application Each Application is exposed as a catalog in XMLA.

These can be raw data or formulas with associated calculation or aggregation rules. Measures in ODBO are the members of the dimension of type=Accounts in Essbase. . A MicroStrategy cube maps the physical columns of an Essbase cube to attributes and metrics in the same way that a regular table maps the physical columns of a relational table to attributes and metrics. Each dimension has a single hierarchy with the number of levels determined by the greatest depth in the outline. In this way. • XMLA: dimension A dimension in XMLA defines a logical category of analysis. Each dimension has a single root node or member and is a child of the outline root node which is the database. a dimension represents the highest consolidation level in the database outline. measures are simply one more dimension of a cube. For example. Cubes are treated in a manner very similar to tables in the MicroStrategy metadata. The dimension therefore is both the highest level member in the dimension and the dimension itself. Measures (metrics) are stored in a special measure dimension. Time and Geography are dimensions along which you can slice data. • MicroStrategy: dimension 314 Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. Essbase ---> dimension XMLA ---> dimension MicroStrategy dimension • Essbase: dimension In Essbase. The cube represents an Essbase database. An Essbase dimension appears as a dimension for MicroStrategy users.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • MicroStrategy: cube A MicroStrategy cube is an object that is used to map the levels of an Essbase cube into the MicroStrategy environment.

MicroStrategy reuses the hierarchy objects to represent both dimensions and hierarchies from XMLA. • • XMLA: level MicroStrategy: attribute (ID/DESC) © 2007 MicroStrategy. As a result. Inc.Levels(0). • • XMLA: hierarchy MicroStrategy: hierarchy Hierarchies are used to group attributes (levels) together and define the relationships between these attributes. Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy 315 . Essbase levels may have default names such as Time. It is used to group attributes and define parent-child relationships. In MicroStrategy. Essbase ---> dimension XMLA ---> hierarchy MicroStrategy hierarchy • Essbase: dimension An Essbase dimension is defined as part of the database outline. the outline defines a single hierarchy. architects have the option to rename the levels of a cube with a more readable convention. The outline is a hierarchical structure of database members with a parent containing its children. Therefore the dimension is the same as the hierarchy in Essbase. Essbase ---> level XMLA ---> level MicroStrategy attribute • Essbase: level Levels group together members in an Essbase database outline.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B A dimension object in MicroStrategy is very similar to an XMLA dimension.

For example. 316 Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. However. . the Customer attribute may have the forms First Name and Last Name.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide MicroStrategy attributes map to XMLA levels.1. Essbase ---> member XMLA ---> member MicroStrategy attribute element • • • Essbase: member XMLA: member MicroStrategy: attribute element Element values come from either the database or a cube. • • XMLA: property MicroStrategy: attribute form Attribute forms provide additional information about a given attribute. each XMLA level generates the two physical columns and forms ID and DESC in MicroStrategy. Until they are returned as rows in the property schema rowset they are not available as attribute forms in MicroStrategy.3 does not return any properties in the XMLA property schema rowset. Essbase ---> N/A XMLA ---> property MicroStrategy attribute form • Essbase: N/A Essbase as of version 7. 2003 and 2004 are elements of the Year attribute. However. Inc. properties can be defined for a database as user defined attributes or attribute dimensions and used in an MDX statement. For example.

The translation process involves the following steps: 1 From Analysis Services 2000 to XMLA: Analysis Services 2000 exposes its cubes through the XMLA model which is derived from the ODBO model. 2 From XMLA to MicroStrategy: After Analysis Services 2000 objects are translated into the XMLA model. it is helpful to understand how Analysis Services 2000’s metadata model is translated into MicroStrategy’s metadata model.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy Microsoft Analysis Services 2000 (Analysis Services 2000) cubes are exposed directly for XMLA access. © 2007 MicroStrategy. If you are a report designer. Inc. XMLA defines an object model that is used in conjunction with MDX to query cubes. You can then interact with Analysis Services 2000 content while working within the paradigm that is consistent with the rest of MicroStrategy’s products. Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy 317 . they are then translated into the MicroStrategy metadata model.

• XMLA: catalog Catalogs are used to group cubes. Therefore. Cubes are accessed through their respective catalogs. The following sub-sections—each starting with a table—describe each level of comparison from top to bottom as shown in the above illustration.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide The following image demonstrates how Analysis Services 2000 objects are exposed in XMLA and then how they are related to objects in the MicroStrategy environment. . • MicroStrategy: (catalog) 318 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> database catalog MicroStrategy (catalog) • Analysis Services 2000: database Each database is exposed as a catalog in XMLA. Inc. XMLA catalogs are exposed in editors when selecting and managing cubes.

• MicroStrategy: not supported Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> cube cube MicroStrategy cube • • • Analysis Services 2000: cube XMLA: cube MicroStrategy: cube A MicroStrategy cube is an object that is used to map the levels of an Analysis Services 2000 cube into the MicroStrategy environment. Cubes are treated in a manner very similar to tables in the MicroStrategy metadata. Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> dimension dimension MicroStrategy dimension • Analysis Services 2000: dimension © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. In the same way that a regular table maps the physical columns of a relational table to attributes and metrics. Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> N/A schema MicroStrategy N/A • • Analysis Services 2000: not supported XMLA: schema Schema in XMLA provides another grouping mechanism. Catalogs in MicroStrategy are represented as a folder.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Each catalog includes one database and associated cubes. Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy 319 . if any. a MicroStrategy cube maps the physical columns of an Analysis Services 2000 cube to attributes and metrics. The cube represents an Analysis Services 2000 cube.

Time and Geography are dimensions along which you can slice data. Measures (metrics) are stored in a special measure dimension. • • XMLA: hierarchy MicroStrategy: hierarchy Hierarchies are used to group attributes (levels) together and define the relationships between these attributes. For example. • XMLA: dimension A dimension in XMLA defines a logical category of analysis. Inc. An Analysis Services 2000 dimension appears as a dimension for MicroStrategy users.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide In Analysis Services 2000. a dimension is defined from one or more tables of data. 320 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. MicroStrategy reuses the hierarchy objects to represent both dimensions and hierarchies from XMLA. . measures are simply one more dimension of a cube. It is used to group attributes and define parent-child relationships. In this way. related dimensions can be grouped together so that they represent hierarchies of the same dimension from an XMLA perspective. Each dimension can have one or more hierarchies. Measures in XMLA are the members of the Measures dimension in Analysis Services 2000. Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> dimension hierarchy MicroStrategy hierarchy • Analysis Services 2000: dimension Using a structured naming approach. These can be columns in the table or calculated members represented by formulas with associated aggregation rules. • MicroStrategy: dimension A dimension object in MicroStrategy is very similar to an XMLA dimension.

Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> member property property MicroStrategy attribute form • Analysis Services 2000: member property A member property is a descriptive piece of information associated with the element of a level. XMLA: property MicroStrategy: attribute form Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy 321 . • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. For example. each XMLA level generates two physical columns and forms in MicroStrategy—ID and DESC. Inc. However.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> level level MicroStrategy attribute • Analysis Services 2000: level Levels are mapped to columns in a table and are organized into hierarchies and dimensions. Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> member member MicroStrategy attribute element • • • Analysis Services 2000: member XMLA: member MicroStrategy: attribute element Element values come from a cube. Member properties are returned in the XMLA property schema rowset. 2003 and 2004 are elements of the Year attribute. • • XMLA: level MicroStrategy: attribute (ID/DESC) MicroStrategy attributes map to XMLA levels.

2 From XMLA to MicroStrategy: After Analysis Services 2005 objects are translated into the XMLA model. 322 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. the Customer attribute may have the forms First Name and Last Name. For example.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Attribute forms provide additional information about a given attribute. Inc. XMLA defines an object model that is used in conjunction with MDX to query cubes. You can then interact with Analysis Services 2005 content while working within the paradigm that is consistent with the rest of MicroStrategy’s products. they are then translated into the MicroStrategy metadata model. . Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy Microsoft Analysis Services 2005 (Analysis Services 2005) has a unique modeling approach for building cubes. The translation process involves the following steps: 1 From Analysis Services 2005 to XMLA: Analysis Services 2005 exposes its cubes through the XMLA model which is derived from the ODBO model. This section is limited to information on the basic cube object and how it relates to the XMLA model.

Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> database catalog MicroStrategy (catalog) • Analysis Services 2005: database Each database is exposed as a catalog in XMLA. Inc.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B The following image demonstrates how Analysis Services 2005 objects are exposed in XMLA and then how they are related to objects in the MicroStrategy environment. Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy 323 . • XMLA: catalog Catalogs are used to group cubes. The following sub-sections—each starting with a table—describe each level of comparison from top to bottom as shown in the above illustration. • MicroStrategy: (catalog) © 2007 MicroStrategy. XMLA catalogs are exposed in editors when selecting and managing cubes. Cubes are accessed through their respective catalogs. Therefore.

Cubes are treated in a manner very similar to tables in the MicroStrategy metadata.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Each catalog includes one database and associated cubes. • • XMLA: cube MicroStrategy: cube A MicroStrategy cube is an object that is used to map the levels of an Analysis Services 2005 cube into the MicroStrategy environment. The cube represents an Analysis Services 2005 cube. In the same way that a regular table maps the physical columns of a relational table to attributes and metrics. Catalogs in MicroStrategy are represented as a folder. Inc. . 324 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. a MicroStrategy cube maps the physical columns of an Analysis Services 2005 cube to attributes and metrics. Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> N/A schema MicroStrategy N/A • • Analysis Services 2005: not supported XMLA: schema Schema in XMLA provides another grouping mechanism. if any. • MicroStrategy: not supported Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> perspective cube MicroStrategy cube • Analysis Services 2005: perspective A perspective in Analysis Services 2005 is a view of the defined cube and the list of perspectives includes the original cube.

Unlike Analysis Services 2000. measures are simply one more dimension of a cube. Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy 325 . a dimension is defined from one or more data source tables. • MicroStrategy: dimension A dimension object in MicroStrategy is very similar to an XMLA dimension. Inc. Each dimension can have one or more hierarchies. These can be columns in the data source table or calculated members represented by formulas with associated aggregation rules. It is used to group attributes and define parent-child relationships. All columns in the tables are eligible to become attributes of the dimension. For example. a data source does not always map directly to the tables in a relational database. Measures (metrics) are stored in a special measure dimension. Measures in XMLA are the members of the Measures dimension in Analysis Services 2005. Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> hierarchy hierarchy MicroStrategy hierarchy © 2007 MicroStrategy. Each attribute is used to define a hierarchy within the dimension and multi-level hierarchies can be defined as well. An Analysis Services 2005 dimension appears as a dimension for MicroStrategy users.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> dimension dimension MicroStrategy dimension • Analysis Services 2005: dimension In Analysis Services 2005. In this way. Time and Geography are dimensions along which you can slice data. • XMLA: dimension A dimension in XMLA defines a logical category of analysis.

Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> level level MicroStrategy attribute • Analysis Services 2005: level Each attribute in a hierarchy becomes a level. . 326 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. each XMLA level generates two physical columns and forms in MicroStrategy—ID and DESC. • • XMLA: hierarchy MicroStrategy: hierarchy Hierarchies are used to group attributes (levels) together and define the relationships between these attributes. • • XMLA: level MicroStrategy: attribute (ID/DESC) MicroStrategy attributes map to XMLA levels. 2003 and 2004 are elements of the Year attribute. Inc. However. MicroStrategy reuses the hierarchy objects to represent both dimensions and hierarchies from XMLA. Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> member member MicroStrategy attribute element • • • Analysis Services 2005: member XMLA: member MicroStrategy: attribute element Element values come from a cube.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • Analysis Services 2005: hierarchy Analysis Services 2005 allows the definition of one or more hierarchies within a dimension as collections of attributes which become levels of the hierarchy. For example.

For more information on establishing a connection to SAP BW.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> member property property MicroStrategy attribute form • Analysis Services 2005: member property Attributes can be related as member properties when defining the levels of a dimension. see the MicroStrategy readme. Inc. and 7. For any late-breaking changes to the certification status of connecting to various SAP BW versions. For example. 3. This section discusses how to connect to SAP BW servers in the following environments: • • Connecting to SAP BW servers on Windows Connecting to SAP BW servers on UNIX and Linux © 2007 MicroStrategy. you need to establish a connection to the SAP BW system. Connecting to SAP BW servers 327 . Connecting to SAP BW servers In addition to relational databases.0. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. • • XMLA: property MicroStrategy: attribute form Attribute forms provide additional information about a given attribute.1. Before creating any reports using the SAP BW data. the Customer attribute may have the forms First Name and Last Name.5. MicroStrategy certifies connecting to SAP BW 3. MicroStrategy can also use SAP BW as a data source to conduct enterprise reporting and analysis. Member properties are returned in the XMLA property schema rowset.

select Environment Variables.” Depending on your system and SAP BW setup.1. For more information.11.com/~form/sapnet?_SHOR TKEY=01100035870000463649 MicroStrategy certifies version 2.NET C/C++ run-time libraries on Windows platforms.dll Sapjcorfc. See SAP Note 684106 for details on how to install them. Inc.sap.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Connecting to SAP BW servers on Windows Important note from SAP: “Starting with JCo 2. In 328 Connecting to SAP BW servers © 2007 MicroStrategy.4 and JCo 2.3 and also supports more recent versions. 3 Place the following SAP Java Connector files in any directory that is referenced in the Path environment variable: • • Librfc32. You can use the following URL to download the Java Connector: https://service. refer to the Tech Note TN5800-800-0559. .dll Locate the Path environment variable from your machine’s System Properties dialog (right-click on My Computer and select Properties). on the Advanced tab. Take the following steps to connect to SAP BW servers in Windows. you are required to install the new Visual Studio .0. To connect to SAP BW servers on Windows 1 Open the SAP Service Marketplace and download the SAP Java Connector.1. 2 Install the SAP Java Connector. you may have to perform some extra configuration and troubleshooting steps to connect to SAP BW servers.

jar in the Common Files MicroStrategy folder. To specify database connection parameters 9 For the database instance. The Database Instance editor opens. and then Database Instance from the File menu. 4 Place the Sapjco. To create a database instance for your SAP BW connection 5 In Desktop. locate Path. Verify that the directory is included in the value for the Path variable. Client Number from the SAP BW system. C:\Program files\Common files\MicroStrategy. select Database Instance Manager. open a project source and expand Administration from the folder list. as shown below. 7 Select New. For example. 6 From the folder list. Inc. select a database connection or create a new database connection that provides the following information as required: • • • • Application Server is the name of the SAP BW Server or IP address. 8 Create a database instance with SAP BW as the database connection type.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B the list of System Variables. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Connecting to SAP BW servers 329 . SAP Router String if you use an SAP Router. System Number from the SAP BW system.

To specify a database login 10 Create a database login with the user and password to use to connect to SAP BW.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • Language is the language code provided by your SAP administrator. For more information. EN is the language code for English. To connect to SAP BW servers on UNIX/Linux 1 Open the SAP Service Marketplace and download the SAP Java Connector.com/~form/sapnet?_SHOR TKEY=01100035870000463649 330 Connecting to SAP BW servers © 2007 MicroStrategy. refer to the MicroStrategy Tech Note TN5300-802-0734. refer to the MicroStrategy online help. Connecting to SAP BW servers on UNIX and Linux Take the following steps to connect to SAP BW servers in UNIX. You can use the following URL to download the Java Connector: https://service. Note the following: • • You can get the above information from your SAP Logon. . For more information. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. you may have to perform some extra configuration and troubleshooting steps to connect to SAP BW servers. Depending on your system and SAP BW setup. For more detailed steps on creating a database instance and related components to connect to SAP BW.sap. You can use either the Database Instances Editor or the Database Instance Wizard to create a database instance for SAP BW. For example. Inc.

Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B • MicroStrategy certifies version 2.sh file and enter the information for XXXX_SAP_LIBRARY_PATH=’’.sh file in the MicroStrategy installation directory [INSTALL_PATH]/env/SAP.o libsapjcorfc.so sapjco. For example. Connecting to SAP BW servers 331 . For example. and create a new directory for them. /opt/var/MicroStrategy/SAP.jar SUN librfccm. copy them onto your machine.jar Linux librfccm.1. Inc. then xxxx_append_path LD_LIBRARY_PATH "${XXXX_SAP_LIBRARY_PATH:?}" export LD_LIBRARY_PATH fi • © 2007 MicroStrategy.jar 4 Edit the SAP.so sapjco. This information indicates where the server needs to point to use the downloaded files. 3 Search for the files listed in the following table. You can type the command “chmod+wx SAP. AIX librfccm. For example.so sapjco. use the command gunzip [file name] or gzip [file name]. 2 Select the zip file for the platform you want to use and unzip it.sh” in the UNIX/Linux console.so libsapjcorfc.3 and also supports more recent versions. for AIX: # # set up the environment for SAP # XXXX_SAP_LIBRARY_PATH='/opt/var/MicroStr ategy/SAP' if [ -n "${XXXX_SAP_LIBRARY_PATH}" ].so libsapjcorfc. The default is Read Only. Open the SAP.sh by doing the following: • Add the Write and Execute privileges to this file.

then xxxx_append_path LIBPATH "${XXXX_SAP_LIBRARY_PATH:?}" export LIBPATH fi • Save the file. To create a database instance for your SAP BW connection 7 In Desktop (available only in Windows). select Database Instance Manager. Make sure you have Write privilege to this directory.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide For example. 6 Restart the server to get the latest updates.jar to the installation directory. . for Solaris: # # set up the environment for SAP # XXXX_SAP_LIBRARY_PATH='/opt/var/MicroStr ategy/SAP’ if [ -n "${XXXX_SAP_LIBRARY_PATH}" ]. 9 Select New. 5 Add sapjco. /install/jar. Inc. and then Database Instance from the File menu. 8 From the folder list. The Database Instance editor opens. open a project source and expand Administration from the folder list. 332 Connecting to SAP BW servers © 2007 MicroStrategy.

refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. Connecting to SAP BW servers 333 . as shown below. EN for English Note the following: • • You can get the above information from your SAP Logon. for example. © 2007 MicroStrategy. You can use either the Database Instances Editor or the Database Instance Wizard to create a database instance for SAP BW.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B 10 Create a database instance with SAP BW as the database connection type. if you use an SAP Router System Number from the SAP BW system Client Number from the SAP BW system Language: the language code provided by your SAP administrator. You can also refer to Tech Note TN5300-802-0734 for more information on setting up SAP BW with Intelligence Server Universal. select a database connection or create a new database connection that provides the following information as required: • • • • • Application Server: name of the SAP BW Server or IP address SAP Router String. For more information. To specify database connection parameters 11 For the database instance. Inc.

you need to establish a connection to the Essbase servers. refer to the MicroStrategy online help. You can perform a test of the XMLA connection to your OLAP cube servers completely separate of any MicroStrategy dependencies with the XMLA Connectivity Test Tool provided with your MicroStrategy installation. You can think of XMLA as a Web Service that supports metadata and data queries against an OLAP Cube source. This section discusses how to connect to Essbase servers in the Windows or UNIX/Linux environment. For information on how to use the XMLA Connectivity Test Tool. . A Discover request supports queries to metadata and the results are packaged in a DiscoverResponse message. The Execute request queries cube data and results are returned in an ExecuteResponse message.org.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide To specify a database login 12 Create a database login with the user and password to use to connect to SAP BW.xmla. 334 Connecting to Essbase servers © 2007 MicroStrategy. For more detailed steps on creating a database instance and related components to connect to SAP BW. MicroStrategy can also use Essbase as a data source to conduct enterprise reporting and analysis. Connecting to Essbase servers In addition to relational databases.1 specification found at www. refer to MicroStrategy Tech Note TN1100-000-0635. Before creating any reports using the Essbase data. and the configuration of the XMLA provider for each of these products. Configuring the XMLA Provider The material in this section assumes familiarity with the XMLA 1. Inc.

• • • • Creating a database instance Perform the following steps to connect to Hyperion Essbase servers.1 on the application server machine to verify that access is available to the Essbase server via the Service Console. You can verify it is working by connecting to the provider URL from your browser.1 provider is correctly deployed and security settings are configured correctly.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Make sure the XMLA 1. Inc. refer to your 3rd-party documentation. Note the following: • For the latest information on the 3rd-party connection prerequisites given below. Consult your 3rd-party documentation for further details on system requirements and the latest updates. The application server that hosts the Hyperion XMLA provider must enable anonymous access to the XMLA application. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Information for correctly installing the XMLA provider can be found in the 3rd-party documentation for Hyperion’s Enterprise Deployment Services product. The Hyperion XMLA Provider must be installed and configured on a compatible web application server. Connecting to Essbase servers 335 . For information on installation procedures.1 and Apache Tomcat. The Hyperion XMLA provider supports BEA WebLogic 6. see MicroStrategy Tech Note TN5300-802-0794. The web application server may be installed on a different machine from the Essbase server. You should receive a confirmation from the provider that includes a display of currently configured properties. Install Hyperion Enterprise Deployment Services 7.

and then Database Instance. http://fully-qualified-machinename:8080/ xmla/EssbaseXmlForAnalysis. . The Database Instance editor opens. 3 From the File menu. as shown below. connect to a project source. • DSI: The DataSourceInfo (DSI) value is of the form: 336 Connecting to Essbase servers © 2007 MicroStrategy.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide To create a database instance for Essbase 1 From the Desktop Folder List.domain. You can also use the IP address as the fully-qualified-machinename. To specify database connection parameters 5 For the database instance. For Essbase the URL is most likely case sensitive. select a database connection or create a new database connection that provides the following information as required: • URL: This is the URL of the XMLA Provider that was configured for HTTP access. 2 Expand Administration from the Folder List and select Database Instance Manager.company. select New. Inc. 4 Create a database instance with Hyperion Essbase as the database connection type. For example. The fully-qualified-machinename is usually of the form machine.com.

refer to the MicroStrategy online help. you need to establish a connection to the Analysis Services 2000 servers. A cube in XMLA is a database in Essbase.Data source=<machine name> The value is split between the DSI setting and an additional connection string parameters setting. Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers . Note the following: • Before connecting to your Analysis Services 2000 servers. You can perform a test of the XMLA connection to your OLAP cube servers completely separate of any MicroStrategy dependencies with the XMLA 337 • © 2007 MicroStrategy. Use the Essbase Administration Console to view the applications and databases available on the server. • Catalog: The Essbase Catalog value is the Essbase Application containing the database you want to work with in MicroStrategy. you should check that you meet all of the requirements listed in the tech note TN5200-802-0540. Inc. Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers In addition to relational databases. To specify a database login 6 Create a database login with the user and password to use to connect to the Web service hosting the Essbase XML Provider. This section discusses how to connect to Analysis Services 2000 servers in the Windows or UNIX/Linux environment. For more detailed steps on creating a database instance and related components to connect to Analysis Services. Before creating any reports using the Analysis Services 2000 data.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Provider=Essbase. MicroStrategy can also use Analysis Services 2000 as a data source to conduct enterprise reporting and analysis.

You can think of XMLA as a Web service that supports metadata and data queries against an OLAP Cube source. You should receive an XML response indicating that the site is available as an XMLA provider.1 specification found at www.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Connectivity Test Tool provided with your MicroStrategy installation. 2 From the folder list. The Execute request queries cube data and results are returned in an ExecuteResponse message. open a project source and expand Administration from the folder list. A Discover request supports queries to metadata and the results are packaged in a DiscoverResponse message. select Database Instance Manager. Configuring the XMLA Provider The material in this section assumes familiarity with the XMLA 1. Inc. refer to MicroStrategy Tech Note TN1100-000-0635.xmla. Creating a database instance for Analysis Services 2000 1 In Desktop. 338 Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers © 2007 MicroStrategy. Make sure the XMLA 1.1 provider is correctly deployed and security settings are configured correctly. You can verify Analysis Services 2000 is working by connecting to the provider URL from your browser. and the configuration of the XMLA provider for each of these products.org. Information for correctly installing the XMLA provider can be found in your Microsoft documentation. For information on how to use the XMLA Connectivity Test Tool. Creating a database instance Perform the following steps to connect to Microsoft Analysis Services 2000 servers. .

• DSI: With Analysis Services 2000 the DataSourceInfo (DSI) value is the configuration setting for your data source labeled as DataSourceName in the datasources. Catalog: Use Microsoft’s Analysis Manager to view the Analysis Server containing the cubes you want to work with in MicroStrategy.com.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B 3 From the File menu. the URL is not case-sensitive. Inc. select New. • © 2007 MicroStrategy. For example. You can also use the IP address as the fully-qualified-machinename.domain.company. 4 Create a database instance with Microsoft Analysis Services as the database connection type. select a database connection or create a new database connection that provides the following information as required: • URL: This is the URL of the XMLA Provider that was configured for HTTP access. The database that contains the cube becomes the catalog for XMLA. http://fully-qualified-machinename/xmla/ msxisapi. For Analysis Services XMLA running on IIS.xml file. To specify database connection parameters 5 For the database instance. as shown below. The Database Instance Editor opens.dll The fully-qualified-machinename is usually of the form machine. and then Database Instance. Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers 339 .

For more detailed steps on creating a database instance and related components to connect to Analysis Services. For information on how to use the XMLA Connectivity Test Tool. For information on setting up authentication for Intelligence Server with Analysis Services. Before creating any reports using the Analysis Services 2005 data. Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers In addition to relational databases. You can perform a test of the XMLA connection to your OLAP cube servers completely separate of any MicroStrategy dependencies with the XMLA Connectivity Test Tool provided with your MicroStrategy installation. Note the following: • Before connecting to your Analysis Services 2005 servers. refer to the MicroStrategy online help.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide To specify a database login 6 Create a database login with the user and password to use to connect to Analysis Services. This section discusses how to connect to Analysis Services 2005 servers in the Windows or UNIX/Linux environment. you need to establish a connection to the Analysis Services 2005 servers. . you should check that you meet all of the requirements listed in the tech note TN5200-802-0542. Inc. • 340 Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers © 2007 MicroStrategy. refer to MicroStrategy Tech Note TN1100-000-0635. refer to the tech note TN5300-802-0755. MicroStrategy can also use Analysis Services 2005 as a data source to conduct enterprise reporting and analysis.

and the configuration of the XMLA provider for each of these products. The Execute request queries cube data and results are returned in an ExecuteResponse message.1 specification found at www. Inc. Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers 341 . and then Database Instance. Information for correctly installing the XMLA provider can be found in your Microsoft documentation. However.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Configuring the XMLA Provider The material in this section assumes familiarity with the XMLA 1.xmla. which includes configuring security settings. select New. open a project source and expand Administration from the folder list. © 2007 MicroStrategy. XMLA is the native access method for Analysis Services 2005. Creating a database instance Perform the following steps to connect to Microsoft Analysis Services 2005 servers. The Database Instance Editor opens. select Database Instance Manager. 3 From the File menu. Creating a database instance for Analysis Services 2005 1 In Desktop. only the TCP/IP transport is configured. 2 From the folder list. Follow Microsoft documentation to make sure that the XMLA provider is correctly configured for HTTP access. by default. You can think of XMLA as a Web Service that supports metadata and data queries against an OLAP Cube source.org. A Discover request supports queries to metadata and the results are packaged in a DiscoverResponse message.

B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide 4 Create a database instance with Microsoft Analysis Services as the database connection type. Unlike Analysis Services 2000. . • DSI: For Analysis Services 2005. http://fully-qualified-machinename/xmla/ msmdpump.domain. For Analysis Services 2005 XMLA running on IIS. select a database connection or create a new database connection that provides the following information as required: • URL: This is the URL of the XMLA Provider that was configured for HTTP access. Catalog: Use Microsoft’s SQL Server Management Studio to view the Analysis Server which contains the cubes to work with in MicroStrategy. the DSI entry can be left blank. each URL will be configured to support only one data source. For example.company. The database that contains the cube becomes the catalog for XMLA. To specify database connection parameters 5 For the database instance.com.dll The fully-qualified-machinename is usually of the form machine. You can also use the IP address as the fully-qualified-machinename. 342 Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers © 2007 MicroStrategy. as shown below. • To specify a database login 6 Create a database login with the user and password to use to connect to Analysis Services. the URL is not case sensitive. Inc.

refer to the MicroStrategy online help. To learn how to create a database instance for an OLAP cube source. you can start working with the OLAP cube data in MicroStrategy. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy Once you understand the relationships among the objects in an OLAP cube source and MicroStrategy and connect to your OLAP cube source. page 327 – Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers. refer to Chapter 5. page 337 © 2007 MicroStrategy. For more information. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 343 . where you can import OLAP cubes and remap the OLAP cubes before you create any OLAP cube reports. page 349 and Creating metrics from OLAP cube data with MDX and compound metric techniques. see Mapping OLAP cubes. Configuring and Connecting to Intelligence Server of the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. The OLAP Cube Catalog is available only after an OLAP cube source database instance has been created. For more detailed steps on creating a database instance and related components to connect to Analysis Services. Inc. the OLAP Cube Catalog can be accessed from the Schema menu on Desktop. For information on setting OLAP cube schema loading options for an OLAP cube source database instance. Like the Warehouse Catalog. The best place to start is with the OLAP Cube Catalog.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B For information on setting up authentication for Intelligence Server with Analysis Services. Note the following: • Once an OLAP cube is imported. see one of the following sections: • – Connecting to SAP BW servers. refer to the tech note TN5300-802-0755. page 359. you can remap an OLAP cube to MicroStrategy objects and create metrics within an OLAP cube with the OLAP Cube Editor.

For information on setting OLAP cube schema loading options for an OLAP cube source database instance. When you open the OLAP Cube Catalog. OLAP cubes can be imported into a MicroStrategy project only by an architect with the “Import OLAP cube” privilege. all the OLAP cubes are displayed. as shown in the image below. page 334 This section discusses how you can use the OLAP Cube Catalog to bring the OLAP cube data into a MicroStrategy project and what functions you can perform once the data is brought into MicroStrategy. 344 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. page 340 – Connecting to Essbase servers. You can choose to load the schema for imported OLAP cubes when Intelligence Server starts or during OLAP cube report execution. you can expand or hide the cubes contained in this catalog. Importing OLAP cubes OLAP cube importing is performed on the Cube Selection tab. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help (search for “OLAP Cube Catalog”). Using the plus (+) or minus (-) sign next to a catalog name.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide – Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers. SAP BW is used as the OLAP cube source but the procedure is similar for Analysis Services and Essbase. under their respective catalog names in the Available Cubes pane. refer to Chapter 5. For details on how to use the OLAP Cube Catalog. Configuring and Connecting to Intelligence Server of the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. . by default.

see MicroStrategy Tech Note TN4100-802-1879. To import OLAP cubes 1 In Desktop. select OLAP Cube Catalog.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B A catalog is marked with an icon showing a folder containing a cube. 2 From the Schema menu. an InfoCube is marked with a cube icon in blue. and a query cube is marked with a cube icon in green. If you create new cubes in Analysis Services and the cubes are not being displayed in the OLAP Cube Catalog. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 345 . © 2007 MicroStrategy. For details on how to make Analysis Services cubes available for import in the OLAP Cube Catalog. Inc. you may have to modify some permissions in Analysis Services. log in to a project that is connected to an OLAP cube source.

select the OLAP cube to import. The catalog contains all the OLAP cubes associated with it. the OLAP Cube Catalog opens. you can use the OLAP Cube Catalog to map the OLAP cube data to MicroStrategy objects (see Mapping OLAP cubes. 8 Click Save to save your progress.) Once the data is mapped to MicroStrategy objects. click OK. 6 Use one of the following methods to import the OLAP cubes: • • To import the selected OLAP cubes. click the double arrows (>>).B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • If you have a single OLAP cube source database instance created for the project. • 3 Select the Cube Selection tab. You can also select All to display the OLAP cubes for all catalogs. You can edit. Once you select a valid OLAP cube source database instance. Inc. create. using this dialog box. you can build reports that access the imported OLAP cubes. a Database Instance dialog box opens. 346 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. and the OLAP Cube Catalog opens. If you have multiple OLAP cube source database instances created for the project. and select an OLAP cube source database instance to connect to. After importing OLAP cubes. Select Find from the Edit menu or click the Find icon on the toolbar to open the Find dialog box to search for a specific OLAP cube that you want to import. 7 Once imported. click the single arrow (>). page 349. 4 From the Catalog drop-down list. 5 Click the plus (+) sign to expand the catalog folder and display the OLAP cubes in the Available Cubes pane on the left. To import all OLAP cubes. . the imported OLAP cubes are displayed in the Selected Cubes pane on the right.

when a new characteristic or key figure has been added to the InfoCube in SAP BW you can use the Update Structure option to update the MicroStrategy OLAP cube to include these modifications.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B To remove an OLAP cube. For example. and select Remove [cube name]. This option is available only after a database © 2007 MicroStrategy. you choose OLAP cubes for your report from the Select Cube dialog box. you can right-click any OLAP cube in the Selected Cubes pane. you can also select the Update Structure option to synchronize with the updated definition of cube structures in the OLAP cube source. under the associated MicroStrategy project. This dialog box can also be used by an architect with the “Import OLAP cubes” privilege to import cubes by using the Retrieve cubes option. Inc. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 347 . Once the first OLAP cube for an OLAP cube source is imported into MicroStrategy. a Data Explorer for that OLAP cube source is added to the MicroStrategy project. You can find the Data Explorer in the Folder List of Desktop. Using the right-mouse click. Importing OLAP cubes during report creation When you create an OLAP cube report.

one way to access managed objects is by using the Search for Objects function from the Tools menu on Desktop. In the Search for Objects dialog box. Managed objects When an OLAP cube is imported into a project. You can click Find at the bottom of this dialog box to open the Find dialog box. A managed object is just like a normal object except that it is created by the system and is stored in a special system folder that is hidden from users. metrics. and then select the Display Managed Objects option so that managed objects are displayed in the 348 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. where you can search for a specific cube for your report by the cube’s name. columns. see the related sections above on connecting to the different OLAP cube sources. Inc. However. For details. . tables. from the Tools menu select Options. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. For detailed information. managed objects (attributes. and so on) are created to describe the OLAP cube.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide instance has been defined.

a MicroStrategy OLAP cube is created that maps to the definition of the source cube in the OLAP cube source. right-click an OLAP cube in Desktop and select Edit. the architect can then define a logical and physical model in the MicroStrategy metadata. Once the logical entities are identified. When you. A managed object can be removed once it is no longer referenced by another object in the project. When an OLAP cube is imported into MicroStrategy. instead of a single table. Inc. By default. such as attributes and facts. The removal of unused managed objects is usually performed by an administrator. To do this. as described in Importing OLAP cubes. contains all the metadata information necessary to define a logical model and physical model. they © 2007 MicroStrategy. you can rename or edit any of them by right-clicking its name. For more information on removing a database instance and its related managed objects. Intelligence Server creates new attributes. This model is referenced by the SQL Engine to generate SQL at run time. After you have imported an OLAP cube. that exist in physical tables. such as SAP BW. In the context of OLAP cube sources. referred to as managed objects. For example. metrics. much of the process centers on identifying logical entities. Although these objects. Once the managed objects are listed in the search result. see the Managing Your Applications chapter of the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. and hierarchies that reflect the data and levels of the imported OLAP cube. you can perform the same mapping tasks available in the Cube Mapping tab of the OLAP Cube Catalog by editing the OLAP cube with the OLAP Cube Editor. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 349 . need to add an OLAP cube to a project in MicroStrategy. you can simply select a cube by using the OLAP Cube Catalog or Select Cube dialog box. page 344. an architect might identify that the key for the Customer attribute exists in the table LU_CUSTOMER.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B search result. an OLAP cube. as the architect. Mapping OLAP cubes When an architect defines a project. are new and are part of the project.

