Project Design Guide

Version: 8.1.1
Document Number: 09330811

Fourth Edition, September 2007, version 8.1.1
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CONTENTS
Description of Guide ................................................................ xiii About this book .............................................................................xv How to find business scenarios and examples .......................xv Prerequisites .......................................................................... xvi Who should use this guide..................................................... xvi Resources.................................................................................... xvi Documentation....................................................................... xvi Education ............................................................................. xxiii Consulting ............................................................................ xxiii International support ............................................................ xxiii Technical Support ................................................................. xxv Feedback .................................................................................... xxx

1. BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform

Introduction.................................................................................. 1 Business intelligence architecture ................................................. 2 Source systems for data collection .......................................... 3 Extraction, transformation, and loading process...................... 4 Data warehouse for data storage and relational design .......... 5 The MicroStrategy platform ........................................................... 7 MicroStrategy metadata........................................................... 8 MicroStrategy Intelligence Server .......................................... 11 MicroStrategy Desktop........................................................... 11 MicroStrategy Web and Web Universal ................................. 13 MicroStrategy project ............................................................. 14 The project design process.......................................................... 15

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Project Design Guide

2. The Logical Data Model

Introduction................................................................................ 17 Facts: Business data and measurements.................................... 21 Attributes: Context for your levels of data.................................... 22 Attribute elements: Data level values..................................... 23 Attribute relationships ............................................................ 24 Hierarchies: Data relationship organization ................................. 25 Sample data model...................................................................... 26 Building a logical data model ....................................................... 26 User requirements ................................................................. 27 Existing source systems ........................................................ 28 Converting source data to analytical data.............................. 28 Logical data modeling conventions.............................................. 33 Unique identifiers ................................................................... 34 Cardinalities and ratios .......................................................... 35 Attribute forms ....................................................................... 36

3. Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model

Introduction................................................................................ 39 Columns: Data identifiers and values .......................................... 41 Tables: Physical groupings of related data.................................. 41 Uniquely identifying data in tables with key structures........... 42 Lookup tables: Attribute storage ............................................ 43 Relate tables: A unique case for relating attributes ............... 45 Fact tables: Fact data and levels of aggregation ................... 46 Homogeneous versus heterogeneous column naming.......... 49 Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage......................................................................................... 51 Highly normalized schema: Minimal storage space............... 52 Moderately normalized schema: Balanced storage space and query performance.......................................................... 54 Highly denormalized schema: Enhanced query performance........................................................................... 56 Design trade-offs ......................................................................... 59 Schema type comparisons .......................................................... 60

4. Creating and Configuring a Project

Introduction................................................................................ 63 Project connectivity components ................................................. 64 MicroStrategy metadata......................................................... 64 Metadata shell ....................................................................... 65 Project source ........................................................................ 65

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Database instance ................................................................. 67 Project.................................................................................... 67 Summary of project connectivity ............................................ 68 Creating a project ........................................................................ 68 Creating the metadata repository ................................................ 71 Connecting to the metadata repository and data source ............. 71 Connecting to the metadata repository .................................. 72 Connecting to a data source .................................................. 72 Creating the project ..................................................................... 73 Creating a test or prototype project using Project Builder...... 74 Creating a production project using Project Creation Assistant ................................................................................ 75 Creating facts and attributes........................................................ 82 Configuring additional schema-level settings .............................. 83 Deploying your project and creating reports ................................ 84

5. The Building Blocks of Introduction................................................................................ 85 Business Data: Facts Creating facts............................................................................... 87 Simultaneously creating multiple, simple facts ...................... 88 Creating and modifying simple and advanced facts .............. 91 The structure of facts ................................................................... 96 How facts are defined ................................................................. 97 Mapping physical columns to facts: Fact expressions ........... 98 Fact column names and data types: Column aliases ................ 105 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions.................................................................................. 107 Defining a join on fact tables using table relations............... 110 Defining a join on fact tables using fact relations................. 114 Forcing facts to relate to attributes: Using cross product joins ........................................................................ 116 Lowering the level of fact data: Fact degradations .............. 118 Disallowing the reporting of a fact at a certain level............. 122

6. The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes

Introduction.............................................................................. 125 Creating attributes ..................................................................... 129 Simultaneously creating multiple attributes.......................... 129 Adding and modifying attributes .......................................... 134 Unique sets of attribute information: Attribute elements ............ 140

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Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms ......... 143 Attribute form properties ...................................................... 146 Attribute form expressions ................................................... 147 Modifying attribute data types: Column aliases ................... 156 Attribute forms versus separate attributes ........................... 158 Attribute relationships ................................................................ 159 Viewing and editing the parents and children of attributes .............................................................................. 161 Supporting many-to-many and joint child relationships ....... 163 Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles ......... 175 Specifying attribute roles ..................................................... 177 Attributes with more than one ID column: Compound attributes .................................................................................... 183 Example: Creating compound attributes.............................. 184 Collections of attribute forms: Form groups............................... 186 Supporting compound attributes .......................................... 187 Displaying and organizing related forms.............................. 188 Using attributes to browse and report on data........................... 189 Setting how attribute forms are displayed by default ........... 191

7. Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes

Introduction.............................................................................. 193 Creating user hierarchies........................................................... 194 Types of hierarchies .................................................................. 196 System hierarchy: Project schema definition ....................... 197 User hierarchies: Logical business relationships ................. 197 Hierarchy organization............................................................... 198 Hierarchy structure............................................................... 199 Viewing hierarchies: Hierarchy Viewer ................................ 200 Configuring hierarchy display options........................................ 200 Controlling the display of attribute elements ........................ 201 Filtering attributes in a hierarchy.......................................... 203 Entry point............................................................................ 205 Hierarchy browsing .............................................................. 206 Using the Hierarchy Viewer and Table Viewer .......................... 211 Using the Hierarchy Viewer ................................................. 211 Using the Table Viewer........................................................ 213

8. Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project viii

Introduction.............................................................................. 215 Updating your MicroStrategy project schema............................ 216

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Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog ...................................................................................... 218 What should I know before I use the Warehouse Catalog? .............................................................................. 219 Accessing the Warehouse Catalog...................................... 219 Adding and removing tables for a project ............................ 220 Managing warehouse and project tables ............................. 221 Modifying data warehouse connection and operation defaults ................................................................................ 226 Customizing catalog SQL statements.................................. 233 Troubleshooting table and column messages ..................... 239 Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables ............. 241 When to use aggregate tables............................................. 242 Determining the frequency of queries at a specific level...... 246 Considering any related parent-child relationships .............. 246 Compression ratio................................................................ 247 Creating aggregate tables ................................................... 248 The size of tables in a project: Logical table size................. 249 Dividing tables to increase performance: Partition mapping...... 250 Server versus application partitioning .................................. 250 Metadata partition mapping ................................................. 251 Warehouse partition mapping .............................................. 254 Metadata versus warehouse partition mapping ................... 255

9. Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons

Introduction.............................................................................. 257 Creating transformations ........................................................... 258 Expression-based versus table-based transformations ....... 259 Building a table-based transformation ................................. 260 Building an expression-based transformation...................... 261 Transformation components ...................................................... 263 Transformation metrics and joint child attributes ....................... 265

A. MicroStrategy Tutorial Introduction.............................................................................. 267 What is the MicroStrategy Tutorial?........................................... 267 MicroStrategy Tutorial data model............................................. 271 Geography hierarchy ........................................................... 272 Products hierarchy ............................................................... 274 Customers hierarchy............................................................ 276 Time hierarchy ..................................................................... 277 Promotions hierarchy ........................................................... 278

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............. 340 Configuring the XMLA Provider .......................................................... 343 Importing OLAP cubes.................................................... 298 Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy ...................... 349 Creating metrics from OLAP cube data with MDX and compound metric techniques ..............................................................................................................................Contents Project Design Guide MicroStrategy Tutorial schema .............................................................................................................................................. 283 Products schema ....... 311 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy..... 285 Time schema .. 322 Connecting to SAP BW servers.................................................................................... 308 SAP BW structures ......................... 288 B... 297 Understanding the SAP BW terminology ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 284 Customers schema .................................. 344 Mapping OLAP cubes .............. 337 Configuring the XMLA Provider ............................. 294 Authentication ... Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Introduction..... Inc......... 359 x © 2007 MicroStrategy............................................................................................................. 328 Connecting to SAP BW servers on UNIX and Linux...................... 287 Sales fact tables ...................................................................... 286 Promotions schema ....... 311 Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy ..... 341 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy...... 338 Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers..................................................................................... 330 Connecting to Essbase servers ..... 317 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy.............. 334 Configuring the XMLA Provider ............. 288 Miscellaneous fact tables............................................ 280 Geography schema ....................... ................ 291 MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources ........ 334 Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers............................................................................................................................... 302 Supporting SAP BW variables .................................................... 292 Understanding MicroStrategy architecture..................................... 327 Connecting to SAP BW servers on Windows .... 287 Inventory fact tables................................................................

....................................................... 375 Logical view examples.......................................................................... 377 Business case 3: Slowly changing dimensions........... 400 Using the Big Decimal data type.................. 399 Big Decimal.............................................................................................................................................. 376 Business case 2: Attribute form expression across multiple tables .................................................................... 376 Business case 1: Distinct attribute lookup table................... 403 Index ........ 389 Business case 5: Outer joins between attribute lookup tables...................... 370 How should I use logical tables? .... 397 Format types.......................................................................Project Design Guide Contents C................... Data Types Introduction....................... xi ....................................................................... 427 © 2007 MicroStrategy........................................... 401 Glossary ........... 369 Logical tables............................................................................ 390 D...................... Inc............................... 378 Business case 4: One-to-many transformation tables ........................................................................ Logical Tables Introduction.................................................... 395 Mapping of external data types to MicroStrategy data types............................................................................................................. 398 Data type and format type compatibility.................................. 395 MicroStrategy data types .......................... 371 Creating logical tables ...... 373 Using SQL for logical views ....................................

. Inc.Contents Project Design Guide xii © 2007 MicroStrategy.

Chapter 3. BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform. describes components of the physical warehouse schema such as columns and tables and explores how you can map components from the logical data model to components in the database to form the physical warehouse schema. describes the major components involved in project creation and guides you through the process of creating a project in MicroStrategy. Creating and Configuring a Project. and modifying a project in MicroStrategy and covers a wide range of project-related topics. provides a brief introduction to business intelligence architecture and some of the main components within the MicroStrategy platform. Chapter 2. Chapter 4. Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model.PREFACE Description of Guide The MicroStrategy Project Design Guide provides comprehensive information on planning. Inc. explores logical data modeling and how it can help you identify the different elements within your business data and plan your project. xiii . including the following: • Chapter 1. creating. • • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. The Logical Data Model.

Chapter 6. discusses the different types of transformations in MicroStrategy and describes how you can create transformations in your project. Logical Tables. Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes. describes methods you can implement to better optimize and maintain your project for both the short and long term. provides a conceptual look at the structure of attributes and explores different types of attributes and how they relate to your business data. . Chapter 7. Appendix B. describes the structure of facts and explores different types of facts and how they relate to your business data. or Hyperion® Essbase® for use within MicroStrategy. Inc. This chapter also covers all the steps necessary to create attributes for your project. which includes a metadata and warehouse. and explains how you can create user hierarchies to help organize and enhance your project. provides information on the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons. This chapter also covers all the steps necessary to create facts for your project.Preface Project Design Guide • Chapter 5. Microsoft® Analysis Services. • • • • The appendixes contain the following additional reference information. discusses the different types of hierarchies in MicroStrategy. discusses logical tables. provides information about connecting to an OLAP Cube source such as SAP® BW. and a set of demonstration applications designed to illustrate the features of the MicroStrategy platform. and how to create logical tables and views in MicroStrategy. the different types of logical tables. Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources. Chapter 9. The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts. • • xiv © 2007 MicroStrategy. which you may or may not require depending on your specific needs: • Appendix A. Appendix C. Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project. The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes. Chapter 8. MicroStrategy Tutorial.

Project Design Guide Preface • Appendix D. see the MicroStrategy Tutorial. Business scenarios can be found in the Analytics Modules. many of the concepts discussed are accompanied by business scenarios or other descriptive examples. The following sections provide the location of additional examples. and project. Inc. About this book xv . Each module comes with a sample data model and a collection of packaged reports that allow dozens of analytical variations. provides information about the different data types in MicroStrategy. For examples of reporting functionality. each from a different business area. and customer analysis. metadata. list prerequisites for using this book. Example analysis includes such business areas as financial reporting. Information about the MicroStrategy Tutorial can be found in the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. Detailed examples of advanced reporting functionality can be found in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. and describe the user roles the information in this book was designed for. human resources. The Analytics Modules are part of a product bundle called the MicroStrategy Business Intelligence Developer Kit (BIDK). Data Types. How to find business scenarios and examples Within this guide. which are a set of sample analytics. which is MicroStrategy’s sample warehouse. © 2007 MicroStrategy. About this book This book is divided into chapters that begin with a brief overview of the chapter’s content.

Manuals: MicroStrategy manuals provide • • • introductory information concepts checklists xvi Resources © 2007 MicroStrategy. as described below. these two information sources provide different types of information. you should be familiar with: • • the information provided in the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide the nature and structure of the data you want to use for your business intelligence application Who should use this guide This document is designed for all users who require an understanding of how to design. Inc. create. and modify a MicroStrategy project using the MicroStrategy platform.Preface Project Design Guide Prerequisites Before working with this document. . the following business intelligence application users should read this guide: • • Project Designers Database Administrators Resources Documentation MicroStrategy provides both manuals and online help. In short.

Manuals for Query. UNIX. you can download it from www.com. Resources xvii . Reporting. and additional resources. Linux. as well as basic maintenance guidelines.Project Design Guide Preface • • examples high-level procedures to get started Online help: MicroStrategy online help provides • • detailed steps to perform procedures descriptions of each option on every software screen Manuals The following manuals are available from your CD-ROM or the machine where MicroStrategy was installed. and Analysis Products • MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide Information to install and configure MicroStrategy products on Windows. Inc. and HP platforms. Adobe Acrobat Reader 4. The procedure to access them is below.0 or higher is required to view these documents. and using the MicroStrategy Evaluation Edition of the software. • MicroStrategy Quick Start Guide Overview of the installation and evaluation process. • MicroStrategy Upgrade Guide Instructions to upgrade existing MicroStrategy products. MicroStrategy Overview • Introduction to MicroStrategy: Evaluation Guide Instructions for installing. If you do not have Acrobat Reader installed on your computer. © 2007 MicroStrategy.adobe. configuring.

• MicroStrategy Mobile User Guide Instructions for using MicroStrategy Mobile to view and analyze data. format. and project optimization. tune. Covers installation and configuration of MicroStrategy Mobile and how a designer working in MicroStrategy xviii Resources © 2007 MicroStrategy. custom groups. Topics include reports. filters. transformations. hierarchies. and prompts. . and perform other business tasks with MicroStrategy reports and documents on a mobile device.Preface Project Design Guide • MicroStrategy System Administration Guide Concepts and high-level steps to implement. metrics. Word. consolidations. • MicroStrategy Report Services Document Creation Guide Instructions to design and create Report Services documents. and understand facts. and how to analyze data in a report. and troubleshoot a MicroStrategy business intelligence system. PowerPoint®. Data Mining Services. OLAP Cube reports. and prompts. Includes the basics for creating reports. and distribute business data. Freeform SQL reports. • MicroStrategy Project Design Guide Information to create and modify MicroStrategy projects. filters. Query Builder reports. deploy. metrics. building on information in the Basic Reporting Guide. Inc. • MicroStrategy Office User Guide Instructions for using MicroStrategy Office to work with MicroStrategy reports and documents in Microsoft® Excel. and Outlook. attributes. building on information in the Basic Reporting Guide and Advanced Reporting Guide. advanced schemas. maintain. • MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide Instructions for advanced topics in the MicroStrategy system. to analyze. • MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide Instructions to get started with MicroStrategy Desktop and MicroStrategy Web.

instructions to use functions in metrics. • MicroStrategy Web Services Administration Guide Concepts and tasks to install. filters. examples of functions in business scenarios. and troubleshoot Narrowcast Server.Project Design Guide Preface Desktop or MicroStrategy Web can create effective reports and documents for use with MicroStrategy Mobile. tune. attribute forms. Resources xix . configure. • MicroStrategy Functions Reference Function syntax and formula components. • MicroStrategy Narrowcast Server Installation and Configuration Guide Information to install and configure Narrowcast Server. • MicroStrategy Narrowcast Server System Administrator Guide Concepts and high-level steps to implement. • MicroStrategy Narrowcast Server Upgrade Guide Instructions to upgrade an existing Narrowcast Server. Manuals for Information Delivery and Alerting Products • MicroStrategy Narrowcast Server Getting Started Guide Instructions to work with the tutorial to learn Narrowcast Server interfaces and features. and troubleshoot MicroStrategy Web Services. • MicroStrategy Narrowcast Server Application Designer Guide Fundamentals of designing Narrowcast Server applications. Inc. © 2007 MicroStrategy. maintain. tune.

object models. code samples. xx Resources © 2007 MicroStrategy. customization scenarios. A Web page opens with a list of available manuals in PDF format.Preface Project Design Guide Manuals for Analytics Modules • • • • • • Business Intelligence Developer Kit (BIDK) Installation and Porting Guide Customer Analysis Module Reference Sales Force Analysis Module Reference Financial Reporting Analysis Module Reference Sales and Distribution Analysis Module Reference Human Resources Analysis Module Reference Software Development Kits • MicroStrategy Developer Library (MSDL) Information to understand the MicroStrategy SDK. • Narrowcast Server SDK Guide Instructions to customize Narrowcast Server functionality. and so on. MicroStrategy. including details about architecture. Documents the Narrowcast Server Delivery Engine and Subscription Portal APIs. then Product Manuals. and embed Narrowcast Server functionality within other applications. To access installed online documentation 1 From the Windows Start menu. choose Programs. which is sold as part of the MicroStrategy SDK. • MicroStrategy Web SDK The Web SDK is available in the MicroStrategy Developer Library. 2 Click the link for the desired manual. . Inc. and the Narrowcast Server SPI. integrate Narrowcast Server with other systems.

Online help MicroStrategy provides several ways to access online help: • • • Help button: Use the Help button at the bottom of most software screens to see context-sensitive help. and click OK. the File Download dialog box opens. © 2007 MicroStrategy. When you select one of these guides. If bookmarks are not visible on the left side of an Acrobat (PDF) document. click the Bookmarks and Page from the View menu. Select Open this file from its current location. Help menu: Select Contents and Index to see the main table of contents for the help system. Inc. F1 key: Press F1 to see context-sensitive help addressing the function or task you are currently performing. Resources xxi .Project Design Guide Preface 3 Some documentation is provided in HTML help format.

press CTRL+B. Example: Type cmdmgr -f scriptfile. options. xxii Resources © 2007 MicroStrategy. and menus that are the focus of actions or part of a list of such GUI elements and their definitions • text to be entered by the user Example: Click Select Warehouse. dialog boxes. UPPERCASE • keyboard command key (such as ENTER) • shortcut key (such as CTRL+V) Example: To bold the selected text. Type bold Indicates • button names. italic • new terms defined within the text and in the glossary • names of other product manuals • when part of a command syntax. Inc.Preface Project Design Guide Documentation standards MicroStrategy online help and PDF manuals (available both online and in printed format) provides standards to help you identify concepts and procedures. check boxes. . The following table lists these conventions.scp and press ENTER. lists. Example: Type copy c:\filename d:\foldername\filename Courier font • • • • • • calculations code samples registry keys path and file names URLs messages displayed in the screen Example: Sum(revenue)/number of months. + A keyboard command that calls for the use of more than one key (for example. A warning icon alerts you to important information such as potential security risks. indicates variable information to be replaced by the user Example: The aggregation level is the level of calculation for the metric. SHIFT+F1) A note icon indicates helpful information for specific situations. these should be read before continuing.

Many customers and partners from over 800 different organizations have benefited from MicroStrategy instruction. project and testing strategies and recommendations. strategic planning. Offerings include complex security architecture designs. It also includes the availability of translated interfaces and documentation.microstrategy.com/Education. and more. currency symbols. and more. visit www. For a detailed description of education offerings and course curriculums. visit www.microstrategy. A MicroStrategy business intelligence environment consists of the following components. metadata. and statistics databases MicroStrategy Intelligence Server MicroStrategy Web server MicroStrategy Desktop client Web browser © 2007 MicroStrategy. decimal formats. Inc. Resources xxiii . The level of support is defined in terms of the components of a MicroStrategy business intelligence environment.Project Design Guide Preface Education MicroStrategy Education Services provides a comprehensive curriculum and highly skilled education consultants. For a detailed description of consulting offerings. collectively known as a configuration: • • • • • warehouse. Consulting MicroStrategy Consulting Services provides proven methods for delivering leading-edge technology solutions. performance and tuning.com/Consulting. support for date formats. International support MicroStrategy supports several locales. Support for a locale typically includes native database and operating system support.

French.3 The user language preference that was set previously in version 7. The following table lists the language selection possibilities for different installation cases. Installation Fresh installation on a system in which MicroStrategy application has never been installed before Result The MicroStrategy Installation Wizard prompts you to select the language from the drop-down list.2. Italian. Japanese. The user language in the product interface is the language that you select during installation. Upgrading an earlier installation from version 7. Inc.3 is the language of display of the installation routine and the user language of the product interface. Please contact MicroStrategy Technical Support for more details. MicroStrategy also provides limited support for heterogeneous configurations (where some of the components may lie in different locales). Once the product is installed. translated versions of the online help files and product documentation are available in several of the above languages. Chinese (simplified) and Swedish. Korean.2. . Spanish. Repair or maintenance installation on a system on which MicroStrategy application has been installed before All subsequent executions of the installation routine are displayed in the language that you selected the first time you installed the product on the system. Portuguese (Brazilian). the Online Help is displayed in the same language that the user selects in the language prompt of the installation routine. xxiv Resources © 2007 MicroStrategy. In addition. The user language in the product interface is also the language that you selected the first time you installed the product on the system. A translated user interface is available in each of the above languages. German.Preface Project Design Guide MicroStrategy is certified in homogeneous configurations (where all the components lie in the same locale) in the following languages: English (US).

readme files. all subsequent executions of the installation routine for maintenance or for upgrade. the installation Online Help is displayed in English only.microstrategy.com/support/ k_base/index. 2 Consult the MicroStrategy Knowledge Base online at http://www. Besides.Project Design Guide Preface Installation Upgrading an earlier installation from version 7. it has no effect on the default language of the product interfaces. the MicroStrategy Installation Wizard prompts you to select the language from the drop-down list. online help. Note: Even if you select a language from the language prompt in the installation routine. Paths to access each are described above. Technical Support If you have questions about a specific MicroStrategy product. Completely uninstalling all the MicroStrategy products and installing the same version or a newer version If you uninstall all the products and install either the same version or a higher version again. you should: 1 Consult the product guides.x Result The MicroStrategy Installation Wizard prompts you to select the language from the drop-down list.2 or earlier. and release notes. including 7.1. are displayed in the language that you selected during the upgrade installation. During installation.2. unless overridden by the command line parameter. However.asp © 2007 MicroStrategy. The installation routine is displayed in the selected language. Resources xxv . the user language of the product interface language remains the same as the one set in the product interface before running the upgrade installation. Inc.

2 Verify that the system is using a currently supported version of MicroStrategy software by checking the Product Support Expiration Schedule at http://www. 4 Minimize the complexity of the system or project object definition to isolate the cause.asp. . All customer inquiries and case communications must come through these named individuals. contact MicroStrategy Technical Support directly. the Support Liaison may follow the steps below to ensure that issues are resolved quickly: 1 Verify that the issue is with MicroStrategy software and not a third party software. Inc. Your company may request to change their Support Liaisons two times per year with prior written notice to MicroStrategy Technical Support.microstrategy. A Support Liaison is a person whom your company has designated as a point-of-contact with MicroStrategy’s support personnel. 3 If the resources listed in the steps above do not provide you with a solution.Preface Project Design Guide A technical administrator in your organization may be able to help you resolve your issues immediately.com/Support/ Expiration. 3 Attempt to reproduce the issue and determine whether it occurs consistently. To ensure the most effective and productive relationship with MicroStrategy Technical Support.microstrategy. xxvi Resources © 2007 MicroStrategy. Your company may designate two employees to serve as their Support Liaisons.com/ Support/Policies. review the Policies and Procedures document posted at http://www. Refer to the terms of your purchase agreement to determine the type of support available to you. Ensure issues are resolved quickly Before logging a case with MicroStrategy Technical Support. MicroStrategy Technical Support may be contacted by your company’s Support Liaison.

M. Resources xxvii . 6 Discuss the issue with other users by posting a question about the issue on the MicroStrategy Customer Forum at https://forums.microstrategy.–6:00 P. Inc.Project Design Guide Preface 5 Determine whether the issue occurs on a local machine or on multiple machines in the customer environment. These holidays reflect the national public holidays in each country. Eastern Time (1400–0000 GMT).microstrategy. when. Monday–Friday except holidays E-mail: eurosupp@microstrategy.–7:00 P.com Web: https://support. they can leave a voicemail message. or log a case using the Online Support Interface.com Fax: +44 (0) 208 396 0001 The European Technical Support Centre is closed on certain public holidays.M.M.M.microstrategy.com. GMT. send e-mail or fax. If your Support Liaison is unable to reach MicroStrategy Technical Support by phone during the hours of operation. and Africa (EMEA) © 2007 MicroStrategy.com Web: https://support. The table on the following page shows where. Monday-Friday except holidays • Mainland Europe: 9:00 A.–6:00 P.com Fax: (703) 842–8709 Phone: (703) 848–8700 Hours: 9:00 A. CET. Phone: • United Kingdom: +44 (0) 208 396 0085 • Benelux: +31 20 346 9210 • Finland: +35 8 9 6937 9620 • France: +33 1 41 91 86 49 • Germany: +49 69 95096206 • Ireland: +35 3 1242 1522 • Italy: +39 02696 33 456 • Spain: +34 91 406 90 10 • International distributors: +44 (0) 208 396 0080 Hours: • United Kingdom: 9:00 A. North America E-mail: support@microstrategy.M. Monday-Friday except holidays Europe.M. and how to contact MicroStrategy Technical Support. the Middle East.

Required information when calling When contacting MicroStrategy Technical Support. In Europe. New Zealand.M.Preface Project Design Guide Asia Pacific E-mail: apsupport@microstrategy.com Fax: +81 3 5456 5464 Phone: • Korea: +82 2 560 6565 • Singapore (supporting Singapore. During the course of troubleshooting and researching issues. and Latin America. Monday–Friday except holidays Latin America Support Liaisons should contact the Technical Support Center from which they obtained their MicroStrategy software licenses or the Technical Support Center to which they have been designated. national holidays.M.8969 • Japan (supporting Japan. Monday-Friday except holidays E-mail: latamsupport@microstrategy. Hong Kong. This can eliminate security conflicts and improve case resolution time. In North America.microstrategy. China. Inc. MicroStrategy Technical Support personnel may make recommendations that require administrative privileges on the MicroStrategy projects. these holidays reflect the national public holidays in each country. or that assume that the designated Support Liaison has a security level that permits them to fully manipulate the MicroStrategy projects and has access to potentially sensitive project data such as security filter definitions. Asia Pacific. Although not a requirement.–6:00 P.S.com Web: https://support. please provide the following information: • xxviii Resources Personal information: © 2007 MicroStrategy. The individual Technical Support Centers are closed on certain public holidays.com Web: https://support.6303.microstrategy.–7:00 P. Malaysia.M.com Fax: +55 11 3044 4088 Phone: LATAM (except Argentina): +55 11 3054 1010 Argentina: 0 800 444 MSTR Hours: 9:00 A. and Sri Lanka): +65. Taiwan. . India. Pakistan. BST (Sao Paulo). we recommend you designate Support Liaisons who have permissions to be MicroStrategy project administrators.M. Australia. JST (Tokyo). and all other Asia Pacific countries not listed in this section): +81 3 3511 6720 Hours: 9:00 A. these holidays reflect many U.

and steps taken to troubleshoot the case thus far • Business/system impact If this is the Support Liaison’s first call. and be ready to provide it when inquiring about an existing case software version and product registration numbers of the MicroStrategy software products you are using case description: What causes the condition to occur? Does the condition occur sporadically or each time a certain action is performed? Does the condition occur on all machines or just on one? © 2007 MicroStrategy. be prepared to provide the following additional information: • case number: Please keep a record of the number assigned to each case logged with MicroStrategy Technical Support.Project Design Guide Preface Name (first and last) Company and customer site (if different from company) Contact information (phone and fax numbers. they should also be prepared to provide the following: • • • • street address phone number fax number e-mail address To help the Technical Support representative work to resolve the problem promptly and effectively. including MicroStrategy software product(s) and versions Full description of the case including symptoms. e-mail addresses) • Case details: Configuration information. error messages(s). Resources • • xxix . Inc.

. The Support Liaison may call MicroStrategy Technical Support at any time to inquire about the status of the issue. the Support Liaison and the MicroStrategy Technical Support representative should agree on certain action items to be performed. or a software upgrade)? If there was an error message. disk space. a major database load. and so on) network protocol used ODBC driver manufacturer and version database gateway software version (for MicroStrategy Web-related problems) browser manufacturer and version (for MicroStrategy Web-related problems) Web server manufacturer and version If the issue requires additional investigation or testing. RAM. what was its exact wording? What steps have you taken to isolate and resolve the issue? What were the results? • system configuration (the information needed depends on the nature of the problem. If the Technical Support representative is responsible for an action item. The Support Liaison should perform any agreed-upon actions before contacting MicroStrategy Technical Support again regarding the issue. Inc. Feedback Please send any comments or suggestions about user documentation for MicroStrategy products to: xxx Feedback © 2007 MicroStrategy. a database move.Preface Project Design Guide When did the condition first occur? What events took place immediately prior to the first occurrence of the condition (for example. not all items listed below may be necessary): computer hardware specifications (processor speed.

please include the name and version of the products you are currently using.Project Design Guide Preface documentationfeedback@microstrategy.com When you provide feedback to us. Your feedback is important to us as we prepare for future releases.com Send suggestions for product enhancements to: support@microstrategy. Inc. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Feedback xxxi .

Preface Project Design Guide xxxii Feedback © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. .

Inc. how the MicroStrategy platform interacts with your business data to provide a wide range of functionality.1 1. An optimum business intelligence application: • • • Gives users access to data at various levels of detail Allows users to request information and have it delivered to them accurately and quickly Provides a foundation for the proactive delivery of information to system subscribers © 2007 MicroStrategy. it is important to understand how business intelligence systems work and. specifically. 1 . BI ARCHITECTURE AND THE MICROSTRATEGY PLATFORM Introduction Before planning and creating a project in MicroStrategy. Business intelligence (BI) systems facilitate the analysis of volumes of complex data by providing the ability to view data from multiple perspectives.

Inc. For more information on how MicroStrategy can access your data sources. SAP BW. but other systems or files that capture or hold data of interest are also possible An extraction. Business intelligence architecture A BI architecture has the following components: • A source system—typically an online transaction processing (OLTP) system. page 5. Hyperion Essbase. see Data warehouse for data storage and relational design. 2 Business intelligence architecture © 2007 MicroStrategy. Excel files. and loading (ETL) process A data warehouse—typically an online analytical processing (OLAP) system A business intelligence platform such as MicroStrategy • • • The diagram above illustrates the common setup for standardizing data from source systems and transferring that data into MicroStrategy.1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide This chapter introduces you to the basic architecture of BI systems. as well as some of the components within the MicroStrategy platform that allow you to create and analyze your business intelligence. . MicroStrategy can also access data from text files. and other data sources. Microsoft Analysis Services. transformation.

Project Design Guide BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform 1 Source systems for data collection Source systems refer to any system or file that captures or holds data of interest. that is. or deletions. OLTP systems are databases or mainframes that store real-time processing data and have the following characteristics: • Data access is optimized for frequent reading and writing. see Data warehouse for data storage and relational design. telecommunications. manufacturing. a different source system—another file on the server—keeps track of each customer’s contact information. This is in contrast to data warehouses which are often designed for reading data for analysis with a minimum number of updates. Each of these business services has a different and specific workflow. A source system is usually the most significant site of online transaction processing (OLTP). deposits. A bank is an example of a business with many source systems. Data history is limited to recent or current data. suppose one source system—a database file on the bank’s server—keeps track of deposits and withdrawals as they occur. An example of data that benefits from this type of optimization is the number of credit card transactions that an OLTP system might record in a single day. and many others. website usage. © 2007 MicroStrategy. An average bank offers several services such as account activity updates and loan disbursement. This processing is relied upon daily by nearly every industry. page 5. Meanwhile. Data is aligned by application. inventory. For example. Transactional processing involves the simple recording of transactions and other business data such as sales. Data formats are not necessarily uniform across systems. e-commerce. For more information on data warehouse design. and therefore has many source systems to support these services. • • • Recall the example of a bank that relies on several source systems to store data related to the many services the bank offers. Business intelligence architecture 3 . Inc. as the system records huge volumes of data every day. including health care. by business activities and workflow. insertions. and order processing.

Inc. Transformation procedures can include converting data types and names. This is because the operational systems supporting these two services are designed to perform specific tasks. and loading (ETL) process represents all the steps necessary to move data from different source systems to an integrated data warehouse. The ETL process involves the following steps: 1 Data is gathered from various source systems. loan status. account balances. and loading (ETL) process. filling in incomplete data. 2 The data is transformed and prepared to be loaded into the data warehouse. transformation. the customer information stored in each of these different systems must be consolidated. However. you can withdraw or deposit money as well as check on balances. Since 4 Business intelligence architecture © 2007 MicroStrategy. loan status. and loading process The extraction. transformation. . including the customer's ATM activity. and account balances. This consolidation is achieved using the extraction. and money market account information. to get a money order. The ETL process consolidates data so it can be stored in a data warehouse. and similar processes to standardize the format and structure of data. correcting typographical errors. This process can be explained with the example of a bank that wants to consolidate a variety of information about a particular customer.1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide At an automated teller machine (ATM). transformation. eliminating unwanted data. Each of these different sets of data is likely gathered by different source systems. 3 The data is loaded into the data warehouse. If a bank wants to see a unified view of a particular customer. such as a customer's ATM activity. you must enter the bank and perform the transaction with a bank teller. Extraction. and these two services require different operational systems.

are generally designed and optimized for transactional processing. page 6. whereas data warehouses are usually designed and optimized for analytical processing. Data warehouse for data storage and relational design A well-designed and robust data warehouse is the source of data for the decision support system or business intelligence system. For more information on accessing data stored in alternative data sources. However. and OLAP cubes. such as OLTP systems. updated. Data warehouses are usually based on relational databases or some form of relational database management system (RDBMS) platform. or deleted. Most data warehouses have the following characteristics: • Data access is typically read-only. The most common action is the selection of data for analysis. The source systems described above. the ETL process extracts the data from the different banking source systems. These relational databases can be queried directly with Structured Query Language (SQL). a language developed specifically to interact with RDBMS software. You can integrate different types of data sources with MicroStrategy such as text files. growth patterns. the data that comes from one system may be inconsistent with the data that comes from another system. Excel files. Business intelligence architecture 5 . and profit analysis. percent-to-total contributions. and then loads the data into the data warehouse. MicroStrategy does not require that data be stored in a relational database. Inc. In combination with MicroStrategy tools and products. Data is rarely inserted. This is in contrast to most © 2007 MicroStrategy. Analytical processing involves activities such as choosing to see sales data by month and selecting the applicable metric to calculate sales trends. the data warehouse also provides the foundation for a robust online analytical processing (OLAP) system. In this case. see Storing and analyzing data with alternative data sources. transforms it until it is standardized and consistent. It enables its users to leverage the competitive advantage that the business intelligence provides.Project Design Guide BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform 1 each source system can have its own naming conventions. trend reporting.

MicroStrategy can also integrate with a number of alternative data sources. page 3. . see Chapter 2. transformation. Defining a project’s logical data model and physical warehouse schema are important steps in preparing your data for a MicroStrategy project. A data warehouse is populated with data from the existing operational systems using an ETL process. A data warehouse can be thought of as one type of data source. which are referred to as 6 Business intelligence architecture © 2007 MicroStrategy. Data history extends long-term. which are a common type of data warehouse. Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model. Microsoft Analysis Services. A data source is any file. and Hyperion Essbase. Inc. reporting. • • Data is aligned by business subjects. transformation. or storage location which stores data that is to be used in MicroStrategy for query. For more information on the steps of the project design process. and loading process. • • Storing and analyzing data with alternative data sources Along with integrating with relational databases. Data formats are uniformly integrated using an ETL process (see Extraction. For more information on source systems. as explained in Extraction. and refers specifically to using a database as your data source. page 4). system. The following are different data source alternatives which MicroStrategy can integrate with: • OLAP cube sources: In MicroStrategy you can integrate with sets of data from SAP BW.1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide OLTP source systems which must be able to handle frequent updates as data is gathered. and loading process. page 4. The structure of data in a data warehouse and how it relates to your MicroStrategy environment can be defined and understood through a logical data model and physical warehouse schema. usually two to five years. The Logical Data Model and Chapter 3. and analysis. see Source systems for data collection.

MicroStrategy can integrate with these data sources while simultaneously accessing a relational database effectively. deployment. and OLAP analysis MicroStrategy Desktop. Windows-based environment providing a complete range of analytical functions designed to facilitate the deployment of reports MicroStrategy Web and Web Universal. and maintenance of business intelligence applications. As with OLAP cube sources described above. see Appendix B. you can query. page 11—an analytical server optimized for enterprise querying.Project Design Guide BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform 1 OLAP cube sources. analyze. Inc. The MicroStrategy platform 7 . MicroStrategy can report against these alternative data sources while concurrently accessing a relational database to integrate all of your data into one cohesive project. The MicroStrategy platform A business intelligence platform offers a complete set of tools for the creation. page 13—a highly interactive user environment and a low-maintenance interface for reporting and analysis • • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources. For more information on connecting to and integrating OLAP cube sources in MicroStrategy. For more information on using text files and Excel files with the Freeform SQL and Query Builder features. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. page 11—an advanced. and report on data stored in text files and Excel files. • Text files and Excel files: With MicroStrategy’s Freeform SQL and Query Builder features. Some of the main components of the MicroStrategy platform include: • MicroStrategy metadata. reporting. support. page 8—a repository that stores MicroStrategy object definitions and information about the data warehouse MicroStrategy Intelligence Server.

1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide • MicroStrategy project. as shown in the following diagram. To learn how to administer and tune the MicroStrategy platform. Inc. The sections that follow provide a brief overview of each of these components. For more detailed information about these and the other components that make up the MicroStrategy platform. . refer to the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. which together provide a flexible reporting environment The MicroStrategy platform components work together to provide an analysis and reporting environment to your user community. see the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. MicroStrategy metadata MicroStrategy metadata is a repository that stores MicroStrategy object definitions and information about your data warehouse. page 14—where you build and store all schema objects and information you need to create application objects such as reports in the MicroStrategy environment. The information is stored in a proprietary 8 The MicroStrategy platform © 2007 MicroStrategy.

user privileges. these objects. These schema objects are often created and managed by a MicroStrategy architect: Facts relate numeric data values from the data warehouse to the MicroStrategy reporting environment. You can build and manipulate several fundamentally different kinds of objects in MicroStrategy. facts. • Configuration objects—Objects that provide important information or governing parameters for connectivity. but are created by a project architect or administrator to configure and govern the platform. The MicroStrategy platform 9 . The metadata maps MicroStrategy objects—which are used to build reports and analyze data—to your data warehouse structures and data. attributes. report creation in MicroStrategy is achieved through using various types of objects which represent your data as report building blocks. Inc. and columns. Schema objects—Objects that are created in the application to correspond to database objects. and hierarchies are three essential pieces to any business intelligence application. These objects are not used directly for reporting. The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts. The number of units sold is one example of a fact.Project Design Guide BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform 1 format within a relational database. metrics. are all created and stored in the metadata repository. and other objects which are stored in the Schema Objects folder in MicroStrategy Desktop’s folder list. Schema objects include facts. which are analytical calculations that are displayed on a report. and so on. views. The metadata also stores the definitions of all objects created with MicroStrategy Desktop and Web such as templates. see the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. Facts are discussed in more detail in Chapter 5. As a general rule. • © 2007 MicroStrategy. configuration objects are created and maintained with the managers in MicroStrategy Desktop within the Administration icon. reports. groups. hierarchies. Examples include database instances. In general. and project administration. users. Facts. such as tables. attributes. which are described below. Facts are used to create metrics. and so on. For more information about creating and administering configuration objects.

filters. Month. Reports and documents can also be created and managed in MicroStrategy Web. . These groupings can help users make logical connections between attributes when reporting and analyzing data. Hierarchies are discussed in more detail in Chapter 7. Hierarchies are groupings of attributes so that they can be displayed to reflect their relationships to other attributes. see MicroStrategy Web and Web Universal. Application objects are created using schema objects as building blocks. templates. Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes. Attributes are used to define the level at which you want to view the numeric data on a report. Information on creating application objects is in the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide and MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. MicroStrategy Intelligence Server evaluates the most efficient data retrieval scenario to provide excellent query performance.1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide Attributes represent the business context in which fact data is relevant. Inc. It converts user requests into SQL queries and 10 The MicroStrategy platform © 2007 MicroStrategy. and so on. For more information about MicroStrategy Web. Attributes are discussed in more detail in Chapter 6. and prompts. One of the most common examples of a hierarchy is a time hierarchy which includes attributes such as Year. • Application objects—Objects used to provide analysis of and insight into relevant data. The metadata enables the sharing of objects across MicroStrategy applications by providing a central repository for all object definitions. All application objects can be created and maintained in MicroStrategy Desktop. custom groups. MicroStrategy metadata also facilitates the retrieval of data from the data warehouse when using MicroStrategy applications. page 13. Application objects include reports. In the example of regional sales in the Southeast. documents. Quarter. metrics. The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes. Southeast represents the attribute or context of the sales data.

For information on how to install and configure MicroStrategy Intelligence Server. Inc. See the MicroStrategy Functions Reference for details about these functions. © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform 1 translates the results of those SQL queries back into MicroStrategy objects such as reports and documents which can be easily analyzed and understood. reporting. refer to the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. For a detailed description of MicroStrategy Intelligence Server functionality and tuning recommendations. MicroStrategy Desktop provides the project designer functionality essential to creating both schema and application objects necessary to serve the user communities of both MicroStrategy Desktop and Web. You can also add and define your own functions. Windows-based environment providing a complete range of analytical functionality designed to facilitate the deployment of reports. The important functions of MicroStrategy Intelligence Server are: • • • • Sharing objects Sharing data Managing the sharing of data and objects in a controlled and secure environment Protecting the information in the metadata MicroStrategy Intelligence Server also provides a library of over 150 different sophisticated mathematical and statistical functions. MicroStrategy Desktop MicroStrategy Desktop is an advanced. MicroStrategy Intelligence Server MicroStrategy Intelligence Server is an analytical server optimized for enterprise querying. refer to the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. and OLAP analysis. The MicroStrategy platform 11 .

For example. For information about the various components that comprise MicroStrategy Desktop. graphical interface. This modification is necessary if you have new requirements that require you to add or remove new levels of data in a hierarchy. refer to the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. Projects are discussed in Chapter 4.1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide Desktop enables you to model applications using an intuitive. hierarchies. without making any alterations to the database. • After reports have been created. 12 The MicroStrategy platform © 2007 MicroStrategy. Application objects such as reports are used to analyze and provide insight into the relevant data. facts are used to create metrics. The change automatically takes effect in the application. One of the other functions of MicroStrategy Desktop is to create projects. Desktop provides the ability to modify one aspect of the application without affecting the others. including MicroStrategy Desktop. MicroStrategy Web. Creating and Configuring a Project. before application objects are created. and other schema objects are the building blocks for application objects such as reports and documents. report designers and analysts can deploy them through different interfaces. schema objects must first exist. Facts. Tables in MicroStrategy are references to tables in your data warehouse. If you need to change how to view your business information or how the data is modeled. thus providing access to your data. The following examples highlight some ways in which Desktop allows you to model your business intelligence applications: • Every report or query can automatically benefit from the tables you include in an application. which are in turn used to design reports. Inc. and metrics. filters. attributes. You can change the structure of a business hierarchy by re-ordering it. . and MicroStrategy Office. However. Schema objects allow application objects to interact with the data warehouse to access the data for analysis. It provides a unified environment for creating and maintaining business intelligence projects. Desktop is where you can manage application objects such as reports.

Inc. Red Hat® Linux®. Sun ONE®.Project Design Guide BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform 1 For more information about creating application objects such as reports in MicroStrategy Desktop. and rapid customization potential. page 64. quick deployment. Additional MicroStrategy definitions. © 2007 MicroStrategy. MicroStrategy Web Universal is a version of MicroStrategy Web that provides the added benefits of also working with: • • • Operating systems such as Sun Solaris™. see the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. and HP-UX Application servers such as BEA WebLogic™. refer to the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. including many project-related terms. and Apache Tomcat All web servers and browsers supported by MicroStrategy Web MicroStrategy Intelligence Server must be running for users to retrieve information from your data warehouse using MicroStrategy Web products. For more information about deploying MicroStrategy Web. analyze. Using the Web interface. MicroStrategy Web provides ad-hoc querying. IBM WebSphere®. users can access. are discussed in Project connectivity components. For information on advanced Desktop functionality. and share data through any web browser on many operating systems. making it easy for users to make informed business decisions. MicroStrategy Web and Web Universal MicroStrategy Web provides users with a highly interactive environment and a low-maintenance interface for reporting and analysis. The MicroStrategy platform 13 . see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. IBM AIX®. Oracle®. industry-leading analysis.

and reports that you can create using schema objects such as attributes and facts. which together provide a flexible reporting environment. Security and other project-level administrative features are discussed in the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. access control. . Schema objects are discussed in later chapters in this guide. metrics. hierarchies. In MicroStrategy Desktop. Contains all reporting objects used to create reports and analyze the data. projects appear one level below project sources in the Folder List. filters. and so on. A project can contain many types of objects. and so on. privileges. inventory. and 14 The MicroStrategy platform © 2007 MicroStrategy. reports. prompts. Contains all schema objects used to interpret the data in those tables. A project: • • Determines the set of data warehouse tables to be used. Report objects are covered in the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide and the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. a project the environment in which all related reporting is done. Reporting objects include metrics. Security objects include security filters. Conceptually. Projects are often used to separate data from a data warehouse into smaller sections of related data that fit user requirements. attributes. Schema objects include facts. and therefore the set of data available to be analyzed. sales distribution. metadata repository. including application objects such as filters. you may have a project source separated into four different projects with analysis areas such as human resources. Inc. For example. • • A project can contain any number of reports in addition to a number of other objects that support simple and advanced reporting requirements. A project also represents the intersection of a data source. and so on. security roles. and user community. Defines the security scheme for the user community that accesses these objects.1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide MicroStrategy project A project is where you build and store all schema objects and information you need to create application objects such as reports in the MicroStrategy environment.

© 2007 MicroStrategy. The project design process 15 . In the project.Project Design Guide BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform 1 customer satisfaction. The project’s warehouse location is specified by associating it with the appropriate database instance. This allows all of your users in the human resources department to use the human resources project and they do not have to look through inventory data that they are not interested in. determined by the project source through which you create the project. • The procedures associated with these concepts are explained in Creating the project. Inc. page 73. The project design process When you create a project in MicroStrategy Desktop. you can then create schema objects based on the columns and tables in the warehouse. one of the connections you create is between the project and your data warehouse. Some key concepts to understand before you begin creating a project are as follows: • A project is created within a specified metadata repository.

which are each covered in the following chapters: Notice that the project design process includes a feedback loop. . schema design and implementation.1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide The diagram below shows this high-level view of data modeling. linear process. Inc. and project creation. Designing a project is very rarely a single. 16 The project design process © 2007 MicroStrategy. As projects are deployed and tested. It is important to keep this in mind as you design your project and plan for the next phase of development. new user requirements and project enhancements require modification to the initial project design.

You also need a plan that is visible and laid out correctly. providing a way of organizing data so it can be analyzed from different business perspectives.2 2. THE LOGICAL DATA MODEL Conceptualizing your business model and the data on which to report Introduction Devising a model of your business data can help you analyze the structure of the data. A logical data model is a logical arrangement of data as experienced by the general user or business analyst. You need to know where you are going and how to get there. The logical data model graphically depicts the flow and structure of data in a business environment. A logical data model is similar in concept to using a map and an itinerary when going on a trip. how its various parts interact. which arranges data for efficient database use. Inc. and can also help you decide what you intend to learn from the data. 17 . This is different from the physical data model or warehouse schema. For example. This chapter describes one of the major components of data modeling: the logical data model. a simple logical data model for a retail company can organize all necessary © 2007 MicroStrategy.

2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide facts by store. the more complex the logical data model becomes. The more sophisticated and complex the reporting requirements and source data. This is the key concept of the logical data model. the word logical is a more accurate term than multidimensional. Inc. As the MicroStrategy platform does not require you to define dimensions explicitly. . If you are familiar with multidimensional data modeling. and time. What occurs under the logical data model can change with need or with technology. The scope and complexity of a logical data model depends on the requirements of the reporting needs of the user community and the availability of source data. The reason that a logical data model must be independent of technology is because technology is changing so rapidly. While a multidimensional data model must have at least one dimension. logical data modeling is similar to multidimensional data modeling. 18 © 2007 MicroStrategy. but the blueprint remains the same. and you do not need to start over completely. which are three common business perspectives typically associated with a retail business. Logical data models are independent of a physical data storage device. product. a logical data model may or may not have any explicitly defined dimensions.

Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 The logical data modeling process produces a diagram similar to the one shown in the following diagram: A logical data model represents the definition. characteristics. or business environment. Inc. 19 . © 2007 MicroStrategy. and relationships of data in a technical. This process can help you think about the various elements that compose your company’s business data and how those elements relate to one another. conceptual.

2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide Devising a logical data model for your business intelligence environment allows you to then consider various ways to physically store the business data in the data warehouse. . This is usually one of the first steps in designing a project. page 22 Hierarchies: Data relationship organization. page 21 Attributes: Context for your levels of data. Inc. the elements that exist within them. A logical data model is a graphic representation of the following concepts: • • • Facts: Business data and measurements. as shown in the following diagram: This chapter provides conceptual information about logical data models. and also general instructions and guidelines for creating these models. page 25 20 © 2007 MicroStrategy.

facts are schema objects that relate data values (typically numeric data) from the data warehouse to the MicroStrategy reporting environment. Sales. data. or variables that are typically numeric and suitable for aggregation. In a data warehouse. Inventory. For example. while you capture stock and inventory data in another system and track it weekly. Facts are the building blocks used to create business measurements or metrics from which to derive insight into your data.ORDER_AMT) EMP_NAME FROM ORDER_FACT a21 JOIN LU_EMPLOYEE a22 ON (a21. the ORDER_AMT column in the warehouse may correspond to the Order Amount fact in the MicroStrategy environment: SELECT sum(a21. in the following SQL statement. and Account Balance are some examples of facts you can use as business measurements. To those familiar with SQL. Facts: Business data and measurements 21 . Facts allow you to access data stored in a data warehouse and they form the basis for the majority of users’ analysis and report requirements. The rest of data modeling consists mostly of providing context for the data that facts provide access to. such as SUM and AVG. In MicroStrategy. 9. you can capture sales data in one system and track it daily.EMP_ID = a22. They can come from different source systems and they can have different levels of detail. 12) © 2007 MicroStrategy.EMP_ID) WHERE a22. Conceptually. facts generally represent the numeric columns in database tables on which you perform SQL aggregations.CALL_CTR_ID in (5. Inc. For example.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 Facts: Business data and measurements One of the first things you do when you create a logical data model is to determine the facts. you can think of facts as business measurements. facts exist as columns within the fact tables.

Inc. To those familiar with SQL. If you were informed that your company had sales of $10. Metrics are discussed in detail in the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. Attributes allow you to answer questions about a fact and provide a context for reporting and analyzing those facts. you would need to know more about the source of that sales figure such as: • • • • A time frame for the sales Who and how many people contributed to the sales total What products were sold from which departments The scope of the sale. or a single store Attributes provide context and levels for convenient summarization and qualification of your data to help answer the type of questions listed above. The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts. the attributes must be identified. sum(a21. These columns are used to qualify and group fact data. 22 Attributes: Context for your levels of data © 2007 MicroStrategy.ORDER_AMT) represents a metric. while ORDER_AMT is the fact. which are business calculations often built using facts. you can gather little useful information. They are used to answer business questions about facts at varying levels of detail. . For example. Attributes: Context for your levels of data After the facts are determined. if your sales data is stored at the day level.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide In addition. Fore a more complete discussion about facts. consider the sales figures of your company. a Month attribute allows you to see the same sales data summarized at the month level. For example. regional.000. local. refer to Chapter 5. such as national. attributes generally represent the non-numeric and non-aggregatable columns in database tables. To make the sales figure meaningful.

200202.MONTH_ID = a12. For example. Inc.MONTH_DESC) MONTH_DESC.MONTH_ID in (200201. Attribute elements: Data level values Attribute elements are the unique values or contents of an attribute. page 36. attributes are used to build the report and the attribute elements are displayed in rows or columns on the executed report.TOT_DOLLAR_SALES) DLRSALES FROM MNTH_CATEGORY_SLS a11 join LU_MONTH a12 on (a11. © 2007 MicroStrategy.MONTH_ID MONTH_ID. Attribute elements also allow you to qualify on data to retrieve specific results. On a report. max(a12. 2005 and 2006 are elements of the Year attribute while New York and London are elements of the City attribute. a Customer attribute allows you to see sales data at the customer level and you can qualify on the elements of the Customer attribute to see sales data for groups such as customers with last names beginning with the letter h.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 For example. in the following SQL statement.MONTH_ID Attribute forms contain additional descriptive information about a given attribute and are discussed in terms of the logical data model in Attribute forms. For a complete discussion about attributes. The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes.200203) GROUP BY al1. For example.MONTH_ID) WHERE a11. refer to Chapter 6. sum(a11. the MONTH_ID column in the warehouse maps to the Month attribute in the MicroStrategy environment: SELECT a11. Attributes: Context for your levels of data 23 .

2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide The following diagram shows some examples of attributes and attribute elements. as the project designer. they are necessary in understanding attribute relationships. . page 140. The parent attribute is at a 24 Attributes: Context for your levels of data © 2007 MicroStrategy. Attribute relationships. to have a solid understanding of all the attributes in the project. as well as how each of them relates to the other attributes. are essential to the logical data model. Attribute elements are discussed in more detail in Unique sets of attribute information: Attribute elements. A child must always have a parent and a parent can have multiple children. and therefore no logical structure. Attribute relationships Building an effective project in MicroStrategy requires you. Inc. which are associations between attributes that specify how attributes are connected. there is no interaction between data. Without relationships. The relationships give meaning to the data by providing logical associations of attributes based on business rules. you can better design your data model and project. Every direct relationship between attributes has two parts—a parent and a child. Although attribute elements are not included in the logical data model. By recognizing and understanding the elements of an attribute.

facts exist at the intersection of hierarchies. page 26 below. © 2007 MicroStrategy. However. Month. along with more detailed information about attribute relationships. page 159. In this case. One year has many quarters and both attributes are in the Time hierarchy. Year is the parent attribute and Quarter is the child. Year and Quarter are attributes that are usually directly related to each other. In a logical data model. and hierarchies are related and form a complete logical data model is shown in the section Sample data model. attributes. there must be some way to determine how these two attributes are related. Attributes in one hierarchy are not directly related to attributes in another hierarchy. They are identified by multiple attributes. For example. Attributes are either related or unrelated to each other. Year and Customer are related through a fact. Inc.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 higher logical level than the child is. A graphical example of how facts. Year and Customer are attributes that are usually not in the same hierarchy and are not directly related to each other. Hierarchies: Data relationship organization Hierarchies in a logical data model are ordered groupings of attributes arranged to reflect their relationship with other attributes. For example. For example. Usually the best design for a hierarchy is to organize or group attributes into logical business areas. and Day to form the Time hierarchy. It is the existence of a fact that ties the Time hierarchy to the Customer hierarchy. are discussed in Attribute relationships. hierarchies contain attributes that are directly related to each other. Examples of related and unrelated attributes. which represent the level at which a fact is stored. if you want to create a report that shows information about customer purchases in a particular year. the fact is a customer purchase. you can group the attributes Year. Hierarchies: Data relationship organization 25 . Therefore. in a relationship between Year and Quarter.

attributes. and hierarchies—a logical data model begins to take shape. refer to Chapter 7. relationships. Inc. . Sample data model When all of the components are placed in a single diagram—facts. Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes. Some of the things to consider when creating a logical data model are • • • User requirements Existing source systems Converting source data to analytical data 26 Sample data model © 2007 MicroStrategy.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide For a complete discussion about hierarchies. The following diagram is an example of a logical data model: Building a logical data model The first thing you must do before creating a logical data model is study the factors that influence your design.

you can derive additional data not found in the source systems. as explained in Existing source systems. you must consider all the potential users and how to accommodate their varied requirements. lack of data in the source systems can limit user requirements. Building a logical data model 27 . page 28. Lower-level managers are typically more interested in data about their particular areas of responsibility. additional user requirements can be encountered after deploying a project as users encounter areas for enhancement. Developing such a model involves the following: • • • Identification of user requirements Design of solutions Evaluation of those solutions Logical data modeling is a reiterative process. For example. In some cases.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 User requirements The primary goal of logical data modeling is to meet the needs of your users’ reporting requirements. When creating the logical data model. company executives are typically interested in overall trends and may want reports showing data aggregated across the company and over a long period of time. Your user community can consist of people with vastly different requirements. User requirements are an important part of the initial project design process. In some cases. new user requirements may require you to modify the logical data model to better support the type of analysis and the retrieval of data that users demand. © 2007 MicroStrategy. These managers may want reports about their specific region or store over short-and long-terms. Sometimes. to satisfy user requirements. Inc. However. where additional questions and concerns arise with each draft of the logical data model.

and relationships. but a substantial portion of the work in creating a suitable logical data model involves determining what additional components are required to satisfy the needs of the user community. Although some data may not exist in a source system. you can build the logical data model based heavily on current user requirements. Conversely. Additionally. you can plan additional attributes to provide the levels at which you intend to analyze the facts in your data model. everything you find in the source data does not necessarily need to be included in the logical data model. users also want to see data at the monthly or yearly level. but the business analysts want to see data for different states or regions. State and region do not appear in the existing source data and so you need to extract them from another source. although data is stored at a daily level in the source system.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide Existing source systems Understanding what data is available is an important step in creating a logical data model. consisting of a large number of facts and attributes. an insurance company’s transactional system records data by customer and city. While a review of your data is initially helpful in identifying components of your logical data model. Inc. In this case. most logical models begin with an examination of the source data once existing systems are developed and 28 Building a logical data model © 2007 MicroStrategy. attributes. Existing data is usually abundant. You must determine what facts and attributes in the existing data are necessary for supporting the decision support requirements of your user community. this does not mean that it should not be included in the logical data model. you may not find all the facts and attributes to meet your needs within the data itself. . For example. Converting source data to analytical data If there are no existing systems and you are just beginning your data warehousing initiative. User requirements should drive the decision on what to include and what to exclude. The existing data should suggest a number of facts. However.

