Project Design Guide

Version: 8.1.1
Document Number: 09330811

Fourth Edition, September 2007, version 8.1.1
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CONTENTS
Description of Guide ................................................................ xiii About this book .............................................................................xv How to find business scenarios and examples .......................xv Prerequisites .......................................................................... xvi Who should use this guide..................................................... xvi Resources.................................................................................... xvi Documentation....................................................................... xvi Education ............................................................................. xxiii Consulting ............................................................................ xxiii International support ............................................................ xxiii Technical Support ................................................................. xxv Feedback .................................................................................... xxx

1. BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform

Introduction.................................................................................. 1 Business intelligence architecture ................................................. 2 Source systems for data collection .......................................... 3 Extraction, transformation, and loading process...................... 4 Data warehouse for data storage and relational design .......... 5 The MicroStrategy platform ........................................................... 7 MicroStrategy metadata........................................................... 8 MicroStrategy Intelligence Server .......................................... 11 MicroStrategy Desktop........................................................... 11 MicroStrategy Web and Web Universal ................................. 13 MicroStrategy project ............................................................. 14 The project design process.......................................................... 15

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Project Design Guide

2. The Logical Data Model

Introduction................................................................................ 17 Facts: Business data and measurements.................................... 21 Attributes: Context for your levels of data.................................... 22 Attribute elements: Data level values..................................... 23 Attribute relationships ............................................................ 24 Hierarchies: Data relationship organization ................................. 25 Sample data model...................................................................... 26 Building a logical data model ....................................................... 26 User requirements ................................................................. 27 Existing source systems ........................................................ 28 Converting source data to analytical data.............................. 28 Logical data modeling conventions.............................................. 33 Unique identifiers ................................................................... 34 Cardinalities and ratios .......................................................... 35 Attribute forms ....................................................................... 36

3. Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model

Introduction................................................................................ 39 Columns: Data identifiers and values .......................................... 41 Tables: Physical groupings of related data.................................. 41 Uniquely identifying data in tables with key structures........... 42 Lookup tables: Attribute storage ............................................ 43 Relate tables: A unique case for relating attributes ............... 45 Fact tables: Fact data and levels of aggregation ................... 46 Homogeneous versus heterogeneous column naming.......... 49 Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage......................................................................................... 51 Highly normalized schema: Minimal storage space............... 52 Moderately normalized schema: Balanced storage space and query performance.......................................................... 54 Highly denormalized schema: Enhanced query performance........................................................................... 56 Design trade-offs ......................................................................... 59 Schema type comparisons .......................................................... 60

4. Creating and Configuring a Project

Introduction................................................................................ 63 Project connectivity components ................................................. 64 MicroStrategy metadata......................................................... 64 Metadata shell ....................................................................... 65 Project source ........................................................................ 65

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Database instance ................................................................. 67 Project.................................................................................... 67 Summary of project connectivity ............................................ 68 Creating a project ........................................................................ 68 Creating the metadata repository ................................................ 71 Connecting to the metadata repository and data source ............. 71 Connecting to the metadata repository .................................. 72 Connecting to a data source .................................................. 72 Creating the project ..................................................................... 73 Creating a test or prototype project using Project Builder...... 74 Creating a production project using Project Creation Assistant ................................................................................ 75 Creating facts and attributes........................................................ 82 Configuring additional schema-level settings .............................. 83 Deploying your project and creating reports ................................ 84

5. The Building Blocks of Introduction................................................................................ 85 Business Data: Facts Creating facts............................................................................... 87 Simultaneously creating multiple, simple facts ...................... 88 Creating and modifying simple and advanced facts .............. 91 The structure of facts ................................................................... 96 How facts are defined ................................................................. 97 Mapping physical columns to facts: Fact expressions ........... 98 Fact column names and data types: Column aliases ................ 105 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions.................................................................................. 107 Defining a join on fact tables using table relations............... 110 Defining a join on fact tables using fact relations................. 114 Forcing facts to relate to attributes: Using cross product joins ........................................................................ 116 Lowering the level of fact data: Fact degradations .............. 118 Disallowing the reporting of a fact at a certain level............. 122

6. The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes

Introduction.............................................................................. 125 Creating attributes ..................................................................... 129 Simultaneously creating multiple attributes.......................... 129 Adding and modifying attributes .......................................... 134 Unique sets of attribute information: Attribute elements ............ 140

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Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms ......... 143 Attribute form properties ...................................................... 146 Attribute form expressions ................................................... 147 Modifying attribute data types: Column aliases ................... 156 Attribute forms versus separate attributes ........................... 158 Attribute relationships ................................................................ 159 Viewing and editing the parents and children of attributes .............................................................................. 161 Supporting many-to-many and joint child relationships ....... 163 Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles ......... 175 Specifying attribute roles ..................................................... 177 Attributes with more than one ID column: Compound attributes .................................................................................... 183 Example: Creating compound attributes.............................. 184 Collections of attribute forms: Form groups............................... 186 Supporting compound attributes .......................................... 187 Displaying and organizing related forms.............................. 188 Using attributes to browse and report on data........................... 189 Setting how attribute forms are displayed by default ........... 191

7. Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes

Introduction.............................................................................. 193 Creating user hierarchies........................................................... 194 Types of hierarchies .................................................................. 196 System hierarchy: Project schema definition ....................... 197 User hierarchies: Logical business relationships ................. 197 Hierarchy organization............................................................... 198 Hierarchy structure............................................................... 199 Viewing hierarchies: Hierarchy Viewer ................................ 200 Configuring hierarchy display options........................................ 200 Controlling the display of attribute elements ........................ 201 Filtering attributes in a hierarchy.......................................... 203 Entry point............................................................................ 205 Hierarchy browsing .............................................................. 206 Using the Hierarchy Viewer and Table Viewer .......................... 211 Using the Hierarchy Viewer ................................................. 211 Using the Table Viewer........................................................ 213

8. Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project viii

Introduction.............................................................................. 215 Updating your MicroStrategy project schema............................ 216

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Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog ...................................................................................... 218 What should I know before I use the Warehouse Catalog? .............................................................................. 219 Accessing the Warehouse Catalog...................................... 219 Adding and removing tables for a project ............................ 220 Managing warehouse and project tables ............................. 221 Modifying data warehouse connection and operation defaults ................................................................................ 226 Customizing catalog SQL statements.................................. 233 Troubleshooting table and column messages ..................... 239 Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables ............. 241 When to use aggregate tables............................................. 242 Determining the frequency of queries at a specific level...... 246 Considering any related parent-child relationships .............. 246 Compression ratio................................................................ 247 Creating aggregate tables ................................................... 248 The size of tables in a project: Logical table size................. 249 Dividing tables to increase performance: Partition mapping...... 250 Server versus application partitioning .................................. 250 Metadata partition mapping ................................................. 251 Warehouse partition mapping .............................................. 254 Metadata versus warehouse partition mapping ................... 255

9. Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons

Introduction.............................................................................. 257 Creating transformations ........................................................... 258 Expression-based versus table-based transformations ....... 259 Building a table-based transformation ................................. 260 Building an expression-based transformation...................... 261 Transformation components ...................................................... 263 Transformation metrics and joint child attributes ....................... 265

A. MicroStrategy Tutorial Introduction.............................................................................. 267 What is the MicroStrategy Tutorial?........................................... 267 MicroStrategy Tutorial data model............................................. 271 Geography hierarchy ........................................................... 272 Products hierarchy ............................................................... 274 Customers hierarchy............................................................ 276 Time hierarchy ..................................................................... 277 Promotions hierarchy ........................................................... 278

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..................... 334 Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers....... 340 Configuring the XMLA Provider .......... 334 Configuring the XMLA Provider ....................................................................................................... 330 Connecting to Essbase servers ..... Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Introduction....................... 317 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy.............................. 285 Time schema ...................................... 288 Miscellaneous fact tables...... 311 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy... 344 Mapping OLAP cubes .................................... 359 x © 2007 MicroStrategy... 287 Inventory fact tables.............................................................. 349 Creating metrics from OLAP cube data with MDX and compound metric techniques .................................................................. 311 Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy .................................................................................................................... 338 Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers... 337 Configuring the XMLA Provider ......... 341 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy.................................................................. 327 Connecting to SAP BW servers on Windows ....................... 283 Products schema .Contents Project Design Guide MicroStrategy Tutorial schema ..................... 298 Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy ......................................................................................... 302 Supporting SAP BW variables ...................................................................................................................................... 292 Understanding MicroStrategy architecture.......... 294 Authentication .......................................................................................... 291 MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources ................................ 343 Importing OLAP cubes........... 322 Connecting to SAP BW servers............................ Inc................................................................................ 286 Promotions schema ........................................................ ....................................................................................................................... 288 B.................................. 308 SAP BW structures ...................................... 287 Sales fact tables ............... 297 Understanding the SAP BW terminology ................... 284 Customers schema ..................................... 328 Connecting to SAP BW servers on UNIX and Linux.................................................... 280 Geography schema ...................................................................................................

........................ 399 Big Decimal......................... 369 Logical tables........................................ 400 Using the Big Decimal data type............................................. Logical Tables Introduction....................................................................................................... 377 Business case 3: Slowly changing dimensions............................................................................... 403 Index .................................. Data Types Introduction.......................... 398 Data type and format type compatibility.Project Design Guide Contents C.................................. 376 Business case 2: Attribute form expression across multiple tables .................................................................................................... 395 MicroStrategy data types .......................................................................................................................... 395 Mapping of external data types to MicroStrategy data types.............................. Inc...................... 390 D............................ 373 Using SQL for logical views ......................................................... 427 © 2007 MicroStrategy................................................... 397 Format types...... 371 Creating logical tables ...................................... 376 Business case 1: Distinct attribute lookup table........................ 378 Business case 4: One-to-many transformation tables ................................................................ xi ... 389 Business case 5: Outer joins between attribute lookup tables............... 370 How should I use logical tables? ........................ 401 Glossary ........ 375 Logical view examples........................................................................................................................

Contents Project Design Guide xii © 2007 MicroStrategy. . Inc.

including the following: • Chapter 1. Inc. Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model. explores logical data modeling and how it can help you identify the different elements within your business data and plan your project. creating. Chapter 2. Chapter 3. Creating and Configuring a Project. describes the major components involved in project creation and guides you through the process of creating a project in MicroStrategy. describes components of the physical warehouse schema such as columns and tables and explores how you can map components from the logical data model to components in the database to form the physical warehouse schema. BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform. Chapter 4. provides a brief introduction to business intelligence architecture and some of the main components within the MicroStrategy platform.PREFACE Description of Guide The MicroStrategy Project Design Guide provides comprehensive information on planning. • • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. The Logical Data Model. xiii . and modifying a project in MicroStrategy and covers a wide range of project-related topics.

• • xiv © 2007 MicroStrategy. discusses logical tables. or Hyperion® Essbase® for use within MicroStrategy. discusses the different types of transformations in MicroStrategy and describes how you can create transformations in your project. The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts. provides information on the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. provides a conceptual look at the structure of attributes and explores different types of attributes and how they relate to your business data. Inc. . Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project. Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons. and a set of demonstration applications designed to illustrate the features of the MicroStrategy platform. Logical Tables. which includes a metadata and warehouse. Chapter 7. Chapter 6. and explains how you can create user hierarchies to help organize and enhance your project. describes the structure of facts and explores different types of facts and how they relate to your business data. Microsoft® Analysis Services. Chapter 9. discusses the different types of hierarchies in MicroStrategy. describes methods you can implement to better optimize and maintain your project for both the short and long term. The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes. Appendix B. This chapter also covers all the steps necessary to create facts for your project. • • • • The appendixes contain the following additional reference information. This chapter also covers all the steps necessary to create attributes for your project. Chapter 8. which you may or may not require depending on your specific needs: • Appendix A. Appendix C. and how to create logical tables and views in MicroStrategy. MicroStrategy Tutorial. Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes. the different types of logical tables. provides information about connecting to an OLAP Cube source such as SAP® BW.Preface Project Design Guide • Chapter 5. Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources.

and describe the user roles the information in this book was designed for. metadata. Information about the MicroStrategy Tutorial can be found in the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. Example analysis includes such business areas as financial reporting. Each module comes with a sample data model and a collection of packaged reports that allow dozens of analytical variations. Data Types. many of the concepts discussed are accompanied by business scenarios or other descriptive examples. About this book This book is divided into chapters that begin with a brief overview of the chapter’s content. human resources. provides information about the different data types in MicroStrategy. which is MicroStrategy’s sample warehouse.Project Design Guide Preface • Appendix D. For examples of reporting functionality. Inc. About this book xv . How to find business scenarios and examples Within this guide. and project. see the MicroStrategy Tutorial. each from a different business area. Business scenarios can be found in the Analytics Modules. The following sections provide the location of additional examples. which are a set of sample analytics. The Analytics Modules are part of a product bundle called the MicroStrategy Business Intelligence Developer Kit (BIDK). © 2007 MicroStrategy. list prerequisites for using this book. Detailed examples of advanced reporting functionality can be found in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. and customer analysis.

the following business intelligence application users should read this guide: • • Project Designers Database Administrators Resources Documentation MicroStrategy provides both manuals and online help. create. . these two information sources provide different types of information. Inc.Preface Project Design Guide Prerequisites Before working with this document. Manuals: MicroStrategy manuals provide • • • introductory information concepts checklists xvi Resources © 2007 MicroStrategy. and modify a MicroStrategy project using the MicroStrategy platform. you should be familiar with: • • the information provided in the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide the nature and structure of the data you want to use for your business intelligence application Who should use this guide This document is designed for all users who require an understanding of how to design. In short. as described below.

The procedure to access them is below.com. © 2007 MicroStrategy. UNIX. and HP platforms. Manuals for Query. and using the MicroStrategy Evaluation Edition of the software. Adobe Acrobat Reader 4. If you do not have Acrobat Reader installed on your computer. Resources xvii . as well as basic maintenance guidelines. • MicroStrategy Quick Start Guide Overview of the installation and evaluation process. configuring.adobe.Project Design Guide Preface • • examples high-level procedures to get started Online help: MicroStrategy online help provides • • detailed steps to perform procedures descriptions of each option on every software screen Manuals The following manuals are available from your CD-ROM or the machine where MicroStrategy was installed. Linux. • MicroStrategy Upgrade Guide Instructions to upgrade existing MicroStrategy products.0 or higher is required to view these documents. and Analysis Products • MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide Information to install and configure MicroStrategy products on Windows. MicroStrategy Overview • Introduction to MicroStrategy: Evaluation Guide Instructions for installing. and additional resources. Reporting. you can download it from www. Inc.

and Outlook. Word. building on information in the Basic Reporting Guide and Advanced Reporting Guide. building on information in the Basic Reporting Guide. metrics. • MicroStrategy Report Services Document Creation Guide Instructions to design and create Report Services documents. custom groups. attributes. format.Preface Project Design Guide • MicroStrategy System Administration Guide Concepts and high-level steps to implement. and how to analyze data in a report. filters. and troubleshoot a MicroStrategy business intelligence system. maintain. Data Mining Services. hierarchies. consolidations. and perform other business tasks with MicroStrategy reports and documents on a mobile device. • MicroStrategy Project Design Guide Information to create and modify MicroStrategy projects. filters. Freeform SQL reports. • MicroStrategy Mobile User Guide Instructions for using MicroStrategy Mobile to view and analyze data. tune. • MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide Instructions to get started with MicroStrategy Desktop and MicroStrategy Web. • MicroStrategy Office User Guide Instructions for using MicroStrategy Office to work with MicroStrategy reports and documents in Microsoft® Excel. and prompts. deploy. advanced schemas. Includes the basics for creating reports. Inc. and understand facts. OLAP Cube reports. and distribute business data. PowerPoint®. • MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide Instructions for advanced topics in the MicroStrategy system. transformations. Covers installation and configuration of MicroStrategy Mobile and how a designer working in MicroStrategy xviii Resources © 2007 MicroStrategy. Query Builder reports. and prompts. to analyze. and project optimization. metrics. Topics include reports. .