If you decide to discontinue the use of OLAP cube reports. . which ensures that a consistent logical model is maintained. a new managed object named Year has no relation to the Year attribute in the Tutorial project connected to the data warehouse. For more information on managed objects in OLAP cube reports. A new schema is created for each OLAP cube source database instance used in a MicroStrategy project. 350 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. see the Reporting on External Data Sources: OLAP Cube Reports chapter of the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide are not related to the project’s schema and schema objects (see Managed objects above. Remapping OLAP cube data to existing attributes can also facilitate the use of MicroStrategy features such as security filters. Once an OLAP cube is mapped. see the Managing Your Applications chapter of the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. This allows data to be joined across sources in Report Services documents. page 356. In addition. it can be used to build reports and documents in MicroStrategy. see Why do you need to remap OLAP cubes?.) For example. you can remove the OLAP cube source database instance and all of its associated managed objects. For more information on the benefits of remapping OLAP cube data to project attributes. For steps on how to perform these schema cleanup tasks. you can remap OLAP cube data to existing attributes in a MicroStrategy project rather than new managed objects. Inc.

with the same symbols for hierarchies and attributes as in standard reports. Inc. the characteristic (dimension) is located at the very top with a green chart and box symbol. © 2007 MicroStrategy. hierarchy is below the dimension with a green stacked boxes symbol.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Using the Cube Mapping feature in the OLAP Cube Catalog shown below. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 351 . you can use the plus (+) sign next to the attribute levels to display the attribute forms. • In the Physical View column. The Logical View in the right-hand column represents the equivalent structure in MicroStrategy. and attributes are represented by a green symbol with two side-by-side rectangles. you can map attribute forms for each attribute contained in the imported cube. By default. For SAP BW. As shown in the image above: • The Physical View in the left-hand column represents the cube structure in the OLAP Cube Source. only the ID and DESC forms are automatically mapped for each attribute.

only the ID and DESC forms are displayed. In the case of OLAP cube data that is mapped to attributes. You can also use the Show Technical Names icon on the toolbar to display the SAP BW terms for each attribute and its attribute forms. For MicroStrategy attributes and metrics. refer to Supporting SAP BW variables.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide By default. An ID form must be mapped for each attribute. Map the characteristic or key figure to an existing attribute or metric in the MicroStrategy project. the Prompt Generation Wizard is displayed. page 308. This is because variables in SAP BW are represented as prompts in MicroStrategy. . Technical Name. Check the Properties of the characteristic or key figure. MicroStrategy retrieves the column data type through MDX. you can also perform the above-mentioned manipulations. This option opens the Attribute Editor to edit attributes and the Metric Editor to edit metrics. you can view the information on its Name. note that when you select Edit. This can be the case even with ID columns of data that are of a 352 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. • • • For variables. and Description in SAP BW. Rename the attribute or metric so it has a different name in the MicroStrategy project from the name of the characteristic or key figure it is mapped to in SAP BW. The Show Technical Names option applies to SAP BW OLAP cubes only. Use the Display All Columns icon on the toolbar to show additional attribute forms in the Physical View column and then map each one to an attribute form in the Logical View pane. Manually setting column data types for OLAP cube data When OLAP cube data is mapped to MicroStrategy objects. the columns are often returned as a string of characters. you can perform the following manipulations by right-clicking the name in the Logical view column: • Edit the attribute or metric. However. Inc. In the Properties dialog box. For more information.

Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B numeric type such as integer. you have OLAP cube data that is mapped to a Product attribute in MicroStrategy. You can perform this task during the initial import and mapping procedure for an OLAP cube with the OLAP Cube Catalog. You can do this same mapping for another OLAP cube and create reports including the Product attribute.1. © 2007 MicroStrategy. or as a later modification with the OLAP Cube Editor. but you know that its associated OLAP cube column is of type integer. You can access the OLAP Cube Editor by right-clicking an imported OLAP cube and selecting Edit. starting with the step to expand data in the Physical view column. By setting the Product ID attribute form to read the OLAP cube data as an integer. To manually set column data types for OLAP cube data You manually set column data types for OLAP cube data when you are mapping OLAP cube data to MicroStrategy objects. Inc. For example. you can then include the two OLAP cube reports as datasets of a Report Services document and group the two Product attributes. This allows the OLAP cube data to be correctly represented in MicroStrategy and facilitates the grouping of related attributes as the same attribute in a Report Services document. Starting in MicroStrategy 8. The following procedure uses the OLAP Cube Catalog. OLAP cube data that is mapped to MicroStrategy metrics is automatically converted to a numeric data type and thus does not need its column data type to be manually set. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 353 . The ID attribute form for Product is returned as a string. Returning data such as ID columns of attributes as strings can make it impossible to group attributes with common data as the same attribute in Report Services documents.0 you can manually select the column data type that is applied to a column of OLAP cube data mapped to an attribute. but the same steps apply for the OLAP Cube Editor.

From the Select the Database Instance drop-down list. The Cube Mapping tab opens. expand the OLAP cube data until you find the OLAP cube column data for which to manually set the data type. select the OLAP cube source database instance you want to connect to and click OK. The Column Editor — Definition dialog box opens. page 334 Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers. . page 327 Connecting to Essbase servers. Inc. the OLAP Cube Catalog: Cube Selection tab opens. 354 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 340 2 From the Schema menu. • • If the project connects to only one OLAP cube source. see one of the following sections depending on your OLAP cube source: • • • • Connecting to SAP BW servers.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide 1 Log in to a project that is connected to an OLAP cube source. If the project connects to more than one OLAP cube source the Database Instance dialog box opens. 6 In the Physical view column. 5 From the Catalog\Cube drop-down list. 3 Move all OLAP cubes you want to import from the Available Cubes pane to the Selected Cubes pane by using the > button. select OLAP Cube Catalog. 7 Right-click the OLAP cube column data and select Data Type. For information on connecting to an OLAP cube source. 4 Select the Cube Mapping tab. The OLAP cube data is displayed in the pane below. select the OLAP cube you want to map to MicroStrategy objects. page 337 Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers. 8 Clear the Use default from source check box. The OLAP Cube Catalog: Cube Selection tab opens.

specify the byte length. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 355 . and Item each branch would descend to a particular item.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B 9 From the Data type drop-down list. However. The terms balanced. • Balanced hierarchies have an equal number of levels in each branch of the hierarchy. and scale for the data type. When Category. For example. Unbalanced and ragged hierarchies include at least one branch that does not descend to the lowest level and one branch that includes a skipped level. unbalanced. and ragged are used to describe the different set of characteristics of hierarchical sets of data. and Month one branch might only have data down to the Quarter level. Quarter. select which data type to map the OLAP cube data as. if you know that the structure of a hierarchy is unbalanced or ragged you must set the hierarchy’s properties to reflect its structure. For example. 11 Click OK to save your changes and return to the OLAP Cube Catalog. in a Product hierarchy that includes Category. 10 Depending on the data type selected. Subcategory. in a Time hierarchy that includes Year. all hierarchies of an OLAP cube are treated as balanced hierarchies. • • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. Subcategory. Unbalanced hierarchies have at least one branch that does not descend to the lowest level. 12 Click Save and Close to save your changes to the OLAP cube and exit the OLAP Cube Catalog. a Product hierarchy may contain the levels Category. Subcategory. For example. and Item but Item number 22 does not have a Subcategory associated with it. Ragged hierarchies have at least one branch that includes a member whose logical parent is not the level above that member. precision. Unbalanced and ragged hierarchies By default. Inc. and Item are displayed on the report there is an empty cell for the Subcategory of Item number 22.

2 On the Hierarchies tab. This modification also allows you to perform date qualifications on the mapped MDX property data. For detailed steps on mapping and remapping objects from OLAP cube sources to MicroStrategy objects. For information on how to support these date forms and qualifications. Set a hierarchy as unbalanced or ragged 1 In the OLAP Cube Catalog. The Properties dialog box is displayed. The word “(Unbalanced)” will be displayed next to the name of the hierarchy in the Logical View column. A hierarchy in the Physical View column is represented with a green stacked boxes symbol. Why do you need to remap OLAP cubes? Although you can use the automatically generated managed object attributes. right-click the hierarchy name in the Physical View column and select Properties. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help (search for the “Mapping OLAP cubes” topic).B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide The steps below are necessary for any unbalanced or ragged hierarchy to prevent inaccurate results when applying certain types of filters. select the check box This hierarchy is unbalanced or ragged and then click OK. please refer to MicroStrategy Tech Note TN1100-000-0636. and hierarchies you may want to remap OLAP cube data to existing attributes in the MicroStrategy project for the following reasons: 356 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. Date form support for MDX properties You can support mapping MicroStrategy date forms to MDX property data of the date data type by performing a special modification of a VLDB property. . metrics.

• • • You can remap the levels of an OLAP cube. MicroStrategy security filters can be applied to attributes in OLAP cube reports. the security filter on Year is applied. For example. If a user with a security filter on Year runs the OLAP cube report that contains Year. then Year can be used to group the data within a document. metrics and hierarchies can only be remapped to other managed object metrics and hierarchies that are mapped to OLAP cube source data. © 2007 MicroStrategy. it is recommended that you do the remapping initially so that subsequent users can take advantage of the mapping. Remapping simply replaces the managed object attributes that are used to represent the OLAP cube’s structure with attributes in an existing MicroStrategy project. However. thus creating a relation between the two sets of data. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 357 . they can be remapped to project attributes that participate in the ROLAP schema. Data can be joined across sources within a Report Services document. For example. Inc. if an OLAP cube report and a standard report both use the Year attribute.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B • Report designers can integrate the logical model of the project with the data in the imported OLAP cube. This also prevents maintenance issues because reports need to be modified if an OLAP cube is remapped after the report is created. you can map an OLAP cube level to the Year attribute in your project. Administrators can search for dependents and manage access control lists (ACLs) for attributes that map both to the data warehouse and an OLAP cube source. For example. three OLAP cubes can share the same managed object metric named Revenue. but the nature of the cube is not changed. When should you remap cubes? Although you can remap the columns either when an OLAP cube is first imported or later on after you have created a project. In the case of attributes.

Example 2. and Month. Inc. Quarter. you cannot join data from these different sources in a Report Services document and you cannot support project security filters in OLAP cube reports. The difference between the two examples is that the OLAP cube has been partially remapped so that it shares the attributes Year. shown in the diagram below. The one on the left exists in a specific OLAP cube. and Month information for both your 358 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. Quarter. none of the individual attributes are shared. The drawback with this setup is that you cannot create a relation between your OLAP cube data and your project data. Although both models have a Time hierarchy. . you can map the attributes within the OLAP cube to existing project attributes. C u b e A ttr ib u te s C u s to m e r R e g io n P r o je c t A ttr ib u te s R e g io n Ye a r C u b e Ye a r Q u a r te r M onth of Ye a r C u s to m e r S ta te C u b e Q u a r te r C a ll C e n te r M onth C ube M o nth C u s to m e r C ity E m p lo ye e Da y Example 2: Partially mapped cube After an OLAP cube source has been included in MicroStrategy as an OLAP cube. The diagram below shows two logical models. and the one on the right exists in a MicroStrategy project.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Example 1: Unmapped cube You can map managed object attributes for your OLAP cubes instead of using project attributes. Since this relation is not created. also shows two logical models. you can create a Report Services document that contains Year. With this technique. This feature allows you to quickly start creating reports for your OLAP cube data.

Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 359 . In addition. Therefore. Therefore. that change applies to all the OLAP cubes that share that dimension.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B data warehouse and OLAP cube sources. Quarter. © 2007 MicroStrategy. changes to the Time dimension apply to OLAP cubes in the project that contain this dimension. For information on creating calculated expressions. Metrics created to map to your OLAP cube data are related only to their associated OLAP cube. In this case. Cu b e A ttrib u te s C usto m e r R e gio n Proje c t A ttrib u te s R e gio n Ye a r Ye a r Q ua rte r M o nt h o f Ye a r C usto m e r S ta te Q ua rte r C a ll C e nte r M o nt h M o nt h C usto m e r C ity Em plo ye e Da y The dimensions of OLAP cubes are always shared. Creating metrics from OLAP cube data with MDX and compound metric techniques When you map your OLAP cube data into MicroStrategy. and Month are applied to OLAP cube reports that include these mapped attributes. any security filters for Year. You can also use basic arithmetic expressions to create these advanced metrics from OLAP cube data. Inc. except by using calculated expressions in Report Services documents. you can take advantage of MDX (MultiDimensional eXpressions) to create advanced metrics. these metrics cannot be directly integrated with data from a separate relational data source. Metrics created with MDX combine the robust set of MDX functions and expressions with MicroStrategy analytical tools such as prompts. when a level is remapped. see the Designing Documents chapter of the MicroStrategy Report Services Document Creation Guide.

The metrics created in this way for an OLAP cube are stored in a Compound Metrics folder within the Metrics folder for the OLAP cube. page 366). see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. For tips and insights on how to build analysis with MDX in MicroStrategy. For examples of smart metrics. such as Discount * 1. The expression can be as simple as a metric multiplied by a constant value. 360 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. You can also use prompts in these compound and custom MDX metrics (see Using prompts within OLAP cube metrics. to build a Profit metric. see the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide.5. If you do not make the metric a smart metric you can only use basic operators (+. The MDX you create is passed to your OLAP cube source to be executed and to return the data. . You can reference one or more MicroStrategy metrics mapped to OLAP cube data using custom MDX just as you can with a standard arithmetic expression. Once you create metrics using these techniques you can include them in your MicroStrategy reports and report filters in the same ways that you can include any MicroStrategy metric. page 363. For general information on smart metrics. you can create your own custom MDX to return data for a metric.Total Expenses./. This technique allows you to use MDX functions and flexibility to query and report on your OLAP cube data.-. These metrics can also reference multiple MicroStrategy metrics within the OLAP cube with an expression such as Revenue .B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide You can create metrics that map to OLAP cube data using either of the following techniques: • Compound metrics: A compound metric is any MicroStrategy metric with an expression that includes a MicroStrategy metric and an arithmetic expression. see How to build analysis into metrics with custom MDX. • MDX customization: Rather than relying only on MicroStrategy to create MDX to return data from your OLAP cube source. where Discount is a metric mapped to data in the OLAP cube. where Revenue and Total Expenses are both metrics. You can use MicroStrategy analytical and aggregation functions with metrics mapped to OLAP cube data only if the metric you create is defined as a smart metric. and so on). Inc.*. To use MDX to create your calculated measures you must enclose MDX in double quotes (“”).

depending on your OLAP cube source: • • • • Connecting to SAP BW servers. page 337 Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers. page 340 2 From the Schema menu. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 361 . the steps below apply for the OLAP Cube Editor. • • If the project connects to only one OLAP cube source. These metrics can also be created as a later modification to an OLAP cube with the OLAP Cube Editor. select the OLAP cube source database instance to connect to and click OK. If the project connects to more than one OLAP cube source the Database Instance dialog box opens. After right-clicking an OLAP cube and selecting Edit to access the OLAP Cube Editor. starting with the step to access the Edit menu. page 327 Connecting to Essbase servers. page 334 Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers. select OLAP Cube Catalog. 3 Move all the OLAP cubes to import from the Available Cubes pane to the Selected Cubes pane by using the > button. © 2007 MicroStrategy. 4 Select the Cube Mapping tab. Inc. For information on connecting to an OLAP cube source. To create a metric from OLAP cube data with MDX and compound metric techniques 1 Log in to a project that is connected to an OLAP cube source. the OLAP Cube Catalog: Cube Selection tab opens. see one of the following sections.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B You can create these metrics during the initial importing and mapping procedure of your OLAP cube data with the OLAP Cube Catalog. The following procedure uses the OLAP Cube Catalog. The OLAP Cube Catalog: Cube Selection tab opens. From the Select the Database Instance drop-down list.