After you have all the facts listed. on a particular day. An ERD provides a graphical representation of the physical structure of the data in the source system. determine the business level at which each fact is recorded. For example. meaning that a sale takes place in a particular store. for a particular item. which lets you easily recognize tables and columns and the data stored in those columns.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 implemented. sales facts are often stored at the store. Whether you start from nothing or have an existing source system to use. The source data usually has some sort of documented physical structure. in retail models. Remember that facts can be calculated and are usually numeric and aggregatable. however. A product inventory fact. page 29 Step 2: Identify the attributes. page 30 Step 3: Determine attribute relationships. item. or day level. make a list of all data that can be represented as facts in MicroStrategy. page 31 Step 4: Define hierarchies. for example. in this guide the logical data model also takes into account how your data can be integrated into MicroStrategy to develop a business intelligence solution. Inc. the steps to create a logical data model are as follows: • • • • Step 1: Identify the facts. However. A logical data model is similar in concept to an ERD. page 32 The details in these steps are related to using an existing source system. can be © 2007 MicroStrategy. Step 1: Identify the facts Using your existing data. Building a logical data model 29 . most OLTP systems have an entity relationship diagram (ERD). sales and profit figures. For example.

in the existing data there may be fact data recorded only at the day level. but such considerations should be taken into account during your initial project design initiative. or week level. your users are interested in analyzing data at more than just at the day level. 30 Building a logical data model © 2007 MicroStrategy. This practice is sometimes a reaction to user requirements established after project deployment. You can then design a Year attribute for your project. month. These business levels become the attributes in your logical data model (see Step 2: Identify the attributes.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide stored at the region. To improve performance and meet the requirements of the majority of your users. This analysis requires MicroStrategy to aggregate the sales data from the day level to the year level. page 241). you can include an aggregate table that stores sales data at the year level (see Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables. For example. page 30). Start by looking at the levels at which each fact is recorded and build from there. However. This information may only be apparent to you after you deploy your project and you determine that a high percentage of your users are viewing sales data at the yearly level. Inc. item. . Step 2: Identify the attributes Uncover attributes by considering the levels at which you would like to view the facts on your reports. They also want to view their data at the year. and week levels.

and for every month. Additionally. several dates exist. From the reverse perspective the same relationship specifies that. Only include facts and attributes that can serve your user community. Inc. if necessary. Step 3: Determine attribute relationships Once you have identified your data to be defined as attributes in MicroStrategy. Primary Competitor. you should determine the type of relationship. and Month has a one-to-many relationship to Day. for a number of dates (in a © 2007 MicroStrategy. for every year. For example. Opportunity Open Date.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 Be careful not to include more facts and attributes than necessary. This one-to-many relationship specifies that. in the Sales Force Analysis Module of the MicroStrategy BIDK opportunity information is stored with an Opportunity attribute which is directly related to the attributes Opportunity Close Date. Year has a one-to-many relationship to Month. and so on. you can always add more attributes and facts later. It is usually unnecessary to bring all data from the source system into the analytical environment. Building a logical data model 31 . For example. you must then determine which attributes are related to each other. in the diagram below. several months exist. These attributes are all related to the Opportunity attribute because they all answer questions about opportunity information. Logical data modeling is an iterative process.

you can organize all time-related attributes into the Time hierarchy. Jan 2006. think of hierarchies as logical arrangements of attributes into business areas. only one month exists (in a form such as Dec 2005). Jan. such as an ERD. You can 32 Building a logical data model © 2007 MicroStrategy. If you define the attribute Month as simply the month name (Dec. Inc. Consider the Year to Month attribute relationship type of one-to-many. it is likely that the documentation provides some additional details about the nature of the data and any inherent relationships. . In the context of a logical data model. If you have documentation for the existing data. and so on) and not directly connected to a year (Dec 2005. and so on) then the relationship would become many-to-many. For example.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide form such as 12/01/2005). only one year exists. page 24. Attribute relationships are discussed in detail in Attribute relationships. Step 4: Define hierarchies Hierarchies provide a structure for your data and can help your users easily and intuitively browse for related attributes and include them in a report. This example may not accurately define how you store time information. and for a number of months.

in which case you may have one big hierarchy. you may have very few hierarchies or you may have many. It is possible that all the data is directly related. Depending on the complexity of your data and the nature of your business. Logical data modeling conventions 33 . help with system maintenance. Logical data modeling conventions There are numerous logical data modeling conventions you can use to enhance your logical data model. and make for a more robust logical data model. the requirements of your user community should help you determine what hierarchies are necessary. Again. Although the user community is the ultimate beneficiary of a © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 have a Customer hierarchy containing all attributes related to your customers and a Supplier hierarchy for all attributes related to supplier data. These include: • • • Unique identifiers Cardinalities and ratios Attribute forms These logical modeling conventions can provide cues for system optimization opportunities. Inc.

Each convention adds more information about the data to the logical data model. administrators. Unique identifiers denote the key that maps an attribute to its source data in the source system. page 42). and advanced report designers. Inc. when applicable. This information can help define primary keys in the physical warehouse schema (see Uniquely identifying data in tables with key structures. Remember that facts are usually identified by multiple attributes and therefore will have multiple unique identifiers. This additional information can be particularly useful to a person learning about the system. these conventions are primarily intended for project designers. . Some attributes rely on more than 34 Logical data modeling conventions © 2007 MicroStrategy. The following diagram shows a logical data model with unique identifiers added.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide well-optimized and maintained system. Unique identifiers An additional modeling convention is to add unique identifiers for each attribute and fact.

Inc. note the Item attribute. Ratios can be particularly helpful when trying to © 2007 MicroStrategy. Cardinalities help the database administrator estimate the size of the data warehouse and help project designers determine the best paths for users to navigate through the data using hierarchies in MicroStrategy. For example. which requires both the Item_ID and Class_ID columns to uniquely identify its elements.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 one ID column to identify its elements. Cardinality is the number of unique elements for an attribute and ratios are the ratios between the cardinalities of related attributes. Logical data modeling conventions 35 . which are discussed in Chapter 7. Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes. Cardinalities and ratios Another enhancement to the logical data model is the addition of cardinalities and ratios for each attribute.

it is impossible to determine how many customers have different dates of birth in the warehouse. Note the cardinalities in the upper right corner of each attribute rectangle and the ratios next to some of the relationships between attributes. Also note that the cardinality of some attributes such as Date of Birth are unknown. Inc. Attribute forms Including attribute forms in your logical data model can help you get a more complete view of all of the information that is made available in your project. 36 Logical data modeling conventions © 2007 MicroStrategy. this is because this information varies and is unpredictable. .2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide decide where creating aggregate tables will be most effective. The following diagram shows a logical data model which includes cardinalities and ratios. This additional information can be invaluable to database administrators and project designers. For example.

you create an attribute called Customer to represent customers in your system. Each element of the Customer attribute represents a different customer. Logical data modeling conventions 37 . though. When a one-to-one relationship exists between an attribute and one of its descriptions. For example. you could have included each of these pieces of information as separate attributes. each with a one-to-one relationship to the Customer attribute. you store the following information about your customers: • • • • • Customer number (some numeric code used to uniquely identify customers) First name Last name Address Email address In your logical data model. Inc. and it is part of the Customer hierarchy. you can model these additional © 2007 MicroStrategy. they do not represent different levels within the Customer hierarchy. and in the data. In reality. these attributes simply provide additional information about the Customer attribute.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 Attribute forms contain additional descriptive information about a given attribute.

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pieces of descriptive information as attribute forms. The following diagram shows how you add attribute forms to a logical data model:

Attribute forms are discussed in terms of their role in MicroStrategy in Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms, page 143.

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Physical Warehouse Schema

WAREHOUSE STRUCTURE FOR YOUR LOGICAL DATA MODEL

Introduction
As discussed in the previous chapter, the logical data model can help you think about the logical structure of your business data and the many relationships that exist within that information. The physical warehouse schema is based on the logical data model. It is a detailed graphic representation of your business data as it is stored in the data warehouse. The physical warehouse schema organizes the logical data model in a method that makes sense from a database perspective. In contrast, the logical data model is a logical arrangement of data from the perspective of the general user or business analyst. For more information on what a logical data model is and how to create one, see Chapter 2, The Logical Data Model. The logical data model is only concerned with logical objects of the business model, such as Day, Item, Store, or Account. Several physical warehouse schemas can be derived from the same logical data model. The structure of the schema
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depends on how the data representing those logical objects are to be stored in the warehouse. For example you can store logical objects in the same table, in separate tables, duplicated across several tables, or in some other arrangement. While the logical data model tells you what facts and attributes to create, the physical warehouse schema tells you where the underlying data for those objects is stored. The physical warehouse schema describes how your data is stored in the data warehouse and how it can be retrieved for analysis. Creating a physical warehouse schema is the next step in organizing your business data before you create a project, as shown below:

The key components that make up the physical warehouse schema are columns and tables. Columns and tables in the physical warehouse schema represent facts and attributes from the logical data model. The rows in a table represent attribute elements and fact data.

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Columns: Data identifiers and values
Columns are fields in the warehouse that contain attribute and fact data. The types of columns are: • ID columns contain attribute element identification codes. These codes are typically numeric because computers can process numbers much more rapidly than text. All attributes must have an ID column. Description columns contain descriptions (text or numeric) of attribute elements. Description columns are optional. An ID column can serve a dual purpose as both an ID and description. Date is one example of an attribute that usually does not have a description column. The majority of attributes typically have an ID column and at least one description column. If an attribute has many attribute forms—additional descriptive information about a given attribute—they are represented by additional description columns. • Fact columns contain fact data.

Tables: Physical groupings of related data
The different types of tables are • • • Lookup tables: Attribute storage, page 43 Relate tables: A unique case for relating attributes, page 45 Fact tables: Fact data and levels of aggregation, page 46

While each type of table may function differently within the data warehouse, each type of table can be assigned a primary key that uniquely identifies the elements within the given table.

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Uniquely identifying data in tables with key structures
In relational databases, each table has a primary key that creates a unique value identifying each distinct data record or row. This applies to every type of table within the data warehouse. The types of keys that can be assigned to a table include: • • Simple key requires only one column to identify a record uniquely within a table. Compound key requires multiple columns to identify a unique record.

Which key structure you use to identify a unique attribute in a table depends on the nature of your data and business requirements. The following diagram shows how the different key structures can be used to identify a calling center.

The simple key shows how you can identify a calling center with only its Call_Ctr_id. This means that every calling center has its own unique ID. In the compound key, calling centers are identified by both Call_Ctr_id and Region_id. This means that two calling centers from different regions can share the same Call_Ctr_id. For example, there can be a calling center with ID 1 in region A, and another calling center with ID 1 in region B. In this case, you cannot identify a unique calling center without knowing both the Call_Ctr_id and the Region_id. Simple keys are generally easier to handle in the data warehouse than are compound keys because they require less storage space and they allow for simpler SQL. Compound

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keys tend to increase SQL query complexity, query time, and required storage space. However, compound keys have a more efficient ETL process. Which key structure you use for a particular attribute depends entirely on the nature of the data and your system. Consider what key structures work best when creating lookup tables in the physical warehouse schema.

Lookup tables: Attribute storage
Lookup tables are the physical representation of attributes. They provide the ability to aggregate data at different levels. Lookup tables store the information for an attribute in ID and description columns (see Columns: Data identifiers and values, page 41). Depending on how you choose to organize the physical schema, a lookup table can store information for one or more related attributes. If a table only stores data about one attribute, it is said to be a normalized table. If a table holds data about multiple attributes, it is said to be a denormalized table. The following diagram shows the different ways in which you can organize the same attribute information. Notice that the denormalized table holds the exact same data as the normalized tables. While the denormalized table consolidates

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information about attributes within one table, the normalized tables each contain only a subset of all of the information about the attributes.

You can use either structure for any table in the physical warehouse schema, though each structure has its advantages and disadvantages, as explained in the following sections and outlined in the table in Schema type comparisons, page 60.

Attribute relationships and lookup table structure
Attribute relationships are a major factor in determining the structure of lookup tables in a physical warehouse schema. In general, the following guidelines apply: • One-to-one relationships usually denote the existence of an attribute form. The description column of an attribute form should simply be included as an additional column in the attribute’s lookup table. Many-to-many relationships usually require the use of a relate table distinct from either attribute lookup table. A relate table should include the ID columns of the two attributes in question. For more information on how to use relate tables, see Relate tables: A unique case for relating attributes, page 45.

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Relate tables: A unique case for relating attributes
While lookup tables store information about attributes, relate tables store information about the relationship between two attributes. Relate tables contain the ID columns of two or more attributes, thus defining associations between them. Relate tables are often used to create relationships between attributes that have a many-to-many relationship to each other. With attributes whose direct relationship is one-to-many—in which every element of a parent attribute can relate to multiple elements of a child attribute—you define parent-child relationships by placing the ID column of the parent attribute in the lookup table of the child attribute. The parent ID column in the child table is called a foreign key. This technique allows you to define relationships between attributes in the attributes’ lookup tables, creating tables that function as both lookup tables and relate tables as shown in the following diagram:

In the case of a many-to-many relationship—in which multiple elements of a parent attribute can relate to multiple elements of a child attribute—you must create a separate relate table as shown in the following diagram:

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Fact tables: Fact data and levels of aggregation
Fact tables are used to store fact data. Since attributes provide context for fact values, both fact columns and attribute ID columns are included in fact tables. Facts help to link indirectly related attributes. The attribute ID columns included in a fact table represent the level at which the facts in that table are stored. For example, fact tables containing sales and inventory data look like the tables shown in the following diagram:

For more details on the level of aggregation of your fact data, see Fact table levels: The context of your data, page 48.

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The following diagram shows an example of a fact table and base fact columns: • Derived fact columns are created through a mathematical combination of other existing fact columns. Tables: Physical groupings of related data 47 . The following diagram shows an example of a fact table and how you can create a derived fact column from base fact columns: In the example. and Discount fact columns. the derived fact exists in several tables. Inc. © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 Base fact columns versus derived fact columns The types of fact columns are base fact columns and derived fact columns: • Base fact columns are represented by a single column in a fact table. the derived fact Tot_Dollar_Sales is created using the Qty_Sold. Unit_Price. Also. including Item_Mnth_Sls and City_Ctr_Sls.

see How facts are defined. The disadvantage is that derived fact columns require more storage space and more time during the ETL process. which translates into simpler SQL and a speedier query at report run time. . Inc. The Item_id. day. For example. For more information on what metrics are and how to create them. and call center levels because those levels exist as ID columns in the fact table. Day_id. The Sales and Inventory facts can be analyzed at the item. 48 Tables: Physical groupings of related data © 2007 MicroStrategy. The advantage of storing derived fact columns in the warehouse is that the calculation of data is previously performed and stored separately.3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide Because facts in different fact tables are typically stored at different levels. Metrics allow you to perform calculations and aggregations on fact data from one or more fact columns. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. Fact table levels: The context of your data Facts and fact tables have an associated level based on the attribute ID columns included in the fact table. and Call_Ctr_id columns in the table above represent practical levels at which sales and inventory data can be analyzed on a report. There are advantages and disadvantages to consider when deciding if you should create a derived fact column. derived fact columns can only contain fact columns from the same fact table. the following image shows two facts with an Item/Day/Call Center level. For more information on the different types of facts in MicroStrategy and how they are defined. You can create the same type of data analysis in MicroStrategy with the use of metrics. page 97.

Fact tables should only include attribute ID columns that represent levels at which you intend to analyze the specific fact data. and in one source system regions are identified by column name Region_id and in the other the column name is Reg_id. Tables: Physical groupings of related data 49 . These naming inconsistencies occur because source systems use different naming conventions to name the data they collect. Homogeneous versus heterogeneous column naming Suppose the data warehouse has information from two source systems. as shown in the diagram below. they store the same data: information about regions. and when a reporting request involves still a different level. Inc. Though the Region_id and Reg_id columns have different names. You must be able to support fact reporting at the business levels which users require. © 2007 MicroStrategy. For example.Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 You do not need to include more lookup column IDs than are necessary for a given fact table. The levels at which facts are stored become especially important when you begin to have complex queries with multiple facts in multiple tables that are stored at levels different from one another. this is because analyzing inventory data at the customer level does not result in a practical business calculation. This is called heterogeneous column naming. notice that the table above does not include the Customer_id column.

it is a good idea for columns that contain the same data to have the same column name. heterogeneous columns must be mapped to their corresponding facts and attributes. When you define facts and attributes in MicroStrategy Desktop. as shown in the following diagram: 50 Tables: Physical groupings of related data © 2007 MicroStrategy. For consistency. This explains why the same information about regions is represented by two columns with different names. . For example. This is called homogeneous column naming. if you create a Region attribute given the tables in the example above.3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide The data for the Lookup_Region table came from a different source system than the data for the Lookup_Call_Ctr and the source systems have different naming conventions. In this case. consider the heterogeneous column names that may exist in your source systems. Inc. the Region_ID column has the same name in both tables. In order for reports to retrieve accurate and complete results. you must map both the Region_id and Reg_id columns to the attribute so all information about regions is calculated correctly and displayed on reports when the Region attribute is used.

How you choose to structure the warehouse depends on the nature of your data. Inc. A fact column may or may not have the same name in different tables. These schema types are: • • • Highly normalized schema: Minimal storage space Moderately normalized schema: Balanced storage space and query performance Highly denormalized schema: Enhanced query performance Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage © 2007 MicroStrategy. one of the schema types. or a combination of them. it is also possible for the same fact data to exist in different fact tables. is used to organize the physical schema to enhance query performance while maintaining and acceptable amount of data storage space. Typically. as shown below: Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage There are many ways to structure your data warehouse and no method is inherently right or wrong.Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 Just as it is possible for the same attribute data to exist in different lookup tables. the available storage space. 51 . and the requirements of your user community.

and Region_id. see Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables. The sections below are not meant to be an exhaustive list of all possible schema types. When comparing the different schema types. such as Call_Ctr_id. but as with any operation performed on your data warehouse.3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide In each of these schemas a base fact table and any number of aggregate fact tables are used (For more information on aggregate fact tables. you should keep in mind the following concepts: • Redundant data can cause a couple of drawbacks. Inc. The most obvious drawback is that redundant data requires more storage space to hold the same amount of data as a system with no redundancy. page 241). as shown in the figure below. such as Call_Ctr_desc. These operations are necessary. the number of joins required to build your queries affects the performance of those queries. the sections below are meant to give a description of the most common or general schema types that are used to develop a physical warehouse schema. lookup tables contain unique developer-designed attribute keys. . With no data redundancy. Fact table keys consist of attribute keys relevant to the level of data stored in the table. Dist_Ctr_id. and 52 Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage © 2007 MicroStrategy. In highly normalized schemas. • Highly normalized schema: Minimal storage space The following diagram is an example of a highly normalized schema. Dist_Ctr_desc. They also contain attribute description columns. The schema examples that follow show data at the Item/Call Center/Date level. • Joins are SQL operations that are required to combine two tables together in order to retrieve data. Data redundancy also makes updating data a more intensive and difficult process because data resides in multiple places. However. data only has to be updated in a single place.

Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 Region_desc. Also. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage 53 . Inc. such as Dist_Ctr_id in the Lookup_Call_Ctr table. the lookup table for an attribute contains the ID column of the parent attribute.

This schema type has the same basic structure as the highly normalized schema. Moderately normalized schema: Balanced storage space and query performance The following diagram shows an example of a moderately normalized schema. therefore. This is because each table contains only a small amount of information about a given attribute. However. multiple tables must be joined until the required column is found. there is a drawback to using only small tables in the data warehouse. The difference 54 Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. When accessing higher-level lookup tables such as Lookup_Region in the example above. numerous joins are required to retrieve information about the higher-level tables. .3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide The following diagram shows what physical lookup tables look like in the warehouse: One benefit of using a highly normalized schema is that it requires minimal storage space in the warehouse because of it uses smaller lookup tables than the other schema types.

© 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc.Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 here is the higher-level attribute ID columns are present within all tables of related attributes. Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage 55 . Region_id is included in the Lookup_Call_Ctr table. For example.

The following diagram shows what the physical lookup tables look like in the warehouse. With 56 Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage © 2007 MicroStrategy. the tables within this type of schema take up some redundant storage space in the warehouse. Inc.3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide The fact table structure within a moderately normalized schema is identical to that of the highly normalized schema. Because the ID columns of both the parents and grandparents of an attribute exist in multiple tables. A highly denormalized schema has the same basic structure as the other two schema types. Highly denormalized schema: Enhanced query performance The following diagram is an example of a highly denormalized schema. fewer joins are required when retrieving information about an attribute. since some tables contain the same ID columns (as shown above with the Region_ID column). However. . Using a moderately normalized schema provides a balance between the pros and cons of normalized and denormalized schema types.

High denormalized schemas also cause the highest level of data redundancy. Inc. Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage 57 . Using a highly denormalized schema further reduces the joins necessary to retrieve attribute descriptions. not only are higher-level attribute ID columns present within all related tables. this schema type requires the largest amount of storage space within the warehouse because of its large lookup tables. but the description columns are present as well. you can include the descriptions of Call Center. Distribution Center. However. This is possible because Lookup_Call_CTR contains all information (including description data) for Call Center as well as for Distribution Center and Region. and Region along with Sales Dollars in the same report while only having to join the Lookup_Call_CTR and Fact_Sales tables. For example.Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 this type. Region_desc is included in the Lookup_Call_Ctr table. © 2007 MicroStrategy. For example.

star schemas can often 58 Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage © 2007 MicroStrategy. Arranging the warehouse schema this way produces a star schema. the amount of join operations are reduced by using a star schema. A star schema can also reduce the amount of storage space necessary in a highly denormalized schema. geography) consists of several lookup tables. the lookup tables are consolidated so that every attribute ID and description column for a given hierarchy exists in one table. Inc. however. each hierarchy (for example.3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide Star schema: Consolidating lookup tables When using the highly denormalized schema. . as shown below. However. As with a highly denormalized schema type. In this type of schema. as shown below: As with any schema type model there are advantages and disadvantages to using a star schema. it is possible to eliminate most of the lookup tables and leave just a few. only one lookup table is used to contain all of the attribute IDs and description columns for a given hierarchy. Recall that in a highly denormalized schema. In a star schema.

The following diagram shows the three major requirements that must be balanced to create an effective system. you will have to create an extensive data model and schema to support those requirements. Each of these categories affects the others. Design trade-offs 59 .Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 require large lookup tables that can take a more time to search than the smaller tables that are used in the other schema types. slower query performance. and greater maintenance for the database administrator. SQL queries directed at a consolidated table require the use of a DISTINCT operator and these types of queries tend to be very © 2007 MicroStrategy. This results in an increased load on the warehouse. For example. If you try to satisfy every single user requirement from the simplest to the most complex. if you have the storage space necessary to accommodate data in a star schema it may seem that you would never want to normalize your schema. Inc. Design trade-offs Constructing a logical data model and physical warehouse schema is an iterative process of compromises and trade-offs. However. You must decide which factors are most important in your particular environment and weigh them against the other factors.

In addition to the previous points. page 60. . which are discussed in Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables. The use of a resource-intensive DISTINCT query could therefore negate any performance gain achieved by reducing the number of joins between higher-level lookup tables. The table below compares the different schema types. One hierarchy can be highly normalized while another can be highly denormalized. page 241. Schema Type Highly normalized schema Lookup Table Structure • Attribute ID • Attribute description column • ID column of parent • Attribute ID • Attribute description column • ID column of parent • ID column of grandparents Advantages Minimal storage space and minimal data redundancy which makes updating data less intensive than for the other schema types Greatly reduces the number of joins necessary to relate an attribute to its grandparents as compared to a highly normalized schema Disadvantages Requires numerous joins to retrieve information from higher-level lookup tables Moderately normalized schema Requires some redundant storage 60 Schema type comparisons © 2007 MicroStrategy. see the following section Schema type comparisons.3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide expensive in terms of database resources and processing time. Schema type comparisons One way to achieve a balance of the various trade-offs in your schema design is to use a variety of schema types in your physical warehouse schema. you may need higher level lookup tables to take advantage of aggregate tables. Inc. You can even use different schema types within the same hierarchy. For more comparisons between the different schema types described in this chapter.

Schema type comparisons 61 . it is essential to understand the structure of each of these schema objects before creating a project. Inc. © 2007 MicroStrategy. As facts and attributes are the cornerstones of the reports you intend to create using MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 Schema Type Highly denormalized schema Lookup Table Structure • Attribute ID • Attribute description column • ID column of parent • description column of parent • ID column of grandparents • description column of grandparents • Consolidates an entire hierarchy into a single lookup table Advantages Further reduces joins necessary to retrieve attribute descriptions as compared to a moderately normalized schema Disadvantages Requires the most storage space and redundant data requires a more intensive process to update Star schema • Further reduces joins necessary to retrieve attribute descriptions as compared to a moderately normalized schema • Requires less storage space and data redundancy than a highly denormalized schema and thus data is easier to update Large lookup tables can negatively affect query performance when searching tables and requiring DISTINCT operations to be performed Now that you have gained an understanding of data modeling and the roles of facts and attributes. you can learn about these same schema objects in terms of how they exist in the MicroStrategy environment.

Inc. .3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide 62 Schema type comparisons © 2007 MicroStrategy.

For definitions and descriptions of the components within the MicroStrategy platform that allow you to create and analyze your business intelligence applications. It is ready to be used and requires no additional configuration tasks. 63 . BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform. To see a sample project. you are ready to create a project in MicroStrategy. The Tutorial is a sample data warehouse and demonstration project you can use to learn about the various features of the MicroStrategy platform. CREATING AND CONFIGURING A PROJECT Introduction Once you create a logical model of your business data and arrange the data within the data warehouse. access the MicroStrategy Tutorial provided with the MicroStrategy platform. Inc. For more information about the © 2007 MicroStrategy. This chapter guides you through the first few major steps involved in creating a project in MicroStrategy. see Chapter 1.4 4.

It is intended to familiarize you with some of the terms discussed in this guide. MicroStrategy Tutorial. configuration objects. . see Appendix A. application objects. Project connectivity components This section defines some of the basic terminology used in project creation in MicroStrategy Desktop. MicroStrategy metadata All schema objects. The RDBMS for the metadata and warehouse do not need to be the same. Inc.4 Creating and Configuring a Project Project Design Guide Tutorial. and project settings are stored in the MicroStrategy metadata. refer to the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. 64 Project connectivity components © 2007 MicroStrategy. To view the structure of the MicroStrategy Tutorial. Metadata is stored in a relational database with a predefined structure.

the project source appears in the Folder List with an icon that varies depending on the type of connection it represents. This first step in the project creation process is outlined in Creating the metadata repository.Project Design Guide Creating and Configuring a Project 4 You can find the list of supported RDBMS platforms in the readme file that is installed with MicroStrategy products. To view the readme from the Start menu select Programs. You create the metadata shell with the MicroStrategy Configuration Wizard. login. which creates the blank tables and populates some of the tables with basic initialization data. Project connectivity components 65 . page 71. the necessary tables to hold the data must be present. Metadata shell Before you can populate the metadata repository with data. then MicroStrategy. In MicroStrategy Desktop. The metadata shell is the set of blank tables that are created when you initially implement a MicroStrategy business intelligence environment. You should not connect directly to the metadata unless you are implementing a prototype environment. It is highly recommended that you never use direct mode connection in a production environment. MicroStrategy strongly suggests you always connect to the metadata through Intelligence Server because of the security and scalability it provides. A connection to a metadata repository is achieved in one of two ways: • Direct or two-tier mode ( ): Connects to the metadata by specifying a DSN. Project source The project source is a configuration object which represents a connection to a metadata repository. Inc. and password to a metadata repository. © 2007 MicroStrategy. and then select ReadMe.

and ensures metadata integrity. and MicroStrategy Desktop. A project source connects to a single metadata repository. Intelligence Server is a necessary part of any production project. After the connection to the metadata is established. schema objects. However. Intelligence Server. A four-tier connection is a Server (three-tier) connection in conjunction with MicroStrategy Web deployed on a web server. 66 Project connectivity components © 2007 MicroStrategy. every object definition you create within this project source is stored in this metadata. This includes application objects. For these reasons. page 8 for definitions of these object types). and Intelligence Server is the third tier. This is the type of connection used to create a production-ready project in MicroStrategy. . MicroStrategy Desktop is the second tier. The following diagram illustrates Server connectivity between a MicroStrategy metadata repository. Intelligence Server manages all connections to databases. The project metadata is the first tier. and configuration objects from any number of projects defined within this project source (see MicroStrategy metadata. Inc.4 Creating and Configuring a Project Project Design Guide • Server or three-tier mode( ): Connects to the metadata by pointing to an Intelligence Server definition. which in turn governs and validates the connection to the metadata. A project source may contain any number of projects. enforces security. the same metadata repository can be accessed by multiple project sources.

For more information on what a project is in MicroStrategy. Project A project is where you build and store all schema objects and information you need to create application objects such as reports in the MicroStrategy environment. When you define a project. For information on database instances. page 14. see MicroStrategy project. Inc. A project also represents the intersection of a data source. Connecting to a data source through a database instance is explained in detail in Connecting to a data source. you specify the data source location by creating and selecting a database instance with the appropriate connection parameters. Project connectivity components 67 . and user community. metadata repository.Project Design Guide Creating and Configuring a Project 4 Database instance The database instance is a configuration object that represents a connection to a data source. see the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 72.

It acts as the 68 Creating a project © 2007 MicroStrategy. database instances. and projects. you can begin to build an understanding of how these various pieces work together to provide an integrated business intelligence environment as shown in the following diagram. Bear this process in mind as you proceed through the rest of this guide.4 Creating and Configuring a Project Project Design Guide Summary of project connectivity With a firm understanding of the MicroStrategy metadata. . These steps provide you with a high-level view of the project creation process. 1 Creating the metadata repository The metadata repository contains the objects and definitions associated with your project. Creating a project The following procedure describes the main steps to create a MicroStrategy project. Inc. project sources.

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intermediary between your business data and your reporting environment. Therefore, the first step in the project creation process is to create a metadata repository. For detailed instructions, see Creating the metadata repository, page 71. 2 Connecting to the metadata repository and data source Once the metadata repository is created and populated with initialization data, you must establish connections to both the metadata repository and data source. For detailed instructions, see Connecting to the metadata repository and data source, page 71. 3 Creating the project Having created a metadata repository and established the necessary connections between the different parts of your MicroStrategy environment, you are ready to create the basic definition of your project. For detailed instructions, see Creating the project, page 73. 4 Creating facts and attributes Schema objects such as facts and attributes are the basic components of the logical structure of a project. The business data your user community wants to report on is represented by schema objects in MicroStrategy. Therefore, it is necessary to setup schema objects before reports can be created. This step is covered in Creating facts and attributes, page 82 of this chapter. You can use Query Builder or Freeform SQL to create schema objects as you design reports. For more information for these features, see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide.

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5 Configuring additional schema-level settings Once you create the initial schema objects, you can configure additional schema-level settings that allow you to add complexity and depth to objects in your project and to the project as a whole. For example, you can create advanced facts and attributes to retrieve specific result sets. You can also use attributes to create time-series analysis schema objects called transformations and implement various tools to optimize and maintain your project over time. For information about: • • • Advanced fact creation, see Creating and modifying simple and advanced facts, page 91. Advanced attribute creation, see Adding and modifying attributes, page 134. Hierarchies and hierarchy creation, see Chapter 7, Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes. Transformations and transformation creation, see Chapter 9, Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons. Project optimization and maintenance, see Chapter 8, Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project. The steps listed above relate to the process of creating a project which connects to a database or other data source such as a text file or Excel file. MicroStrategy also supports connecting to data stored in SAP BW, Microsoft Analysis Services 2000 and 2005, and Hyperion Essbase systems. When integrated with MicroStrategy, these systems are referred to as OLAP cube sources. You can connect to any of these OLAP cube sources to report and analyze the data concurrently within a project that also connects to a database, or you can create a a standalone connection to your OLAP cube source (see Appendix B, Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources).

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Creating the metadata repository
Your first step in project creation is to create a metadata repository. This repository stores all the objects necessary to support your project. You can create an empty metadata repository in the database location of your choice using the Metadata Tables option in the Configuration Wizard. Before proceeding to the next section, make sure your metadata repository exists in a non-Microsoft Access database. An Access database is unsuitable for a production project. Create a metadata repository using the guidelines outlined in the Configuring and Connecting Intelligence Server chapter of the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. When you create the metadata repository, MicroStrategy creates a default configuration in the repository. The default configuration populates the tables with the basic data required for the metadata, such as the default project folder structure and basic connection information. These tables are populated with your project information during the project creation step in the Project Creation Assistant, outlined in Creating the project, page 73. For instructions on creating a metadata repository in a database, see the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide.

Connecting to the metadata repository and data source
Once you have created a metadata repository, your next step is to connect MicroStrategy Desktop to the metadata repository and to your data source.

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Connecting to the metadata repository
You connect to the metadata repository in MicroStrategy Desktop or Web through a project source. Recall that a project source is a pointer to a metadata repository. It connects either through a DSN that points to the appropriate database location or by pointing to an instance of Intelligence Server which, in turn, points to the metadata repository location. To configure Intelligence Server and establish a server connection between the metadata, Intelligence Server, and MicroStrategy Desktop, follow the steps in the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide.

Connecting to a data source
A data source contains the business data from which you intend to gain analytical insight. Once you connect to the metadata repository through Intelligence Server, your next step is to create a connection to the data source to which your project can connect. You connect to the data source by creating a database instance in MicroStrategy Desktop. Create a database instance using the procedures outlined in the Configuring and Connecting Intelligence Server chapter of the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. When you create a project, you must assign a database instance to that project. A project specifies only one database instance at a time, but a database instance can be assigned to multiple projects.

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MicroStrategy also allows you to connect to your SAP BW, Microsoft Analysis Services, and Hyperion Essbase data sources. For information about connecting to these OLAP cube sources, see Appendix B, Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources.

Creating the project
You can now begin building the MicroStrategy project that connects to the metadata repository and data source. Project creation involves creating a basic project definition and creating your project’s first schema objects. There are several methods for creating and editing a project, which includes: • Creating a test or prototype project using Project Builder With Project Builder, you can build project prototypes for proof-of-concept tests with your own data. Project Builder is best suited for creating a test project, and it is not intended to create production projects. • Creating a production project using Project Creation Assistant This section guides you through the creation of a production-ready MicroStrategy project. The following table compares the main features of both the Project Creation Assistant and Project Builder. Use the table to determine the project creation tool that best suits your needs.
Features Intended audience Project type Complexity Project Creation Assistant Advanced users Production-ready or other large projects Extensive features require more project design knowledge Project Builder Newer users Test or basic projects Easier to use but fewer features

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Features

Project Creation Assistant Advanced; can create the following objects and more: • multiple tables, attributes, and facts at once • attributes with many-to-many and joint child relationships A variety of databases and other data sources

Project Builder Limited; cannot be used to create multiple schema objects at once, but can be used to create basic hierarchies and metrics

Functionality

Metadata repository type Metric and report creation

Microsoft Access

No, must be done after project creation Yes, basic metrics and reports only

Creating a test or prototype project using Project Builder
Project Builder is a wizard that allows you to create simple MicroStrategy projects quickly and efficiently. Project Builder was created with speed in mind; thus it provides only a subset of the features and functionality of the Project Creation Assistant. It allows you to rapidly create user hierarchies and simple metrics and reports. With Project Builder, you can build project prototypes for proof-of-concept tests with your own data and simple yet functional projects. To create a project for your production environment, it is highly recommended you follow the steps outlined in Creating a production project using Project Creation Assistant, page 75. The Project Creation Assistant can add greater functionality and capability to your project in your production environment. To learn more about Project Builder, proceed through this section. You can also refer to the Introduction to MicroStrategy: Evaluation Guide and the Project Builder online help (press F1 from within Project Builder).

Using Project Builder
By default, Project Builder uses a Microsoft Access database for the metadata repository. A Microsoft Access database is suitable for creating the metadata repository for a prototype

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project, but not a production project. You should not use Microsoft Access for anything other than a proof-of-concept or demonstration type of application. You can use Project Mover to move a demonstration project into a production-ready database (see the System Administration Guide.) Project Builder contains the following options that assist you in creating a prototype project: • My Database allows you to name the project and select the database that contains the business information you want to analyze with the project you create. My Business Model allows you to identify relationships that define the business information in your database. Project Builder uses this structure to help you analyze the data. My Reports allows you to use the attributes and metrics you defined using My Business Model, to create a variety of reports. These reports are based on pre-defined templates. You can also preview and run the reports. You can learn about creating and designing reports in more detail in the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. To access Project Builder from the Start menu select Programs, then MicroStrategy, then Desktop, and then select Project Builder.

Creating a production project using Project Creation Assistant
This section describes how to create a Server-connected (three-tier) project for your production setup using MicroStrategy Desktop. It is assumed you intend to implement Intelligence Server in your business intelligence environment as the means of connecting to your project as opposed to using a two-tier setup.

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Creating a project using the Project Creation Assistant in MicroStrategy Desktop provides advanced functionalities and greater complexity to your project than Project Builder. It allows you to create a new project and add the following objects to it or to an existing project: • • • Tables Facts Attributes

With the Project Creation Assistant you create and configure a project and some of the essential schema objects that reside within it. The intended audience for this tool includes experienced project creators who have planned all their facts, attributes, and data relationships. This information is covered elsewhere in this guide. For a listing of information covered in specific chapters, see Planning your project below. The main advantage of the Project Creation Assistant over Project Builder is its ability to create multiple schema objects at once. Since you can efficiently add multiple tables and develop numerous attributes and facts, it is especially useful for large projects which contain many tables and schema objects. With the Project Creation Assistant you can also create attributes with many-to-many relationships.

Planning your project
Before using the Project Creation Assistant, you should plan your project and consider the following: • The logical data model you intend to use for this project; logical data models are covered in Chapter 2, The Logical Data Model. The tables to use in the project; physical warehouse schema models are covered in Chapter 3, Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model. The facts to include in the project and the data types used to identify them; facts are covered in Chapter 5, The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts.

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The attributes to create in the project and the data types used to identify them, including: The description column name for each attribute. Any other attribute forms for each attribute. The child attributes for each attribute. Attributes are covered in Chapter 6, The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes.

Creating a new project using the Project Creation Assistant
Once you have planned your project and completed the prerequisites, you can use the Project Creation Assistant to build the project and populate the metadata based on the data structures present in your data warehouse. The steps of the Project Creation Assistant are: 1 Initialize/create the project. Initializing the project means giving the project a name and selecting the metadata repository in which to create the project—that is, the project source. After you specify these settings, the shell of a project is created in the metadata. This configures the folder structure and default connectivity settings. Be aware that this process can take some time to complete. 2 Select tables from the Warehouse Catalog. In this step, you use the Warehouse Catalog to specify which data warehouse tables to include in your project. 3 Create facts. 4 Create attributes. You should complete all the steps in the Project Creation Assistant at the same time. While you can save an incomplete project definition, you cannot finish creating it later with the Project Creation Assistant. Instead, you must complete it using the
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Fact Creation Assistant. For more details on how to setup HTML documents for a project. description. To create a new project using the Project Creation Assistant 1 Log in to a project source in MicroStrategy Desktop. as shown below: 3 Click Create project.4 Creating and Configuring a Project Project Design Guide appropriate interface. see the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. . 4 Enter the name. 78 Creating the project © 2007 MicroStrategy. The New Project page opens. or Attribute Creation Assistant. Inc. select Create New Project. The Project Creation Assistant opens. The default document directory for a project is the directory location to store all HTML documents. such as the Warehouse Catalog. To create a project source which connects to your data through Intelligence Server. and default document directory location for the project. see the Configuring and Connecting Intelligence Server chapter of the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. 2 From the Schema menu.

and the Project locale property match. Proceed to the next section to determine the tables to be used in your project. The Project Creation Assistant creates an empty project in the metadata repository. The language check prevents these inconsistencies and ensures that the language display is consistent across the project. 8 Enter a valid login ID and password and click OK. a language check ensures that the language settings of the user profile of the local machine (the CURRENT_USER registry key). 7 Click OK. If you are not authorized by your database or system administrator to create projects in the data source you have selected.Project Design Guide Creating and Configuring a Project 4 5 To support anonymous authentication mode for guest users for this project. the language of the local machine (the LOCAL_MACHINE registry key). and relationship tables to use in your new © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. it can lead to inconsistencies in the language display. you select the lookup. From this list. Creating the project 79 . When you create a new project. The Warehouse Catalog lists all the tables in the data source to which you are connected through your database instance and to which your database login has read privileges. When these properties do not match. Adding tables using the Warehouse Catalog The warehouse tables for a project determines the set of data available to be analyzed in the project. The Warehouse Catalog queries the data source and lists the tables and columns that exist in it. select Enable the guest user account for this project. select the project source in which you created the database instance to connect to your metadata repository. you cannot proceed to the next step. The Login dialog box opens. 6 From the Project Source drop-down list. You use the Warehouse Catalog to add warehouse tables to your project. fact.

and tables are abstractions built on top of the tables and columns in the data source. The Warehouse Catalog opens. they become schema objects known as logical tables in MicroStrategy. Inc. 80 Creating the project © 2007 MicroStrategy. . Logical Tables. The Warehouse Database Instance dialog box opens. To learn more about these objects. including transformation tables. MicroStrategy schema objects such as attributes. You should also include all other tables needed to complete your project. and are discussed in detail in Appendix C. aggregate tables. You can edit your database instance by clicking Edit. Database instances and database logins are MicroStrategy objects that determine the warehouse to which a project connects. refer to the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. The database login you use must have read privileges so you are able to view the tables in the selected warehouse. Once tables are selected from the data source and added to your project. facts. The database instance selected in this dialog box determines which data source is accessed. Logical tables are representations of the tables that are available in the data warehouse. select Select tables from the Warehouse Catalog. and partition mapping tables. 2 Select a database instance from the drop-down list and click OK.4 Creating and Configuring a Project Project Design Guide project. To add and remove tables to the project using the Warehouse Catalog 1 In the Project Creation Assistant.

Creating the project 81 . see Managing warehouse and project tables.Project Design Guide Creating and Configuring a Project 4 3 The left side of the Warehouse Catalog lists all available tables and the number of rows each table contains. © 2007 MicroStrategy. if any: 4 From the left side. specify a table prefix. page 221. Warehouse Catalog options 6 Right-clicking any table provides you with additional Warehouse Catalog functionality. Click >> to add all the listed tables. The list on the right shows all the tables currently being used in the project. select them from the right side and click < to remove them. 5 To remove tables from your project. Inc. and click > to add the selected tables. Click << to remove all the tables from your project. For more information on these abilities and how to use them. copy a table. or specify a database instance for a table. select the tables you want to add to the Warehouse Catalog. For example you can view rows in a table.

however. Inc. Follow the instructions outlined in Creating facts and attributes. see Modifying data warehouse connection and operation defaults. page 83 to learn how to create these schema objects and configure additional schema-level settings for those objects. After exiting the Project Creation Assistant. 82 Creating facts and attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. Creating facts and attributes This step in the project creation process involves using the Project Creation Assistant to create two kinds of schema objects: facts and attributes.4 Creating and Configuring a Project Project Design Guide 7 To set advanced options you can click Options on the Warehouse Catalog toolbar. The next step in the Project Creation Wizard involves creating schema objects: facts and attributes. customize how tables and columns are read from the database system catalog. 8 In the toolbar. The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes. For more information on these abilities and how to use them. For example. The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts and Chapter 6. you can still access the Warehouse Catalog to add additional tables. it is important to understand what facts and attributes are and the defining characteristics of each. see Adding and removing tables for a project. click Save and Close to save your changes to the Warehouse Catalog. you can change the database instance. page 82 and Configuring additional schema-level settings. display extra table and row information. . This process can take some time to complete. This information is covered in Chapter 5. For steps to access the Warehouse Catalog to add tables to a project. page 226. page 220. Before you create facts and attributes. The table definitions are written to the metadata. and decide whether schema objects are mapped automatically or manually.

and configure facts. attribute forms. edit. User hierarchies: The Hierarchy Editor allows you to create user hierarchies. and the Warehouse Partition Mapping Editor. Attribute definitions: The Attribute Editor allows you to create and edit attributes. Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project. page 91. Configuring additional schema-level settings 83 . Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes. which are schema objects used for time-series analysis. Transformations are covered in Chapter 9. and partitioning and partition mappings: The Transformation Editor allows you to create transformations. This is covered in Chapter 7. proceed to the chapters referenced above to complete the next steps in the project creation process. and attribute form expressions. page 134. This is covered in Adding and modifying attributes. Advanced configurations: These objects include transformations. the Metadata Partition Mapping Editor. which facilitate access to attribute and element browsing and drilling. This is covered in Creating and modifying simple and advanced facts. The tools used to create aggregate tables and partitions are the Warehouse Catalog. Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons. Inc. These settings include: • Fact definitions: The Fact Editor allows you to create. This information is covered in Chapter 8. • • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. Now that you have completed most of the key steps in creating a new project.Project Design Guide Creating and Configuring a Project 4 Configuring additional schema-level settings The final step in the project creation process involves configuring additional schema-level settings to add more analytical depth to your schema objects and optimize the project as a whole. aggregate tables.

refer to the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide and the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. Note the following: • MicroStrategy allows you to connect to your SAP BW. refer to the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. the project you deploy will contain only basic facts and attributes. and other report objects such as filters. for creating reports in MicroStrategy Web. filters. . For a complete discussion of metrics. and other report objects. that if you completed only the steps in this chapter. Metrics. reports. For information about creating reports in MicroStrategy Desktop. • 84 Deploying your project and creating reports © 2007 MicroStrategy. Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources. refer to the Deploying your Project with MicroStrategy Web chapter of the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. Facts are used to create metrics. however. and metrics and attributes are essential components of reports. For information about connecting to OLAP cube sources. Keep in mind. are beyond the scope of this guide. custom groups. Inc. see the MicroStrategy Web online help. Proceed to the chapters listed above to add analytical depth and more functionality to your project. To learn more about how to deploy your project using MicroStrategy Web. you can deploy it to your user community using MicroStrategy Web. and prompts. You can also begin creating reports in MicroStrategy Desktop and MicroStrategy Web. see the Creating Freeform SQL reports chapter in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. Facts and attributes provide the backbone of the reports and documents created by report designers. For information on how to use your own customized SQL statements to create reports.4 Creating and Configuring a Project Project Design Guide Deploying your project and creating reports After you create a project. and Hyperion Essbase data sources. see Appendix B. Microsoft Analysis Services.

Facts form the basis for metrics. 85 . They relate numeric data values from the data warehouse to the MicroStrategy reporting environment. facts are schema objects created by and shared between MicroStrategy users. THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF BUSINESS DATA: FACTS Introduction Facts are one of the essential elements within the business data model. © 2007 MicroStrategy. and the store and month represent attributes. The facts you create in MicroStrategy allow users to access data stored in the data warehouse. Inc. For example. In a MicroStrategy project. Facts and attributes are necessary to define projects. which are used in the majority of analyses and reports that users can create with MicroStrategy. you want to analyze the amount of sales at a certain store during January. In the MicroStrategy environment. In this case. the amount of sales represents the fact. As the project designer. facts are numeric data and attributes are contextual data for the facts. Facts generally represent the answers to the business questions on which users want to report.5 5.

Facts are stored in the data warehouse in fact tables. . as shown below. that column is accessed to retrieve the necessary data. Each cell in the columns represents a specific piece of information. When fact information is requested for a report in MicroStrategy. Users can then use these facts and attributes as building blocks for metrics and reports.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide you must create projects that contain facts and attributes. These fact tables are composed of different columns. 86 © 2007 MicroStrategy. Facts are based on physical columns within tables in the data warehouse. Inc. This data is used to create a metric (such as profit) which is a business measure.

facts do not describe data. Data warehouses contain different types of facts depending on the purpose of the data. page 88 covers steps to create multiple. page 91 covers steps to add and modify both simple and advanced facts for an existing project. facts are logical MicroStrategy objects that correspond to physical columns and tables. Creating facts • © 2007 MicroStrategy. For example. This section provides steps to create facts at different phases of the project design process. Creating facts A fact has two common characteristics: it is numeric and it is aggregatable. and cost. Creating and modifying simple and advanced facts. The procedures to perform these tasks are discussed in the first section (Creating facts. units sold. it can often be necessary to modify and create facts throughout the life cycle of a project. It is important to understand how to define facts because facts are the basis for almost all metrics. The later sections discuss conceptual information on facts. as well as highlight some advanced fact design techniques and procedures. Unlike attributes. page 87) of this chapter. 87 .Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 Like other schema objects such as attributes. Facts such as Quantity and Item Cost could exist in a warehouse containing sales and distribution data. profit. While creating facts is a major step in the initial creation of a project. Facts are the actual data values stored at a specific fact level. using different techniques and MicroStrategy interfaces: • Simultaneously creating multiple. simple facts. facts such as Tenure and Compensation Cost could exist in a data warehouse that contains human resources data. simple facts as part of the initial project design effort or later in a project’s life cycle. Facts also allow you to create advanced metrics containing data that is not stored in the warehouse but can be derived by extending facts. A fact entry level is the lowest set of attributes at which a fact is stored. Examples of facts include sales dollars. Inc.

You can also access the Fact Creation Wizard in MicroStrategy Desktop from the Schema menu. 88 Creating facts © 2007 MicroStrategy. • The Fact Editor. which is discussed in Creating and modifying simple and advanced facts.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide Simultaneously creating multiple. Inc. utilizing the following MicroStrategy tools: • The Fact Creation Wizard is a step-by-step interface that is typically used when you first create a project. The Project Creation Assistant utilizes the Fact Creation Wizard to help you create the facts for your initial project creation effort. However. fact creation and modification can be done throughout the entire life cycle of a project. you can create multiple simple facts using the Project Creation Assistant and the Fact Creation Wizard. simple facts During your initial project design effort. is used to add advanced features to facts that already exist or to create new simple or advanced facts as your project evolves. It allows you to create multiple facts in a single creation process. . Facts can be created and modified using a number of various techniques. page 91.

select Create facts.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 To create facts with the Fact Creation Wizard 1 In the Project Creation Assistant. If the naming conventions in your warehouse do not conform to the defaults in the Fact Creation Rules page. Rules help automate and govern the fact creation process. 89 © 2007 MicroStrategy. only columns whose data types are numeric or character-based are displayed in the Fact Creation Wizard as possible columns to use for your facts. you can only select data types for the ID columns of your facts. 3 The Column data type area allows you to select the column data types that are available as possible fact ID columns. The Fact Creation Wizard opens. Therefore. Select the check boxes for the data types to be included when the wizard searches the data warehouse for available fact columns. Unlike most attributes which can access multiple columns of description information. The Fact Creation Rules page opens. you may need to change these rules. if you select Character and Numeric and leave the remaining check boxes cleared. as shown below: 2 Click Define Rules to set some basic fact creation rules. Creating facts . a fact does not have description information. Inc. For example.

The Column Selection page opens. For more information about mapping facts to heterogeneous columns. Note the following: – You can rename any fact to make its name more user-friendly by right-clicking the fact and selecting Rename. 8 To remove fact columns from your project. The selected fact definitions are stored in the metadata. select them from the Facts pane and click < to move them to the left side. select the fact columns to use for your facts and click > to add them to your project. Fact column selection 6 Click Next. that is. Click >> to add all the listed columns. heterogeneous columns). page 129. Click << to remove all the columns in your project. 90 Creating facts © 2007 MicroStrategy. To continue creating a project with the Project Creation Assistant.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide 4 The Fact name area allows you to determine how to create default fact names. with columns that are not currently being used in the project listed in the Available columns pane. Select the appropriate check boxes to create the desired default fact names. 10 Review the summary information in the Finish page and click Finish to create the facts. The Finish page opens. – The Fact Creation Wizard cannot handle columns that hold the same information but have different column names (that is. 9 Click Next. Inc. page 102. 7 From the Available columns pane. 5 Click OK to accept your rule changes and return to the Fact Creation Wizard. see Simultaneously creating multiple attributes. whether to replace underscores in the fact name with spaces and whether the first letter is capitalized. see Facts with different column names: Heterogeneous column names. .

Inc. level extensions. column aliases. log in to the project source that contains your project and expand your project. Creating one or more simple facts with the Fact Creation Wizard Although the Fact Creation Wizard is primarily used to create most of a project’s facts during initial project creation. you can use it to create one or more simple facts at the same time. However. you can use either the Fact Creation Wizard or the Fact Editor to create new facts in your project: • With the Fact Creation Wizard you can: Create simple facts Create multiple facts quickly Add a large number of facts during project creation • With the Fact Editor you can: Create simple and advanced facts Edit existing facts and configure additional schema-level settings The Fact Creation Wizard can create multiple facts quickly and easily. you only use the Fact Creation Wizard as part of the initial project creation. Typically. it limits you to creating simple facts and does not allow you to edit existing facts. map multiple or heterogeneous columns. Creating facts 91 . You can use the Fact Editor to edit existing facts and create fact expressions. To create facts with the Fact Creation Wizard 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. for creating most of the facts for the project. and configure other settings.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 Creating and modifying simple and advanced facts After you have created a project. © 2007 MicroStrategy.

To use the Fact Creation Wizard to add facts. 2 From the Folder List in MicroStrategy Desktop. For more information about privileges. 2 From the Folder List in MicroStrategy Desktop. 3 From the Schema menu. page 89. select the project to which to add additional facts.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide You must use a login that has Architect privileges. You must use a login that has Architect privileges. Inc. 92 Creating facts © 2007 MicroStrategy. . see Permissions and Privileges of the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. You can also use the Fact Editor to add extensions to those facts and configure additional settings within them to support various analytical requirements. see Permissions and Privileges of the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. follow the procedures outlined in To create facts with the Fact Creation Wizard. select Fact Creation Wizard. For more information about privileges. you can create additional facts and modify existing facts with the Fact Editor. log in to the project source that contains your project and expand your project. To create a simple fact with the Fact Editor 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. select the project to which to add additional facts. The Fact Creation Wizard opens. Creating simple and advanced facts with the Fact Editor As your project evolves. The following procedure describes how to use the Fact Editor to create a simple fact based on a single fact column in a table.

– If you are creating a constant expression that is not based on a physical column in a project table. The source table is the table or logical view that contains the fact column on which you want to base a new fact. page 231) determine whether attributes or facts are automatically mapped to new tables when they are added after an attribute or fact is created. • © 2007 MicroStrategy. You then select which of those tables are used as source tables for the fact. select the tables for which you want your constant expression to apply. select New. The Fact Editor opens. 5 From the Available columns pane. Inc.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 3 From the File menu. Manual mapping means that MicroStrategy scans all of the tables in the project and locates all tables with the columns used in the fact expression. 4 From the Source table drop-down list. • Automatic mapping means that MicroStrategy scans all of the tables in the project and selects all tables with the columns used in the fact expression as possible source tables for the fact. 6 In the Mapping area. The Warehouse Catalog mapping methods (discussed in Mapping schema objects and calculating logical sizes for tables. select the source table for the fact. Creating facts 93 . Using automatic mapping in the Attribute Editor helps you decide which tables to map your facts to when creating a fact. – If the same column name does not contain the same data across different tables. drag and drop a fact column into the Fact expression pane. – These mapping methods are different from the automatic mapping methods for the Warehouse Catalog. with the Create New Fact Expression dialog box displayed on top of it. manually select the appropriate source tables for each fact. select Automatic or Manual. You can then remove any tables mapped automatically or select other tables. and then Fact.

refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. which exists in both the Fact_Sales table and the Fact_Discount table. create column aliases. page 105. When creating the Discount fact. the Sales column contains revenue data.e.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide For example. although the column name is the same in both tables (i. Fact extensions are discussed in Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions. 8 Use the tabs of the Fact Editor to define fact expressions. you must select the Manual mapping method so you can select the Fact_Discount table as a source table for the Discount fact. as described below. the MicroStrategy SQL Engine may use the incorrect column for the facts. Fact definitions are discussed in How facts are defined. However. Column aliases are discussed in Fact column names and data types: Column aliases. Extensions: This tab allows you to create fact level extensions. the columns contain different fact data in each table. In other words. page 107. and create extensions. suppose you have a column named Sales. In the Fact_Sales table. If you use the Automatic mapping method in both cases. 7 Click OK to close the Create New Fact Expression dialog box. page 97. in the Fact_Discount table. • • 9 When your changes are complete. you must select the Manual mapping method so you can select the Fact_Sales table as a source table for the Revenue fact. . For detailed information about the options on each tab within the Fact Editor. • Definition: This tab allows you to define fact expressions. Inc. 94 Creating facts © 2007 MicroStrategy. When creating the Revenue fact. Sales). Column Alias: This tab allows you to create a column alias for the fact. click Save and Close. the Sales column contains discount data.

Creating facts 95 . 11 From the Schema menu. The fact is saved and the Fact Editor closes.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 10 In the Save As dialog box. Modifying simple and advanced facts To modify an existing fact 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. navigate to the location in which to save the fact. Enter a name for the fact and click Save. Inc. select Update Schema to update the project schema. 2 Double-click the fact to open the Fact Editor and edit the fact. You can learn how to create more advanced facts in the various sections below. © 2007 MicroStrategy. open the folder that contains the fact to modify.

Extensions can also prevent a fact from being reported at a certain level. Level extensions are very effective for advanced data modeling scenarios. Fact definitions are discussed in detail in How facts are defined. Every fact must have at least one expression. page 107. The column alias stores the column name MicroStrategy uses to generate SQL statements when creating temporary tables related to the fact. page 105. unless you create a new column alias. . Every fact must have a column alias. facts are made up of the following components: • The fact definition is composed of one or more fact expressions. Column aliases are discussed in detail in Fact column names and data types: Column aliases. • • 96 The structure of facts © 2007 MicroStrategy. Level extensions are discussed in detail in Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions. Inc.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide The structure of facts As shown in the diagram below. MicroStrategy selects a default column alias depending on the type of fact. page 97. even though it is stored at that level. Fact level extensions allow facts stored in the data warehouse at one level to be reported at an unrelated level.

some facts use more advanced expressions to perform calculations on multiple columns of data to return a single fact. multiple expressions can exist within a fact definition. including the fact name. see Creating facts. which includes the fact’s name. © 2007 MicroStrategy. The following table provides an example of a fact definition. and source tables. Level extensions are optional. both the fact definition and column alias are automatically defined. and often must be calculated differently from one table to the next. The fact expression contained in the definition represents how the fact is calculated by MicroStrategy. During project creation with the Fact Creation Wizard. the fact expression is simply the name of the column which holds the fact data. However. How facts are defined A fact definition contains properties that define a fact and its components. and the source tables it uses. How facts are defined 97 . Inc. Facts can be found in multiple tables in a warehouse schema. While the Unit Price fact only has one expression. page 87. For a discussion of the tools used to created facts and procedures on how to use them. expression. The fact definition is composed of at least one fact expression and basic information about the fact. In this case. when you select the numeric column used to represent the fact. expression. Fact Name Unit Price Expression All_Sales Source Tables LU_ITEM ORDER_DETAIL In the example.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 You create facts in MicroStrategy Desktop using the Fact Creation Wizard and the Fact Editor. the fact expression maps the fact to the All_Sales columns in the LU_ITEM and ORDER_DETAIL tables in the warehouse.