• MicroStrategy Narrowcast Server Installation and Configuration Guide Information to install and configure Narrowcast Server. tune. filters. and troubleshoot MicroStrategy Web Services. attribute forms. • MicroStrategy Narrowcast Server System Administrator Guide Concepts and high-level steps to implement. tune. Inc. © 2007 MicroStrategy. instructions to use functions in metrics. • MicroStrategy Web Services Administration Guide Concepts and tasks to install. Manuals for Information Delivery and Alerting Products • MicroStrategy Narrowcast Server Getting Started Guide Instructions to work with the tutorial to learn Narrowcast Server interfaces and features. • MicroStrategy Narrowcast Server Application Designer Guide Fundamentals of designing Narrowcast Server applications. examples of functions in business scenarios. configure. maintain. • MicroStrategy Narrowcast Server Upgrade Guide Instructions to upgrade an existing Narrowcast Server.Project Design Guide Preface Desktop or MicroStrategy Web can create effective reports and documents for use with MicroStrategy Mobile. • MicroStrategy Functions Reference Function syntax and formula components. and troubleshoot Narrowcast Server. Resources xix .

including details about architecture. then Product Manuals. xx Resources © 2007 MicroStrategy. . • Narrowcast Server SDK Guide Instructions to customize Narrowcast Server functionality. and embed Narrowcast Server functionality within other applications. Inc. and the Narrowcast Server SPI. code samples. choose Programs. 2 Click the link for the desired manual. customization scenarios. and so on. • MicroStrategy Web SDK The Web SDK is available in the MicroStrategy Developer Library. A Web page opens with a list of available manuals in PDF format. integrate Narrowcast Server with other systems. Documents the Narrowcast Server Delivery Engine and Subscription Portal APIs. To access installed online documentation 1 From the Windows Start menu. MicroStrategy. object models. which is sold as part of the MicroStrategy SDK.Preface Project Design Guide Manuals for Analytics Modules • • • • • • Business Intelligence Developer Kit (BIDK) Installation and Porting Guide Customer Analysis Module Reference Sales Force Analysis Module Reference Financial Reporting Analysis Module Reference Sales and Distribution Analysis Module Reference Human Resources Analysis Module Reference Software Development Kits • MicroStrategy Developer Library (MSDL) Information to understand the MicroStrategy SDK.

© 2007 MicroStrategy. click the Bookmarks and Page from the View menu. Select Open this file from its current location.Project Design Guide Preface 3 Some documentation is provided in HTML help format. Resources xxi . F1 key: Press F1 to see context-sensitive help addressing the function or task you are currently performing. Online help MicroStrategy provides several ways to access online help: • • • Help button: Use the Help button at the bottom of most software screens to see context-sensitive help. Help menu: Select Contents and Index to see the main table of contents for the help system. If bookmarks are not visible on the left side of an Acrobat (PDF) document. When you select one of these guides. Inc. the File Download dialog box opens. and click OK.

SHIFT+F1) A note icon indicates helpful information for specific situations. indicates variable information to be replaced by the user Example: The aggregation level is the level of calculation for the metric. + A keyboard command that calls for the use of more than one key (for example. dialog boxes. Example: Type cmdmgr -f scriptfile. A warning icon alerts you to important information such as potential security risks. Inc. UPPERCASE • keyboard command key (such as ENTER) • shortcut key (such as CTRL+V) Example: To bold the selected text. lists. Type bold Indicates • button names. .scp and press ENTER. The following table lists these conventions. italic • new terms defined within the text and in the glossary • names of other product manuals • when part of a command syntax. press CTRL+B. and menus that are the focus of actions or part of a list of such GUI elements and their definitions • text to be entered by the user Example: Click Select Warehouse. these should be read before continuing. Example: Type copy c:\filename d:\foldername\filename Courier font • • • • • • calculations code samples registry keys path and file names URLs messages displayed in the screen Example: Sum(revenue)/number of months.Preface Project Design Guide Documentation standards MicroStrategy online help and PDF manuals (available both online and in printed format) provides standards to help you identify concepts and procedures. options. check boxes. xxii Resources © 2007 MicroStrategy.

microstrategy. decimal formats. Resources xxiii . Offerings include complex security architecture designs. project and testing strategies and recommendations. It also includes the availability of translated interfaces and documentation.microstrategy. and more.com/Consulting. The level of support is defined in terms of the components of a MicroStrategy business intelligence environment. visit www. A MicroStrategy business intelligence environment consists of the following components. metadata. and statistics databases MicroStrategy Intelligence Server MicroStrategy Web server MicroStrategy Desktop client Web browser © 2007 MicroStrategy. For a detailed description of education offerings and course curriculums. International support MicroStrategy supports several locales. support for date formats. collectively known as a configuration: • • • • • warehouse.com/Education. currency symbols. and more. For a detailed description of consulting offerings. Support for a locale typically includes native database and operating system support. Inc. strategic planning.Project Design Guide Preface Education MicroStrategy Education Services provides a comprehensive curriculum and highly skilled education consultants. Many customers and partners from over 800 different organizations have benefited from MicroStrategy instruction. performance and tuning. Consulting MicroStrategy Consulting Services provides proven methods for delivering leading-edge technology solutions. visit www.

3 is the language of display of the installation routine and the user language of the product interface. .3 The user language preference that was set previously in version 7. Chinese (simplified) and Swedish. Japanese. Once the product is installed.Preface Project Design Guide MicroStrategy is certified in homogeneous configurations (where all the components lie in the same locale) in the following languages: English (US). Spanish. Please contact MicroStrategy Technical Support for more details. The following table lists the language selection possibilities for different installation cases. German. Inc. A translated user interface is available in each of the above languages. In addition. Repair or maintenance installation on a system on which MicroStrategy application has been installed before All subsequent executions of the installation routine are displayed in the language that you selected the first time you installed the product on the system. Korean. Italian. Portuguese (Brazilian). The user language in the product interface is also the language that you selected the first time you installed the product on the system. The user language in the product interface is the language that you select during installation. MicroStrategy also provides limited support for heterogeneous configurations (where some of the components may lie in different locales). xxiv Resources © 2007 MicroStrategy. Upgrading an earlier installation from version 7. translated versions of the online help files and product documentation are available in several of the above languages. the Online Help is displayed in the same language that the user selects in the language prompt of the installation routine.2.2. French. Installation Fresh installation on a system in which MicroStrategy application has never been installed before Result The MicroStrategy Installation Wizard prompts you to select the language from the drop-down list.

Note: Even if you select a language from the language prompt in the installation routine. are displayed in the language that you selected during the upgrade installation. the installation Online Help is displayed in English only. unless overridden by the command line parameter. the user language of the product interface language remains the same as the one set in the product interface before running the upgrade installation. The installation routine is displayed in the selected language. it has no effect on the default language of the product interfaces. Inc. However. Resources xxv . 2 Consult the MicroStrategy Knowledge Base online at http://www.Project Design Guide Preface Installation Upgrading an earlier installation from version 7.1. online help. Completely uninstalling all the MicroStrategy products and installing the same version or a newer version If you uninstall all the products and install either the same version or a higher version again.microstrategy. During installation.com/support/ k_base/index. you should: 1 Consult the product guides. all subsequent executions of the installation routine for maintenance or for upgrade.2 or earlier.2. Besides.asp © 2007 MicroStrategy. Technical Support If you have questions about a specific MicroStrategy product. including 7. and release notes.x Result The MicroStrategy Installation Wizard prompts you to select the language from the drop-down list. readme files. the MicroStrategy Installation Wizard prompts you to select the language from the drop-down list. Paths to access each are described above.

microstrategy.com/Support/ Expiration. A Support Liaison is a person whom your company has designated as a point-of-contact with MicroStrategy’s support personnel. 3 Attempt to reproduce the issue and determine whether it occurs consistently.com/ Support/Policies. To ensure the most effective and productive relationship with MicroStrategy Technical Support.Preface Project Design Guide A technical administrator in your organization may be able to help you resolve your issues immediately. review the Policies and Procedures document posted at http://www. Refer to the terms of your purchase agreement to determine the type of support available to you. Your company may designate two employees to serve as their Support Liaisons. 2 Verify that the system is using a currently supported version of MicroStrategy software by checking the Product Support Expiration Schedule at http://www. Your company may request to change their Support Liaisons two times per year with prior written notice to MicroStrategy Technical Support. Inc. 4 Minimize the complexity of the system or project object definition to isolate the cause. contact MicroStrategy Technical Support directly.microstrategy. 3 If the resources listed in the steps above do not provide you with a solution. xxvi Resources © 2007 MicroStrategy. All customer inquiries and case communications must come through these named individuals. the Support Liaison may follow the steps below to ensure that issues are resolved quickly: 1 Verify that the issue is with MicroStrategy software and not a third party software. MicroStrategy Technical Support may be contacted by your company’s Support Liaison. Ensure issues are resolved quickly Before logging a case with MicroStrategy Technical Support. .asp.

microstrategy.com Fax: (703) 842–8709 Phone: (703) 848–8700 Hours: 9:00 A.–7:00 P. These holidays reflect the national public holidays in each country.M.com.M. and Africa (EMEA) © 2007 MicroStrategy. 6 Discuss the issue with other users by posting a question about the issue on the MicroStrategy Customer Forum at https://forums. The table on the following page shows where. when. or log a case using the Online Support Interface. If your Support Liaison is unable to reach MicroStrategy Technical Support by phone during the hours of operation. Monday–Friday except holidays E-mail: eurosupp@microstrategy.M. and how to contact MicroStrategy Technical Support.com Fax: +44 (0) 208 396 0001 The European Technical Support Centre is closed on certain public holidays. North America E-mail: support@microstrategy. CET. Eastern Time (1400–0000 GMT).M. GMT.–6:00 P.microstrategy. the Middle East.Project Design Guide Preface 5 Determine whether the issue occurs on a local machine or on multiple machines in the customer environment. Monday-Friday except holidays Europe.microstrategy. they can leave a voicemail message.com Web: https://support.M.com Web: https://support. send e-mail or fax. Phone: • United Kingdom: +44 (0) 208 396 0085 • Benelux: +31 20 346 9210 • Finland: +35 8 9 6937 9620 • France: +33 1 41 91 86 49 • Germany: +49 69 95096206 • Ireland: +35 3 1242 1522 • Italy: +39 02696 33 456 • Spain: +34 91 406 90 10 • International distributors: +44 (0) 208 396 0080 Hours: • United Kingdom: 9:00 A. Inc.–6:00 P. Resources xxvii . Monday-Friday except holidays • Mainland Europe: 9:00 A.M.

Malaysia.Preface Project Design Guide Asia Pacific E-mail: apsupport@microstrategy.com Fax: +81 3 5456 5464 Phone: • Korea: +82 2 560 6565 • Singapore (supporting Singapore. During the course of troubleshooting and researching issues.–7:00 P.M. In North America.S. India.6303. Although not a requirement.8969 • Japan (supporting Japan. and all other Asia Pacific countries not listed in this section): +81 3 3511 6720 Hours: 9:00 A. national holidays. and Latin America. Taiwan.–6:00 P. The individual Technical Support Centers are closed on certain public holidays. Pakistan. BST (Sao Paulo).M. Hong Kong.M. This can eliminate security conflicts and improve case resolution time. MicroStrategy Technical Support personnel may make recommendations that require administrative privileges on the MicroStrategy projects.com Fax: +55 11 3044 4088 Phone: LATAM (except Argentina): +55 11 3054 1010 Argentina: 0 800 444 MSTR Hours: 9:00 A. China. Australia. Monday-Friday except holidays E-mail: latamsupport@microstrategy. New Zealand. these holidays reflect the national public holidays in each country. these holidays reflect many U.microstrategy. Monday–Friday except holidays Latin America Support Liaisons should contact the Technical Support Center from which they obtained their MicroStrategy software licenses or the Technical Support Center to which they have been designated. . Asia Pacific. In Europe. Inc.com Web: https://support. please provide the following information: • xxviii Resources Personal information: © 2007 MicroStrategy. or that assume that the designated Support Liaison has a security level that permits them to fully manipulate the MicroStrategy projects and has access to potentially sensitive project data such as security filter definitions. we recommend you designate Support Liaisons who have permissions to be MicroStrategy project administrators.microstrategy.com Web: https://support. Required information when calling When contacting MicroStrategy Technical Support.M. and Sri Lanka): +65. JST (Tokyo).

and steps taken to troubleshoot the case thus far • Business/system impact If this is the Support Liaison’s first call. including MicroStrategy software product(s) and versions Full description of the case including symptoms.Project Design Guide Preface Name (first and last) Company and customer site (if different from company) Contact information (phone and fax numbers. Resources • • xxix . and be ready to provide it when inquiring about an existing case software version and product registration numbers of the MicroStrategy software products you are using case description: What causes the condition to occur? Does the condition occur sporadically or each time a certain action is performed? Does the condition occur on all machines or just on one? © 2007 MicroStrategy. error messages(s). be prepared to provide the following additional information: • case number: Please keep a record of the number assigned to each case logged with MicroStrategy Technical Support. they should also be prepared to provide the following: • • • • street address phone number fax number e-mail address To help the Technical Support representative work to resolve the problem promptly and effectively. e-mail addresses) • Case details: Configuration information. Inc.

disk space. RAM. Inc.Preface Project Design Guide When did the condition first occur? What events took place immediately prior to the first occurrence of the condition (for example. . not all items listed below may be necessary): computer hardware specifications (processor speed. The Support Liaison may call MicroStrategy Technical Support at any time to inquire about the status of the issue. Feedback Please send any comments or suggestions about user documentation for MicroStrategy products to: xxx Feedback © 2007 MicroStrategy. a database move. If the Technical Support representative is responsible for an action item. The Support Liaison should perform any agreed-upon actions before contacting MicroStrategy Technical Support again regarding the issue. the Support Liaison and the MicroStrategy Technical Support representative should agree on certain action items to be performed. and so on) network protocol used ODBC driver manufacturer and version database gateway software version (for MicroStrategy Web-related problems) browser manufacturer and version (for MicroStrategy Web-related problems) Web server manufacturer and version If the issue requires additional investigation or testing. or a software upgrade)? If there was an error message. what was its exact wording? What steps have you taken to isolate and resolve the issue? What were the results? • system configuration (the information needed depends on the nature of the problem. a major database load.

Your feedback is important to us as we prepare for future releases. Inc.com Send suggestions for product enhancements to: support@microstrategy. Feedback xxxi .Project Design Guide Preface documentationfeedback@microstrategy. © 2007 MicroStrategy.com When you provide feedback to us. please include the name and version of the products you are currently using.

Preface Project Design Guide xxxii Feedback © 2007 MicroStrategy. . Inc.

1 . it is important to understand how business intelligence systems work and. Business intelligence (BI) systems facilitate the analysis of volumes of complex data by providing the ability to view data from multiple perspectives. specifically. An optimum business intelligence application: • • • Gives users access to data at various levels of detail Allows users to request information and have it delivered to them accurately and quickly Provides a foundation for the proactive delivery of information to system subscribers © 2007 MicroStrategy.1 1. Inc. BI ARCHITECTURE AND THE MICROSTRATEGY PLATFORM Introduction Before planning and creating a project in MicroStrategy. how the MicroStrategy platform interacts with your business data to provide a wide range of functionality.