For an example of creating a metric that includes a prompt. see Using prompts within OLAP cube metrics. The Metric Editor opens. You can use MicroStrategy analytical and aggregation functions with metrics mapped to OLAP cube data only if the metric you create is defined as a smart metric. it does not validate the syntax of the expression. and MicroStrategy analytical and aggregation functions. The OLAP cube data is displayed in the pane below. you can simply drag and drop metrics from the OLAP cube’s Metrics folder. For example. enter a name for your metric.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide 5 From the Catalog\Cube drop-down list. 362 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. select Add New Compound Metric. 10 Click Save to save your metric. enter your custom MDX in the Definition pane of the Metric Editor. if you have Revenue and Cost metrics in your OLAP cube you can create the expression Revenue . The Save As dialog box opens. Validating MDX verifies that the entire expression is enclosed in double quotes. arithmetic operators. 9 In the Object name text field.Cost to create a Profit metric. Inc.5” You cannot validate MDX in the Metric Editor as you can for a standard expression that is not enclosed by double quotes. 8 Click Save and Close. you can enter the following: “[Measures]. For example. Make sure to enclose the entire expression in double quotes. 6 From the Edit menu. select the OLAP cube to map to MicroStrategy objects. 7 Create the expression for your metric: • If you are creating a compound metric.[Discount Amount] * 1. • If you are creating a metric using custom MDX. page 366. . while also including any required constants.

This section provides some tips and best practices on how to build analysis into metrics with custom MDX.x TN5200-81x-2344—How to write a custom metric formula in MDX to implement a transformation in MicroStrategy 8. For additional best practices and examples.[Total Sales]” is valid syntax for a metric defined with MDX.1. • • Basics Creating your own custom MDX allows you to draw further analysis from your OLAP cube source into MicroStrategy. Be aware that MicroStrategy does not validate any custom MDX created by users to build metrics for OLAP cubes. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 363 . © 2007 MicroStrategy.1. only basic principles of analysis with the use of MDX and MicroStrategy is provided. This allows you to further combine the analysis capabilities of MDX and MicroStrategy. MDX syntax and functionality is not described in depth in this section.1.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B 11 Click Save and Close to save your changes to the OLAP cube.x. “[Measures]. To use MDX to create your metrics you must enclose MDX in double quotes (“”). How to build analysis into metrics with custom MDX You can build sophisticated analysis into your OLAP cube metrics by creating your own custom MDX. refer to the following MicroStrategy Tech Notes: • • TN5200-81x-2345—How to create customized metric expressions for OLAP cube sources in MicroStrategy 8.1.x TN5200-81x-2343—How to write a custom metric formula in MDX to filter on an attribute in MicroStrategy 8. For example. Inc. TN5200-81x-2342—How to write a custom metric formula in MDX to ignore grouping on a cube dimension in MicroStrategy 8.x Creating such analysis requires appropriate knowledge of both MDX and MicroStrategy.

the function is passed to the OLAP cube source and processed as a pass-through function. Conditional metrics Using MDX. you can also utilize MDX functions to create more advanced analysis. . Report designers can include these metrics on reports to view multiple perspectives of data on the same report. A conditional metric allows you to apply a filter to only one metric on a report while not affecting the other metrics.06” Along with these simple expressions. you can use the MDX year-to-date (YTD) function to create transformation-style analysis on your OLAP cube data. [Measures]. as shown below: “sum(YTD([Quarter]. you can also display revenue for a certain category such as electronics. For example. In 364 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. you can create conditional metrics in MicroStrategy from your OLAP cube data. When you include an MDX function in your custom MDX. You can also perform basic arithmetic in your MDX.CurrentMember).[Profit])” This expression returns year-to-date values by quarter for profit data. Inc.[Total Sales] * . For example. For example.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide The expression shown above is a simple expression that returns the Total Sales data from an OLAP cube. the following expression applies a multiplier to the Total Sales data: “[Measures]. along with viewing your total revenue on a report. as shown in the report below.

2 identifies the electronics category.[Revenue]. © 2007 MicroStrategy.[2])” In the example above. In the example expression below. The values that identify data depend on how you have defined data in your OLAP cube source. Prompts are objects in MicroStrategy that provide users the ability to dynamically select what data is returned to their report to analyze. [2006])” Prompts All of the MDX examples in the sections above are static expressions. a second condition on the year is included by adding another comma and conditional expression: “([Measures].[Category]. Inc. The example below shows the basic structure of an ApplySimple statement to create metrics with custom MDX. Using the ApplySimple function. bold highlights the part of the expression (including the comma) that applies the condition to the revenue data: “([Measures].[Revenue]. you can create the same metric to return electronics revenue for only the year 2006.[Year].[Category]. meaning they will produce the same MDX every time. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 365 . you can include prompts in your MDX to provide dynamic analysis on your OLAP cube data.[2]. For example. You can include more than one condition for each metric. The report shown below uses this metric to compare total revenue with electronics revenue.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B the example expression below.

you must use the ApplySimple function to 366 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy.#0)”. For metrics created with compound metric techniques without any custom MDX. allowing users to determine the data to see on the report. ApplySimple(“([Measures]. you can simply include a prompt in the metric definition. .objectN) A simple application of this technique is to use a constant value prompt in your project as a multiplier of metric data as shown below.?valueprompt) In the example syntax above. #0 is a placeholder in the MDX expression for the value prompt.. rather than always returning the revenue data for electronics. When the metrics are included on a report and the report is run. You can also use this technique with the conditional metrics techniques described in Conditional metrics..object0. see the Using prompts within OLAP cube metrics section below. For metrics created using MDX expressions.. you can also include MicroStrategy prompts with the metrics.. Using prompts within OLAP cube metrics If you are creating new metrics in your OLAP cube. ?elementlistprompt) For more information on and a procedure for creating metrics in OLAP cubes with prompts. This adds flexibility to your queries. you can include an element list prompt on the Category attribute of the OLAP cube as shown below. For example. page 364. To provide this analysis to users. you can allow users to choose what category to view revenue for. The syntax for including a prompt as an object to replace a placeholder is ?promptname. Inc.[Total Sales] / #0)” . the prompts are displayed to the user for completion.object1.[Revenue]. ApplySimple(“([Measures].B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide ApplySimple(“MDX expression with placeholders for objects”.

?CategoryElementPrompt) This expression creates a Revenue metric. entered by the user running the report.[Revenue]. In this example it is assumed that constantprompt is the name of a value prompt in the project and Discount Amount is a metric within the OLAP cube. © 2007 MicroStrategy. The Save As dialog box opens. 3 Click Save and Close. Inc.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B include prompts in the metric definition. page 361) until the step to create an expression for the metric. The following types of prompts can be included with metrics built from custom expressions: • • • Element list prompts defined on an attribute of the associated OLAP cube Value prompts Object prompts defined on objects of the associated OLAP cube To use prompts within OLAP cube metrics 1 Follow the steps in the procedure above (To create a metric from OLAP cube data with MDX and compound metric techniques. you can enter expressions similar to the following: • ([Discount Amount] * ?constantprompt) This expression applies a special discount amount. • ApplySimple(“([Measures]. In this example it is assumed that CategoryElementPrompt is the name of an element list prompt in the project that references a Category attribute within the OLAP cube. Users can then choose to view revenue data for different categories such as Books or Music. which is conditional on an element list prompt answered by the user running the report. 2 Enter your expression in the Definition pane of the Metric Editor. For example.#0)”. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 367 . Make sure to enclose the entire expression in double quotes.

you need to also delete those reports or remove the Profit metric from the reports before you can remove the Profit metric from the OLAP cube. 6 Click Save and Close to save your changes to the OLAP cube and exit the OLAP Cube Catalog. If the Profit metric is included on any reports. Then you can remove the metric. To remove the Profit metric. a list of metrics that are dependent on the metric you are removing is returned. Removing compound metrics from OLAP cubes When you remove metrics based on multiple metrics of an OLAP cube. you create a Profit Margin metric that uses the Profit metric you just created. You then create a new compound metric named Profit within the OLAP cube by subtracting the OLAP cube’s cost data from its revenue data. This removes the dependency between the metric and the report. and its data is automatically mapped to MicroStrategy metrics. and you can then remove the metric from the OLAP cube. Inc. 368 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. enter a name for your metric. If you try to remove the Profit metric. a search for dependent objects is automatically triggered. and the Profit Margin metric is returned. When you try to remove a metric with dependent metrics. you must first remove the Profit Margin metric. You must remove all of the metrics and reports which depend on the metric you are trying to remove.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide 4 In the Object name text field. You can remove the compound metric from the report rather than deleting the report. Once this metric is created in your OLAP cube. This makes the Profit Margin metric dependent on the Profit metric. dependencies may need to be resolved before you can remove the metric. a list of reports that depend on the metric is also returned. . For example. If a compound metric of an OLAP cube has been added to any reports. you import an OLAP cube. 5 Click Save to save your metric and return to the OLAP Cube Catalog.

© 2007 MicroStrategy.C C. and logical views. 369 . LOGICAL TABLES Introduction Logical tables represent tables in the data warehouse. There are three types of logical tables in the MicroStrategy environment: logical tables. which point to physical tables in the data warehouse. with a focus on how you can use the logical view feature to take advantage of the enhanced schema support in MicroStrategy. logical views are created using the Table Editor. Inc. This chapter introduces you to the different types of logical tables. logical views are defined using SQL queries against the data warehouse. table aliases. Different from the logical tables. While logical tables are set up in a project by using the Warehouse Catalog.

logical tables and all the other schema objects are stored in the Schema Objects folder. and other schema objects can be defined. The logical view is also referenced in the SQL that is generated for the report. There are three types of logical tables: 1 Logical table: is a logical representation of a table that the Engine uses to generate SQL. A logical table is created for each physical table that is imported into a project. A table alias is created outside of the Warehouse Catalog. page 175). In the MicroStrategy Tutorial.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide Logical tables Logical tables are MicroStrategy objects that form the foundation of a schema. the logical view can be used in the same way as the Type 1 logical table. 3 Logical view: is a logical table that points to a SQL statement instead of directly to a physical table. logical tables in the MicroStrategy schema consist of attributes and facts. One physical table can have more than one table aliases. 370 Logical tables © 2007 MicroStrategy. A table alias can have a different name from the physical table. Inc. using the Warehouse Catalog. Using the Logical Table Editor. Logical views are created using the Table Editor. Table aliasing is used to create attribute roles (see Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles. These physical tables are referenced in the SQL that is generated for the report. . Once created. It does not point directly to a physical table and is defined using a SQL query against the warehouse. This type of logical table maps directly to physical tables in the data warehouse. based on which attributes. 2 Table alias: is an additional logical table that points directly to an existing physical table. the whole SQL query is displayed in the place of physical tables as for Type 1 logical tables. While physical tables in a data warehouse consist of columns. you can define your logical view using the SQL statement as well as view the content of all the logical tables and their associated warehouse tables. facts. These attributes and facts are part of the report definition that the MicroStrategy Engine refers to when a report is executed.

you need to create an attribute in the logical model for each of the roles. you can create a table alias to resolve the double usage case. For example. For more information on how to use the Warehouse Catalog. One way to do this is to create explicit table aliases. you create multiple logical tables pointing to the same physical table and define those logical tables as the lookup tables for the attributes in different roles. To create a table alias. please refer to Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles. First. such as attributes and facts. Inc. page 175. please refer to the MicroStrategy online help (search for “Step-by-step instructions to create a table alias”). instead of being imported from a data warehouse or duplicated from existing logical tables. Based on these tables. When an attribute plays more than one role. Logical views are defined using SQL queries. please refer to the MicroStrategy online help (search for “Warehouse Catalog”). For detailed information on attribute roles. if the Customer table is used to represent both Ship to Customer and Bill to Customer. Logical views are a little different from the above-mentioned logical tables and table aliases for the following reasons: • • • Logical views do not map directly to physical tables in the data warehouse.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C How should I use logical tables? The most common logical tables are the ones that are imported into the project from the data warehouse using the Warehouse Catalog. you can create MicroStrategy schema objects. Logical views are created from scratch. How should I use logical tables? 371 . which is accessed from the Schema menu. right-click the logical table name and select Create Table Alias. create a table alias by copying an existing logical table and giving it a new or different name. For step-by-step instructions. © 2007 MicroStrategy. then define the new attributes using the appropriate tables. Basically.

There are many common modeling scenarios that are easier to manage with the use of logical views. Whenever you create or add logical tables. The Update Schema option can be accessed from the Schema menu. table aliases. Inc. 372 How should I use logical tables? © 2007 MicroStrategy. such as the following: • • • • Slowly-changing dimensions Attribute form expressions from multiple tables Consolidated dimension tables Recursive hierarchies For common usage examples. page 376. they can be used in the same way as the regular logical tables (brought into the project using the Warehouse Catalog). once logical views are created. This means that you can use the logical views to build attributes and facts and that you can also create table aliases for the logical views. The biggest benefit of using logical views is that you can model a MicroStrategy schema that cannot be supported with only the physical database structures in the warehouse. please refer to Logical view examples.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide However. . you need to update the schema. or logical views to the project.

please refer to the online help (search for “Creating logical views”). One way to access the Table Editor is to select New from the File menu and choose Logical Table. while the Mapping panel is where you map for the columns returned by the SQL query. Detailed instructions on how to create them are provided in the online help (search for “Tables”). Any physical table in the project database instance can be used in the SELECT statement. The SQL statement panel is where you type in your SQL query. Inc. are created in MicroStrategy Desktop using the Table Editor. Creating logical tables 373 . As illustrated in the following image. © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C Creating logical tables Most logical tables are brought into the project by using the Warehouse Catalog. Logical views. and table aliases are created by duplicating existing logical tables. Creating a Logical View involves a few simple steps that require you to provide your own SQL statement and map the columns in the statement to the correct data types (see the following information). For detailed instructions. Object Browser lists all tables and columns that have been imported into the project. on the other hand.

the change will affect all the tables with that column. select New and then Logical Table. Alternatively. It is recommended that you use derived tables to define logical views because the logical view SQL syntax becomes nested inside SQL statements generated by the Engine. 374 Creating logical tables © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. Keep in mind that if you change the data type. This creates a new column. 4 Type in the column name under Column Object. the order of the columns does not have to match the order in which the column aliases appear in the SQL statement. The Table Editor is displayed with the Physical View tab selected by default. 2 In the SQL Statement panel. The names of the columns must match exactly the column aliases defined in the SQL statement. you can also drag and drop columns from the Object Browser to the Column Object cell. 3 Click Add to map columns returned by the SQL statement.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide To create a logical table in the Table Editor 1 From the File menu. type in your SQL statement. you map an existing column to the logical view. Although common table expressions (CTEs) are also supported for some databases. these expressions cannot be nested in the SQL because this would result in invalid SQL syntax. If you used an existing column in the mapping in Step 5. Please check your database for best usage. You can drag and drop columns from the Object Browser to insert into the statement). . 5 Select a Data Type for the column by using the drop-down list. you inherited the data type of that column. However. By doing this.

7 Save and close the logical table. When the Engine needs to use a logical table that maps directly to a physical database table. Using SQL for logical views Since SQL queries are the key to creating logical views. Derived tables are advantageous because they are nested in the SQL generated by the Engine. it inserts the name of the table into the FROM clause. Because the MicroStrategy Engine does not parse through the SQL syntax. For a logical view—which maps to a SQL statement—the Engine inserts the SQL syntax in the FROM clause. if applicable. please check your database. Therefore. in which case table objects accessed would are not logged either. In addition. you should also understand that the SQL query entered for logical views is not modified in any way by MicroStrategy. logical views are generated as either a derived table or a common table expression (CTE) depending on the type of database that you use. The Engine generates derived table syntax to represent the logical view. are not nested in the SQL because this would result in invalid SQL syntax. Inc. make sure that your RDBMS is optimized to answer the query that you create. the statistics log does not contain any information about the actual physical tables accessed. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Creating logical tables 375 . CTEs. It is recommended that you use derived tables to define logical views. In the SQL generated for a report. the logical view is logged instead. The same holds true if you use a view in the database. For best usage. although CTEs are also supported by some databases. you should be experienced with using SQL before you use the logical view feature.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C 6 Modify the Precision and Scale of the column. It is your responsibility to ensure the accuracy and validity of your SQL statements. however. select Update Schema to ensure that the new logical table is loaded into the project. 8 From the Schema menu.

you may double count if you have to join to a table where that attribute is part of the key. . Lookup_store Store_ID Store_Name Market_ID Market_Name Region_ID Region_Name Level 376 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. Logical view examples The following business cases are intended to help you understand how you can use the logical view feature in your applications. • Too many rows in the dimension table may slow down the SELECT DISTINCT query. when populating pick lists for prompts. Market. Inc. for example. The following is an example lookup table for Store. and Region. the logical view simply appears as additional syntax in the report SQL generated by MicroStrategy. in one-SQL-pass reports. often two problems arise: • The model cannot support fact tables at the level of attributes that are not keys. thus affecting element browsing requests that display a list of attribute elements. the MicroStrategy Engine joins the fact table with one lookup table and does the aggregation. This restriction applies to summary tables as well as to intermediate results that may be generated by the SQL Engine. Usually. While it is possible to model a schema with such a dimension table. If there is no distinct list of attribute elements. Business case 1: Distinct attribute lookup table Many star schemas feature a single lookup table that is shared by all the attributes in one dimension (see the following example).C Logical Tables Project Design Guide The results of logical views are not cached.