Inc. These expressions can be as simple as a fact column name from the warehouse or as sophisticated as a formula containing multiple fact column names and numeric constants. fact expressions define how the fact is calculated. a fact expression represents a mapping to specific fact information in the warehouse. A fact definition must have one or more fact expressions. For each of the tables.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide Note the following: • • Each fact expression relates to one or more related tables that contain the fact. . Regardless of how it is defined. The following image illustrates a column in the fact table and the associated fact expressions: Valid fact expressions are formulas constructed from fact columns with or without numeric constants or mathematical operators. The mathematical operators that can be used in a fact expression are: • • • • Addition (+) Subtraction (-) Multiplication (*) Division (/) 98 How facts are defined © 2007 MicroStrategy. Mapping physical columns to facts: Fact expressions A fact expression maps facts to physical columns in the warehouse.

creates a derived fact. Derived facts and derived fact expressions A derived fact has its value determined by an expression that contains more than just a column in a table. where you can sum the column holding the constant to create a COUNT. Any operation on a column such as adding a constant. if you want to build a metric defined as Sum(1). see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. Apply functions are discussed in the Pass-Through Expressions appendix in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. How facts are defined 99 . • Most facts represent physical columns in the data warehouse. adding another column’s values. you can use implicit fact expressions to create “temporary columns” in the database with a value of “1” for every row. Implicit facts and implicit fact expressions Implicit facts are virtual or constant facts that do not physically exist in the database. page 91. An implicit fact indicates a fact table from which to retrieve data. These temporary columns allow you to keep track of how many rows are returned for a certain attribute. You may also find it helpful to use implicit facts when building metrics. or setting the expression to be an absolute value. you are creating a fact © 2007 MicroStrategy. In other words. you can define a fact equal to the constant “1”. However.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 Note the following: • You can use the Fact Editor to create fact expressions. For example. as explained in the following sections. These steps are covered in Creating and modifying simple and advanced facts. some facts do not exist at all in the warehouse and are defined in other ways. Inc. For example. The implicit fact can have its expression defined as a constant value. although nothing is saved in a table column. A fact can also be defined using an ApplySimple function. For detailed information about metrics.

5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide from information that is available in the data warehouse. Metrics allow you to perform calculations and aggregations on your fact data. a table in your data warehouse contains the following elements: Fact Table 1 Item Quarter Quantity_Sold Price You can create a new fact. In this case. For a more generalized procedure to create derived facts. Example: creating derived facts The Cost fact in the MicroStrategy Tutorial contains the derived fact expression Qty_Sold * Unit_Cost. For more information on what metrics are and how to create them. by creating the following derived fact: Sales = Quantity_Sold * Price One advantage of creating a derived fact is that a derived fact allows one consistent fact to exist in the project in lieu of having to retrieve multiple intermediary facts from multiple tables. Using a single fact saves storage space and limits the number of SQL passes used in queries. “How much did it cost the company to create the items purchased by customers?” The following procedure describes how to create a derived fact that uses the derived fact expression described above. Rather than creating a derived fact. the columns are used to answer the business question. 100 How facts are defined © 2007 MicroStrategy. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. . see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. For example. Sales. This expression implies that columns containing data about the quantity of items sold and the price of those units can be multiplied to produce a useful business calculation. Inc. you can create such analysis in MicroStrategy with the use of metrics.

3 From the File menu. with the Create New Fact Expression dialog box displayed on top of it. 5 From the Available columns pane. and open the My Objects folder. double-click the UNIT_PRICE column to add it to end of the fact expression. click * (multiplication operator) to add it to the expression. double-click the QTY_SOLD column to add it to the Fact expression pane on the right. How facts are defined 101 . 6 With the cursor in the Fact expression pane. The derived fact expression appears in the Fact expression pane in the Fact Editor. select the ORDER_DETAIL table. point to New. select Automatic. 9 Click Validate to check whether the syntax of the expression is correct. 7 From the Available columns list. The expression should appear as shown below: 10 Click OK. 4 From the Source table drop-down list. and then select Fact. © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 To create a derived fact 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. 8 Under Mapping method. log in to the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. The Fact Editor opens. Inc. 2 Navigate to the My Personal Objects folder.

since this is only an example. 13 When you create a fact for your project. you must update the project schema. These two items represent the same information. select Save As. In the example above. it is not necessary to update the schema. Table 1 Year Dollar_Sales Table 2 Month Dollar_Sls MicroStrategy allows you to identify heterogeneous fact column names for each fact. at this point. you can refer the same fact to multiple columns with different column names and from different tables that identify the same quantitative value. the same fact can access columns with different column names. Table 2 includes a fact called Dollar_Sls. creating a heterogeneous fact column name for dollar sales informs the system that the Dollar_Sales and Dollar_Sls columns represent the same fact. When you call for the information in a report through the use of a metric. resulting in an accurate representation of the fact in the report. Facts with different column names: Heterogeneous column names In your warehouse. With heterogeneous column names. Table 1 contains a fact called Dollar_Sales. 102 How facts are defined © 2007 MicroStrategy. . both fact columns are used in the SQL.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide 11 From the File menu. two fact tables in a warehouse each contain columns for dollar sales. However. In the example below. 12 Enter a name for the derived fact and click Save. The Save menu opens. Inc.

In the procedure. and open the My Objects folder. log in to the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. 2 Navigate to the My Personal Objects folder. they represent the same data and are therefore both mapped to the Unit Sold fact. This is one of the tables in which a heterogeneous fact column for the Units Sold fact exists. How facts are defined 103 . Qty_Sold and Tot_Unit_Sales. select Automatic. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. 7 Click OK. 4 From the Source table drop-down list. To create heterogeneous fact columns 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 Example: mapping heterogeneous fact columns The Units Sold fact in MicroStrategy Tutorial consists of two fact columns in the warehouse. You must map heterogeneous fact columns to their corresponding facts to ensure that accurate and complete data is displayed on reports. 6 In the Mapping method area. For a more generalized procedure to map heterogeneous fact columns. 5 From the Available columns pane. select the ORDER_FACT table. with the Create New Fact Expression dialog box displayed on top of it. Inc. The following procedure describes how to create the Units Sold fact that already exists in MicroStrategy Tutorial. and then select Fact. Although these fact columns have different names and exist in different fact tables. you create the Units Sold fact and map its corresponding heterogeneous fact columns to it. point to New. The Fact Editor opens. © 2007 MicroStrategy. 3 From the File menu. double-click the QTY_SOLD column to add it to the Fact expression pane on the right. The Fact Editor opens and the fact expression you just created appears in the Fact expression pane.

5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide Now you must add the other heterogeneous fact column as separate expression for the Units Sold fact. 14 Enter a name for the new fact and click Save. This is the other table in which a heterogeneous fact column for the Units Sold fact exists. at this point. Now the Units Sold fact you are creating maps correctly to its heterogeneous fact columns. you must update the project schema. double-click the TOT_UNIT_SALES column to add it to the Fact expression pane on the right. select Automatic. 13 From the File menu. 9 From the Source table drop-down list. 104 How facts are defined © 2007 MicroStrategy. select the CITY_CTR_SALES table. since this is only an example. 11 In the Mapping method area. 15 When you create a fact for your project. . Inc. select Save As. it is not necessary to update the schema. 8 Click New. 10 From the Available columns pane. The Create New Fact Expression dialog box opens. However. The Save menu opens. 12 Click OK. The Fact Editor opens and the fact expression you just created appears in the Fact expression pane.

the data type for a fact is inherited from the data type of the column on which the fact is defined in the data warehouse. you can define a fact to be the difference between two dates to perform a calculation such as the average number of days between a start and an end date. By default.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 Fact column names and data types: Column aliases A column alias specifies both the name of the column to be used in temporary tables and the data type to be used for the fact. [Start_Date_Id]. © 2007 MicroStrategy. You could create this fact using the following expression: ApplySimple("DateDiff(day. Fact column names and data types: Column aliases 105 . [End_Date_Id]) The expression syntax is specific to your database type. This syntax is specific to Microsoft SQL Server. there are cases where you may need to change this. For example. The SQL you create may be different.#0. #1)". However. Inc.

The Column Editor . This can cause an error for some database platforms. the difference between the two dates. you should modify the column alias for the fact to change the default Date data type to an Integer data type. To create a column alias for a fact This procedure assumes you have already created a fact with a valid fact expression for which to create a new column alias. Data type: The data type for the fact. 6 You can modify the following properties for the column alias: • Column name: The name for the column alias which is used in any SQL statements which include the fact column. Data Types. the result of the calculation. that is. log in to the project source that contains the fact to create a new column alias for. If you did not change the data type of the column alias. click Modify. • 106 Fact column names and data types: Column aliases © 2007 MicroStrategy. . However. 2 Right-click the fact and select Edit. This is used when a temporary SQL table needs to be created for the calculation. 3 Select the Column Alias tab. 5 Select New to create a new column alias. For a description of the different data types supported by MicroStrategy. 4 In the Column alias area. then the system uses a Date data type and tries to insert integer data into this column. see Appendix D. is an integer. Inc.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide The data type for this fact is automatically set to a Date data type because the Start_Date_ID and End_Date_ID have Date data types.Column Selection dialog box opens.Definition dialog box opens. 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. The Column Editor . To avoid the possibility of an error due to conflicting data types. You can use the Fact Editor to create column aliases. The Fact Editor opens.

Inc. The level of a fact is defined by the attribute IDs present in the table. precision.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 • Depending on the data type selected.Column Selection dialog box. the fact table shown below contains several attribute IDs. For a detailed description on each of these properties. Fact Table 1 Item Quarter Quantity_Sold Price Level extensions are necessary when facts are stored in the data warehouse at one level and reported at different levels. 8 Click OK to save your changes and return to the Fact Editor. For example. These attribute IDs imply that the fact is reported at the item and quarter levels by default. see the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. 9 Select Save and Close to save your changes. you can specify the byte length. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 107 . 7 Click OK to save your changes and return to the Column Editor . or time scale for your column alias. scale. bit length. Every fact is tied to a set of attributes that may or may not © 2007 MicroStrategy. including Item and Quarter. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions Facts are stored at a particular business level in the warehouse.

A fact extension is needed when a fact does not relate directly or indirectly to an attribute included on a report. you have to extend the level of the Discount fact to the Call Center level. all attributes at a higher logical level in the hierarchy are available for use as well. you record a Discount fact at the Item/Date level. discounts apply to particular items on particular days. Inc. For example. . That is. without the use of level extensions. However. which is an attribute from a different hierarchy. MicroStrategy can aggregate the cost fact data to the level of the year attribute because it is in the same hierarchy as the date attribute and at a higher level. You can use level extensions to change a fact level and extend a fact level to a level in a completely different hierarchy. For example if you have a cost fact at the level of a date attribute in a time hierarchy. If the entry level of a fact is at the lowest level of a hierarchy. page 118).5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide satisfy all users’ reporting requirements. To see if some call centers are selling significantly more items at a discount than other call centers. 108 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. facts require level extensions to be related to any attributes that are at a lower logical level in the same hierarchy than the entry level for a fact (see Lowering the level of fact data: Fact degradations.

You can create fact level extensions by using any of the following methods: • • • • • Defining a join on fact tables using table relations. you are allowing facts or attributes that have been captured at one level to be extended to other levels to meet reporting requirements. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 109 . Inc.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 Level extensions define how facts can be extended. By creating a level extension. page 116 Lowering the level of fact data: Fact degradations. This is because if a fact is stored at a level unrelated to an attribute on a report. page 110 Defining a join on fact tables using fact relations. lowered. or disallowed to other attributes across the schema. Before a metric containing a fact can be used with an attribute that is not in or related to the attribute’s entry level. page 114 Forcing facts to relate to attributes: Using cross product joins. © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 118 Disallowing the reporting of a fact at a certain level. and they tend to be used only in specific cases. there is no way to make a connection between the fact data and the attribute. a level extension must be defined for the fact. Otherwise. Level extensions are not required like the fact definition and column alias. page 122 You can find complete descriptions for each of these methods in the online help for the Level Extension Wizard in the Fact Editor. You can use the Fact Editor to create level extensions. a level extension must exist to relate the fact data to the attribute.

Inc. 110 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. the ORDER_DETAIL table is used to create the Freight fact extension to Item because: 1 The ORDER_FACT and ORDER_DETAIL tables both contain the Order attribute’s identity column to join the tables. Since the ORDER_FACT table that defines Freight does not include the identity column for the Item attribute. Notice that the ORDER_FACT and ORDER_DETAIL tables include Order-level Units Sold and Item-level Units Sold columns respectively. When you specify a table to join with a fact. For example. The join is important as the table contains an attribute in the entry level and the attribute to which to extend. These two columns are used to allocate the fact expression in the procedure below. the MicroStrategy Tutorial project includes a Freight metric. the Freight fact cannot be reported at the Item level. A fact extension can be used to relate a fact to an attribute using a fact table. The procedure also describes general principles of creating fact extensions which you can use to create fact extensions for the facts in your project. and ORDER_DETAIL contains the Item attribute’s identity column to extend the fact to Item. you are creating a table relation to extend a fact. This metric has a table relation fact extension to the Item attribute. In this example. 2 The Freight fact cannot simply be joined with a table containing Item information to return a meaningful freight value for each item. A fact extension is required to view freight values for each item included in an order. . An allocation expression is required to extend Freight to the Item level. The following procedure steps through how to create the fact extension that has been created for the Freight fact of the Tutorial project.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide Defining a join on fact tables using table relations A table relation defines a join on tables.

To create a new fact extension you would click New. or a cross product join Disallow partially or completely the fact entry level: define a fact extension that does not allow a fact to be reported at a certain level (see Disallowing the reporting of a fact at a certain level. page 122) • • For this example you are creating a fact extension on a table relation. or disallow the fact entry level 6 Enter a name and a description for your fact extension (already provided). 5 Read the Welcome statement and click Next. extend. The Level Extension Wizard opens. The Extended Attributes page opens. dynamic fact relation. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 111 . 2 Browse to the Facts folder and double-click the Freight fact to edit it. page 118) Extend the fact entry level: define a fact extension on a table relation. 4 Select Extension to Item and click Modify.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 To define a fact extension with a table relation 1 In Desktop. The General Information page opens. 3 Click the Extensions tab. Inc. so select Extend the fact entry level. The Fact Editor opens. However. and click Next. © 2007 MicroStrategy. this example steps through how the Freight fact extension Extension to Item was created. To lower. Then select whether you want to: • Lower the fact entry level: define a fact degradation (see Lowering the level of fact data: Fact degradations. log in to the MicroStrategy Tutorial project.

Click Next. Select the relationship table dynamically: select a fact and join attributes. • For this example select Specify the relationship table used to extend the fact. page 116) . allowing the fact to be reported at the new level. Perform the extension through a cross product: select to apply a cross product join (see Forcing facts to relate to attributes: Using cross product joins. The Extension Type page opens. Click Next. To select the type of fact extension 8 Select how you want to extend the fact: • • Specify the relationship table used to extend the fact: select a relationship table and join attributes. 10 Select whether to allow Intelligence Server to dynamically select what attribute(s) to perform the join.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide To select attributes to extend the fact to 7 Select the attributes you want to extend the fact to. To select the table. the ORDER_DETAIL table is already selected. The Table Selection page opens. For this example. join attributes. choose the lowest level attribute in that hierarchy. The Join Type page opens. select Order and click Next. 112 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. This allows the MicroStrategy Engine to select the table that includes the fact and join attributes you choose to create the fact extension (see Defining a join on fact tables using fact relations. page 114). and define the allocation expression 9 Select the table used to extend the fact to the new level. The Join Attributes Direction page opens. or manually select the attribute(s). and click Next to continue defining your fact extension on a table relation. To extend the fact so that it can be reported at any level in a hierarchy. Since you know that you want to join the ORDER_FACT and ORDER_DETAIL tables using the Order attribute. . Inc. For this example Item is already selected.

A more detailed description of why this occurs follows this procedure. ((Freight * [Item-level Units Sold]) / [Order-level Units Sold]). 12 Enter an allocation expression that calculates the fact at the new level. it joins ORDER_FACT and ORDER_DETAIL and considers the resulting table as one logical fact table at the Item. 13 Click Finish to create the fact extension. the extension of Freight provides an estimate of the freight for each item of an order. max(a11. The SQL generated for the report containing Order.[ORDER_ID] = a12.[ITEM_ID] The SQL statement above is for an Access database. a12. and Freight. and Freight (metric mapped to the Freight fact) is: select a11. max(a13. The Allocation page opens.[ITEM_ID] group by a11.[ORDER_DATE]) AS ORDER_DATE.[ITEM_NAME]) AS ITEM_NAME. Notice that the expression returns an average freight amount per item of an order. Employee. so you do not have to click the Join against arrow to change the default.[ITEM_ID] AS ITEM_ID.[ORDER_ID]. The SQL for your reports may vary depending on the type of DBMS you use. Item.[QTY_SOLD]) / a11.[ORDER_ID] AS ORDER_ID.[FREIGHT] * a12. © 2007 MicroStrategy. or join using the attribute and its children.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 11 You can choose to join using the attribute. For this example. Item. Take a moment to review the allocation expression. Therefore.[QTY_SOLD])) AS WJXBFS1 from [ORDER_FACT] a11. not an exact calculation. Promotion level. In this case Order has no children. Inc. Click Next. a12.[ORDER_ID] and a12. Day. Order. sum(((a11. [ORDER_DETAIL] a12. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 113 . [LU_ITEM] a13 where a11. When the engine processes a report containing Order. the allocation expression is already provided.[ITEM_ID] = a13.

If you want to provide exact values of data at a certain level. Defining a join on fact tables using fact relations Fact extensions can be defined by a fact relation instead of a table relation.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide To view how the fact extension is an estimation of freight values for each item of an order. since the MicroStrategy Engine is responsible for choosing the appropriate table to join. This illustrates how fact extensions often provide an estimation of values at a different level rather than an exact calculation. 114 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. the table join is possible on any table that contains the fact. review the values of the first order with an extra metric that calculates the number of each item type in an order shown below. rather than you having to select tables manually. This allows more flexibility in defining the relations. you most likely need to capture such data and store it in your data source. The larger freight values occur because more than one of the item type was included in the order. . With a fact relation. Notice that the Freight metric averages the amount of freight per item in an order. Inc.

The engine can make the following joins. you can create a fact relation using the Order Unit Sales fact. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 115 . page 110 after two summary tables are added to it. Inc. To extend the entry level of the Freight fact to Customer. © 2007 MicroStrategy. The MicroStrategy Engine tries to join a table containing Freight to a table containing Order Unit Sales. Open the Order Unit Sales fact and extend it to either Distribution Center and Order or just Distribution Center. and Order Table 1 and Table 4 on Distribution Center Table 2 and Table 3 on Distribution Center Table 3 and Table 4 on Distribution Center The joins described above demonstrate how the join attributes can be either Distribution Center and Order or just Distribution Center.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 The following diagram shows the schema from the example in Defining a join on fact tables using table relations. You can define the fact relation in the Level Extension Wizard which you can access from the Fact Editor. depending on the join attributes specified: • • • • Table 1 and Table 2 on Distribution Center. This option is set in the step immediately after To select the type of fact extension. select the Select the relationship table dynamically option and specify the tables to use for the extension. Next.

The SQL for your reports may vary depending on the type of DBMS you use. the set of join attributes must contain the entire key of the left-hand-side fact table (Table 3 in the example SQL above).CUSTOMER.DIST_CENTER = a2.DIST_CENTER group by a1. The tables and attributes you specify in the wizard determine the different types of joins that are created. select a1.DIST_CENTER. Cross products should only be used when no other way to extend the fact exists. and Freight is shown below. The cross product join is an extension that allows a single fact value to relate to all elements of an unrelated attribute.DIST_CENTER. a2. Customer. Forcing facts to relate to attributes: Using cross product joins You can use a cross product join when a join does not exist and you need to force a fact to relate to an attribute by extending the fact. MicroStrategy does not recommend using the cross product join. Inc. a2. When you specify a cross product join to relate a fact to an attribute. sum(a1. .5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide page 112 in the procedure above. you can specify the best fit as the join strategy so that the engine calculates the joins. if the only join attribute is Distribution Center. This method can produce incorrect data because data can be repeated and counted twice in some cases. you are creating a Cartesian product of the lookup attribute. 116 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. Since this method can be inefficient.Freight) from TABLE3 a1. As with table relations. In a best fit join. as explained above. The SQL generated for a report containing Distribution Center.CUSTOMER The SQL statement above is for an Access database. TABLE4 a2 where a1.

and Dollar Sales is: select a1.DIST_CENTER. This option is set in the step immediately after To select the type of fact extension.CUSTOMER. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 117 . Distribution Center.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 For example. TABLE2 a2 group by a1. Next. The MicroStrategy Engine always cross-joins the lookup tables of the attributes in the extension. a2. © 2007 MicroStrategy. The SQL for your reports may vary depending on the type of DBMS you use. Notice that no join attributes are specified. select the Perform the extension through a cross product option. You can define this cross product join in the Level Extension Wizard in the Fact Editor. Inc. For this example.DOLLAR_SALES) from TABLE1 a1. Distribution Center does not relate to Dollar Sales: Table 1 Table 2 Order Customer Dollar Sales Distribution Center To report Dollar Sales by Distribution Center. you do not need to specify an allocation expression.DIST_CENTER The SQL statement above is for an Access database. Open the Dollar Sales fact and extend it to the Distribution Center attribute. sum(a2. page 112 of the procedure above. in the following schema. a cross product join must be used. The SQL generated for a report containing Customer.

and metrics used in this example can all be found in this Analytics Module). you can create more meaningful analysis with other fact data that is 118 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. and has a fact degradation to the Employee level (the attributes. Inc. However. This causes every employee to be listed with the same planned compensation value as the employee’s department. For example. is the logical opposite of aggregation. as shown below: The analytical value of this fact degradation is not immediately recognizable. you must degrade the fact to a lower level.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide Lowering the level of fact data: Fact degradations Degradation. facts. the Human Resources Analysis Module of the MicroStrategy BIDK includes a Planned Compensation fact that is stored at the Department level. . now that Planned Compensation is available at the Employee level. This scenario may occur because you stored a fact at a level that is used most commonly in reports. you must support those users who wish to view and analyze the same fact data at a lower logical level. The fact extension does not use an allocation expression to degrade Planned Compensation to the Employee level. To view fact data at a lower logical level than the fact is stored at. However. which lowers a fact level.

the Compensation Cost fact is stored at the Employee level. which performs a division of metrics defined from the Compensation Cost and Planned Compensation facts. Inc. respectively. To define a fact degradation 1 In Desktop. you could not include Department and Employee on a report with these metrics and return accurate values. The metric definition is ([Compensation Cost]/[Planned Compensation]). You can now view what percentage of your planned compensation per department has been spent per employee.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 stored at the Employee level. © 2007 MicroStrategy. The procedure also describes general principles of creating fact degradations which you can use to create fact degradations for the facts in your project. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 119 . The following procedure steps through how to create the fact degradation that has been created for the Planned Compensation fact of the Human Resources Analysis Module. The Fact Editor opens. The metric Actual as % Planned Compensation has been created to calculate the actual compensation of an employee as a percentage of the planned compensation for the entire department of the employee. log in to the Human Resources Analysis Module. 2 Browse to the Facts / Compensation / Planning folder and double-click the Planned Compensation fact to edit it. For example. as shown below: Without using a degradation of Planned Compensation to Employee.

4 Select Degradation to Employee and click Modify. this example steps through how the Planned Compensation fact degradation Degradation to Employee was created. and click Next. The Join Attributes Direction page opens. . allowing the fact to be reported at the new level. For this example. The Level Extension Wizard opens. the Department attribute is already selected. For this example Employee is already selected. The Extended Attributes page opens. Click Next. dynamic fact relation. Then select whether you want to: • • Lower the fact entry level: define a fact degradation Extend the fact entry level: define a fact extension on a table relation. To create a new fact degradation you would click New. 8 Select what attribute(s) to perform the join. However. 120 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. choose the lowest level attribute in that hierarchy.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide 3 Click the Extensions tab. page 114) Disallow partially or completely the fact entry level: define a fact extension that does not allow a fact to be reported at a certain level (see Disallowing the reporting of a fact at a certain level. 6 Enter a name and a description for your fact extension (already provided). Click Next. page 110 and Defining a join on fact tables using fact relations. or a cross product join (see Defining a join on fact tables using table relations. The Join Type page opens. 7 Select the attributes you want to degrade the fact to. To extend the fact so that it can be reported at any level in a hierarchy. page 122) • For this example you are creating a fact degradation so select Lower the fact entry level. Inc. 5 Read the Welcome statement and click Next. The General Information page opens.

See Fact degradations with allocation expressions. Allocation expressions are defined by operations you set on attributes and facts in the Level Extension Wizard in the Fact Editor. Avg. this is often an unlikely scenario. and so on) when aggregating data to higher levels. consider the allocation expression fact/12 for a degradation from Year to Month. you do not need to include an allocation expression. For this example. By creating allocation expressions. which allows the distribution of values according to a calculation you specify. You select Month to be the attribute to which to degrade. Such fact degradations should be used 121 © 2007 MicroStrategy. Using such an allocation expression would spread a year’s fact data evenly over the 12 months of that year. While it is possible that the fact data would be the same for every month of the year. to change the definition of the fact in a level extension. For example. Ordinarily. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions . page 121 for an example of using an allocation expression for a fact degradation. you must add an allocation expression. you define how higher-level facts are degraded to lower-level attributes. the join is performed on the Department attribute and its children. The Allocation page opens. You then specify that the allocation expression is fact/12. For example. if your fact is stored at the yearly level and you want to report the data at the monthly level. 11 Click Finish to create the fact degradation. Fact degradations with allocation expressions Not all fact degradations can simply be lowered to a new level. This is similar in concept to choosing an aggregation function (Sum. For this example. 10 Enter an allocation expression that calculates the fact at the new level. you can create a degradation on the fact to relate it to the monthly level. Click Next. Inc. or join using the attribute and its children.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 9 You can choose to join using the attribute. Fact degradations often produce data estimates rather than exact values for the fact data at lower logical levels.

For example. does not affect normal joins. Inc. Disallowing the reporting of a fact at a certain level The Disallow partially or completely the fact entry level setting within the Fact Editor is like a lock which prevents a fact from being reported at a specific level. The setting prevents unnecessary joins to lookup tables. the Analytical Engine does a dynamic cross-join and evaluates the report. After updating the schema and re-executing the report. extend. With a disallow in place. . If a fact is stored at a level that is counterproductive to a query. To explicitly disallow an extension of the Sales fact to the Time dimension. or disallow the fact entry level. if you have three years’ worth of data. an error is returned. This option is set in the step immediately after To lower. you can disallow the lower levels. 122 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. the report fails because the disallow setting now prevents the cross-joins between the lookup tables and fact tables. and Product. you would use the Disallow partially or completely the fact entry level setting and select the lowest attribute in the Time dimension such as Day. The following examples describe instances in which disallowing a fact entry level can prove useful. Consider a schema containing three dimensions: Geography.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide only when fact data is not stored at a lower logical level and there is no way to directly relate the fact data to the lower logical level. if you create a report and attempt to include the fact at the Minute or Second level. When you create a report containing the Month attribute and the Sales metric. page 111 of the procedure to create a fact extension above. querying at the Minute or Second level consumes too many resources and returns extensive data. Disallowing a fact to be extended to a level lower than the fact’s entry level due to unnecessary complexity and the cost of analyzing fact data at such a level is a common use for this feature. indicating that the report cannot be run at that level. Suppose you create a fact called Sales at the Item level in the Product dimension and a metric called Sales as the sum of the Sales fact. however. Time. This setting. such as data that is stored at the Minute or Second level.

the engine sorts the extension conditions specified in some order and calculates the report based on the sorted order of extensions. It is advisable to avoid fact definitions that contain contradictory extension definitions. the report runs successfully. assume you specify an extension to the Month attribute and also disallow extension to Year which is a parent of the extended attribute. Month. This is because Revenue exists at the same level as Item in the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. although the engine returns a valid SQL. For example.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 In the previous example. So you encounter only normal joins and no extensions. The Disallow the fact entry level setting applies only to attributes that can be considered as extended attributes. Inc. You now disallow an extension on the Revenue fact for the Item attribute and update the schema. you can still see Revenue by Item. In this case. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 123 . If you execute the report containing the Year attribute and Sales metric. This is not an expected design condition. This implies that the fact extension has not been disallowed. If you re-execute the report. There must be a valid reason to disallow reporting a fact at a certain level. © 2007 MicroStrategy. disallowing the Revenue fact at the level it is stored at in the data warehouse does not make logical sense. which is defined as sum of the Revenue fact. you create a report that contains the attributes Subcategory and Item and the Revenue metric. for the Sales fact. In this case.

Inc. .5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide 124 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy.

you have a report with the Month. Because of the attributes on the report. THE CONTEXT OF YOUR BUSINESS DATA: ATTRIBUTES Introduction Business data represented by facts can offer little insight without the presence of business concepts and context. which take the form of attributes in MicroStrategy. Inc. the report displays your company’s revenue at the region.6 6. as well as a Revenue metric based on the Revenue fact. and Region attributes on the template. you can only find out how much revenue the company generated in total. including which regions produced the least revenue and which years saw the highest growth in revenue. a substantial amount of information is available. knowing where and when the sales took place provides the kind of analytical depth users require on a daily basis. and year levels. Year. 125 . While knowing your company’s total sales is useful. For example. month. © 2007 MicroStrategy. If you remove the attributes from the report. When executed. Attributes provide the business model with a context in which to report on and analyze facts.

using this report definition. A report designer creates a report in part by determining these report column headers. sum(Sales) From Store_Fact Group By Store_ID. New user and application requirements make attribute creation and modification an important part of the entire project life cycle. Intelligence Server. Date.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Creating attributes is an important step in the initial project design effort. For example. In MicroStrategy reports. Inc. The expressions of attributes and facts in the report define the SELECT clause of the SQL command. . consider the following: Select Store_ID. In the data warehouse. instructs the engine how to build the SQL for that report. attributes are identified by the column headers of the reports. attributes are normally identified by a unique ID column in a lookup table. which comes after creating facts when using the Project Creation Assistant. Date 126 © 2007 MicroStrategy.

A high-level report. such as a report at the Year level.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 In the SQL above. page 159. Because of this process. 127 . is the lowest level of detail reported. See Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms. It is important to understand the data is still the same. See Attribute form expressions. such as Day. For example. Attributes can have multiple attribute forms. Inc. and Customer Last Name are examples of attribute forms. A discussion about metrics. Attribute relationship: allows interaction of data at different conceptual levels and shows how data is related within a project. page 147. filters. sales information will be retrieved by store and date. Customer First Name. Attributes are defined by these properties: • Attribute form: contains an identifier or descriptor of an attribute. The lowest level attribute you include in a report. includes the Year attribute but lacks the detail of a similar report which includes the lower level attributes Month and Week. for the Customer attribute. • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 143. report analyzers do not have to know SQL to extract information from a data warehouse. it is just not aggregated. The attributes and metrics in the report tell Intelligence Server where to look in the data warehouse for the information and how to create the SQL that will retrieve it. Attribute expression: maps a MicroStrategy attribute form to one or more columns in the warehouse. and reports is beyond the scope of this guide and is covered in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. See Attribute relationships. Customer Email.

The later sections discuss conceptual information on attributes.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide The following diagram illustrates how the attribute properties listed above are related: While creating attributes is a major step in the initial creation of a project. as well as highlight some advanced attribute design techniques and procedures. 128 © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 129) of this chapter. The procedures to perform these tasks are discussed in the first section (Creating attributes. it is often necessary to modify and create attributes throughout the life cycle of a project. . Inc.

Adding and modifying attributes. which launches the Attribute Creation Wizard to complete the attribute creation tasks. • Simultaneously creating multiple attributes During your initial project design effort. This includes adding advanced features such as attribute forms to attributes that already exist or adding new attributes as your project evolves. creating attributes is a major step in any project design effort. Inc. The ability to report on and analyze data requires data to have a business context. you can create multiple attributes using the Attribute Creation Wizard.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Creating attributes An attribute is primarily used to group and aggregate fact data to add business context to the fact data. page 134—steps to add and modify attributes for an existing project. therefore. For steps to access the Project Creation Wizard. using different techniques and MicroStrategy interfaces: • Simultaneously creating multiple attributes. see To create a new project using the Project Creation Assistant. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Creating attributes 129 . To create attributes using the Attribute Creation Wizard This procedure is part of an initial project creation effort using the Project Creation Assistant. page 129—steps to create multiple attributes as part of the initial project design effort or later in a project’s life cycle. This section provides steps to create attributes at different phases of the project design process.

especially if you use consistent naming conventions and data types in your data warehouse. The Attribute Creation Rules page opens. . The Attribute Creation Wizard uses these rules below to help automate the attribute creation process.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide page 78. as shown below. Change these rules if the naming or data type conventions in your warehouse do not conform to these defaults. The Attribute Creation Wizard opens. Define attribute creation rules These rules can make the process of choosing attribute columns and naming your attributes considerably easier. Select the check boxes for the data types that should be included when the wizard searches the data warehouse for available attribute ID columns. 2 Review the introduction page that is displayed. 130 Creating attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. 3 Click Define Rules to set some basic attribute creation rules. 4 The Column data type area allows you to select the column data types to be available as possible attribute ID columns. You can also access the Attribute Creation Wizard at any time in the development of a project from the Schema menu in MicroStrategy Desktop. click Create attributes. 1 In the Project Creation Assistant. Inc.

Creating attributes 131 .Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 5 The Attribute name area allows you to determine how to create default attribute names. The ID Column Selection page opens. 7 Click OK to accept your rule changes and return to the Attribute Creation Wizard. © 2007 MicroStrategy. and LOOKUP for lookup tables. Only those columns with data types that match those chosen in the rules you defined above appear on the ID Selection page. make sure that all values in the column are unique and that it does not contain NULL values. ID column selection An ID column is a column or group of columns that uniquely identifies each element of an attribute. You should never use a column that has NULL or repeated values as the ID column for an attribute. Doing so results in unexpected behavior and errors. 8 Click Next. When choosing the ID column for an attribute. The columns that match the identifier naming convention that you set in the warehouse search rule above are automatically highlighted. Inc. The defaults are ID for identifier columns. DESC for description columns. You can select the appropriate check boxes to set the following default behaviors for creating attribute names: • • • Replace underscores in the attribute name with spaces Remove the word “ID” from the name Capitalize the first letter 6 The Warehouse search area determines naming conventions to help locate your warehouse objects.

Select the columns that are required to uniquely identify the compound attribute and click OK. You are returned to the Attribute Creation Wizard. see Joining dissimilar column names: Heterogeneous mappings. page 183). For more information about mapping attributes to heterogeneous columns. Note the following: – You can rename any attribute name to make it more user-friendly by right-clicking the attribute and selecting Rename. page 153. Description column selection Description columns provide the data which gives context and meaning to your attributes. 10 To create a compound attribute. complete the following steps: • • • Click Compound Attributes and then click Add. – To remove attribute ID columns from your project. select the attribute IDs in the Attributes pane and click < to move them to the Available columns pane. . Type a name for the attribute. heterogeneous columns). Create compound attributes A compound attribute is defined as an attribute with more than one column specified as the ID column.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide 9 From the Available columns pane. Inc. select the columns to use for your attribute IDs and click > to add them to your project. The New Compound Attribute dialog box opens. 132 Creating attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. – The Attribute Creation Wizard cannot handle columns that hold the same information but have different column names (that is. Click >> to add all the listed columns. This implies that more than one ID column is needed to uniquely identify the elements of that attribute (see Attributes with more than one ID column: Compound attributes.

The Description Column Selection page opens. such as Year. you should use the default description column for each attribute. – Other attribute forms need to be created through the Attribute Editor after you complete steps in the Project Creation Assistant. Inc. Specify the lookup table and description column for the compound attributes and click Next. The Relationship Definition page opens. 13 Click Next when you are finished selecting description columns for attributes. page 136. Note the following: – In general. The table that follows the lookup naming convention that you set in the warehouse search rule is automatically selected. • © 2007 MicroStrategy. for more information about attribute forms. Refer to Adding attributes with the Attribute Editor. 15 Click Next: • If you have created compound attributes. If you have not created a compound attribute. the Relationship Definition page opens. In some cases. Creating attributes 133 . they provide the information for an attribute through data stored in their ID and description columns. In general.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 11 After adding all your attribute ID columns. 12 Select whether to use the ID or a different column for the description of the attribute. click Next. it may make sense to use the ID column as the description column. The column that meets the description naming convention that you set in the warehouse search rule is automatically selected. the Compound Attribute Definition page opens. you should choose the default lookup table for each attribute. 14 Select the lookup table for each attribute. however. Lookup table selection Lookup tables are the physical representation of attributes. The Lookup Table Selection page opens.

As a company evolves. After you have completed the steps of the Attribute Creation Wizard. so does its 134 Creating attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. see Attribute relationships. 18 Review the summary information in the Finish page and click Finish to create the attributes. or many-to-many. select the relationship type for the attribute to its child attribute. In a logical data model. The Logical Data Model). select an attribute and click Add. You are returned to the Attribute Creation Wizard. you can also create and add attributes as they become necessary.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Relationship definition For each attribute. For more information on the different attribute relationship types. you specify the children and the type of relationship: one-to-one. whereas attributes in different hierarchies cannot be related. or Region are often grouped in a common hierarchy. Related attributes such as City. When you design a logical data model for your project (see Chapter 2. Select the child attributes from the list of available child attributes and click OK. Inc. The Select Children Attributes dialog box opens. Adding and modifying attributes Just as you can add more facts to your project once you have created it. • 17 When you have defined children for all the attributes that need them. like Location. when attributes are in the same hierarchy they must be related to each other. the attributes are created. In the Children of: attribute name pane. click Next. The Finish page opens. the relationships between attributes should become apparent. This completes the initial creation of a project with the Project Creation Assistant. define child attributes: • • In the Attributes pane. 16 For each attribute. State. one-to-many. . page 159.

with offices only in the United States. configure additional settings. it must add lookup tables that contain data about its new offices to its warehouse. and create the appropriate attributes so report users can analyze business data for their appropriate country. you only use the Attribute Creation Wizard as part of the initial project creation. for creating most of the attributes for the project. • The Attribute Creation Wizard allows you to: Create simple attributes Create multiple attributes quickly Add a large number of attributes during project creation • The Attribute Editor allows you to: Create simple and advanced attributes Edit existing attributes and configure additional schema-level settings The Attribute Creation Wizard works well for building a large number of attributes initially. Creating attributes 135 . map heterogeneous column names. these requirements can lead to changes to the data warehouse as well as to the schema within its MicroStrategy projects.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 reporting requirements. decides to extend its operations into Europe and Asia. However. In general. attribute forms. when the company opens its offices in Europe and Asia. It must then add these tables to its MicroStrategy project. For example. which you use to create the first attributes for your project. © 2007 MicroStrategy. and attribute form expressions. You can create attributes with either the Attribute Creation Wizard. the company does not include lookup tables with information about different countries in its data warehouse. Before the shift overseas. a health care company. and so on. but you cannot use it to modify existing attributes or to define more advanced attributes. Inc. which allows you to define attributes. define advanced expressions. or the Attribute Editor. You can use the Attribute Editor to edit existing attributes and create additional attribute forms.

The Attribute Creation Wizard opens. 4 To create attributes with the Attribute Creation Wizard. You must use a login that has Architect privileges. See the Permissions and Privileges appendix of the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide for more information. log in to the project source that contains your project and expand your project. Inc.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Adding attributes with the Attribute Creation Wizard Although the Attribute Creation Wizard is primarily used to create most of a project’s attributes during initial project creation. Follow the steps below to use the Attribute Creation Wizard to create simple attributes in bulk. you may still find it useful if you need to create multiple attributes from remaining lookup columns in your warehouse. . You can also use it to add new attributes to your project. To create simple attributes in bulk using the Attribute Creation Wizard 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. 3 From the Schema menu. Adding attributes with the Attribute Editor The Attribute Editor is used to add advanced features such as attribute forms to attributes that already exist. page 129. choose Attribute Creation Wizard. follow the steps outlined in Simultaneously creating multiple attributes. select the project to which to add new attributes. 136 Creating attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. 2 From the Folder List.

or select other tables. 3 From the Source table drop-down list. 5 Click Validate to make sure your expression is valid. Click any operator in the Form expression toolbar to insert it into the expression. functions. 2 From the File menu. use a combination of any of the following techniques: • • • Enter constants in double quotes. The Attribute Editor opens. Click f(x) in the Form expression toolbar to create a function using the Insert Function Wizard. select New. and then Attribute. select Automatic or Manual: • Automatic mapping means that MicroStrategy scans all of the tables in the project and selects all tables with the columns used in the attribute form expression as possible source tables for the attribute form. Inc. © 2007 MicroStrategy. You can then clear any tables mapped automatically. log in to the project source that contains your project and expand your project. you are only required to select an available column and move it to the Form expression pane. with the Create New Form Expression dialog box displayed on top of it. To create a more advanced attribute form expression.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 To create an attribute using the Attribute Editor 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. You do not have to include any operators. select a table which contains the columns of data for the attribute. or parentheses. Creating attributes 137 . Its columns are listed in the Available Columns pane. 4 To create a simple attribute form expression (Attribute form expressions. When you create an expression for an attribute form. drag a column name from the Available columns pane to the Form expression pane. 6 Under Mapping Method. page 147).

A lookup table holds the information for an attribute. – These mapping methods are NOT the same as the automatic mapping methods for the Warehouse Catalog. . Inc.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide • Manual mapping means that MicroStrategy scans all of the tables in the project and locates all tables with the columns used in the attribute form expression. page 143). Using automatic mapping in the Attribute Editor helps you decide which tables to map your attribute to when creating an attribute. the default is Manual. You then select which of those tables are used as source tables for the attribute form. The Warehouse Catalog mapping methods (discussed in Mapping schema objects and calculating logical sizes for tables. 7 Click OK. page 231) determine whether attributes or facts are automatically mapped to new tables when they are added after an attribute or fact is created. Note the following: – The mapping method defaults to Automatic for the first attribute or attribute form expression you create. 138 Creating attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. 8 From the Source tables pane. The system maps the expression to each of the source tables. select the check boxes of the tables to map to the attribute form. type a name and description in the associated fields for the attribute form. select a table and click Set as Lookup to set the lookup table for the attribute. 9 In the Form general information area. If you chose manual mapping. from which you can create attribute forms for the attribute (Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms. For subsequent attributes. – A constant expression cannot use the automatic mapping method. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens.

Using a column with a non-numeric data type as an ID column of an attribute can result in SQL generation issues. 15 From the Schema menu. For a description of form categories. 11 In the Form format area. select Update Schema to update the project schema. you can modify the attribute at any time using the Attribute Editor. if you select a column with a non-numeric data type and set it as an ID column. Enter a name for the derived fact. refer to the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. do one of the following: • Select a form category from the drop-down list. • Modifying attributes After creating an attribute. page 146. Creating attributes 139 . a warning message appears by default when you click OK in the Create New Attribute Form dialog box. select Save As. 12 Click OK. Inc. Click Modify to create a new form category. 13 From the File menu. This ensures that your project is updated to recognize the new attribute definition. Click Save.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 10 In the Category used drop-down list. For more information on custom groups. Custom groups are sorted by the Default sort of the form that appears first in the Report display forms. select a display type and a default sorting option from the associated drop-down lists. © 2007 MicroStrategy. 14 Navigate to the folder in which to save the attribute. Therefore. You cannot use the Attribute Creation Wizard to modify attributes. see Attribute form properties. The Attribute Editor opens. The Save dialog box opens.

page 137. Unique sets of attribute information: Attribute elements Attribute elements are the unique sets of information or values of an attribute. which is described in the previous procedure To create an attribute using the Attribute Editor. in the following diagram. and Boston BN are elements of the attribute City: 140 Unique sets of attribute information: Attribute elements © 2007 MicroStrategy.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide To modify an existing attribute 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. open the folder that contains the attribute to modify. You can then modify all the options available when creating and attribute in the Attribute Editor. Inc. You can learn how to create more advanced attributes in the various sections below. For example. . 2 Double-click the attribute to edit. The Attribute Editor opens. Baltimore BA. Customer is the attribute and New York NY.

Attribute elements are identified by their browse forms. Unique sets of attribute information: Attribute elements . which should be forms that provide a general description of the attribute element. With the Customer attribute. the First Name and Last Name forms are used to identify the 141 © 2007 MicroStrategy. As shown above. in the image above. each attribute element is an individual customer. Each attribute element is a row in an attribute lookup table in your data warehouse. first name. as shown below: The Customer attribute is a good example to understand the components of an attribute and the concept of an attribute element. For example. email address. Each customer (attribute element) has its own set of information such as last name.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 The following example displays the physical warehouse table that stores elements and data for the Customer attribute. Inc. and so on which are defined by the attribute forms (see Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms. page 143). an attribute element is a unique set of information defined by the attribute forms of an attribute.

and Sporting Goods: In MicroStrategy reports. page 189. As shown below. you would not want to use the Address form to identify the Customer attribute elements. For example. attribute elements are displayed depending on the location of the attribute they are associated with. see Using attributes to browse and report on data. the attribute Division has multiple attribute elements. Just as you would not refer to a customer by his or her street address.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide attribute elements. Attribute elements can be identified in logical data models. Shoes. such as Men’s Clothing. For more information on selecting the attribute forms used to identify attribute elements. Inc. the report below (created from the Sales 142 Unique sets of attribute information: Attribute elements © 2007 MicroStrategy. .

Sales Organization and Year. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms Attribute forms are identifiers or descriptors of an attribute. page 33. Sales Organization is on the rows of the report along with its attribute elements such as USA Central.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 and Distribute Analysis Module of the MicroStrategy BIDK) has two attributes. Every attribute must have at least one form. as explained in Logical data modeling conventions. Inc. The display of attributes and their attribute elements is also affected by the location of the metrics on the report. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms 143 . The report above uses the common practice of putting the metrics (Sales Orders Quantity (Base Units) and Cost Sales Orders) on the columns of the report. Year is on the columns of the report along with its attribute elements such as 2005. and most have at least two: © 2007 MicroStrategy.

as shown in the following diagram: 144 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. . the Customer attribute’s ID form is Customer_ID. which is a column of unique numeric values to identify each customer. each customer must have a different value for their identity column. The Customer attribute in the MicroStrategy Tutorial has various forms. These types of forms give context and information about the Customer attribute. Inc. To differentiate between two customers such as John Smith and Fred Black. For the Customer attribute. ID forms serve to uniquely identify each attribute element from other elements for the same attribute. including the Customer Name and the Address forms. In this case John Smith can have a value of 1 in the Customer_ID column and Fred Black can have a value of 2 in the Customer_ID column. Attributes also have description forms. Some attributes can have additional descriptive forms that do not serve as the primary description form.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide • • The ID form (required) A description form Every attribute must have an ID form (identity form). Email is included as an additional descriptive form. For example.

The attribute will have the Customer_ID. The forms you create must have a reference to a lookup table and can include multiple expressions. and Email forms and the tables will join together through the ID columns because that is the column they have in common. Inc. identifying number for each customer (ID form) Customer_Full_Name: the full name of each customer (Description form) EMAIL: the email address for the specific customer (Additional description form) In this example. © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 In the data warehouse. For example. described below: • • • Customer_ID: a unique. two columns with different names can represent the same information about an attribute. Heterogeneous column names are discussed in Joining dissimilar column names: Heterogeneous mappings. When creating an attribute form. Name. Attributes must contain at least one ID form. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms 145 . which uniquely identifies the attribute. you can choose a lookup table in the Attribute Editor from a list of tables existing in the project. In the warehouse. a lookup table with three columns holds the following separate forms. Each table must have an ID form. you must map the appropriate columns to the same attribute to retrieve accurate and complete results when using an attribute on a report. Name. The second lookup table contains Customer _ID and Email. one with the forms Customer_ID. the ID forms are used to join tables. page 153. the LU_CUSTOMER table records all of the attribute form data for the Customer attribute. In such cases. and SSN. two tables exist. SSN.

When you have attributes that require multiple description forms. mapping the most commonly used or most important description form can be helpful for project designers to quickly distinguish this attribute form from the other secondary forms. If you define multiple attribute forms of an attribute with ascending or descending sort orders. or None. • Default sorting of multiple attribute forms When creating attribute forms. the other description forms must be mapped to None forms. Descending. Default sort governs how the form is sorted by default when included in a report. There is no way to distinguish a Desc attribute form from a None attribute form on a MicroStrategy report. Data Types. it is a good practice to map the most commonly used or most important description form to the Desc form of the attribute. Inc. While there is no difference in how a Desc attribute form and None attribute form are used in MicroStrategy. you can define the default sort order for each attribute form. the first attribute form with a default sort order is 146 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. and None. Desc. The standard category options are ID. For information on how attribute forms are sorted when multiple attribute forms of a single attribute define a default sort order. Each attribute can have only one Desc form. For example. You can choose from Ascending. These properties affect the display of the forms and include the following: • Categories help group the types of forms. Big Decimal is discussed in detail in Appendix D. specifying a format type of Big Decimal allows users to preserve precision when qualifying on a form with more than 15 digits. below. • Format types control how the form is displayed and how filters are built. . You can create new form categories in the Attribute Editor. see Default sorting of multiple attribute forms.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Attribute form properties You must select properties for each form when you create forms in the Attribute Editor in MicroStrategy Desktop.

Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 used to sort the attribute on the report. customers are sorted by their address in descending order. For example. metrics. the Customer attribute in the MicroStrategy Tutorial project has the five attribute forms shown below: Of these five attribute forms. These information units are called attribute forms. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms . and other report objects are sorted. Modify the Address form so that it has a descending default sort order. 147 © 2007 MicroStrategy. only Last Name has a default sort order set. For more information on advanced sorting. Inc. Attribute form expressions Attributes act like holders of information and provide context for fact data. It is important to note that you can change how attribute forms are sorted from within a report. This is the default functionality for how attributes are sorted by their attribute forms on reports. Each attribute form must have at least one expression. refer to the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. If you include Customer on a report with both Last Name and Address. customers are sorted by their Last Name in ascending order. and so on. For example. This is because Last Name was created first and therefore is considered for sorting before the Address form. An attribute form expression defines what columns in the warehouse are used to represent the attribute form in SQL. If you remove the Last Name form from the report. the Customer attribute holds information about the customer such as Name and Address. In a report you can use advanced sorting to define how attribute forms. Sorting defined for a report takes precedence over default sorting defined for attribute forms. then the second attribute form with a default sort order is used for sorting. If the first attribute form with a default sort order is not included on a report.

/. page 150: Derived form expressions perform some type of mathematical calculation on columns in the data warehouse to create an attribute form. Inc. The definition of the simple expression includes the tables in which the column is found. page 153: Heterogeneous mappings allow you to use columns with different names in the data warehouse as the same attribute form. You can create expressions using attribute columns. since they only use the constants you declare. Although you can have multiple expressions in different tables. for example. *. the form expression for the Customer First Name attribute form is CUST_FIRST_NAME. and/or mathematical operators. +. These functions are discussed in the Pass-through Expressions appendix in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. These form expressions create virtual data by combining or using columns to generate the data. page 155: Implicit form expressions do not relate directly to data stored in the data warehouse. Only implicit attributes do not include a column in the expression. The types of attribute form expressions are: • • Simple expressions. page 148: Simple form expressions access data through columns in the data warehouse. a form cannot have two different expressions in the same source table. . In this instance. You can also create a form expression using Apply functions. Implicit expressions. Joining dissimilar column names: Heterogeneous mappings. constants. The form expression for the Customer Last Name attribute form is CUST_LAST_NAME. -. Derived expressions. 148 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide For example. the CUST_FIRST_NAME and CUST_LAST_NAME columns in the warehouse provide information about first and last names respectively. • • Simple expressions A simple expression is based on a single warehouse column.

ID and Description. the date of birth data eventually becomes part of the retailer’s data warehouse and the appropriate lookup table is added to the retailer’s project in MicroStrategy. The retailer intends to analyze the data gathered from the surveys to better market their products in the future. and then the Customers folder. It has two forms. Once gathered.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 For example. Example: creating an attribute form with a simple expression A retailer begins a promotion that offers customers 25% off of their purchases if they fill out a feedback survey on the company website. log in to the project source that contains the MicroStrategy Tutorial project and then log in to MicroStrategy Tutorial. This will enable report designers to display each customer’s date of birth alongside each customer’s name on reports. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms 149 . Both of these columns reside in the table LU_CATEGORY. open the Attributes folder. At this point. including their dates of birth. Inc. Category is an attribute in the MicroStrategy Tutorial. 2 Navigate to the Schema Objects folder. 3 Double-click the Customer attribute. To create an attribute form with a simple expression 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. The expression for the ID form is the CATEGORY_ID column and the expression for the description form is the CATEGORY_DESC column. © 2007 MicroStrategy. the project designer must add the column containing the customer dates of birth as an additional attribute form of the Customer attribute. Follow the procedure below to create Customer Birth Date as an attribute form in the Customer attribute. both of which are defined by simple expressions. The retailer’s customers provide a variety of information on the surveys. The Attribute Editor opens.

The new Customer Birth Date attribute form is added to the Attribute form pane in the Attribute Editor. Inc. close the Attribute Editor without saving your changes. 8 In the Form general information area. select DATE since Customer Birth Date is neither the ID form of Customer nor the primary description form. mathematical operators. 9 From the Category used drop-down list. in the Name field.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide 4 Click New. or setting the expression to be an absolute value) creates a derived expression. you can create an attribute to hold the age of a customer or an employee that has been derived from the two columns. 11 Because this is only an example. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. While simple expressions have their value determined by just one column in a warehouse table. By creating an attribute to calculate age in this manner. The mapping method is selected as Automatic by default. functions. This is the table that contains customers’ dates of birth. adding another column. 7 Click OK. . Derived expressions Derived expressions are created using a combination of warehouse columns. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. For example. 10 Click OK. By calculating the difference between the columns Date of Birth and Current Date. derived expressions are defined using one or more columns as well as other operators and values. Any operation on a column (such as adding a constant. and constants. type Customer Birth Date. 5 From the Source table drop-down list. the attribute’s value 150 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. you can create a derived attribute to calculate age or anniversaries. select the LU_CUSTOMER table. 6 Double-click the CUST_BIRTHDATE column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right.

CUST_FIRST_NAME and CUST_LAST_NAME. open the Attributes folder. If you use syntax that is not supported by your database or other data source. To create an attribute form with a derived expression 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. 2 Navigate to the Schema Objects folder. the information is displayed as Jones. Example: creating an attribute form with a derived expression In your database. the attribute would need to be updated every time a customer or an employee has a birthday. but you must make sure you use expressions that meet the requirements of your database-specific SQL syntax. “ + CUST_FIRST_NAME Using this expression. Mary under the Name column. you want reports to display a customer’s first name and last name together as a single entry on a report. Calculations and functions used in a derived expression can assist in deriving data from the database. However. As another example.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 is automatically updated as the age changes. Using the Customer attribute. the syntax of the derived expression for Name reads: CUST_FIRST_NAME + “ “ + CUST_LAST_NAME On a report. You can achieve this using a derived form expression Name. you could create a derived expression for Name in the format of Last Name. First Name using the following syntax: CUST_LAST_NAME + “. log in to the project source that contains the MicroStrategy Tutorial project and then log in to MicroStrategy Tutorial. and then the Customers folder. the SQL query and resulting report can fail. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. which consists of the two strings. this information is displayed as Mary Jones under the Name column. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms 151 . you store Customer names in two different columns. If you created an attribute for age in which you included a constant number.

. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. in the Name field. 6 Double-click the CUST_LAST_NAME column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. 12 From the Category used drop-down list. The new attribute form is added to the Attribute form pane in the Attribute Editor. This is the table that contains customers’ first and last names. type Last Name. 7 In the Form expression pane. The Attribute Editor opens. 4 Click New. 13 Click OK. select the LU_CUSTOMER table.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide 3 Double-click the Customer attribute. 11 In the Form general information area. 8 Double-click the CUST_FIRST_NAME column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. “ +. close the Attribute Editor without saving your changes. 10 Click OK. 5 From the Source table drop-down list. 152 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. place the cursor to the right of [CUST_LAST_NAME] and type + “. Your expression should be defined as shown below. First Name is neither the ID form of Customer nor the primary description form. 9 Select Automatic as the mapping method. First Name. select None since Last Name. 14 Because this is only an example. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. Inc.

For example. Inc. If you define more than one expression for a given form. you might be able to join columns with data types of Number and Integer. In the above example. © 2007 MicroStrategy. in the MicroStrategy Tutorial. Because different source systems may store information in various contexts. depending on your database platform. However. In the Attribute Editor. most databases cannot join a data type of Text to a data type of Number. The data types of columns used in a heterogeneous mapping for a given attribute must be identical or similar enough for your particular RDBMS to join them properly. You can map Order_Date and Day_Date to the Day attribute—this ensures that both columns are used when information about the Day attribute is displayed on a report. Of all the tables in which the columns exist. you can use heterogeneous mapping to map the Day attribute to all of the columns in the data warehouse that represent the same concept of Day. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms 153 . you can view the chosen tables in the source Tables area to the right of the Form Expressions area. Each expression is linked to a set of source tables that contain the columns used in the expression. heterogeneous mapping automatically occurs when tables and column names require it. The Day_Date column occurs in the LU_DATE table and the Order_Date column occurs in the ORDER_DETAIL and ORDER_FACT tables. the ID form of the attribute Day contains two expressions. you can select as many or as few as you want to be used as part of the attribute’s definition. your company may have multiple columns in different tables that all represent the same business concept. For example.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Joining dissimilar column names: Heterogeneous mappings Heterogeneous mapping allows Intelligence Server to perform joins on dissimilar column names.

7 Click OK. You could continue this process to add as many heterogeneous columns as part of one attribute form as necessary. log in to the project source that contains the MicroStrategy Tutorial project and then log in to MicroStrategy Tutorial. 4 Click New. The mapping method is selected as Automatic by default. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. Notice that there are now two expressions for the attribute form definition. The mapping method is selected as Automatic by default. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. 5 From the Source table drop-down list. select the LU_DAY table. The Create New Form Expression dialog box opens. select the ORDER_DETAIL table. 154 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. open the Attributes folder.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide To create an attribute form with a heterogeneous column mapping 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. 3 Double-click the Day attribute. 11 Click OK. The Create New Form Expression dialog box opens. The Attribute Editor opens. . and then the Time folder. 8 Click New. 9 From the Source table drop-down list. both of which use different tables as the source of their information. Inc. 10 Double-click the ORDER_DATE column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. 6 Double-click the DAY_DATE column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. 2 Navigate to the Schema Objects folder.

Implicit expressions While most attributes map directly to one or more physical columns in the warehouse. For example. Inc. rather than being defined in terms of columns. The Rush Order attribute is defined by two expressions: the Rush_Order column in the Order_Fact table and the implicit expression “Y”. An implicit attribute such as Rush Order is useful for this purpose. Such an attribute has an implicit expression. close the Attribute Editor without saving your changes. but are useful in special cases such as the scenario described above. an implicit attribute is a virtual or constant attribute that does not physically exist in the warehouse. Implicit attributes are not commonly used. © 2007 MicroStrategy. The new Date Example attribute form is added to the Attribute form pane in the Attribute Editor. 13 From the Category used drop-down list. type Date Example.” This implicit expression is used to keep track of which orders are rush orders. they are defined by constants you specify. 15 Because this is only an example. in the Name field. Some attribute definitions can be implied by the existence of a row in a certain table. for example. Any constant is acceptable. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms 155 . Suppose you want a report to display which orders are rush orders so you can better keep track of your shipments. the Rush Order attribute in MicroStrategy Tutorial is an example of an implicit attribute.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 12 In the Form general information area. although nothing is saved in an actual column. for each order that is a rush order. Implicit expressions are not defined by column names. 14 Click OK. Implicit attributes are useful in analyzing and retrieving relevant information. select None since this is simply an example scenario. a “Y” is displayed in the Rush Order column. On a report with the Order and Rush Order attributes on the template. which stands for “Yes. RushOrder=‘Yes’. which is a constant value.