2 Business intelligence architecture © 2007 MicroStrategy. and other data sources. For more information on how MicroStrategy can access your data sources. transformation. Hyperion Essbase. as well as some of the components within the MicroStrategy platform that allow you to create and analyze your business intelligence. page 5. SAP BW. MicroStrategy can also access data from text files. Microsoft Analysis Services. see Data warehouse for data storage and relational design. Excel files. Business intelligence architecture A BI architecture has the following components: • A source system—typically an online transaction processing (OLTP) system. but other systems or files that capture or hold data of interest are also possible An extraction. and loading (ETL) process A data warehouse—typically an online analytical processing (OLAP) system A business intelligence platform such as MicroStrategy • • • The diagram above illustrates the common setup for standardizing data from source systems and transferring that data into MicroStrategy. Inc. .1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide This chapter introduces you to the basic architecture of BI systems.

For more information on data warehouse design. that is. page 5. This processing is relied upon daily by nearly every industry. Each of these business services has a different and specific workflow. Transactional processing involves the simple recording of transactions and other business data such as sales. Meanwhile. website usage. Data formats are not necessarily uniform across systems. by business activities and workflow. see Data warehouse for data storage and relational design. and many others. © 2007 MicroStrategy. including health care. An example of data that benefits from this type of optimization is the number of credit card transactions that an OLTP system might record in a single day. A source system is usually the most significant site of online transaction processing (OLTP). A bank is an example of a business with many source systems. manufacturing. insertions. telecommunications. deposits. as the system records huge volumes of data every day. inventory.Project Design Guide BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform 1 Source systems for data collection Source systems refer to any system or file that captures or holds data of interest. • • • Recall the example of a bank that relies on several source systems to store data related to the many services the bank offers. or deletions. and therefore has many source systems to support these services. Data is aligned by application. a different source system—another file on the server—keeps track of each customer’s contact information. This is in contrast to data warehouses which are often designed for reading data for analysis with a minimum number of updates. suppose one source system—a database file on the bank’s server—keeps track of deposits and withdrawals as they occur. Inc. OLTP systems are databases or mainframes that store real-time processing data and have the following characteristics: • Data access is optimized for frequent reading and writing. An average bank offers several services such as account activity updates and loan disbursement. e-commerce. Data history is limited to recent or current data. and order processing. For example. Business intelligence architecture 3 .

loan status. The ETL process consolidates data so it can be stored in a data warehouse. you can withdraw or deposit money as well as check on balances. Each of these different sets of data is likely gathered by different source systems. and loading process The extraction. including the customer's ATM activity. This process can be explained with the example of a bank that wants to consolidate a variety of information about a particular customer. filling in incomplete data. transformation. correcting typographical errors. such as a customer's ATM activity. Transformation procedures can include converting data types and names. This is because the operational systems supporting these two services are designed to perform specific tasks. account balances. Inc. to get a money order. and similar processes to standardize the format and structure of data. the customer information stored in each of these different systems must be consolidated. and these two services require different operational systems. Since 4 Business intelligence architecture © 2007 MicroStrategy. This consolidation is achieved using the extraction. and loading (ETL) process represents all the steps necessary to move data from different source systems to an integrated data warehouse. loan status. transformation. If a bank wants to see a unified view of a particular customer. However.1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide At an automated teller machine (ATM). . eliminating unwanted data. Extraction. and money market account information. The ETL process involves the following steps: 1 Data is gathered from various source systems. and account balances. and loading (ETL) process. transformation. 3 The data is loaded into the data warehouse. 2 The data is transformed and prepared to be loaded into the data warehouse. you must enter the bank and perform the transaction with a bank teller.

a language developed specifically to interact with RDBMS software. Analytical processing involves activities such as choosing to see sales data by month and selecting the applicable metric to calculate sales trends. It enables its users to leverage the competitive advantage that the business intelligence provides. Excel files. or deleted. the data warehouse also provides the foundation for a robust online analytical processing (OLAP) system. Business intelligence architecture 5 . The source systems described above. Inc. You can integrate different types of data sources with MicroStrategy such as text files. For more information on accessing data stored in alternative data sources. whereas data warehouses are usually designed and optimized for analytical processing. the ETL process extracts the data from the different banking source systems. are generally designed and optimized for transactional processing. and then loads the data into the data warehouse. Most data warehouses have the following characteristics: • Data access is typically read-only. and profit analysis. Data warehouse for data storage and relational design A well-designed and robust data warehouse is the source of data for the decision support system or business intelligence system. Data warehouses are usually based on relational databases or some form of relational database management system (RDBMS) platform. the data that comes from one system may be inconsistent with the data that comes from another system. These relational databases can be queried directly with Structured Query Language (SQL). MicroStrategy does not require that data be stored in a relational database. such as OLTP systems. growth patterns. In combination with MicroStrategy tools and products. However. updated. This is in contrast to most © 2007 MicroStrategy. In this case. The most common action is the selection of data for analysis.Project Design Guide BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform 1 each source system can have its own naming conventions. page 6. transforms it until it is standardized and consistent. see Storing and analyzing data with alternative data sources. and OLAP cubes. Data is rarely inserted. percent-to-total contributions. trend reporting.

Defining a project’s logical data model and physical warehouse schema are important steps in preparing your data for a MicroStrategy project. • • Storing and analyzing data with alternative data sources Along with integrating with relational databases. A data source is any file. Inc. usually two to five years. . and refers specifically to using a database as your data source. which are a common type of data warehouse. page 4). page 3. Microsoft Analysis Services. and loading process. and analysis.1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide OLTP source systems which must be able to handle frequent updates as data is gathered. transformation. The following are different data source alternatives which MicroStrategy can integrate with: • OLAP cube sources: In MicroStrategy you can integrate with sets of data from SAP BW. For more information on source systems. A data warehouse can be thought of as one type of data source. For more information on the steps of the project design process. Data history extends long-term. Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model. page 4. MicroStrategy can also integrate with a number of alternative data sources. and loading process. see Source systems for data collection. • • Data is aligned by business subjects. The structure of data in a data warehouse and how it relates to your MicroStrategy environment can be defined and understood through a logical data model and physical warehouse schema. see Chapter 2. and Hyperion Essbase. Data formats are uniformly integrated using an ETL process (see Extraction. reporting. The Logical Data Model and Chapter 3. as explained in Extraction. which are referred to as 6 Business intelligence architecture © 2007 MicroStrategy. or storage location which stores data that is to be used in MicroStrategy for query. system. A data warehouse is populated with data from the existing operational systems using an ETL process. transformation.

you can query. deployment. page 11—an analytical server optimized for enterprise querying.Project Design Guide BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform 1 OLAP cube sources. For more information on using text files and Excel files with the Freeform SQL and Query Builder features. • Text files and Excel files: With MicroStrategy’s Freeform SQL and Query Builder features. The MicroStrategy platform A business intelligence platform offers a complete set of tools for the creation. The MicroStrategy platform 7 . page 13—a highly interactive user environment and a low-maintenance interface for reporting and analysis • • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. analyze. support. see Appendix B. reporting. As with OLAP cube sources described above. Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources. and maintenance of business intelligence applications. Some of the main components of the MicroStrategy platform include: • MicroStrategy metadata. Inc. Windows-based environment providing a complete range of analytical functions designed to facilitate the deployment of reports MicroStrategy Web and Web Universal. page 11—an advanced. MicroStrategy can integrate with these data sources while simultaneously accessing a relational database effectively. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. MicroStrategy can report against these alternative data sources while concurrently accessing a relational database to integrate all of your data into one cohesive project. and OLAP analysis MicroStrategy Desktop. For more information on connecting to and integrating OLAP cube sources in MicroStrategy. and report on data stored in text files and Excel files. page 8—a repository that stores MicroStrategy object definitions and information about the data warehouse MicroStrategy Intelligence Server.

page 14—where you build and store all schema objects and information you need to create application objects such as reports in the MicroStrategy environment. see the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. To learn how to administer and tune the MicroStrategy platform. For more detailed information about these and the other components that make up the MicroStrategy platform. Inc. The information is stored in a proprietary 8 The MicroStrategy platform © 2007 MicroStrategy. refer to the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. MicroStrategy metadata MicroStrategy metadata is a repository that stores MicroStrategy object definitions and information about your data warehouse.1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide • MicroStrategy project. which together provide a flexible reporting environment The MicroStrategy platform components work together to provide an analysis and reporting environment to your user community. The sections that follow provide a brief overview of each of these components. . as shown in the following diagram.

and so on. user privileges. In general. Facts are used to create metrics. and hierarchies are three essential pieces to any business intelligence application. The metadata maps MicroStrategy objects—which are used to build reports and analyze data—to your data warehouse structures and data. are all created and stored in the metadata repository. and columns. • © 2007 MicroStrategy. these objects. Examples include database instances. users. The MicroStrategy platform 9 . reports. The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts. These schema objects are often created and managed by a MicroStrategy architect: Facts relate numeric data values from the data warehouse to the MicroStrategy reporting environment.Project Design Guide BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform 1 format within a relational database. attributes. such as tables. Facts. You can build and manipulate several fundamentally different kinds of objects in MicroStrategy. and other objects which are stored in the Schema Objects folder in MicroStrategy Desktop’s folder list. Inc. For more information about creating and administering configuration objects. views. which are analytical calculations that are displayed on a report. Facts are discussed in more detail in Chapter 5. groups. attributes. The metadata also stores the definitions of all objects created with MicroStrategy Desktop and Web such as templates. and so on. Schema objects—Objects that are created in the application to correspond to database objects. and project administration. which are described below. facts. metrics. see the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. configuration objects are created and maintained with the managers in MicroStrategy Desktop within the Administration icon. report creation in MicroStrategy is achieved through using various types of objects which represent your data as report building blocks. hierarchies. The number of units sold is one example of a fact. Schema objects include facts. but are created by a project architect or administrator to configure and govern the platform. • Configuration objects—Objects that provide important information or governing parameters for connectivity. As a general rule. These objects are not used directly for reporting.

page 13. Inc. . templates. Application objects are created using schema objects as building blocks. metrics. MicroStrategy Intelligence Server evaluates the most efficient data retrieval scenario to provide excellent query performance.1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide Attributes represent the business context in which fact data is relevant. The metadata enables the sharing of objects across MicroStrategy applications by providing a central repository for all object definitions. documents. see MicroStrategy Web and Web Universal. Reports and documents can also be created and managed in MicroStrategy Web. The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes. All application objects can be created and maintained in MicroStrategy Desktop. Hierarchies are groupings of attributes so that they can be displayed to reflect their relationships to other attributes. These groupings can help users make logical connections between attributes when reporting and analyzing data. In the example of regional sales in the Southeast. MicroStrategy metadata also facilitates the retrieval of data from the data warehouse when using MicroStrategy applications. Quarter. Information on creating application objects is in the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide and MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. For more information about MicroStrategy Web. custom groups. and so on. Attributes are used to define the level at which you want to view the numeric data on a report. It converts user requests into SQL queries and 10 The MicroStrategy platform © 2007 MicroStrategy. Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes. and prompts. • Application objects—Objects used to provide analysis of and insight into relevant data. Month. Application objects include reports. Southeast represents the attribute or context of the sales data. Attributes are discussed in more detail in Chapter 6. One of the most common examples of a hierarchy is a time hierarchy which includes attributes such as Year. Hierarchies are discussed in more detail in Chapter 7. filters.

For information on how to install and configure MicroStrategy Intelligence Server. MicroStrategy Desktop provides the project designer functionality essential to creating both schema and application objects necessary to serve the user communities of both MicroStrategy Desktop and Web. The MicroStrategy platform 11 . © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc.Project Design Guide BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform 1 translates the results of those SQL queries back into MicroStrategy objects such as reports and documents which can be easily analyzed and understood. See the MicroStrategy Functions Reference for details about these functions. refer to the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. and OLAP analysis. MicroStrategy Desktop MicroStrategy Desktop is an advanced. For a detailed description of MicroStrategy Intelligence Server functionality and tuning recommendations. You can also add and define your own functions. reporting. The important functions of MicroStrategy Intelligence Server are: • • • • Sharing objects Sharing data Managing the sharing of data and objects in a controlled and secure environment Protecting the information in the metadata MicroStrategy Intelligence Server also provides a library of over 150 different sophisticated mathematical and statistical functions. refer to the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. Windows-based environment providing a complete range of analytical functionality designed to facilitate the deployment of reports. MicroStrategy Intelligence Server MicroStrategy Intelligence Server is an analytical server optimized for enterprise querying.

filters. This modification is necessary if you have new requirements that require you to add or remove new levels of data in a hierarchy. Projects are discussed in Chapter 4. schema objects must first exist. You can change the structure of a business hierarchy by re-ordering it. before application objects are created. and other schema objects are the building blocks for application objects such as reports and documents. One of the other functions of MicroStrategy Desktop is to create projects. attributes. which are in turn used to design reports. Desktop is where you can manage application objects such as reports. and MicroStrategy Office. It provides a unified environment for creating and maintaining business intelligence projects. thus providing access to your data. However. • After reports have been created. The following examples highlight some ways in which Desktop allows you to model your business intelligence applications: • Every report or query can automatically benefit from the tables you include in an application. without making any alterations to the database. Facts. If you need to change how to view your business information or how the data is modeled. report designers and analysts can deploy them through different interfaces. graphical interface. hierarchies. For information about the various components that comprise MicroStrategy Desktop. Schema objects allow application objects to interact with the data warehouse to access the data for analysis. Creating and Configuring a Project. 12 The MicroStrategy platform © 2007 MicroStrategy. Tables in MicroStrategy are references to tables in your data warehouse.1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide Desktop enables you to model applications using an intuitive. Application objects such as reports are used to analyze and provide insight into the relevant data. including MicroStrategy Desktop. The change automatically takes effect in the application. MicroStrategy Web. . Inc. and metrics. For example. Desktop provides the ability to modify one aspect of the application without affecting the others. facts are used to create metrics. refer to the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide.

are discussed in Project connectivity components. and share data through any web browser on many operating systems. refer to the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. Using the Web interface. MicroStrategy Web and Web Universal MicroStrategy Web provides users with a highly interactive environment and a low-maintenance interface for reporting and analysis. IBM AIX®. MicroStrategy Web Universal is a version of MicroStrategy Web that provides the added benefits of also working with: • • • Operating systems such as Sun Solaris™. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. Additional MicroStrategy definitions. users can access. Red Hat® Linux®. IBM WebSphere®. including many project-related terms. For information on advanced Desktop functionality. and rapid customization potential.Project Design Guide BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform 1 For more information about creating application objects such as reports in MicroStrategy Desktop. Inc. MicroStrategy Web provides ad-hoc querying. making it easy for users to make informed business decisions. The MicroStrategy platform 13 . see the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. and HP-UX Application servers such as BEA WebLogic™. Sun ONE®. quick deployment. and Apache Tomcat All web servers and browsers supported by MicroStrategy Web MicroStrategy Intelligence Server must be running for users to retrieve information from your data warehouse using MicroStrategy Web products. © 2007 MicroStrategy. analyze. Oracle®. page 64. industry-leading analysis. For more information about deploying MicroStrategy Web.

metrics. A project also represents the intersection of a data source. a project the environment in which all related reporting is done. Conceptually. including application objects such as filters. Security and other project-level administrative features are discussed in the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. metadata repository. filters. and therefore the set of data available to be analyzed. Contains all reporting objects used to create reports and analyze the data. For example. prompts. . Inc. sales distribution.1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide MicroStrategy project A project is where you build and store all schema objects and information you need to create application objects such as reports in the MicroStrategy environment. and reports that you can create using schema objects such as attributes and facts. reports. Projects are often used to separate data from a data warehouse into smaller sections of related data that fit user requirements. and so on. privileges. In MicroStrategy Desktop. Defines the security scheme for the user community that accesses these objects. and 14 The MicroStrategy platform © 2007 MicroStrategy. projects appear one level below project sources in the Folder List. Schema objects are discussed in later chapters in this guide. and user community. which together provide a flexible reporting environment. Schema objects include facts. Report objects are covered in the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide and the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. inventory. Security objects include security filters. you may have a project source separated into four different projects with analysis areas such as human resources. A project: • • Determines the set of data warehouse tables to be used. hierarchies. A project can contain many types of objects. and so on. Reporting objects include metrics. attributes. access control. Contains all schema objects used to interpret the data in those tables. security roles. and so on. • • A project can contain any number of reports in addition to a number of other objects that support simple and advanced reporting requirements.