Market and Region are not the keys.Market_ID. Inc.Market_Desc. a11. SUM(a12. Usually. you can use the Logical View feature to define another logical table Lookup_Market as follows: Select Market_ID. Market_Name. Market_Sales a12 Where a11. Therefore. the following report SQL is generated: Select a11. the case is on Date columns. For example. F_Table1 Ship_Date Order_ID Fact1 © 2007 MicroStrategy. if the requested fact table is at the Market or Region level.a11.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C In this table. a direct join between the fact table and the above lookup table may result in double-counting. Market_Name. you want to define an attribute based on the Date difference between two Date columns (Ship_Date and Order_Date) in two different tables as follows.Region_ID from Lookup_Store where level=1) a11. Logical view examples 377 .Market_ID Group by a11.Market_ID.Market_Name Business case 2: Attribute form expression across multiple tables Customers often request the ability to generate an attribute form expression across multiple tables. To avoid that.Region_ID From Lookup_store Where level=1 Then use this table as the lookup table for Market. When it is joined with a Market-level fact table (Market_Sales).Sales) From (select Market_ID.Market_ID = a12.

a company may annually reorganize their sales organization or recast their product hierarchy for each retail season. dimensional hierarchies are presented as independent of time. and a new attribute can be defined on the Cycle_Time column.Order_ID=F_table2. For example.Order_ID The new logical table (logical view) looks like the following table. it may be better to model separate dimensions. Kimball has further coined different distinctions among ways to handle SCDs in a dimensional model. you can use the following SQL query to create a logical table to calculate the Date difference and then define the attribute on that new column: Select Ship_Date-Order_Date Cycle_time. Fact1. Ralph Kimball has been particularly influential in describing dimensional modeling techniques for SCDs (see The Data Warehouse Toolkit. Logical view Cycle_Time Order_ID Fact1 Fact2 Business case 3: Slowly changing dimensions Slowly changing dimensions (SCDs) are a common characteristic in many business intelligence environments. . Indeed. For example. Inc.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide F_Table2 Order_Date Order_ID Fact2 Using the Logical View feature. F_table2 Where F_table1. F_table1. SCDs are well documented in the data warehousing literature. “Slowly” typically means after several months or even years. Usually.Order_ID. a Type I SCD 378 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. for instance).Fact2 From F_table1. if dimensional relationships change more frequently.

“As-was” analysis presents a historical view of the slowly changing relationships. please refer to Lookup tables: Attribute storage. As-is vs. For example. Sales Rep Jones moved from District 37 to District 39 on 1/1/2004. © 2007 MicroStrategy. and so forth. For example. a Type II SCD preserves the history of a dimensional relationship. page 43. sales representatives switch districts in time. In the example below. Logical view examples 379 . Example 1: Compound key with Effective Date and End Date One way to physically store an SCD is to employ Effective Date and End Date columns that capture the period of time during which each element relationship existed. show me sales by District according to the way Districts were organized at the time the sales transactions occurred. as-was analysis One of the capabilities available with slowly changing dimensions is the ability to perform either “as-is” analysis or “as-was” analysis: • “As-is” analysis presents a current view of the slowly changing relationships.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C presents only the current view of a dimensional relationship. for example. • The techniques described here provide the flexibility to perform either type of analysis. For information on compound keys. The discussion below is based on an example sales organization that changes slowly in time as the territories are reorganized. Inc. and Kelly moved from District 38 to 39 on 7/1/2004. show me sales by District according to the way Districts are organized today. They also provide you an easy way to specify which type of analysis you would like to perform.

. the fact table must include a date field.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide LU_SALES_REP Sales_Rep_ID 1 2 3 4 1 3 Sales_Rep_Name Jones Smith Kelly Madison Jones Kelly District_ID 37 37 38 38 39 39 Eff_Dt 1/1/1900 1/1/1900 1/1/1900 1/1/1900 1/1/2004 7/1/2004 End_Dt 12/31/2003 12/31/2099 6/30/2004 12/31/2099 12/31/2099 12/31/2099 When using this type of dimensional lookup table. LVW_CURRENT_ORG 380 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. such as a transaction date. FACT_TABLE Sales_Rep_ID 1 2 3 1 2 3 2 3 4 Trans_Dt 9/1/2003 9/10/2003 9/15/2003 3/1/2004 3/10/2004 3/15/2004 9/5/2004 9/15/2004 9/20/2004 Sales 100 200 150 200 250 300 125 275 150 To specify the MicroStrategy schema 1 Create a logical view to represent just the current District-Sales Rep relationships.

Trans_Dt. Trans_Dt 3 Create a table alias LU_CURRENT_DISTRICT for LU_DISTRICT. sum(sales) sales from LU_SALES_REP L join FACT_TABLE F on(L. which captures the Sales Rep-District relationships that existed at the time the transactions occurred.Sales_Rep_ID = F. LVW_CURRENT_ORG.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C select Sales_Rep_ID. @Desc = sales_rep_name – Tables: LU_SALES_REP (lookup). LVW_CURRENT_ORG – Child: Sales Rep • Historical District: – @ID = district_id. Inc.Trans_Dt between L. LVW_HIST_DISTRICT_SALES select District_ID.Eff_Dt and L. FACT_TABLE • Current District: – @ID = district_id.End_Dt group by District_ID. @Desc = district_name © 2007 MicroStrategy. District_ID from LU_SALES_REP where End_Dt = '12/31/2099' 2 Create another logical view that performs the “as-was” join between the lookup table and fact table. resulting in a fact view at the District level. The resulting view is an “as-was” or historical view.Sales_Rep_ID) where F. 4 Define the following attributes: • Sales Rep: – @ID = sales_rep_id. Logical view examples 381 . @Desc = district_name – Tables: LU_CURRENT_DISTRICT (lookup).

LVW_HIST_DISTRICT_SALES 6 Define the metric as required: • Sales: SUM(sales) The result of this is a logical schema that looks like the following: LU_CURRENT_DISTRICT LU_CURRENT_ORG LU_SALES_REP FACT_TABLE Current District Sales Rep Current District Sales Rep Historical District Sales Rep Date Sales LU_TIME Date LVW_HISTORICAL_ DISTRICT_SALES Month Historical District Date Sales 382 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. LU_SALES_REP. LVW_HIST_DISTRICT_SALES – Child: Sales Rep • Date: – @ID = date_id. trans_dt – Tables: LU_TIME (lookup) . FACT_TABLE. Inc. LVW_HIST_DISTRICT_SALES • Month: – @ID = MONTH_ID – Tables: LU_TIME (lookup) 5 Define the Sales fact: • • Expression: sales Tables: FACT_TABLE.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide – Tables: LU_DISTRICT (lookup). .

sum(sales) sales from LU_SALES_REP L join FACT_TABLE F on (L.District_ID =a13.EFF_DT and L. max(a13.District_ID District_ID.District_ID) group by a11. a12. Month.Distrcit_ID.SALES) WJXBFS1 From (select District_ID. Trans_dt) a11 join LU_TIME a12 on (a11. Sales Resulting SQL Select a11.Trans_dt = a12. Sales Resulting SQL Logical view examples 383 .Sales_rep_ID) where F. Trans_dt.Month_ID Month_ID.Date_ID) join LU_DISTRICT a13 on (a11. sum(a11. a12.District_Name) District_Name.END_DT group by District_ID.trans_dt between L. Month.Sales_rep_ID = F. Inc. Report definition: Current District.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C As-was analysis Specify the “as-was” analysis by using the Historical District attribute on reports: • • Report definition: Historical District.Month_ID • Report results As-is analysis Specify the “as-is” analysis by using the Current District attribute on reports: • • © 2007 MicroStrategy.

District_ID = a14.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide select a12. LU_SALES_REP Sales_Rep_CD 1 2 3 Sales_Rep_ID 1 2 3 Sales_Rep_Name Jones Smith Kelly District_ID 37 37 38 Current_Flag 0 1 0 384 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy.Trans_dt = a13.Month_ID Month_ID. District_ID from LU_SALES_REP where END_DT = '12/31/2099')a12 on (a11.District_ID District_ID.Date_ID) join LU_DISTRICT a14 on (a12.Month_ID • Report result Example 2: New surrogate key for each changing element A more flexible way to physically store a SCD is to employ surrogate keys and introduce new rows in the dimension table whenever a dimensional relationship changes. An example set of records is shown below. .Sales_Rep_ID = a12.District_ID.District_Name) District_Name.District_ID) group by a12. Inc. max (a14.Sales_Rep_ID) join LU_TIME a13 on (a11. a13.SALES) WJXBFS1 from FACT_TABLE a11 join (select Sales_rep_ID. sum(a11. Another common characteristic is to include an indicator field that identifies the current relationship records. a13.

Project Design Guide Logical Tables C Sales_Rep_CD 4 5 6 Sales_Rep_ID 4 1 3 Sales_Rep_Name Madison Jones Kelly District_ID 38 39 39 Current_Flag 1 1 1 When using this type of dimensional lookup table. A transaction date field may or may not exist. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. FACT_TABLE Sale-Rep_CD 1 2 3 5 2 3 2 6 4 Sale 100 200 150 200 250 300 125 275 150 Specifying the MicroStrategy schema 1 Create a logical view to represent just the current District-Sales Rep relationship. the fact table must also include the surrogate key. Logical view examples 385 . LVW_CURRENT_ORG select Sales_rep_ID. District_ID from LU_SALES_REP where Current_flag = 1 2 Create a table alias LU_CURRENT_DISTRICT for LU_DISTRICT.

Inc. LVW_CURRENT_ORG – Child: Sales Rep • Historical District: – @ID = district_id. @Desc = district_name – Tables: LU_CURRENT_DISTRICT (lookup). LU_SALES_REP – Child: Sales Rep • Date: – @ID = date_id. @Desc = sales_rep_name – Tables: LU_SALES_REP (lookup). @Desc = district_name – Tables: LU_DISTRICT (lookup). LVW_CURRENT_ORG – Child: Sales Rep Surrogate • Current District: – @ID = district_id. trans_dt – Tables: LU_TIME (lookup). FACT_TABLE • Month: – @ID = MONTH_ID – Tables: LU_TIME (lookup) – Child: Date 4 Define the Sales fact: • Expression: sales 386 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. .C Logical Tables Project Design Guide 3 Define the following attributes: • Sales Rep Surrogate: – @ID = sales_rep_cd – Tables: LU_SALES_REP (lookup). FACT_TABLE • Sales Rep: – @ID = sales_rep_id.

sum(a11. Sales Resulting SQL select a12.SALES) WJXBFS1 from FACT_TABLE a11 join LU_SALES_REP a12 on (a11.District_ID District_ID. Inc.Month_ID Month_ID. LVW_HIST_DISTRICT_SALES 5 Define the metric as required: • Sales: SUM(sales) The result is a logical schema as follows: LU_CURRENT_DISTRICT LU_CURRENT_ORG LU_SALES_REP FACT_TABLE LU_TIME Current District Sales Rep Current District Sales Rep Surrogate Sale rep Historical District Sales Rep Surrogate Date Sales Date Month LVW_HISTORICAL_ DISTRICT_SALES Historical District As-was analysis Specify the “as-was” analysis by using the Historical District attribute on reports: • • Report definition: Historical District. a13. Logical view examples 387 .Distrcit_Name) Distrcit_Name.Date_ID) join LU_DISTRICT a14 on (a12.Trans_dt = a13.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C • Tables: FACT_TABLE.Sales_Rep_CD) join LU_TIME a13 on (a11.Sales_Rep_CD = a12. Month.District_ID = © 2007 MicroStrategy. max(a14.

District_ID from LU_SALES_REP where current_flag = 1) a13 on (a12.Month_ID 388 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. max(a15.Trans_dt = a14.District_ID. sum(a11.SALES) WJXBFS1 from FACT_TABLE a11 join LU_SALES_REP a12 on (a11.District_ID = a15.Distrcit_Name) District_Name.District_ID) group by a12. a14.Sales_Rep_ID = a13. a13. Inc.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide a14.District_ID) group by a13. Sales Resulting SQL: select a13. Month.Sales_Rep_CD = a12.District_ID District_ID. a14. .Month_ID • Report results As-is analysis Specify the “as-is” analysis by using the Current District attribute on reports: • • Report definition: Current District.Month_ID Month_ID.Date_ID) join LU_DISTRICT a15 on (a13.Sales_Rep_CD) join (select Sales_rep_ID.Sales_Rep_ID) join LU_TIME a14 on (a11.District_ID.

lu_day B Where A. Select day_date day_date.day_date ytd_date From lu_day A. such as Last Month. Logical view examples 389 . can be defined in terms of an expression. lu_day B Where A.day_date) The same technique can be used to define a year-t0-date transformation.day_date And MONTH(A. then you can use the logical view approach to address this issue as long as you already have a lookup table for the Day attribute.day_date day_date.day_date >= B. Select A. Inc. one-to-many transformations require tables in the database that map each date to all the previous dates that make up “month-to-date”.day_date) = YEAR(B.day_date)= MONTH(B.day_date And YEAR(A.day_date >= B. The SQL below can be used to define a logical MTD_DATE table. B. The MTD transformation can then be defined using the MTD_DATE column.day_date mtd_date From lu_day A. such as month-to-date and year-to-date calculations. you need to define transformations.day_date) © 2007 MicroStrategy. Although one-to-one transformations. which contains the Day attribute. B.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C • Report result Business case 4: One-to-many transformation tables In order to support time-series analysis. If you do not already have such a table in the warehouse and your circumstances do not allow you to add additional tables to the database.

George . John Larkins. One of the reports you probably would like to create may look like the following: Employee Gonzalez. .C Logical Tables Project Design Guide Business case 5: Outer joins between attribute lookup tables A common request is the ability to generate an outer join between attribute lookup tables for a report that contains only attributes (that is.. which means not all employees have contacts on record. Inc. EMPLOYEE EMP_ID FIRST_NAME LAST_NAME HIRE_DATE DEPT_ID EMERGENCY CONTACT EMP_ID CONTACT_FIRST_NAME CONTACT_LAST_NAME CONTACT_PHONE_NUMBER DEPARTMENT DEPT_ID DEPT_NAME BUS_UNIT_ID Given this structure. no metrics). Jane Taylor..... 555-1212 555-3456 555-9876 .. the relationship between Employees and Emergency Contacts is such that each employee may have up to one contact. Martha . Department Marketing Finance R&D Finance ... consider the tables below. Dawson. Abraham Walker. Mary Walker. 390 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. For example. you could model an attribute hierarchy as follows: • • • Business Unit -< Department -< Employee Hire Date -< Employee Emergency Contact -< Employee In addition. Emergency Contact Phone Number NULLS are displayed for employees who do not have emergency contacts. James Dawson.

@[Last Name] = LAST_NAME Tables: EMPLOYEE (lookup). EMPLOYEE Child: Employee • Hire Date: @ID = HIRE_DATE Tables: EMPLOYEE (lookup) Child: Employee • Emergency Contact: @ID = CONTACT_PHONE_NUMBER. EMERGENCY_CONTACT • Department: @ID = DEPT_ID Tables: DEPARTMENT (lookup). you would not get the desired output: • Employee: @ID = EMP_ID. @[First Name] = FIRST_NAME. @[Last Name] = CONTACT_LAST_NAME Tables: EMERGENCY_CONTACT (lookup) Child: Employee Using the above model. In order to see all employees. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C However. you can perform an outer join using a logical view. if you model the attributes as described below. described as follows. Logical view examples 391 . @[First Name] = CONTACT_FIRST_NAME. and only those employees who have emergency contacts would appear in the final result. the SQL generated would join the EMPLOYEE table to the EMERGENCY_CONTACT table.

you can use the following SQL and the list of columns to map to the view: select E. . E.EMP_ID. @[Last Name] = LAST_NAME Tables: EMPLOYEE (lookup).HIRE_DATE.EMP_ID) LVW_EMERGENCY_CONTACT EMP_ID FIRST_NAME LAST_NAME HIRE_DATE DEPT_ID CONTACT_FIRST_NAME CONTACT_LAST_NAME CONTACT_PHONE_NUMBER Make sure to include all columns from the original child table (for example. C.CONTACT_LAST_NAME.CONTACT_FIRST_NAME. E. C. E. Inc. LVW_EMERGENCY_CONTACT 392 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. C. The new logical table LVW_EMERGENCY_CONTACT can then be used to define attributes as follows: • Employee: @ID = EMP_ID.LAST_NAME.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide Using a logical view for an outer join To perform an outer join for the case described above. EMPLOYEE).CONTACT_PHONE_NUMBER from EMPLOYEE E left outer join EMERGENCY_CONTACT C on (E.EMP_ID = C. @[First Name] = FIRST_NAME.DEPT_ID.FIRST_NAME. E.

the EMERGENCY_CONTACT table will be joined only when necessary. LVW_EMERGENCY_CONTACT Child: Employee The Employee attribute is not represented in the original EMERGENCY_CONTACT table and all attributes represented in the EMPLOYEE table are also represented in the LVW_EMERGENCY_CONTACT table. LVW_EMERGENCY_CONTACT Child: Employee • Emergency Contact: @ID = CONTACT_PHONE_NUMBER. the EMPLOYEE table will be outer joined to the EMERGENCY_CONTACT table. LVW_EMERGENCY_CONTACT Child: Employee • Hire Date: @ID = HIRE_DATE Tables: EMPLOYEE (lookup). Logical view examples 393 . © 2007 MicroStrategy. The technique does not work when the lookup tables should sometimes be outer joined and sometimes be inner joined. Now if we run a report with Employee and Emergency Contact attributes. @[First Name] = CONTACT_FIRST_NAME. Inc. Also note that if we run a report that includes only the Employee attribute.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C • Department: @ID = DEPT_ID Tables: DEPARTMENT (lookup). This technique is applicable any time that the lookup tables should always be outer joined. and NULLs will be returned for any employees who do not have emergency contacts. @[Last Name] = CONTACT_LAST_NAME Tables: EMERGENCY_CONTACT (lookup). it will be executed against the EMPLOYEE table. EMPLOYEE.