[Date_Id]) The ApplySimple expression above is syntactically correct for SQL Server. Inc. Many database platforms have functions that can extract parts of a date from a Date data type. This inheritance is governed by MicroStrategy. you can create a Year attribute using the following form expression: ApplySimple("Year(#0)". you may need to use a different syntax. but you would like to create a Year attribute. Another example could be a case in which your warehouse does not have a lookup table for year information. . there are cases where you may need to change the data type. For example. depending on your database or data source type. For attributes. the precision can be preserved when performing filtering. drilling. In such a case. which attempts to use a data type as similar as possible to the data type in your database or other data source (see Appendix D. Because this column stores high-precision values. 156 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. The following are some examples of such cases.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Modifying attribute data types: Column aliases A column alias is a new data type that you can specify in place of the default data type for a given attribute form. By doing so. Data Types for more information on how MicroStrategy selects a matching data type). Column aliases allow you to specify a more appropriate data type that can help avoid errors in your SQL. the data type for an attribute form is inherited from the data type of the column on which the form is defined. 0). SQL Server has a Year function that extracts just the year from a date. Big Decimal. In your data warehouse you have a lookup table for an Accounts attribute where the ID is Account Number and the ID is stored in the database as DECIMAL(18. or page-by on the Account attribute. a column alias performs the same function as it does for facts. By default. you must modify the column alias for the attribute form and map it to a special data type. However. They can also help you take more advantage of the data in your data warehouse. However.

the column alias for the attribute form defaults to CustCol (or CustCol_1. To create a column alias for an attribute This procedure assumes you have already created an attribute with a valid attribute expression for which to create a new column alias. where the column alias name is used: SELECT Year(a12. 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. page 147). However. the column alias also lets you specify the column alias name to be used in the SQL generated by MicroStrategy. The above example is a simple one.Date_Id) While the column alias name does not affect the actual results or your report. To avoid the possibility of an error due to conflicting data types. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms 157 . and it is an integer. This is because Date_ID is a Date data type. if you do not change the data type of the column alias. the result of the calculation is a year. When a temporary SQL table is created.Date_Id) CustCol_1. When you create a form expression using a custom expression or multiple columns (as discussed in Attribute form expressions. CustCol_2. sum(a11. the system uses a Date data type and tries to insert integer data into this column. modify the column alias for the attribute form and change the default Date data type to an Integer data type. in bold. © 2007 MicroStrategy. such as 2002. In addition to specifying the data type to be used for an attribute form. log in to the project source that contains the attribute to create a new column alias for. The following piece of SQL shows. Inc. While this does not create a problem in all database platforms.Tot_Dollar_Sales) WJXBFS1 FROM YR_CATEGORY_SLS a11 cross join TRANS_DATE_LW_LY a12 GROUP BY Year(a12.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 The data type for this attribute is automatically set to a Date data type. You can use the Attribute Editor to create column aliases. but this can be useful for troubleshooting the SQL for a particularly complex report. and so on). you can change the column alias name to be more meaningful. some databases will return an error.

Data type: The data type for the fact. precision. The Column Editor . or time scale for your column alias. whereas attributes themselves can be considered as report elements or group-by elements that have a one-to-many or a many-to-many relationship with 158 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. For a detailed description on each of these properties.Column Selection dialog box. 6 Select New to create a new column alias.Column Selection dialog box opens. you can specify the byte length. • • 8 Click OK to save your changes and return to the Column Editor . Depending on the data type selected. see Appendix D. The Column Editor . 5 In the Column alias area. 4 Select the Column Alias tab. see the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. 9 Click OK to save your changes and return to the Attribute Editor. 7 You can modify the following properties for the column alias: • Column name: The name for the column alias which is used in any SQL statements which include the fact column. For a description of the different data types supported by MicroStrategy. bit length.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide 2 Right-click the attribute and select Edit. Attribute forms versus separate attributes Attribute forms can be considered as additional descriptions for an attribute. click Modify. scale. Data Types. 3 Select an attribute form and click Modify. The Modify Attribute Form dialog box opens. 10 Select Save and Close to save your changes. .Definition dialog box opens. The Attribute Editor opens.

In general. for example—without any problems. The data that you map to attributes can be represented as separate attributes or as an attribute form of an attribute. Attribute elements.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 other attributes. or cross join. The decision to model data as an attribute form for a given attribute or as a separate attribute is usually determined during the logical data modeling phase of project design. The parent-child relationships you create determine the system hierarchy within the project. which is generally undesirable. page 36. however. page 24. you should map data to an attribute form rather than a separate attribute if: • • There is a one-to-one relationship between an attribute and the data. as explained in Attribute relationships. A report with two unrelated attributes. or else a Cartesian join occurs. is very database intensive as every row in one table is joined to every row in the other table. The implications of whether attributes are related become clear when you begin building reports. Attribute relationships 159 . You can run a report with two attributes that are related—Country and City. these relationships define how the engine generates SQL. and which tables are related to other tables. © 2007 MicroStrategy. how tables and columns are joined and used. Attribute relationships You link directly related attributes to each other by defining parent-child relationships. Inc. For more information on whether to model data as an attribute form or as a separate attribute. You do not group by the data. or the actual data values for an attribute. In other words. A Cartesian join. see Attribute forms. dictate the relationships that you define between attributes. must include a metric based on a fact that is on or below the level of the two attributes.

The relationship is defined through the attribute’s lookup table or a relationship table. A citizen can have only one Taxpayer ID and a Taxpayer ID can be assigned to only one citizen. One year has many quarters.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide In MicroStrategy Desktop. page 129. One customer may have many accounts. and each account may be associated with many customers. For example. Attributes of this type are often in the same hierarchy. and so on. A common example of a one-to-one relationship is citizen and Taxpayer ID. . Many-to-many: Each element in the parent attribute can have multiple children and each child element in the child attribute can have multiple parents. Attributes can also be related to other attributes through a chain of attribute relationships. One-to-one: Each element in the parent attribute has one and only one corresponding element in the child attribute. page 161. but a specific quarter can be in one year only. One-to-many: Each element in the parent attribute corresponds to one or more elements in the child attribute. Inc. consider the Geography hierarchy of the Customer Analysis Analytics 160 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy. Three types of direct relationships can exist between related attributes. as part of the initial project design effort and in Viewing and editing the parents and children of attributes. This assumes that quarters are defined with an accompanying year such as Q4 2006. and these relationships are defined by the attribute elements that exist in the related attributes. you can define relationships for the attributes in your project. Attributes can be either related or unrelated to one another: • Related: A parent-child relationship is defined between two or more attributes. customers and accounts are an example of a many-to-many relationship. after a project has already been created. This step is covered in Simultaneously creating multiple attributes. such as in the case of a joint checking account. Year has a one-to-many relationship to quarter. These are the most common types of attribute relationships. In banking. Q1 2007.

and Customer City: In this scenario. Attribute relationships 161 .Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Module of the MicroStrategy BIDK. How attributes relate to one another and the types of relationships they share define the system hierarchy which is used to generate SQL. While Customer City is not directly related to Customer Region. a certain customer. spent $2. these two attributes are related through Customer State. which contains the attributes Customer Region. No relationship is present in the lookup tables or relationship tables for these attributes. Customer State. In this case. This allows you to include Customer Region and Customer City on a report and view the different customer cities for each customer region. This SQL.500 on January 5. determines the output of a report. Don Addison. Inc. in turn. In general. © 2007 MicroStrategy. For example. Unrelated attributes can exist together in fact tables. Customer Region and Customer State are directly related to each other and Customer State and Customer City also have a direct relationship. the Customer and Day attributes have no relationship to one another. these attributes are relatively straightforward to deal with from a project design perspective. • Unrelated: No parent-child relationship has been defined and the attributes are not related through a chain of attribute relationships. Viewing and editing the parents and children of attributes The relationships that exist between attributes rely on the parent-child specifications that you assign to attributes. 2003 on behalf of the health care company in which he works. giving context to the fact. care must be taken when using unrelated attributes on a single report. however. For example. A particular customer and a particular day only make sense together if a fact is associated with that combination.

viewing and changing parent-child relationships may be a necessary troubleshooting method. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. Inc. you can continue to make changes to the relationships between attributes even after creating your project. 4 Click the Children tab. when a report generates inaccurate SQL and results. The Call Center attribute is listed. 3 Double-click the Distribution Center attribute. However.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Parent-child relationships were designated when attributes were selected for the new project. To view and edit the parents and children of an attribute 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. For a general procedure to view and edit the parents and children of an attribute. A one-to-one relationship exists between Distribution Center and Call Center. open the Attributes folder. Country. and the relationship table in which the relationship exists. is the parent of Distribution Center and multiple distribution centers exist in each country. For example. Assigning parent-child relationships to attributes allows you to connect attributes to one another in user hierarchies. as discussed in Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes. and then the Geography folder. . page 193. The Attribute Editor opens. Follow the procedure below to view and edit the parents and children of the Distribution Center attribute. in turn. the Distribution Center attribute is the parent of the Call Center attribute. log in to the project source that contains the MicroStrategy Tutorial project and then log in to MicroStrategy Tutorial. This means that only one call center exists in each distribution center. 162 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy. 2 Navigate to the Schema Objects folder. So these two attributes have a one-to-many relationship. Also. along with the relationship type it shares with Distribution Center.

Attribute relationships 163 . 7 Because this is only an example. Before reading this section. can introduce additional complexity to the schema and warehouse design process. 6 You also want the relationship between the two attributes to be defined in the LU_Employee table instead of the LU_Call_Ctr table in which it is defined now. Logical data models and physical warehouse schemas are discussed in Chapter 2. The following sections discuss the considerations you must make to ensure an effective warehouse design in light of the unique nature of these relationships. © 2007 MicroStrategy. select the LU_Employee table from the Relationship table drop-down list. Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model respectively. and how to read and interpret them. close the Distribution Center attribute without saving your changes. 5 To change the relationship type. select One to Many from the Relationship type drop-down list. you should know what logical data models and physical warehouse schemas are. While the topics are largely related to logical model design. in this case. many-to-many relationships and joint child relationships. you must change the relationship type between Call Center and Distribution Center. a working knowledge of physical schemas is helpful when dealing with the challenges involved with these topics.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Consider a scenario in which multiple call centers now exist in the same distribution center so they no longer have a one-to-one relationship. To change the relationship table. These chapters discuss how to plan and create a conceptual framework for your business intelligence data. The Logical Data Model and Chapter 3. Supporting many-to-many and joint child relationships Two forms of attribute relationships. Inc.

In a car manufacturing plant. That is. Likewise.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Many-to-many relationships The presence of many-to-many relationships introduces complexity during the warehouse design process. red shoes. each calling center has many salespeople. One item can come in many colors—red hats. • The following sections use the example of items and colors to demonstrate a many-to-many relationship and the options you have for dealing with them. Inc. green hats—and one color can be associated with many items—red dress. . Potential problems with many-to-many relationships usually come in the following forms. you must make additional considerations to effectively plan your design. many models of cars are produced. there are many colors for a single type of car. With the presence of many-to-many relationships. red hat. there are usually two business questions for which users want answers: 1 In what colors are certain items available? 2 How much of a particular item/color combination was sold? 164 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy. both of which can be avoided by correctly modeling the relationship: • • Loss of analytical capability Multiple counting Loss of analytical capability With the color/item many-to-many relationship. red socks. and many types of cars can be associated with the same color. blue hats. each salesperson can work in more than one calling center. and each comes in several colors. Below are some real-life examples of many-to-many relationships which must be carefully handled in the data model and schema: • In a certain organization.

In many-to-many relationships this is not feasible. © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Answering the first question requires a table that contains a list of all possible item/color combinations. Rather. Attribute relationships 165 . The following diagram shows the lookup and relationship tables for item and color: The Rel_Color_Item table provides a row for every possible item/color combination. but in addition it shows a simple fact table containing sales data keyed by item. Inc. and date. Recall that one-to-many relationships are usually in the child’s lookup table. Answering the second question requires a fact table that has sales information as well as color and item information. color. a distinct relationship table needs to be present in your warehouse. The following diagram shows the same scenario as before.

Only item/color combinations that were actually sold—and therefore have sales recorded—can be retrieved from this table. Inc. . Multiple counting occurs when all of the following takes place: • You attempt to aggregate data to the level of one of the attributes in the many-to-many relationship. page 168. loss of analytical capability is only one challenge. • • 166 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy. the following requirements must be met: • • A distinct relationship table to identify all the possible combinations of attribute elements between attributes Both the attribute ID columns in the fact table You can implement the above points in several different ways. Multiple counting When dealing with many-to-many relationships. to prevent any loss of analytical flexibility when dealing with a many-to-many attribute relationship. which are discussed in Working with many-to-many relationships. The relationship exists in a distinct relationship table. In summary. All of the attributes in the many-to-many relationship are not in the fact table. Another equally significant issue is multiple counting.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide The fact table in the above diagram alone is not sufficient to answer the first question. If you have item/color combinations that are available but that have never been sold. or a higher level than one of the attributes in the many-to-many relationship. this fact table cannot provide a complete list of item/color combinations to answer question one.

© 2007 MicroStrategy. This query would require both the fact table—which has the sales information by item—and the relationship table—since color is not recorded in the fact table. Inc. blue. Assume that there are three items—hats. dresses. and socks—and that they come in three colors—red. The following diagram shows this data in the lookup tables as well as some simple sales data: The risk of multiple counting occurs when you run a query requesting the sales by color. which come in only green and blue. but make the following change: remove color from the fact table. and green—with the exception of socks.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Recall the example from above. Attribute relationships 167 . effectively aggregating to the item attribute level in the many-to-many relationship.

including blue ones and green ones. Working with many-to-many relationships As you can see. instead of calculating the sales of red items. The following section describes several ways to prevent multiple counting when dealing with many-to-many relationships. If all the dresses sold are indeed green.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide The difficulty lies in the fact that color is not in the fact table. There is no way to directly relate the sales of an item in the fact table to the color of that particular item. which can be calculated directly from the fact table. For example. • What are the total sales for red items? You cannot determine an accurate answer. the query aggregates sales for all items that come in red according to the relationship table. you cannot confirm this since color is not recorded in the fact table. using the given data. which is the total for all hats and dresses. but the answer you will get based on the data in the fact table is $50. . Inc. The answer you get is $85. however. the following questions cannot all be answered accurately: • What are the total sales for hats? The answer is $35. The sum includes all hats and all dresses. This obviously leads to numbers that are higher than the true sales for red items. For example. seemingly simple questions can require you to take a number of steps to answer them when many-to-many relationships are involved. you cannot determine an accurate answer. since socks do not come in red. It is entirely possible that all the dresses sold are green. You can use one of three techniques to provide physical support to answer the types of questions that cannot be answered accurately when using many-to-many relationships. • What are the total sales for red dresses? Again. the correct answer is $0. The three techniques all have differing levels of 168 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy.

the SQL Engine uses the related table when no metric is included on the report. and flexibility is always a trade-off with complexity.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 flexibility. For example. © 2007 MicroStrategy. This means that you must capture the additional data in the source system. the two fundamental components remain in place in one form or another: • • A relationship table to define the attribute relationship Both the attribute’s ID columns in the fact table MicroStrategy builds the rules that MicroStrategy SQL Engine uses to generate SQL when a report request is made. the fact table is used to answer the query. Method 1 requires you to create a separate relationship table (in this case. In all cases. Attribute relationships 169 . When a metric is included. Inc. If this additional data was never captured in the source system. If you make both of the above physical implementations. Method 1 This method is the most straightforward way to effectively manage many-to-many relationships. you need to have data in the source system as to what the color is of each item sold. you cannot fully resolve the many-to-many relationship to calculate the amount of sales for items of a certain color. All of the following methods require additional data in the fact table. Rel_Color_Item) and add both attribute IDs to the fact table as shown in the following diagram.

Inc.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Method 2 Method 2 eliminates the many-to-many relationship and the need for a distinct relationship table. you add both attribute IDs. lower in level than either Color or Item. or vice versa. . Here the many-to-many relationship is converted into a compound attribute relationship. you lose the ability to view items independent of color. which gives it a 170 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy. While this method eliminates the need for a separate relationship table. This attribute is essentially a concatenation of Color and Item. in this case Item_ID and Color_ID. rather than two Here you must create a new attribute. to the fact table as shown in the following diagram. You treat one attribute as a child of the other and have a compound key for the lower level attribute. Also. Method 3 Method 3 is the most versatile solution and has the following characteristics: • • • Further simplifies the compound attribute relationship from Method 2 into a simple attribute relationship Provides the ability to view item and color together or independently Requires only one attribute column in the fact table for complete flexibility.

as well as possibly adding complexity to the ETL process. Such attributes are called joint children. SKU. This is the SKU attribute. This method is actually quite similar to Method 1. Attribute relationships 171 . The major difference is that the distinct relationship table from Method 1 has an additional column. Finally. rather than including Color and Item in the fact table. © 2007 MicroStrategy. text facts. These relationships can be modeled and conceptualized like traditional attributes but. like facts. they exist at the intersection of multiple attribute levels. you can use this single value in the fact table. Joint child relationships Some attributes exist at the intersection of other indirectly related attributes. particularly common in retail data models or situations. They do not fit neatly into the modeling schemes you have learned about thus far. you only need to include this new child attribute SKU. Consequently. or qualities. Joint child relationships connect special attributes that are sometimes called cross-dimensional attributes. as shown in the following diagram. which extends the relationship of each item/color combination into a single value. The major disadvantage of Method 3 lies in creating the new attribute if your business model does not already use a similar structure. Inc.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 one-to-many relationship between itself and each of its parent attributes.

consider the relationship between three attributes: Promotion. For example. In this case. as shown in the following diagram. Therefore. Joint child relationships are really another type of many-to-many relationship where one attribute has a many-to-many relationship to two otherwise unrelated attributes. and Quarter. Item. Promotion has a many-to-many relationship to both Item and Quarter. . Supporting joint child relationships One way to resolve a many-to-many relationship is to have a relationship table for the attributes involved in the many-to-many relationships. An example of a promotion might be a “Red Sale” where all red items are on sale.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Many source systems refer to these special attributes as flags. Inc. In this case. A business might run this promotion around Valentine's Day and again at Christmas time. if flags are referenced in your source system documentation. you might create 172 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy. these are likely candidates for joint child relationships.

Promotion—would be fine. you can build the relationship directly into the fact table. These two tables are sufficient to answer questions such as: • • What items have been in what promotions? What quarters have had what promotions? However. creating one table to relate all three attributes.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 two relationship tables. The second relates Promotion and Quarter as shown in the following diagram. Inc. © 2007 MicroStrategy. The relationship in the distinct relationship table must exist for a joint child relationship to be properly defined. Defining the relationship directly in the lookup table for the parent of the joint child—in this case. Attribute relationships 173 . one to relate Promotion and Item. these tables are not sufficient to answer the following more detailed and insightful questions: • • What items were in what promotions in a given quarter? In what quarters was a certain item involved in a certain type of promotion? To answer these questions. Alternatively. it does not necessarily have to be in its own. you must combine the two relationship tables. distinct relationship table. However.

6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide In these examples. to see sales by promotion—the join will always use both joint children rather than just one or the other. as opposed to it being related to Item and Quarter separately. This ensures that when you need to join the fact table to the parent attribute of a joint child relationship—for example. it is important for you to define it in MicroStrategy so that you get the correct data for reports that use the parent attribute in a joint child attribute. This is the essence of a joint child relationship and is shown in the following diagram. Notice that a joint child relationship can be one-to-many or many-to-many. It is important to notice the relationship between the three attributes. . The Promotion attribute is related to a particular Item-Quarter pair. The issues with many-to-many relationships—loss of analytical capability and multiple counting—also apply to many-to-many joint child relationships. If you have a joint child relationship in your data. Inc. 174 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy.

Creating two separate lookup tables would create redundancy. You need to support the logical concepts of an origin airport and a destination airport. but you do not want to create two separate lookup tables with identical data. and column. AIRPORT_ID. LU_AIRPORT. Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles 175 . it is understood that destination airport data differs from origin airport data. the attributes are essentially playing different attribute roles. Inc. Although it makes sense to see JFK as either an origin or destination airport on a report. in the following image. For example.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles Attribute roles allow you to use the same data to define and support two separate attributes. © 2007 MicroStrategy. and thus take up more storage space and be harder to maintain. When multiple attributes are defined using the same lookup table and column. notice that the attributes Origin Airport and Destination Airport are defined using the same lookup table. Suppose you define two attributes that have the same data definition but play different roles in your business model. How an attribute plays multiple roles depends on the specific attribute.

and so on. such as description. In one case. you must create an attribute in the logical model for each of the roles. Inc. however. If you identify that one of your attributes needs to play multiple roles. location. as explained in Specifying attribute roles. a separate column exists for each of their roles. an empty result set is returned. This ensures that a report with attributes playing multiple roles returns correct data.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide The Origin Airport and Destination Airport attributes share the same attribute forms. or various aspects about them. page 177. This occurs because the SQL statement tries to obtain the description of an airport that is both MIA and LGA at the same time (Airport_ID = "MIA" AND Airport_ID = "LGA"). it refers to the 176 Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles © 2007 MicroStrategy. as shown below. In the following diagram. . the fact columns are ORIGIN_AIRPORT_ID and DESTINATION_AIRPORT_ID. If a report designer places both the Origin Airport and Destination Airport attributes on a report to obtain the number of flights that originated from MIA and arrived at LGA. State is another example of an attribute that can have two roles since it relates to both the Vendor and Store attributes. In the fact table.

generating the empty result set. it refers to the location of a store. That is. In the other. In an OLTP system. a report is created to display vendors from Arkansas who sold to New York stores. you have the following options: • Automatic attribute role recognition. roles are most often implemented as a single table. The State attribute is therefore said to be playing two roles. they must have different attribute names. a query involving both Vendor State and Store State needs to use the State table twice in the same query.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 location of a vendor. where you create multiple attributes that have the same lookup table and allow MicroStrategy to automatically detect the multiple roles. as shown in the above diagram. Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles 177 . For example. Specifying attribute roles To see both roles on the same report. To create unique attributes. The results may be blank if the data warehouse structure was set up incorrectly. In the data warehouse. Inc. The SQL statement tries to obtain the description of a state that is both Arkansas and New York simultaneously. you must treat them as different attributes. Automatic recognition is enabled by the VLDB © 2007 MicroStrategy.

6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide property Engine Attribute Role Options at the database instance level. it is easier to use automatic attribute role recognition. it may be the better alternative. For more information. you can have a maximum of 99 attributes defined on the same column of the same lookup table. Engine Attribute Role Options. the attribute has multiple roles. is enabled). as Ship Month and Order Month. refer to the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. Month is the attribute that has multiple roles. MicroStrategy recommends that you take advantage of automatic role recognition if you do not know the details of the modeling logic or the database. in the State example provided above. where you create multiple logical tables pointing to the same physical table and define those two logical tables as the lookup tables for the two attributes. • Explicit table aliasing. 178 Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles © 2007 MicroStrategy. an attribute must be created in the logical model for each of the roles. if you identify that any one of your attributes needs to play multiple roles. For example. meaning that a child attribute is shared. however. In this example. Inc. for example. If you create more than this number of attributes. Remember this rule to help you identify attribute roles: If you want to see the same attribute multiple times on one report. You can use either automatic attribute role recognition or explicit table aliasing to create the attribute roles. the two State attributes do not have a common child attribute. In summary. . Table aliasing provides advanced users with more control. If you are upgrading or have a very complex schema. and are unable to update the project schema or restart Intelligence Server. If you are new to MicroStrategy. In a MicroStrategy project in which automatic attribute role recognition is enabled (meaning that the database instance-level VLDB property. Automatic recognition does not work if the attributes are in the same hierarchy. you encounter an error.

Store State and Vendor State. “Show me total sales by Store State for all my vendors in Arkansas (Store State ID = 15). The resulting SQL code contains a self-join with the LU_State table. Automatic recognition allows these two attributes.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Using automatic attribute role recognition In the data warehouse. a query involving both Vendor State and Store State needs to use the State table twice in the same query to get correct results. Consider the following sample desired report: Vendor_State_ID=15 (Arkansas) Metrics Vendor State Vendor Store Store State Dollar Sales In this case. which in most cases simply represents a column or columns in a lookup table.” The same lookup table. Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles 179 . the logical model must reflect that. Inc. You can set up two attributes. LU_State. both of which use the same lookup table. The logical model would look like the following: Note that both roles for the State attribute are included in the logical model so that “State” can be considered from two different perspectives. Vendor State and Store State. Since the state in which a vendor resides and the state in which one of the stores is located are two different things. to access the same lookup table. Automatic role recognition works only when the attributes use exactly the same expression. can be used for both © 2007 MicroStrategy. the request is. using different attribute names for the same expression.

See the MicroStrategy Desktop online help or the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide for steps to set this VLDB property. you must select the Engine Attribute Role Options. found in the database instance-level VLDB Properties under Query Optimization. The two attributes refer to the same columns of that table. so advanced users are encouraged to take advantage of this solution. Inc. if attribute roles are used. just as it would if you used automatic recognition: 180 Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles © 2007 MicroStrategy. . the State attribute is said to play two roles: it refers to both the location of a vendor as well as the location of a store. To use automatic attribute role recognition. Explicitly aliasing tables to specify attribute roles Explicit table aliasing provides more robust functionality than automatic recognition. An attribute such as State can play more than one role in the data warehouse. The logical model would look like the following. When you use explicit table aliasing to designate attributes that have multiple roles. it can represent the Vendor State or the Store State. In this case. Store State and Vendor State. both roles for the State attribute are included in the logical model so that State can be considered from two different perspectives.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide attributes.

you create separate lookup tables in the schema.State_Desc as State_Desc FROM LU_State a12 LU_State a13 © 2007 MicroStrategy. for both state names. the report accesses the same physical table. Inc. Consider the following sample desired report that should provide data about the total sales by Store State for all vendors in Arkansas (Store State ID = 15): Vendor_State_ID=15 (Arkansas) Metrics Vendor State Vendor Store Store State Dollar Sales When explicit table aliasing is used.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 The difference between automatic recognition and explicit table aliasing is that when you use explicit table aliasing. If you use explicit table aliasing for the Store attribute. as shown in the following diagram. the two lookup tables LU_State_Store and LU_State_Vendor are used. Since they are just different names for the same physical table. as shown by this sample SQL: SELECT a12. but point them each to the same physical table.State_Desc as State_Desc SELECT a13. LU_State. one table (LU_State_Store) contains the attribute Store State while the other (LU_State_Vendor) contains Vendor State. Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles 181 .

log in to the project source that contains the MicroStrategy Tutorial project and then log into MicroStrategy Tutorial. allowing you to rename a copy of the same table. An LU_State(1) table is created. . the selected table is copied. Logical Tables. 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. In the case above. An LU_State(1) table is created.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide You create table aliases in the Schema Objects/Tables folder in MicroStrategy Desktop. 6 Right-click LU_State(1). and rename the table as LU_State_Vendor. 4 Right-click LU_State(1). For information about logical tables. 2 Navigate to the Schema Objects folder. and then select the Tables folder. you would select the LU_State_Store table for the Store State attribute and LU_State_Vendor for Vendor State. 182 Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles © 2007 MicroStrategy. To create attribute roles with explicit table aliasing This procedure provides steps to re-create the example of explicit table aliasing described in this section. You can use the same high-level procedure and concepts as guidelines to create attribute roles in your project setup. When you are ready to create new attributes—as in the example discussed above—you can map the appropriate table to each attribute. Table aliases are one kind of logical table. 3 Right-click the LU_State table and select Create Table Alias. select Rename. refer to Appendix C. Create the attributes 7 Select the Attributes folder. 5 Right-click the LU_State table and select Create Table Alias. select Rename. and rename the table as LU_State_Store. When you create a table alias. Inc.

11 Select Manual mapping and click OK. select LU_State_Store. Attributes with more than one ID column: Compound attributes A compound attribute is an attribute with more than one column specified as the ID column. 15 Save the State Store attribute once you are finished mapping attribute forms to columns of the LU_State_Store table. you build a compound © 2007 MicroStrategy. The Attribute Editor opens. 13 Click OK. Generally.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 8 From the File menu. 12 In the Source tables pane. 16 Create a Vendor State attribute with the same sub-procedure (Create the attributes. 9 From the Source table drop-down list. Inc. 14 Click New to map any other columns to attribute forms for the State Store attribute. 10 In the Available columns pane. double-click STATE_ID. except you must use the LU_State_Vendor table instead of the LU_State_Store table. Attributes with more than one ID column: Compound attributes 183 . You must make sure to map any State Store attribute forms to columns from the LU_State_Store table. otherwise the attributes cannot have separate roles. This implies that more than one ID column is needed to uniquely identify the elements of that attribute. and then Attribute. page 182) used to create State Store above. The Create New Form Expression dialog box opens. select New. select the LU_State_Store table. Do NOT select the LU_State_Vendor table as a source table. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens.

It is an attribute that requires that two different columns are specified as the ID column. both the Country_ID and Dist_Ctr_ID columns must be mapped to the Distribution Center attribute to ensure that data about distribution centers is displayed correctly and completely on a report. They should also use the same lookup table. one must know two details about the distribution center: the ID of the distribution center and the country in which it exists. Distribution Center. However. but in the same country. to uniquely identify a man’s shirt. and children’s.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide attribute when your logical data model reflects that a compound key relationship is present. with two attribute forms. a compound key is a primary key that consists of more than one database column. To uniquely identify a distribution center. regardless of country. The values in the Item_ID column do not uniquely identify an item. When defining the ID form. Item_ID and Class_ID must be grouped together. The item shirt has an Item_ID of 1. This data is represented by the Dist_Ctr_ID and Country_ID columns respectively. see Collections of attribute forms: Form groups. Class is the parent of Item and has a one-to-many relationship with it. a retail project has two attributes. Inc. For example. 184 Attributes with more than one ID column: Compound attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. depending on the class—men’s. page 186. Class and Item. For information about form groups. You can create a compound attribute. Therefore. each distribution center has a unique identification number. The same Distribution Center identification numbers can exist for different distribution centers. Example: Creating compound attributes Distribution Center is an example of a compound attribute in the MicroStrategy Tutorial. This creates a unique identifier for each distribution center. . creating a compound attribute. women’s. there are different shirts. select the source table columns for Country ID and Distribution Center ID. Therefore. All of the ID forms of the compound attribute should be grouped together using form groups. ID and Description. In the relational database.

9 In the Attribute Editor. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. 10 Double-click the DIST_CTR_ID column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. log in to the project source that contains the MicroStrategy Tutorial project and then log into MicroStrategy Tutorial. This is the table in which the two ID columns of Distribution Center reside. 11 Select Automatic mapping and click OK. in the Name field. Inc. 7 In the Form general information area. 4 From the Source table drop-down list. © 2007 MicroStrategy. type Country ID.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Follow the procedure below to create the Distribution Center compound attribute. 2 Navigate to the My Personal Objects folder. This attribute form maps to the distribution center ID column necessary to complete the definition of the Distribution Center attribute. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. For a general procedure to create compound attributes. click New to create the other attribute ID form. with the Create New Form Expression dialog box displayed on top of it. The Attribute Editor opens. 8 Keep all other defaults. and open the My Objects folder. Attributes with more than one ID column: Compound attributes 185 . 5 Double-click the COUNTRY_ID column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. select New. To create the Distribution Center compound attribute 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. and then Attribute. 3 From the File menu. select the LU_DIST_CTR table. 6 Select Automatic mapping and click OK. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. and click OK.

select ID from the Category drop-down list. you create form groups to create compound attributes. which are attributes with more than one column specified as the ID column. 186 Collections of attribute forms: Form groups © 2007 MicroStrategy. 13 In the Form category section. In general. 15 In the Name field. Click OK. Create a form group 14 A dialog box notifies you that another form (in this case. The Attribute Editor opens. refer to Collections of attribute forms: Form groups. 16 Because this is only an example. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide 12 In the Form general information area. You must create a form group to create a compound key. which identifies that an attribute form requires more than one ID column to uniquely identify its elements. type Distribution Center and click OK. You can also use form groups to link similar forms together so that they are displayed together on a report. You must designate this attribute form as an ID column so that it can be combined with the Country_ID form to create one unique identifier ID for the Distribution Center attribute. type Distribution Center ID Number. Inc. COUNTRY_ID) is already using the ID form category and that you must create a form group to combine the two ID columns. close the Distribution Center attribute without saving your changes. with the form group you created in the Attribute forms pane. page 186. Collections of attribute forms: Form groups A form group is a grouping of attribute forms that are related in a way that justifies combining the forms into a single form. For basic information and examples about form groups. in the Name field. . Click Yes. This is necessary when creating compound attributes.

To uniquely identify a distribution center. the Distribution Center attribute is identified using a form group that combines these two forms. you have a distribution center in London. France which has a Dist_Ctr_ID=1 as well. one needs information from both the Country_ID and Dist_Ctr_ID tables. In the MicroStrategy Tutorial. When you create a form group. For an example of creating a form group (form group creation is a subtask of the complete procedure).Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Supporting compound attributes Compound attributes are required when an attribute requires two or more columns to uniquely identify its elements. the included forms are joined together and act as one form. Inc. By grouping forms. Therefore. Collections of attribute forms: Form groups 187 . you can design a uniquely defined form that groups two or more forms under an attribute. In the Attribute Editor. and you also have a distribution center in Paris. see the procedure To create the Distribution Center compound attribute. For example. To uniquely identify the two distribution centers you must include the Country_ID as part of the attribute ID. page 185. Distribution Center is an example of a compound attribute. a compound attribute is created by using a form group to group together two forms to create the attribute’s ID. England which has Dist_Ctr_ID=1. © 2007 MicroStrategy. choose the same form category for both forms—you are then prompted to name your new form group. This is because all countries identify distribution centers with numbers starting at 1. When you create a form group.

You can group two or more attribute forms together while creating the attribute forms as described in To create the Distribution Center compound attribute. For example. 188 Collections of attribute forms: Form groups © 2007 MicroStrategy. To group attribute forms as a form group 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Displaying and organizing related forms Form groups are also used to conveniently organize common attribute forms that can be paired on a report. page 185. You can also group two or more attribute forms as a form group after creating all of the attribute forms. Inc. as described in the procedure below. the form group in the diagram below joins the forms Last_Name and First_Name to create the form group Name for the attribute Customer: By grouping these two forms. . log in to the project source that contains the MicroStrategy Tutorial project and then log into MicroStrategy Tutorial. the user can simply display the Name form and the report then includes both the customers’ first and last names.

The Create New Form Expression dialog box opens. 9 Click OK. 7 In the Form general information area. Each © 2007 MicroStrategy. select None. they are used in two primary ways—browsing and reporting. 11 In the Name field. 10 Select the Item Name 2 and Foreign Name attribute forms. in the Category used drop-down list. in the Name field. 4 Select New. 5 Double-click the ITEM_NAME column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. Using attributes to browse and report on data Once attributes are built. The Attribute Editor opens. The Attribute Editor opens. Inc. and users place an attribute on a report to display details about the particular attribute and how it relates to fact data. and then right-click the selected attribute forms and select Group. type Item Name2. Since this is only an example of how to create a form group. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. The Attribute Editor opens. Users browse through attributes to locate an attribute to use on a report. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. A form group which includes an item’s name and foreign name is created for the Item attribute. do not save the changes to the Item attribute. 8 In the Form category area. open the Attributes folder. type Item and Foreign Name and click OK. 6 Select Automatic mapping and click OK. Using attributes to browse and report on data 189 .Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 2 Navigate to the Schema Objects folder. 3 Double-click the Item attribute. and then the Item folder.

instead of the URL attribute form. you select a different set of values for display. By selecting different forms for the attribute. For example. You can do this on a report-by-report basis. the display could be a number such as four. such as Northwest. Report display forms are the attribute forms that appear as columns in a completed report. You must choose a default attribute display for browsing and another for reporting. If a report lists the cities in which you have stores. These browse forms are found in the Report Objects pane. www.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide attribute can be displayed in a variety of forms so you must specify the default display of each of the attributes in the project. a report includes Region as an attribute. Browse forms are the attribute forms that appear as a user browses through the element list of an attribute in the Data Explorer in a project.com. but you still must specify the global. you can add the attribute forms in Report Objects to the report without re-executing the report. This separation allows for greater attribute display flexibility depending on the application. default for each attribute. You can modify the attribute forms displayed by: • Right-clicking an attribute on a report or template and selecting the desired attribute forms 190 Using attributes to browse and report on data © 2007 MicroStrategy. If Description is selected as the attribute form. browse forms identify attribute elements. The only exception is if you create multiple attribute forms. Inc. or project-wide. When creating attributes. Therefore.chicago. . such as Chicago. all forms are included as report display forms and browse forms by default. the display could be a name. An attribute’s report display forms determine which attribute forms are displayed by default when the report is executed. In Grid view. the first form you create is not included as a report display or browse form. that is. If ID is selected as the attribute form. You can also select which attribute forms are retrieved with the report results but not displayed on the grid. then you might choose to display the Long Description form. For example you can include a cities URL attribute form as a browse attribute form so that your users can choose to display the form on a report.

Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 • From the Data menu. For example. Using attributes to browse and report on data 191 . refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. For a general procedure to set how attribute forms are displayed by default. Setting how attribute forms are displayed by default You can generally display attribute forms in a number of ways. the Distribution Center attribute in the MicroStrategy Tutorial consists of an ID form group and a Description form. or both are displayed. © 2007 MicroStrategy. you can specify whether the identification number of each distribution center. You can also determine which attribute forms are displayed when browsing a project with the Data Explorer. Follow the example procedure below to set one of the Distribution Center attribute’s forms to be displayed in reports and while browsing the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. the distribution center names. the Dist_Ctr_ID form shows the identification numbers of specific distribution centers in the data warehouse.” You can use the Attribute Editor to determine how the attribute forms are displayed on a report. Country_ID and Dist_Ctr_ID. however. In the case of the Distribution Center attribute. Displayed on a report. The Description form of Distribution Center. displays the actual name of the Distribution Center such as “San Diego. The ID form group is made up of two separate ID columns. see the online help and the section below. Inc. selecting Attribute Display to open the Attribute Display dialog box For steps to display attribute forms on a report or template.

open the Attributes folder. the actual names of the distribution centers are displayed. The ID 2 form in the Available forms pane represents the distribution centers’ identification numbers. navigate to the Schema Objects folder. On the right. • 192 Using attributes to browse and report on data © 2007 MicroStrategy. when the Distribution Center attribute is used on a report. To set the ID 2 form so it is displayed in the Data Explorer when a user browses the Distribution Center attribute: Select ID 2 from the Available forms pane and click the bottom > button to add the form to the Browse forms pane on the right. This means that. The Data Explorer is discussed in Enabling hierarchy browsing in reports: Data Explorer.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide To display an attribute form in reports and in the Data Explorer 1 In the MicroStrategy Tutorial. Inc. You can also determine how attributes are displayed while users are editing and viewing reports. the description form of the Distribution Center is set as the only display form. 4 You can set the ID 2 form to be displayed in the following ways: • To set the ID 2 form as a form that is displayed on a report by default: Select ID 2 from the Available forms pane and click the top > button to add the form to the Report display forms pane on the right. in the Report display forms pane. 2 Double-click the Distribution Center attribute. The Attribute Editor opens. See the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide for details. The Data Explorer makes hierarchies available for users to facilitate placing objects on reports. 5 Because this is only an example. 3 Click the Display tab. . page 209. close the Attribute Editor without saving your changes. and then the Geography folder.

This chapter discusses hierarchies as they exist in the MicroStrategy environment and provides information on the two different types of hierarchies in MicroStrategy. For example. These types of hierarchies include the system hierarchy and the user hierarchy. In Chapter 2. you can include a Time hierarchy in your model that consists of Day. and Year attributes. The system hierarchy is automatically created when you create a project and is maintained by the © 2007 MicroStrategy. Month. you learned how to use hierarchies to group related attributes in practical business areas. The Logical Data Model. to reflect the relationships that exist between the attributes in a project. Inc. CREATING HIERARCHIES TO ORGANIZE AND BROWSE ATTRIBUTES Introduction Hierarchies are groupings of attributes that can be displayed. 193 . either ordered or unordered. Week.7 7.

. This chapter explores how to create and configure user hierarchies in MicroStrategy and provides additional information about hierarchy functionality in MicroStrategy Desktop. see Types of hierarchies. The user hierarchy is a hierarchy which you create specifically for your report designers. 194 Creating user hierarchies © 2007 MicroStrategy.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide relationships that exist among the project’s schema objects. page 196. For information on user hierarchies and system hierarchies. Creating user hierarchies In MicroStrategy Desktop. Inc. Follow the procedure below to learn how to create a user hierarchy. you create user hierarchies using the Hierarchy Editor.

6 In the Hierarchy Editor. in the Available objects window. select the attributes to use in the hierarchy and click the arrow to add them to the Selected objects window. Drill hierarchies are discussed in Drilling using hierarchies. Once you save and re-open the hierarchy. select Show Details. The Hierarchy Editor opens. If the Use as a drill hierarchy check box at the bottom of the Hierarchy Editor is selected. followed immediately by the Select Objects dialog box. 3 Open the Hierarchies folder. a dialog box opens notifying you that the hierarchy you are about to save is drillable in reports. navigate to and open the Schema Objects folder. Creating user hierarchies 195 . 2 In the Folder List. you must edit the attribute(s) in the Attribute Editor. Click OK to close the Select Attributes dialog box.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 To create a new user hierarchy 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. The arrows that connect certain attributes denote the presence of a relationship between the connected attributes. If arrows do not appear between attributes you know are related. and update the schema. Inc. an entry point. 7 Click Save and Close. © 2007 MicroStrategy. select New. Type a name for the hierarchy. and then the Data Explorer folder. The attributes you selected appear in the Hierarchy Viewer. 4 From the File menu. and then Hierarchy. or filtered. assign the appropriate parent or child relationship to the attributes. you can view the details of each attribute in the hierarchy. from the View menu. page 161. These details include whether or not the attribute is locked. To do so. 5 In the Select Attributes dialog box. arrows appear between related attributes. page 209. This procedure is covered in Viewing and editing the parents and children of attributes. log into the project source that contains your project and open the project.

The ordering and grouping of attributes. Although the system hierarchy specifies an ordered set of all attributes in the project. You do not need to create the system hierarchy. it does not define ordering or grouping among attributes. User hierarchy: User hierarchies are named sets of attributes and their relationships to each other. 9 Update the project schema by selecting Update Schema from the Schema menu. . is defined in user hierarchies. among other configurations. Types of hierarchies The two types of hierarchies that exist in MicroStrategy include: • System hierarchy: The system hierarchy is created according to the relationships defined between the attributes in your project. You can save user hierarchies in any folder. • 196 Types of hierarchies © 2007 MicroStrategy. As the structure of your business intelligence evolves. to make the user hierarchy available for element browsing in the Data Explorer. Steps to create user hierarchies are discussed in Creating user hierarchies. you can easily change the design of a user hierarchy to include additional attributes or limit user access to certain attributes. However. it is automatically created in Desktop when you create a project.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide 8 In the Save As dialog box. page 194. This type of hierarchy is created to provide flexibility in element browsing and report drilling. arranged in specific ways that make sense to a business organization. you must place it in the Data Explorer sub-folder within the Hierarchies folder. Inc. navigate to the location in which you want to save the hierarchy. They are user-defined and do not need to follow the logical data model.

For example. Month. The system hierarchy holds information on the relationships between attributes in the project. © 2007 MicroStrategy. These report objects are discussed in detail in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. you can create a Time hierarchy that contains the Year.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 System hierarchy: Project schema definition The system hierarchy is the default hierarchy that MicroStrategy sets up for you each time you create a project. or when you define attribute children in the Project Creation Assistant. You create user hierarchies to define the browse and drill relationships between attributes. and components of consolidations. You can access the Hierarchy Viewer from Graphical View in the Schema menu. but not the Hierarchy Editor. the only hierarchy it contains is the system hierarchy. filter conditions. When you first create a project. The system hierarchy cannot be edited but is updated every time you add or remove attribute children or parents in the Attribute Editor. The Hierarchy Viewer is discussed in detail in Using the Hierarchy Viewer. arranged in specific sequences for a logical business organization. Quarter. and Day attributes. Inc. User hierarchies: Logical business relationships User hierarchies are sets of attributes and their relationships. and so on. page 211. Types of hierarchies 197 . Any attributes that are not assigned to a user hierarchy remain available to the system as report objects. You can view the system hierarchy in the Data Explorer or in the Hierarchy Viewer. It contains all of the attributes in the project and is actually part of the schema definition. The system hierarchy is useful in determining relationships between all objects in the project. When you browse the attributes in the Data Explorer. you can double-click Year to get to Quarter and double-click Quarter to get to Month. Attributes from the system hierarchy do not need to be part of an explicitly-defined user hierarchy.

if the user drills on the Quarter attribute in a report. in drilling the user actually chooses to move to higher or lower levels on a report or move across to levels within different hierarchies. and Customer. For example. Contact. Inc. 198 Hierarchy organization © 2007 MicroStrategy. The Customer hierarchy also groups together the attributes Company. This allows users to more easily locate attributes in a project and navigate from one attribute to another. . up to Year. and Store are organized according to their relationships to each other. You should define user hierarchies that correspond to specific areas of your company business model and data warehouse schema. you can place related attributes into hierarchies by their level. he or she can drill down to Month. You can create user hierarchies in the Hierarchy Editor using one or more attributes from the system hierarchy. Within the Location hierarchy. Hierarchy organization The best design for a user hierarchy is to organize or group attributes into logical business areas. and you can create any number of user hierarchies for each project. The example below demonstrates the Location and Customer hierarchies. or across to an attribute within another hierarchy.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide Whereas browsing occurs through the Data Explorer. State. For example. City. A user hierarchy is the only type of hierarchy you can define.

Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 When creating user hierarchies. However. if you only include Store in the Region hierarchy. The rest of this chapter discusses user hierarchies and how to create and configure them in your project. keep in mind that hierarchies do not have to be separate from one another or necessarily follow the dimensional structure of your logical data model. you are developing a working design of the display and browse functions of the attributes. Hierarchy organization 199 . In the example below. Hierarchy structure While both a system hierarchy and user hierarchy allow you to navigate attributes in your project. This hierarchy allows you to create drilling and browsing options to the lower levels to view Region. there are two instances of the Region hierarchy. Inc. only the user hierarchy allows you to logically define and order groups of attributes. State. One hierarchy demonstrates Region having multiple States and the States having multiple Stores. When you group attributes together into user hierarchies. as in the second example. © 2007 MicroStrategy. then the only options for drilling or browsing are the Region and Store levels. and Store on a report.

the connections between the attributes represent the parent-child relationships. You can use the Hierarchy Editor to configure each of these properties. Only data satisfying the filter criteria is displayed (see Filtering attributes in a hierarchy. page 205). In user hierarchies. Configuring hierarchy display options Each attribute in a user hierarchy has properties that affect how that attribute is displayed and accessed in a hierarchy. Browse Attributes: Shows the attributes to which users can browse from a given attribute.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide Viewing hierarchies: Hierarchy Viewer The Hierarchy Viewer graphically represents user hierarchies and the system hierarchy. • • • 200 Configuring hierarchy display options © 2007 MicroStrategy. The Aerial perspective provides an overview of hierarchies. or limited (see Controlling the display of attribute elements. Inc. its decreased scale allows you to navigate through the entire project. In the system hierarchy. The Hierarchy Viewer is accessed from the Graphical View option in the Schema menu. The element display may be locked. Represented by lines that connect one attribute to others (see Hierarchy browsing. Attribute Filters: Specifies whether the data retrieved and displayed should be complete or filtered by any specific criteria. The Hierarchy Viewer is discussed in further detail in Using the Hierarchy Viewer. page 201). page 211. A filter on a hierarchy acts like a filter in a report. as shown in the following procedures: • Element Display: Determines the elements a user can see. Entry Point/Not an Entry Point: Specifies whether the user can begin browsing in this hierarchy using this attribute (see Entry point. the connections show the browse paths between the attributes. unlocked. page 206). page 203). .

For example. You can lock the hierarchy to restrict the user from viewing elements and lower level attributes for security reasons or to better manage lengthy hierarchies. a padlock icon appears next to the attribute name. When you set the element display to locked.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 The following sections explain these properties and how to use the Hierarchy Editor to configure each. A hierarchy is referred to as locked when at least one attribute within that hierarchy has the Element Display option set to Locked. Anything higher in the hierarchy is still visible. he or she cannot view information about each customer’s order. the attribute Order is locked in the Data Explorer sample shown below. The Order attribute may be locked in order to prevent unauthorized users from accessing sensitive information about customer orders. Inc. © 2007 MicroStrategy. While the user can view the attribute elements of Customer Region and Customer City. you can prevent the expansion of long attribute element lists that can consume system resources. By restricting the view of attribute elements and lower level attributes in the Data Explorer. Configuring hierarchy display options 201 . Controlling the display of attribute elements Locked/Unlocked attribute elements Locking a hierarchy prevents a user from viewing all elements of the specific attribute and any lower level attributes in the hierarchy.

The user can then click the arrows to see the next set of elements for that attribute. 2 Right-click the attribute to lock or unlock. 4 To unlock a locked attribute. 202 Configuring hierarchy display options © 2007 MicroStrategy. retrieving a large number of elements at once can negatively impact system performance. from the right-click menu. Instead of loading all attribute elements at once. 6 Update the project schema by selecting Update Schema from the Schema menu. select Element display. However. and users can no longer view elements of this attribute. 3 To lock an attribute. if the attribute Year is locked in the Attribute Editor. from the right-click menu. select Element display. For example. The Hierarchy Editor opens. Inc. this locks and unlocks the attributes within the system hierarchy. Also. 5 In the Hierarchy Editor. You can also lock and unlock attributes when you edit them in the Display tab of the Attribute Editor. you can set the limit to five or ten at a time. and then Unlocked. and users can now view the elements of this attribute. . not any user hierarchies that contain the attributes. A padlock icon appears next to the locked attribute. and then Locked. no elements for Year display in the Data Explorer when Year is expanded.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide To lock or unlock an attribute in a hierarchy 1 Double-click the hierarchy to edit. click Save and Close. This method is useful when there are extensive attribute elements in a hierarchy. Limited attribute elements Another way to restrict users from viewing attribute elements in the Data Explorer is to limit the number of elements that appear at one time. The padlock icon is removed from the attribute.

4 In the Hierarchy Editor. type the number of elements you want to see at one time and click OK. Filtering attributes in a hierarchy Before reading this section. right-click the attribute to limit. select Element display. With a filter you can choose exactly which attribute elements to display in a hierarchy.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 For example. you can filter a hierarchy so that data for only one © 2007 MicroStrategy. shown below. Configuring hierarchy display options 203 . 5 Update the project schema by selecting Update Schema from the Schema menu. Inc. To limit the display of attributes in a hierarchy 1 In the Hierarchy Editor. and then Limit. contains many items. 2 From the right-click menu. the Chocolate subcategory. You can add filters to a hierarchy to control how data is retrieved and displayed. click Save and Close. a limit of five items has been set. 3 In the Limit dialog box. Rather than displaying all of them at once and overwhelming the user. refer to the Filters chapter in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide to understand what filters are and how to create them in MicroStrategy. For example. The following graphic displays this view in the Data Explorer.

When adding filters to an attribute in a hierarchy. Each attribute in the hierarchy can have multiple filters applied to it. See the MicroStrategy Desktop online help for more details. Only those customers younger than 30 years old are displayed. In the Hierarchy Editor. click OK. you need to make sure that each filter is relevant to the attribute’s information. and the user is unable to see additional data in the hierarchy. you want to view only those customers who are younger than 30 years old. perform a type of security. add the filter to the Customer attribute. Creating a limited hierarchy reduces the number of elements displayed at one time. 204 Configuring hierarchy display options © 2007 MicroStrategy. The filters allow the Data Explorer to display only the criteria you select. To apply a filter to an attribute in a hierarchy 1 Create a filter in MicroStrategy Desktop. limit the elements a user is allowed to see and therefore. 3 If a tip about filtering opens. you are limiting the elements of the data returned when you browse the Data Explorer. Update the project schema. .7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide quarter is displayed. For example. Filters. Filters make data retrieval faster by only allowing specific data to be displayed. 2 In the Hierarchy Editor. First. create a filter on Customer Age less than 30. or data for only a few days of one quarter. however. You cannot use a prompt-based filter to filter a hierarchy. Inc. and view the Customer hierarchy in the Data Explorer. MicroStrategy does not validate that the associated filter makes sense on that attribute. Filters increase efficiency when retrieving data because you can limit user access to parts of a hierarchy when you apply filters to attributes. When filtering attributes in a hierarchy. right-click the attribute to filter and select Define Attribute Filters.

5 Click OK to close the Select Filters dialog box. it appears in its normal position within the hierarchy structure. When you click on Time. and their elements appear in the Data Explorer. Inc. it still appears in the hierarchy but with a padlock icon. To create entry points in a hierarchy 1 In the Hierarchy Editor. in the Available objects list. the hierarchy. and 2005. 6 In the Hierarchy Editor. an element for each Quarter. Creating an entry point grants users faster access to the attribute without having to browse through multiple attributes to reach different levels in a hierarchy. a typical hierarchy is Time. elements for each Year. opens. and Q4. select the filters to apply and click > to add them to the Selected objects list. If you set the attribute Week as an entry point. right-click the attribute to set as an entry point. the attribute Week appears in the Data Explorer at the same level as Year.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 4 In the Select Filters dialog box. You can see the locked attribute. such as Q1. When you click on 2006. This is especially useful when accessing frequently-used attributes. you are creating a shorter route to access that attribute. but are unable to access elements or attributes below that level. When you create a user hierarchy. The attribute to which you applied the filter appears in the hierarchy with a filter icon. If you are seeking Week 24. open. For example. such as 2007. which is Week. When you set an attribute to be an entry point. Configuring hierarchy display options 205 . If you set a locked attribute as an entry point. click Save and Close. 2006. the attributes. If an attribute is not set to be an entry point. you need to open several levels of attributes to reach the correct data level. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Q2. Q3. Entry point An entry point is a shortcut to an attribute in the Data Explorer.

4 Update the project schema by selecting Update Schema from the Schema menu. select Remove Entry Point from the right-click menu. For example. in the hierarchy below. For example. showing the parent/child relationships between the attributes. the hierarchy resembles the example below. and Item are the attributes that comprise the user hierarchy Catalog Items. you can define the relationships between them. Some of the attributes in the Hierarchy Viewer may already be set as entry points. Category.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide 2 From the right-click menu. . These relationships determine how users can browse the attributes from the Hierarchies folder. Subcategory. 206 Configuring hierarchy display options © 2007 MicroStrategy. click Save and Close. Hierarchy browsing Once you choose which attributes to place in a hierarchy. if Catalog. Inc. attributes set as entry points are denoted by a green check. select Set as entry point. Category is a parent attribute of Category and Category is the child attribute of Category. To remove an entry point from an attribute. 3 In the Hierarchy Editor.

without having to first browse down through the Category © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 A user hierarchy does not need to have these direct relationships defined. Attributes in a hierarchy can have both browsing and drilling relationships between them. Item The addition of these browse attributes allows users to see the Subcategory elements directly from the Catalog attribute. you can assign one or more browse attributes to it. Browse attributes are attributes you specify a user can directly browse to from a given attribute in the user hierarchy. Specifically: Hierarchy Attribute Catalog Category Subcategory Item Browse Attribute(s) Category. Inc. see Enabling hierarchy browsing in reports: Data Explorer. Subcategory Subcategory Catalog. It can simply be a collection of attributes. Including hierarchies in the Data Explorer makes the hierarchies available for reports and to users in the project. For more information on including hierarchies in the Data Explorer. Configuring hierarchy display options 207 . some of these attributes have been assigned a browse attribute. Using the example above. page 209. For each attribute in a hierarchy. When you apply browse attributes to attributes in a hierarchy. you are specifying what levels of detail are visible when browsing the Data Explorer.

Inc. . Users can now view the subcategories in the catalog without first having to browse through the categories. the hierarchy described above resembles the example below. In the Data Explorer.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide attributes to get to Subcategory. The ability to browse more directly through the hierarchy can be represented as shown below. 208 Configuring hierarchy display options © 2007 MicroStrategy.

on a report with the Year attribute and Revenue metric. A new report is automatically executed. which is located in the Schema Objects folder. up. reports can allow users to drill down. In the example of the Year and Month attributes. Revenue data is reported at the Month level. The Data Explorer is a tool in the Object Browser that holds the system hierarchy and the user hierarchies. to make a user hierarchy available for browsing in the Data Explorer you must place it in the Data Explorer folder—a subfolder of the Hierarchies folder. the attributes to which users can drill from other attributes. at a project level. and across to different levels of detail. Drilling using hierarchies Drilling is a function in MicroStrategy reports that allows users to browse different levels of attributes along specified paths. You can save user hierarchies in any folder. When a user selects a drilling path in a report. Depending on the level of the attributes included in the drilling specification. drilling is enabled in the Time hierarchy. Configuring hierarchy display options 209 . the report refreshes to display the selected level of detail. However. if they need to. which contains the two attributes. For example. the user can drill down on the Year attribute to a lower level attribute such as the Month attribute. This allows a user to drill down from Year to Month and.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 Enabling hierarchy browsing in reports: Data Explorer You can make hierarchies available for browsing and including in reports by storing the hierarchies in the Data Explorer. on the new report. drill back up from Month to Year. Moving hierarchies to and from this folder also allows you to keep some hierarchies visible to users while hiding others. Inc. © 2007 MicroStrategy. When you create a new project. the system hierarchy for that project is automatically placed in the Data Explorer. This option enables you to determine. You can make user hierarchies available for drilling.

you can drill from Catalog down to Subcategory—and any other browse attributes of Catalog—on a report. which means that you can access the elements of Subcategory without having to necessarily access the elements of Catalog in Data Explorer. 2 At the bottom of the Hierarchy Editor. you can think of browsing paths in a user hierarchy as potential drilling paths. select the Use as a drill hierarchy check box. If you enable drilling in this hierarchy. To enable drilling in a user hierarchy 1 Open the hierarchy in which to enable drilling. See Hierarchy browsing. in the following hierarchy. 3 In the Hierarchy Editor. For example. click Save and Close.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide To enable a user hierarchy as a drill path. If a user hierarchy is not enabled. . Inc. 4 Update the project schema by selecting Update Schema from the Schema menu. Therefore. page 206 for more details about browsing attributes. Subcategory is a browse attribute of Catalog. you must enable the user hierarchy to be used as a drill hierarchy in the Hierarchy Editor. the default drill path is defined by the System Hierarchy. 210 Configuring hierarchy display options © 2007 MicroStrategy.

as defined by the system when the project was created. but rather the structure of the user hierarchy as defined by a project designer. the hierarchy contributes to the drilling path of any attributes in it. • The Hierarchy Viewer gives you flexibility over how much of a given hierarchy you choose to view at once. Additional information on drilling is available in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. Using the Hierarchy Viewer and Table Viewer 211 . or you may select only one at a time. assume Week is a browsing attribute assigned to Year.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 After a user hierarchy is enabled for drilling. MicroStrategy Architect gives you the ability to view the system hierarchy as well as all of your user hierarchies in a single place. Using the Hierarchy Viewer and Table Viewer Through the Hierarchy Viewer. When a user right-clicks on Year and selects Drill Down. and also allows you direct access to the attributes that comprise it. For instance. For details on entry points. © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 205. It is used to view all of the tables in your project graphically. The Table Viewer is another tool within MicroStrategy Architect that provides you with a bird’s eye view of some of the information within your project. You can use the Hierarchy Viewer to view either the system hierarchy or any of your user hierarchies. Inc. to facilitate user browsing and report development. you can see the actual relationships between attributes. When you view a user hierarchy. Using the Hierarchy Viewer The Hierarchy Viewer allows you to select the hierarchy you want to examine. • When you view the system hierarchy. you do not see true attribute relationships. the attribute Week appears in the drill-down list. You can see all of the entry points into a hierarchy at once. see Entry point.

from the Hierarchy menu. . To access Aerial perspective mode in the Hierarchy Viewer 1 In the Hierarchy Viewer. right-click the attribute to edit. from the Schema menu. The green squares indicate attributes that are entry points. An aerial view of the hierarchy you are currently viewing is displayed. See Entry point. In the Hierarchy Viewer. See Entry point. page 205 for more details on creating entry points. you can define them as entry points. select Aerial perspective. 2 Select Edit. To view the system hierarchy in the Hierarchy Viewer 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. 212 Using the Hierarchy Viewer and Table Viewer © 2007 MicroStrategy. select Graphical View. Inc. 2 Select Hierarchies. When you access a hierarchy’s attributes directly.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide The Hierarchy Viewer also gives you direct access to any of the attributes in the hierarchy you choose to view. To edit an attribute from the Hierarchy Viewer 1 In the Hierarchy Viewer. select the hierarchy to view. 2 Attributes that have a green check mark next to them are entry points. To view a user hierarchy in the Hierarchy Viewer 1 In the Hierarchy Viewer. from the View menu. the Aerial perspective provides an overview of the hierarchies in your project. page 205 for more details on creating entry points. Its decreased scale allows you to navigate through the entire project.