© 2007 MicroStrategy. In the project. Some key concepts to understand before you begin creating a project are as follows: • A project is created within a specified metadata repository. you can then create schema objects based on the columns and tables in the warehouse. determined by the project source through which you create the project. page 73. The project design process When you create a project in MicroStrategy Desktop. Inc.Project Design Guide BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform 1 customer satisfaction. The project design process 15 . one of the connections you create is between the project and your data warehouse. • The procedures associated with these concepts are explained in Creating the project. The project’s warehouse location is specified by associating it with the appropriate database instance. This allows all of your users in the human resources department to use the human resources project and they do not have to look through inventory data that they are not interested in.

Designing a project is very rarely a single.1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide The diagram below shows this high-level view of data modeling. . Inc. new user requirements and project enhancements require modification to the initial project design. and project creation. 16 The project design process © 2007 MicroStrategy. linear process. As projects are deployed and tested. schema design and implementation. which are each covered in the following chapters: Notice that the project design process includes a feedback loop. It is important to keep this in mind as you design your project and plan for the next phase of development.

which arranges data for efficient database use. You also need a plan that is visible and laid out correctly. providing a way of organizing data so it can be analyzed from different business perspectives. For example. This is different from the physical data model or warehouse schema. how its various parts interact. a simple logical data model for a retail company can organize all necessary © 2007 MicroStrategy. You need to know where you are going and how to get there. Inc. A logical data model is similar in concept to using a map and an itinerary when going on a trip. 17 . This chapter describes one of the major components of data modeling: the logical data model. THE LOGICAL DATA MODEL Conceptualizing your business model and the data on which to report Introduction Devising a model of your business data can help you analyze the structure of the data.2 2. The logical data model graphically depicts the flow and structure of data in a business environment. and can also help you decide what you intend to learn from the data. A logical data model is a logical arrangement of data as experienced by the general user or business analyst.

and time. a logical data model may or may not have any explicitly defined dimensions. This is the key concept of the logical data model. The scope and complexity of a logical data model depends on the requirements of the reporting needs of the user community and the availability of source data. 18 © 2007 MicroStrategy. What occurs under the logical data model can change with need or with technology. The more sophisticated and complex the reporting requirements and source data. which are three common business perspectives typically associated with a retail business. The reason that a logical data model must be independent of technology is because technology is changing so rapidly. product. the word logical is a more accurate term than multidimensional. As the MicroStrategy platform does not require you to define dimensions explicitly. logical data modeling is similar to multidimensional data modeling. Logical data models are independent of a physical data storage device. . If you are familiar with multidimensional data modeling. While a multidimensional data model must have at least one dimension. the more complex the logical data model becomes. but the blueprint remains the same. and you do not need to start over completely. Inc.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide facts by store.

This process can help you think about the various elements that compose your company’s business data and how those elements relate to one another. 19 . conceptual. © 2007 MicroStrategy. and relationships of data in a technical. or business environment. Inc. characteristics.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 The logical data modeling process produces a diagram similar to the one shown in the following diagram: A logical data model represents the definition.

the elements that exist within them.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide Devising a logical data model for your business intelligence environment allows you to then consider various ways to physically store the business data in the data warehouse. This is usually one of the first steps in designing a project. A logical data model is a graphic representation of the following concepts: • • • Facts: Business data and measurements. as shown in the following diagram: This chapter provides conceptual information about logical data models. . page 21 Attributes: Context for your levels of data. page 25 20 © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 22 Hierarchies: Data relationship organization. Inc. and also general instructions and guidelines for creating these models.

while you capture stock and inventory data in another system and track it weekly. 9. you can think of facts as business measurements.CALL_CTR_ID in (5. facts exist as columns within the fact tables. For example.EMP_ID) WHERE a22. such as SUM and AVG. Inc. facts are schema objects that relate data values (typically numeric data) from the data warehouse to the MicroStrategy reporting environment. To those familiar with SQL. in the following SQL statement. For example. Facts are the building blocks used to create business measurements or metrics from which to derive insight into your data. The rest of data modeling consists mostly of providing context for the data that facts provide access to. and Account Balance are some examples of facts you can use as business measurements.ORDER_AMT) EMP_NAME FROM ORDER_FACT a21 JOIN LU_EMPLOYEE a22 ON (a21. you can capture sales data in one system and track it daily. In MicroStrategy. They can come from different source systems and they can have different levels of detail. or variables that are typically numeric and suitable for aggregation. Conceptually. Facts allow you to access data stored in a data warehouse and they form the basis for the majority of users’ analysis and report requirements. facts generally represent the numeric columns in database tables on which you perform SQL aggregations. data. Inventory.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 Facts: Business data and measurements One of the first things you do when you create a logical data model is to determine the facts.EMP_ID = a22. Sales. the ORDER_AMT column in the warehouse may correspond to the Order Amount fact in the MicroStrategy environment: SELECT sum(a21. In a data warehouse. Facts: Business data and measurements 21 . 12) © 2007 MicroStrategy.

Attributes allow you to answer questions about a fact and provide a context for reporting and analyzing those facts. For example. or a single store Attributes provide context and levels for convenient summarization and qualification of your data to help answer the type of questions listed above. To those familiar with SQL. consider the sales figures of your company. sum(a21. For example. attributes generally represent the non-numeric and non-aggregatable columns in database tables. if your sales data is stored at the day level. They are used to answer business questions about facts at varying levels of detail. To make the sales figure meaningful. such as national. while ORDER_AMT is the fact.000. Fore a more complete discussion about facts. regional. 22 Attributes: Context for your levels of data © 2007 MicroStrategy. a Month attribute allows you to see the same sales data summarized at the month level. you would need to know more about the source of that sales figure such as: • • • • A time frame for the sales Who and how many people contributed to the sales total What products were sold from which departments The scope of the sale. Metrics are discussed in detail in the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts. . These columns are used to qualify and group fact data. Inc.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide In addition. the attributes must be identified. If you were informed that your company had sales of $10. you can gather little useful information.ORDER_AMT) represents a metric. refer to Chapter 5. which are business calculations often built using facts. Attributes: Context for your levels of data After the facts are determined. local.

attributes are used to build the report and the attribute elements are displayed in rows or columns on the executed report. For a complete discussion about attributes. For example.TOT_DOLLAR_SALES) DLRSALES FROM MNTH_CATEGORY_SLS a11 join LU_MONTH a12 on (a11.MONTH_ID) WHERE a11.MONTH_ID MONTH_ID. the MONTH_ID column in the warehouse maps to the Month attribute in the MicroStrategy environment: SELECT a11.MONTH_ID in (200201. Inc. refer to Chapter 6.200203) GROUP BY al1. The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes.MONTH_ID = a12.MONTH_ID Attribute forms contain additional descriptive information about a given attribute and are discussed in terms of the logical data model in Attribute forms. Attributes: Context for your levels of data 23 . max(a12. On a report. Attribute elements: Data level values Attribute elements are the unique values or contents of an attribute. For example. sum(a11. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Attribute elements also allow you to qualify on data to retrieve specific results. 2005 and 2006 are elements of the Year attribute while New York and London are elements of the City attribute.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 For example. in the following SQL statement.MONTH_DESC) MONTH_DESC. a Customer attribute allows you to see sales data at the customer level and you can qualify on the elements of the Customer attribute to see sales data for groups such as customers with last names beginning with the letter h. page 36.200202.

Every direct relationship between attributes has two parts—a parent and a child. they are necessary in understanding attribute relationships. The relationships give meaning to the data by providing logical associations of attributes based on business rules. The parent attribute is at a 24 Attributes: Context for your levels of data © 2007 MicroStrategy. Without relationships. and therefore no logical structure. to have a solid understanding of all the attributes in the project. . Attribute relationships Building an effective project in MicroStrategy requires you. Inc. Attribute elements are discussed in more detail in Unique sets of attribute information: Attribute elements. as the project designer. which are associations between attributes that specify how attributes are connected. there is no interaction between data. you can better design your data model and project. By recognizing and understanding the elements of an attribute. as well as how each of them relates to the other attributes. page 140. A child must always have a parent and a parent can have multiple children. Attribute relationships.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide The following diagram shows some examples of attributes and attribute elements. Although attribute elements are not included in the logical data model. are essential to the logical data model.

Attributes in one hierarchy are not directly related to attributes in another hierarchy. Inc. in a relationship between Year and Quarter. Examples of related and unrelated attributes. page 159. For example. and hierarchies are related and form a complete logical data model is shown in the section Sample data model. They are identified by multiple attributes. are discussed in Attribute relationships. Therefore. It is the existence of a fact that ties the Time hierarchy to the Customer hierarchy. In this case. Hierarchies: Data relationship organization Hierarchies in a logical data model are ordered groupings of attributes arranged to reflect their relationship with other attributes. For example.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 higher logical level than the child is. One year has many quarters and both attributes are in the Time hierarchy. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Year and Customer are attributes that are usually not in the same hierarchy and are not directly related to each other. facts exist at the intersection of hierarchies. you can group the attributes Year. A graphical example of how facts. there must be some way to determine how these two attributes are related. However. which represent the level at which a fact is stored. along with more detailed information about attribute relationships. In a logical data model. For example. the fact is a customer purchase. page 26 below. Usually the best design for a hierarchy is to organize or group attributes into logical business areas. attributes. Hierarchies: Data relationship organization 25 . and Day to form the Time hierarchy. Month. if you want to create a report that shows information about customer purchases in a particular year. Year and Customer are related through a fact. hierarchies contain attributes that are directly related to each other. Attributes are either related or unrelated to each other. Year is the parent attribute and Quarter is the child. Year and Quarter are attributes that are usually directly related to each other.

The following diagram is an example of a logical data model: Building a logical data model The first thing you must do before creating a logical data model is study the factors that influence your design. and hierarchies—a logical data model begins to take shape. Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes. Inc. relationships. attributes. . refer to Chapter 7. Some of the things to consider when creating a logical data model are • • • User requirements Existing source systems Converting source data to analytical data 26 Sample data model © 2007 MicroStrategy. Sample data model When all of the components are placed in a single diagram—facts.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide For a complete discussion about hierarchies.

as explained in Existing source systems. company executives are typically interested in overall trends and may want reports showing data aggregated across the company and over a long period of time. In some cases. © 2007 MicroStrategy. However. Inc. new user requirements may require you to modify the logical data model to better support the type of analysis and the retrieval of data that users demand. When creating the logical data model. For example. Sometimes. Your user community can consist of people with vastly different requirements. User requirements are an important part of the initial project design process. These managers may want reports about their specific region or store over short-and long-terms. Lower-level managers are typically more interested in data about their particular areas of responsibility. you can derive additional data not found in the source systems. In some cases.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 User requirements The primary goal of logical data modeling is to meet the needs of your users’ reporting requirements. additional user requirements can be encountered after deploying a project as users encounter areas for enhancement. page 28. lack of data in the source systems can limit user requirements. you must consider all the potential users and how to accommodate their varied requirements. where additional questions and concerns arise with each draft of the logical data model. Developing such a model involves the following: • • • Identification of user requirements Design of solutions Evaluation of those solutions Logical data modeling is a reiterative process. to satisfy user requirements. Building a logical data model 27 .

. most logical models begin with an examination of the source data once existing systems are developed and 28 Building a logical data model © 2007 MicroStrategy. Converting source data to analytical data If there are no existing systems and you are just beginning your data warehousing initiative. but the business analysts want to see data for different states or regions. and relationships. Although some data may not exist in a source system. Existing data is usually abundant. you may not find all the facts and attributes to meet your needs within the data itself. Inc.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide Existing source systems Understanding what data is available is an important step in creating a logical data model. although data is stored at a daily level in the source system. everything you find in the source data does not necessarily need to be included in the logical data model. While a review of your data is initially helpful in identifying components of your logical data model. but a substantial portion of the work in creating a suitable logical data model involves determining what additional components are required to satisfy the needs of the user community. attributes. You must determine what facts and attributes in the existing data are necessary for supporting the decision support requirements of your user community. users also want to see data at the monthly or yearly level. For example. you can plan additional attributes to provide the levels at which you intend to analyze the facts in your data model. However. In this case. this does not mean that it should not be included in the logical data model. User requirements should drive the decision on what to include and what to exclude. you can build the logical data model based heavily on current user requirements. Additionally. State and region do not appear in the existing source data and so you need to extract them from another source. The existing data should suggest a number of facts. Conversely. an insurance company’s transactional system records data by customer and city. consisting of a large number of facts and attributes.

for a particular item. however. Whether you start from nothing or have an existing source system to use. An ERD provides a graphical representation of the physical structure of the data in the source system. make a list of all data that can be represented as facts in MicroStrategy. page 29 Step 2: Identify the attributes. For example. The source data usually has some sort of documented physical structure. in retail models. page 30 Step 3: Determine attribute relationships. can be © 2007 MicroStrategy. which lets you easily recognize tables and columns and the data stored in those columns. item. For example. determine the business level at which each fact is recorded. However. Remember that facts can be calculated and are usually numeric and aggregatable. page 32 The details in these steps are related to using an existing source system. page 31 Step 4: Define hierarchies.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 implemented. or day level. A logical data model is similar in concept to an ERD. meaning that a sale takes place in a particular store. After you have all the facts listed. in this guide the logical data model also takes into account how your data can be integrated into MicroStrategy to develop a business intelligence solution. on a particular day. sales and profit figures. Inc. Building a logical data model 29 . most OLTP systems have an entity relationship diagram (ERD). for example. Step 1: Identify the facts Using your existing data. A product inventory fact. sales facts are often stored at the store. the steps to create a logical data model are as follows: • • • • Step 1: Identify the facts.

This practice is sometimes a reaction to user requirements established after project deployment. page 30). These business levels become the attributes in your logical data model (see Step 2: Identify the attributes. or week level. This information may only be apparent to you after you deploy your project and you determine that a high percentage of your users are viewing sales data at the yearly level. Step 2: Identify the attributes Uncover attributes by considering the levels at which you would like to view the facts on your reports. month. and week levels. Inc. item. in the existing data there may be fact data recorded only at the day level. For example. page 241). You can then design a Year attribute for your project. However. . Start by looking at the levels at which each fact is recorded and build from there. your users are interested in analyzing data at more than just at the day level. They also want to view their data at the year. This analysis requires MicroStrategy to aggregate the sales data from the day level to the year level. you can include an aggregate table that stores sales data at the year level (see Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables. To improve performance and meet the requirements of the majority of your users. but such considerations should be taken into account during your initial project design initiative. 30 Building a logical data model © 2007 MicroStrategy.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide stored at the region.

and so on. For example. for every year. For example. From the reverse perspective the same relationship specifies that. Year has a one-to-many relationship to Month. you should determine the type of relationship. in the Sales Force Analysis Module of the MicroStrategy BIDK opportunity information is stored with an Opportunity attribute which is directly related to the attributes Opportunity Close Date. Opportunity Open Date. Inc. in the diagram below. and for every month. Primary Competitor. Only include facts and attributes that can serve your user community. These attributes are all related to the Opportunity attribute because they all answer questions about opportunity information. Step 3: Determine attribute relationships Once you have identified your data to be defined as attributes in MicroStrategy. you can always add more attributes and facts later. Logical data modeling is an iterative process. Building a logical data model 31 . This one-to-many relationship specifies that. and Month has a one-to-many relationship to Day. several dates exist. for a number of dates (in a © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 Be careful not to include more facts and attributes than necessary. you must then determine which attributes are related to each other. Additionally. It is usually unnecessary to bring all data from the source system into the analytical environment. if necessary. several months exist.