. Inc.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide 394 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy.

Inc. Mapping of external data types to MicroStrategy data types 395 . © 2007 MicroStrategy. MicroStrategy must be aware of the data types that exist in your database.D D. MicroStrategy generalizes them into a set of MicroStrategy-specific data types. DATA TYPES Introduction To generate SQL or retrieve data from data sources. Each column from your database becomes associated with a MicroStrategy data type. MicroStrategy automatically maps the columns within those tables to MicroStrategy-specific data types. Mapping of external data types to MicroStrategy data types When you create a project and add tables from your data warehouse to the MicroStrategy Warehouse Catalog. As each RDBMS supports a different set of data types.

” MicroStrategy maps this column to a MicroStrategy-specific data type. MicroStrategy must map every column brought into the project schema to an internal data type. It is strongly recommended that you do not alter the mapping file (DTMAPPING.D Data Types Project Design Guide This external-to-internal mapping is necessary. for example. and data mart tables. The data type is also used whenever multi-pass SQL is used. a column within that table has a data type of “SMALLINT. because each database names data types in different ways. 396 Mapping of external data types to MicroStrategy data types © 2007 MicroStrategy. Therefore. Data types that may be conceptually the same can have different names. In your relational database.pds) in any way. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. Inc. For information about how your relational database’s data types are mapped to MicroStrategy data types and the specific mappings that pertain to your RDBMS. refer to MicroStrategy Technical Note TN5200-7X0-0166. . and generating the correct syntax for literals.” This allows MicroStrategy to maintain a consistent SQL generation process. Suppose you add a table to the Warehouse Catalog. in part. as with custom groups. For more information about data marts and custom groups. The MicroStrategy data type stores data values internally and in the metadata repository and is later used during SQL generation when defining intermediate tables. “INTEGER.

Similar to ANSI NUMERIC. Similar to ANSI DECIMAL. LongVarChar Large strings of characters. Timestamp Combinations of calendar date and time of day. Similar to ANSI DOUBLE PRECISION. Similar to ANSI BLOB. Similar to ANSI DATE.Project Design Guide Data Types D MicroStrategy data types When the data warehouse catalog is read from the Warehouse Catalog. Similar to ANSI CHAR. Double 8-byte floating point numbers. Date Calendar dates. Integer Signed integer values. Real 4-byte floating point numbers. Numeric Fixed point numbers up to 15 digits of precision. Similar to ANSI CLOB. MicroStrategy data types 397 . Data Type Big Decimal Binary Description High-precision fixed point numbers. Similar to ANSI TIME. Float 4-byte floating point numbers. Similar to ANSI TIMESTAMP. LongVarBin Large strings of bits. Inc. © 2007 MicroStrategy. all columns in the database are automatically mapped to one of the following MicroStrategy data types. Similar to ANSI INTEGER. Decimal Fixed point numbers up to 15 digits of precision. Unsigned Unsigned integer values. Char Fixed-length character strings. Similar to ANSI REAL. Time Time of day. Similar to ANSI FLOAT. Fixed-length bit strings. Similar to ANSI BIT.

Information is stored and displayed both as date and time in the format specific to the data. which represents high-precision fixed point numbers. You specify the format type of an attribute form in the Form Format: Type drop-down menu in the Attribute Editor. Information is stored and displayed as an HTML tag. .D Data Types Project Design Guide Data Type Varbin Description Variable-length bit strings. Information is stored and displayed in the form of an e-mail address. Inc. It represents dates in the MM/DD/YYYY format. Format Type Big Decimal Description Information is stored and displayed in the Big Decimal form. Format types Attribute forms are also associated with a MicroStrategy format type. Similar to ANSI VARCHAR. see Big Decimal. The date follows the MM/DD/YYYY format and time follows the HH:MM:SS format. Information is stored and displayed as dates in a sequential form to perform calculations on the dates. Varchar Variable-length character strings. Information is stored and displayed in a number format. The attribute form format types are described in the following table. Date Datetime Email HTML Tag Number 398 Format types © 2007 MicroStrategy. For more information about Big Decimal. it implies that the data type in the database has not mapped to one of the MicroStrategy data types. If the Warehouse Catalog displays a column with data type as Unknown. Similar to ANSI BIT VARYING. which specifies how attribute form values should be displayed on MicroStrategy interfaces. page 400.

This displays only the time and not the date. When you return to the Definition pane in the Attribute Editor. Inc. you notice that the Year attribute is assigned an “Integer” data type. This format type must be compatible with the data type you assigned in the Column Alias tab. However. Information is stored and displayed as time in the HH:MM:SS format. You are warned in the Attribute Editor whenever you have selected a format type that is incompatible with the data type of your column. you must select an appropriate format type from the Form Format: Type drop-down menu. or GIF. Data type and format type compatibility 399 . © 2007 MicroStrategy. you edit the ID form of the Year attribute in the Attribute Editor.Project Design Guide Data Types D Format Type Picture Text Time Description stored and displayed the form of an image file. a warning message appears notifying you of the incompatibility. Information is stored and displayed as either an absolute or a relative Universal Resource Locator. you create a new column alias and assign it the “Date” data type. for example—you must also change the format type of the attribute. Although you have the option to continue by clicking Yes. JPG. doing so can still result in SQL generation issues. The data type of your column must be consistent with the format type you select because SQL generation issues can occur if the format type and data type are incompatible. URL Data type and format type compatibility If you change the MicroStrategy data type of one of the columns in your project—using a column alias. Information is stored and displayed in a text format. If you select a format type that is incompatible with the data type and click OK to exit the Attribute Editor. such as bitmap. In the Column Alias tab. For example.

such as BIGINT and 400 Big Decimal © 2007 MicroStrategy.D Data Types Project Design Guide The following chart is intended to guide you in assigning format types that are compatible with the data type you have assigned to a column. HTML Tag Date. some of the data type-format type combinations below may not work with your specific data. HTML Tag. Datetime Number Number Number Number Picture. Text Text. URL. Different format types are compatible with different data types given the specific data in your column. Data Type Big Decimal Binary Char Date Decimal Double Float Integer LongVarBin LongVarChar Numeric Real Time Timestamp Unsigned Varbin Varchar Compatible Format Types Big Decimal Number. Date or Time depending on data Number Picture. Datetime Datetime. E-mail. Inc. Therefore. Picture Text. URL. Picture Big Decimal Big Decimal is a MicroStrategy-specific data type that allows users to support high-precision attribute ID values that have more than 15 digits of precision. E-mail. Text depending on data Picture. Text. . Text Number Number Time.

and page-by. follow the rules listed below: • Constant: You can force a constant to be stored as a Big Decimal value by enclosing it in hash marks. For more information about these operations. MicroStrategy preserves the precision of attribute ID values and attribute ID forms when displaying IDs and performing operations such as filtering. Attribute ID: Follow the steps in the topic Defining attributes with high-precision ID forms in the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. If you do not associate high-precision database fields with the Big Decimal data type. Using the Big Decimal data type With the Big Decimal data type. Examples of such attribute ID values are account numbers. The WHERE clause in the report SQL statement in drill reports may truncate numbers starting from the 16th digit. You can define attributes that are identified by numeric columns in the database. These numeric columns can have more than 15 digits of precision. You must use the Big Decimal data type to handle these values. such as account numbers and other long integers.Project Design Guide Data Types D DECIMAL (precision. because these data values have higher precision and cannot be stored in normal numeric data types. you must also select Big Decimal as the form format type in the Form format: Type drop-down menu in the Definition tab. For example. credit card numbers. drilling. scale) data types. • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. even though 12345678 does not necessarily require the Big Decimal data type. and long integers. you can define a filter as "Customer@ID exactly #12345678#". Big Decimal 401 . see the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. Inc. you may see numbers truncated starting with the 16th digit. and page-by may not return results. Attribute form: If you change the column data type to Big Decimal on the Column Alias tab in the Attribute Editor. When using the Big Decimal data type.

Inc. This is because Big Decimal should only be used when the column is used as an attribute ID form. #1234567890123456#. s) or NUMERIC(p. When qualifying on a Big Decimal metric. the metric is used in a calculated field in a document.D Data Types Project Design Guide • Metric: Although it is possible to define Big Decimal as the data type for metric values. consider the following drawbacks: Precision is lost when any Analytical Engine calculation is performed. Note that the Warehouse Catalog does not automatically map DECIMAL(p. Some number formatting strings are not supported in MicroStrategy Desktop. you must explicitly identify high-precision constants by enclosing the value within hash (#) symbols. Number formatting strings are not supported on the Web. or metric values are displayed in Graph view. 402 Big Decimal © 2007 MicroStrategy. s) columns to the Big Decimal MicroStrategy data type even when the precision is greater than 15. the metric is subtotaled. For example. .

metrics. custom groups. Examples include SUM. Compare database-level partition. Inc. MicroStrategy supports two methods of application-level partitioning: metadata partition mapping and warehouse partition mapping. aggregate function 403 . See pre-aggregation. MIN. Reports and documents can also be created and manipulated in MicroStrategy Web. and prompts are derived from schema objects. application object An object used to provide analysis of and insight into relevant data. The definition of application objects such as reports.GLOSSARY aggregate function A numeric function that acts on a column of data and produces a single result. application-level In application-level partitioning. All of these objects can be built and manipulated in MicroStrategy Desktop. COUNT. MAX. documents. © 2007 MicroStrategy. filters. aggregate table A fact table that stores data that has been aggregated along one or more dimensions. and AVG. templates. the application rather than partition the database server manages the partition tables.

See also: • • • • • • attribute element attribute form child attribute constant attribute derived attribute parent attribute attribute element A unique set of information for an attribute. Order. . Attributes include data classifications like Region. January. Last Name. attribute form A mapping to the columns in the warehouse that are used to expression represent a specific attribute form in SQL. Billing City and Shipping City are two attributes that have the same table and columns defined as a lookup table. and March are elements of the attribute Month. February. Age. City. defined by the attribute forms. attribute relationship See relationship. They provide a means for aggregating and filtering at a given level. Inc. and Abbreviation could be forms of the attribute Customer. attribute form One of several columns associated with an attribute that are different aspects of the same thing.Glossary Project Design Guide attribute A data level defined by the system architect and associated with one or more columns in a data warehouse lookup table. Name. For example. attribute role A database column that is used to define more than one attribute. and Year. ID. Every attribute supports its own collection of forms. Customer. Long Description. New York and Dallas are elements of the attribute City. Item. 404 attribute © 2007 MicroStrategy. For example.

browse attribute An attribute a user can directly browse to from a given attribute in a user hierarchy.Project Design Guide Glossary axis A vector along which data is displayed. business intelligence A system that facilitates the analysis of volumes of complex (BI) system data by providing the ability to view data from multiple perspectives. consolidations. © 2007 MicroStrategy. the job is submitted to the database for processing. dimensions. In the MicroStrategy environment. Column. axis 405 . This is normally done for frequently requested reports. When a user defines a template for a report. cache A special data store holding recently accessed information for quick future access. whose execution is faster because they need not run against the database. There are three axes—Row. cardinality The number of unique elements for an attribute. and custom groups—along each axis. and Page. However. when a user runs a report for the first time. the results can be returned immediately without having to wait for the database to process the job the next time the report is run. Results from the data warehouse are stored separately and can be used by new job requests that require the same data. if the results of that report are cached. Inc. See also: • • column row base fact column A fact column represented by a single column in a fact table. metrics. he places template units—attributes.

The larger the compression ratio between two attributes.Glossary Project Design Guide child attribute The lower-level attribute in an attribute relationship. See also: • • parent attribute relationship column 1) A one-dimensional vertical array of values in a table. compression ratio The average number of child records combined to calculate one parent record. the more you stand to gain by creating an aggregate table that pre-calculates the higher-level data. . compound key In a relational database. 2) The set of fields of a given name and data type in all the rows of a given table. 3) MicroStrategy object in the schema layer that can represent one or more physical table columns or no columns. Column aliases also include the data type to be used for the fact and allow you to modify the names of existing metrics for use in data mart reports without affecting the original metric. Inc. This is used to determine where aggregate tables would have the greatest impact. 406 child attribute © 2007 MicroStrategy. compound attribute An attribute that has more than one key (ID) form. a primary key consisting of more than one database column. See also: • • axis row column alias In a fact definition. the compression of ratio between monthly data and yearly data is 12:1. For example. the specific name of the column to be used in temporary tables and SQL statements.

and OLAP cube sources such as SAP BW. configuration object A MicroStrategy object appearing in the system layer and usable across multiple projects. database instances. typically very large. and analysis. Used for decision support or business intelligence. constant attribute See implicit attribute. and analysis. Users can navigate through hierarchies of attributes that are defined by the administrator to find the data they need. reporting. © 2007 MicroStrategy. 2) A copy of transaction data specifically structured for query. conditionality 407 . which refers more specifically to using a database as your data source. Inc. See also data source. or storage location which stores data that is to be used in MicroStrategy for query. system. Data Explorer A portion of the interface used to browse through data contained in the warehouse. and Hyperion Essbase. data source A data source is any file. Excel files. database login IDs. Microsoft Analysis Services 2000 and 2005. it organizes data and allows coordinated updates and loads. containing the historical data of an enterprise.Project Design Guide Glossary conditionality Conditionality of a metric enables you to associate an existing filter object with the metric so that only data that meets the filter conditions is included in the calculation. reporting. See also: • • data warehouse OLAP cube source data warehouse 1) A database. Configuration objects include these object types: users. schedules. Other data sources include text files. A data warehouse can be thought of as one type of data source.

Glossary Project Design Guide database instance 1. Login ID and password. Compare allocation. description column Optional columns that contain text descriptions of attribute elements. Database server software running on a particular machine. For example. lower attribute level. on report data after it has been returned from the database. Use a derived metric to perform column math. derived fact column A fact column created through a mathematical combination of other existing fact columns. A database instance specifies warehouse connection information. 2. Age might be calculated from this expression: Current Date–Birth Date Compare implicit attribute. derived attribute An attribute calculated from a mathematical operation on columns in a warehouse table. such as the data warehouse DSN. It is calculated by Intelligence Server. 408 database instance © 2007 MicroStrategy. derived metric A metric based on data already available in a report. . Although it is technically possible to have more than one instance running on a machine. there is usually only one instance per machine. A MicroStrategy object created in MicroStrategy Desktop that represents a connection to the warehouse. degradation A type of fact extension in which values at one level of aggregation are reported at a second. and other data warehouse specific information. that is. calculations on other metrics. Inc. not in the database.

For example. viewing the list of months in a year. geographical realignment. entry point In a user hierarchy. a shortcut to an attribute in the Data Explorer which is helpful in allowing users to more easily access frequently-used attributes in the Data Explorer.Project Design Guide Glossary drill A method of obtaining supplementary information after a report has been executed. These changes often occur because of organizational restructuring. entry level The lowest level set of attributes at which a fact is available for analysis. element browsing Navigating through hierarchies of attribute elements. reclassification. For example. Inc. See also: • • • • • page-by pivot sort subtotal surf dynamic relationship When the relationship between elements of parent and child attributes changes. or discontinuation of items or services. © 2007 MicroStrategy. or the addition. a store may decide to reclassify the department to which items belong. which lets you easily recognize tables and columns and the data stored in those columns. drill 409 . entity relationship A diagram that provides a graphical representation of the diagram (ERD) physical structure of the data in the source system. The new data is retrieved by re-querying the Intelligent Cube or database at a different attribute or fact level.

or sales in dollars. Multiple qualifications in a single filter are combined using logical operators. A filter is normally implemented in the SQL WHERE clause. A filter is composed of at least one qualification. fact expression A mapping of facts to physical columns in the warehouse. Facts can have multiple fact expressions. which is the actual condition that must be met for the data to be included on a report. and loading (ETL) © 2007 MicroStrategy. and disparate existing database systems. loading (ETL) 2) Third-party software used to facilitate such a process. Examples include "Region = Northeast" or "Revenue > $1 million". 410 extraction. since a report queries the database against all the data stored in the data warehouse. transformation. filter A MicroStrategy object that specifies the conditions that the data must meet to be included in the report results. Using a filter on a report narrows the data to consider only the information that is relevant to answer your business question. . 1) The process used to populate a data warehouse from transformation. stored in a data warehouse. or inventory quantities in counts. fact 1) A measurement value. Inc. fact table A database table containing numeric data that can be aggregated along one or more dimensions. Fact expressions can be as simple as a fact column name from the warehouse or as sophisticated as a formula containing fact columns and numeric constants. Fact tables can contain atomic or summarized data.Glossary Project Design Guide extraction. often numeric and typically aggregatable. fact column A column in a database table that contains fact data. 2) A schema object representing a column in a data warehouse table and containing basic or aggregated numbers—usually prices. See also metric.