© 2007 MicroStrategy. from the Schema menu. To view more or less information about each table in the project 1 Open the Table Viewer. select Graphical View. 2 In the Table Viewer. To view your project’s tables in the Table Viewer 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. page 249 for information on updating logical table structures. Click a section of the aerial view display to shift your view of a hierarchy to that particular section. as described above.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 2 The hierarchy in the Hierarchy Viewer shifts according to where you navigate in the aerial view. If you make changes to the actual tables in the data warehouse. Inc. 2 Select Tables. select Options. The tables that are displayed here are logical tables. Using the Table Viewer The Table Viewer allows you to view all of the tables in your project as well as the joins and/or relationships between those tables and the names of the individual columns in each table. See The size of tables in a project: Logical table size. Using the Hierarchy Viewer and Table Viewer 213 . They represent and indicate how Architect sees the tables that were brought into the project when it was created. you will need to update the logical table structure.

. depending on what you want to see in the Table Viewer: • • • • • Show joins Use circular joins Show relationships Show relationship types Show columns 214 Using the Hierarchy Viewer and Table Viewer © 2007 MicroStrategy.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide 3 From the Options menu. select or clear the options for any of the following. Inc.

page 216—As you continue to enhance the design and functionality of your project. and using partition mapping. Inc. you will need to make various schema changes. you must update your project schema. This chapter introduces you to maintenance and optimization concepts such as tuning the interaction between your data warehouse and your project. You can find this information in the sections listed below: • Updating your MicroStrategy project schema. creating aggregate tables. To see any enhancements and changes to your project schema. and explains how to use these methods to enhance your project. 215 . you are ready to start thinking about ways to better maintain the project and optimize it for both the short and long term.8 8. OPTIMIZING AND MAINTAINING YOUR PROJECT Introduction Once your MicroStrategy project is set up and populated with schema objects. © 2007 MicroStrategy.

You can do any of the following to update your project schema: 216 Updating your MicroStrategy project schema © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. Although the concepts are related. page 241—Aggregate tables store data at higher levels than the data was originally collected in the data warehouse. the project schema refers to an internal map that MicroStrategy uses to keep track of attribute relationships. page 250—Partition mapping involves the division of large logical tables into smaller physical tables. Partitions improve query performance by minimizing the number of tables and records within a table that must be read to satisfy queries issued against the warehouse. fact levels. hierarchies. page 218—As your data warehouse changes to meet new data logging requirements.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide • Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog. attributes. reduce input/output and other resource requirements. and minimize the amount of data that must be aggregated and sorted at run time. and so on—in your project come together to form your project’s schema. Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables. • • Updating your MicroStrategy project schema All of the schema objects—facts. Rather. the project schema is not the same as the physical warehouse schema. Dividing tables to increase performance: Partition mapping. table sizes. These summary tables provide quicker access to frequently-used data. . transformations. You can also tune the interaction between your data warehouse and your MicroStrategy project to bring your data into MicroStrategy in a way that meets your requirements. Whenever you make any changes to a schema object you must indicate to MicroStrategy that new schema object definitions have been included and that these definitions need to be loaded into memory. This can include adding new tables to your project or removing tables that are no longer used. your project must reflect these changes. and so on within the project.

Recalculate table logical sizes: Use this option to use MicroStrategy Desktop’s algorithm to recalculate logical table sizes and override any modifications that you have made to logical table sizes. 2 In the Schema Update dialog box. Manually update the schema. or deleted a schema object. Logical table sizes are a significant part of how the MicroStrategy SQL Engine determines the tables to use in a query. Updating your MicroStrategy project schema 217 . select Update Schema.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 • • • Stop and restart MicroStrategy Intelligence Server. To manually update the schema 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. • Recalculate project client object cache size: Use this option to update the object cache size for the project. You can also update the schema with the last saved settings by clicking the Update Schema icon in the toolbar. if in direct (2-tier) mode. select or clear the following check boxes: • • Update schema logical information: Use this option if you added. Inc. © 2007 MicroStrategy. from the Schema menu. modified. Recalculate table keys and fact entry levels: Use this option if you changed the key structure of a table or if you changed the level at which a fact is stored. • 3 Click Update. if in server-connected (3-tier) mode. Manually updating the schema allows you to determine which specific elements of the schema are updated. Disconnect and reconnect to the project or the project source.

you can select the tables to add to your project. and the default SQL statements used for each database. page 233 Troubleshooting table and column messages. Inc. page 219 Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. From this list. . as later. Adding tables through Project Builder is useful only when you are creating a project for the first time. Every project can have a unique set of warehouse tables. page 239 218 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog This section discusses how the Warehouse Catalog can control the interaction between the data warehouse and the database instance for a project. page 221 Modifying data warehouse connection and operation defaults. This section also discusses customizing catalog SQL statements. page 219 Adding and removing tables for a project. This section covers the following topics: • • • • • • • What should I know before I use the Warehouse Catalog?. You can add warehouse tables to your project with the Warehouse Catalog or MicroStrategy Project Builder. page 226 Customizing catalog SQL statements. the structure of the SQL catalogs. page 220 Managing warehouse and project tables. The Warehouse Catalog queries the data warehouse and lists the tables and columns that exist in it. The Warehouse Catalog is better for maintaining the warehouse tables used for an existing project. adding tables in the project through Project Builder can become a cumbersome process.

Hyperion Essbase. Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources. © 2007 MicroStrategy. In this case. For more information on Query Builder. so you know how the information in your data warehouse should be brought into MicroStrategy How to create a project Accessing the Warehouse Catalog To access the Warehouse Catalog 1 On the Windows Start menu. then to MicroStrategy. For more information about privileges see the Permissions and Privileges appendix of the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. the OLAP Cube Catalog handles tasks similar to the Warehouse Catalog. and Microsoft Analysis Services instead of a relational database. • What should I know before I use the Warehouse Catalog? Before you begin using the Warehouse Catalog. you need to be familiar with: • • Your schema. For more information. point to Programs. Inc. and expand your project. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 219 . refer to Appendix B. You can connect to OLAP cube sources such as SAP BW. 2 Log in to the project source that contains your project in MicroStrategy Desktop. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 Note the following: • You can also add tables to a project using MicroStrategy Query Builder. You must use a login that has Architect privileges. and then select Desktop. then Desktop.

Inc. as your project matures. 2 The left side of the Warehouse Catalog lists all available tables and the number of rows each table contains. Click >> to add all the listed tables. select the tables you want to add to the Warehouse Catalog. page 219. and click > to add the selected tables. it may become necessary to add additional tables from the data warehouse to your project. and expand your project. . select Warehouse Catalog. and click > to add the selected tables. select the tables you want to add to the Warehouse Catalog. To remove tables—From the left side. The list on the right shows all the tables already being used in the project: • To add tables—From the left side. Log in to the project source that contains your project in MicroStrategy Desktop. To add or remove tables after creating a project 1 Access the Warehouse Catalog for your project as described in To access the Warehouse Catalog. Also.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide 3 Select a project and then from the Schema menu. You can access the Warehouse Catalog at any time to add additional tables from your data warehouse to your project and remove tables from your project. Adding and removing tables for a project As you become aware of the additional needs of report designers and users. The Warehouse Catalog opens after it retrieves the table information from the warehouse database. Click >> to add all the listed tables. you may need to remove tables from your project that are no longer used and are taking up space in the metadata. • 220 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy.

Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 221 . click Save and Close to save your changes to the Warehouse Catalog. Description • © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 3 In the toolbar. As you make changes to the tables in the warehouse. you need to periodically load the updates into the Warehouse Catalog. You can update it by selecting Read the Warehouse Catalog from the Actions menu. Menu File • Save Saves the current settings and status of the Warehouse Catalog. This process can take some time to complete. The Warehouse Catalog has the following sections: • Tables available in the warehouse: Displays tables that are located in the warehouse. Managing warehouse and project tables The Warehouse Catalog allows you to view tables that have been included in the project. The table definitions are written to the metadata. To access the Warehouse Catalog for a project. but have not been included in the project. 4 Update the project schema from the Schema menu. by selecting Update Schema. page 219. Warehouse Catalog has the following menu options. see Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. You can remove tables from the project by double-clicking the tables or by selecting the tables and then clicking <. You can add or remove all the tables from one section to the other by clicking << and >> buttons. You can add tables to the project by double-clicking the tables or by selecting the tables and then clicking >. Inc. as well as those tables that are available in the warehouse but have not been included in the project. Tables being used in the project: Displays tables that have been selected to be part of the project.

and so on. right-click any table in the Warehouse Catalog (see Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. Displays the list of tables referred to by the selected partition mapping table in the Table Partitions dialog box. changing or assigning default table prefixes and structures. Calculates the number of rows in the selected tables. row calculation. For more information. Allows you to assign or update a database instance for the project. Viewing table structure To view the table structure of a table. Displays MicroStrategy help options Some of these options are also available through toolbar buttons and through right-click menus for quick access. automatic mapping. Allows you to add or remove a table prefix for the selected table. page 219) and choose Table Structure from the 222 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. • Table Structure • Calculate Table Row Count • Table Prefix • Table Database Instances • Import Prefix • Options Actions • Read the Warehouse Catalog Help Allows you to update and reflect the changes done to tables in the warehouse. . Allows you to import the prefixes from the warehouse table name space. This option is enabled when a partition mapping table is selected. see Data warehouse connection and read operations. Displays the structure of a table selected in the Warehouse Catalog. Allows you to specify various settings for the Warehouse Catalog such as changing the database instance. page 227 of this appendix.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide Menu • Exit Tools • View Partitions Description Exits the Warehouse Catalog. Inc.

To update the structure of a table 1 Access the Warehouse Catalog for your project (see Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. The table structure of the selected table is displayed in the dialog box. 2 In the Tables being used in the project list. When the data type of one or more columns is modified. Updating table structure Whenever the structure of the warehouse table changes you have to update the table structure in the Warehouse Catalog for the changes to reflect in the MicroStrategy system. page 219). You can also click Update Structure to reflect any recent changes done to that table (see Updating table structure. which provides the following options: • • Click OK to apply the change to this column in all the tables it appears. This action results in no changes being applied to any tables or columns. delete. The warning message appears only if you have selected the Display a warning if the columns data types are modified when updating the table structure option in the Warehouse Catalog Options dialog box. right-click the table that has changed and select Update Structure. The dialog box displays the columns available in the selected table and the data type of each column. Some examples of these type of changes are when you add.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 shortcut menu. © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 223). Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 223 . you get a warning message of this change. or rename a column in a table associated with a project. You can also select Table Structure from the Tools menu. The Warehouse Catalog opens. This option is selected by default. Inc. Click Cancel to undo all data type changes.

For example. The Schema Update dialog box opens. – From the list of source tables select the source table from which the fact has been created. the warehouse structure gets updated completely with the Update Structure command. 3 Click Save and Close to close the Warehouse Catalog dialog box. Verify the changes from the information dialog box that opens and click OK to apply the change in this column to all the tables in which it appears. • 224 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide If the data type of one or more columns is modified. you have to manually update the schema objects that depend on the outdated structure. the table structure is only partially updated with the Update Structure command. you have to manually update the facts that use this column. Then. The Modify Fact Expression dialog box opens. Edit the fact expression and click OK. . – Select the fact expression and click Modify. you receive a message warning of this change. – Click Save and Close to save the changes and close the Fact Editor. select Update Schema. The Fact Editor opens. You are returned to the Fact Editor. Inc. this would apply if you rename a column in the table and the column is not being used in any fact expression. – Repeat the first to steps of this procedure to open the Warehouse Catalog and update the table structure. • If no object definitions have changed. if you rename a column in a table. – From the Schema menu. If any of the object definitions have changed. The procedure for manually updating the fact is as follows: – Right-click the fact and select Edit. – Click Update. For example.

click Reload table values. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 225 . in your environment you might have a gateway between two databases such as an Oracle database and a DB2 database. which is used to support database gateways. MicroStrategy products know how to generate SQL for each table. Inc. For example. This way. The first 100 rows of the table are returned as sample data in the Values dialog box. page 219) and choose Show Sample Data from the shortcut menu. In the Warehouse Catalog. one for the primary database and another for the secondary database. you need to define two database instances. To refresh the table data.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 – Click Save and Close to save the changes and close the Warehouse Catalog dialog box. One of them is the primary database and the other is the secondary database. Specifying a secondary database to support database gateways MicroStrategy allows you to specify a secondary database instance for a table. right-click a table in the Warehouse Catalog (see Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. From the perspective of MicroStrategy products in this environment. Viewing sample data To view sample data from a table. you must set the secondary database instance for any tables that are found in the secondary database. The primary database receives all SQL requests and passes them to the correct database. The default database instance for the project is set to be the primary database. © 2007 MicroStrategy. You can also select Show Sample Data from the Tools menu.

The settings are available from the Warehouse Catalog. by choosing Options from the Tools menu (see Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. You cannot select the primary database instance as a secondary database instance. (in the pane on the right side) and select Table Database Instances. row counts. 3 In the Primary Database Instance drop-down list. 6 From the toolbar. automatic mapping. page 219 for steps to access the Warehouse Catalog). 5 Click OK to accept your changes and return to the Warehouse Catalog. . 4 Select one or more Secondary Database Instances. select Save and Close to save your changes and close the Warehouse Catalog. The Warehouse Catalog Options dialog box opens.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide To specify a secondary database for a table 1 Access the Warehouse Catalog for your project (see Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. and name spaces Mapping schema objects and calculating logical sizes for tables 226 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. Example settings include changing the database instance. The Available Database Instances dialog box opens. The Warehouse Catalog opens. page 219). Modifying data warehouse connection and operation defaults You can specify various settings for data warehouse connection and operation defaults using the Warehouse Catalog. 2 Right-click a table being used in the project. Inc. select the primary database instance for the table. and so on. which allows you to perform the following tasks: • • • Data warehouse connection and read operations Displaying table prefixes. row calculation. changing or assigning default table prefixes and structures.

as well as change how the database catalog tables are read. For more information on the database login. for example. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 227 . Refer to the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide for more information on either of these dialog boxes. – Click New to create a new database instance. Custom Database Login: You can either select the database login or clear the login to use no database login. You could restrict the information returned. The default catalog SQL retrieves a DISTINCT list of tables and columns from all users. Clicking Settings allows you to directly edit the catalog SQL statements that are used to retrieve the list of available tables from the Warehouse Catalog and the columns for the selected tables. you can select from the following: – Click Edit to modify the selected database instance. If the desired database instance does not appear in the Database Instance box. When connected to a Microsoft Access data source. see the online help. Database Instance: You can select the database instance for the Warehouse Catalog from the drop-down list. • Read Settings: You can customize the SQL that reads the Warehouse Catalog for every platform except Microsoft Access. which is divided into the following subcategories: • Warehouse Connection: Select the desired database instance to use for the project as well as the custom database login.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 Data warehouse connection and read operations You can modify the database instance and database login used to connect the data warehouse to a project. The General tab of the Database Instances dialog box opens. Inc. The Database Instance Wizard opens. or if it does but needs to be modified. the Settings option is disabled. by © 2007 MicroStrategy. You can make these type of modification from the Catalog category.

page 232 of this appendix.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide specifying certain conditions and table owners (see Customizing catalog SQL statements. By default this option is selected when you open the Warehouse Catalog for the first time. This setting should be cleared when the number of PMTs in the project is so large that reading their structure is causing performance problems when opening the Warehouse Catalog. . see Ignoring table name spaces when migrating tables. This option is helpful when you want to identify fact tables and aggregation tables. page 233). your project includes a table named Table1 that has 228 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. it may redefine the data type for a column included in the project. If performance is more important than obtaining the row count. The check for the data type change is only performed when updating a table’s structure. For more information. Column Merging Options: When you add a new table to your data warehouse. Inc. You can also select the following check boxes: Count the number of rows for all tables when reading the database catalog: Select this option if you want to control whether or not the Warehouse Catalog should get the number of rows each table has when loading from the data warehouse. By default this option is selected. do not select this option as it will have a negative effect on performance. Automatically update information for all Partition Mapping tables when reading the database catalog: Select this option to read the latest information for the partition mapping tables (PMTs) currently present in the project. Display a warning if the column data types are modified when updating the table structure: Select this option if you want to be warned when the data type for a column stored in the project is different from the one read from the data warehouse. By default this option is selected. Ignore current table name space when reading from the database catalog and update using new table name space: This option allows you to switch between warehouses found in different database name spaces. For example. By default this option is selected.

Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 229 . In the example above. If the data type has changed to an incompatible data type. The options below do not handle the merge if the data type has changed to an incompatible data type. – Use maximum denominator data type: This option updates the column data type to use the data type with the largest precision or scale. In the example above. as defined in Table2. a warning is displayed and you are asked if you want to use the new data type. Then a new table named Table2 is added to the project. the column data type for C1 would be changed to char(4) since Table2 was added after Table1. the data type with the largest precision or scale is used. a column is changed from data type char to data type integer. – Use most recent data type: This option updates the column data type to use the most recent column definition.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 column C1 of data type char(1). © 2007 MicroStrategy. When you update the table structure. This is because char(4) has a higher precision than char(1) defined in Table1. If the data type has been changed to a different compatible data type. depending on the option you select. as illustrated in the image below. but it has column C1 set to data type char(4). This example is used to illustrate the options described below. the column data type for C1 would be changed to char(4). the column data types are modified to maintain a consistent schema in one of three ways. For example. Inc.

row counts. and name spaces. including new tables added to the project. row counts. or restricted to only be read when a read is manually requested: Automatic: This option sets the Warehouse Catalog tables to be read as soon as the catalog browser is loaded. Automatically define prefixes for all tables that are added to this project: This setting enables/disables the following options: – Set a prefix based on the warehouse table name space or owner (import prefix): When this option is selected. the Warehouse Catalog reads the 230 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. From the example above. Inc. By default this option is selected.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide – Do not merge: This option renames the column in the newly added table. Manual: This option sets the Warehouse Catalog tables to be read only when the read catalog action is selected. This category is divided into the following subcategories: • Table Prefixes: You can specify whether table prefixes are displayed in table names and how prefixes are automatically defined for tables that are added to the project. . and name spaces You can choose to show or hide table prefixes. Displaying table prefixes. This option can cause unwanted schema changes and should be used only when necessary. column C1 uses the char(1) data type for Table1. Column C1 in Table2 is defined as a separate copy of C1 and uses the char(4) data type. • Read Mode: The Warehouse Catalog can be automatically read upon opening the Warehouse Catalog. by using the View category. You have the following options: Display table prefixes in the main dialog: Select this option to display all prefixes in table names. which allows the columns to have different data types.

For more information on modifying the prefix list. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 231 . see the online help. • Table Name Spaces: You can show or hide the name space for each table. – Set a default prefix: Select this to add a prefix to tables when they are added to a project. you can determine whether existing schema objects in the project are mapped to these new tables automatically. this option is selected and table name spaces are shown. This option is only active when the database supports prefixes. Mapping schema objects and calculating logical sizes for tables The Schema category is divided into the following subcategories: • Automatic Mapping: When you add new tables to the Warehouse Catalog. using the check box: Display the name space for each table (if applicable): You can show or hide the owner or table name space where the table is located in the warehouse. The Table Prefixes dialog box opens.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 name space for each table being added. You can select the default prefix from the Default prefix box drop-down list or create a new table prefix by clicking Modify prefix list. By default. – Modify prefix list: You can create a new tables prefix or delete an existing prefix by selecting this option. • Table Row Counts: You can show or hide the number of rows per table. Inc. using the following options: © 2007 MicroStrategy. By default. and associates it with the table being added. creates a prefix having the same text as the name space. this option is selected and the number of rows are shown. using the check box: Display the number of rows per table: You can show or hide the values calculated for the number of rows for the tables.

8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide Map schema objects to new tables automatically: Existing objects in the schema automatically map to tables you add to the project. respectively. the attribute Year with an attribute form mapped to YEAR_ID is included in a project. . These automatic mapping methods are only applied to existing schema objects when tables are added to the Warehouse Catalog. With the Map schema objects to new tables automatically option selected. Inc. Then a new table which includes a YEAR_ID column is added to the Warehouse Catalog. If the table was added to the Warehouse Catalog first and then the attribute was created. the Year attribute is automatically mapped when the new table is added. the Warehouse Catalog automatic mapping settings do not determine whether the attribute and table are automatically mapped. Automatically mapping tables to schema objects when adding attributes or facts to a project is controlled by the Attribute Editor and Fact Editor. Do not calculate table logical sizes: Logical sizes are not calculated for the tables you add to the project. Do not map schema objects to the new tables: Objects in the schema are not automatically mapped to tables you add to the project. you change the project to point to the primary warehouse. Before going into production. • Table Logical Sizes: You can select whether the Warehouse Catalog calculates logical sizes for new tables using one of the following options: Calculate the logical table sizes automatically: Logical sizes are automatically calculated for tables you add to the project. Ignoring table name spaces when migrating tables It is a common practice to establish a secondary warehouse with less information than the primary warehouse for development and testing. For example. 232 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy.

When you add tables to a project. Customizing catalog SQL statements In all supported warehouse platforms other than Microsoft Access. Inc. For instance. the Warehouse Catalog defaults to identifying the table by both table name space and table name. If you select this option. This method allows you to repeat the same table name in different table name spaces. The Warehouse Catalog interprets the table as already in the project and not found in the new warehouse. You now have two tables dbo. columns. MicroStrategy uses SQL statements to query the relational database management system (RDBMS) catalog tables to obtain warehouse catalog information.LU_STORE and admin. Thus. the Warehouse Catalog recognizes the two tables as the same table and saves the new table name space information. and the table is actually stored as admin. To solve this problem. and others) support the concept of a table name space. the Warehouse Catalog ignores the current table name space when it reads the catalog information.Read Settings options subcategory.LU_STORE in the new production warehouse. This can cause a problem when you migrate from a warehouse that resides in a certain table name space to another warehouse in a different table name space.LU_STORE. This information includes catalog tables. you can have LU_STORE in a table name space called dbo and another table LU_STORE in another table name space called admin. This is because the Warehouse Catalog is looking for a table named dbo. This setting allows you to migrate much more easily between warehouses. select the Ignore current table name space when reading from the database catalog and update using new table name space check box. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog . You can find this option in the Warehouse Catalog Options dialog box under the Catalog . which is a way of organizing database tables into different storage spaces.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 Most database management systems (Oracle. 233 © 2007 MicroStrategy.LU_STORE. and their data types. the Warehouse Catalog saves information to the appropriate table name space. If the check box is cleared. The table name space provides an extra piece of information that uniquely identifies the table. DB2.

on the other hand. By default. The structure of individual tables is read only when the table is selected. a similar ODBC call is used for the Generic DBMS database type. Inc. so an ODBC call must be used to retrieve information about tables and columns in Access.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide These catalog SQL statements vary from platform to platform and can be customized according to the characteristics of the specific warehouse. The name Full Catalog SQL refers to the SQL used to read all the tables and columns in one pass.or two-pass SQL mode. Microsoft Access does not have catalog tables. In the following sections. but both can be customized in the Warehouse Catalog Options dialog box. . 234 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. but you can choose to use custom catalog SQL for the generic type if you wish. This is the recommended option for interactive warehouse catalog building because no unnecessary catalog information is read from the database. the name Catalog Table SQL refers to the catalog SQL to retrieve the tables in the warehouse. the first SQL used in a two-pass catalog retrieval. The MicroStrategy Warehouse Catalog can be configured to read the catalog information in one. reads all the tables and columns in one SQL statement. The two retrieval options use different catalog SQL. In two-pass SQL mode. This option is recommended only if the catalog SQL is well customized to limit the amount of data returned by it. which increases processing speed. One-pass SQL mode. it first reads only the tables from the database. that is.

page 238 The table name space In a typical RDBMS platform. a table name does not uniquely identify it in a particular database installation. page 235 SQL placeholder strings and incomplete catalog SQL. page 236 Structure of Full Catalog SQL. These placeholders are: • #LOGIN_NAME#—This placeholder is automatically replaced at run time with the login name used to connect to the database. A customized catalog SQL can omit the name space if duplicate table names do not present a problem in the warehouse database. This helps you to avoid confusing tables that share the same table name. Depending on the type of RDBMS. page 236 Modifying catalog SQL. the owner of the table. page 235 Structure of Catalog Table SQL. or a combination of both database and owner. The table name space is optional. you must understand several important concepts and procedures: • • • • • • The table name space. A table name space is a partition of the database installation in which table names are unique. In both the Catalog Table SQL and Full Catalog SQL. Inc. this name space can be the name of the database. a name space gives each table a unique name. You can leave this template in the customized SQL if you want the catalog SQL to yield © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 To customize a catalog SQL. SQL placeholder strings and incomplete catalog SQL The default system catalog SQL can contain certain placeholder strings that can be resolved at run time or must be completed manually by the user. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 235 . page 237 Default catalog SQL.

If a name space is not provided. Inc. The string starts with #? and ends with ?#. Structure of Catalog Table SQL Catalog Table SQL is expected to return two columns. must be replaced with the name of the database containing the database tables. The following example is the default Catalog Table SQL for Oracle 8. #?Schema_Name?#. one identifying the name space of the table and the other the name of the table. • #?Database_Name?#. this template is replaced with the name of the database user who owns the warehouse tables of interest. Duplicates are not allowed. The command #?Database_Name?#. used with DB2 AS/400. depending on the RDBMS platform and the customization. used with Teradata.0: SELECT DISTINCT OWNER NAME_SPACE. . Each row of the SQL result must uniquely identify a table. #?Schema_Name?#—This catalog SQL placeholder is an incomplete SQL string that must be completed by the user before it can be executed. only the table name column is required.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide different results depending on the warehouse login used. must be replaced with the name of the schema in which the database tables reside. Otherwise. TABLE_NAME TAB_NAME FROM ALL_TAB_COLUMNS WHERE OWNER = '#LOGIN_NAME#' Structure of Full Catalog SQL Full Catalog SQL is expected to return between five and seven columns. The column that identifies the table name has the alias TAB_NAME. The column that identifies the table name space uses the SQL column alias NAME_SPACE. The following aliases identify each column returned: • • NAME_SPACE (optional): the table name space TAB_NAME (required): name of the table 236 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy.

page 219).scale DATA_SCALE FROM sysobjects T. T. if available.name COL_NAME.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 • • • • • COL_NAME (required): name of the column DATA_TYPE (required): a string or a number that identifies the major data type of the column DATA_LEN (required): a number that describes the length or size of the column data DATA_PREC (optional): a number that describes the precision of the column data DATA_SCALE (optional): a number that describes the scale of a floating point column data Full Catalog SQL must return its rows ordered first by NAME_SPACE.name TAB_NAME.0: SELECT U. syscolumns C. The catalog SQL can be modified in the Warehouse Catalog options for your project.id = C. To modify the catalog SQL for your project 1 Access the Warehouse Catalog for your project (see Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. C.uid ORDER BY 1.prec DATA_PREC.type DATA_TYPE. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 237 .id and T. Inc. sysusers WHERE T. C.length DATA_LEN. The Warehouse Catalog opens. C.type in ('U'. 'V') AND T. C.name NAME_SPACE.uid = U. C. The following example is the default Full Catalog SQL for Microsoft SQL Server 7. and then by TAB_NAME. 2 Modifying catalog SQL You can customize and modify the catalog SQL that is run against your database for each project.

The top pane controls the Catalog Table SQL and the bottom pane controls the Full Catalog SQL. 4 Click the Settings button. Default catalog SQL When customizing the catalog SQL that is executed on your database. the catalog SQL options are displayed as shown below. 3 Expand the Catalog Category. it is recommended you consult the default catalog SQL that MicroStrategy uses to support different database 238 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. The Catalog . Inc. The catalog SQL settings are unavailable if your project is connected to a Microsoft Access database.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide 2 From the Tools menu.Read Settings options are displayed. . The Warehouse Catalog Options dialog box opens. and select Read Settings. select Options.

Troubleshooting table and column messages You may encounter the following messages while using the Warehouse Catalog: © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 239 . Before performing the next step. and then compare them to the default statements you are about to generate. click the upper-most Use Default button. • The top pane controls the Catalog Table SQL. page 237). which retrieves a list of available tables in the Warehouse Catalog. The bottom pane controls the Full Catalog SQL. which retrieves column information for the selected tables. click the bottom-most Use Default button. • • You can use the default catalog SQL statements or compare and combine them with your own customized catalog SQL statements. 2 Generate and view the default catalog SQL for your database platform. You can generate the default catalog SQL in MicroStrategy for the database platform your project connects to.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 platforms. To generate and view the default catalog SQL 1 Access the catalog SQL options for your project (see Modifying catalog SQL. A dialog box for the catalog SQL options is displayed. cut and paste the SQL statements in the two panes into any text editor. This allows you to save any modifications you have made previously to the catalog SQL statements. To generate and view the default Full Catalog SQL for your database platform. Any text in the panes is overwritten with the default catalog SQL statements: • To generate and view the default Catalog Table SQL for your database platform.

Two cases can be seen: • When the Warehouse Catalog is starting and retrieving the table information from the data warehouse and it detects that one or more tables already in the project are missing. the Warehouse Catalog does not check for any dependencies until you save the changes. and you have the option to proceed or cancel the operation.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide • • • Tables missing Columns data type changed Columns missing Tables missing This happens when one or more tables already in the project are removed from the data warehouse. Inc. 240 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. Columns data type changed When the table structure is updated for one or more tables in which the column data types have been changed. a message is shown which explains that the table structure update cannot proceed because the table was not found in the warehouse. they are presented to you. • When the Warehouse Catalog tries to update the structure of a table that is missing in the warehouse. This can result in SQL errors when running reports that need data from a “missing” table. Remove the table from the project. you get a warning message showing the table name. . If there are any dependencies. it displays an error message which gives you the following options: Leave the Table in the project: This leaves everything as is in the project metadata. column name. In this case. no changes occur and the original table structure remains intact. However the definition in the project may be inconsistent with the real physical structure in the warehouse. In this case.

The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 original data type. see Chapter 2. Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model. Aggregate tables provide quicker access to frequently requested information. MicroStrategy creates aggregates only on fact tables since lookup tables and relationship tables are usually significantly smaller. which are mapped to the missing column and the update structure operation is canceled. You can click Cancel at any time to undo all data type changes. Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables 241 . To understand aggregate tables. Inc. and new data type. For more information on these topics. This section describes how and why aggregate tables are used. You are asked to remove the mapping before continuing with the update structure and original table structure is restored. you should be familiar with fact tables in the context of data modeling and data warehousing. If this happens. then no error message is shown. then a message is displayed that gives details on objects. the Warehouse Catalog checks for the following: • • Column is not mapped to any schema object: If this is the case. This results in no changes being applied to the tables and columns. Columns missing Missing columns are detected when Update Structure is performed. Chapter 3. Column is mapped to a schema object: If this is the case. while retaining the traditional power of ROLAP to directly query the database to answer any questions. The Logical Data Model. and Chapter 5. Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables Aggregate tables are summary tables that store data at higher levels than it was stored when the data was initially captured and saved. © 2007 MicroStrategy.

and swapping requirements Eliminate the need to perform dynamic calculations Decrease the number of physical disk reads and the number of records that must be read to satisfy a query Minimize the amount of data that must be aggregated and sorted at run time Move time-intensive calculations with complicated logic or significant computations into a batch routine from dynamic SQL executed at report run time In summary. However. Aggregate tables are advantageous because they • • • • • Reduce input/output. CPU. Inc. 242 Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables © 2007 MicroStrategy. MOLAP is not scalable for large projects because of the difficulty of maintaining every possible combination of aggregates as the number of attributes and the amount of data increases. Multidimensional OLAP (MOLAP) is sometimes considered by some to be the answer to this problem. RAM.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide When to use aggregate tables MicroStrategy uses optimized SQL to query the relational database directly to answer users’ questions. in combination with aggregate tables and caching. can produce results at about the same speed as MOLAP. MicroStrategy’s solution is the use of aggregate tables to provide quicker access to frequently-accessed data while still retaining the power to answer any user query. . Users can ask any question that is supported by the data in their warehouse and then analyze the results until they find a precise answer. This combined solution allows questions to be answered on the fly and is also scalable for large databases. the MicroStrategy SQL Engine. The disadvantage to this relational OLAP (ROLAP) methodology is that accessing huge fact tables can be potentially time-consuming.

Aggregation can also be completed before reports are executed. that is. The daily values from the fact table are selected. must occur. By default. sales data is stored by day in a fact table. Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables 243 . If sales data is frequently requested at the month level. the rolling up of data. and added to produce the monthly totals. sorted. aggregation occurs dynamically with a SQL statement at report run-time.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 Aggregation versus pre-aggregation Whenever the display level of data on a report must differ from the level at which the data is initially captured. A report requesting month-level data is executed. aggregation. as in the previous example. © 2007 MicroStrategy. For example. Inc. You can build these pre-aggregated—or aggregate—tables as part of the ETL process. as shown below. the results of the aggregation are stored in an aggregate table. an aggregate table with the sales data rolled up to the month level is useful. This process is called pre-aggregation.

it requires a completely aggregated schema to answer most questions. In these terms. . Degree of aggregation While MOLAP can provide fast performance when it answers a question. This ensures that all possible 244 Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables © 2007 MicroStrategy. sorting. lower-level fact table at run time. an aggregate table is any fact table whose data is derived by aggregating data from an existing base table.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide Pre-aggregation eliminates the reading. every possible combination of aggregate associations must be generated when the multidimensional cube is built. it is referred to as a base table. If the daily sales fact table is the lowest-level fact table and contains atomic-level data. as shown in the following example. That is. and calculation of data from many database rows in a large. Inc.

Consider the following factors when deciding whether to create aggregate tables: • • The frequency of queries at that level—Determining the frequency of queries at a specific level. In a ROLAP environment. page 246 The relationship between the parent and child—Considering any related parent-child relationships. This scenario becomes very difficult to maintain as the number of attributes and the amount of data increase. its presence provides a response as fast as a MOLAP system can provide. if the aggregate table is useful in answering frequently-asked queries. Inc. Build aggregate tables only if they can benefit users. That is. the degree of aggregation can be as dense or as sparse as is appropriate for your users. ROLAP. if a certain aggregate combination is rarely or never used. do not waste database space for tables that will not be used. Sparse aggregation refers to the fact that a given project only requires as many aggregate fact tables as is useful to its users. Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables 245 . since the creation and maintenance of aggregate tables requires additional work by the database administrator. therefore. Also. and therefore is not very scalable. the space in the RDBMS does not need to be consumed and the resources to build that table during the batch process do not need to be used. A densely aggregated warehouse has a large number of aggregate tables while a sparsely aggregated warehouse has fewer. However. Only the aggregate combinations that you determine are beneficial must be created. provides much greater flexibility than MOLAP. page 246 The compression ratio—Compression ratio. page 247 • © 2007 MicroStrategy. Not every attribute level or hierarchy intersection is suitable for pre-aggregation.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 questions can be answered.

For more information on Enterprise Manager. Considering any related parent-child relationships When an aggregate table is created. see the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide Determining the frequency of queries at a specific level Build aggregate tables only if they can be useful to your users. trace the usage of any aggregate tables to determine how frequently they are used in a day-to-day business environment. If any table is not used. However. all 246 Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables © 2007 MicroStrategy. the department aggregate tables would not be used in this situation. eliminate it from the warehouse. the child records are usually summarized into the parent record. they consume disk space and impose unnecessary burdens on the extraction. the query must use item-level data and summarize the department data dynamically. based on the key combinations in a relationship table. . For example. and loading process. usefulness is not always easy to quantify. Inc. when the parent-child relationship is altered. if users frequently want to exclude inactive items. translation. In any hierarchical relationship. Once your warehouse is in production. Therefore. If aggregate tables are never accessed. However. as well as the database backup routines. consider the following hierarchy: A summary of data at the department level seems to be a good candidate for an aggregate table. MicroStrategy Enterprise Manager allows you to easily track table usage.

Frequent changes can mean aggregate tables are not optimal for this situation. such as sum or average. a store can decide to reclassify the department to which items belong. Aggregate tables that contain dynamic relationships must be recalculated every time a change is made. For example. and complicate the batch process. It is not affected by a reorganization within the geography hierarchy. rolling up an entire hierarchy can avoid many problems with relationship changes. this process can take time. The average number of child records combined to calculate one parent record is called the © 2007 MicroStrategy. In these cases. Consider the frequency of the changes. maintaining aggregate tables is very easy. Static relationships When elements rarely or never change relationships. they are a part of static relationships. Compression ratio The process of data aggregation applies an aggregate function. For example. Whether these relationships are dynamic or static change how they are aggregated into tables. These changes often occur because of organizational restructuring. a table contains one value for the sum of all stores. consume resources. If the tables are large. Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables 247 . and then balance the disadvantages against the advantages of having an aggregate table. For example. Dynamic relationships When the relationship between parent and child elements change. time hierarchies are seldom dynamic—days do not migrate into different weeks. or discontinuation of items or services.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 tables that hold that relationship or data relevant to it must be updated. geographical realignment. to a set of child records to produce a single parent record. Inc. or the addition. and fiscal weeks do not move into different months. reclassification. the relationship is called dynamic. and the impact on the batch process. Also. the table size.

Inc. . Creating aggregate tables You can integrate aggregate tables in your project using the Warehouse Catalog in MicroStrategy Desktop. if the compression ratio is 3:2. for smaller base tables. if the compression ratio is 4:1. When the number of elements differs significantly between two attributes in the same hierarchy. Also. since it represents the decrease in records that must be read to respond to a query at that level. the aggregate table reduces the number of records by 3/4 and uses only 1/4 of the storage space. as outlined in the following procedure. pre-aggregating data is effective only if the compression ratio is significant. One measure of effectiveness of an aggregate table can be estimated from this number. Therefore. In contrast. the compression ratio suggests that an aggregate table can provide more efficient queries. you must balance the importance of speed of query response time and the availability of disk space and resources to maintain the schema. For more information on ratios. To determine when pre-aggregation is worthwhile for your system. 248 Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables © 2007 MicroStrategy.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide compression ratio. refer to Cardinalities and ratios. For example. page 35. the resource demands placed on the database server by dynamic aggregations decrease and therefore so does the effectiveness of pre-aggregation. the aggregate table requires 2/3 of the base table’s storage space but yields only a 1/3 reduction in the number of records. Recall that some of the reasons to build aggregate tables include the reduction of disk I/O and the number of records that must be dynamically sorted and aggregated.

2 Use the new table in the desired fact expressions and attribute form expressions. For steps to add tables using the Warehouse Catalog. the Analytical Engine chooses the smallest of all tables. based on logical table size. If your aggregate table structure is consistent with your base fact table structure. Changing the logical table size The initial logical table size is based on the number of attribute columns and the various levels at which they exist in their respective hierarchies. page 220. add the table to the project. The size of tables in a project: Logical table size MicroStrategy Desktop assigns a size to every table in the project when you first add them to the project. Architect automatically adds it to the definitions of your existing attributes and facts. When you run a report. In other words. Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables 249 . Architect is aggregate-aware. however. when either could provide the answer to a query? The answer is logical table size. The other tables. Because Desktop uses the conceptual or logical attribute definitions when assigning sizes.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 To use an aggregate table in an existing project 1 Using the Warehouse Catalog. These size assignments are stored in the metadata and are calculated based on the table columns and their corresponding attributes. How does Architect know to use the aggregate table rather than the base fact table. that contains enough data to answer the query. Because the attribute levels are lower in the base fact © 2007 MicroStrategy. have only higher-level or summary data. Suppose the base fact table contains millions of rows of transaction-level detail. see Adding and removing tables for a project. Inc. this measurement is known as the logical table size.

Server versus application partitioning Partitioning can be managed by either the database server or the MicroStrategy application. 250 Dividing tables to increase performance: Partition mapping © 2007 MicroStrategy. Logically. not where the tables are split. Logical tables are discussed in detail in Appendix C. a table with a higher-level attribute should be smaller in size. such as month or department. the table as a whole is assigned a higher value for the logical table size than are the summary tables with higher-level attributes.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide table. Inc. this division is based on a definable data level. For steps to use the Logical Table Editor. Of course. Partitions improve query performance by minimizing the number of tables and records within a table that must be read to satisfy queries issued against the warehouse. this is not always true in a real warehouse. see the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. Logical Tables. By distributing usage across multiple tables. partitions improve the speed and efficiency of database queries. Dividing tables to increase performance: Partition mapping Partition mapping involves the division of large logical tables into smaller physical tables. Partitioning by time limits growth of the database tables and increases stability. Time is the most common category for partitioning databases. . Therefore. The terms “application” and “server” refer to what manages the partitioned tables. the Logical Table Editor allows you to alter the logical table sizes based on their true relative sizes. tables are partitioned at the database level. Either way.

Instead. The original fact table is not physically broken into smaller tables.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 Server-level partitioning The database server. page 254—uses a specialized warehouse table to determine which table to access Metadata partition mapping Metadata partition mapping is the mapping of partitions where the mapping of partitions is performed and maintained in the project metadata by the application. rather than the RDBMS server. A partition base table (PBT) is a warehouse table that contains one part of a larger set of data. the database server logically partitions the table according to parameters specified by the database administrator. Since only the logical table is displayed to the end user. Application-level partitioning In application-level partitioning the application. manages the partition tables. in application-level partitioning the relational database is unaware of the partitioned tables. Partition tables are usually divided along logical lines. MicroStrategy manages the mapping between the logical table and the physical tables. MicroStrategy supports two types of partitioning: • • Metadata partition mapping. In contrast. MicroStrategy. You do not need to take any action in MicroStrategy to support the partitioning. such as time or geography. Dividing tables to increase performance: Partition mapping . the partitioning is transparent to MicroStrategy. This approach makes it easier for you to specify a flexible partitioning schema. Inc. in this case. page 251—stores the mapping information in the project metadata Warehouse partition mapping. 251 © 2007 MicroStrategy. manages the partitioned tables in RDBMS server-level partitioning. Refer to your database documentation for details on server partitioning for your particular platform. rather than MicroStrategy.

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Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project

Project Design Guide

In metadata partition mapping, you specify one or more partitioning attributes in the Metadata Partition Mapping Editor. Next you define what attribute elements within those attributes should point to which PBT. You create all of the rules for choosing the appropriate PBT here and the rules are stored in the MicroStrategy metadata. For steps to create a metadata partition mapping, refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help.

Homogenous and heterogeneous partitions
Metadata partitions can be homogenous or heterogeneous. With heterogeneous partitioning, the PBTs can have different amounts of data stored in them at different levels. For example, one table can contain six months of sales data, while another stores an entire year. The PBT level, or key, refers to how the data is stored. For example, sales data for the current year can be stored at the daily level, while historical sales data is saved by month only. Heterogeneous partitions can therefore require additional long-term maintenance and organization because the data contained in them is stored at various levels throughout the partition. MicroStrategy stores one PBT level for each partition. If all the PBTs within a partition are not stored at the same level, the highest PBT level is used as the PBT level of the partition. For instance, if all the sales data in the previous example is stored in one partition, you cannot access current sales at the day level. This is because the PBT level for the partition is month, which is higher than day. If you save current data in a partition at the daily level and the historical data in another partition at the month level, you are able to fully access the data. In contrast, homogenous partitions must have the same amount of data stored at the same PBT level. The logical structure of the PBTs must be the same, that is, they must have the same facts and attributes defined. To continue with the previous examples, each table must store one year of data at the month level. Homogeneous partitions work well for frequently-accessed data such as information about the previous year.

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When you define the particular PBT to which an attribute is linked in MicroStrategy, you do not need to specify whether or not the PBT is homogeneous or heterogeneous. MicroStrategy makes the distinction automatically depending, in part, on how the data is stored in the PBT.

Data slices
After PBTs are created, you define a data slice. The data slice acts as a filter that describes what portions of data are placed in the partition table. Based on this data slice, the MicroStrategy engine knows which table to get data from when generating the SQL. A data slice holds the parameters that a partition is based upon, for example, Month=January. Instead of retrieving data for all months, the server knows to access a particular table that contains the data for January only. By creating a data slice with the partition, you can retrieve specific data quickly without time-consuming joins and searches. It is important to create a reasonable and valid data slice because MicroStrategy cannot verify its accuracy or relevance. The data slice must make sense for the data. A poorly crafted data slice can lead to errors from generating incorrect SQL and retrieving the wrong data. Data slicing displays and can be modified only for the metadata partitioning. Each partition mapping table must include at least one data slice. In a heterogeneous mapping, data slices can exist at different levels and can be composed of different keys.

Attribute qualifications
To create data slices, you use attribute qualifications. Attribute qualifications are types of filters that are applied to attribute forms. These qualifications allow you to limit the type and amount of data that is returned for a report. For example, if you create a report that contains the attribute Country but you want to return only the data for France, you can create a qualification on the attribute Country and select France as the element that appears on the report.

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For steps to create a data slice, refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help.

Warehouse partition mapping
Warehouse partition mapping is the mapping of partitions, where the mapping is performed by and maintained in the data warehouse. You can define a warehouse partition by using the MicroStrategy Warehouse Catalog to add a table with a special structure. This table contains the map for the partition, and is stored in the warehouse. Warehouse partitions divide tables physically along any number of attributes, although this is not visible to the user. Warehouse partitions must be homogenous, unlike metadata partitions, so that the same amount of data is stored at the same PBT level and the same facts and attributes are defined. Homogenous partitioning divides data of equal levels, like January and February. A sample fact table and warehouse partitioning table are shown below for months. Note how the data exists at equal levels, for example, different months of the same year.

The original fact table, which contains all of the data, is not brought into the project. Rather, the database administrator creates multiple smaller physical tables in the data warehouse. Each table contains a subset of the data in the original fact table. The database administrator is responsible for keeping the partitions consistent and up-to-date. He or

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she must also create and maintain a partition mapping table (PMT), which is used to identify and keep track of the partitioned base tables as part of a logical whole. After the PMT is created, when you run a report in Desktop or Web that requires information from one of the PBTs, the Query Engine first runs a pre-query to the PMT to determine which PBT to access to bring the data back for the report. The pre-query requests the PBT names associated with the attribute IDs from the filtering criteria. When it finds the name of the PBT, it calls the SQL Engine to write the appropriate SQL for the warehouse. When using warehouse partition mapping, it is usually not necessary to bring in the individual PBT tables into the project. Doing so can cause errors if such tables are mistakenly mapped directly to schema objects. You should only include the PMT table in the project. With this strategy you can map all related schema objects to the PMT, which then accesses the correct PBT in the warehouse. Note the following: • • There are no data slices in a warehouse partition. MicroStrategy supports warehouse partitions on both upgraded and newly created projects. These are added using the Warehouse Catalog Browser. For steps to add warehouse partitions, refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help.

Metadata versus warehouse partition mapping
Metadata partition mapping does not require any additional tables in the warehouse. Metadata partition mapping is generally recommended over warehouse partition mapping in MicroStrategy. However, if you already have warehouse partition tables set up and are migrating to a newer version of MicroStrategy, you can continue to use the warehouse partitions. If you are creating partitions for the first time, however, it is recommended you implement metadata partition mapping.

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Metadata partition mapping is recommended because you create the rules in MicroStrategy that the Query Engine uses to generate the SQL to run reports. Because you create the partitions directly in the metadata, it is easier to maintain. Metadata partition mapping also allows both heterogeneous and homogenous partitions, unlike warehouse partition mapping. With heterogeneous partitions, the PBTs can have different amounts of data stored in them at different levels. Only homogenous partitions can be used in warehouse partition mapping. For steps to map partitions, refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help.

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9.

CREATING TRANSFORMATIONS TO DEFINE TIME-BASED AND OTHER COMPARISONS

Introduction
Suppose you want to compare how much revenue your company grew last year to how much it grew this year. This type of analysis, called a TY/LY comparison (This Year versus Last Year), is a commonly used form of time-series analysis and is relevant to many different industries, including retail, banking, and telecommunications. Transformations—schema objects you can create using attributes in your project—are one of the many MicroStrategy techniques used to perform time-series analysis. To calculate a variance or a growth percentage such as last year’s revenue versus this year’s revenue, it is very convenient to use a transformation. Transformations are often the most generic approach and can be reused and applied to other time-series analyses. To use a transformation, a report designer creates a metric and applies the transformation to it. This chapter discusses the different types of transformations and how to create them. It is assumed that you have some understanding of what metrics are, as transformation metrics
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are discussed in this chapter. For information on metrics and using transformations in metrics and reports, see the Metrics chapter of the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide.

Creating transformations
A transformation is a schema object that typically maps a specified time period to another time period, applying an offset value, such as current month minus one month. Usually defined by a project designer, transformations are used in the definition of a metric to alter the behavior of that metric. Such a metric is referred to as a transformation metric. For example, time-related transformations are commonly used in metrics to compare values at different times, such as this year versus last year or current date versus month-to-date. Any transformation can be included as part of the definition of a metric and multiple transformations can be applied to the same metric. Transformation metrics are beyond the scope of this guide; for information about transformation metrics, refer to the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. Recall the example used in the introduction, the TY/LY comparison. To calculate this year’s revenue, you can use the Revenue metric in conjunction with a filter for this year. Similarly, to calculate last year's revenue, you can use the Revenue metric in conjunction with a filter for last year. However, a more flexible alternative is to use a previously created Last Year transformation in the definition of a new metric, last year’s revenue. With a single filter, on 2003 for example, the two metrics Revenue and Last Year Revenue give you results for 2003 and 2002, respectively. Since a transformation represents a rule, it can describe the effect of that rule for different levels. For instance, the Last Year transformation intuitively describes how a specific year relates to the year before. It can in addition express how each month of a year corresponds to a month of the prior year. In the same way, the transformation can describe how each day of a year maps to a day of the year before. This information defines the transformation and abstracts all cases into a

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generic concept. That is, you can use a single metric with a last year transformation regardless of the time attribute contained on the report. While transformations are most often used for discovering and analyzing time-based trends in your data, not all transformations have to be time-based. An example of a non-time-based transformation is This Catalog/Last Catalog, which might use Catalog_ID-1 to perform the transformation.

Expression-based versus table-based transformations
The definition of the association between an original value and a transformed one can be represented in an expression that uses columns of the warehouse, constants, arithmetic operators, and mathematical functions. This is known as an expression-based transformation. However, it is sometimes desirable to precalculate these values and store them in a table designed for the transformation. This method is sometimes referred to as a table-based transformation. The advantage of a table-based transformation is the possible use of indexing to speed query times. Another advantage is that table-based transformations provide additional flexibility beyond what formula expressions can produce. The drawback of this kind of transformation is that it requires the creation and management of an additional table in the warehouse. However, once the table is created, it usually significantly decreases the query time. Returning to the TY/LY example, you have the option of using a simple formula such as Year_ID - 1 in the definition of the transformation or precalculating the data and storing it in a column in a table. A table-based transformation is required when a many-to-many transformation is performed. An example is a year-to-date calculation. A significant advantage to the dynamic calculation of an expression-based transformation is that the database administrator does not have to create and maintain a transformation table. The drawback is that the system must perform the calculation every time.

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A single transformation can use a combination of table-based and expression-based transformations. For example, you can create a last year transformation based on Year and Month. The ID of the Year attribute is in the format YYYY, so the transformation can use the expression Year_ID - 1. The ID for the Month attribute is in the format ‘MonthName,’ so you cannot easily use a mathematical expression. You must use a table instead. The following sections walk you through creating both a table-based transformation and an expression-based one.

Building a table-based transformation
The following example shows how to create a last year transformation based on a lookup table in MicroStrategy Tutorial, which pairs each year with the previous year. This transformation is used in the report displayed below, which compares revenue for this year and last year.

Creating the transformation metric and the report are discussed in the Transformation metrics section in the Metrics chapter of the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide.

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2004. point to New. 2 From the File menu. © 2007 MicroStrategy. one subtracted from the year 2005 results in the previous year. For example. 7 Click Save and Close on the toolbar. Building an expression-based transformation This example shows how to create a last year transformation using an expression rather than a table. The Transformation Editor opens with the Select a Member Attribute dialog box displayed. The table's columns appear in the Available columns list. 5 Double-click the PREV_YEAR_ID column to place it in the expression box. which maps this year to last year. then double-click Year.Define a new member attribute expression dialog box opens. 6 Click OK. 3 Double-click Time to open the folder. so the previous year is simply Year_ID minus one. Name the transformation Last Year (Table). A report designer can now use the transformation in a revenue metric to calculate last year’s revenue. Inc. and select Transformation. Notice that this table contains a previous year column. Creating transformations 261 . The Year . The Year_ID is in the format YYYY. You have now created the transformation. 4 Select the LU_Year table from the Table drop-down list. then create a report using that transformation metric to obtain last year’s revenue.Project Design Guide Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons 9 To create a last year transformation based on a table 1 Log in to the project source that contains your project in MicroStrategy Desktop and expand your project.

and select Transformation. 3 Select the LU_Year table from the Table drop-down list. 4 Double-click the YEAR_ID column to place it in the expression box. Inc. creating the transformation metric and the report are discussed in the Transformation metrics section in the Metrics chapter of the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide.9 Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons Project Design Guide This transformation is added to the report shown in the table-based transformation example above. Again. The Transformation Editor opens with the Select a Member Attribute dialog box displayed. 2 Double-click Time to open the folder. To create a last year transformation based on an expression 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. The table's columns appear in the Available columns list. from the File menu. 5 Type -1 in the expression box. 262 Creating transformations © 2007 MicroStrategy. The transformation will subtract 1 from the Year ID to calculate last year’s ID. point to New. then double-click Year. . The Year .Define a new member attribute expression dialog box opens. The resulting report is displayed below.

• Member expressions: Each member attribute has a corresponding expression. Transformation components 263 . in the Last Year transformation. the member tables are LU_YEAR.Project Design Guide Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons 9 6 Click Validate. in the Last Year transformation in the MicroStrategy Tutorial. and Day. then add it to the report created in the previous example. that is. You have now created the last year transformation. for the member attributes Year. the member attributes are Year. © 2007 MicroStrategy. each member expression is based on a specific table. Inc. Month. Quarter. respectively. For example. A report designer can now use the transformation in a revenue metric to calculate last year’s revenue. For an expression-based transformation. LU_QUARTER. and LU_DAY. For example. generally the lookup table corresponding to the attribute being transformed. • Member tables: These tables store the data for the member attributes. The message “Valid expression” appears with a green check mark. Name the transformation Last Year (Expression). Transformation components All transformations have the following components: • Member attributes: This component contains the attributes to which the transformation applies. the different levels to which the rule applies. 8 Click Save and Close on the toolbar. LU_MONTH. this is the transformation table defining the relationship. For a table-based transformation. and Day. Month. Quarter. 7 Click OK.

in the case of a many-to-many transformation. . in the Last Year transformation. and columns from the warehouse. In fact. Many-to-many: A typical many-to-many relationship is year-to-date. It is particularly effective when no straightforward formula can express the rule. The mapping can be one of the following: One-to-one: A typical one-to-one relationship is “last year to this year. These are all columns from the lookup tables set in the Member tables field. Since the data defines the rule. if you store Month as 200001 (January 2000). mathematical functions. many other dates are included in the year-to-date calculation. a separate table is required. this is a mathematical expression. For example. you can create a Last Year transformation using Year_ID-1 as the expression. However. For a table-based transformation. Inc. For example. For instance. many cases can exist where the data is not conducive to such calculation. typically the attribute ID column. In the most generic case. LY_QUARTER_ID. this expression uses constants. this approach provides considerable flexibility in the transformation definition. and PREV_YEAR_ID. Suppose this metric is used on 264 Transformation components © 2007 MicroStrategy. • Mapping type: This component determines how the transformation is created based on the nature of the data.9 Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons Project Design Guide For an expression-based transformation. Many-to-many transformations can lead to double-counting scenarios. the member expressions are LY_DAY_DATE. The rule is then not encapsulated in an expression but directly in the data of the column.” One day or month this year maps exactly to one day or month from last year. you cannot subtract one and receive December 1999 as the result. consider YearToDate defined as a many-to-many transformation and Revenue (YTD) as a transformation metric. this is simply a column from a specific warehouse table specifically populated with data supporting the transformation. For one date. arithmetic operators. LY_MONTH_ID. For example.

The joint child attribute cannot be transformed because not all of its joint children—Quarter and Item—are time-related. For example. a report contains Quarter and the transformation metric Last Year’s Revenue. In a report. a conflict arises. a transformation metric displays the current attribute with transformed data. the values for the transformation. which is the member attribute on the template. The report displays the quarter.Project Design Guide Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons 9 a report that does not include the Day attribute. that is. For more information about joint child attributes. page 171. with the previous year’s revenue. page 171 before proceeding in this section. the joint child attribute Promotion is added to the previous report. Transformation metrics and joint child attributes 265 . the © 2007 MicroStrategy. For example. Transformation metrics and joint child attributes Review the discussion of joint child attributes and relationships in Joint child relationships. Each quarter is displayed. In the report. as shown below: When a joint child attribute—an attribute that exists at the intersection of other indirectly related attributes—is added. Inc. the Revenue (YTD) metric will double count. see Joint child relationships. In this instance. a range of dates is specified in the filter.

9 Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons Project Design Guide promotion associated with a given quarter. and the revenue data from the date-promotion combination. 266 Transformation metrics and joint child attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. minus one year. Notice that the Valentine’s Day promotion existed in 2003 but not in 2002. again. A sample report is shown below: The displayed attributes should still be current. This is the case because. . but not attributes such as Promotion. not the attributes. However. That is. since the joint child attribute Promotion essentially exists in both the time dimension and a non-time dimension. the Valentine’s Day-Q1 2002 combination cannot be displayed on the report. While you may want to see it listed for 2002. the Valentine’s Day promotion is not listed for Q1 2002 despite the existence of the last year transformation. transformations “transform” metric values such as Revenue. it is not intuitive how the transformation should be performed. remember that only the metric values are transformed. displaying transformed data. since the Valentine’s Day promotion was not run in 2002. In summary.

You create projects that users access to run reports. Inc. Conceptually. A project is the highest-level of intersection of a data warehouse. and functions. © 2007 MicroStrategy.A A. which includes a metadata and warehouse. metrics. filters. the project is the environment in which all related reporting is done. What is the MicroStrategy Tutorial? 267 . and user community. including the data model and physical warehouse schema. MICROSTRATEGY TUTORIAL Introduction This appendix provides information on the MicroStrategy Tutorial. metadata repository. What is the MicroStrategy Tutorial? The MicroStrategy Tutorial is a MicroStrategy project. A typical project contains reports. and a set of demonstration applications designed to illustrate the features of the MicroStrategy platform.