For example. . only one month exists (in a form such as Dec 2005). Inc. it is likely that the documentation provides some additional details about the nature of the data and any inherent relationships. and for a number of months. you can organize all time-related attributes into the Time hierarchy. think of hierarchies as logical arrangements of attributes into business areas. Consider the Year to Month attribute relationship type of one-to-many. Attribute relationships are discussed in detail in Attribute relationships. only one year exists. You can 32 Building a logical data model © 2007 MicroStrategy. This example may not accurately define how you store time information. Jan. such as an ERD. Jan 2006. and so on) and not directly connected to a year (Dec 2005. and so on) then the relationship would become many-to-many. page 24. If you define the attribute Month as simply the month name (Dec. If you have documentation for the existing data. Step 4: Define hierarchies Hierarchies provide a structure for your data and can help your users easily and intuitively browse for related attributes and include them in a report.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide form such as 12/01/2005). In the context of a logical data model.

help with system maintenance. and make for a more robust logical data model. Logical data modeling conventions There are numerous logical data modeling conventions you can use to enhance your logical data model. Inc. Although the user community is the ultimate beneficiary of a © 2007 MicroStrategy. in which case you may have one big hierarchy. These include: • • • Unique identifiers Cardinalities and ratios Attribute forms These logical modeling conventions can provide cues for system optimization opportunities.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 have a Customer hierarchy containing all attributes related to your customers and a Supplier hierarchy for all attributes related to supplier data. the requirements of your user community should help you determine what hierarchies are necessary. you may have very few hierarchies or you may have many. Logical data modeling conventions 33 . Again. It is possible that all the data is directly related. Depending on the complexity of your data and the nature of your business.

Unique identifiers denote the key that maps an attribute to its source data in the source system. Some attributes rely on more than 34 Logical data modeling conventions © 2007 MicroStrategy. Each convention adds more information about the data to the logical data model. these conventions are primarily intended for project designers. and advanced report designers. This information can help define primary keys in the physical warehouse schema (see Uniquely identifying data in tables with key structures. This additional information can be particularly useful to a person learning about the system. Unique identifiers An additional modeling convention is to add unique identifiers for each attribute and fact. Inc. administrators. Remember that facts are usually identified by multiple attributes and therefore will have multiple unique identifiers.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide well-optimized and maintained system. when applicable. . The following diagram shows a logical data model with unique identifiers added. page 42).

Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes. Cardinalities and ratios Another enhancement to the logical data model is the addition of cardinalities and ratios for each attribute. For example. Ratios can be particularly helpful when trying to © 2007 MicroStrategy. which are discussed in Chapter 7.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 one ID column to identify its elements. which requires both the Item_ID and Class_ID columns to uniquely identify its elements. note the Item attribute. Cardinality is the number of unique elements for an attribute and ratios are the ratios between the cardinalities of related attributes. Logical data modeling conventions 35 . Cardinalities help the database administrator estimate the size of the data warehouse and help project designers determine the best paths for users to navigate through the data using hierarchies in MicroStrategy. Inc.

For example. this is because this information varies and is unpredictable. Note the cardinalities in the upper right corner of each attribute rectangle and the ratios next to some of the relationships between attributes. The following diagram shows a logical data model which includes cardinalities and ratios. it is impossible to determine how many customers have different dates of birth in the warehouse. Inc. . Attribute forms Including attribute forms in your logical data model can help you get a more complete view of all of the information that is made available in your project. 36 Logical data modeling conventions © 2007 MicroStrategy.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide decide where creating aggregate tables will be most effective. This additional information can be invaluable to database administrators and project designers. Also note that the cardinality of some attributes such as Date of Birth are unknown.

Inc. Logical data modeling conventions 37 . they do not represent different levels within the Customer hierarchy. and it is part of the Customer hierarchy. you create an attribute called Customer to represent customers in your system. When a one-to-one relationship exists between an attribute and one of its descriptions. and in the data. though. Each element of the Customer attribute represents a different customer. these attributes simply provide additional information about the Customer attribute. In reality.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 Attribute forms contain additional descriptive information about a given attribute. you could have included each of these pieces of information as separate attributes. each with a one-to-one relationship to the Customer attribute. you store the following information about your customers: • • • • • Customer number (some numeric code used to uniquely identify customers) First name Last name Address Email address In your logical data model. For example. you can model these additional © 2007 MicroStrategy.

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pieces of descriptive information as attribute forms. The following diagram shows how you add attribute forms to a logical data model:

Attribute forms are discussed in terms of their role in MicroStrategy in Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms, page 143.

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Physical Warehouse Schema

WAREHOUSE STRUCTURE FOR YOUR LOGICAL DATA MODEL

Introduction
As discussed in the previous chapter, the logical data model can help you think about the logical structure of your business data and the many relationships that exist within that information. The physical warehouse schema is based on the logical data model. It is a detailed graphic representation of your business data as it is stored in the data warehouse. The physical warehouse schema organizes the logical data model in a method that makes sense from a database perspective. In contrast, the logical data model is a logical arrangement of data from the perspective of the general user or business analyst. For more information on what a logical data model is and how to create one, see Chapter 2, The Logical Data Model. The logical data model is only concerned with logical objects of the business model, such as Day, Item, Store, or Account. Several physical warehouse schemas can be derived from the same logical data model. The structure of the schema
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depends on how the data representing those logical objects are to be stored in the warehouse. For example you can store logical objects in the same table, in separate tables, duplicated across several tables, or in some other arrangement. While the logical data model tells you what facts and attributes to create, the physical warehouse schema tells you where the underlying data for those objects is stored. The physical warehouse schema describes how your data is stored in the data warehouse and how it can be retrieved for analysis. Creating a physical warehouse schema is the next step in organizing your business data before you create a project, as shown below:

The key components that make up the physical warehouse schema are columns and tables. Columns and tables in the physical warehouse schema represent facts and attributes from the logical data model. The rows in a table represent attribute elements and fact data.

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Columns: Data identifiers and values
Columns are fields in the warehouse that contain attribute and fact data. The types of columns are: • ID columns contain attribute element identification codes. These codes are typically numeric because computers can process numbers much more rapidly than text. All attributes must have an ID column. Description columns contain descriptions (text or numeric) of attribute elements. Description columns are optional. An ID column can serve a dual purpose as both an ID and description. Date is one example of an attribute that usually does not have a description column. The majority of attributes typically have an ID column and at least one description column. If an attribute has many attribute forms—additional descriptive information about a given attribute—they are represented by additional description columns. • Fact columns contain fact data.

Tables: Physical groupings of related data
The different types of tables are • • • Lookup tables: Attribute storage, page 43 Relate tables: A unique case for relating attributes, page 45 Fact tables: Fact data and levels of aggregation, page 46

While each type of table may function differently within the data warehouse, each type of table can be assigned a primary key that uniquely identifies the elements within the given table.

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Uniquely identifying data in tables with key structures
In relational databases, each table has a primary key that creates a unique value identifying each distinct data record or row. This applies to every type of table within the data warehouse. The types of keys that can be assigned to a table include: • • Simple key requires only one column to identify a record uniquely within a table. Compound key requires multiple columns to identify a unique record.

Which key structure you use to identify a unique attribute in a table depends on the nature of your data and business requirements. The following diagram shows how the different key structures can be used to identify a calling center.

The simple key shows how you can identify a calling center with only its Call_Ctr_id. This means that every calling center has its own unique ID. In the compound key, calling centers are identified by both Call_Ctr_id and Region_id. This means that two calling centers from different regions can share the same Call_Ctr_id. For example, there can be a calling center with ID 1 in region A, and another calling center with ID 1 in region B. In this case, you cannot identify a unique calling center without knowing both the Call_Ctr_id and the Region_id. Simple keys are generally easier to handle in the data warehouse than are compound keys because they require less storage space and they allow for simpler SQL. Compound

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keys tend to increase SQL query complexity, query time, and required storage space. However, compound keys have a more efficient ETL process. Which key structure you use for a particular attribute depends entirely on the nature of the data and your system. Consider what key structures work best when creating lookup tables in the physical warehouse schema.

Lookup tables: Attribute storage
Lookup tables are the physical representation of attributes. They provide the ability to aggregate data at different levels. Lookup tables store the information for an attribute in ID and description columns (see Columns: Data identifiers and values, page 41). Depending on how you choose to organize the physical schema, a lookup table can store information for one or more related attributes. If a table only stores data about one attribute, it is said to be a normalized table. If a table holds data about multiple attributes, it is said to be a denormalized table. The following diagram shows the different ways in which you can organize the same attribute information. Notice that the denormalized table holds the exact same data as the normalized tables. While the denormalized table consolidates

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information about attributes within one table, the normalized tables each contain only a subset of all of the information about the attributes.

You can use either structure for any table in the physical warehouse schema, though each structure has its advantages and disadvantages, as explained in the following sections and outlined in the table in Schema type comparisons, page 60.

Attribute relationships and lookup table structure
Attribute relationships are a major factor in determining the structure of lookup tables in a physical warehouse schema. In general, the following guidelines apply: • One-to-one relationships usually denote the existence of an attribute form. The description column of an attribute form should simply be included as an additional column in the attribute’s lookup table. Many-to-many relationships usually require the use of a relate table distinct from either attribute lookup table. A relate table should include the ID columns of the two attributes in question. For more information on how to use relate tables, see Relate tables: A unique case for relating attributes, page 45.

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Relate tables: A unique case for relating attributes
While lookup tables store information about attributes, relate tables store information about the relationship between two attributes. Relate tables contain the ID columns of two or more attributes, thus defining associations between them. Relate tables are often used to create relationships between attributes that have a many-to-many relationship to each other. With attributes whose direct relationship is one-to-many—in which every element of a parent attribute can relate to multiple elements of a child attribute—you define parent-child relationships by placing the ID column of the parent attribute in the lookup table of the child attribute. The parent ID column in the child table is called a foreign key. This technique allows you to define relationships between attributes in the attributes’ lookup tables, creating tables that function as both lookup tables and relate tables as shown in the following diagram:

In the case of a many-to-many relationship—in which multiple elements of a parent attribute can relate to multiple elements of a child attribute—you must create a separate relate table as shown in the following diagram:

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Fact tables: Fact data and levels of aggregation
Fact tables are used to store fact data. Since attributes provide context for fact values, both fact columns and attribute ID columns are included in fact tables. Facts help to link indirectly related attributes. The attribute ID columns included in a fact table represent the level at which the facts in that table are stored. For example, fact tables containing sales and inventory data look like the tables shown in the following diagram:

For more details on the level of aggregation of your fact data, see Fact table levels: The context of your data, page 48.

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Tables: Physical groupings of related data 47 . and Discount fact columns. © 2007 MicroStrategy. The following diagram shows an example of a fact table and how you can create a derived fact column from base fact columns: In the example. The following diagram shows an example of a fact table and base fact columns: • Derived fact columns are created through a mathematical combination of other existing fact columns. Also. Inc. the derived fact exists in several tables. Unit_Price. including Item_Mnth_Sls and City_Ctr_Sls. the derived fact Tot_Dollar_Sales is created using the Qty_Sold.Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 Base fact columns versus derived fact columns The types of fact columns are base fact columns and derived fact columns: • Base fact columns are represented by a single column in a fact table.

For example. For more information on the different types of facts in MicroStrategy and how they are defined. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. The advantage of storing derived fact columns in the warehouse is that the calculation of data is previously performed and stored separately. page 97. and Call_Ctr_id columns in the table above represent practical levels at which sales and inventory data can be analyzed on a report. . see How facts are defined.3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide Because facts in different fact tables are typically stored at different levels. Day_id. There are advantages and disadvantages to consider when deciding if you should create a derived fact column. the following image shows two facts with an Item/Day/Call Center level. The Item_id. The disadvantage is that derived fact columns require more storage space and more time during the ETL process. Metrics allow you to perform calculations and aggregations on fact data from one or more fact columns. Inc. Fact table levels: The context of your data Facts and fact tables have an associated level based on the attribute ID columns included in the fact table. and call center levels because those levels exist as ID columns in the fact table. which translates into simpler SQL and a speedier query at report run time. day. The Sales and Inventory facts can be analyzed at the item. derived fact columns can only contain fact columns from the same fact table. 48 Tables: Physical groupings of related data © 2007 MicroStrategy. For more information on what metrics are and how to create them. You can create the same type of data analysis in MicroStrategy with the use of metrics.

Homogeneous versus heterogeneous column naming Suppose the data warehouse has information from two source systems. this is because analyzing inventory data at the customer level does not result in a practical business calculation. and when a reporting request involves still a different level. Inc. You must be able to support fact reporting at the business levels which users require. Fact tables should only include attribute ID columns that represent levels at which you intend to analyze the specific fact data. Though the Region_id and Reg_id columns have different names. The levels at which facts are stored become especially important when you begin to have complex queries with multiple facts in multiple tables that are stored at levels different from one another. © 2007 MicroStrategy. This is called heterogeneous column naming. These naming inconsistencies occur because source systems use different naming conventions to name the data they collect. notice that the table above does not include the Customer_id column. and in one source system regions are identified by column name Region_id and in the other the column name is Reg_id. they store the same data: information about regions. For example.Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 You do not need to include more lookup column IDs than are necessary for a given fact table. Tables: Physical groupings of related data 49 . as shown in the diagram below.

consider the heterogeneous column names that may exist in your source systems. In order for reports to retrieve accurate and complete results. if you create a Region attribute given the tables in the example above. as shown in the following diagram: 50 Tables: Physical groupings of related data © 2007 MicroStrategy. This is called homogeneous column naming. This explains why the same information about regions is represented by two columns with different names. For example. it is a good idea for columns that contain the same data to have the same column name. For consistency. you must map both the Region_id and Reg_id columns to the attribute so all information about regions is calculated correctly and displayed on reports when the Region attribute is used. In this case.3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide The data for the Lookup_Region table came from a different source system than the data for the Lookup_Call_Ctr and the source systems have different naming conventions. heterogeneous columns must be mapped to their corresponding facts and attributes. When you define facts and attributes in MicroStrategy Desktop. the Region_ID column has the same name in both tables. . Inc.

Inc. 51 . one of the schema types. How you choose to structure the warehouse depends on the nature of your data. is used to organize the physical schema to enhance query performance while maintaining and acceptable amount of data storage space. as shown below: Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage There are many ways to structure your data warehouse and no method is inherently right or wrong. These schema types are: • • • Highly normalized schema: Minimal storage space Moderately normalized schema: Balanced storage space and query performance Highly denormalized schema: Enhanced query performance Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage © 2007 MicroStrategy. the available storage space. A fact column may or may not have the same name in different tables. Typically. it is also possible for the same fact data to exist in different fact tables. and the requirements of your user community. or a combination of them.Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 Just as it is possible for the same attribute data to exist in different lookup tables.