Inc. See also compound key. heterogeneous column Columns in different tables in a database that store the same naming data but have different names. You do not have to actually create the column. homogeneous column Columns in different tables of a database that contain the naming same data and have the same column name. both containing customer names. form group 411 © 2007 MicroStrategy. which identifies that an attribute form requires more than one ID column to uniquely identify its elements. All attributes must have an ID column. but the description columns are present as well. highly normalized Schema type where lookup tables contain unique schema developer-designed attribute keys. . though. because in the Attribute Editor. For example. you may wish to create columns in the database with a value of 1 for every row to get around COUNT limitations. A form group must be created to create a compound key. though nothing is saved in a column. ID column A column that contains attribute element identification codes. one column named Customer in one table and one named Customer Name in a different table. implicit attribute An attribute that does not physically exist in the database because it is created at the application level. hierarchy A set of attributes defining a meaningful path for element browsing or drilling. highly denormalized Schema type where not only are higher-level attribute ID schema columns present within all related tables. The order of the attributes is typically—though not always—defined such that a higher attribute has a one-to-many relationship with its child attributes. For example. Such an attribute has its expression defined as a constant value.Project Design Guide Glossary form group A grouping of attribute forms that are related in a way that justifies combining the forms into a single form.

. which arranges data for efficient database use. In this case. joint children Joint child relationships are another type of many-to-many relationship where one attribute has a many-to-many relationship to two otherwise unrelated attributes. Hierarchies are usually locked if there are so many attribute elements that element browsing is not usable. Compare derived attribute. as opposed to the physical data model or warehouse schema. and quarter. 412 joint children © 2007 MicroStrategy.Glossary Project Design Guide you can just enter a “1” in the expression to create a count. Implicit attributes are useful in analyzing and retrieving information. lookup table A database table used to uniquely identify attribute elements. you can use constant attributes to create a COUNT to keep track of the number of rows returned. logical data model A graphical representation of data that is arranged logically for the general user. Lookup tables are usually joined to fact tables to group the numeric facts in the fact table by dimensional attributes in the lookup tables. Inc. When analyzing data. but like facts. where you can sum the column holding the constant to create a COUNT. consider the relationship between three attributes: promotion. They typically consist of descriptions of dimensions. Any constant is acceptable. locked hierarchy A hierarchy that has at least one attribute that may not be browsed by end users. item.For example. You can use constant attributes when building metrics. they exist at the intersection of multiple attribute levels. An example of a promotion might be a “Red Sale” where all red items are on sale. These relationships can be modeled and conceptualized like traditional attributes. A business might run this promotion around Valentine's Day (Q1) and again at Christmas time (Q4). promotion has a many-to-many relationship to both item and quarter.

hierarchies and other schema objects for Freeform SQL. and needs to the underlying database structure. Inc. which is created by the system and stored in a separate system folder. many-to-many An attribute relationship in which multiple elements of a parent attribute can relate to multiple elements of a child attribute. Managed objects are used to map data to attributes. See also: • • • • one-to-one one-to-many many-to-many relationship metadata A repository whose data associates the tables and columns of a data warehouse with user-defined attributes and facts to enable the mapping of the business view. and (2) every element of the child attribute can relate to multiple elements of the parent. Query Builder. terms. metrics. and vice versa. See also: • • • • one-to-one one-to-many many-to-one relationship many-to-one An attribute relationship in which (1) multiple elements of a parent attribute relate to only one element of a child attribute.Project Design Guide Glossary managed object A schema object unrelated to the project schema. © 2007 MicroStrategy. See also metadata shell. and OLAP cube reports. managed object 413 . Metadata can reside on the same server as the data warehouse or on a different database server. It can even be held in a different RDBMS.

an object is the highest grouping level of information about one concept. In MicroStrategy. Inc. file services. . multithreaded Characteristic of a process that supports the simultaneous execution of multiple threads. but here the higher-level attribute ID columns are present within all related tables. More concretely. The startup code initiates the primary thread of a process by passing the main function address to the operating system. facts. an application that allows for the distribution of personalized business information to subscribed users. metric 1) A business calculation defined by an expression built with functions. reports. See also fact. moderately normalized Schema type having the same basic structure as the highly schema normalized schema. attributes. printers. See also metadata. MOLAP Multidimensional online analytical processing. used by the user to achieve the goal of specified data analysis. metrics. When the primary thread terminates. SMS. narrowcast application In a business intelligence environment.[Cost] 2) The MicroStrategy object that contains the metric definition. and mobile devices. Narrowcast Server is a proactive information delivery server that allows for this distribution of information through e-mail. 414 metadata shell © 2007 MicroStrategy. or other metrics. including folders. For example: sum(dollar_sales) or [Sales] . and so on. an object is any item that can be selected and manipulated. the process terminates. facts. object Conceptually.Glossary Project Design Guide metadata shell A set of blank tables that are created when you initially implement a MicroStrategy business intelligence environment.

and analysis on the data. report on. which is imported into MicroStrategy and mapped to various objects to allow query. See also: • • • • one-to-one many-to-many many-to-one relationship © 2007 MicroStrategy. while every element of the child attribute relates to only one element of the parent. The one-to-many attribute relationship is the most common in data models. reporting. and analyze data with MicroStrategy. You can import and map data from these different OLAP cube sources in MicroStrategy to query. MicroStrategy can integrate with OLAP cube source data as well as access data from a relational database concurrently. See also OLAP cube source.Project Design Guide Glossary OLAP cube An OLAP cube is a collection or set of data retrieved from an OLAP cube source. and Hyperion Essbase are referred to as OLAP cube sources. Inc. OLAP cube 415 . Microsoft Analysis Services. See also: • • OLAP cube data source one-to-many An attribute relationship in which every element of a parent attribute can relate to multiple elements of a child attribute. OLAP cube source When integrated with MicroStrategy. the third-party tools SAP BW.

Transactional processing involves the simple recording of transactions such as sales. inventory. .Glossary Project Design Guide one-to-one An attribute relationship in which every element of the parent attribute relates to exactly one element of the child attribute. only a slice of the cube can be seen at any one time. See also: • • • • • drill pivot sort subtotal surf 416 one-to-one © 2007 MicroStrategy. and metrics on a third axis called the Page axis. Inc. or deposits. page-by Segmenting data in a grid report by placing available attributes. percent to total contributions. Since a grid is two-dimensional. growth patterns. and profit analysis. databases or mainframes that store transactional processing (OTLP) data. and vice versa. See also: • • • • one-to-many many-to-one many-to-many relationship online analytical A system with analytical processing that involves activities processing (OLAP) such as manipulating transaction records to calculate sales trends. trend reporting. the user can page through the cube. The slice is characterized by the choice of elements on the Page axis. By varying the selection of elements. withdrawals. online transaction Typically. consolidations.

while the opposite is not necessarily true. such as month or department. See also: • • • • relationship one-to-many many-to-one many-to-many partition base table A warehouse table that contains one part of a larger set of data. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Also referred to as a PBT. See also partition mapping. Partition tables are usually divided along logical lines. Partitions minimize the number of tables and records within a table that must be read to satisfy queries issued against the warehouse. parent attribute 417 . partition mapping The division of large logical tables into smaller physical tables based on a definable data level. partitions improve the speed and efficiency of database queries.Project Design Guide Glossary parent attribute The higher-level attribute in an attribute relationship with one or more children. Inc. By distributing usage across multiple tables. such as time or geography. See also: • • child attribute relationship partial relationship An attribute relationship in which elements of one attribute relate to elements of a second attribute.

For example. 418 partition mapping table © 2007 MicroStrategy. Web. metrics. Narrowcast Server. See also schema. to reconfigure a grid report by interchanging row and column headers. . Also referred to as a PMT. and so on). See also: • • partition base table partition mapping physical warehouse A detailed graphic representation of your business data as it schema is stored in the data warehouse. Command Manager. Inc. pivot To reconfigure data on a grid report by placing report objects (attributes. when the Intelligence Server machine receives a network call from a client (Desktop. it knows to forward those calls to the Intelligence Server port number that is specified in the call. See also: • • • • • drill page-by sort subtotal surf port number The port number is how a server process identifies itself on the machine on which it is running. Subset of cross-tab. and hence the associated data. Also.Glossary Project Design Guide partition mapping table A warehouse table that contains information used to identify the partitioned base tables as part of a logical whole. It organizes the logical data model in a method that make sense from a database perspective. consolidations) on different axes.

A direct project source is a two-tier connection directly to a metadata repository. metadata repository. pipes. Processes use temporary private address spaces and control operating system resources such as files. containing reports. the Catalog Server uses it to obtain table sample values and row counts. See also table name space. © 2007 MicroStrategy. pre-aggregation 419 . and user community. project source Defines a connection to the metadata repository and is used by various MicroStrategy products to access projects. that is completed before reports are run. dynamic memory allocations. Inc. In most cases. as defined in (1). it should match the name space field since it is used to qualify on a specific table belonging to a certain owner or name space. See also: • • aggregate table aggregation prefix A prefix is stored in the project metadata associated with a table or tables and is used by the Engine to generate SQL. A server project source is a 3-tier connection to a MicroStrategy Intelligence Server. or the calculation of numeric data at a specific attribute level. with the results stored in an aggregate table. process An executing application comprising one or more threads. filters. project 1) The highest-level intersection of a data warehouse. Also. 2) An object containing the definition of a project. One project source can contain many projects and the administration tools found at the project source level are used to monitor and administer all projects in the project source. Prefixes can be defined and modified from the Warehouse Catalog interface. and synchronization objects. The project object is specified when requesting the establishment of a session. and functions. metrics.Project Design Guide Glossary pre-aggregation Aggregation.

The user is asked during the resolution phase of report execution to provide an answer that completes the information.” qualification The actual condition that must be met for data to be included on a report. A relational database is a collection of data items organized as a set of formally-described tables from which data can be accessed or reassembled in many different ways without having to reorganize the database tables. as in “type login ID and password at the prompt. 420 prompt © 2007 MicroStrategy. You can create multiple qualifications for a single filter or custom group. and then set how to combine the qualifications using the logical operators AND. The leading RDBMS products are Oracle. a window requesting user input. ratio The relationship in quantity. OR. Examples include "Region = Northeast" or "Revenue > $1 million". amount.Glossary Project Design Guide prompt 1) MicroStrategy object in the report definition that is incomplete by design. A typical example with a filter is choosing a specific attribute on which to qualify. and administer a relational database. AND NOT. The parent attribute is referred to as a “quality” because its definition is complete only with the intersection of its joint children. IBM DB2 and Microsoft SQL Server. relate table A table containing the ID columns of two or more attributes. thus defining associations between them. . 2) In general. Inc. update. or size between the cardinalities of related attributes. Qualifications are used in filters and custom groups. relational database A relational database management system (RDBMS) is a management system program that lets you create. and OR NOT. See also cardinality. quality relationship The relationship between a parent attribute and two or more “joint child” attributes.

report design The process of building reports from basic report components using the Report Editor in MicroStrategy Desktop or MicroStrategy Web. relationship 421 . See also: • • • • • • • • parent attribute child attribute partial relationship quality relationship one-to-one one-to-many many-to-one many-to-many report The central focus of any decision support investigation. Inc. © 2007 MicroStrategy. analyze that data. predesigned reports in MicroStrategy Desktop or in MicroStrategy Web. For example.Project Design Guide Glossary relationship An association specifying the nature of the connection between one attribute (the parent) and one or more other attributes (the children). City is a child attribute of State. See also: • • filter template report creation The process of building reports from existing. and then present it in a visually pleasing manner. a report allows users to query for data.

operators. which can be accessed from MicroStrategy Desktop. Schema objects directly reflect the warehouse structure and include attributes. shortcut object A MicroStrategy object that represents a link to any other MicroStrategy object such as report. 2) The layout or structure of a database system. In relational databases. and so forth. a primary key that requires only one column to uniquely identify a record within a table. server instance The combination of an Intelligence Server running with a particular server definition. the fields in each table. functions. simple key In a relational database. These objects are developed in MicroStrategy Architect. hierarchies. server definition A MicroStrategy object stored in the metadata containing information about the configuration of an Intelligence Server. that relates the information in the logical data model and physical warehouse schema to the MicroStrategy environment. schema object A MicroStrategy object created. and the relationships between fields and tables. the schema defines the tables. See also: • • axis column schema 1) The set of tables in a data warehouse associated with a logical data model. usually by a project designer. and transformations. Inc. . metric. 422 row © 2007 MicroStrategy.Glossary Project Design Guide row The horizontal axis of a report. The attribute and fact columns in those tables are considered part of the schema itself. tables. facts. filter. partition mappings.

Project Design Guide Glossary sort Arranging data according to some characteristic of the data itself (alphabetical descending. See also: • • • • • drill page-by pivot subtotal surf source system Any system or file that captures or holds data of interest. See also: • • • • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. subtotal A totaling operation performed for a portion of a result set. Inc. numeric ascending. drill page-by pivot sort surf sort 423 . statistics tables Tables that are used to record a variety of statistical information about the usage and performance of a MicroStrategy system. Structured Query The query language standardized in 1986 by the American Language (SQL) National Standards Institute (ANSI) and used to request information from tables in a relational database and to manipulate the tables’ structure and data. star schema A highly denormalized physical warehouse schema in which lookup tables are consolidated so that every attribute ID and description column for a given hierarchy exists in one table. and so forth).

424 surf © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. Each table object in the metadata stores the name space or owner from which it came. and functions to existing analysis objects. See also: • • • • • drill page-by pivot sort subtotal system hierarchy The superset hierarchy containing all attributes in a project. metrics. metrics. attribute elements. attributes. it is not explicitly created but is automatically deduced by the MicroStrategy platform from all information available to it. custom groups.Glossary Project Design Guide surf To add filters. This field cannot be modified from the product since it is actually stored in the warehouse. template The data definition portion of the template consists of the group of objects (attribute. This is needed to uniquely identify each table saved in the project when comparing table information in the metadata to the real one in the warehouse. table name space A field that is read from the warehouse catalog and used to organize databases. table size The estimated size of a database table in terms of number of rows. The layout and format of these objects are defined within the template's view definition. and so on) that defines the columns of data to be included in the result set. Compare user hierarchy. . Unlike a browse hierarchy.

transformation 425 . arranged in specific sequences for a logical business organization. No physical cube is created or loaded. Time transformations are used in metrics to compare values at different times. For example. virtual cube 1) In an OLAP data model. such as defunct product codes to new ones. Inc. Add a transformation for last year and the metric now calculates last year’s total sales. format that cell to have a blue background with bold type.Project Design Guide Glossary transformation A schema object that maps a specified time period to another time period. 2) The result of mapping a logical data model to an OLE DB for OLAP multidimensional model after hierarchies and metrics have been selected from a project. For example. a metric calculates total sales. if revenue is greater than $200. transformation metric An otherwise simple metric that takes the properties of the transformation applied to it. A virtual cube maps MicroStrategy objects such as hierarchies and metrics to OLE DB for OLAP objects. They are user-defined and are used to define the browse and drill relationships between attributes. such as this year versus last year or current date versus month-to-date. multidimensional representation of data. Although the vast majority are based on time. applying an offset value. user hierarchy A named set of attributes and their relationships. a conceptual. © 2007 MicroStrategy. a virtual cube does not perform data retrieval and consequently lacks the performance problems and size limitations associated with a physical cube. Unlike a physical cube. a transformation can also map different objects. threshold Used to create conditional formatting for metric values. but a definition of the virtual cube structure is stored in MicroStrategy metadata. such as current month minus one month.

Inc.Glossary Project Design Guide 426 virtual cube © 2007 MicroStrategy. .

INDEX A accessing Project Creation Assistant 78 Warehouse Catalog 219 adding tables to a project 79 aerial perspective of hierarchy 200. fact column 96. Inc. 320 level 321 member property 321 relating objects 317 Analysis Services 2005 catalog 342 connecting to 340 DSI 342 hierarchy 326 relating objects to MicroStrategy 322 URL 342 427 . 105 table 178. 212 aggregate function defined on 247 aggregate table defined on 241 advantages 242 base table 244 compression ratio 248 effectiveness 248 integrate into project 249 logical table size 249 parent-child relationship 246 pre-aggregation 243 query frequency 246 aggregate-aware 249 aggregation defined on 243 degree of 244 dense 244 dynamic 243 sparse 244 alias attribute column 156 © 2007 MicroStrategy. 180 allocation expression 121 Analysis Services 2000 catalog 339 connecting to 337 DSI 339 metadata models 317 relating objects to MicroStrategy 317 URL 339 Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy cube 319 database 318 database instance 338 dimension 319.

See attribute element. See attribute role. See attribute form.Index Project Design Guide Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy cube 322 database 323 database instance 341 dimension 325 level 326 member 326 member property 327 perspective 324 relating objects 322 analysis. 128 qualification 253 ratio 35 relationship. derived attribute 150 derived expression 150 display 189 element. See report display form and browse form. Attribute Creation Wizard about 129 using 130 Attribute Editor about 135 creating attribute forms 146 creating attributes 136 updating hierarchies 197 attribute element defined on 23 about 140 © 2007 MicroStrategy. See attribute relationship. report display form 190 role. See report display form and browse form. expression 127 filtering in a hierarchy 203 form. 428 . MicroStrategy 294 atomic defined on 244 attribute defined on 10 Attribute Creation Wizard 129 Attribute Editor 135 browse form 190 cardinality 35 child 24 column alias 156 component. heterogeneous mapping 153 identifying 30 implicit. 164 MicroStrategy to Analysis Services 2000 321 MicroStrategy to Analysis Services 2005 326 MicroStrategy to Essbase 315 MicroStrategy to SAP BW 307 multiple counting in relationship 166 nonrelated 161 one-to-many relationship 160 one-to-one relationship 160 overview 22 parent 24 properties 127. compound 183 compound key 184 creating in Project Creation Assistant 130 creating using Attribute Editor 136 cross-dimensional. time-series 257 application for Essbase 313 application-level partition defined on 251 architecture. simple expression 148 system hierarchy 159 attribute component. attribute constant 155 in hierarchy 25 joint child relationship 171 many-to-many relationship 160. See joint-child relationship. Inc.