Promotions. and Time. For instance. or Call Center. Geography. • Enterprise Reporting Documents: This folder contains various examples of different types of standard enterprise reporting documents. and Suppliers. Time. and the Brand Managers subfolder contains a report called Brand Performance by Region.A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide The theme of the MicroStrategy Tutorial project is a retail store for the time 2003 to 2006 that sells electronics. Company Executives. Sales and Profitability Analysis. such as scorecards and dashboards. Category Managers. managed metrics reports. Reporting areas: Customer Analysis. Products. invoices and statements. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Regional Sales Managers. Each hierarchy can be viewed graphically through MicroStrategy Desktop and MicroStrategy Web. Options to create reports from MicroStrategy Desktop and MicroStrategy Web focusing on a particular analysis area. and Supplier Analysis. such as Customer. They are a sampling of the types of reporting documents that can be built using MicroStrategy Report Services. movies and music. The Supplier folder contains a Supplier Sales report. Inventory and Supply Chain Analysis. Inventory. production and operational reports. Numerous customers and purchased items. Brand Managers. Employee. Enterprise Performance Management. the Billing Managers folder contains an Invoice report and a customer-level transaction detail report. Inc. Products. District Sales Managers. Category. The key features include the following: • Hierarchies—Customer. including Billing Managers. and business reports. Operations Managers. books. Each subfolder contains reports that would be of interest to the type of business user for which the subfolder is named. • • • MicroStrategy Tutorial reporting areas MicroStrategy Tutorial reports are grouped into four folders: • Business Roles: This folder contains subfolders that reflect different types of business intelligence users within an organization. Human Resources Analysis. 268 What is the MicroStrategy Tutorial? .

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MicroStrategy Platform Capabilities: This folder contains examples of many of the sophisticated capabilities within the MicroStrategy platform. Evaluators of the software, as well as customers, can use the examples to get a better feel for many of the platform’s capabilities. Customers can use the examples to guide their own development. The subfolders under these folders are named according to the capabilities that their reports exemplify. For instance, the Graph Styles folder contains examples of most of the graph types that can be created in MicroStrategy, and the Analytics and Data Mining folder contains examples of Linear Regression models built within MicroStrategy.

Subject Areas: This folder contains reports that are categorized further by topic. Topics covered include Customer Analysis, Enterprise Performance Management, Human Resource Analysis, Inventory and Supply Chain Analysis, Sales and Profitability Analysis, and Supplier Analysis. Customer Analysis: Reports analyzing the customer base, studying areas such as Customer Income, Customer Counts, Revenue per Customer, and Revenue Growth. Enterprise Performance Management: Reports containing information on revenue amounts, trends and forecasts, profits, profit margins, and profit forecasts. These reports make it easy for an executive at any level of the company to understand how the company is performing as a whole or at the region, category, and subcategory levels. Human Resource Analysis: Reports containing information on employees, including headcount, birthdays, length of employment, and the top five employees by revenue. These reports are based on employees, time, geography, and sales. The Human Resources Analysis reports provide insight into human capital so that managers can boost the efficiency and effectiveness of their employees. Human Resource Representatives can highlight under-performing employees and misallocated headcount. Managers at all levels can focus on the

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performance of their employees, drill down to an individual employee detail level, view trends, and extract intelligence not otherwise evident. Inventory and Supply Chain Analysis: Reports containing information based on supplier, product, cost, revenue and profit, such as Inventory and Unit Sales, or Inventory Received from Suppliers by Quarter. The Inventory reports track inventory information within the company and through to suppliers. Essentially, these reports show how many units of an item are on hand, how many are expected from a particular supplier, and how many units have been sold. Inventory reports are used to ensure that the supply chain is as efficient as possible. Using these reports, employees can analyze trends and details, quickly adjust inventory and distribution, and understand underlying supply chain costs and inefficiencies. Sales and Profitability Analysis: Reports analyzing revenue and profit from multiple perspectives. Examples include Sales by Region, Revenue over Time, and Brand Performance by Region. The Product Sales reports allow managers and analysts to monitor and analyze sales trends, track corporate revenue goals, compare store-to-store performance, and respond more quickly and accurately to feedback from the marketplace. In turn, executives can analyze sales trends and details, quickly adjust pricing and promotions, identify product affinities and key profit centers, and understand costs and revenue trends. Supplier Analysis: Reports containing supplier, sales, profit, and revenue information, such as Brand Sales by Supplier, Supplier Sell-Through Percentage, and Units Sold and Profit by Supplier. The Supplier reports allow managers and analysts to monitor and analyze vendor performance so that they can quickly identify performance problems. These reports track brands and items sold that came from a particular vendor. They also correlate profit and revenue information with particular suppliers so that relationships with key vendors can be strengthened.

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These reports and documents are located in the Public Objects/Reports folder of the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. Once the areas of analysis are determined, a data model is created.

MicroStrategy Tutorial data model
A logical data model graphically depicts the flow and structure of data in a business environment. It provides a way of organizing facts so that they can be analyzed from different business perspectives. For example, a simple logical data model for a retail company can organize all necessary facts by store, product, and time, which are the three common business perspectives typically associated with retail business. For detailed information about data modeling, see Chapter 2, The Logical Data Model. For MicroStrategy Tutorial, the areas of analysis discussed earlier, Customer Analysis, Human Resources Analysis, and so on, are organized into the following hierarchical groupings: • • • • • Geography Products Customers Time Promotions

These MicroStrategy Tutorial hierarchies are displayed on the following pages for your reference.

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Data modeling notations
The following notations are used in graphical depictions of hierarchies.
Symbol Indicates entry point Definition An entry point is a shortcut to an attribute element in the Data Explorer. Creating an entry point grants you faster access to the attribute without having to browse through multiple attributes to reach different levels of the hierarchy.

attribute

A data level defined by the system architect and associated with one or more columns in the data warehouse lookup table. Attributes include data classifications like Region, Order, Customer, Age, Item, City, and Year. They provide a handle for aggregating and filtering at a given level. An attribute relationship in which every element of a parent attribute relates to multiple elements of a child attribute, while every element of the child attribute relates to only one element of the parent. The one-to-many attribute relationship is the most common in data models.

one-to-many relationship

Geography hierarchy
The Geography hierarchy contains attributes, such as Country and Region, as well as Distribution Center, Call Center, and employee-specific attributes. It is easy to understand why Country and Region are in the Geography hierarchy, but what about Distribution Center, Call Center, and the employee-related attributes? The data used in MicroStrategy Tutorial is based upon a fictitious company that sells electronics, movies, music, and books. The company does not have physical stores, but instead does its business from catalog and Web sales. Customers review the products in a printed or online catalog and call in their order over the phone. The order is then processed by an employee located at one of the call centers. The order is then fulfilled by a distribution center that holds the correct item and sends it through one of the shippers.

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The Geography hierarchy contains the following attributes.
Attribute Country Region Call Center Distribution Center Manager Employee Experience Hire Date Salary Employee Age Employee Birth Date Employee Description Countries where the company does or hopes to do business in the future. Also refers to countries where employees work. Each country is split into regions. Where product phone-in orders are taken. Each call center is located in a different city. The location where product orders are sent out to customers. Currently, each is located in the same city as the call center it services. Person responsible for a specific call center. The number of years an employee has worked for the organization. The date on which a particular employee was hired. The amount of money an employee makes per year. The age of each employee. The date each employee was born. The lowest level in the Geography hierarchy, representing the individual responsible for each order placed. Example USA, Spain, France. Central, Northeast, Southwest. Atlanta, Boston, Charleston. Miami, New Orleans, Fargo. Peter Rose, Alice Cooper. 3, 5, 6. 2/16/97, 3/15/99. 24,000, 35,000. 29, 36, 52. 5/6/66, 1/1/77. Jennifer Lee, Laura Kelly.

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Refer to the following image to see how all these attributes are organized into the MicroStrategy Tutorial Geography hierarchy.

Products hierarchy
The products hierarchy contains attributes, such as Category, Brand, Catalog, and Supplier. The Products hierarchy contains the following attributes.
Attribute Category Subcategory Description Products are organized into categories at the highest level. Used to further differentiate a subset of products within a category. Example Electronics, Music. Business, Cameras, Drama.

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Attribute Warranty Brand Catalog Supplier Discontinued Code Item

Description The time period in months during which a manufacturer repairs a broken item (specific to Narrowcast Server). The manufacturer or artist for a particular product. The medium used to sell products. The distributor for a set of brands. 0 = discontinued product, 1 = non-discontinued product. The individual product sold.

Example 3, 5. Ayn Rand, 3Com, Sony. Spring 2002, Fall 2003. McGraw Hill, Disney Studios. 0, 1 The Great Gatsby, Sony Discman.

Refer to the following image to see how all these attributes are organized into the MicroStrategy Tutorial Products hierarchy.

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Customers hierarchy
The Customers hierarchy contains customer demographic and purchase information, such as Customer Age, Income Bracket, Payment Method, and Ship Date. The Customers hierarchy contains the following attributes.
Attribute Customer Country Customer Region Customer State Customer City Customer Age Customer Birth Date Income Bracket Zip Code Customer Shipper Rush Order Description The highest level of differentiation for where Customers live The highest level of differentiation for where customers live. Each Customer Region is divided into multiple States. Each Customer State is broken down into cities. The age of a particular customer at a current point in time. The date on which the Customer was born. The salary range reported by the customer. The lowest level of differentiation for where customers live. The name of the individual customer. The vendor used to send products to the customer. (Currently not implemented in the project.) Indicates whether a customer chose to expedite delivery of an order. The way a customer pays for an order. The date on which an order is shipped from the distribution center. The tracking number associated with a particular group of items purchased. Amex, Check. 9/15/02, 3/26/03. 167, 2635. Example USA, Spain, France Northeast, South, France. Maine, North Dakota. Albany, Chicago, Memphis. 26, 38, 59. 8/4/50, 4/30/72. $31,000 - 40,000, $61,000 70,000. 07026, 36303. Selene Allen, Chad Laurie. Pronto Packages, MailFast.

Payment Method Ship Date Order

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Refer to the following image to see how all these attributes are organized into the MicroStrategy Tutorial Customers hierarchy.

Time hierarchy
The Time hierarchy contains time-specific attributes, Year, Quarter, Month, and Day.

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Refer to the following image to see how all these attributes are organized into the MicroStrategy Tutorial Time hierarchy. Q2 02. November. Calendar quarter of purchase. Month of purchase. Jul 02. January. Calendar month of purchase. Calendar date of purchase. This hierarchy is useful for recording whether a sale was a promotional purchase.A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide The Time hierarchy contains the following attributes. 5/14/02. 278 MicroStrategy Tutorial data model © 2007 MicroStrategy. Aug 03. Q3 03. 2003. 12/26/03. Promotions hierarchy The Promotions hierarchy contains Promotion and Promotion Type. Inc. Attribute Year Quarter Month of Year Month Day Description Calendar year of purchase. Example 2002. .

Attribute Promotion Type Promotion Description (Currently not implemented in the project. Example Mother’s Day. Refer to the following image to see how all these attributes are organized into the MicroStrategy Tutorial Promotions hierarchy. Labor Day. 2/16/03 2/19/03. Inc. log on to the project source containing the MicroStrategy Tutorial and expand the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. © 2007 MicroStrategy. 9/1/02 . You must log on as an Administrator. you can also view it directly in the product. (Currently not implemented in the project. MicroStrategy Tutorial data model 279 .) Type of discount period offered (Sale type). Specify the user name as Administrator and provide a blank password to complete these steps. To view the MicroStrategy Tutorial data model 1 If you are not already using the MicroStrategy Tutorial.) Date range for a particular discount period under which an item is purchased (Sales Date).9/4/02.Project Design Guide MicroStrategy Tutorial A The Promotions hierarchy contains the following attributes. Viewing the MicroStrategy Tutorial data model Although the MicroStrategy Tutorial data model is displayed in the previous pages.

select it from the Entry Point drop-down list in the toolbar. characteristics. click Auto arrange in the toolbar. It is a graphic-intensive technique that results in a data model representing the definition. 280 MicroStrategy Tutorial schema © 2007 MicroStrategy. select it from the Hierarchy drop-down list on the toolbar. 4 To focus on a different entry point. the next step is to create the schema. Inc. this saved view is displayed. Once loaded. 8 To save the layout view of the hierarchy. the HierarchiesMicroStrategy Tutorial dialog box opens. physical characteristics. The next time you open the Hierarchy Viewer. click Save in the toolbar. 5 To view the entire hierarchy in the window. and then choose Hierarchies. point to Graphical View. and interrelationships. The logical data model is a picture of all the pieces of information necessary to understand your data and how it relates to your business. 3 To view a different hierarchy. or conceptual environment. but allows you to view the hierarchy in a way meaningful to you. This does not affect the browse order. . and relationships of data in a business. 7 To return to the default view.A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide 2 From the Schema menu. 6 You can rearrange the attributes by dragging and dropping them. technical. After the data model is created. MicroStrategy Tutorial schema A schema is a logical and physical definition of warehouse data elements. click Fit in window from the toolbar.

Project Design Guide MicroStrategy Tutorial A The physical warehouse schema is based on the logical data model. refer to earlier chapters in this guide. Item. Lookup tables are usually joined to fact tables in order to group the numeric facts in the fact table by dimensional attributes in the lookup tables. or Account. The MicroStrategy Tutorial schema is divided into the following parts: • • • • • • Geography Products Customers Time Promotions Fact tables Schema notations The following notations are used in the graphical depictions of the MicroStrategy Tutorial schema. While the logical data model tells you what facts and attributes to create. For more detailed information on the physical schema. the set of columns required to uniquely identify a record in a table. This appendix shows the physical warehouse schema. including data types. They typically consist of descriptions of dimensions. Symbol LU_ Indicates Definition a lookup table A database table used to uniquely identify attribute elements. Store. Several physical warehouse schemas can be derived from the same logical data model. The physical warehouse schema describes how your data is stored in the data warehouse. MicroStrategy Tutorial schema 281 . the physical warehouse schema tells you where the underlying data for those objects is stored. © 2007 MicroStrategy. such as Day. Inc. a primary key In a relational database.

unit cost. Relate tables contain the ID columns of two or more attributes. Fact Cost Discount End on hand Description The total amount charged by the supplier to the company. The excess of the selling price of goods over their cost. The number of individual items acquired from a supplier. Fact tables may contain atomic or summarized data. A monetary reduction made from a regular price. The number of individual items remaining at the close of each month. thus defining associations between them. relate tables store information about the relationship between two attributes. The schema also contains fact tables. The total income produced by a given source accounting for all product sales deducting discounts. A fact table is a database table containing numeric data that may be aggregated along one or more dimensions. The amount of money charged by the company to the customer per individual item sold. Unit price . 282 MicroStrategy Tutorial schema © 2007 MicroStrategy. . Also referred to as a PMT. Inc. PMT_ a partition A warehouse table that contains information used to identify the mapping table partitioned base tables as part of a logical whole. Begin on hand The number of individual items available at the beginning of each month. The amount of money charged by the supplier to the company per individual item purchased. Freight Profit Revenue Rush Charge Unit Cost Unit Price Unit Profit Units Received Units Sold The compensation paid for the transportation of goods.A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide Symbol REL_ Indicates a relationship table Definition While lookup tables store information about one or more attributes. The amount of money charged to expedite delivery service. The basic facts from which all metrics in the MicroStrategy Tutorial were created from are listed below. The number of individual items bought by customers.

Project Design Guide MicroStrategy Tutorial A Geography schema © 2007 MicroStrategy. MicroStrategy Tutorial schema 283 . Inc.

Inc. .A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide Products schema 284 MicroStrategy Tutorial schema © 2007 MicroStrategy.

MicroStrategy Tutorial schema 285 .Project Design Guide MicroStrategy Tutorial A Customers schema © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc.

. Inc.A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide Time schema 286 MicroStrategy Tutorial schema © 2007 MicroStrategy.

Inc.Project Design Guide MicroStrategy Tutorial A Promotions schema Sales fact tables © 2007 MicroStrategy. MicroStrategy Tutorial schema 287 .

A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide Inventory fact tables Miscellaneous fact tables 288 MicroStrategy Tutorial schema © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. .

Inc. 2 From the Schema menu. Use circular joins: Select whether to use circular joins. Show column data types: Select whether to show the data type and size for each column. Show table prefixes: Select whether to display the table prefix as part of the table name. and then choose Tables. 4 To change display preferences for the physical view. To view the MicroStrategy Tutorial schema 1 If you are not already using the Tutorial. You must login as an Administrator to complete these steps. use the following options from the Options menu: • • Show joins: Select whether to connect the tables to represent the joins between the table columns. then Logical View. MicroStrategy Tutorial schema 289 . Use circular joins: Select whether to use circular joins. log in to the project source containing the MicroStrategy Tutorial and expand the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. the TablesMicroStrategy Tutorial dialog box opens with the physical view displayed. Once loaded. © 2007 MicroStrategy. 3 To switch to the logical view. you can also view it or the logical schema directly in the product. select View. use the following options from the Options menu: • • • • Show joins: Select whether to connect the tables to represent the joins between the warehouse tables. point to Graphical View.Project Design Guide MicroStrategy Tutorial A Viewing the MicroStrategy Tutorial schema Although the MicroStrategy Tutorial physical schema is displayed in the previous pages. 5 To change display preferences for the logical view.

and many-to-many relationships. select Copy as Metafile from the File menu. this saved view is displayed. Inc. but allows you to view the tables in a way meaningful to you. The next time you open the Table Viewer. 8 You can rearrange the tables by dragging and dropping them. 11 To copy the layout view. one-to-many. 290 MicroStrategy Tutorial schema © 2007 MicroStrategy. Show relationship types: Choose whether to differentiate between one-to-one. as a link between the logical and physical views.A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide • • Show relationships: Choose whether to map the relationships between the tables. click the Fit in window button on the toolbar. many-to-one. click Save in the toolbar. 10 To save the layout view of the tables. select View. This does not affect the relationships or joins. click Auto arrange in the toolbar. 9 To return to the default view. Show columns: Select whether to display the warehouse columns that define each attribute. 7 To view the entire schema in the window. then Physical View. . • 6 To switch back to the physical view.

Specifically. page 298 © 2007 MicroStrategy. this appendix discusses the following topics: • • MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources. This appendix describes how MicroStrategy Intelligence Server integrates with these products using MultiDimensional Expressions (MDX). Microsoft Analysis Services (Analysis Services). that can concurrently access OLAP cube sources and the data warehouse effectively. This system setup requires an integrated business intelligence (BI) solution. Integration with Analysis Services 2000. Hyperion Essbase. The integration with SAP BW uses SAP’s OLAP Business Application Programming Interface (BAPI). such as MicroStrategy. Inc. SAP BW. and Essbase uses XML for Analysis (XMLA). page 292 Understanding the SAP BW terminology. Analysis Services 2005. and Microsoft Analysis Services Introduction Many companies have both a data warehouse and an OLAP cube source such as SAP Business Intelligence Warehouse (SAP BW). 291 . or Hyperion Essbase (Essbase).B CONNECTING TO OLAP CUBE SOURCES B.

0. Intelligence Server can join data from different OLAP cube sources. page 337 Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • • • • • • • • • Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy. • • • Microsoft Analysis Services 2000 Microsoft Analysis Services 2005 Hyperion Essbase 7. in addition to relational databases. page 317 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy. page 327 Connecting to Essbase servers. and bring the data into one single MicroStrategy project. page 311 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy.1 292 MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources © 2007 MicroStrategy. These additional OLAP cube sources include the following: • SAP BW 3. MicroStrategy refers to SAP BW/SAP BI OLAP cube sources as SAP BW. SAP has renamed SAP BW to SAP BI.0 With version 7. Inc. page 302 Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy. Using the MicroStrategy standard interface. all of which can be exposed via a unified Web interface. page 340 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy.1 and 3. page 334 Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers.5 and SAP BI 7. page 343 MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources MicroStrategy provides a rich set of functionality ranging from OLAP Services and Report Services to Narrowcast capabilities. page 322 Connecting to SAP BW servers. .

MicroStrategy has chosen to use the OLAP BAPI approach because it is the most native interface that SAP provides. and properties data. see the MicroStrategy readme. Analysis Services and Essbase store data in cubes obtained from various sources.5. For more information on MDX syntax. With the Powered by Net Weaver Certification on MicroStrategy 7i -7. the Intelligence Server generates MDX. and MicroStrategy Web and SDK are certified to run with SAP Enterprise Portal through iView Packages. CRM. The XMLA integration provides a Web Service interface for OLAP and data mining functions. MicroStrategy Web Universal is certified to run on SAP Web Application Server.0. This data is stored in cubes or other SAP objects. Likewise. the OLAP BAPI provides an open interface through which Intelligence Server can access the SAP BW data.xmla. Rather. MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources 293 .Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B For MicroStrategy’s support status with the OLAP cube sources listed above. integration allows MicroStrategy to gain additional data sources for analysis. It is important to understand that the MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources does not change the overall structure of the MicroStrategy product. If you use OLAP cube sources and MicroStrategy as your combined BI solution. As SAP’s proprietary API for accessing SAP BW data and functionality. Inc. or another SAP data source system. SAP BW obtains data from R/3. cell data. each of these products is simply another data warehouse that holds data for report generation. An MDX expression returns a multidimensional result set (dataset) that consists of axis data. you can get the best out of both products.microsoft. SEM.org and is the basis for the MicroStrategy implementation. In other words. MDX is similar to SQL but is used to query cubes. Version 1. Defined by Microsoft. including the following: © 2007 MicroStrategy. To access the data. refer to http://msdn.3. MicroStrategy Intelligence Server is certified to connect and execute reports against SAP BW cubes. With the SAP BW OLAP BAPI Certification on MicroStrategy 8.com/ and search for MDX.1 of the specification is available at www.

Understanding MicroStrategy architecture The MicroStrategy platform offers OLAP Services. and Query Builder provides additional mechanisms for pulling data into the MicroStrategy platform for analysis. and Narrowcast Server functionality. all of which can be accessed through MicroStrategy Web. refer to the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. as illustrated in the following diagram.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • • • • • Access to OLAP cube sources and a regular data warehouse Five styles of BI Custom development of reports and applications Transaction-level analysis Integration with other systems via Web Services For troubleshooting and diagnostics logging routines related to OLAP cube sources. Data is pulled from multiple OLAP cube sources using MDX and operational systems using Freeform SQL or Query Builder. Essbase. For information on Freeform SQL and Query Builder reporting. it is treated in the same 294 MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources © 2007 MicroStrategy. Support for SAP BW. Analysis Services. Report Services. Inc. . Freeform SQL. see the Troubleshooting the System chapter of the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. Once the data is retrieved.

© 2007 MicroStrategy. To understand the current MicroStrategy architecture better. Inc.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B manner as data pulled from the relational data warehouse. shown below. This means that core MicroStrategy capabilities are available no matter what the original data source is. MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources 295 . Each project contained one project schema that held the logical model for that project. each pointing to a data warehouse. you could have multiple MicroStrategy projects. One database instance could be referenced by multiple projects in a configuration. which was represented by the database instance. Object model in MicroStrategy 7i In the 7i metadata model. it is helpful to review the basic object model of MicroStrategy 7i and how various data sources were accessed then.

each OLAP cube report points directly to one cube in MicroStrategy.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide When a report was executed. In addition. the SQL Engine would implicitly reference the schema to determine which table(s) should be queried. 296 MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources © 2007 MicroStrategy. However. Object model in MicroStrategy 8 The MicroStrategy 8 model shown below highlights how a project can be extended to access OLAP cube sources through a separate database instance. but the only source is the data warehouse. due to the structure in OLAP cube sources where queries can only be run against one cube at a time. . Each report can only reference one specific cube. note that instead of pointing to the project schema. Inc. You can create multiple reports to run against one cube. which is a logical placeholder for a physical cube that exists in an OLAP cube source. and a single MicroStrategy project can reference multiple database instances. a Report Services document can contain multiple datasets. each of which can represent a distinct OLAP cube source.

Inc. Freeform SQL reports. For information on Freeform SQL and Query Builder reports. MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources 297 . refer to the MicroStrategy Document Creation Guide. Authentication Most of the standard MicroStrategy platform authentication features also apply to OLAP cube sources and OLAP cube reports. By bringing these different types of reports together inside a document. refer to the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B The model also shows how you can include any number of standard reports. and OLAP cube reports in one Report Services document. Query Builder reports. report designers can create rich reports and analytics that take advantage of data from both data warehouses and OLAP cube sources. For information on Report Services documents. described as follows: © 2007 MicroStrategy.

page 302. Further information is provided later in this appendix on how the SAP BW objects are related to those in the MicroStrategy environment. Connection mapping: is supported the same way as for standard MicroStrategy reports. it is recommended that you use connection mapping or pass-through authentication. but not to the cube sources. NT Authentication can be used to authenticate the user to the Intelligence Server. refer to your SAP documentation. This is explained in Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy. Inc. Understanding the SAP BW terminology Before looking in depth into how MicroStrategy integrates with SAP BW. refer to the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. To enforce OLAP cube source security in MicroStrategy. . 298 Understanding the SAP BW terminology © 2007 MicroStrategy. relational databases or OLAP cube sources. you need to be familiar with the terms that are used to describe the SAP BW objects. In addition. NT authentication: used for database logins are not supported with OLAP cube sources. then the same login information must be applicable to all sources. Some of these terms are provided in the following section. for example. For a comprehensive and detailed explanation on SAP BW objects. If multiple sources are configured for warehouse pass-through execution. • • • For information on authentication in general. specific connection mappings may be designated for each database instance and user or group combination. Warehouse pass-through authentication: is supported in the same way as for relational data providers.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • Standard authentication and LDAP authentication: are supported independent of the data source that is being used.

The relationship between the InfoCube and the query cube is very similar to how a MicroStrategy report includes a subset of modeled attributes and metrics that are available in the data warehouse. select the Allow External Access to This Query check box under the Extended tab in the SAP Query Properties dialog box in the Query Analyzer • © 2007 MicroStrategy. The fact table at the center of an InfoCube contains the data available for analysis. for example. ODS object: is an operational data store object. ODS objects are flat relational tables and are similar to MicroStrategy fact tables. InfoProvider: is a generic term defining all SAP BW data structures available for reporting and analysis purposes such as the following: InfoCube: is a multi-dimensional cube. They include objects such as characteristics and key figures. which is described below. • • InfoCube: is the primary object that SAP BW uses to store data for analysis. Data is organized by dimension and stored physically in a star schema. and MultiProviders. for example. three InfoCubes or two ODS objects. Query cubes also provide MicroStrategy users access to additional InfoProviders including ODS objects. finance or sales. which are roughly equivalent to attributes and facts in a MicroStrategy project. MultiProvider: is a logical union of two or more InfoProviders that are used to combine data from two different subject areas. Query cube (or query): defines a subset of data from an InfoCube or another InfoProvider. Inc. InfoSets. InfoCubes define a specific domain of analysis in special areas. Query cubes generally offer better performance than InfoCubes because they are smaller and can be scheduled and cached within SAP BW. A query cube includes characteristics (dimensions/attributes) and key figures (metrics) from its source provider. Understanding the SAP BW terminology 299 .Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B • InfoObject: are the building blocks for individual cubes. To release a query for analysis in MicroStrategy. Any existing query can be released for analysis within MicroStrategy.

• Characteristic: provides classification possibilities for a dataset. ODS objects. These hierarchies are also available when you work with a cube in MicroStrategy. With this option enabled. when the levels of a hierarchy are viewed in MicroStrategy. these variables are filled with values by the system or by the user. but it is equivalent to an attribute form in MicroStrategy. date. customer group. For example. Hierarchy: is a way of defining the relationships among elements within a characteristic. texts. • • 300 Understanding the SAP BW terminology . such as revenue. the Item characteristic might have a hierarchy that includes Category. You can also create calculated key figures and restricted key figures in the query definition in the Business Explorer. When the query is executed. when each characteristic is translated into a cube. designers can quickly access existing query cubes and business content when working in MicroStrategy. and time. such as sales region. This is a different paradigm from MicroStrategy’s model where each attribute defines its own level. hierarchies. and finally Item. a Sales Region characteristic can have North. In addition. This is similar to creating derived metrics and conditional metrics within the MicroStrategy environment. and formulas. However. numbers. SAP BW characteristics are similar to MicroStrategy attributes. Inc. However. and period. profit. all of which can be used in InfoCubes. Defined in the Query Designer. SAP BW also has an object called an attribute. There are five types of key figures: amount. For example. product. Central. hierarchy nodes. fiscal year. © 2007 MicroStrategy. as noted later. Variable: is used as a parameter of a query in SAP BW. it is treated as a separate dimension for analysis. and South specifications. they are presented with the traditional attribute-based parent-child relationships. variables can be of such types as characteristic values. and number of call centers. and master data attributes. • Key figure: describes numeric data. quantities. Subcategory.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide interface. hierarchies can be associated with a specific characteristic within SAP BW.

columns. InfoCubes. page 308. For step-by-step instructions on how to create MicroStrategy reports from the data in SAP BW cubes.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B When an OLAP cube is imported into a MicroStrategy project. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. Understanding the SAP BW terminology 301 . When working in MicroStrategy. refer to documentation provided by SAP BW. you also need to have a basic understanding of the SAP Query Designer. the report inherits all those prompts. and free characteristics. © 2007 MicroStrategy. and MultiProviders. standard prompts can also be created for this report. Besides the above-mentioned terminology. where you define queries. rows. see Supporting SAP BW variables. For more information on variables. In addition. all the variables in this cube are represented as prompts. You can select and combine InfoObjects or reusable structures for an InfoProvider and specify the view of the data (query view) by distributing them to filters. For more information. you will find a list of available cubes for reporting. When the OLAP cube is used to create a MicroStrategy report. Inc. including all of the published query cubes.

B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy As a Web or Desktop Analyst. but not identical. you can treat SAP BW reports as if they were standard MicroStrategy reports. when thinking about SAP objects. Thus. The ODBO model is similar to SAP’s standard model. The translation process involves the following steps: 1 From SAP BW to ODBO: SAP exposes its query cubes and InfoCubes to Intelligence Server through the ODBO model. it is helpful to understand how SAP’s metadata model is translated into MicroStrategy’s metadata model. ODBO stands for OLE database for OLAP and is a protocol defined by Microsoft. However. 302 Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. if you are a report designer. . keep in mind how those objects appear in ODBO. ODBO defines an object model that is used in conjunction with MDX to query cubes.

Query cubes are accessed through their respective InfoCube catalogs. Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy 303 . You can then interact with SAP content while working within the paradigm that is consistent with the rest of MicroStrategy’s products. The following image demonstrates how SAP BW objects are exposed in ODBO and then how they are related to objects in the MicroStrategy environment. © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B 2 From ODBO to MicroStrategy: After SAP objects are translated into the ODBO model. they are then translated into the MicroStrategy metadata model. The following sub-sections—each starting with a table—describe each level of comparison from top to bottom as shown in the above illustration. Inc. SAP BW ---> InfoCube ODBO ---> catalog MicroStrategy (catalog) • SAP BW: InfoCube Each InfoCube that has queries associated with it is exposed as a catalog in ODBO.

and query cubes. In the same way that a regular table maps the physical columns of a relational table to attributes and metrics. MultiProviders. • MicroStrategy: not supported SAP BW ---> InfoCube/ query cube ODBO ---> cube MicroStrategy cube • • • SAP BW: InfoCube/query cube ODBO: cube MicroStrategy: cube A MicroStrategy cube is an object that is used to map the levels of an SAP BW cube into the MicroStrategy environment. Catalogs in MicroStrategy are represented in a folder. Inc. SAP BW ---> N/A ODBO ---> schema MicroStrategy N/A • • SAP BW: not supported ODBO: schema Schema in ODBO provides another grouping mechanism. • MicroStrategy: (Catalog) Each catalog includes one InfoCube and associated query cubes. Cubes are treated in a manner very similar to tables in the MicroStrategy metadata. ODBO catalogs are exposed in a few editors when selecting and managing cubes. Therefore. . if any. a MicroStrategy cube maps the physical columns of an SAP BW cube to attributes and metrics. 304 Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. The cube can be used to represent InfoCubes.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • ODBO: Catalog Catalogs are used to group cubes.

They can only be seen inside the SAP BEx Query Designer when you build a query cube. For more information. these same levels could either be specifically defined as part of the hierarchy. The SAP BW characteristic hierarchies appear as hierarchies to MicroStrategy users. all dimensions in cubes coming from SAP BW are shared.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B SAP BW ---> characteristic ODBO ---> dimension MicroStrategy dimension • SAP BW: characteristic Characteristics in SAP BW are similar to attributes in MicroStrategy. This hierarchy defines a number of levels including Year. Each characteristic (dimension) has at least one hierarchy with two levels: the first level is an aggregate of all the data. and the second level is the detailed data. For example. Each characteristic in SAP is modeled as a dimension in ODBO and is shared across cubes. or they could be other characteristics that are used to define the levels of this one hierarchy. Quarter. A characteristic can have any number of additional hierarchies. For example. Time and Geography are dimensions along which you can slice data. an InfoCube might include the Month characteristic. each with an arbitrary number of levels. Dimensions in SAP BW are used to group characteristics and are not exposed through the ODBO interface. which represents months just like it does in MicroStrategy. However. and Month. • ODBO: dimension A dimension in ODBO defines a logical category of analysis. Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy 305 . For example. Shared dimensions allow a designer to use only one definition for a dimension across multiple cubes. Therefore. Inc. A characteristic appears as a dimension for MicroStrategy users. © 2007 MicroStrategy. you can build a Time hierarchy that is attached to the Month characteristic. see the following sub-section.

306 Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. In MicroStrategy. and they are represented as physical columns. . SAP BW levels have names such as Region Level 01. The inclusion of the term “Level” is an SAP BW convention. It is used to group attributes and define parent-child relationships. Measures in ODBO are called key figures in SAP BW. measures are simply one more dimension of a cube. which are very similar to metrics in MicroStrategy. Inc. In this way. architects have the option to rename the levels of a cube with a more readable convention. and so on. Region Level 02.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Measures (metrics) are stored in a special measure dimension. MicroStrategy reuses the hierarchy objects to represent both dimensions and hierarchies from ODBO. SAP BW ---> virtual level ODBO ---> level MicroStrategy attribute • SAP BW: virtual level Levels are generated automatically based on either the definition of the characteristic or the hierarchies associated with a characteristic. SAP BW ---> hierarchy ODBO ---> hierarchy MicroStrategy hierarchy • • • SAP BW: hierarchy ODBO: hierarchy MicroStrategy: hierarchy Hierarchies are used to group attributes (levels) together and define the relationships between these attributes. • MicroStrategy: dimension A dimension object in MicroStrategy is very similar to an ODBO dimension.

each ODBO level generates two physical columns and forms in MicroStrategy—ID and DESC. forms are sometimes referred to directly as attributes. However. SAP BW also supports navigational attributes. For example. For example. © 2007 MicroStrategy. SAP BW ---> characteristic attribute ODBO ---> property MicroStrategy attribute form • • • SAP BW: characteristic attribute ODBO: property MicroStrategy: attribute form Attribute forms provide additional information about a given attribute. In SAP BW. Inc. This concept also applies to ODBO and SAP BW. SAP BW ---> characteristic value ODBO ---> member MicroStrategy (attribute element) • • • SAP BW: characteristic value ODBO: member MicroStrategy: (attribute element) Element values come from either the database or a cube.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B • • ODBO: level MicroStrategy: attribute (ID/DESC) MicroStrategy attributes map to ODBO levels. the Customer attribute may have the forms First Name and Last Name. 2003 and 2004 are elements of the Year attribute. Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy 307 . These attributes are presented as distinct dimensions when working in MicroStrategy.

Otherwise. including characteristic values. 2 When a MicroStrategy report is created using a MicroStrategy OLAP cube. Only variables with the Manual Entry/Default processing type are presented to users for resolution. Variable types with the Customer Exit/SAP Exit and Authorization processing types are automatically resolved by the SAP BW system. these variables are filled with values. For more information. and formula elements. Inc. The conversion process involves the following general steps: 1 When an SAP query cube is imported into a MicroStrategy project. additional standard MicroStrategy prompts can also be created for the report. hierarchies. an error occurs when you attempt to import the SAP BW cube. Originally created in an SAP query cube. hierarchy nodes. When the query is being executed. There are several types of variables. the report inherits the prompts included in the OLAP cube. On top of the “inherited” variable prompts. see the Prompts section of the Creating OLAP Cube Reports chapter of the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. texts. If your SAP BW cube included variables of type Replacement Path.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Supporting SAP BW variables Variables are used in SAP BW to enter values as parameters for the queries on a cube. you must remove them before importing the cube into MicroStrategy. . variables are automatically turned into prompts in the MicroStrategy OLAP cube. For detailed information on variables. refer to your SAP documentation. SAP BW variables of type Replacement Path cannot be imported into MicroStrategy. variables are represented as prompts in the MicroStrategy environment. 308 Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy.

and Variable Ordinal. The OLAP Cube Catalog lists all the prompts that were converted from variables.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Mapping between variables and prompts can be viewed in the OLAP Cube Catalog. using the right-mouse click you can Edit the prompt in the Prompt Generation Wizard. © 2007 MicroStrategy. In addition. In the OLAP Cube Catalog. including Variable Name. Entry Type. and measures/key figures. Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy 309 . Details about this variable in SAP BW are displayed on the Variable tab. Default Low Description. Default Low. dimensions. in addition to cube names. Variable Type. you can view any variable’s properties by right-clicking its name and then selecting Properties. Rename the prompt. Inc. or Map the variable to a prompt in an existing MicroStrategy project. Selection Type. as shown in the following image.

while those in the Excluding section restrict the data from being displayed in the query. 310 Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. Not supported. Both single and multiple selection are supported. After an OLAP cube report is executed. SAP Variable Type ---> Characteristic Value variable Hierarchy variable MicroStrategy Prompt Element list prompt or attribute qualification prompt N/A Notes See the note below for more information. Qualifications in the Including section cause the data to be brought into the query. To be consistent with the SAP functionality. Not available from SAP BW. This allows the same prompt answer to be used to resolve multiple variables during document execution. . so it is distinguished from a simple characteristic variable on date. the MicroStrategy interface qualifies on the key value of each element by default.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide One prompt can be mapped to more than one variable across cubes. Hierarchy Node variable Hierarchy element list prompt Text variable Formula variable N/A Value prompt: all types Characteristic value variables offer an “Including/Excluding” option. When executing a Report Services document with multiple datasets using these cubes. Inc. No major changes. you need to manually set the variable’s property in the OLAP Cube Catalog. you can view the prompt details in the Report Details pane in the Report Editor. a prompt is displayed only once. see the Prompts section of the Creating OLAP Cube Reports chapter of the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. This is especially useful if you want to get a summary of the variable elements that are used in answering the variable prompts. For more information about prompts in OLAP cube reports. If you use any SAP BW key date variables in your query. The following table contains information on how the different types of SAP BW variables are mapped to MicroStrategy prompts.

In a MicroStrategy report. it is helpful to understand how Essbase’s metadata model is translated into MicroStrategy’s metadata model.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Set the properties for key date variables 1 Right-click the variable name and select Properties. This representation is consistent with how characteristic variables are represented in SAP BW through the OLAP Business Application Programming Interface (BAPI). if you are a report designer. SAP BW structures Structures in an SAP BW query cube define the two axes of a query (rows and columns) and are of two types: key figure structures and characteristic structures. each of which is represented as a single flat dimension with one level. Each element of a key figure structure is represented as a unique metric in the MicroStrategy environment. Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy As a Web or Desktop Analyst. However. © 2007 MicroStrategy. 2 On the Variable tab. select the Set Key Date check box. Inc. a query could also have characteristic structures. and then click OK. In addition to key figure structures. Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy 311 . you can treat OLAP cube reports from an Essbase OLAP cube as if they were standard MicroStrategy reports. you cannot drill down into the elements of characteristic structures. The Properties [variable name] dialog box is displayed.

B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide The translation process involves the following steps: 1 From Essbase to XMLA: Essbase exposes its databases through the XMLA model which is derived from the ODBO model used by SAP. . XMLA defines an object model that is used in conjunction with MDX to query cubes. You can then interact with Essbase content while working within the paradigm that is consistent with the rest of MicroStrategy’s products. 2 From XMLA to MicroStrategy: After Essbase objects are translated into the XMLA model. The Essbase model predates XMLA so there are some differences. The following image demonstrates how Essbase objects are exposed in XMLA and then how they are related to objects in the MicroStrategy environment. they are then translated into the MicroStrategy metadata model. Inc. 312 Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. keep in mind how those objects appear in XMLA. When thinking about Essbase objects.

Essbase ---> Application XMLA ---> catalog MicroStrategy (catalog) • Essbase: Application Each Application is exposed as a catalog in XMLA. • MicroStrategy: (catalog) Each catalog includes one application and associated databases. • XMLA: catalog Catalogs are used to group cubes. Essbase ---> N/A XMLA ---> schema MicroStrategy N/A • • Essbase: not supported XMLA: schema Schema in XMLA provides another grouping mechanism.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B The following subsections (each starting with a table) describe each level of comparison from top to bottom as shown in the above illustration. XMLA catalogs are exposed in editors when selecting and managing cubes. Therefore. Databases are accessed through their respective catalogs. Inc. Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy 313 . Catalogs in MicroStrategy are represented as a folder. • MicroStrategy: not supported Essbase ---> database XMLA ---> cube MicroStrategy cube • • Essbase: database XMLA: cube © 2007 MicroStrategy. if any.

Measures in ODBO are the members of the dimension of type=Accounts in Essbase. Cubes are treated in a manner very similar to tables in the MicroStrategy metadata. A MicroStrategy cube maps the physical columns of an Essbase cube to attributes and metrics in the same way that a regular table maps the physical columns of a relational table to attributes and metrics. Inc. The dimension therefore is both the highest level member in the dimension and the dimension itself. For example. In this way. measures are simply one more dimension of a cube. a dimension represents the highest consolidation level in the database outline. Essbase ---> dimension XMLA ---> dimension MicroStrategy dimension • Essbase: dimension In Essbase. • XMLA: dimension A dimension in XMLA defines a logical category of analysis. Each dimension has a single hierarchy with the number of levels determined by the greatest depth in the outline. . Time and Geography are dimensions along which you can slice data. The cube represents an Essbase database. Each dimension has a single root node or member and is a child of the outline root node which is the database.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • MicroStrategy: cube A MicroStrategy cube is an object that is used to map the levels of an Essbase cube into the MicroStrategy environment. • MicroStrategy: dimension 314 Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. These can be raw data or formulas with associated calculation or aggregation rules. An Essbase dimension appears as a dimension for MicroStrategy users. Measures (metrics) are stored in a special measure dimension.

Therefore the dimension is the same as the hierarchy in Essbase.Levels(0). the outline defines a single hierarchy. • • XMLA: level MicroStrategy: attribute (ID/DESC) © 2007 MicroStrategy. It is used to group attributes and define parent-child relationships.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B A dimension object in MicroStrategy is very similar to an XMLA dimension. Inc. Essbase ---> dimension XMLA ---> hierarchy MicroStrategy hierarchy • Essbase: dimension An Essbase dimension is defined as part of the database outline. MicroStrategy reuses the hierarchy objects to represent both dimensions and hierarchies from XMLA. As a result. In MicroStrategy. The outline is a hierarchical structure of database members with a parent containing its children. Essbase ---> level XMLA ---> level MicroStrategy attribute • Essbase: level Levels group together members in an Essbase database outline. architects have the option to rename the levels of a cube with a more readable convention. Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy 315 . • • XMLA: hierarchy MicroStrategy: hierarchy Hierarchies are used to group attributes (levels) together and define the relationships between these attributes. Essbase levels may have default names such as Time.

316 Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. 2003 and 2004 are elements of the Year attribute. For example.3 does not return any properties in the XMLA property schema rowset. Until they are returned as rows in the property schema rowset they are not available as attribute forms in MicroStrategy. However. the Customer attribute may have the forms First Name and Last Name. Inc.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide MicroStrategy attributes map to XMLA levels. . • • XMLA: property MicroStrategy: attribute form Attribute forms provide additional information about a given attribute. Essbase ---> N/A XMLA ---> property MicroStrategy attribute form • Essbase: N/A Essbase as of version 7.1. However. Essbase ---> member XMLA ---> member MicroStrategy attribute element • • • Essbase: member XMLA: member MicroStrategy: attribute element Element values come from either the database or a cube. each XMLA level generates the two physical columns and forms ID and DESC in MicroStrategy. For example. properties can be defined for a database as user defined attributes or attribute dimensions and used in an MDX statement.

they are then translated into the MicroStrategy metadata model. 2 From XMLA to MicroStrategy: After Analysis Services 2000 objects are translated into the XMLA model. The translation process involves the following steps: 1 From Analysis Services 2000 to XMLA: Analysis Services 2000 exposes its cubes through the XMLA model which is derived from the ODBO model. it is helpful to understand how Analysis Services 2000’s metadata model is translated into MicroStrategy’s metadata model.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy Microsoft Analysis Services 2000 (Analysis Services 2000) cubes are exposed directly for XMLA access. You can then interact with Analysis Services 2000 content while working within the paradigm that is consistent with the rest of MicroStrategy’s products. XMLA defines an object model that is used in conjunction with MDX to query cubes. © 2007 MicroStrategy. If you are a report designer. Inc. Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy 317 .

Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> database catalog MicroStrategy (catalog) • Analysis Services 2000: database Each database is exposed as a catalog in XMLA. The following sub-sections—each starting with a table—describe each level of comparison from top to bottom as shown in the above illustration. Cubes are accessed through their respective catalogs. . Inc. Therefore.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide The following image demonstrates how Analysis Services 2000 objects are exposed in XMLA and then how they are related to objects in the MicroStrategy environment. • XMLA: catalog Catalogs are used to group cubes. XMLA catalogs are exposed in editors when selecting and managing cubes. • MicroStrategy: (catalog) 318 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy.

Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy 319 . The cube represents an Analysis Services 2000 cube. Catalogs in MicroStrategy are represented as a folder. a MicroStrategy cube maps the physical columns of an Analysis Services 2000 cube to attributes and metrics. if any. Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> N/A schema MicroStrategy N/A • • Analysis Services 2000: not supported XMLA: schema Schema in XMLA provides another grouping mechanism. Inc. In the same way that a regular table maps the physical columns of a relational table to attributes and metrics. Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> dimension dimension MicroStrategy dimension • Analysis Services 2000: dimension © 2007 MicroStrategy. Cubes are treated in a manner very similar to tables in the MicroStrategy metadata. • MicroStrategy: not supported Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> cube cube MicroStrategy cube • • • Analysis Services 2000: cube XMLA: cube MicroStrategy: cube A MicroStrategy cube is an object that is used to map the levels of an Analysis Services 2000 cube into the MicroStrategy environment.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Each catalog includes one database and associated cubes.

• XMLA: dimension A dimension in XMLA defines a logical category of analysis. An Analysis Services 2000 dimension appears as a dimension for MicroStrategy users. a dimension is defined from one or more tables of data. • MicroStrategy: dimension A dimension object in MicroStrategy is very similar to an XMLA dimension. Each dimension can have one or more hierarchies. 320 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. Time and Geography are dimensions along which you can slice data. For example. • • XMLA: hierarchy MicroStrategy: hierarchy Hierarchies are used to group attributes (levels) together and define the relationships between these attributes. related dimensions can be grouped together so that they represent hierarchies of the same dimension from an XMLA perspective. Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> dimension hierarchy MicroStrategy hierarchy • Analysis Services 2000: dimension Using a structured naming approach. In this way. These can be columns in the table or calculated members represented by formulas with associated aggregation rules.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide In Analysis Services 2000. Measures (metrics) are stored in a special measure dimension. It is used to group attributes and define parent-child relationships. . MicroStrategy reuses the hierarchy objects to represent both dimensions and hierarchies from XMLA. Inc. Measures in XMLA are the members of the Measures dimension in Analysis Services 2000. measures are simply one more dimension of a cube.

each XMLA level generates two physical columns and forms in MicroStrategy—ID and DESC. However. For example. Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> member property property MicroStrategy attribute form • Analysis Services 2000: member property A member property is a descriptive piece of information associated with the element of a level. Inc.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> level level MicroStrategy attribute • Analysis Services 2000: level Levels are mapped to columns in a table and are organized into hierarchies and dimensions. XMLA: property MicroStrategy: attribute form Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy 321 . • • XMLA: level MicroStrategy: attribute (ID/DESC) MicroStrategy attributes map to XMLA levels. • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> member member MicroStrategy attribute element • • • Analysis Services 2000: member XMLA: member MicroStrategy: attribute element Element values come from a cube. 2003 and 2004 are elements of the Year attribute. Member properties are returned in the XMLA property schema rowset.

they are then translated into the MicroStrategy metadata model. The translation process involves the following steps: 1 From Analysis Services 2005 to XMLA: Analysis Services 2005 exposes its cubes through the XMLA model which is derived from the ODBO model. You can then interact with Analysis Services 2005 content while working within the paradigm that is consistent with the rest of MicroStrategy’s products. . the Customer attribute may have the forms First Name and Last Name. 322 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. For example. This section is limited to information on the basic cube object and how it relates to the XMLA model.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Attribute forms provide additional information about a given attribute. Inc. 2 From XMLA to MicroStrategy: After Analysis Services 2005 objects are translated into the XMLA model. XMLA defines an object model that is used in conjunction with MDX to query cubes. Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy Microsoft Analysis Services 2005 (Analysis Services 2005) has a unique modeling approach for building cubes.

Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy 323 . Cubes are accessed through their respective catalogs. XMLA catalogs are exposed in editors when selecting and managing cubes. Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> database catalog MicroStrategy (catalog) • Analysis Services 2005: database Each database is exposed as a catalog in XMLA. • XMLA: catalog Catalogs are used to group cubes. The following sub-sections—each starting with a table—describe each level of comparison from top to bottom as shown in the above illustration. Therefore. • MicroStrategy: (catalog) © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B The following image demonstrates how Analysis Services 2005 objects are exposed in XMLA and then how they are related to objects in the MicroStrategy environment.

Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> N/A schema MicroStrategy N/A • • Analysis Services 2005: not supported XMLA: schema Schema in XMLA provides another grouping mechanism. • • XMLA: cube MicroStrategy: cube A MicroStrategy cube is an object that is used to map the levels of an Analysis Services 2005 cube into the MicroStrategy environment. Catalogs in MicroStrategy are represented as a folder.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Each catalog includes one database and associated cubes. The cube represents an Analysis Services 2005 cube. . In the same way that a regular table maps the physical columns of a relational table to attributes and metrics. a MicroStrategy cube maps the physical columns of an Analysis Services 2005 cube to attributes and metrics. • MicroStrategy: not supported Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> perspective cube MicroStrategy cube • Analysis Services 2005: perspective A perspective in Analysis Services 2005 is a view of the defined cube and the list of perspectives includes the original cube. if any. 324 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. Cubes are treated in a manner very similar to tables in the MicroStrategy metadata.

All columns in the tables are eligible to become attributes of the dimension. Time and Geography are dimensions along which you can slice data. Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy 325 . For example. Measures (metrics) are stored in a special measure dimension. a data source does not always map directly to the tables in a relational database. a dimension is defined from one or more data source tables. Inc. These can be columns in the data source table or calculated members represented by formulas with associated aggregation rules. In this way. Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> hierarchy hierarchy MicroStrategy hierarchy © 2007 MicroStrategy. Unlike Analysis Services 2000. measures are simply one more dimension of a cube. • MicroStrategy: dimension A dimension object in MicroStrategy is very similar to an XMLA dimension. It is used to group attributes and define parent-child relationships. Each dimension can have one or more hierarchies. An Analysis Services 2005 dimension appears as a dimension for MicroStrategy users. • XMLA: dimension A dimension in XMLA defines a logical category of analysis. Measures in XMLA are the members of the Measures dimension in Analysis Services 2005.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> dimension dimension MicroStrategy dimension • Analysis Services 2005: dimension In Analysis Services 2005. Each attribute is used to define a hierarchy within the dimension and multi-level hierarchies can be defined as well.

Inc. • • XMLA: hierarchy MicroStrategy: hierarchy Hierarchies are used to group attributes (levels) together and define the relationships between these attributes. However. . 326 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. For example. 2003 and 2004 are elements of the Year attribute.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • Analysis Services 2005: hierarchy Analysis Services 2005 allows the definition of one or more hierarchies within a dimension as collections of attributes which become levels of the hierarchy. each XMLA level generates two physical columns and forms in MicroStrategy—ID and DESC. Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> member member MicroStrategy attribute element • • • Analysis Services 2005: member XMLA: member MicroStrategy: attribute element Element values come from a cube. MicroStrategy reuses the hierarchy objects to represent both dimensions and hierarchies from XMLA. Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> level level MicroStrategy attribute • Analysis Services 2005: level Each attribute in a hierarchy becomes a level. • • XMLA: level MicroStrategy: attribute (ID/DESC) MicroStrategy attributes map to XMLA levels.

For more information on establishing a connection to SAP BW. For example.0.5. you need to establish a connection to the SAP BW system. and 7. Member properties are returned in the XMLA property schema rowset. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. Inc. Connecting to SAP BW servers 327 . MicroStrategy certifies connecting to SAP BW 3. 3.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> member property property MicroStrategy attribute form • Analysis Services 2005: member property Attributes can be related as member properties when defining the levels of a dimension. MicroStrategy can also use SAP BW as a data source to conduct enterprise reporting and analysis. • • XMLA: property MicroStrategy: attribute form Attribute forms provide additional information about a given attribute. Before creating any reports using the SAP BW data. see the MicroStrategy readme. This section discusses how to connect to SAP BW servers in the following environments: • • Connecting to SAP BW servers on Windows Connecting to SAP BW servers on UNIX and Linux © 2007 MicroStrategy. Connecting to SAP BW servers In addition to relational databases. the Customer attribute may have the forms First Name and Last Name. For any late-breaking changes to the certification status of connecting to various SAP BW versions.1.

In 328 Connecting to SAP BW servers © 2007 MicroStrategy.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Connecting to SAP BW servers on Windows Important note from SAP: “Starting with JCo 2. 3 Place the following SAP Java Connector files in any directory that is referenced in the Path environment variable: • • Librfc32. To connect to SAP BW servers on Windows 1 Open the SAP Service Marketplace and download the SAP Java Connector.1.4 and JCo 2. You can use the following URL to download the Java Connector: https://service. Take the following steps to connect to SAP BW servers in Windows. on the Advanced tab. refer to the Tech Note TN5800-800-0559. you are required to install the new Visual Studio .3 and also supports more recent versions.0.dll Locate the Path environment variable from your machine’s System Properties dialog (right-click on My Computer and select Properties).NET C/C++ run-time libraries on Windows platforms.com/~form/sapnet?_SHOR TKEY=01100035870000463649 MicroStrategy certifies version 2.” Depending on your system and SAP BW setup. For more information.sap.1. See SAP Note 684106 for details on how to install them. you may have to perform some extra configuration and troubleshooting steps to connect to SAP BW servers. .dll Sapjcorfc. 2 Install the SAP Java Connector. select Environment Variables.11. Inc.

To create a database instance for your SAP BW connection 5 In Desktop. 8 Create a database instance with SAP BW as the database connection type. and then Database Instance from the File menu. To specify database connection parameters 9 For the database instance. The Database Instance editor opens. Inc. Verify that the directory is included in the value for the Path variable. For example. locate Path.jar in the Common Files MicroStrategy folder. C:\Program files\Common files\MicroStrategy. SAP Router String if you use an SAP Router. as shown below. Connecting to SAP BW servers 329 . select Database Instance Manager. System Number from the SAP BW system. Client Number from the SAP BW system. 7 Select New.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B the list of System Variables. 4 Place the Sapjco. © 2007 MicroStrategy. select a database connection or create a new database connection that provides the following information as required: • • • • Application Server is the name of the SAP BW Server or IP address. 6 From the folder list. open a project source and expand Administration from the folder list.

To specify a database login 10 Create a database login with the user and password to use to connect to SAP BW. For example. You can use either the Database Instances Editor or the Database Instance Wizard to create a database instance for SAP BW. refer to the MicroStrategy online help. EN is the language code for English. refer to the MicroStrategy Tech Note TN5300-802-0734. you may have to perform some extra configuration and troubleshooting steps to connect to SAP BW servers. Note the following: • • You can get the above information from your SAP Logon. Depending on your system and SAP BW setup.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • Language is the language code provided by your SAP administrator. .com/~form/sapnet?_SHOR TKEY=01100035870000463649 330 Connecting to SAP BW servers © 2007 MicroStrategy. For more information. To connect to SAP BW servers on UNIX/Linux 1 Open the SAP Service Marketplace and download the SAP Java Connector. Inc. For more information. For more detailed steps on creating a database instance and related components to connect to SAP BW. You can use the following URL to download the Java Connector: https://service. Connecting to SAP BW servers on UNIX and Linux Take the following steps to connect to SAP BW servers in UNIX.sap. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help.

so sapjco.jar SUN librfccm. then xxxx_append_path LD_LIBRARY_PATH "${XXXX_SAP_LIBRARY_PATH:?}" export LD_LIBRARY_PATH fi • © 2007 MicroStrategy. 3 Search for the files listed in the following table. 2 Select the zip file for the platform you want to use and unzip it.jar 4 Edit the SAP. AIX librfccm.1. This information indicates where the server needs to point to use the downloaded files.so libsapjcorfc.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B • MicroStrategy certifies version 2. For example. Open the SAP.sh file and enter the information for XXXX_SAP_LIBRARY_PATH=’’. For example.sh” in the UNIX/Linux console. for AIX: # # set up the environment for SAP # XXXX_SAP_LIBRARY_PATH='/opt/var/MicroStr ategy/SAP' if [ -n "${XXXX_SAP_LIBRARY_PATH}" ].so sapjco. You can type the command “chmod+wx SAP. The default is Read Only.3 and also supports more recent versions. Connecting to SAP BW servers 331 . and create a new directory for them.so sapjco. /opt/var/MicroStrategy/SAP.jar Linux librfccm.sh by doing the following: • Add the Write and Execute privileges to this file. Inc.sh file in the MicroStrategy installation directory [INSTALL_PATH]/env/SAP.o libsapjcorfc.so libsapjcorfc. copy them onto your machine. For example. use the command gunzip [file name] or gzip [file name].

9 Select New.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide For example. Make sure you have Write privilege to this directory. 5 Add sapjco. . 8 From the folder list. The Database Instance editor opens. Inc. for Solaris: # # set up the environment for SAP # XXXX_SAP_LIBRARY_PATH='/opt/var/MicroStr ategy/SAP’ if [ -n "${XXXX_SAP_LIBRARY_PATH}" ]. open a project source and expand Administration from the folder list. 6 Restart the server to get the latest updates. then xxxx_append_path LIBPATH "${XXXX_SAP_LIBRARY_PATH:?}" export LIBPATH fi • Save the file. To create a database instance for your SAP BW connection 7 In Desktop (available only in Windows). and then Database Instance from the File menu. 332 Connecting to SAP BW servers © 2007 MicroStrategy. /install/jar. select Database Instance Manager.jar to the installation directory.

as shown below. select a database connection or create a new database connection that provides the following information as required: • • • • • Application Server: name of the SAP BW Server or IP address SAP Router String. To specify database connection parameters 11 For the database instance. Inc.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B 10 Create a database instance with SAP BW as the database connection type. if you use an SAP Router System Number from the SAP BW system Client Number from the SAP BW system Language: the language code provided by your SAP administrator. For more information. You can also refer to Tech Note TN5300-802-0734 for more information on setting up SAP BW with Intelligence Server Universal. EN for English Note the following: • • You can get the above information from your SAP Logon. You can use either the Database Instances Editor or the Database Instance Wizard to create a database instance for SAP BW. Connecting to SAP BW servers 333 . for example. © 2007 MicroStrategy. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help.