Fact table keys consist of attribute keys relevant to the level of data stored in the table. but as with any operation performed on your data warehouse. Data redundancy also makes updating data a more intensive and difficult process because data resides in multiple places. • Highly normalized schema: Minimal storage space The following diagram is an example of a highly normalized schema. page 241). Dist_Ctr_id. the number of joins required to build your queries affects the performance of those queries. and Region_id. Dist_Ctr_desc. Inc.3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide In each of these schemas a base fact table and any number of aggregate fact tables are used (For more information on aggregate fact tables. data only has to be updated in a single place. lookup tables contain unique developer-designed attribute keys. In highly normalized schemas. These operations are necessary. you should keep in mind the following concepts: • Redundant data can cause a couple of drawbacks. as shown in the figure below. and 52 Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage © 2007 MicroStrategy. With no data redundancy. However. such as Call_Ctr_id. the sections below are meant to give a description of the most common or general schema types that are used to develop a physical warehouse schema. • Joins are SQL operations that are required to combine two tables together in order to retrieve data. see Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables. When comparing the different schema types. They also contain attribute description columns. The sections below are not meant to be an exhaustive list of all possible schema types. such as Call_Ctr_desc. The most obvious drawback is that redundant data requires more storage space to hold the same amount of data as a system with no redundancy. The schema examples that follow show data at the Item/Call Center/Date level. .

Inc. Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage 53 . © 2007 MicroStrategy. such as Dist_Ctr_id in the Lookup_Call_Ctr table. the lookup table for an attribute contains the ID column of the parent attribute.Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 Region_desc. Also.

The difference 54 Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage © 2007 MicroStrategy. However. .3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide The following diagram shows what physical lookup tables look like in the warehouse: One benefit of using a highly normalized schema is that it requires minimal storage space in the warehouse because of it uses smaller lookup tables than the other schema types. there is a drawback to using only small tables in the data warehouse. multiple tables must be joined until the required column is found. Inc. numerous joins are required to retrieve information about the higher-level tables. Moderately normalized schema: Balanced storage space and query performance The following diagram shows an example of a moderately normalized schema. This schema type has the same basic structure as the highly normalized schema. This is because each table contains only a small amount of information about a given attribute. therefore. When accessing higher-level lookup tables such as Lookup_Region in the example above.

Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 here is the higher-level attribute ID columns are present within all tables of related attributes. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage 55 . Region_id is included in the Lookup_Call_Ctr table. For example.

Highly denormalized schema: Enhanced query performance The following diagram is an example of a highly denormalized schema. Using a moderately normalized schema provides a balance between the pros and cons of normalized and denormalized schema types. The following diagram shows what the physical lookup tables look like in the warehouse. However. fewer joins are required when retrieving information about an attribute. Inc. the tables within this type of schema take up some redundant storage space in the warehouse. Because the ID columns of both the parents and grandparents of an attribute exist in multiple tables. . A highly denormalized schema has the same basic structure as the other two schema types.3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide The fact table structure within a moderately normalized schema is identical to that of the highly normalized schema. With 56 Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage © 2007 MicroStrategy. since some tables contain the same ID columns (as shown above with the Region_ID column).

you can include the descriptions of Call Center.Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 this type. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Distribution Center. Using a highly denormalized schema further reduces the joins necessary to retrieve attribute descriptions. Inc. this schema type requires the largest amount of storage space within the warehouse because of its large lookup tables. For example. For example. However. but the description columns are present as well. Region_desc is included in the Lookup_Call_Ctr table. and Region along with Sales Dollars in the same report while only having to join the Lookup_Call_CTR and Fact_Sales tables. not only are higher-level attribute ID columns present within all related tables. Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage 57 . High denormalized schemas also cause the highest level of data redundancy. This is possible because Lookup_Call_CTR contains all information (including description data) for Call Center as well as for Distribution Center and Region.

A star schema can also reduce the amount of storage space necessary in a highly denormalized schema. the lookup tables are consolidated so that every attribute ID and description column for a given hierarchy exists in one table. . In a star schema. geography) consists of several lookup tables. only one lookup table is used to contain all of the attribute IDs and description columns for a given hierarchy. However. the amount of join operations are reduced by using a star schema.3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide Star schema: Consolidating lookup tables When using the highly denormalized schema. it is possible to eliminate most of the lookup tables and leave just a few. Recall that in a highly denormalized schema. as shown below: As with any schema type model there are advantages and disadvantages to using a star schema. In this type of schema. each hierarchy (for example. Inc. Arranging the warehouse schema this way produces a star schema. star schemas can often 58 Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage © 2007 MicroStrategy. As with a highly denormalized schema type. however. as shown below.

This results in an increased load on the warehouse.Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 require large lookup tables that can take a more time to search than the smaller tables that are used in the other schema types. Inc. and greater maintenance for the database administrator. slower query performance. The following diagram shows the three major requirements that must be balanced to create an effective system. SQL queries directed at a consolidated table require the use of a DISTINCT operator and these types of queries tend to be very © 2007 MicroStrategy. However. Design trade-offs Constructing a logical data model and physical warehouse schema is an iterative process of compromises and trade-offs. Each of these categories affects the others. For example. Design trade-offs 59 . you will have to create an extensive data model and schema to support those requirements. You must decide which factors are most important in your particular environment and weigh them against the other factors. If you try to satisfy every single user requirement from the simplest to the most complex. if you have the storage space necessary to accommodate data in a star schema it may seem that you would never want to normalize your schema.

The use of a resource-intensive DISTINCT query could therefore negate any performance gain achieved by reducing the number of joins between higher-level lookup tables. you may need higher level lookup tables to take advantage of aggregate tables. . For more comparisons between the different schema types described in this chapter. Schema Type Highly normalized schema Lookup Table Structure • Attribute ID • Attribute description column • ID column of parent • Attribute ID • Attribute description column • ID column of parent • ID column of grandparents Advantages Minimal storage space and minimal data redundancy which makes updating data less intensive than for the other schema types Greatly reduces the number of joins necessary to relate an attribute to its grandparents as compared to a highly normalized schema Disadvantages Requires numerous joins to retrieve information from higher-level lookup tables Moderately normalized schema Requires some redundant storage 60 Schema type comparisons © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. see the following section Schema type comparisons. You can even use different schema types within the same hierarchy. In addition to the previous points. The table below compares the different schema types. One hierarchy can be highly normalized while another can be highly denormalized. page 60.3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide expensive in terms of database resources and processing time. page 241. which are discussed in Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables. Schema type comparisons One way to achieve a balance of the various trade-offs in your schema design is to use a variety of schema types in your physical warehouse schema.

© 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 Schema Type Highly denormalized schema Lookup Table Structure • Attribute ID • Attribute description column • ID column of parent • description column of parent • ID column of grandparents • description column of grandparents • Consolidates an entire hierarchy into a single lookup table Advantages Further reduces joins necessary to retrieve attribute descriptions as compared to a moderately normalized schema Disadvantages Requires the most storage space and redundant data requires a more intensive process to update Star schema • Further reduces joins necessary to retrieve attribute descriptions as compared to a moderately normalized schema • Requires less storage space and data redundancy than a highly denormalized schema and thus data is easier to update Large lookup tables can negatively affect query performance when searching tables and requiring DISTINCT operations to be performed Now that you have gained an understanding of data modeling and the roles of facts and attributes. Inc. it is essential to understand the structure of each of these schema objects before creating a project. As facts and attributes are the cornerstones of the reports you intend to create using MicroStrategy. you can learn about these same schema objects in terms of how they exist in the MicroStrategy environment. Schema type comparisons 61 .

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4 4. It is ready to be used and requires no additional configuration tasks. For more information about the © 2007 MicroStrategy. To see a sample project. 63 . BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform. see Chapter 1. you are ready to create a project in MicroStrategy. The Tutorial is a sample data warehouse and demonstration project you can use to learn about the various features of the MicroStrategy platform. Inc. access the MicroStrategy Tutorial provided with the MicroStrategy platform. For definitions and descriptions of the components within the MicroStrategy platform that allow you to create and analyze your business intelligence applications. This chapter guides you through the first few major steps involved in creating a project in MicroStrategy. CREATING AND CONFIGURING A PROJECT Introduction Once you create a logical model of your business data and arrange the data within the data warehouse.

and project settings are stored in the MicroStrategy metadata. configuration objects. To view the structure of the MicroStrategy Tutorial. Inc. It is intended to familiarize you with some of the terms discussed in this guide. MicroStrategy Tutorial. see Appendix A. refer to the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. The RDBMS for the metadata and warehouse do not need to be the same. MicroStrategy metadata All schema objects. Metadata is stored in a relational database with a predefined structure. 64 Project connectivity components © 2007 MicroStrategy.4 Creating and Configuring a Project Project Design Guide Tutorial. application objects. . Project connectivity components This section defines some of the basic terminology used in project creation in MicroStrategy Desktop.

It is highly recommended that you never use direct mode connection in a production environment. login. To view the readme from the Start menu select Programs. MicroStrategy strongly suggests you always connect to the metadata through Intelligence Server because of the security and scalability it provides. Project connectivity components 65 . The metadata shell is the set of blank tables that are created when you initially implement a MicroStrategy business intelligence environment. Project source The project source is a configuration object which represents a connection to a metadata repository. In MicroStrategy Desktop. You create the metadata shell with the MicroStrategy Configuration Wizard. the project source appears in the Folder List with an icon that varies depending on the type of connection it represents. This first step in the project creation process is outlined in Creating the metadata repository. Metadata shell Before you can populate the metadata repository with data.Project Design Guide Creating and Configuring a Project 4 You can find the list of supported RDBMS platforms in the readme file that is installed with MicroStrategy products. A connection to a metadata repository is achieved in one of two ways: • Direct or two-tier mode ( ): Connects to the metadata by specifying a DSN. and then select ReadMe. the necessary tables to hold the data must be present. which creates the blank tables and populates some of the tables with basic initialization data. You should not connect directly to the metadata unless you are implementing a prototype environment. page 71. Inc. and password to a metadata repository. then MicroStrategy. © 2007 MicroStrategy.

which in turn governs and validates the connection to the metadata. A four-tier connection is a Server (three-tier) connection in conjunction with MicroStrategy Web deployed on a web server. The following diagram illustrates Server connectivity between a MicroStrategy metadata repository. and Intelligence Server is the third tier. page 8 for definitions of these object types). enforces security. A project source may contain any number of projects. This is the type of connection used to create a production-ready project in MicroStrategy. . and ensures metadata integrity. the same metadata repository can be accessed by multiple project sources. MicroStrategy Desktop is the second tier.4 Creating and Configuring a Project Project Design Guide • Server or three-tier mode( ): Connects to the metadata by pointing to an Intelligence Server definition. schema objects. 66 Project connectivity components © 2007 MicroStrategy. The project metadata is the first tier. and MicroStrategy Desktop. and configuration objects from any number of projects defined within this project source (see MicroStrategy metadata. A project source connects to a single metadata repository. Intelligence Server is a necessary part of any production project. Intelligence Server. However. This includes application objects. Inc. After the connection to the metadata is established. Intelligence Server manages all connections to databases. For these reasons. every object definition you create within this project source is stored in this metadata.

you specify the data source location by creating and selecting a database instance with the appropriate connection parameters. Project A project is where you build and store all schema objects and information you need to create application objects such as reports in the MicroStrategy environment. page 72. metadata repository. When you define a project. Project connectivity components 67 . A project also represents the intersection of a data source. For information on database instances. page 14. and user community. see the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. Connecting to a data source through a database instance is explained in detail in Connecting to a data source. © 2007 MicroStrategy. For more information on what a project is in MicroStrategy. see MicroStrategy project. Inc.Project Design Guide Creating and Configuring a Project 4 Database instance The database instance is a configuration object that represents a connection to a data source.

4 Creating and Configuring a Project Project Design Guide Summary of project connectivity With a firm understanding of the MicroStrategy metadata. Creating a project The following procedure describes the main steps to create a MicroStrategy project. 1 Creating the metadata repository The metadata repository contains the objects and definitions associated with your project. Inc. Bear this process in mind as you proceed through the rest of this guide. and projects. It acts as the 68 Creating a project © 2007 MicroStrategy. . project sources. These steps provide you with a high-level view of the project creation process. you can begin to build an understanding of how these various pieces work together to provide an integrated business intelligence environment as shown in the following diagram. database instances.

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intermediary between your business data and your reporting environment. Therefore, the first step in the project creation process is to create a metadata repository. For detailed instructions, see Creating the metadata repository, page 71. 2 Connecting to the metadata repository and data source Once the metadata repository is created and populated with initialization data, you must establish connections to both the metadata repository and data source. For detailed instructions, see Connecting to the metadata repository and data source, page 71. 3 Creating the project Having created a metadata repository and established the necessary connections between the different parts of your MicroStrategy environment, you are ready to create the basic definition of your project. For detailed instructions, see Creating the project, page 73. 4 Creating facts and attributes Schema objects such as facts and attributes are the basic components of the logical structure of a project. The business data your user community wants to report on is represented by schema objects in MicroStrategy. Therefore, it is necessary to setup schema objects before reports can be created. This step is covered in Creating facts and attributes, page 82 of this chapter. You can use Query Builder or Freeform SQL to create schema objects as you design reports. For more information for these features, see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide.

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5 Configuring additional schema-level settings Once you create the initial schema objects, you can configure additional schema-level settings that allow you to add complexity and depth to objects in your project and to the project as a whole. For example, you can create advanced facts and attributes to retrieve specific result sets. You can also use attributes to create time-series analysis schema objects called transformations and implement various tools to optimize and maintain your project over time. For information about: • • • Advanced fact creation, see Creating and modifying simple and advanced facts, page 91. Advanced attribute creation, see Adding and modifying attributes, page 134. Hierarchies and hierarchy creation, see Chapter 7, Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes. Transformations and transformation creation, see Chapter 9, Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons. Project optimization and maintenance, see Chapter 8, Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project. The steps listed above relate to the process of creating a project which connects to a database or other data source such as a text file or Excel file. MicroStrategy also supports connecting to data stored in SAP BW, Microsoft Analysis Services 2000 and 2005, and Hyperion Essbase systems. When integrated with MicroStrategy, these systems are referred to as OLAP cube sources. You can connect to any of these OLAP cube sources to report and analyze the data concurrently within a project that also connects to a database, or you can create a a standalone connection to your OLAP cube source (see Appendix B, Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources).

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Creating the metadata repository
Your first step in project creation is to create a metadata repository. This repository stores all the objects necessary to support your project. You can create an empty metadata repository in the database location of your choice using the Metadata Tables option in the Configuration Wizard. Before proceeding to the next section, make sure your metadata repository exists in a non-Microsoft Access database. An Access database is unsuitable for a production project. Create a metadata repository using the guidelines outlined in the Configuring and Connecting Intelligence Server chapter of the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. When you create the metadata repository, MicroStrategy creates a default configuration in the repository. The default configuration populates the tables with the basic data required for the metadata, such as the default project folder structure and basic connection information. These tables are populated with your project information during the project creation step in the Project Creation Assistant, outlined in Creating the project, page 73. For instructions on creating a metadata repository in a database, see the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide.

Connecting to the metadata repository and data source
Once you have created a metadata repository, your next step is to connect MicroStrategy Desktop to the metadata repository and to your data source.

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Connecting to the metadata repository
You connect to the metadata repository in MicroStrategy Desktop or Web through a project source. Recall that a project source is a pointer to a metadata repository. It connects either through a DSN that points to the appropriate database location or by pointing to an instance of Intelligence Server which, in turn, points to the metadata repository location. To configure Intelligence Server and establish a server connection between the metadata, Intelligence Server, and MicroStrategy Desktop, follow the steps in the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide.

Connecting to a data source
A data source contains the business data from which you intend to gain analytical insight. Once you connect to the metadata repository through Intelligence Server, your next step is to create a connection to the data source to which your project can connect. You connect to the data source by creating a database instance in MicroStrategy Desktop. Create a database instance using the procedures outlined in the Configuring and Connecting Intelligence Server chapter of the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. When you create a project, you must assign a database instance to that project. A project specifies only one database instance at a time, but a database instance can be assigned to multiple projects.