. 180 authenticating OLAP cube reports 297 automatic attribute role recognition 177 about 207 enabling in a hierarchy 209 building a logical data model 26 business intelligence (BI) system defined on 1 C calculating growth percentage 257 variance 257 calculating logical table sizes 231 cardinality for an attribute 35 Cartesian join 159 catalog for Analysis Services 2000 318 for Analysis Services 2005 323 for Essbase 313 for SAP BW 304 SQL 234 category.Project Design Guide Index for Analysis Services 2000 321 for Analysis Services 2005 326 for Essbase 316 for SAP BW 307 overview 23 attribute form defined on 37 creating using Attribute Editor 146 display 189 expression 147 for Analysis Services 2000 321 for Analysis Services 2005 327 for Essbase 316 for SAP BW 307 group 186 qualification 253 attribute relationship defined on 24 about 159 as property of attribute 127 identifying 31 in lookup table 44 overview 24 attribute role defined on 175 automatic recognition 179 automatic recognition of 177 explicit table alias 178. column defined on 41. characteristic attribute vs. 223 base fact column 47 data type. See hierarchy. SAP BW 300 child attribute 24 class. attribute form 307 characteristic value 307 characteristics. See column data type. See hierarchy. derived fact 47 description 41 fact 41 heterogeneous naming 49 homogeneous naming 50 ID 41 physical warehouse schema 40. 41 column alias attribute 156 429 B base fact column 47 base table defined on 244 pre-aggregation 243 BI architecture 2 browse attribute 207 form 190 browsing © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc.

data slice 253 data source defined on 6 data type and mapping 395 Big Decimal 400 changed in column 240 high-precision 400 warehouse catalog 397 data warehouse defined on 5 and physical schema 39 connecting to 72 schema type 51 structure 51 Warehouse Catalog 218 database 323 connection operations 227 custom login 227 gateway support 225 instance. 209 data model. See project source. 105 column data type changed 240 manually setting for OLAP cube 352 compound attribute defined on 183 creating 184 compound key defined on 42 and compound attributes 184 compound metric. See logical data model. Inc. data provider. read operations 227 secondary 225 database instance defined on 67 for Analysis Services 2000 338 for Analysis Services 2005 341 for Essbase 335 for SAP BW 329 for SAP BW (UNIX/Linux) 333 database management system 233 degradation defined on 118 dense aggregation 244 derived 430 © 2007 MicroStrategy. creating for OLAP cube 359 compression ratio defined on 248 Configuration Wizard 71 connecting to a database 227 to Analysis Services 2000 337 to Analysis Services 2005 340 to Essbase 334 to SAP BW 327 consolidating lookup tables 58 constant attribute 155 creating attributes 136 compound attributes 184 compound metric for OLAP cube 359 facts 87 logical data model 26 project 75 creating hierarchies 194 cross product join 116 cross-dimensional attribute. cube 319 for Analysis Services 2000 319 for Analysis Services 2005 324 for Essbase 314 for SAP BW 304 mapping 349 customizing catalog SQL 233 D Data Explorer defined on 209 about 209 enabling hierarchy browsing 196. See database instance.Index Project Design Guide fact 96. See joint child relationship. .

attribute 140 entity relationship diagram (ERD) defined on 29 entity. and loading (ETL) process defined on 4. See hierarchy. Essbase catalog 337 connecting to 334 database instance 335 DSI (DataSourceInfo) 336 metadata models 311 relating objects to MicroStrategy 311 URL 336 Essbase to MicroStrategy application 313 database 313 dimension 314. 180 expression map 98 expression. 92 fact entry level 87 431 . See entity relationship diagram. dimension for Analysis Services 2000 319. and loading. transformation. 105 creating 87 cross product join 116 degradation defined on 118 derived 99 derived fact column 47 disallowing 122 expression 98 extension 107 Fact Creation Wizard 88 fact definition 96. member 316 relating objects 311 ETL. 320 for Analysis Services 2005 325 for Essbase 314. See extraction. example data model sample 26 physical schema 289 project 267 table data sample 225 explicit table alias 178. 6 F fact defined on 85 allocation expression 121 base fact column 47 column defined on 41 column alias 96. entry level defined on 87 entry point 205 ERD. fact 98 expression-based transformation 259 creating 261 member expressions 264 member tables 263 extension. direct access approach 292 disallowing fact entry level 122 drilling using hierarchies 209 dynamic aggregation 243 dynamic relationship defined on 247 E element. level 107 extraction. 97 Fact Editor 88.Project Design Guide Index attribute 150 fact 99 fact column 47 description column defined on 41 Desktop. Inc. 315 level 315 © 2007 MicroStrategy. 315 for SAP BW 306 See also hierarchy. See MicroStrategy Desktop. transformation.

Inc. structure 199 system hierarchy 197 unbalanced 355 user hierarchy 197 Hierarchy Editor 198. . 200. 107 overview 21 table 46 table relation 110 table. 210 Hierarchy Viewer 200 in a logical data model 25 in SAP BW 300 limited 202 locked 201 organization 198 Project Creation Assistant 197 ragged 355 See also dimension. 200. fact column defined on 41 base 47 derived 47 heterogeneous 102 Fact Creation Wizard 88 Fact Editor 88. enabling 209 creating 194 defining 32 displaying 201 drilling 209 entry point 205 facts in 25 filtering attributes in 203 for Analysis Services 2000 320 for Analysis Services 2005 326 for Essbase 315 for SAP BW 306 Hierarchy Editor 198. See fact table. 209 Attribute Editor 197 attribute filter 203 attributes in 25 browse attribute 207 browsing 207 browsing.Index Project Design Guide fact relation 114 heterogeneous fact column 102 identifying 29 implicit 99 in hierarchy 25 level extension 96. 210 Hierarchy Viewer 200 © 2007 MicroStrategy. 93 fact expression 98 fact table defined on 86 column naming 51 in a warehouse 46 level 48 overview 21 filtered hierarchy 203 flag 172 form attribute form 143 expression 147 group 186 G gateway support for database 225 growth percentage calculation 257 H heterogeneous attribute mapping 153 column naming defined on 49 432 fact column 102 partition mapping 252 hierarchy defined on 193 aerial perspective 212 and the Data Explorer 196.

. 254 Hyperion Essbase.Project Design Guide Index highly denormalized schema 57 higher level lookup tables 58 highly normalized schema 52 homogeneous column naming 50 partition mapping 252. custom 227 lookup table defined on 43 attribute relationships and 44 consolidating 58 many-to-many relationship 44 one-to-one relationship 44 K key compound 42 figures 300 simple 42 M managed object 349 managed objects OLAP cubes 348 many-to-many relationship defined on 160 design considerations 164 example 32 lookup table 44 relate table 45 many-to-many transformation 433 L level extension 107 for Analysis Services 2000 321 © 2007 MicroStrategy. I implicit attribute 155 fact 99 importing OLAP cubes 343. 330 join. cross product 116 joint child attribute transformation metrics 265 joint child relationship 171 joint children defined on 171 for Analysis Services 2005 326 for Essbase 315 virtual 306 limited hierarchy 202 locating OLAP cubes 348 locked hierarchy defined on 201 logical data model defined on 17 attributes in 24 building 26 cardinality 35 conventions 33 design factors 59 for MicroStrategy Tutorial 271. Inc. 344 InfoCube 303. 304 InfoObjects 299 InfoProviders 299 international technical support xxiii J Java Connector 328. See Essbase. 280 ratio 35 sample 26 schema type 51 source of structure 29 unique identifier 34 Logical Table Editor 250 logical table size 249 login.

MicroStrategy architecture 294 object model 7i 295 object model 8 296 MicroStrategy Desktop 11 MicroStrategy metadata. . See MultiDimensional Expressions. Microsoft Analysis Services 2005. See Analysis Services 2000. MicroStrategy Project Builder. MicroStrategy to Analysis Services 2000 317 attribute 321 attribute element 321 attribute form 321 catalog 318 cube 319 dimension 320 hierarchy 320 MicroStrategy to Analysis Services 2005 322 attribute 326 attribute element 326 attribute form 327 catalog 323 cube 324 dimension 325 hierarchy 326 MicroStrategy to Essbase 311 434 © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. See Project Builder. tables 263 member property for Analysis Services 2000 321 for Analysis Services 2005 327 metadata defined on 8 connecting to 72 shell 65 table 71 metadata model Analysis Services 2000 317 Essbase 311 SAP BW 302 metadata partition mapping attribute qualification 253 data slice 253 overview 251 versus warehouse partition mapping 255 metadata shell defined on 65 metric creating compound metrics for OLAP cube data 359 creating with custom MDX 359 prompts within custom MDX 366 removing compound metrics from OLAP cubes 368 transformations 258 Microsoft Analysis Services 2000. See metadata.Index Project Design Guide and table-based transformations 259 double-counting 264 mapping OLAP cubes 343 OLAP cubes examples 358 schema objects in Warehouse Catalog 231 mapping type about 264 many-to-many 264 one-to-one 264 MDX. See Analysis Services 2005. See member property. member attributes 263 expressions 263 for Analysis Services 2000 321 for Analysis Services 2005 326 for Essbase 316 property.

general 280 view physical schema 289 MicroStrategy Web Universal 13 migrating tables 232 moderately normalized schema 54 MOLAP defined on 242 multidimensional data model. Inc. 55 © 2007 MicroStrategy. user 10 ODS object 299 OLAP BAPI certification 293 Cube Catalog 309 Cube Editor 349 cube. See OLAP cube. 435 . viewing 279 logical data model 271. 280 physical warehouse schema 281 schema. See logical data model.Project Design Guide Index attribute 315 attribute element 316 attribute form 316 catalog 313 cube 314 dimension 314 hierarchy 315 MicroStrategy to SAP BW 302 attribute 307 attribute element 307 attribute form 307 catalog 304 cube 304 dimension 306 hierarchy 306 MicroStrategy Tutorial 267 data model. 343 OLAP Cube Editor 349 OLAP cube reports authentication 297 managed objects 348 OLTP 3 one-to-many relationship defined on 160 example 31 relate table 45 N nonrelated attributes 161 normalized schema 53. MultiDimensional Expressions about 291 remapping objects 356 multiple counting 164 MultiProviders 299 O object models in MicroStrategy 7i 295 in MicroStrategy 8 296 using SAP direct access 296 object. OLAP cube defined on 343 creating compound metrics 359 creating metrics with custom MDX 359 importing 344 integration 292 manually setting column data type 352 mapping 349 prompts within custom MDX metrics 366 remapping 356 removing 347 removing compound metrics 368 searching for 348 source 291 unbalanced and ragged hierarchies 355 OLAP Cube Catalog 309.

Index Project Design Guide one-to-one relationship defined on 160 lookup table 44 online analytical processing. 197 project source defined on 65 connecting to 72 creating 77 prompt. See partition base table. defined on 255 types 251 warehouse 254. See OLAP. 255 partition base table 255 server-level 251 table 222. 254 metadata 251. in metrics with custom MDX 366 properties for SAP BW 311 Q qualification for an attribute form 253 quality. 80 removing tables from 80 sample project 267 schema 216 source. managing 220 Warehouse Catalog 79 warehouse tables in 79 Project Builder 74 Project Creation Assistant 77. 255 PBT. opening Project Creation Assistant 78 Warehouse Catalog 219 Operational Data Store object. online transaction processing. 436 pre-aggregation defined on 243 aggregate table 241 base table 244 compression ratio 248 integrate aggregate table 249 logical table size 249 parent-child relationship 246 query frequency 246 prefix 230 project defined on 14 adding tables to 79. 80 aggregate table. See OLTP. See joint child relationship.See ODS object. See partition mapping table. P parent attribute 24 parent-child relationship 246 dynamic 247 overview 25 static 247 partition base table defined on 251. © 2007 MicroStrategy. 255 partition mapping defined on 250 application-level 251 attribute qualification 253 data slice 253 heterogeneous 252 homogeneous 252. perspective 324 physical warehouse schema defined on 39 design factors 59 for MicroStrategy Tutorial 281 sample 289 planning a project 76 PMT. Inc. See project source tables. integrating 248 creating 75 data warehouse 79 integrating aggregate tables 248 managing tables for 220 planning 76 Project Builder 74 Project Creation Assistant 78. .

See RDBMS.sh. relationship dynamic 247 many-to-many 164 parent-child 246 relate table 45 static 247 remapping OLAP cubes 356 removing compound metric from OLAP cube 368 OLAP cube 347 table from project 80 report display form 190 row count for table 230 S SAP BW characteristics 300 connecting to 327 on UNIX/Linux 330 on Windows 328 database instance 329.sh 331 structures 311 terminology 298 variable properties 309 variables 300. 437 . fact 114 relational database management system. 304 relating objects 302 virtual level 306 SAP. relating objects to MicroStrategy from Analysis Services 2000 317 from Analysis Services 2005 322 from Essbase 311 from SAP BW 302 relation. 308 SAP BW to MicroStrategy characteristic attribute 307 characteristic value 307 characteristics 305 hierarchy 306 InfoCube 303. Inc.Project Design Guide Index query cubes 299 query frequency 246 R ragged hierarchy 355 ratio for an attribute 35 RDBMS defined on 5 server-level partitioning 251 read operations for database 227 relate table 45 related attributes. 343 query cubes 299 relating objects to MicroStrategy 302 SAP. 333 hierarchies 300 InfoObjects 299 InfoProviders 299 Java Connector 328. configuring 331 schema for project 216 highly denormalized 57 highly normalized 53 MicroStrategy Tutorial project 280 moderately normalized 55 object 14 physical warehouse defined on 39 star 58 © 2007 MicroStrategy. 330 key figures 300 mapping cubes 349 metadata models 302 OLAP Cube Catalog 309. See attribute relationship.

261 many-to-many 259 mapping types 264 member attributes 263 member expressions 263 member tables 263 438 © 2007 MicroStrategy. time-series analysis 257 transformation defined on 258 components 263 double-counting 264 expression-based 259. 28 sparse aggregation 244 SQL defined on 5 attributes and columns in 22 catalog 233 default catalog SQL 239 facts and columns in 21 star schema 58 static relationship defined on 247 structure in SAP BW query cube 311 of hierarchy 199 of table 222 Structured Query Language. defined on 197 T table adding to a project 79 aggregate 241 alias 178. system hierarchy 159. See joint child relationship. 5. See SQL. Inc. 228 name spaces 230 physical warehouse schema 40 prefixes 230 primary key 42 relation 110 row counts 230 sample data 225 simple key 42 size defined on 249 summary 241 transformation 259 updating structure 223 viewing structure 222 warehouse tables in Project Creation Assistant 79 table-based member expressions 264 transformations 259 creating 260 member tables 263 technical support xxv international xxiii text fact. . 86 key 42 Logical Table Editor 250 lookup 43. summary table 241 support. See technical support. 180 calculating logical sizes 231 calculating size 231 compound key 42 fact table defined on 46. updating 217 schema type 51 comparison 60 searching for OLAP cubes 348 server-level partitioning 251 simple expression 148 key 42 source system defined on 3. See schema type.Index Project Design Guide type. 44 managing for a project 221 migrating 232 name space 222.

setting 311 supporting 308 variance calculation 257 viewing sample data model 279 sample table data 225 sample warehouse schema 289 table structure 222 virtual level 306 U unbalanced and ragged hierarchy 355 unique identifier 34 UNIX/Linux. See fact expression.Project Design Guide Index metric. See transformation metric. metrics 258 one-to-one mapping types 264 table-based 259. user hierarchy defined on 197 browse attribute 207 browsing 207 browsing. 260 transformation metric defined on 258 joint child attributes 265 troubleshooting column data type changed 240 column missing 241 data warehouse connection 239 tables missing 240 V variables overview 300 properties. W Warehouse Catalog accessing 219 column missing 241 connection operations 227 data types 240 database gateway support 225 default catalog SQL 239 displaying information 230 managing 221 mapping schema objects 231 read operations 227 troubleshooting 239 updating table structure 223 usage and settings 218 viewing table structure 222 warehouse partition mapping overview 254 partition base table 255 partition mapping table 255 versus metadata partition mapping 255 warehouse table in Project Creation Assistant 79 439 . Inc. connecting to SAP BW 330 updating project schema 217 updating table structure 223 URL for Analysis Services 2000 339 for Analysis Services 2005 342 for Essbase 336 user defined object. enabling 209 creating 194 displaying 201 drilling 209 entry point 205 filtering attributes in 203 limited 202 locked 201 structure 199 user object 10 using attribute form vs characteristic attribute 158 © 2007 MicroStrategy.

physical schema defined on 39. 281 Windows. Inc.Index Project Design Guide warehouse. connecting to SAP BW 327 X XMLA 293 Analysis Services 2000 317 Analysis Services 2005 322 Essbase 312 provider for Analysis Services 2000 338 provider for Analysis Services 2005 341 provider for Essbase 335 440 © 2007 MicroStrategy. .

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