Connecting to Essbase servers In addition to relational databases. refer to MicroStrategy Tech Note TN1100-000-0635. Configuring the XMLA Provider The material in this section assumes familiarity with the XMLA 1. 334 Connecting to Essbase servers © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. you need to establish a connection to the Essbase servers.org. The Execute request queries cube data and results are returned in an ExecuteResponse message. MicroStrategy can also use Essbase as a data source to conduct enterprise reporting and analysis. A Discover request supports queries to metadata and the results are packaged in a DiscoverResponse message. You can think of XMLA as a Web Service that supports metadata and data queries against an OLAP Cube source. refer to the MicroStrategy online help. For more detailed steps on creating a database instance and related components to connect to SAP BW. You can perform a test of the XMLA connection to your OLAP cube servers completely separate of any MicroStrategy dependencies with the XMLA Connectivity Test Tool provided with your MicroStrategy installation.xmla. This section discusses how to connect to Essbase servers in the Windows or UNIX/Linux environment. .1 specification found at www. and the configuration of the XMLA provider for each of these products.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide To specify a database login 12 Create a database login with the user and password to use to connect to SAP BW. Before creating any reports using the Essbase data. For information on how to use the XMLA Connectivity Test Tool.

Install Hyperion Enterprise Deployment Services 7. Connecting to Essbase servers 335 . For information on installation procedures.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Make sure the XMLA 1.1 provider is correctly deployed and security settings are configured correctly. You can verify it is working by connecting to the provider URL from your browser. The web application server may be installed on a different machine from the Essbase server. © 2007 MicroStrategy. You should receive a confirmation from the provider that includes a display of currently configured properties. see MicroStrategy Tech Note TN5300-802-0794.1 and Apache Tomcat. refer to your 3rd-party documentation. Note the following: • For the latest information on the 3rd-party connection prerequisites given below. • • • • Creating a database instance Perform the following steps to connect to Hyperion Essbase servers. Information for correctly installing the XMLA provider can be found in the 3rd-party documentation for Hyperion’s Enterprise Deployment Services product.1 on the application server machine to verify that access is available to the Essbase server via the Service Console. Inc. The Hyperion XMLA Provider must be installed and configured on a compatible web application server. The application server that hosts the Hyperion XMLA provider must enable anonymous access to the XMLA application. Consult your 3rd-party documentation for further details on system requirements and the latest updates. The Hyperion XMLA provider supports BEA WebLogic 6.

. Inc. To specify database connection parameters 5 For the database instance. • DSI: The DataSourceInfo (DSI) value is of the form: 336 Connecting to Essbase servers © 2007 MicroStrategy.company. For Essbase the URL is most likely case sensitive. and then Database Instance. http://fully-qualified-machinename:8080/ xmla/EssbaseXmlForAnalysis. as shown below. 2 Expand Administration from the Folder List and select Database Instance Manager. You can also use the IP address as the fully-qualified-machinename. 3 From the File menu. The fully-qualified-machinename is usually of the form machine.domain. select a database connection or create a new database connection that provides the following information as required: • URL: This is the URL of the XMLA Provider that was configured for HTTP access. select New. The Database Instance editor opens. For example.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide To create a database instance for Essbase 1 From the Desktop Folder List.com. 4 Create a database instance with Hyperion Essbase as the database connection type. connect to a project source.

This section discusses how to connect to Analysis Services 2000 servers in the Windows or UNIX/Linux environment. Before creating any reports using the Analysis Services 2000 data. Use the Essbase Administration Console to view the applications and databases available on the server. You can perform a test of the XMLA connection to your OLAP cube servers completely separate of any MicroStrategy dependencies with the XMLA 337 • © 2007 MicroStrategy. A cube in XMLA is a database in Essbase. For more detailed steps on creating a database instance and related components to connect to Analysis Services. • Catalog: The Essbase Catalog value is the Essbase Application containing the database you want to work with in MicroStrategy. Note the following: • Before connecting to your Analysis Services 2000 servers. Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers In addition to relational databases. you need to establish a connection to the Analysis Services 2000 servers. To specify a database login 6 Create a database login with the user and password to use to connect to the Web service hosting the Essbase XML Provider. MicroStrategy can also use Analysis Services 2000 as a data source to conduct enterprise reporting and analysis. refer to the MicroStrategy online help.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Provider=Essbase. you should check that you meet all of the requirements listed in the tech note TN5200-802-0540. Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers .Data source=<machine name> The value is split between the DSI setting and an additional connection string parameters setting. Inc.

2 From the folder list. Make sure the XMLA 1. A Discover request supports queries to metadata and the results are packaged in a DiscoverResponse message. You can think of XMLA as a Web service that supports metadata and data queries against an OLAP Cube source. 338 Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers © 2007 MicroStrategy.xmla. You should receive an XML response indicating that the site is available as an XMLA provider. open a project source and expand Administration from the folder list. Creating a database instance Perform the following steps to connect to Microsoft Analysis Services 2000 servers.1 provider is correctly deployed and security settings are configured correctly. Inc. and the configuration of the XMLA provider for each of these products. You can verify Analysis Services 2000 is working by connecting to the provider URL from your browser. . Information for correctly installing the XMLA provider can be found in your Microsoft documentation. select Database Instance Manager. The Execute request queries cube data and results are returned in an ExecuteResponse message.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Connectivity Test Tool provided with your MicroStrategy installation.1 specification found at www. Configuring the XMLA Provider The material in this section assumes familiarity with the XMLA 1. For information on how to use the XMLA Connectivity Test Tool. refer to MicroStrategy Tech Note TN1100-000-0635.org. Creating a database instance for Analysis Services 2000 1 In Desktop.

The Database Instance Editor opens. select New. • DSI: With Analysis Services 2000 the DataSourceInfo (DSI) value is the configuration setting for your data source labeled as DataSourceName in the datasources. To specify database connection parameters 5 For the database instance. the URL is not case-sensitive. http://fully-qualified-machinename/xmla/ msxisapi. Inc. select a database connection or create a new database connection that provides the following information as required: • URL: This is the URL of the XMLA Provider that was configured for HTTP access. as shown below.com. and then Database Instance. • © 2007 MicroStrategy. Catalog: Use Microsoft’s Analysis Manager to view the Analysis Server containing the cubes you want to work with in MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B 3 From the File menu. For Analysis Services XMLA running on IIS. For example. Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers 339 .xml file. 4 Create a database instance with Microsoft Analysis Services as the database connection type.company. The database that contains the cube becomes the catalog for XMLA. You can also use the IP address as the fully-qualified-machinename.domain.dll The fully-qualified-machinename is usually of the form machine.

. Note the following: • Before connecting to your Analysis Services 2005 servers. Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers In addition to relational databases. For information on how to use the XMLA Connectivity Test Tool. For more detailed steps on creating a database instance and related components to connect to Analysis Services.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide To specify a database login 6 Create a database login with the user and password to use to connect to Analysis Services. Before creating any reports using the Analysis Services 2005 data. For information on setting up authentication for Intelligence Server with Analysis Services. MicroStrategy can also use Analysis Services 2005 as a data source to conduct enterprise reporting and analysis. This section discusses how to connect to Analysis Services 2005 servers in the Windows or UNIX/Linux environment. you should check that you meet all of the requirements listed in the tech note TN5200-802-0542. You can perform a test of the XMLA connection to your OLAP cube servers completely separate of any MicroStrategy dependencies with the XMLA Connectivity Test Tool provided with your MicroStrategy installation. Inc. you need to establish a connection to the Analysis Services 2005 servers. refer to the tech note TN5300-802-0755. • 340 Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers © 2007 MicroStrategy. refer to the MicroStrategy online help. refer to MicroStrategy Tech Note TN1100-000-0635.

© 2007 MicroStrategy. Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers 341 . Information for correctly installing the XMLA provider can be found in your Microsoft documentation.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Configuring the XMLA Provider The material in this section assumes familiarity with the XMLA 1. and the configuration of the XMLA provider for each of these products. Creating a database instance for Analysis Services 2005 1 In Desktop. select New. The Execute request queries cube data and results are returned in an ExecuteResponse message. and then Database Instance. Follow Microsoft documentation to make sure that the XMLA provider is correctly configured for HTTP access. which includes configuring security settings. However. Creating a database instance Perform the following steps to connect to Microsoft Analysis Services 2005 servers. A Discover request supports queries to metadata and the results are packaged in a DiscoverResponse message. 2 From the folder list. XMLA is the native access method for Analysis Services 2005. The Database Instance Editor opens. 3 From the File menu. by default. You can think of XMLA as a Web Service that supports metadata and data queries against an OLAP Cube source.1 specification found at www. open a project source and expand Administration from the folder list.org.xmla. Inc. only the TCP/IP transport is configured. select Database Instance Manager.

the DSI entry can be left blank. as shown below. To specify database connection parameters 5 For the database instance. http://fully-qualified-machinename/xmla/ msmdpump.dll The fully-qualified-machinename is usually of the form machine. .com. Unlike Analysis Services 2000. • To specify a database login 6 Create a database login with the user and password to use to connect to Analysis Services. select a database connection or create a new database connection that provides the following information as required: • URL: This is the URL of the XMLA Provider that was configured for HTTP access. For example.company. • DSI: For Analysis Services 2005. For Analysis Services 2005 XMLA running on IIS. You can also use the IP address as the fully-qualified-machinename. The database that contains the cube becomes the catalog for XMLA. Catalog: Use Microsoft’s SQL Server Management Studio to view the Analysis Server which contains the cubes to work with in MicroStrategy. 342 Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers © 2007 MicroStrategy.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide 4 Create a database instance with Microsoft Analysis Services as the database connection type. each URL will be configured to support only one data source. Inc.domain. the URL is not case sensitive.

page 337 © 2007 MicroStrategy. Like the Warehouse Catalog. For more detailed steps on creating a database instance and related components to connect to Analysis Services. page 327 – Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers. refer to the MicroStrategy online help. Inc. page 359.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B For information on setting up authentication for Intelligence Server with Analysis Services. For information on setting OLAP cube schema loading options for an OLAP cube source database instance. where you can import OLAP cubes and remap the OLAP cubes before you create any OLAP cube reports. To learn how to create a database instance for an OLAP cube source. The OLAP Cube Catalog is available only after an OLAP cube source database instance has been created. Configuring and Connecting to Intelligence Server of the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. page 349 and Creating metrics from OLAP cube data with MDX and compound metric techniques. see one of the following sections: • – Connecting to SAP BW servers. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy Once you understand the relationships among the objects in an OLAP cube source and MicroStrategy and connect to your OLAP cube source. refer to Chapter 5. Note the following: • Once an OLAP cube is imported. you can remap an OLAP cube to MicroStrategy objects and create metrics within an OLAP cube with the OLAP Cube Editor. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 343 . refer to the tech note TN5300-802-0755. The best place to start is with the OLAP Cube Catalog. you can start working with the OLAP cube data in MicroStrategy. For more information. see Mapping OLAP cubes. the OLAP Cube Catalog can be accessed from the Schema menu on Desktop.

you can expand or hide the cubes contained in this catalog. For details on how to use the OLAP Cube Catalog. For information on setting OLAP cube schema loading options for an OLAP cube source database instance. 344 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. all the OLAP cubes are displayed. OLAP cubes can be imported into a MicroStrategy project only by an architect with the “Import OLAP cube” privilege. page 340 – Connecting to Essbase servers. Inc. refer to Chapter 5. Configuring and Connecting to Intelligence Server of the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help (search for “OLAP Cube Catalog”). as shown in the image below. by default. Importing OLAP cubes OLAP cube importing is performed on the Cube Selection tab. . When you open the OLAP Cube Catalog. page 334 This section discusses how you can use the OLAP Cube Catalog to bring the OLAP cube data into a MicroStrategy project and what functions you can perform once the data is brought into MicroStrategy. Using the plus (+) or minus (-) sign next to a catalog name. You can choose to load the schema for imported OLAP cubes when Intelligence Server starts or during OLAP cube report execution. SAP BW is used as the OLAP cube source but the procedure is similar for Analysis Services and Essbase.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide – Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers. under their respective catalog names in the Available Cubes pane.

log in to a project that is connected to an OLAP cube source. If you create new cubes in Analysis Services and the cubes are not being displayed in the OLAP Cube Catalog. For details on how to make Analysis Services cubes available for import in the OLAP Cube Catalog. To import OLAP cubes 1 In Desktop. see MicroStrategy Tech Note TN4100-802-1879. and a query cube is marked with a cube icon in green. an InfoCube is marked with a cube icon in blue. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 345 . © 2007 MicroStrategy. 2 From the Schema menu. Inc.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B A catalog is marked with an icon showing a folder containing a cube. select OLAP Cube Catalog. you may have to modify some permissions in Analysis Services.

6 Use one of the following methods to import the OLAP cubes: • • To import the selected OLAP cubes. a Database Instance dialog box opens. you can build reports that access the imported OLAP cubes.) Once the data is mapped to MicroStrategy objects. the OLAP Cube Catalog opens. click the single arrow (>).B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • If you have a single OLAP cube source database instance created for the project. To import all OLAP cubes. the imported OLAP cubes are displayed in the Selected Cubes pane on the right. page 349. click OK. Inc. • 3 Select the Cube Selection tab. using this dialog box. After importing OLAP cubes. You can also select All to display the OLAP cubes for all catalogs. create. You can edit. Select Find from the Edit menu or click the Find icon on the toolbar to open the Find dialog box to search for a specific OLAP cube that you want to import. The catalog contains all the OLAP cubes associated with it. 8 Click Save to save your progress. Once you select a valid OLAP cube source database instance. If you have multiple OLAP cube source database instances created for the project. 5 Click the plus (+) sign to expand the catalog folder and display the OLAP cubes in the Available Cubes pane on the left. 7 Once imported. click the double arrows (>>). and select an OLAP cube source database instance to connect to. you can use the OLAP Cube Catalog to map the OLAP cube data to MicroStrategy objects (see Mapping OLAP cubes. 346 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. 4 From the Catalog drop-down list. select the OLAP cube to import. and the OLAP Cube Catalog opens. .

under the associated MicroStrategy project. This option is available only after a database © 2007 MicroStrategy. Once the first OLAP cube for an OLAP cube source is imported into MicroStrategy. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 347 . you can right-click any OLAP cube in the Selected Cubes pane.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B To remove an OLAP cube. Inc. and select Remove [cube name]. For example. Importing OLAP cubes during report creation When you create an OLAP cube report. This dialog box can also be used by an architect with the “Import OLAP cubes” privilege to import cubes by using the Retrieve cubes option. Using the right-mouse click. you can also select the Update Structure option to synchronize with the updated definition of cube structures in the OLAP cube source. you choose OLAP cubes for your report from the Select Cube dialog box. You can find the Data Explorer in the Folder List of Desktop. when a new characteristic or key figure has been added to the InfoCube in SAP BW you can use the Update Structure option to update the MicroStrategy OLAP cube to include these modifications. a Data Explorer for that OLAP cube source is added to the MicroStrategy project.

where you can search for a specific cube for your report by the cube’s name. However. For detailed information. and so on) are created to describe the OLAP cube. and then select the Display Managed Objects option so that managed objects are displayed in the 348 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. columns. Inc. metrics. Managed objects When an OLAP cube is imported into a project. For details. A managed object is just like a normal object except that it is created by the system and is stored in a special system folder that is hidden from users. managed objects (attributes. from the Tools menu select Options.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide instance has been defined. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. You can click Find at the bottom of this dialog box to open the Find dialog box. In the Search for Objects dialog box. one way to access managed objects is by using the Search for Objects function from the Tools menu on Desktop. . see the related sections above on connecting to the different OLAP cube sources. tables.

you can simply select a cube by using the OLAP Cube Catalog or Select Cube dialog box. By default. page 344. a MicroStrategy OLAP cube is created that maps to the definition of the source cube in the OLAP cube source. an architect might identify that the key for the Customer attribute exists in the table LU_CUSTOMER. such as attributes and facts. When an OLAP cube is imported into MicroStrategy. To do this. such as SAP BW. metrics. the architect can then define a logical and physical model in the MicroStrategy metadata. need to add an OLAP cube to a project in MicroStrategy. as the architect. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 349 . The removal of unused managed objects is usually performed by an administrator. see the Managing Your Applications chapter of the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. an OLAP cube. much of the process centers on identifying logical entities. For more information on removing a database instance and its related managed objects. This model is referenced by the SQL Engine to generate SQL at run time. Although these objects. as described in Importing OLAP cubes. Once the managed objects are listed in the search result. instead of a single table. Once the logical entities are identified. and hierarchies that reflect the data and levels of the imported OLAP cube. you can perform the same mapping tasks available in the Cube Mapping tab of the OLAP Cube Catalog by editing the OLAP cube with the OLAP Cube Editor. are new and are part of the project. referred to as managed objects. After you have imported an OLAP cube. right-click an OLAP cube in Desktop and select Edit. that exist in physical tables. contains all the metadata information necessary to define a logical model and physical model.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B search result. Intelligence Server creates new attributes. In the context of OLAP cube sources. When you. Inc. you can rename or edit any of them by right-clicking its name. A managed object can be removed once it is no longer referenced by another object in the project. Mapping OLAP cubes When an architect defines a project. For example. they © 2007 MicroStrategy.

350 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. For more information on managed objects in OLAP cube reports. . Remapping OLAP cube data to existing attributes can also facilitate the use of MicroStrategy features such as security filters. you can remap OLAP cube data to existing attributes in a MicroStrategy project rather than new managed objects. Inc. Once an OLAP cube is mapped. In addition. This allows data to be joined across sources in Report Services documents. it can be used to build reports and documents in MicroStrategy. For steps on how to perform these schema cleanup tasks.) For example. If you decide to discontinue the use of OLAP cube reports. see the Managing Your Applications chapter of the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. see the Reporting on External Data Sources: OLAP Cube Reports chapter of the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. which ensures that a consistent logical model is maintained. For more information on the benefits of remapping OLAP cube data to project attributes.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide are not related to the project’s schema and schema objects (see Managed objects above. you can remove the OLAP cube source database instance and all of its associated managed objects. a new managed object named Year has no relation to the Year attribute in the Tutorial project connected to the data warehouse. see Why do you need to remap OLAP cubes?. page 356. A new schema is created for each OLAP cube source database instance used in a MicroStrategy project.

© 2007 MicroStrategy. with the same symbols for hierarchies and attributes as in standard reports. hierarchy is below the dimension with a green stacked boxes symbol. you can use the plus (+) sign next to the attribute levels to display the attribute forms. Inc. For SAP BW. • In the Physical View column. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 351 . and attributes are represented by a green symbol with two side-by-side rectangles. The Logical View in the right-hand column represents the equivalent structure in MicroStrategy. only the ID and DESC forms are automatically mapped for each attribute. By default. As shown in the image above: • The Physical View in the left-hand column represents the cube structure in the OLAP Cube Source. the characteristic (dimension) is located at the very top with a green chart and box symbol.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Using the Cube Mapping feature in the OLAP Cube Catalog shown below. you can map attribute forms for each attribute contained in the imported cube.

For MicroStrategy attributes and metrics. Technical Name. This is because variables in SAP BW are represented as prompts in MicroStrategy. In the Properties dialog box. and Description in SAP BW. only the ID and DESC forms are displayed. This option opens the Attribute Editor to edit attributes and the Metric Editor to edit metrics.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide By default. For more information. Check the Properties of the characteristic or key figure. This can be the case even with ID columns of data that are of a 352 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. the columns are often returned as a string of characters. you can view the information on its Name. you can also perform the above-mentioned manipulations. the Prompt Generation Wizard is displayed. . An ID form must be mapped for each attribute. Rename the attribute or metric so it has a different name in the MicroStrategy project from the name of the characteristic or key figure it is mapped to in SAP BW. Manually setting column data types for OLAP cube data When OLAP cube data is mapped to MicroStrategy objects. page 308. • • • For variables. However. you can perform the following manipulations by right-clicking the name in the Logical view column: • Edit the attribute or metric. The Show Technical Names option applies to SAP BW OLAP cubes only. In the case of OLAP cube data that is mapped to attributes. Use the Display All Columns icon on the toolbar to show additional attribute forms in the Physical View column and then map each one to an attribute form in the Logical View pane. Inc. note that when you select Edit. refer to Supporting SAP BW variables. Map the characteristic or key figure to an existing attribute or metric in the MicroStrategy project. You can also use the Show Technical Names icon on the toolbar to display the SAP BW terms for each attribute and its attribute forms. MicroStrategy retrieves the column data type through MDX.

You can do this same mapping for another OLAP cube and create reports including the Product attribute. OLAP cube data that is mapped to MicroStrategy metrics is automatically converted to a numeric data type and thus does not need its column data type to be manually set. or as a later modification with the OLAP Cube Editor. © 2007 MicroStrategy. The following procedure uses the OLAP Cube Catalog. but the same steps apply for the OLAP Cube Editor.0 you can manually select the column data type that is applied to a column of OLAP cube data mapped to an attribute. You can perform this task during the initial import and mapping procedure for an OLAP cube with the OLAP Cube Catalog. you can then include the two OLAP cube reports as datasets of a Report Services document and group the two Product attributes.1. To manually set column data types for OLAP cube data You manually set column data types for OLAP cube data when you are mapping OLAP cube data to MicroStrategy objects. This allows the OLAP cube data to be correctly represented in MicroStrategy and facilitates the grouping of related attributes as the same attribute in a Report Services document. Starting in MicroStrategy 8. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 353 . Inc. You can access the OLAP Cube Editor by right-clicking an imported OLAP cube and selecting Edit.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B numeric type such as integer. The ID attribute form for Product is returned as a string. For example. By setting the Product ID attribute form to read the OLAP cube data as an integer. starting with the step to expand data in the Physical view column. Returning data such as ID columns of attributes as strings can make it impossible to group attributes with common data as the same attribute in Report Services documents. you have OLAP cube data that is mapped to a Product attribute in MicroStrategy. but you know that its associated OLAP cube column is of type integer.

From the Select the Database Instance drop-down list. For information on connecting to an OLAP cube source. 3 Move all OLAP cubes you want to import from the Available Cubes pane to the Selected Cubes pane by using the > button. 8 Clear the Use default from source check box. see one of the following sections depending on your OLAP cube source: • • • • Connecting to SAP BW servers. Inc. 7 Right-click the OLAP cube column data and select Data Type. The OLAP Cube Catalog: Cube Selection tab opens. select the OLAP cube you want to map to MicroStrategy objects. the OLAP Cube Catalog: Cube Selection tab opens. If the project connects to more than one OLAP cube source the Database Instance dialog box opens. page 334 Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers. . The Cube Mapping tab opens. 6 In the Physical view column. expand the OLAP cube data until you find the OLAP cube column data for which to manually set the data type. The OLAP cube data is displayed in the pane below. • • If the project connects to only one OLAP cube source.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide 1 Log in to a project that is connected to an OLAP cube source. select the OLAP cube source database instance you want to connect to and click OK. The Column Editor — Definition dialog box opens. page 337 Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers. select OLAP Cube Catalog. page 340 2 From the Schema menu. 4 Select the Cube Mapping tab. 5 From the Catalog\Cube drop-down list. 354 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 327 Connecting to Essbase servers.

Ragged hierarchies have at least one branch that includes a member whose logical parent is not the level above that member. For example. if you know that the structure of a hierarchy is unbalanced or ragged you must set the hierarchy’s properties to reflect its structure. precision. unbalanced. • • • © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B 9 From the Data type drop-down list. The terms balanced. • Balanced hierarchies have an equal number of levels in each branch of the hierarchy. in a Time hierarchy that includes Year. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 355 . Unbalanced and ragged hierarchies include at least one branch that does not descend to the lowest level and one branch that includes a skipped level. However. When Category. all hierarchies of an OLAP cube are treated as balanced hierarchies. and Item each branch would descend to a particular item. specify the byte length. Subcategory. and ragged are used to describe the different set of characteristics of hierarchical sets of data. 11 Click OK to save your changes and return to the OLAP Cube Catalog. Quarter. in a Product hierarchy that includes Category. and Month one branch might only have data down to the Quarter level. Unbalanced and ragged hierarchies By default. 10 Depending on the data type selected. For example. 12 Click Save and Close to save your changes to the OLAP cube and exit the OLAP Cube Catalog. and Item but Item number 22 does not have a Subcategory associated with it. Unbalanced hierarchies have at least one branch that does not descend to the lowest level. and scale for the data type. select which data type to map the OLAP cube data as. a Product hierarchy may contain the levels Category. For example. Inc. Subcategory. and Item are displayed on the report there is an empty cell for the Subcategory of Item number 22. Subcategory.

For information on how to support these date forms and qualifications. and hierarchies you may want to remap OLAP cube data to existing attributes in the MicroStrategy project for the following reasons: 356 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. This modification also allows you to perform date qualifications on the mapped MDX property data. Why do you need to remap OLAP cubes? Although you can use the automatically generated managed object attributes. For detailed steps on mapping and remapping objects from OLAP cube sources to MicroStrategy objects. A hierarchy in the Physical View column is represented with a green stacked boxes symbol. Inc.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide The steps below are necessary for any unbalanced or ragged hierarchy to prevent inaccurate results when applying certain types of filters. metrics. right-click the hierarchy name in the Physical View column and select Properties. 2 On the Hierarchies tab. please refer to MicroStrategy Tech Note TN1100-000-0636. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help (search for the “Mapping OLAP cubes” topic). Date form support for MDX properties You can support mapping MicroStrategy date forms to MDX property data of the date data type by performing a special modification of a VLDB property. . The Properties dialog box is displayed. Set a hierarchy as unbalanced or ragged 1 In the OLAP Cube Catalog. The word “(Unbalanced)” will be displayed next to the name of the hierarchy in the Logical View column. select the check box This hierarchy is unbalanced or ragged and then click OK.

they can be remapped to project attributes that participate in the ROLAP schema. if an OLAP cube report and a standard report both use the Year attribute. Data can be joined across sources within a Report Services document. but the nature of the cube is not changed. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 357 . then Year can be used to group the data within a document. For example. MicroStrategy security filters can be applied to attributes in OLAP cube reports. three OLAP cubes can share the same managed object metric named Revenue. Administrators can search for dependents and manage access control lists (ACLs) for attributes that map both to the data warehouse and an OLAP cube source. thus creating a relation between the two sets of data. you can map an OLAP cube level to the Year attribute in your project. If a user with a security filter on Year runs the OLAP cube report that contains Year. For example.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B • Report designers can integrate the logical model of the project with the data in the imported OLAP cube. metrics and hierarchies can only be remapped to other managed object metrics and hierarchies that are mapped to OLAP cube source data. For example. Remapping simply replaces the managed object attributes that are used to represent the OLAP cube’s structure with attributes in an existing MicroStrategy project. When should you remap cubes? Although you can remap the columns either when an OLAP cube is first imported or later on after you have created a project. the security filter on Year is applied. This also prevents maintenance issues because reports need to be modified if an OLAP cube is remapped after the report is created. Inc. However. it is recommended that you do the remapping initially so that subsequent users can take advantage of the mapping. © 2007 MicroStrategy. • • • You can remap the levels of an OLAP cube. In the case of attributes.

The drawback with this setup is that you cannot create a relation between your OLAP cube data and your project data. This feature allows you to quickly start creating reports for your OLAP cube data. C u b e A ttr ib u te s C u s to m e r R e g io n P r o je c t A ttr ib u te s R e g io n Ye a r C u b e Ye a r Q u a r te r M onth of Ye a r C u s to m e r S ta te C u b e Q u a r te r C a ll C e n te r M onth C ube M o nth C u s to m e r C ity E m p lo ye e Da y Example 2: Partially mapped cube After an OLAP cube source has been included in MicroStrategy as an OLAP cube. Quarter.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Example 1: Unmapped cube You can map managed object attributes for your OLAP cubes instead of using project attributes. and Month information for both your 358 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. With this technique. Inc. you can map the attributes within the OLAP cube to existing project attributes. none of the individual attributes are shared. The diagram below shows two logical models. also shows two logical models. The one on the left exists in a specific OLAP cube. and Month. Since this relation is not created. and the one on the right exists in a MicroStrategy project. . shown in the diagram below. Example 2. The difference between the two examples is that the OLAP cube has been partially remapped so that it shares the attributes Year. Although both models have a Time hierarchy. Quarter. you can create a Report Services document that contains Year. you cannot join data from these different sources in a Report Services document and you cannot support project security filters in OLAP cube reports.

Inc. any security filters for Year. In addition. For information on creating calculated expressions. Therefore. Cu b e A ttrib u te s C usto m e r R e gio n Proje c t A ttrib u te s R e gio n Ye a r Ye a r Q ua rte r M o nt h o f Ye a r C usto m e r S ta te Q ua rte r C a ll C e nte r M o nt h M o nt h C usto m e r C ity Em plo ye e Da y The dimensions of OLAP cubes are always shared. You can also use basic arithmetic expressions to create these advanced metrics from OLAP cube data. you can take advantage of MDX (MultiDimensional eXpressions) to create advanced metrics. © 2007 MicroStrategy. changes to the Time dimension apply to OLAP cubes in the project that contain this dimension. Metrics created with MDX combine the robust set of MDX functions and expressions with MicroStrategy analytical tools such as prompts. except by using calculated expressions in Report Services documents. and Month are applied to OLAP cube reports that include these mapped attributes. Quarter. In this case. see the Designing Documents chapter of the MicroStrategy Report Services Document Creation Guide. when a level is remapped. Therefore. Metrics created to map to your OLAP cube data are related only to their associated OLAP cube. that change applies to all the OLAP cubes that share that dimension.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B data warehouse and OLAP cube sources. these metrics cannot be directly integrated with data from a separate relational data source. Creating metrics from OLAP cube data with MDX and compound metric techniques When you map your OLAP cube data into MicroStrategy. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 359 .

For tips and insights on how to build analysis with MDX in MicroStrategy. where Discount is a metric mapped to data in the OLAP cube. page 366). . These metrics can also reference multiple MicroStrategy metrics within the OLAP cube with an expression such as Revenue . Once you create metrics using these techniques you can include them in your MicroStrategy reports and report filters in the same ways that you can include any MicroStrategy metric. The metrics created in this way for an OLAP cube are stored in a Compound Metrics folder within the Metrics folder for the OLAP cube.-. To use MDX to create your calculated measures you must enclose MDX in double quotes (“”). You can use MicroStrategy analytical and aggregation functions with metrics mapped to OLAP cube data only if the metric you create is defined as a smart metric. The MDX you create is passed to your OLAP cube source to be executed and to return the data.5. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide.Total Expenses. and so on). to build a Profit metric. For examples of smart metrics. where Revenue and Total Expenses are both metrics. Inc. You can reference one or more MicroStrategy metrics mapped to OLAP cube data using custom MDX just as you can with a standard arithmetic expression. The expression can be as simple as a metric multiplied by a constant value. This technique allows you to use MDX functions and flexibility to query and report on your OLAP cube data. 360 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide You can create metrics that map to OLAP cube data using either of the following techniques: • Compound metrics: A compound metric is any MicroStrategy metric with an expression that includes a MicroStrategy metric and an arithmetic expression./. For general information on smart metrics. see How to build analysis into metrics with custom MDX. If you do not make the metric a smart metric you can only use basic operators (+. you can create your own custom MDX to return data for a metric. such as Discount * 1. You can also use prompts in these compound and custom MDX metrics (see Using prompts within OLAP cube metrics. see the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide.*. • MDX customization: Rather than relying only on MicroStrategy to create MDX to return data from your OLAP cube source. page 363.

select OLAP Cube Catalog. These metrics can also be created as a later modification to an OLAP cube with the OLAP Cube Editor. If the project connects to more than one OLAP cube source the Database Instance dialog box opens. To create a metric from OLAP cube data with MDX and compound metric techniques 1 Log in to a project that is connected to an OLAP cube source. page 334 Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers. The OLAP Cube Catalog: Cube Selection tab opens. • • If the project connects to only one OLAP cube source. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 361 . For information on connecting to an OLAP cube source. Inc. © 2007 MicroStrategy. the OLAP Cube Catalog: Cube Selection tab opens.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B You can create these metrics during the initial importing and mapping procedure of your OLAP cube data with the OLAP Cube Catalog. the steps below apply for the OLAP Cube Editor. After right-clicking an OLAP cube and selecting Edit to access the OLAP Cube Editor. page 337 Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers. select the OLAP cube source database instance to connect to and click OK. The following procedure uses the OLAP Cube Catalog. page 327 Connecting to Essbase servers. depending on your OLAP cube source: • • • • Connecting to SAP BW servers. page 340 2 From the Schema menu. starting with the step to access the Edit menu. 3 Move all the OLAP cubes to import from the Available Cubes pane to the Selected Cubes pane by using the > button. see one of the following sections. From the Select the Database Instance drop-down list. 4 Select the Cube Mapping tab.

arithmetic operators. enter your custom MDX in the Definition pane of the Metric Editor. Validating MDX verifies that the entire expression is enclosed in double quotes. The Metric Editor opens. while also including any required constants. For an example of creating a metric that includes a prompt. it does not validate the syntax of the expression. select the OLAP cube to map to MicroStrategy objects. Inc. 7 Create the expression for your metric: • If you are creating a compound metric. . 9 In the Object name text field.[Discount Amount] * 1. For example. enter a name for your metric. if you have Revenue and Cost metrics in your OLAP cube you can create the expression Revenue .Cost to create a Profit metric. select Add New Compound Metric. you can simply drag and drop metrics from the OLAP cube’s Metrics folder. 362 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. • If you are creating a metric using custom MDX. The Save As dialog box opens. and MicroStrategy analytical and aggregation functions. Make sure to enclose the entire expression in double quotes.5” You cannot validate MDX in the Metric Editor as you can for a standard expression that is not enclosed by double quotes. 10 Click Save to save your metric. 6 From the Edit menu. 8 Click Save and Close. you can enter the following: “[Measures]. For example.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide 5 From the Catalog\Cube drop-down list. page 366. You can use MicroStrategy analytical and aggregation functions with metrics mapped to OLAP cube data only if the metric you create is defined as a smart metric. see Using prompts within OLAP cube metrics. The OLAP cube data is displayed in the pane below.

For additional best practices and examples.1.1.1. This section provides some tips and best practices on how to build analysis into metrics with custom MDX. TN5200-81x-2342—How to write a custom metric formula in MDX to ignore grouping on a cube dimension in MicroStrategy 8. only basic principles of analysis with the use of MDX and MicroStrategy is provided. “[Measures]. This allows you to further combine the analysis capabilities of MDX and MicroStrategy. • • Basics Creating your own custom MDX allows you to draw further analysis from your OLAP cube source into MicroStrategy.x TN5200-81x-2343—How to write a custom metric formula in MDX to filter on an attribute in MicroStrategy 8.1. © 2007 MicroStrategy.x TN5200-81x-2344—How to write a custom metric formula in MDX to implement a transformation in MicroStrategy 8. To use MDX to create your metrics you must enclose MDX in double quotes (“”). Be aware that MicroStrategy does not validate any custom MDX created by users to build metrics for OLAP cubes. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 363 . For example. How to build analysis into metrics with custom MDX You can build sophisticated analysis into your OLAP cube metrics by creating your own custom MDX. refer to the following MicroStrategy Tech Notes: • • TN5200-81x-2345—How to create customized metric expressions for OLAP cube sources in MicroStrategy 8.x.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B 11 Click Save and Close to save your changes to the OLAP cube.[Total Sales]” is valid syntax for a metric defined with MDX. Inc.x Creating such analysis requires appropriate knowledge of both MDX and MicroStrategy. MDX syntax and functionality is not described in depth in this section.

In 364 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy.[Total Sales] * . you can also utilize MDX functions to create more advanced analysis. as shown below: “sum(YTD([Quarter]. For example. the following expression applies a multiplier to the Total Sales data: “[Measures]. you can also display revenue for a certain category such as electronics.[Profit])” This expression returns year-to-date values by quarter for profit data. the function is passed to the OLAP cube source and processed as a pass-through function. You can also perform basic arithmetic in your MDX.06” Along with these simple expressions. . you can use the MDX year-to-date (YTD) function to create transformation-style analysis on your OLAP cube data. For example. [Measures]. When you include an MDX function in your custom MDX. Conditional metrics Using MDX. Inc. along with viewing your total revenue on a report. you can create conditional metrics in MicroStrategy from your OLAP cube data.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide The expression shown above is a simple expression that returns the Total Sales data from an OLAP cube. as shown in the report below. Report designers can include these metrics on reports to view multiple perspectives of data on the same report.CurrentMember). For example. A conditional metric allows you to apply a filter to only one metric on a report while not affecting the other metrics.

You can include more than one condition for each metric. 2 identifies the electronics category. a second condition on the year is included by adding another comma and conditional expression: “([Measures]. For example.[Revenue].[Year]. you can include prompts in your MDX to provide dynamic analysis on your OLAP cube data. The report shown below uses this metric to compare total revenue with electronics revenue.[Category]. Inc. you can create the same metric to return electronics revenue for only the year 2006. The example below shows the basic structure of an ApplySimple statement to create metrics with custom MDX. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 365 . Using the ApplySimple function. In the example expression below.[2])” In the example above.[Category]. © 2007 MicroStrategy. meaning they will produce the same MDX every time.[2]. The values that identify data depend on how you have defined data in your OLAP cube source.[Revenue]. Prompts are objects in MicroStrategy that provide users the ability to dynamically select what data is returned to their report to analyze. [2006])” Prompts All of the MDX examples in the sections above are static expressions. bold highlights the part of the expression (including the comma) that applies the condition to the revenue data: “([Measures].Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B the example expression below.

you must use the ApplySimple function to 366 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy.#0)”. For example. When the metrics are included on a report and the report is run. rather than always returning the revenue data for electronics.. see the Using prompts within OLAP cube metrics section below.. ApplySimple(“([Measures]. ApplySimple(“([Measures]. you can allow users to choose what category to view revenue for. You can also use this technique with the conditional metrics techniques described in Conditional metrics.object1. .[Revenue]. allowing users to determine the data to see on the report.. you can include an element list prompt on the Category attribute of the OLAP cube as shown below.objectN) A simple application of this technique is to use a constant value prompt in your project as a multiplier of metric data as shown below. This adds flexibility to your queries. To provide this analysis to users. Using prompts within OLAP cube metrics If you are creating new metrics in your OLAP cube.[Total Sales] / #0)” .?valueprompt) In the example syntax above. For metrics created using MDX expressions. #0 is a placeholder in the MDX expression for the value prompt. For metrics created with compound metric techniques without any custom MDX. ?elementlistprompt) For more information on and a procedure for creating metrics in OLAP cubes with prompts. the prompts are displayed to the user for completion. Inc. page 364.object0. The syntax for including a prompt as an object to replace a placeholder is ?promptname. you can also include MicroStrategy prompts with the metrics. you can simply include a prompt in the metric definition..B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide ApplySimple(“MDX expression with placeholders for objects”.

For example.[Revenue]. page 361) until the step to create an expression for the metric. Make sure to enclose the entire expression in double quotes. entered by the user running the report. Users can then choose to view revenue data for different categories such as Books or Music. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 367 . In this example it is assumed that constantprompt is the name of a value prompt in the project and Discount Amount is a metric within the OLAP cube. 2 Enter your expression in the Definition pane of the Metric Editor. The following types of prompts can be included with metrics built from custom expressions: • • • Element list prompts defined on an attribute of the associated OLAP cube Value prompts Object prompts defined on objects of the associated OLAP cube To use prompts within OLAP cube metrics 1 Follow the steps in the procedure above (To create a metric from OLAP cube data with MDX and compound metric techniques. ?CategoryElementPrompt) This expression creates a Revenue metric. • ApplySimple(“([Measures]. Inc. The Save As dialog box opens.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B include prompts in the metric definition. 3 Click Save and Close. In this example it is assumed that CategoryElementPrompt is the name of an element list prompt in the project that references a Category attribute within the OLAP cube. which is conditional on an element list prompt answered by the user running the report. you can enter expressions similar to the following: • ([Discount Amount] * ?constantprompt) This expression applies a special discount amount.#0)”.

If you try to remove the Profit metric. You must remove all of the metrics and reports which depend on the metric you are trying to remove. you import an OLAP cube. Removing compound metrics from OLAP cubes When you remove metrics based on multiple metrics of an OLAP cube. You then create a new compound metric named Profit within the OLAP cube by subtracting the OLAP cube’s cost data from its revenue data. a list of reports that depend on the metric is also returned. enter a name for your metric. Then you can remove the metric. you need to also delete those reports or remove the Profit metric from the reports before you can remove the Profit metric from the OLAP cube. If a compound metric of an OLAP cube has been added to any reports. and the Profit Margin metric is returned. You can remove the compound metric from the report rather than deleting the report. and its data is automatically mapped to MicroStrategy metrics. This removes the dependency between the metric and the report. Once this metric is created in your OLAP cube. a search for dependent objects is automatically triggered. and you can then remove the metric from the OLAP cube.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide 4 In the Object name text field. For example. a list of metrics that are dependent on the metric you are removing is returned. dependencies may need to be resolved before you can remove the metric. 368 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. 6 Click Save and Close to save your changes to the OLAP cube and exit the OLAP Cube Catalog. you must first remove the Profit Margin metric. This makes the Profit Margin metric dependent on the Profit metric. If the Profit metric is included on any reports. To remove the Profit metric. Inc. you create a Profit Margin metric that uses the Profit metric you just created. . 5 Click Save to save your metric and return to the OLAP Cube Catalog. When you try to remove a metric with dependent metrics.

table aliases. While logical tables are set up in a project by using the Warehouse Catalog. logical views are defined using SQL queries against the data warehouse. logical views are created using the Table Editor. and logical views. This chapter introduces you to the different types of logical tables. LOGICAL TABLES Introduction Logical tables represent tables in the data warehouse. which point to physical tables in the data warehouse. There are three types of logical tables in the MicroStrategy environment: logical tables. Inc. 369 .C C. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Different from the logical tables. with a focus on how you can use the logical view feature to take advantage of the enhanced schema support in MicroStrategy.

Once created. Logical views are created using the Table Editor. In the MicroStrategy Tutorial. page 175). using the Warehouse Catalog. 370 Logical tables © 2007 MicroStrategy. There are three types of logical tables: 1 Logical table: is a logical representation of a table that the Engine uses to generate SQL. A table alias can have a different name from the physical table. The logical view is also referenced in the SQL that is generated for the report. While physical tables in a data warehouse consist of columns. based on which attributes. 3 Logical view: is a logical table that points to a SQL statement instead of directly to a physical table. and other schema objects can be defined. These physical tables are referenced in the SQL that is generated for the report. Table aliasing is used to create attribute roles (see Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles. A logical table is created for each physical table that is imported into a project. the whole SQL query is displayed in the place of physical tables as for Type 1 logical tables. . logical tables in the MicroStrategy schema consist of attributes and facts.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide Logical tables Logical tables are MicroStrategy objects that form the foundation of a schema. the logical view can be used in the same way as the Type 1 logical table. Using the Logical Table Editor. It does not point directly to a physical table and is defined using a SQL query against the warehouse. you can define your logical view using the SQL statement as well as view the content of all the logical tables and their associated warehouse tables. These attributes and facts are part of the report definition that the MicroStrategy Engine refers to when a report is executed. One physical table can have more than one table aliases. logical tables and all the other schema objects are stored in the Schema Objects folder. Inc. This type of logical table maps directly to physical tables in the data warehouse. 2 Table alias: is an additional logical table that points directly to an existing physical table. facts. A table alias is created outside of the Warehouse Catalog.

instead of being imported from a data warehouse or duplicated from existing logical tables.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C How should I use logical tables? The most common logical tables are the ones that are imported into the project from the data warehouse using the Warehouse Catalog. When an attribute plays more than one role. create a table alias by copying an existing logical table and giving it a new or different name. please refer to Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles. page 175. please refer to the MicroStrategy online help (search for “Warehouse Catalog”). To create a table alias. Logical views are a little different from the above-mentioned logical tables and table aliases for the following reasons: • • • Logical views do not map directly to physical tables in the data warehouse. For detailed information on attribute roles. you need to create an attribute in the logical model for each of the roles. such as attributes and facts. which is accessed from the Schema menu. For example. Basically. then define the new attributes using the appropriate tables. How should I use logical tables? 371 . you can create MicroStrategy schema objects. For step-by-step instructions. One way to do this is to create explicit table aliases. please refer to the MicroStrategy online help (search for “Step-by-step instructions to create a table alias”). Logical views are created from scratch. right-click the logical table name and select Create Table Alias. Logical views are defined using SQL queries. For more information on how to use the Warehouse Catalog. Inc. Based on these tables. if the Customer table is used to represent both Ship to Customer and Bill to Customer. you create multiple logical tables pointing to the same physical table and define those logical tables as the lookup tables for the attributes in different roles. you can create a table alias to resolve the double usage case. © 2007 MicroStrategy. First.

Whenever you create or add logical tables. please refer to Logical view examples. There are many common modeling scenarios that are easier to manage with the use of logical views. such as the following: • • • • Slowly-changing dimensions Attribute form expressions from multiple tables Consolidated dimension tables Recursive hierarchies For common usage examples.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide However. This means that you can use the logical views to build attributes and facts and that you can also create table aliases for the logical views. table aliases. The biggest benefit of using logical views is that you can model a MicroStrategy schema that cannot be supported with only the physical database structures in the warehouse. 372 How should I use logical tables? © 2007 MicroStrategy. The Update Schema option can be accessed from the Schema menu. they can be used in the same way as the regular logical tables (brought into the project using the Warehouse Catalog). once logical views are created. Inc. or logical views to the project. page 376. you need to update the schema. .

Detailed instructions on how to create them are provided in the online help (search for “Tables”). on the other hand. Logical views. Object Browser lists all tables and columns that have been imported into the project. For detailed instructions. and table aliases are created by duplicating existing logical tables. while the Mapping panel is where you map for the columns returned by the SQL query. The SQL statement panel is where you type in your SQL query. As illustrated in the following image. Inc.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C Creating logical tables Most logical tables are brought into the project by using the Warehouse Catalog. Creating logical tables 373 . Any physical table in the project database instance can be used in the SELECT statement. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Creating a Logical View involves a few simple steps that require you to provide your own SQL statement and map the columns in the statement to the correct data types (see the following information). are created in MicroStrategy Desktop using the Table Editor. One way to access the Table Editor is to select New from the File menu and choose Logical Table. please refer to the online help (search for “Creating logical views”).

If you used an existing column in the mapping in Step 5. You can drag and drop columns from the Object Browser to insert into the statement). It is recommended that you use derived tables to define logical views because the logical view SQL syntax becomes nested inside SQL statements generated by the Engine. . you can also drag and drop columns from the Object Browser to the Column Object cell. Although common table expressions (CTEs) are also supported for some databases. Inc. Please check your database for best usage. 5 Select a Data Type for the column by using the drop-down list. the change will affect all the tables with that column. The Table Editor is displayed with the Physical View tab selected by default. the order of the columns does not have to match the order in which the column aliases appear in the SQL statement. these expressions cannot be nested in the SQL because this would result in invalid SQL syntax. However. 374 Creating logical tables © 2007 MicroStrategy. 2 In the SQL Statement panel. 3 Click Add to map columns returned by the SQL statement. you map an existing column to the logical view. This creates a new column. type in your SQL statement.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide To create a logical table in the Table Editor 1 From the File menu. select New and then Logical Table. Keep in mind that if you change the data type. By doing this. 4 Type in the column name under Column Object. Alternatively. you inherited the data type of that column. The names of the columns must match exactly the column aliases defined in the SQL statement.

the statistics log does not contain any information about the actual physical tables accessed. in which case table objects accessed would are not logged either. Because the MicroStrategy Engine does not parse through the SQL syntax. it inserts the name of the table into the FROM clause. are not nested in the SQL because this would result in invalid SQL syntax. please check your database. It is recommended that you use derived tables to define logical views. The Engine generates derived table syntax to represent the logical view. Derived tables are advantageous because they are nested in the SQL generated by the Engine. select Update Schema to ensure that the new logical table is loaded into the project. although CTEs are also supported by some databases. CTEs. It is your responsibility to ensure the accuracy and validity of your SQL statements. For a logical view—which maps to a SQL statement—the Engine inserts the SQL syntax in the FROM clause. you should also understand that the SQL query entered for logical views is not modified in any way by MicroStrategy. Using SQL for logical views Since SQL queries are the key to creating logical views. Creating logical tables 375 . For best usage. the logical view is logged instead. In addition. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C 6 Modify the Precision and Scale of the column. if applicable. you should be experienced with using SQL before you use the logical view feature. In the SQL generated for a report. The same holds true if you use a view in the database. logical views are generated as either a derived table or a common table expression (CTE) depending on the type of database that you use. make sure that your RDBMS is optimized to answer the query that you create. When the Engine needs to use a logical table that maps directly to a physical database table. Therefore. however. 8 From the Schema menu. 7 Save and close the logical table.

While it is possible to model a schema with such a dimension table. the MicroStrategy Engine joins the fact table with one lookup table and does the aggregation. and Region. The following is an example lookup table for Store. you may double count if you have to join to a table where that attribute is part of the key. Market. the logical view simply appears as additional syntax in the report SQL generated by MicroStrategy. Usually. If there is no distinct list of attribute elements. thus affecting element browsing requests that display a list of attribute elements. often two problems arise: • The model cannot support fact tables at the level of attributes that are not keys. Inc. when populating pick lists for prompts. This restriction applies to summary tables as well as to intermediate results that may be generated by the SQL Engine. Logical view examples The following business cases are intended to help you understand how you can use the logical view feature in your applications. . in one-SQL-pass reports. Business case 1: Distinct attribute lookup table Many star schemas feature a single lookup table that is shared by all the attributes in one dimension (see the following example). for example. • Too many rows in the dimension table may slow down the SELECT DISTINCT query.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide The results of logical views are not cached. Lookup_store Store_ID Store_Name Market_ID Market_Name Region_ID Region_Name Level 376 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy.

Market_Desc. Market and Region are not the keys. if the requested fact table is at the Market or Region level. SUM(a12.Market_Name Business case 2: Attribute form expression across multiple tables Customers often request the ability to generate an attribute form expression across multiple tables. you want to define an attribute based on the Date difference between two Date columns (Ship_Date and Order_Date) in two different tables as follows.Region_ID from Lookup_Store where level=1) a11. a11.Market_ID.Region_ID From Lookup_store Where level=1 Then use this table as the lookup table for Market. When it is joined with a Market-level fact table (Market_Sales). For example. the following report SQL is generated: Select a11. Market_Name. To avoid that. F_Table1 Ship_Date Order_ID Fact1 © 2007 MicroStrategy.a11. Therefore.Market_ID = a12.Sales) From (select Market_ID. Logical view examples 377 . Usually. Market_Sales a12 Where a11.Market_ID Group by a11. Market_Name. a direct join between the fact table and the above lookup table may result in double-counting. you can use the Logical View feature to define another logical table Lookup_Market as follows: Select Market_ID.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C In this table.Market_ID. the case is on Date columns. Inc.

and a new attribute can be defined on the Cycle_Time column. Fact1.Order_ID. dimensional hierarchies are presented as independent of time.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide F_Table2 Order_Date Order_ID Fact2 Using the Logical View feature. Usually. Inc. For example. if dimensional relationships change more frequently. a company may annually reorganize their sales organization or recast their product hierarchy for each retail season. it may be better to model separate dimensions. a Type I SCD 378 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. . Logical view Cycle_Time Order_ID Fact1 Fact2 Business case 3: Slowly changing dimensions Slowly changing dimensions (SCDs) are a common characteristic in many business intelligence environments. you can use the following SQL query to create a logical table to calculate the Date difference and then define the attribute on that new column: Select Ship_Date-Order_Date Cycle_time. Ralph Kimball has been particularly influential in describing dimensional modeling techniques for SCDs (see The Data Warehouse Toolkit. F_table2 Where F_table1. SCDs are well documented in the data warehousing literature.Order_ID The new logical table (logical view) looks like the following table. For example.Fact2 From F_table1. “Slowly” typically means after several months or even years. F_table1. Kimball has further coined different distinctions among ways to handle SCDs in a dimensional model. Indeed.Order_ID=F_table2. for instance).

and Kelly moved from District 38 to 39 on 7/1/2004. sales representatives switch districts in time. In the example below. Logical view examples 379 . © 2007 MicroStrategy. They also provide you an easy way to specify which type of analysis you would like to perform. For example. and so forth. For example. please refer to Lookup tables: Attribute storage. “As-was” analysis presents a historical view of the slowly changing relationships. as-was analysis One of the capabilities available with slowly changing dimensions is the ability to perform either “as-is” analysis or “as-was” analysis: • “As-is” analysis presents a current view of the slowly changing relationships. a Type II SCD preserves the history of a dimensional relationship. As-is vs. The discussion below is based on an example sales organization that changes slowly in time as the territories are reorganized. Sales Rep Jones moved from District 37 to District 39 on 1/1/2004. page 43. for example. • The techniques described here provide the flexibility to perform either type of analysis. For information on compound keys. show me sales by District according to the way Districts are organized today. Example 1: Compound key with Effective Date and End Date One way to physically store an SCD is to employ Effective Date and End Date columns that capture the period of time during which each element relationship existed. Inc.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C presents only the current view of a dimensional relationship. show me sales by District according to the way Districts were organized at the time the sales transactions occurred.

such as a transaction date. Inc. LVW_CURRENT_ORG 380 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide LU_SALES_REP Sales_Rep_ID 1 2 3 4 1 3 Sales_Rep_Name Jones Smith Kelly Madison Jones Kelly District_ID 37 37 38 38 39 39 Eff_Dt 1/1/1900 1/1/1900 1/1/1900 1/1/1900 1/1/2004 7/1/2004 End_Dt 12/31/2003 12/31/2099 6/30/2004 12/31/2099 12/31/2099 12/31/2099 When using this type of dimensional lookup table. the fact table must include a date field. FACT_TABLE Sales_Rep_ID 1 2 3 1 2 3 2 3 4 Trans_Dt 9/1/2003 9/10/2003 9/15/2003 3/1/2004 3/10/2004 3/15/2004 9/5/2004 9/15/2004 9/20/2004 Sales 100 200 150 200 250 300 125 275 150 To specify the MicroStrategy schema 1 Create a logical view to represent just the current District-Sales Rep relationships. .

Sales_Rep_ID) where F. District_ID from LU_SALES_REP where End_Dt = '12/31/2099' 2 Create another logical view that performs the “as-was” join between the lookup table and fact table. LVW_CURRENT_ORG – Child: Sales Rep • Historical District: – @ID = district_id. FACT_TABLE • Current District: – @ID = district_id. 4 Define the following attributes: • Sales Rep: – @ID = sales_rep_id. LVW_HIST_DISTRICT_SALES select District_ID. sum(sales) sales from LU_SALES_REP L join FACT_TABLE F on(L. resulting in a fact view at the District level. Inc.Eff_Dt and L. Trans_Dt. LVW_CURRENT_ORG. @Desc = district_name – Tables: LU_CURRENT_DISTRICT (lookup). The resulting view is an “as-was” or historical view. @Desc = district_name © 2007 MicroStrategy.End_Dt group by District_ID. Logical view examples 381 .Project Design Guide Logical Tables C select Sales_Rep_ID.Trans_Dt between L. @Desc = sales_rep_name – Tables: LU_SALES_REP (lookup). which captures the Sales Rep-District relationships that existed at the time the transactions occurred. Trans_Dt 3 Create a table alias LU_CURRENT_DISTRICT for LU_DISTRICT.Sales_Rep_ID = F.

LVW_HIST_DISTRICT_SALES 6 Define the metric as required: • Sales: SUM(sales) The result of this is a logical schema that looks like the following: LU_CURRENT_DISTRICT LU_CURRENT_ORG LU_SALES_REP FACT_TABLE Current District Sales Rep Current District Sales Rep Historical District Sales Rep Date Sales LU_TIME Date LVW_HISTORICAL_ DISTRICT_SALES Month Historical District Date Sales 382 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. LVW_HIST_DISTRICT_SALES – Child: Sales Rep • Date: – @ID = date_id. FACT_TABLE. LVW_HIST_DISTRICT_SALES • Month: – @ID = MONTH_ID – Tables: LU_TIME (lookup) 5 Define the Sales fact: • • Expression: sales Tables: FACT_TABLE. LU_SALES_REP.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide – Tables: LU_DISTRICT (lookup). trans_dt – Tables: LU_TIME (lookup) . Inc. .

Inc. Month.Sales_rep_ID) where F.trans_dt between L. Month. Report definition: Current District.Distrcit_ID.Date_ID) join LU_DISTRICT a13 on (a11.sum(sales) sales from LU_SALES_REP L join FACT_TABLE F on (L. max(a13. a12. a12.Month_ID • Report results As-is analysis Specify the “as-is” analysis by using the Current District attribute on reports: • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. Trans_dt) a11 join LU_TIME a12 on (a11.Trans_dt = a12. sum(a11.SALES) WJXBFS1 From (select District_ID.District_Name) District_Name. Sales Resulting SQL Logical view examples 383 .Project Design Guide Logical Tables C As-was analysis Specify the “as-was” analysis by using the Historical District attribute on reports: • • Report definition: Historical District. Trans_dt.EFF_DT and L.END_DT group by District_ID.District_ID District_ID.District_ID =a13.Month_ID Month_ID.District_ID) group by a11. Sales Resulting SQL Select a11.Sales_rep_ID = F.

sum(a11.Month_ID Month_ID.Sales_Rep_ID) join LU_TIME a13 on (a11.District_ID) group by a12. Inc.District_Name) District_Name.Month_ID • Report result Example 2: New surrogate key for each changing element A more flexible way to physically store a SCD is to employ surrogate keys and introduce new rows in the dimension table whenever a dimensional relationship changes. Another common characteristic is to include an indicator field that identifies the current relationship records. LU_SALES_REP Sales_Rep_CD 1 2 3 Sales_Rep_ID 1 2 3 Sales_Rep_Name Jones Smith Kelly District_ID 37 37 38 Current_Flag 0 1 0 384 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. a13. . District_ID from LU_SALES_REP where END_DT = '12/31/2099')a12 on (a11.District_ID. max (a14.Trans_dt = a13.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide select a12. An example set of records is shown below.SALES) WJXBFS1 from FACT_TABLE a11 join (select Sales_rep_ID.District_ID = a14. a13.Date_ID) join LU_DISTRICT a14 on (a12.District_ID District_ID.Sales_Rep_ID = a12.

District_ID from LU_SALES_REP where Current_flag = 1 2 Create a table alias LU_CURRENT_DISTRICT for LU_DISTRICT. LVW_CURRENT_ORG select Sales_rep_ID.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C Sales_Rep_CD 4 5 6 Sales_Rep_ID 4 1 3 Sales_Rep_Name Madison Jones Kelly District_ID 38 39 39 Current_Flag 1 1 1 When using this type of dimensional lookup table. Logical view examples 385 . Inc. A transaction date field may or may not exist. © 2007 MicroStrategy. the fact table must also include the surrogate key. FACT_TABLE Sale-Rep_CD 1 2 3 5 2 3 2 6 4 Sale 100 200 150 200 250 300 125 275 150 Specifying the MicroStrategy schema 1 Create a logical view to represent just the current District-Sales Rep relationship.