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MicroStrategy also allows you to connect to your SAP BW, Microsoft Analysis Services, and Hyperion Essbase data sources. For information about connecting to these OLAP cube sources, see Appendix B, Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources.

Creating the project
You can now begin building the MicroStrategy project that connects to the metadata repository and data source. Project creation involves creating a basic project definition and creating your project’s first schema objects. There are several methods for creating and editing a project, which includes: • Creating a test or prototype project using Project Builder With Project Builder, you can build project prototypes for proof-of-concept tests with your own data. Project Builder is best suited for creating a test project, and it is not intended to create production projects. • Creating a production project using Project Creation Assistant This section guides you through the creation of a production-ready MicroStrategy project. The following table compares the main features of both the Project Creation Assistant and Project Builder. Use the table to determine the project creation tool that best suits your needs.
Features Intended audience Project type Complexity Project Creation Assistant Advanced users Production-ready or other large projects Extensive features require more project design knowledge Project Builder Newer users Test or basic projects Easier to use but fewer features

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Features

Project Creation Assistant Advanced; can create the following objects and more: • multiple tables, attributes, and facts at once • attributes with many-to-many and joint child relationships A variety of databases and other data sources

Project Builder Limited; cannot be used to create multiple schema objects at once, but can be used to create basic hierarchies and metrics

Functionality

Metadata repository type Metric and report creation

Microsoft Access

No, must be done after project creation Yes, basic metrics and reports only

Creating a test or prototype project using Project Builder
Project Builder is a wizard that allows you to create simple MicroStrategy projects quickly and efficiently. Project Builder was created with speed in mind; thus it provides only a subset of the features and functionality of the Project Creation Assistant. It allows you to rapidly create user hierarchies and simple metrics and reports. With Project Builder, you can build project prototypes for proof-of-concept tests with your own data and simple yet functional projects. To create a project for your production environment, it is highly recommended you follow the steps outlined in Creating a production project using Project Creation Assistant, page 75. The Project Creation Assistant can add greater functionality and capability to your project in your production environment. To learn more about Project Builder, proceed through this section. You can also refer to the Introduction to MicroStrategy: Evaluation Guide and the Project Builder online help (press F1 from within Project Builder).

Using Project Builder
By default, Project Builder uses a Microsoft Access database for the metadata repository. A Microsoft Access database is suitable for creating the metadata repository for a prototype

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project, but not a production project. You should not use Microsoft Access for anything other than a proof-of-concept or demonstration type of application. You can use Project Mover to move a demonstration project into a production-ready database (see the System Administration Guide.) Project Builder contains the following options that assist you in creating a prototype project: • My Database allows you to name the project and select the database that contains the business information you want to analyze with the project you create. My Business Model allows you to identify relationships that define the business information in your database. Project Builder uses this structure to help you analyze the data. My Reports allows you to use the attributes and metrics you defined using My Business Model, to create a variety of reports. These reports are based on pre-defined templates. You can also preview and run the reports. You can learn about creating and designing reports in more detail in the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. To access Project Builder from the Start menu select Programs, then MicroStrategy, then Desktop, and then select Project Builder.

Creating a production project using Project Creation Assistant
This section describes how to create a Server-connected (three-tier) project for your production setup using MicroStrategy Desktop. It is assumed you intend to implement Intelligence Server in your business intelligence environment as the means of connecting to your project as opposed to using a two-tier setup.

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Creating a project using the Project Creation Assistant in MicroStrategy Desktop provides advanced functionalities and greater complexity to your project than Project Builder. It allows you to create a new project and add the following objects to it or to an existing project: • • • Tables Facts Attributes

With the Project Creation Assistant you create and configure a project and some of the essential schema objects that reside within it. The intended audience for this tool includes experienced project creators who have planned all their facts, attributes, and data relationships. This information is covered elsewhere in this guide. For a listing of information covered in specific chapters, see Planning your project below. The main advantage of the Project Creation Assistant over Project Builder is its ability to create multiple schema objects at once. Since you can efficiently add multiple tables and develop numerous attributes and facts, it is especially useful for large projects which contain many tables and schema objects. With the Project Creation Assistant you can also create attributes with many-to-many relationships.

Planning your project
Before using the Project Creation Assistant, you should plan your project and consider the following: • The logical data model you intend to use for this project; logical data models are covered in Chapter 2, The Logical Data Model. The tables to use in the project; physical warehouse schema models are covered in Chapter 3, Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model. The facts to include in the project and the data types used to identify them; facts are covered in Chapter 5, The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts.

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The attributes to create in the project and the data types used to identify them, including: The description column name for each attribute. Any other attribute forms for each attribute. The child attributes for each attribute. Attributes are covered in Chapter 6, The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes.

Creating a new project using the Project Creation Assistant
Once you have planned your project and completed the prerequisites, you can use the Project Creation Assistant to build the project and populate the metadata based on the data structures present in your data warehouse. The steps of the Project Creation Assistant are: 1 Initialize/create the project. Initializing the project means giving the project a name and selecting the metadata repository in which to create the project—that is, the project source. After you specify these settings, the shell of a project is created in the metadata. This configures the folder structure and default connectivity settings. Be aware that this process can take some time to complete. 2 Select tables from the Warehouse Catalog. In this step, you use the Warehouse Catalog to specify which data warehouse tables to include in your project. 3 Create facts. 4 Create attributes. You should complete all the steps in the Project Creation Assistant at the same time. While you can save an incomplete project definition, you cannot finish creating it later with the Project Creation Assistant. Instead, you must complete it using the
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see the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. 4 Enter the name. To create a project source which connects to your data through Intelligence Server. The Project Creation Assistant opens. Inc. see the Configuring and Connecting Intelligence Server chapter of the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. 78 Creating the project © 2007 MicroStrategy. select Create New Project. as shown below: 3 Click Create project. description. To create a new project using the Project Creation Assistant 1 Log in to a project source in MicroStrategy Desktop. For more details on how to setup HTML documents for a project. 2 From the Schema menu. such as the Warehouse Catalog. or Attribute Creation Assistant. The New Project page opens.4 Creating and Configuring a Project Project Design Guide appropriate interface. The default document directory for a project is the directory location to store all HTML documents. . Fact Creation Assistant. and default document directory location for the project.

a language check ensures that the language settings of the user profile of the local machine (the CURRENT_USER registry key). select the project source in which you created the database instance to connect to your metadata repository. it can lead to inconsistencies in the language display. Inc. Creating the project 79 . and the Project locale property match. When these properties do not match. When you create a new project. Adding tables using the Warehouse Catalog The warehouse tables for a project determines the set of data available to be analyzed in the project. The Login dialog box opens. fact. From this list. The language check prevents these inconsistencies and ensures that the language display is consistent across the project. You use the Warehouse Catalog to add warehouse tables to your project. the language of the local machine (the LOCAL_MACHINE registry key). The Project Creation Assistant creates an empty project in the metadata repository. The Warehouse Catalog lists all the tables in the data source to which you are connected through your database instance and to which your database login has read privileges. you cannot proceed to the next step. and relationship tables to use in your new © 2007 MicroStrategy. 8 Enter a valid login ID and password and click OK. 6 From the Project Source drop-down list. If you are not authorized by your database or system administrator to create projects in the data source you have selected. Proceed to the next section to determine the tables to be used in your project. select Enable the guest user account for this project. The Warehouse Catalog queries the data source and lists the tables and columns that exist in it. you select the lookup.Project Design Guide Creating and Configuring a Project 4 5 To support anonymous authentication mode for guest users for this project. 7 Click OK.

The database instance selected in this dialog box determines which data source is accessed. The database login you use must have read privileges so you are able to view the tables in the selected warehouse. To learn more about these objects. 2 Select a database instance from the drop-down list and click OK. MicroStrategy schema objects such as attributes. and are discussed in detail in Appendix C. refer to the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. You should also include all other tables needed to complete your project. 80 Creating the project © 2007 MicroStrategy. Once tables are selected from the data source and added to your project. Logical Tables. Inc. Logical tables are representations of the tables that are available in the data warehouse. The Warehouse Catalog opens.4 Creating and Configuring a Project Project Design Guide project. and partition mapping tables. aggregate tables. and tables are abstractions built on top of the tables and columns in the data source. select Select tables from the Warehouse Catalog. they become schema objects known as logical tables in MicroStrategy. . You can edit your database instance by clicking Edit. To add and remove tables to the project using the Warehouse Catalog 1 In the Project Creation Assistant. facts. Database instances and database logins are MicroStrategy objects that determine the warehouse to which a project connects. The Warehouse Database Instance dialog box opens. including transformation tables.

Inc. Click << to remove all the tables from your project. copy a table. and click > to add the selected tables. 5 To remove tables from your project. Warehouse Catalog options 6 Right-clicking any table provides you with additional Warehouse Catalog functionality. Creating the project 81 . select the tables you want to add to the Warehouse Catalog. Click >> to add all the listed tables. specify a table prefix. see Managing warehouse and project tables. page 221. select them from the right side and click < to remove them.Project Design Guide Creating and Configuring a Project 4 3 The left side of the Warehouse Catalog lists all available tables and the number of rows each table contains. © 2007 MicroStrategy. For more information on these abilities and how to use them. For example you can view rows in a table. The list on the right shows all the tables currently being used in the project. or specify a database instance for a table. if any: 4 From the left side.

After exiting the Project Creation Assistant. The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes. For steps to access the Warehouse Catalog to add tables to a project. 8 In the toolbar. The table definitions are written to the metadata.4 Creating and Configuring a Project Project Design Guide 7 To set advanced options you can click Options on the Warehouse Catalog toolbar. display extra table and row information. For example. This information is covered in Chapter 5. Creating facts and attributes This step in the project creation process involves using the Project Creation Assistant to create two kinds of schema objects: facts and attributes. it is important to understand what facts and attributes are and the defining characteristics of each. see Adding and removing tables for a project. customize how tables and columns are read from the database system catalog. This process can take some time to complete. Inc. The next step in the Project Creation Wizard involves creating schema objects: facts and attributes. The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts and Chapter 6. Before you create facts and attributes. 82 Creating facts and attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. you can still access the Warehouse Catalog to add additional tables. and decide whether schema objects are mapped automatically or manually. page 83 to learn how to create these schema objects and configure additional schema-level settings for those objects. For more information on these abilities and how to use them. click Save and Close to save your changes to the Warehouse Catalog. Follow the instructions outlined in Creating facts and attributes. page 220. you can change the database instance. page 226. . page 82 and Configuring additional schema-level settings. however. see Modifying data warehouse connection and operation defaults.

Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes. Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons. the Metadata Partition Mapping Editor. proceed to the chapters referenced above to complete the next steps in the project creation process. Advanced configurations: These objects include transformations. edit. Configuring additional schema-level settings 83 . and partitioning and partition mappings: The Transformation Editor allows you to create transformations. which are schema objects used for time-series analysis. page 91. User hierarchies: The Hierarchy Editor allows you to create user hierarchies. This information is covered in Chapter 8. which facilitate access to attribute and element browsing and drilling. Now that you have completed most of the key steps in creating a new project. Inc. This is covered in Adding and modifying attributes. Transformations are covered in Chapter 9. page 134. and attribute form expressions. These settings include: • Fact definitions: The Fact Editor allows you to create. and configure facts. The tools used to create aggregate tables and partitions are the Warehouse Catalog. aggregate tables. This is covered in Chapter 7. attribute forms.Project Design Guide Creating and Configuring a Project 4 Configuring additional schema-level settings The final step in the project creation process involves configuring additional schema-level settings to add more analytical depth to your schema objects and optimize the project as a whole. and the Warehouse Partition Mapping Editor. Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project. Attribute definitions: The Attribute Editor allows you to create and edit attributes. This is covered in Creating and modifying simple and advanced facts. • • • © 2007 MicroStrategy.

refer to the Deploying your Project with MicroStrategy Web chapter of the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. filters. Proceed to the chapters listed above to add analytical depth and more functionality to your project. and prompts. For information on how to use your own customized SQL statements to create reports. refer to the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. custom groups. Facts are used to create metrics. To learn more about how to deploy your project using MicroStrategy Web. Microsoft Analysis Services. and metrics and attributes are essential components of reports. For information about connecting to OLAP cube sources. Facts and attributes provide the backbone of the reports and documents created by report designers.4 Creating and Configuring a Project Project Design Guide Deploying your project and creating reports After you create a project. are beyond the scope of this guide. see the Creating Freeform SQL reports chapter in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. . For information about creating reports in MicroStrategy Desktop. however. Note the following: • MicroStrategy allows you to connect to your SAP BW. see the MicroStrategy Web online help. For a complete discussion of metrics. you can deploy it to your user community using MicroStrategy Web. and other report objects such as filters. the project you deploy will contain only basic facts and attributes. • 84 Deploying your project and creating reports © 2007 MicroStrategy. You can also begin creating reports in MicroStrategy Desktop and MicroStrategy Web. and other report objects. see Appendix B. refer to the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide and the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. for creating reports in MicroStrategy Web. Inc. Keep in mind. reports. and Hyperion Essbase data sources. Metrics. that if you completed only the steps in this chapter. Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources.

85 . and the store and month represent attributes.5 5. facts are schema objects created by and shared between MicroStrategy users. which are used in the majority of analyses and reports that users can create with MicroStrategy. They relate numeric data values from the data warehouse to the MicroStrategy reporting environment. facts are numeric data and attributes are contextual data for the facts. THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF BUSINESS DATA: FACTS Introduction Facts are one of the essential elements within the business data model. © 2007 MicroStrategy. As the project designer. the amount of sales represents the fact. In a MicroStrategy project. Facts and attributes are necessary to define projects. For example. you want to analyze the amount of sales at a certain store during January. Inc. Facts generally represent the answers to the business questions on which users want to report. Facts form the basis for metrics. In this case. The facts you create in MicroStrategy allow users to access data stored in the data warehouse. In the MicroStrategy environment.

Facts are based on physical columns within tables in the data warehouse. Each cell in the columns represents a specific piece of information. Users can then use these facts and attributes as building blocks for metrics and reports. These fact tables are composed of different columns. as shown below. . This data is used to create a metric (such as profit) which is a business measure. Facts are stored in the data warehouse in fact tables. that column is accessed to retrieve the necessary data. Inc. 86 © 2007 MicroStrategy. When fact information is requested for a report in MicroStrategy.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide you must create projects that contain facts and attributes.

Examples of facts include sales dollars. 87 . Creating facts • © 2007 MicroStrategy. The later sections discuss conceptual information on facts. and cost. as well as highlight some advanced fact design techniques and procedures. facts do not describe data. It is important to understand how to define facts because facts are the basis for almost all metrics. simple facts. Facts such as Quantity and Item Cost could exist in a warehouse containing sales and distribution data. Facts also allow you to create advanced metrics containing data that is not stored in the warehouse but can be derived by extending facts. simple facts as part of the initial project design effort or later in a project’s life cycle. This section provides steps to create facts at different phases of the project design process. Creating facts A fact has two common characteristics: it is numeric and it is aggregatable. page 88 covers steps to create multiple. Creating and modifying simple and advanced facts. A fact entry level is the lowest set of attributes at which a fact is stored. using different techniques and MicroStrategy interfaces: • Simultaneously creating multiple. page 91 covers steps to add and modify both simple and advanced facts for an existing project. Facts are the actual data values stored at a specific fact level. Data warehouses contain different types of facts depending on the purpose of the data. units sold. Unlike attributes. profit. For example. facts are logical MicroStrategy objects that correspond to physical columns and tables.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 Like other schema objects such as attributes. facts such as Tenure and Compensation Cost could exist in a data warehouse that contains human resources data. While creating facts is a major step in the initial creation of a project. The procedures to perform these tasks are discussed in the first section (Creating facts. it can often be necessary to modify and create facts throughout the life cycle of a project. Inc. page 87) of this chapter.