LVW_CURRENT_ORG – Child: Sales Rep Surrogate • Current District: – @ID = district_id. LU_SALES_REP – Child: Sales Rep • Date: – @ID = date_id. . LVW_CURRENT_ORG – Child: Sales Rep • Historical District: – @ID = district_id. @Desc = district_name – Tables: LU_DISTRICT (lookup). @Desc = district_name – Tables: LU_CURRENT_DISTRICT (lookup). Inc.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide 3 Define the following attributes: • Sales Rep Surrogate: – @ID = sales_rep_cd – Tables: LU_SALES_REP (lookup). FACT_TABLE • Sales Rep: – @ID = sales_rep_id. @Desc = sales_rep_name – Tables: LU_SALES_REP (lookup). FACT_TABLE • Month: – @ID = MONTH_ID – Tables: LU_TIME (lookup) – Child: Date 4 Define the Sales fact: • Expression: sales 386 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. trans_dt – Tables: LU_TIME (lookup).

Sales_Rep_CD) join LU_TIME a13 on (a11. Logical view examples 387 .District_ID = © 2007 MicroStrategy.Distrcit_Name) Distrcit_Name.Trans_dt = a13.Sales_Rep_CD = a12.Date_ID) join LU_DISTRICT a14 on (a12.District_ID District_ID. LVW_HIST_DISTRICT_SALES 5 Define the metric as required: • Sales: SUM(sales) The result is a logical schema as follows: LU_CURRENT_DISTRICT LU_CURRENT_ORG LU_SALES_REP FACT_TABLE LU_TIME Current District Sales Rep Current District Sales Rep Surrogate Sale rep Historical District Sales Rep Surrogate Date Sales Date Month LVW_HISTORICAL_ DISTRICT_SALES Historical District As-was analysis Specify the “as-was” analysis by using the Historical District attribute on reports: • • Report definition: Historical District.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C • Tables: FACT_TABLE. Inc.SALES) WJXBFS1 from FACT_TABLE a11 join LU_SALES_REP a12 on (a11. sum(a11. a13. max(a14. Sales Resulting SQL select a12.Month_ID Month_ID. Month.

Date_ID) join LU_DISTRICT a15 on (a13.Sales_Rep_ID) join LU_TIME a14 on (a11.District_ID = a15. Month. District_ID from LU_SALES_REP where current_flag = 1) a13 on (a12.Sales_Rep_CD = a12.Month_ID 388 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide a14.District_ID. Inc.Trans_dt = a14. Sales Resulting SQL: select a13.District_ID) group by a13.District_ID) group by a12.Distrcit_Name) District_Name. max(a15. a14.Month_ID Month_ID.Month_ID • Report results As-is analysis Specify the “as-is” analysis by using the Current District attribute on reports: • • Report definition: Current District.Sales_Rep_ID = a13. a14.District_ID. sum(a11.District_ID District_ID.SALES) WJXBFS1 from FACT_TABLE a11 join LU_SALES_REP a12 on (a11. .Sales_Rep_CD) join (select Sales_rep_ID. a13.

you need to define transformations.day_date And YEAR(A. Select A. then you can use the logical view approach to address this issue as long as you already have a lookup table for the Day attribute. The MTD transformation can then be defined using the MTD_DATE column.day_date mtd_date From lu_day A.day_date day_date. such as Last Month.day_date) © 2007 MicroStrategy. one-to-many transformations require tables in the database that map each date to all the previous dates that make up “month-to-date”. Logical view examples 389 . B. lu_day B Where A. Although one-to-one transformations.day_date >= B. can be defined in terms of an expression.day_date ytd_date From lu_day A. The SQL below can be used to define a logical MTD_DATE table.day_date) The same technique can be used to define a year-t0-date transformation.day_date) = YEAR(B. Select day_date day_date.day_date >= B. such as month-to-date and year-to-date calculations. lu_day B Where A. Inc. B.day_date)= MONTH(B.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C • Report result Business case 4: One-to-many transformation tables In order to support time-series analysis.day_date And MONTH(A. If you do not already have such a table in the warehouse and your circumstances do not allow you to add additional tables to the database. which contains the Day attribute.

. Martha . James Dawson. One of the reports you probably would like to create may look like the following: Employee Gonzalez. which means not all employees have contacts on record.. Dawson. Emergency Contact Phone Number NULLS are displayed for employees who do not have emergency contacts. Abraham Walker. Jane Taylor.. Department Marketing Finance R&D Finance . For example. . the relationship between Employees and Emergency Contacts is such that each employee may have up to one contact. 390 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. George . John Larkins. consider the tables below.. you could model an attribute hierarchy as follows: • • • Business Unit -< Department -< Employee Hire Date -< Employee Emergency Contact -< Employee In addition.. Inc. 555-1212 555-3456 555-9876 ... EMPLOYEE EMP_ID FIRST_NAME LAST_NAME HIRE_DATE DEPT_ID EMERGENCY CONTACT EMP_ID CONTACT_FIRST_NAME CONTACT_LAST_NAME CONTACT_PHONE_NUMBER DEPARTMENT DEPT_ID DEPT_NAME BUS_UNIT_ID Given this structure.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide Business case 5: Outer joins between attribute lookup tables A common request is the ability to generate an outer join between attribute lookup tables for a report that contains only attributes (that is. Mary Walker. no metrics)..

In order to see all employees. @[First Name] = CONTACT_FIRST_NAME. Inc. @[Last Name] = LAST_NAME Tables: EMPLOYEE (lookup). you can perform an outer join using a logical view. you would not get the desired output: • Employee: @ID = EMP_ID. and only those employees who have emergency contacts would appear in the final result. @[Last Name] = CONTACT_LAST_NAME Tables: EMERGENCY_CONTACT (lookup) Child: Employee Using the above model. Logical view examples 391 . if you model the attributes as described below. @[First Name] = FIRST_NAME. © 2007 MicroStrategy. EMPLOYEE Child: Employee • Hire Date: @ID = HIRE_DATE Tables: EMPLOYEE (lookup) Child: Employee • Emergency Contact: @ID = CONTACT_PHONE_NUMBER. the SQL generated would join the EMPLOYEE table to the EMERGENCY_CONTACT table. described as follows. EMERGENCY_CONTACT • Department: @ID = DEPT_ID Tables: DEPARTMENT (lookup).Project Design Guide Logical Tables C However.

DEPT_ID. C. LVW_EMERGENCY_CONTACT 392 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy.EMP_ID. @[Last Name] = LAST_NAME Tables: EMPLOYEE (lookup).C Logical Tables Project Design Guide Using a logical view for an outer join To perform an outer join for the case described above. E. E.CONTACT_LAST_NAME. E. Inc. you can use the following SQL and the list of columns to map to the view: select E. C. E.EMP_ID) LVW_EMERGENCY_CONTACT EMP_ID FIRST_NAME LAST_NAME HIRE_DATE DEPT_ID CONTACT_FIRST_NAME CONTACT_LAST_NAME CONTACT_PHONE_NUMBER Make sure to include all columns from the original child table (for example. @[First Name] = FIRST_NAME.FIRST_NAME. The new logical table LVW_EMERGENCY_CONTACT can then be used to define attributes as follows: • Employee: @ID = EMP_ID. C. . EMPLOYEE).LAST_NAME.HIRE_DATE.EMP_ID = C.CONTACT_FIRST_NAME.CONTACT_PHONE_NUMBER from EMPLOYEE E left outer join EMERGENCY_CONTACT C on (E.

and NULLs will be returned for any employees who do not have emergency contacts. Also note that if we run a report that includes only the Employee attribute. the EMPLOYEE table will be outer joined to the EMERGENCY_CONTACT table. This technique is applicable any time that the lookup tables should always be outer joined. LVW_EMERGENCY_CONTACT Child: Employee • Emergency Contact: @ID = CONTACT_PHONE_NUMBER. Logical view examples 393 . it will be executed against the EMPLOYEE table.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C • Department: @ID = DEPT_ID Tables: DEPARTMENT (lookup). the EMERGENCY_CONTACT table will be joined only when necessary. LVW_EMERGENCY_CONTACT Child: Employee • Hire Date: @ID = HIRE_DATE Tables: EMPLOYEE (lookup). Now if we run a report with Employee and Emergency Contact attributes. LVW_EMERGENCY_CONTACT Child: Employee The Employee attribute is not represented in the original EMERGENCY_CONTACT table and all attributes represented in the EMPLOYEE table are also represented in the LVW_EMERGENCY_CONTACT table. @[Last Name] = CONTACT_LAST_NAME Tables: EMERGENCY_CONTACT (lookup). © 2007 MicroStrategy. EMPLOYEE. The technique does not work when the lookup tables should sometimes be outer joined and sometimes be inner joined. @[First Name] = CONTACT_FIRST_NAME. Inc.

Inc. .C Logical Tables Project Design Guide 394 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy.

DATA TYPES Introduction To generate SQL or retrieve data from data sources. MicroStrategy automatically maps the columns within those tables to MicroStrategy-specific data types. Mapping of external data types to MicroStrategy data types 395 . Inc. MicroStrategy must be aware of the data types that exist in your database. MicroStrategy generalizes them into a set of MicroStrategy-specific data types. As each RDBMS supports a different set of data types.D D. Mapping of external data types to MicroStrategy data types When you create a project and add tables from your data warehouse to the MicroStrategy Warehouse Catalog. Each column from your database becomes associated with a MicroStrategy data type. © 2007 MicroStrategy.

” This allows MicroStrategy to maintain a consistent SQL generation process. . in part. It is strongly recommended that you do not alter the mapping file (DTMAPPING. For more information about data marts and custom groups. 396 Mapping of external data types to MicroStrategy data types © 2007 MicroStrategy.pds) in any way. Data types that may be conceptually the same can have different names. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. Inc. The data type is also used whenever multi-pass SQL is used. In your relational database. refer to MicroStrategy Technical Note TN5200-7X0-0166. “INTEGER. For information about how your relational database’s data types are mapped to MicroStrategy data types and the specific mappings that pertain to your RDBMS.” MicroStrategy maps this column to a MicroStrategy-specific data type. MicroStrategy must map every column brought into the project schema to an internal data type.D Data Types Project Design Guide This external-to-internal mapping is necessary. and data mart tables. The MicroStrategy data type stores data values internally and in the metadata repository and is later used during SQL generation when defining intermediate tables. a column within that table has a data type of “SMALLINT. as with custom groups. and generating the correct syntax for literals. for example. because each database names data types in different ways. Therefore. Suppose you add a table to the Warehouse Catalog.

Float 4-byte floating point numbers. Similar to ANSI CHAR. Numeric Fixed point numbers up to 15 digits of precision. LongVarBin Large strings of bits. Data Type Big Decimal Binary Description High-precision fixed point numbers. Char Fixed-length character strings. Real 4-byte floating point numbers. Similar to ANSI TIME. Similar to ANSI REAL.Project Design Guide Data Types D MicroStrategy data types When the data warehouse catalog is read from the Warehouse Catalog. Similar to ANSI BLOB. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Similar to ANSI DECIMAL. Time Time of day. Date Calendar dates. Integer Signed integer values. Similar to ANSI INTEGER. Similar to ANSI BIT. Similar to ANSI NUMERIC. Similar to ANSI CLOB. Decimal Fixed point numbers up to 15 digits of precision. Double 8-byte floating point numbers. Similar to ANSI FLOAT. Similar to ANSI TIMESTAMP. LongVarChar Large strings of characters. Unsigned Unsigned integer values. all columns in the database are automatically mapped to one of the following MicroStrategy data types. Timestamp Combinations of calendar date and time of day. Inc. Fixed-length bit strings. MicroStrategy data types 397 . Similar to ANSI DATE. Similar to ANSI DOUBLE PRECISION.

You specify the format type of an attribute form in the Form Format: Type drop-down menu in the Attribute Editor.D Data Types Project Design Guide Data Type Varbin Description Variable-length bit strings. it implies that the data type in the database has not mapped to one of the MicroStrategy data types. Date Datetime Email HTML Tag Number 398 Format types © 2007 MicroStrategy. Similar to ANSI VARCHAR. Format types Attribute forms are also associated with a MicroStrategy format type. If the Warehouse Catalog displays a column with data type as Unknown. For more information about Big Decimal. Similar to ANSI BIT VARYING. Information is stored and displayed both as date and time in the format specific to the data. Information is stored and displayed as dates in a sequential form to perform calculations on the dates. The date follows the MM/DD/YYYY format and time follows the HH:MM:SS format. page 400. Format Type Big Decimal Description Information is stored and displayed in the Big Decimal form. . It represents dates in the MM/DD/YYYY format. Information is stored and displayed as an HTML tag. Information is stored and displayed in a number format. Inc. Information is stored and displayed in the form of an e-mail address. which specifies how attribute form values should be displayed on MicroStrategy interfaces. which represents high-precision fixed point numbers. Varchar Variable-length character strings. The attribute form format types are described in the following table. see Big Decimal.

a warning message appears notifying you of the incompatibility. If you select a format type that is incompatible with the data type and click OK to exit the Attribute Editor. You are warned in the Attribute Editor whenever you have selected a format type that is incompatible with the data type of your column. for example—you must also change the format type of the attribute. The data type of your column must be consistent with the format type you select because SQL generation issues can occur if the format type and data type are incompatible. or GIF. you notice that the Year attribute is assigned an “Integer” data type. This displays only the time and not the date. For example. Information is stored and displayed as time in the HH:MM:SS format. In the Column Alias tab. you create a new column alias and assign it the “Date” data type. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. Data type and format type compatibility 399 . you edit the ID form of the Year attribute in the Attribute Editor. you must select an appropriate format type from the Form Format: Type drop-down menu. Although you have the option to continue by clicking Yes. Information is stored and displayed as either an absolute or a relative Universal Resource Locator. such as bitmap. When you return to the Definition pane in the Attribute Editor. URL Data type and format type compatibility If you change the MicroStrategy data type of one of the columns in your project—using a column alias. However. JPG. Information is stored and displayed in a text format.Project Design Guide Data Types D Format Type Picture Text Time Description stored and displayed the form of an image file. doing so can still result in SQL generation issues. This format type must be compatible with the data type you assigned in the Column Alias tab.

Picture Big Decimal Big Decimal is a MicroStrategy-specific data type that allows users to support high-precision attribute ID values that have more than 15 digits of precision. some of the data type-format type combinations below may not work with your specific data. Picture Text. . Text Number Number Time. E-mail. Date or Time depending on data Number Picture. Data Type Big Decimal Binary Char Date Decimal Double Float Integer LongVarBin LongVarChar Numeric Real Time Timestamp Unsigned Varbin Varchar Compatible Format Types Big Decimal Number. Text Text. Datetime Datetime. such as BIGINT and 400 Big Decimal © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc.D Data Types Project Design Guide The following chart is intended to guide you in assigning format types that are compatible with the data type you have assigned to a column. Text. Different format types are compatible with different data types given the specific data in your column. URL. URL. HTML Tag Date. E-mail. Text depending on data Picture. Therefore. Datetime Number Number Number Number Picture. HTML Tag.

Attribute ID: Follow the steps in the topic Defining attributes with high-precision ID forms in the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. and page-by. scale) data types. MicroStrategy preserves the precision of attribute ID values and attribute ID forms when displaying IDs and performing operations such as filtering. see the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. follow the rules listed below: • Constant: You can force a constant to be stored as a Big Decimal value by enclosing it in hash marks. Examples of such attribute ID values are account numbers. The WHERE clause in the report SQL statement in drill reports may truncate numbers starting from the 16th digit. Using the Big Decimal data type With the Big Decimal data type. For example. You can define attributes that are identified by numeric columns in the database. drilling. You must use the Big Decimal data type to handle these values. such as account numbers and other long integers.Project Design Guide Data Types D DECIMAL (precision. you can define a filter as "Customer@ID exactly #12345678#". When using the Big Decimal data type. and page-by may not return results. If you do not associate high-precision database fields with the Big Decimal data type. you may see numbers truncated starting with the 16th digit. even though 12345678 does not necessarily require the Big Decimal data type. and long integers. Big Decimal 401 . • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. These numeric columns can have more than 15 digits of precision. Attribute form: If you change the column data type to Big Decimal on the Column Alias tab in the Attribute Editor. For more information about these operations. because these data values have higher precision and cannot be stored in normal numeric data types. you must also select Big Decimal as the form format type in the Form format: Type drop-down menu in the Definition tab. credit card numbers. Inc.

Inc. Note that the Warehouse Catalog does not automatically map DECIMAL(p. you must explicitly identify high-precision constants by enclosing the value within hash (#) symbols. the metric is subtotaled. For example. This is because Big Decimal should only be used when the column is used as an attribute ID form. or metric values are displayed in Graph view. When qualifying on a Big Decimal metric.D Data Types Project Design Guide • Metric: Although it is possible to define Big Decimal as the data type for metric values. the metric is used in a calculated field in a document. s) columns to the Big Decimal MicroStrategy data type even when the precision is greater than 15. Some number formatting strings are not supported in MicroStrategy Desktop. consider the following drawbacks: Precision is lost when any Analytical Engine calculation is performed. Number formatting strings are not supported on the Web. . 402 Big Decimal © 2007 MicroStrategy. s) or NUMERIC(p. #1234567890123456#.

and AVG. COUNT. Reports and documents can also be created and manipulated in MicroStrategy Web. See pre-aggregation. custom groups. documents. filters.GLOSSARY aggregate function A numeric function that acts on a column of data and produces a single result. All of these objects can be built and manipulated in MicroStrategy Desktop. application object An object used to provide analysis of and insight into relevant data. MicroStrategy supports two methods of application-level partitioning: metadata partition mapping and warehouse partition mapping. and prompts are derived from schema objects. aggregate table A fact table that stores data that has been aggregated along one or more dimensions. application-level In application-level partitioning. Compare database-level partition. MAX. © 2007 MicroStrategy. aggregate function 403 . MIN. Examples include SUM. The definition of application objects such as reports. Inc. the application rather than partition the database server manages the partition tables. metrics. templates.

Every attribute supports its own collection of forms. and Year. Name. Age. and March are elements of the attribute Month. 404 attribute © 2007 MicroStrategy. Customer. February. Inc. They provide a means for aggregating and filtering at a given level. New York and Dallas are elements of the attribute City.Glossary Project Design Guide attribute A data level defined by the system architect and associated with one or more columns in a data warehouse lookup table. Order. and Abbreviation could be forms of the attribute Customer. attribute role A database column that is used to define more than one attribute. For example. See also: • • • • • • attribute element attribute form child attribute constant attribute derived attribute parent attribute attribute element A unique set of information for an attribute. Billing City and Shipping City are two attributes that have the same table and columns defined as a lookup table. Last Name. January. defined by the attribute forms. Long Description. For example. . Attributes include data classifications like Region. attribute form A mapping to the columns in the warehouse that are used to expression represent a specific attribute form in SQL. Item. ID. attribute relationship See relationship. City. attribute form One of several columns associated with an attribute that are different aspects of the same thing.

the job is submitted to the database for processing. and custom groups—along each axis. However. metrics. Inc. See also: • • column row base fact column A fact column represented by a single column in a fact table. There are three axes—Row. In the MicroStrategy environment. When a user defines a template for a report. and Page. browse attribute An attribute a user can directly browse to from a given attribute in a user hierarchy.Project Design Guide Glossary axis A vector along which data is displayed. cardinality The number of unique elements for an attribute. when a user runs a report for the first time. he places template units—attributes. if the results of that report are cached. Column. © 2007 MicroStrategy. axis 405 . the results can be returned immediately without having to wait for the database to process the job the next time the report is run. Results from the data warehouse are stored separately and can be used by new job requests that require the same data. business intelligence A system that facilitates the analysis of volumes of complex (BI) system data by providing the ability to view data from multiple perspectives. consolidations. This is normally done for frequently requested reports. cache A special data store holding recently accessed information for quick future access. dimensions. whose execution is faster because they need not run against the database.

See also: • • parent attribute relationship column 1) A one-dimensional vertical array of values in a table. For example. Column aliases also include the data type to be used for the fact and allow you to modify the names of existing metrics for use in data mart reports without affecting the original metric. compound attribute An attribute that has more than one key (ID) form. compression ratio The average number of child records combined to calculate one parent record. This is used to determine where aggregate tables would have the greatest impact.Glossary Project Design Guide child attribute The lower-level attribute in an attribute relationship. compound key In a relational database. The larger the compression ratio between two attributes. 406 child attribute © 2007 MicroStrategy. a primary key consisting of more than one database column. 3) MicroStrategy object in the schema layer that can represent one or more physical table columns or no columns. Inc. . See also: • • axis row column alias In a fact definition. the more you stand to gain by creating an aggregate table that pre-calculates the higher-level data. the compression of ratio between monthly data and yearly data is 12:1. the specific name of the column to be used in temporary tables and SQL statements. 2) The set of fields of a given name and data type in all the rows of a given table.

database instances. Excel files. schedules. data source A data source is any file. © 2007 MicroStrategy. conditionality 407 . configuration object A MicroStrategy object appearing in the system layer and usable across multiple projects. 2) A copy of transaction data specifically structured for query. See also data source. Other data sources include text files. and analysis. Users can navigate through hierarchies of attributes that are defined by the administrator to find the data they need. typically very large. Configuration objects include these object types: users. it organizes data and allows coordinated updates and loads. Data Explorer A portion of the interface used to browse through data contained in the warehouse. system. See also: • • data warehouse OLAP cube source data warehouse 1) A database. containing the historical data of an enterprise. database login IDs. Used for decision support or business intelligence.Project Design Guide Glossary conditionality Conditionality of a metric enables you to associate an existing filter object with the metric so that only data that meets the filter conditions is included in the calculation. reporting. or storage location which stores data that is to be used in MicroStrategy for query. constant attribute See implicit attribute. and analysis. reporting. Inc. A data warehouse can be thought of as one type of data source. and OLAP cube sources such as SAP BW. which refers more specifically to using a database as your data source. Microsoft Analysis Services 2000 and 2005. and Hyperion Essbase.

2. Age might be calculated from this expression: Current Date–Birth Date Compare implicit attribute. A MicroStrategy object created in MicroStrategy Desktop that represents a connection to the warehouse. degradation A type of fact extension in which values at one level of aggregation are reported at a second. . 408 database instance © 2007 MicroStrategy. derived metric A metric based on data already available in a report. and other data warehouse specific information. Although it is technically possible to have more than one instance running on a machine. there is usually only one instance per machine. calculations on other metrics. such as the data warehouse DSN. not in the database. Compare allocation. Login ID and password. lower attribute level. Database server software running on a particular machine. that is. Use a derived metric to perform column math. A database instance specifies warehouse connection information.Glossary Project Design Guide database instance 1. It is calculated by Intelligence Server. For example. derived fact column A fact column created through a mathematical combination of other existing fact columns. description column Optional columns that contain text descriptions of attribute elements. derived attribute An attribute calculated from a mathematical operation on columns in a warehouse table. Inc. on report data after it has been returned from the database.

a shortcut to an attribute in the Data Explorer which is helpful in allowing users to more easily access frequently-used attributes in the Data Explorer.Project Design Guide Glossary drill A method of obtaining supplementary information after a report has been executed. Inc. These changes often occur because of organizational restructuring. element browsing Navigating through hierarchies of attribute elements. See also: • • • • • page-by pivot sort subtotal surf dynamic relationship When the relationship between elements of parent and child attributes changes. reclassification. drill 409 . The new data is retrieved by re-querying the Intelligent Cube or database at a different attribute or fact level. For example. or discontinuation of items or services. which lets you easily recognize tables and columns and the data stored in those columns. or the addition. entry level The lowest level set of attributes at which a fact is available for analysis. For example. geographical realignment. entry point In a user hierarchy. © 2007 MicroStrategy. entity relationship A diagram that provides a graphical representation of the diagram (ERD) physical structure of the data in the source system. a store may decide to reclassify the department to which items belong. viewing the list of months in a year.

Glossary Project Design Guide extraction. and disparate existing database systems. 410 extraction. A filter is composed of at least one qualification. 1) The process used to populate a data warehouse from transformation. fact expression A mapping of facts to physical columns in the warehouse. Fact tables can contain atomic or summarized data. . Facts can have multiple fact expressions. A filter is normally implemented in the SQL WHERE clause. loading (ETL) 2) Third-party software used to facilitate such a process. or inventory quantities in counts. fact column A column in a database table that contains fact data. or sales in dollars. since a report queries the database against all the data stored in the data warehouse. Inc. See also metric. Fact expressions can be as simple as a fact column name from the warehouse or as sophisticated as a formula containing fact columns and numeric constants. Using a filter on a report narrows the data to consider only the information that is relevant to answer your business question. fact table A database table containing numeric data that can be aggregated along one or more dimensions. often numeric and typically aggregatable. filter A MicroStrategy object that specifies the conditions that the data must meet to be included in the report results. 2) A schema object representing a column in a data warehouse table and containing basic or aggregated numbers—usually prices. Examples include "Region = Northeast" or "Revenue > $1 million". fact 1) A measurement value. transformation. stored in a data warehouse. and loading (ETL) © 2007 MicroStrategy. which is the actual condition that must be met for the data to be included on a report. Multiple qualifications in a single filter are combined using logical operators.

You do not have to actually create the column. ID column A column that contains attribute element identification codes. hierarchy A set of attributes defining a meaningful path for element browsing or drilling. you may wish to create columns in the database with a value of 1 for every row to get around COUNT limitations. homogeneous column Columns in different tables of a database that contain the naming same data and have the same column name. Such an attribute has its expression defined as a constant value. which identifies that an attribute form requires more than one ID column to uniquely identify its elements. though nothing is saved in a column. A form group must be created to create a compound key. but the description columns are present as well. implicit attribute An attribute that does not physically exist in the database because it is created at the application level. though. highly denormalized Schema type where not only are higher-level attribute ID schema columns present within all related tables. because in the Attribute Editor.Project Design Guide Glossary form group A grouping of attribute forms that are related in a way that justifies combining the forms into a single form. highly normalized Schema type where lookup tables contain unique schema developer-designed attribute keys. All attributes must have an ID column. one column named Customer in one table and one named Customer Name in a different table. See also compound key. heterogeneous column Columns in different tables in a database that store the same naming data but have different names. form group 411 © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. The order of the attributes is typically—though not always—defined such that a higher attribute has a one-to-many relationship with its child attributes. . both containing customer names. For example. For example.

promotion has a many-to-many relationship to both item and quarter. item. These relationships can be modeled and conceptualized like traditional attributes. where you can sum the column holding the constant to create a COUNT. Any constant is acceptable.Glossary Project Design Guide you can just enter a “1” in the expression to create a count. which arranges data for efficient database use. An example of a promotion might be a “Red Sale” where all red items are on sale. A business might run this promotion around Valentine's Day (Q1) and again at Christmas time (Q4). logical data model A graphical representation of data that is arranged logically for the general user. and quarter. . Implicit attributes are useful in analyzing and retrieving information. You can use constant attributes when building metrics. you can use constant attributes to create a COUNT to keep track of the number of rows returned. joint children Joint child relationships are another type of many-to-many relationship where one attribute has a many-to-many relationship to two otherwise unrelated attributes. Inc. Compare derived attribute. They typically consist of descriptions of dimensions. consider the relationship between three attributes: promotion. locked hierarchy A hierarchy that has at least one attribute that may not be browsed by end users. Hierarchies are usually locked if there are so many attribute elements that element browsing is not usable. as opposed to the physical data model or warehouse schema. When analyzing data. they exist at the intersection of multiple attribute levels. 412 joint children © 2007 MicroStrategy. In this case.For example. lookup table A database table used to uniquely identify attribute elements. but like facts. Lookup tables are usually joined to fact tables to group the numeric facts in the fact table by dimensional attributes in the lookup tables.

See also: • • • • one-to-one one-to-many many-to-many relationship metadata A repository whose data associates the tables and columns of a data warehouse with user-defined attributes and facts to enable the mapping of the business view. hierarchies and other schema objects for Freeform SQL. terms. © 2007 MicroStrategy. metrics. See also: • • • • one-to-one one-to-many many-to-one relationship many-to-one An attribute relationship in which (1) multiple elements of a parent attribute relate to only one element of a child attribute. and OLAP cube reports. See also metadata shell. managed object 413 . Inc. which is created by the system and stored in a separate system folder. Query Builder. and (2) every element of the child attribute can relate to multiple elements of the parent. and needs to the underlying database structure. and vice versa.Project Design Guide Glossary managed object A schema object unrelated to the project schema. Metadata can reside on the same server as the data warehouse or on a different database server. many-to-many An attribute relationship in which multiple elements of a parent attribute can relate to multiple elements of a child attribute. It can even be held in a different RDBMS. Managed objects are used to map data to attributes.

printers. Inc. facts. file services. multithreaded Characteristic of a process that supports the simultaneous execution of multiple threads. In MicroStrategy. narrowcast application In a business intelligence environment. moderately normalized Schema type having the same basic structure as the highly schema normalized schema. facts.Glossary Project Design Guide metadata shell A set of blank tables that are created when you initially implement a MicroStrategy business intelligence environment. More concretely. and mobile devices. . and so on. but here the higher-level attribute ID columns are present within all related tables. When the primary thread terminates. reports. attributes. 414 metadata shell © 2007 MicroStrategy.[Cost] 2) The MicroStrategy object that contains the metric definition. metric 1) A business calculation defined by an expression built with functions. an object is the highest grouping level of information about one concept. including folders. the process terminates. See also fact. an application that allows for the distribution of personalized business information to subscribed users. or other metrics. For example: sum(dollar_sales) or [Sales] . used by the user to achieve the goal of specified data analysis. object Conceptually. See also metadata. MOLAP Multidimensional online analytical processing. SMS. The startup code initiates the primary thread of a process by passing the main function address to the operating system. metrics. Narrowcast Server is a proactive information delivery server that allows for this distribution of information through e-mail. an object is any item that can be selected and manipulated.

OLAP cube 415 . See also: • • OLAP cube data source one-to-many An attribute relationship in which every element of a parent attribute can relate to multiple elements of a child attribute. and analyze data with MicroStrategy. OLAP cube source When integrated with MicroStrategy. MicroStrategy can integrate with OLAP cube source data as well as access data from a relational database concurrently. Inc. and analysis on the data. which is imported into MicroStrategy and mapped to various objects to allow query.Project Design Guide Glossary OLAP cube An OLAP cube is a collection or set of data retrieved from an OLAP cube source. The one-to-many attribute relationship is the most common in data models. while every element of the child attribute relates to only one element of the parent. See also OLAP cube source. and Hyperion Essbase are referred to as OLAP cube sources. reporting. See also: • • • • one-to-one many-to-many many-to-one relationship © 2007 MicroStrategy. You can import and map data from these different OLAP cube sources in MicroStrategy to query. the third-party tools SAP BW. report on. Microsoft Analysis Services.

and profit analysis. trend reporting. only a slice of the cube can be seen at any one time. By varying the selection of elements. percent to total contributions. the user can page through the cube. and metrics on a third axis called the Page axis. Inc. online transaction Typically. and vice versa. withdrawals. Transactional processing involves the simple recording of transactions such as sales. The slice is characterized by the choice of elements on the Page axis. See also: • • • • one-to-many many-to-one many-to-many relationship online analytical A system with analytical processing that involves activities processing (OLAP) such as manipulating transaction records to calculate sales trends. page-by Segmenting data in a grid report by placing available attributes.Glossary Project Design Guide one-to-one An attribute relationship in which every element of the parent attribute relates to exactly one element of the child attribute. growth patterns. databases or mainframes that store transactional processing (OTLP) data. . See also: • • • • • drill pivot sort subtotal surf 416 one-to-one © 2007 MicroStrategy. Since a grid is two-dimensional. or deposits. inventory. consolidations.

See also partition mapping. partition mapping The division of large logical tables into smaller physical tables based on a definable data level. Also referred to as a PBT. See also: • • child attribute relationship partial relationship An attribute relationship in which elements of one attribute relate to elements of a second attribute. while the opposite is not necessarily true. such as time or geography. Inc. See also: • • • • relationship one-to-many many-to-one many-to-many partition base table A warehouse table that contains one part of a larger set of data. such as month or department. By distributing usage across multiple tables. Partition tables are usually divided along logical lines.Project Design Guide Glossary parent attribute The higher-level attribute in an attribute relationship with one or more children. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Partitions minimize the number of tables and records within a table that must be read to satisfy queries issued against the warehouse. parent attribute 417 . partitions improve the speed and efficiency of database queries.

to reconfigure a grid report by interchanging row and column headers. See also schema. it knows to forward those calls to the Intelligence Server port number that is specified in the call.Glossary Project Design Guide partition mapping table A warehouse table that contains information used to identify the partitioned base tables as part of a logical whole. Subset of cross-tab. and so on). Also referred to as a PMT. and hence the associated data. consolidations) on different axes. Narrowcast Server. Inc. Command Manager. 418 partition mapping table © 2007 MicroStrategy. pivot To reconfigure data on a grid report by placing report objects (attributes. . See also: • • partition base table partition mapping physical warehouse A detailed graphic representation of your business data as it schema is stored in the data warehouse. Also. Web. metrics. when the Intelligence Server machine receives a network call from a client (Desktop. See also: • • • • • drill page-by sort subtotal surf port number The port number is how a server process identifies itself on the machine on which it is running. For example. It organizes the logical data model in a method that make sense from a database perspective.

project 1) The highest-level intersection of a data warehouse. and synchronization objects.Project Design Guide Glossary pre-aggregation Aggregation. A server project source is a 3-tier connection to a MicroStrategy Intelligence Server. The project object is specified when requesting the establishment of a session. In most cases. See also table name space. or the calculation of numeric data at a specific attribute level. process An executing application comprising one or more threads. dynamic memory allocations. metrics. A direct project source is a two-tier connection directly to a metadata repository. project source Defines a connection to the metadata repository and is used by various MicroStrategy products to access projects. See also: • • aggregate table aggregation prefix A prefix is stored in the project metadata associated with a table or tables and is used by the Engine to generate SQL. it should match the name space field since it is used to qualify on a specific table belonging to a certain owner or name space. and user community. that is completed before reports are run. Also. filters. containing reports. One project source can contain many projects and the administration tools found at the project source level are used to monitor and administer all projects in the project source. and functions. the Catalog Server uses it to obtain table sample values and row counts. Prefixes can be defined and modified from the Warehouse Catalog interface. metadata repository. Processes use temporary private address spaces and control operating system resources such as files. © 2007 MicroStrategy. pre-aggregation 419 . 2) An object containing the definition of a project. with the results stored in an aggregate table. as defined in (1). Inc. pipes.

You can create multiple qualifications for a single filter or custom group. update. AND NOT. quality relationship The relationship between a parent attribute and two or more “joint child” attributes.Glossary Project Design Guide prompt 1) MicroStrategy object in the report definition that is incomplete by design. IBM DB2 and Microsoft SQL Server. Examples include "Region = Northeast" or "Revenue > $1 million". See also cardinality. The leading RDBMS products are Oracle. relate table A table containing the ID columns of two or more attributes. OR. . and administer a relational database. as in “type login ID and password at the prompt. and OR NOT. amount. 2) In general. Qualifications are used in filters and custom groups.” qualification The actual condition that must be met for data to be included on a report. ratio The relationship in quantity. thus defining associations between them. and then set how to combine the qualifications using the logical operators AND. The user is asked during the resolution phase of report execution to provide an answer that completes the information. relational database A relational database management system (RDBMS) is a management system program that lets you create. or size between the cardinalities of related attributes. A relational database is a collection of data items organized as a set of formally-described tables from which data can be accessed or reassembled in many different ways without having to reorganize the database tables. A typical example with a filter is choosing a specific attribute on which to qualify. 420 prompt © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. The parent attribute is referred to as a “quality” because its definition is complete only with the intersection of its joint children. a window requesting user input.

predesigned reports in MicroStrategy Desktop or in MicroStrategy Web.Project Design Guide Glossary relationship An association specifying the nature of the connection between one attribute (the parent) and one or more other attributes (the children). Inc. © 2007 MicroStrategy. See also: • • filter template report creation The process of building reports from existing. relationship 421 . report design The process of building reports from basic report components using the Report Editor in MicroStrategy Desktop or MicroStrategy Web. and then present it in a visually pleasing manner. analyze that data. City is a child attribute of State. a report allows users to query for data. See also: • • • • • • • • parent attribute child attribute partial relationship quality relationship one-to-one one-to-many many-to-one many-to-many report The central focus of any decision support investigation. For example.

filter. which can be accessed from MicroStrategy Desktop. In relational databases. The attribute and fact columns in those tables are considered part of the schema itself. partition mappings. that relates the information in the logical data model and physical warehouse schema to the MicroStrategy environment. See also: • • axis column schema 1) The set of tables in a data warehouse associated with a logical data model. 422 row © 2007 MicroStrategy. and the relationships between fields and tables. schema object A MicroStrategy object created. These objects are developed in MicroStrategy Architect. operators. usually by a project designer. functions. the fields in each table. 2) The layout or structure of a database system. metric. and so forth. hierarchies. tables. Inc. a primary key that requires only one column to uniquely identify a record within a table. Schema objects directly reflect the warehouse structure and include attributes. server instance The combination of an Intelligence Server running with a particular server definition. shortcut object A MicroStrategy object that represents a link to any other MicroStrategy object such as report. simple key In a relational database. facts. .Glossary Project Design Guide row The horizontal axis of a report. and transformations. server definition A MicroStrategy object stored in the metadata containing information about the configuration of an Intelligence Server. the schema defines the tables.

See also: • • • • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. See also: • • • • • drill page-by pivot subtotal surf source system Any system or file that captures or holds data of interest. statistics tables Tables that are used to record a variety of statistical information about the usage and performance of a MicroStrategy system. and so forth). star schema A highly denormalized physical warehouse schema in which lookup tables are consolidated so that every attribute ID and description column for a given hierarchy exists in one table. numeric ascending. Inc.Project Design Guide Glossary sort Arranging data according to some characteristic of the data itself (alphabetical descending. drill page-by pivot sort surf sort 423 . subtotal A totaling operation performed for a portion of a result set. Structured Query The query language standardized in 1986 by the American Language (SQL) National Standards Institute (ANSI) and used to request information from tables in a relational database and to manipulate the tables’ structure and data.

Inc. Each table object in the metadata stores the name space or owner from which it came. Unlike a browse hierarchy. metrics. table size The estimated size of a database table in terms of number of rows. and so on) that defines the columns of data to be included in the result set. . See also: • • • • • drill page-by pivot sort subtotal system hierarchy The superset hierarchy containing all attributes in a project. attribute elements. custom groups. Compare user hierarchy. it is not explicitly created but is automatically deduced by the MicroStrategy platform from all information available to it. This field cannot be modified from the product since it is actually stored in the warehouse. This is needed to uniquely identify each table saved in the project when comparing table information in the metadata to the real one in the warehouse. and functions to existing analysis objects. metrics. template The data definition portion of the template consists of the group of objects (attribute.Glossary Project Design Guide surf To add filters. attributes. The layout and format of these objects are defined within the template's view definition. 424 surf © 2007 MicroStrategy. table name space A field that is read from the warehouse catalog and used to organize databases.

such as this year versus last year or current date versus month-to-date. © 2007 MicroStrategy. For example. Unlike a physical cube. user hierarchy A named set of attributes and their relationships. 2) The result of mapping a logical data model to an OLE DB for OLAP multidimensional model after hierarchies and metrics have been selected from a project. a virtual cube does not perform data retrieval and consequently lacks the performance problems and size limitations associated with a physical cube. transformation metric An otherwise simple metric that takes the properties of the transformation applied to it. They are user-defined and are used to define the browse and drill relationships between attributes. a transformation can also map different objects. A virtual cube maps MicroStrategy objects such as hierarchies and metrics to OLE DB for OLAP objects. arranged in specific sequences for a logical business organization. such as current month minus one month. For example. transformation 425 . applying an offset value. Add a transformation for last year and the metric now calculates last year’s total sales. No physical cube is created or loaded. a conceptual. if revenue is greater than $200. a metric calculates total sales. virtual cube 1) In an OLAP data model. Although the vast majority are based on time. threshold Used to create conditional formatting for metric values. multidimensional representation of data. Time transformations are used in metrics to compare values at different times. but a definition of the virtual cube structure is stored in MicroStrategy metadata. such as defunct product codes to new ones.Project Design Guide Glossary transformation A schema object that maps a specified time period to another time period. format that cell to have a blue background with bold type. Inc.

Glossary Project Design Guide 426 virtual cube © 2007 MicroStrategy. . Inc.

180 allocation expression 121 Analysis Services 2000 catalog 339 connecting to 337 DSI 339 metadata models 317 relating objects to MicroStrategy 317 URL 339 Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy cube 319 database 318 database instance 338 dimension 319.INDEX A accessing Project Creation Assistant 78 Warehouse Catalog 219 adding tables to a project 79 aerial perspective of hierarchy 200. fact column 96. Inc. 320 level 321 member property 321 relating objects 317 Analysis Services 2005 catalog 342 connecting to 340 DSI 342 hierarchy 326 relating objects to MicroStrategy 322 URL 342 427 . 212 aggregate function defined on 247 aggregate table defined on 241 advantages 242 base table 244 compression ratio 248 effectiveness 248 integrate into project 249 logical table size 249 parent-child relationship 246 pre-aggregation 243 query frequency 246 aggregate-aware 249 aggregation defined on 243 degree of 244 dense 244 dynamic 243 sparse 244 alias attribute column 156 © 2007 MicroStrategy. 105 table 178.

See attribute element. See joint-child relationship. simple expression 148 system hierarchy 159 attribute component. See report display form and browse form. MicroStrategy 294 atomic defined on 244 attribute defined on 10 Attribute Creation Wizard 129 Attribute Editor 135 browse form 190 cardinality 35 child 24 column alias 156 component. 428 . derived attribute 150 derived expression 150 display 189 element.Index Project Design Guide Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy cube 322 database 323 database instance 341 dimension 325 level 326 member 326 member property 327 perspective 324 relating objects 322 analysis. attribute constant 155 in hierarchy 25 joint child relationship 171 many-to-many relationship 160. time-series 257 application for Essbase 313 application-level partition defined on 251 architecture. See report display form and browse form. expression 127 filtering in a hierarchy 203 form. heterogeneous mapping 153 identifying 30 implicit. compound 183 compound key 184 creating in Project Creation Assistant 130 creating using Attribute Editor 136 cross-dimensional. 164 MicroStrategy to Analysis Services 2000 321 MicroStrategy to Analysis Services 2005 326 MicroStrategy to Essbase 315 MicroStrategy to SAP BW 307 multiple counting in relationship 166 nonrelated 161 one-to-many relationship 160 one-to-one relationship 160 overview 22 parent 24 properties 127. Inc. report display form 190 role. See attribute role. See attribute form. Attribute Creation Wizard about 129 using 130 Attribute Editor about 135 creating attribute forms 146 creating attributes 136 updating hierarchies 197 attribute element defined on 23 about 140 © 2007 MicroStrategy. See attribute relationship. 128 qualification 253 ratio 35 relationship.

223 base fact column 47 data type. See hierarchy. attribute form 307 characteristic value 307 characteristics. column defined on 41. 41 column alias attribute 156 429 B base fact column 47 base table defined on 244 pre-aggregation 243 BI architecture 2 browse attribute 207 form 190 browsing © 2007 MicroStrategy. See column data type. derived fact 47 description 41 fact 41 heterogeneous naming 49 homogeneous naming 50 ID 41 physical warehouse schema 40. 180 authenticating OLAP cube reports 297 automatic attribute role recognition 177 about 207 enabling in a hierarchy 209 building a logical data model 26 business intelligence (BI) system defined on 1 C calculating growth percentage 257 variance 257 calculating logical table sizes 231 cardinality for an attribute 35 Cartesian join 159 catalog for Analysis Services 2000 318 for Analysis Services 2005 323 for Essbase 313 for SAP BW 304 SQL 234 category. Inc. SAP BW 300 child attribute 24 class. characteristic attribute vs.Project Design Guide Index for Analysis Services 2000 321 for Analysis Services 2005 326 for Essbase 316 for SAP BW 307 overview 23 attribute form defined on 37 creating using Attribute Editor 146 display 189 expression 147 for Analysis Services 2000 321 for Analysis Services 2005 327 for Essbase 316 for SAP BW 307 group 186 qualification 253 attribute relationship defined on 24 about 159 as property of attribute 127 identifying 31 in lookup table 44 overview 24 attribute role defined on 175 automatic recognition 179 automatic recognition of 177 explicit table alias 178. . See hierarchy.

data provider. 105 column data type changed 240 manually setting for OLAP cube 352 compound attribute defined on 183 creating 184 compound key defined on 42 and compound attributes 184 compound metric. cube 319 for Analysis Services 2000 319 for Analysis Services 2005 324 for Essbase 314 for SAP BW 304 mapping 349 customizing catalog SQL 233 D Data Explorer defined on 209 about 209 enabling hierarchy browsing 196. Inc. See joint child relationship. creating for OLAP cube 359 compression ratio defined on 248 Configuration Wizard 71 connecting to a database 227 to Analysis Services 2000 337 to Analysis Services 2005 340 to Essbase 334 to SAP BW 327 consolidating lookup tables 58 constant attribute 155 creating attributes 136 compound attributes 184 compound metric for OLAP cube 359 facts 87 logical data model 26 project 75 creating hierarchies 194 cross product join 116 cross-dimensional attribute.Index Project Design Guide fact 96. See database instance. . data slice 253 data source defined on 6 data type and mapping 395 Big Decimal 400 changed in column 240 high-precision 400 warehouse catalog 397 data warehouse defined on 5 and physical schema 39 connecting to 72 schema type 51 structure 51 Warehouse Catalog 218 database 323 connection operations 227 custom login 227 gateway support 225 instance. See project source. read operations 227 secondary 225 database instance defined on 67 for Analysis Services 2000 338 for Analysis Services 2005 341 for Essbase 335 for SAP BW 329 for SAP BW (UNIX/Linux) 333 database management system 233 degradation defined on 118 dense aggregation 244 derived 430 © 2007 MicroStrategy. 209 data model. See logical data model.

See hierarchy. member 316 relating objects 311 ETL. See entity relationship diagram. and loading (ETL) process defined on 4. example data model sample 26 physical schema 289 project 267 table data sample 225 explicit table alias 178. 320 for Analysis Services 2005 325 for Essbase 314. attribute 140 entity relationship diagram (ERD) defined on 29 entity. See extraction. transformation. 6 F fact defined on 85 allocation expression 121 base fact column 47 column defined on 41 column alias 96. Inc. 92 fact entry level 87 431 . 105 creating 87 cross product join 116 degradation defined on 118 derived 99 derived fact column 47 disallowing 122 expression 98 extension 107 Fact Creation Wizard 88 fact definition 96. and loading. direct access approach 292 disallowing fact entry level 122 drilling using hierarchies 209 dynamic aggregation 243 dynamic relationship defined on 247 E element. dimension for Analysis Services 2000 319. transformation. Essbase catalog 337 connecting to 334 database instance 335 DSI (DataSourceInfo) 336 metadata models 311 relating objects to MicroStrategy 311 URL 336 Essbase to MicroStrategy application 313 database 313 dimension 314. 180 expression map 98 expression. 315 level 315 © 2007 MicroStrategy. 97 Fact Editor 88. See MicroStrategy Desktop. level 107 extraction. fact 98 expression-based transformation 259 creating 261 member expressions 264 member tables 263 extension. entry level defined on 87 entry point 205 ERD.Project Design Guide Index attribute 150 fact 99 fact column 47 description column defined on 41 Desktop. 315 for SAP BW 306 See also hierarchy.

210 Hierarchy Viewer 200 © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. 210 Hierarchy Viewer 200 in a logical data model 25 in SAP BW 300 limited 202 locked 201 organization 198 Project Creation Assistant 197 ragged 355 See also dimension. 200.Index Project Design Guide fact relation 114 heterogeneous fact column 102 identifying 29 implicit 99 in hierarchy 25 level extension 96. fact column defined on 41 base 47 derived 47 heterogeneous 102 Fact Creation Wizard 88 Fact Editor 88. enabling 209 creating 194 defining 32 displaying 201 drilling 209 entry point 205 facts in 25 filtering attributes in 203 for Analysis Services 2000 320 for Analysis Services 2005 326 for Essbase 315 for SAP BW 306 Hierarchy Editor 198. 107 overview 21 table 46 table relation 110 table. See fact table. structure 199 system hierarchy 197 unbalanced 355 user hierarchy 197 Hierarchy Editor 198. 200. . 209 Attribute Editor 197 attribute filter 203 attributes in 25 browse attribute 207 browsing 207 browsing. 93 fact expression 98 fact table defined on 86 column naming 51 in a warehouse 46 level 48 overview 21 filtered hierarchy 203 flag 172 form attribute form 143 expression 147 group 186 G gateway support for database 225 growth percentage calculation 257 H heterogeneous attribute mapping 153 column naming defined on 49 432 fact column 102 partition mapping 252 hierarchy defined on 193 aerial perspective 212 and the Data Explorer 196.

Project Design Guide Index highly denormalized schema 57 higher level lookup tables 58 highly normalized schema 52 homogeneous column naming 50 partition mapping 252. custom 227 lookup table defined on 43 attribute relationships and 44 consolidating 58 many-to-many relationship 44 one-to-one relationship 44 K key compound 42 figures 300 simple 42 M managed object 349 managed objects OLAP cubes 348 many-to-many relationship defined on 160 design considerations 164 example 32 lookup table 44 relate table 45 many-to-many transformation 433 L level extension 107 for Analysis Services 2000 321 © 2007 MicroStrategy. 304 InfoObjects 299 InfoProviders 299 international technical support xxiii J Java Connector 328. See Essbase. Inc. 254 Hyperion Essbase. . I implicit attribute 155 fact 99 importing OLAP cubes 343. 280 ratio 35 sample 26 schema type 51 source of structure 29 unique identifier 34 Logical Table Editor 250 logical table size 249 login. cross product 116 joint child attribute transformation metrics 265 joint child relationship 171 joint children defined on 171 for Analysis Services 2005 326 for Essbase 315 virtual 306 limited hierarchy 202 locating OLAP cubes 348 locked hierarchy defined on 201 logical data model defined on 17 attributes in 24 building 26 cardinality 35 conventions 33 design factors 59 for MicroStrategy Tutorial 271. 330 join. 344 InfoCube 303.

. See MultiDimensional Expressions. MicroStrategy Project Builder.Index Project Design Guide and table-based transformations 259 double-counting 264 mapping OLAP cubes 343 OLAP cubes examples 358 schema objects in Warehouse Catalog 231 mapping type about 264 many-to-many 264 one-to-one 264 MDX. See Analysis Services 2000. Microsoft Analysis Services 2005. See metadata. MicroStrategy architecture 294 object model 7i 295 object model 8 296 MicroStrategy Desktop 11 MicroStrategy metadata. Inc. tables 263 member property for Analysis Services 2000 321 for Analysis Services 2005 327 metadata defined on 8 connecting to 72 shell 65 table 71 metadata model Analysis Services 2000 317 Essbase 311 SAP BW 302 metadata partition mapping attribute qualification 253 data slice 253 overview 251 versus warehouse partition mapping 255 metadata shell defined on 65 metric creating compound metrics for OLAP cube data 359 creating with custom MDX 359 prompts within custom MDX 366 removing compound metrics from OLAP cubes 368 transformations 258 Microsoft Analysis Services 2000. MicroStrategy to Analysis Services 2000 317 attribute 321 attribute element 321 attribute form 321 catalog 318 cube 319 dimension 320 hierarchy 320 MicroStrategy to Analysis Services 2005 322 attribute 326 attribute element 326 attribute form 327 catalog 323 cube 324 dimension 325 hierarchy 326 MicroStrategy to Essbase 311 434 © 2007 MicroStrategy. member attributes 263 expressions 263 for Analysis Services 2000 321 for Analysis Services 2005 326 for Essbase 316 property. See Analysis Services 2005. See member property. See Project Builder.

OLAP cube defined on 343 creating compound metrics 359 creating metrics with custom MDX 359 importing 344 integration 292 manually setting column data type 352 mapping 349 prompts within custom MDX metrics 366 remapping 356 removing 347 removing compound metrics 368 searching for 348 source 291 unbalanced and ragged hierarchies 355 OLAP Cube Catalog 309. 55 © 2007 MicroStrategy. viewing 279 logical data model 271. 280 physical warehouse schema 281 schema. See logical data model. 343 OLAP Cube Editor 349 OLAP cube reports authentication 297 managed objects 348 OLTP 3 one-to-many relationship defined on 160 example 31 relate table 45 N nonrelated attributes 161 normalized schema 53. 435 . general 280 view physical schema 289 MicroStrategy Web Universal 13 migrating tables 232 moderately normalized schema 54 MOLAP defined on 242 multidimensional data model. MultiDimensional Expressions about 291 remapping objects 356 multiple counting 164 MultiProviders 299 O object models in MicroStrategy 7i 295 in MicroStrategy 8 296 using SAP direct access 296 object. Inc. user 10 ODS object 299 OLAP BAPI certification 293 Cube Catalog 309 Cube Editor 349 cube. See OLAP cube.Project Design Guide Index attribute 315 attribute element 316 attribute form 316 catalog 313 cube 314 dimension 314 hierarchy 315 MicroStrategy to SAP BW 302 attribute 307 attribute element 307 attribute form 307 catalog 304 cube 304 dimension 306 hierarchy 306 MicroStrategy Tutorial 267 data model.

P parent attribute 24 parent-child relationship 246 dynamic 247 overview 25 static 247 partition base table defined on 251. 80 aggregate table. defined on 255 types 251 warehouse 254. integrating 248 creating 75 data warehouse 79 integrating aggregate tables 248 managing tables for 220 planning 76 Project Builder 74 Project Creation Assistant 78. See project source tables.See ODS object. © 2007 MicroStrategy. online transaction processing. in metrics with custom MDX 366 properties for SAP BW 311 Q qualification for an attribute form 253 quality. See partition mapping table. opening Project Creation Assistant 78 Warehouse Catalog 219 Operational Data Store object. . perspective 324 physical warehouse schema defined on 39 design factors 59 for MicroStrategy Tutorial 281 sample 289 planning a project 76 PMT. 80 removing tables from 80 sample project 267 schema 216 source.Index Project Design Guide one-to-one relationship defined on 160 lookup table 44 online analytical processing. Inc. 255 PBT. 255 partition mapping defined on 250 application-level 251 attribute qualification 253 data slice 253 heterogeneous 252 homogeneous 252. See joint child relationship. See partition base table. 436 pre-aggregation defined on 243 aggregate table 241 base table 244 compression ratio 248 integrate aggregate table 249 logical table size 249 parent-child relationship 246 query frequency 246 prefix 230 project defined on 14 adding tables to 79. managing 220 Warehouse Catalog 79 warehouse tables in 79 Project Builder 74 Project Creation Assistant 77. 254 metadata 251. 255 partition base table 255 server-level 251 table 222. 197 project source defined on 65 connecting to 72 creating 77 prompt. See OLTP. See OLAP.

See attribute relationship.Project Design Guide Index query cubes 299 query frequency 246 R ragged hierarchy 355 ratio for an attribute 35 RDBMS defined on 5 server-level partitioning 251 read operations for database 227 relate table 45 related attributes. relating objects to MicroStrategy from Analysis Services 2000 317 from Analysis Services 2005 322 from Essbase 311 from SAP BW 302 relation. 343 query cubes 299 relating objects to MicroStrategy 302 SAP.sh. 333 hierarchies 300 InfoObjects 299 InfoProviders 299 Java Connector 328. relationship dynamic 247 many-to-many 164 parent-child 246 relate table 45 static 247 remapping OLAP cubes 356 removing compound metric from OLAP cube 368 OLAP cube 347 table from project 80 report display form 190 row count for table 230 S SAP BW characteristics 300 connecting to 327 on UNIX/Linux 330 on Windows 328 database instance 329. 304 relating objects 302 virtual level 306 SAP.sh 331 structures 311 terminology 298 variable properties 309 variables 300. See RDBMS. 330 key figures 300 mapping cubes 349 metadata models 302 OLAP Cube Catalog 309. configuring 331 schema for project 216 highly denormalized 57 highly normalized 53 MicroStrategy Tutorial project 280 moderately normalized 55 object 14 physical warehouse defined on 39 star 58 © 2007 MicroStrategy. 308 SAP BW to MicroStrategy characteristic attribute 307 characteristic value 307 characteristics 305 hierarchy 306 InfoCube 303. Inc. 437 . fact 114 relational database management system.

Index Project Design Guide type. summary table 241 support. See technical support. 5. 44 managing for a project 221 migrating 232 name space 222. updating 217 schema type 51 comparison 60 searching for OLAP cubes 348 server-level partitioning 251 simple expression 148 key 42 source system defined on 3. See schema type. 86 key 42 Logical Table Editor 250 lookup 43. See joint child relationship. 28 sparse aggregation 244 SQL defined on 5 attributes and columns in 22 catalog 233 default catalog SQL 239 facts and columns in 21 star schema 58 static relationship defined on 247 structure in SAP BW query cube 311 of hierarchy 199 of table 222 Structured Query Language. 180 calculating logical sizes 231 calculating size 231 compound key 42 fact table defined on 46. 228 name spaces 230 physical warehouse schema 40 prefixes 230 primary key 42 relation 110 row counts 230 sample data 225 simple key 42 size defined on 249 summary 241 transformation 259 updating structure 223 viewing structure 222 warehouse tables in Project Creation Assistant 79 table-based member expressions 264 transformations 259 creating 260 member tables 263 technical support xxv international xxiii text fact. . time-series analysis 257 transformation defined on 258 components 263 double-counting 264 expression-based 259. 261 many-to-many 259 mapping types 264 member attributes 263 member expressions 263 member tables 263 438 © 2007 MicroStrategy. See SQL. Inc. system hierarchy 159. defined on 197 T table adding to a project 79 aggregate 241 alias 178.

enabling 209 creating 194 displaying 201 drilling 209 entry point 205 filtering attributes in 203 limited 202 locked 201 structure 199 user object 10 using attribute form vs characteristic attribute 158 © 2007 MicroStrategy. 260 transformation metric defined on 258 joint child attributes 265 troubleshooting column data type changed 240 column missing 241 data warehouse connection 239 tables missing 240 V variables overview 300 properties. See fact expression. user hierarchy defined on 197 browse attribute 207 browsing 207 browsing. W Warehouse Catalog accessing 219 column missing 241 connection operations 227 data types 240 database gateway support 225 default catalog SQL 239 displaying information 230 managing 221 mapping schema objects 231 read operations 227 troubleshooting 239 updating table structure 223 usage and settings 218 viewing table structure 222 warehouse partition mapping overview 254 partition base table 255 partition mapping table 255 versus metadata partition mapping 255 warehouse table in Project Creation Assistant 79 439 . setting 311 supporting 308 variance calculation 257 viewing sample data model 279 sample table data 225 sample warehouse schema 289 table structure 222 virtual level 306 U unbalanced and ragged hierarchy 355 unique identifier 34 UNIX/Linux. connecting to SAP BW 330 updating project schema 217 updating table structure 223 URL for Analysis Services 2000 339 for Analysis Services 2005 342 for Essbase 336 user defined object. See transformation metric. metrics 258 one-to-one mapping types 264 table-based 259.Project Design Guide Index metric. Inc.

Index Project Design Guide warehouse. physical schema defined on 39. Inc. connecting to SAP BW 327 X XMLA 293 Analysis Services 2000 317 Analysis Services 2005 322 Essbase 312 provider for Analysis Services 2000 338 provider for Analysis Services 2005 341 provider for Essbase 335 440 © 2007 MicroStrategy. . 281 Windows.

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