The Project Creation Assistant utilizes the Fact Creation Wizard to help you create the facts for your initial project creation effort. You can also access the Fact Creation Wizard in MicroStrategy Desktop from the Schema menu. . fact creation and modification can be done throughout the entire life cycle of a project. Facts can be created and modified using a number of various techniques.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide Simultaneously creating multiple. Inc. is used to add advanced features to facts that already exist or to create new simple or advanced facts as your project evolves. simple facts During your initial project design effort. which is discussed in Creating and modifying simple and advanced facts. • The Fact Editor. you can create multiple simple facts using the Project Creation Assistant and the Fact Creation Wizard. utilizing the following MicroStrategy tools: • The Fact Creation Wizard is a step-by-step interface that is typically used when you first create a project. However. 88 Creating facts © 2007 MicroStrategy. It allows you to create multiple facts in a single creation process. page 91.

only columns whose data types are numeric or character-based are displayed in the Fact Creation Wizard as possible columns to use for your facts.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 To create facts with the Fact Creation Wizard 1 In the Project Creation Assistant. you can only select data types for the ID columns of your facts. For example. If the naming conventions in your warehouse do not conform to the defaults in the Fact Creation Rules page. you may need to change these rules. Therefore. 3 The Column data type area allows you to select the column data types that are available as possible fact ID columns. a fact does not have description information. 89 © 2007 MicroStrategy. Unlike most attributes which can access multiple columns of description information. Select the check boxes for the data types to be included when the wizard searches the data warehouse for available fact columns. select Create facts. Creating facts . if you select Character and Numeric and leave the remaining check boxes cleared. Inc. The Fact Creation Wizard opens. The Fact Creation Rules page opens. as shown below: 2 Click Define Rules to set some basic fact creation rules. Rules help automate and govern the fact creation process.

whether to replace underscores in the fact name with spaces and whether the first letter is capitalized. Select the appropriate check boxes to create the desired default fact names. The Column Selection page opens. To continue creating a project with the Project Creation Assistant. The selected fact definitions are stored in the metadata. see Simultaneously creating multiple attributes. with columns that are not currently being used in the project listed in the Available columns pane. heterogeneous columns). see Facts with different column names: Heterogeneous column names. – The Fact Creation Wizard cannot handle columns that hold the same information but have different column names (that is. page 102. page 129. select them from the Facts pane and click < to move them to the left side.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide 4 The Fact name area allows you to determine how to create default fact names. . 9 Click Next. 90 Creating facts © 2007 MicroStrategy. Fact column selection 6 Click Next. Note the following: – You can rename any fact to make its name more user-friendly by right-clicking the fact and selecting Rename. Click << to remove all the columns in your project. select the fact columns to use for your facts and click > to add them to your project. For more information about mapping facts to heterogeneous columns. 8 To remove fact columns from your project. The Finish page opens. 5 Click OK to accept your rule changes and return to the Fact Creation Wizard. 7 From the Available columns pane. Click >> to add all the listed columns. 10 Review the summary information in the Finish page and click Finish to create the facts. that is. Inc.

log in to the project source that contains your project and expand your project. © 2007 MicroStrategy. level extensions. Creating facts 91 . and configure other settings. You can use the Fact Editor to edit existing facts and create fact expressions. Inc. it limits you to creating simple facts and does not allow you to edit existing facts. map multiple or heterogeneous columns. Typically. you only use the Fact Creation Wizard as part of the initial project creation. for creating most of the facts for the project. you can use either the Fact Creation Wizard or the Fact Editor to create new facts in your project: • With the Fact Creation Wizard you can: Create simple facts Create multiple facts quickly Add a large number of facts during project creation • With the Fact Editor you can: Create simple and advanced facts Edit existing facts and configure additional schema-level settings The Fact Creation Wizard can create multiple facts quickly and easily. Creating one or more simple facts with the Fact Creation Wizard Although the Fact Creation Wizard is primarily used to create most of a project’s facts during initial project creation. column aliases. However.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 Creating and modifying simple and advanced facts After you have created a project. To create facts with the Fact Creation Wizard 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. you can use it to create one or more simple facts at the same time.

page 89. 2 From the Folder List in MicroStrategy Desktop. 2 From the Folder List in MicroStrategy Desktop. For more information about privileges. select Fact Creation Wizard. The Fact Creation Wizard opens. see Permissions and Privileges of the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. For more information about privileges. log in to the project source that contains your project and expand your project. select the project to which to add additional facts. you can create additional facts and modify existing facts with the Fact Editor. Creating simple and advanced facts with the Fact Editor As your project evolves. To use the Fact Creation Wizard to add facts. You must use a login that has Architect privileges. . 3 From the Schema menu. You can also use the Fact Editor to add extensions to those facts and configure additional settings within them to support various analytical requirements. The following procedure describes how to use the Fact Editor to create a simple fact based on a single fact column in a table. follow the procedures outlined in To create facts with the Fact Creation Wizard. Inc. select the project to which to add additional facts.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide You must use a login that has Architect privileges. see Permissions and Privileges of the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. To create a simple fact with the Fact Editor 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. 92 Creating facts © 2007 MicroStrategy.

select Automatic or Manual. select the tables for which you want your constant expression to apply. select the source table for the fact. – If you are creating a constant expression that is not based on a physical column in a project table. The Fact Editor opens. • © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 3 From the File menu. The source table is the table or logical view that contains the fact column on which you want to base a new fact. • Automatic mapping means that MicroStrategy scans all of the tables in the project and selects all tables with the columns used in the fact expression as possible source tables for the fact. Creating facts 93 . – If the same column name does not contain the same data across different tables. 4 From the Source table drop-down list. manually select the appropriate source tables for each fact. You then select which of those tables are used as source tables for the fact. Manual mapping means that MicroStrategy scans all of the tables in the project and locates all tables with the columns used in the fact expression. – These mapping methods are different from the automatic mapping methods for the Warehouse Catalog. 5 From the Available columns pane. Using automatic mapping in the Attribute Editor helps you decide which tables to map your facts to when creating a fact. and then Fact. drag and drop a fact column into the Fact expression pane. page 231) determine whether attributes or facts are automatically mapped to new tables when they are added after an attribute or fact is created. You can then remove any tables mapped automatically or select other tables. with the Create New Fact Expression dialog box displayed on top of it. Inc. select New. 6 In the Mapping area. The Warehouse Catalog mapping methods (discussed in Mapping schema objects and calculating logical sizes for tables.

Column aliases are discussed in Fact column names and data types: Column aliases. 7 Click OK to close the Create New Fact Expression dialog box.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide For example. which exists in both the Fact_Sales table and the Fact_Discount table. in the Fact_Discount table.e. Inc. the Sales column contains revenue data. page 105. Fact extensions are discussed in Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions. 8 Use the tabs of the Fact Editor to define fact expressions. Extensions: This tab allows you to create fact level extensions. However. the MicroStrategy SQL Engine may use the incorrect column for the facts. page 107. and create extensions. the Sales column contains discount data. In the Fact_Sales table. the columns contain different fact data in each table. click Save and Close. Sales). you must select the Manual mapping method so you can select the Fact_Sales table as a source table for the Revenue fact. page 97. Column Alias: This tab allows you to create a column alias for the fact. • Definition: This tab allows you to define fact expressions. suppose you have a column named Sales. you must select the Manual mapping method so you can select the Fact_Discount table as a source table for the Discount fact. For detailed information about the options on each tab within the Fact Editor. If you use the Automatic mapping method in both cases. In other words. . • • 9 When your changes are complete. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. although the column name is the same in both tables (i. as described below. Fact definitions are discussed in How facts are defined. 94 Creating facts © 2007 MicroStrategy. When creating the Revenue fact. When creating the Discount fact. create column aliases.

Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 10 In the Save As dialog box. You can learn how to create more advanced facts in the various sections below. Creating facts 95 . 2 Double-click the fact to open the Fact Editor and edit the fact. © 2007 MicroStrategy. open the folder that contains the fact to modify. navigate to the location in which to save the fact. 11 From the Schema menu. Enter a name for the fact and click Save. select Update Schema to update the project schema. The fact is saved and the Fact Editor closes. Inc. Modifying simple and advanced facts To modify an existing fact 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop.

page 105. Level extensions are discussed in detail in Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions. Fact level extensions allow facts stored in the data warehouse at one level to be reported at an unrelated level.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide The structure of facts As shown in the diagram below. Column aliases are discussed in detail in Fact column names and data types: Column aliases. facts are made up of the following components: • The fact definition is composed of one or more fact expressions. . page 107. Extensions can also prevent a fact from being reported at a certain level. page 97. MicroStrategy selects a default column alias depending on the type of fact. Every fact must have a column alias. Inc. Level extensions are very effective for advanced data modeling scenarios. • • 96 The structure of facts © 2007 MicroStrategy. unless you create a new column alias. Fact definitions are discussed in detail in How facts are defined. The column alias stores the column name MicroStrategy uses to generate SQL statements when creating temporary tables related to the fact. even though it is stored at that level. Every fact must have at least one expression.

expression. In this case. which includes the fact’s name. see Creating facts. the fact expression maps the fact to the All_Sales columns in the LU_ITEM and ORDER_DETAIL tables in the warehouse. How facts are defined 97 . expression. both the fact definition and column alias are automatically defined. and the source tables it uses. The fact expression contained in the definition represents how the fact is calculated by MicroStrategy. For a discussion of the tools used to created facts and procedures on how to use them. During project creation with the Fact Creation Wizard. While the Unit Price fact only has one expression. The following table provides an example of a fact definition. some facts use more advanced expressions to perform calculations on multiple columns of data to return a single fact. Inc. The fact definition is composed of at least one fact expression and basic information about the fact. However. How facts are defined A fact definition contains properties that define a fact and its components. page 87. and source tables. including the fact name. and often must be calculated differently from one table to the next. multiple expressions can exist within a fact definition. Fact Name Unit Price Expression All_Sales Source Tables LU_ITEM ORDER_DETAIL In the example. the fact expression is simply the name of the column which holds the fact data. Level extensions are optional. when you select the numeric column used to represent the fact. Facts can be found in multiple tables in a warehouse schema. © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 You create facts in MicroStrategy Desktop using the Fact Creation Wizard and the Fact Editor.

Mapping physical columns to facts: Fact expressions A fact expression maps facts to physical columns in the warehouse. A fact definition must have one or more fact expressions. . The following image illustrates a column in the fact table and the associated fact expressions: Valid fact expressions are formulas constructed from fact columns with or without numeric constants or mathematical operators. The mathematical operators that can be used in a fact expression are: • • • • Addition (+) Subtraction (-) Multiplication (*) Division (/) 98 How facts are defined © 2007 MicroStrategy. a fact expression represents a mapping to specific fact information in the warehouse. For each of the tables. Inc.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide Note the following: • • Each fact expression relates to one or more related tables that contain the fact. These expressions can be as simple as a fact column name from the warehouse or as sophisticated as a formula containing multiple fact column names and numeric constants. fact expressions define how the fact is calculated. Regardless of how it is defined.

you can use implicit fact expressions to create “temporary columns” in the database with a value of “1” for every row. However. as explained in the following sections. For example. For detailed information about metrics. Inc. if you want to build a metric defined as Sum(1). The implicit fact can have its expression defined as a constant value. although nothing is saved in a table column. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. Implicit facts and implicit fact expressions Implicit facts are virtual or constant facts that do not physically exist in the database. In other words. Apply functions are discussed in the Pass-Through Expressions appendix in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. where you can sum the column holding the constant to create a COUNT. or setting the expression to be an absolute value. • Most facts represent physical columns in the data warehouse. you can define a fact equal to the constant “1”. Any operation on a column such as adding a constant. You may also find it helpful to use implicit facts when building metrics. page 91. you are creating a fact © 2007 MicroStrategy. A fact can also be defined using an ApplySimple function.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 Note the following: • You can use the Fact Editor to create fact expressions. adding another column’s values. some facts do not exist at all in the warehouse and are defined in other ways. An implicit fact indicates a fact table from which to retrieve data. For example. These temporary columns allow you to keep track of how many rows are returned for a certain attribute. Derived facts and derived fact expressions A derived fact has its value determined by an expression that contains more than just a column in a table. These steps are covered in Creating and modifying simple and advanced facts. How facts are defined 99 . creates a derived fact.

refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide from information that is available in the data warehouse. For more information on what metrics are and how to create them. you can create such analysis in MicroStrategy with the use of metrics. the columns are used to answer the business question. Metrics allow you to perform calculations and aggregations on your fact data. In this case. Sales. . This expression implies that columns containing data about the quantity of items sold and the price of those units can be multiplied to produce a useful business calculation. by creating the following derived fact: Sales = Quantity_Sold * Price One advantage of creating a derived fact is that a derived fact allows one consistent fact to exist in the project in lieu of having to retrieve multiple intermediary facts from multiple tables. “How much did it cost the company to create the items purchased by customers?” The following procedure describes how to create a derived fact that uses the derived fact expression described above. Inc. 100 How facts are defined © 2007 MicroStrategy. For a more generalized procedure to create derived facts. For example. Example: creating derived facts The Cost fact in the MicroStrategy Tutorial contains the derived fact expression Qty_Sold * Unit_Cost. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. Rather than creating a derived fact. Using a single fact saves storage space and limits the number of SQL passes used in queries. a table in your data warehouse contains the following elements: Fact Table 1 Item Quarter Quantity_Sold Price You can create a new fact.

4 From the Source table drop-down list. The expression should appear as shown below: 10 Click OK. double-click the UNIT_PRICE column to add it to end of the fact expression. and open the My Objects folder. How facts are defined 101 .Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 To create a derived fact 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. double-click the QTY_SOLD column to add it to the Fact expression pane on the right. 7 From the Available columns list. The Fact Editor opens. 2 Navigate to the My Personal Objects folder. with the Create New Fact Expression dialog box displayed on top of it. 8 Under Mapping method. 9 Click Validate to check whether the syntax of the expression is correct. Inc. The derived fact expression appears in the Fact expression pane in the Fact Editor. select the ORDER_DETAIL table. point to New. © 2007 MicroStrategy. and then select Fact. log in to the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. click * (multiplication operator) to add it to the expression. select Automatic. 6 With the cursor in the Fact expression pane. 3 From the File menu. 5 From the Available columns pane.

12 Enter a name for the derived fact and click Save. The Save menu opens. at this point. . it is not necessary to update the schema. Table 1 Year Dollar_Sales Table 2 Month Dollar_Sls MicroStrategy allows you to identify heterogeneous fact column names for each fact. you must update the project schema. resulting in an accurate representation of the fact in the report. When you call for the information in a report through the use of a metric. In the example below. two fact tables in a warehouse each contain columns for dollar sales. Inc. Table 1 contains a fact called Dollar_Sales. creating a heterogeneous fact column name for dollar sales informs the system that the Dollar_Sales and Dollar_Sls columns represent the same fact. Table 2 includes a fact called Dollar_Sls. Facts with different column names: Heterogeneous column names In your warehouse. 102 How facts are defined © 2007 MicroStrategy.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide 11 From the File menu. you can refer the same fact to multiple columns with different column names and from different tables that identify the same quantitative value. since this is only an example. With heterogeneous column names. both fact columns are used in the SQL. In the example above. 13 When you create a fact for your project. These two items represent the same information. the same fact can access columns with different column names. select Save As. However.

Inc. double-click the QTY_SOLD column to add it to the Fact expression pane on the right. select Automatic. log in to the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. How facts are defined 103 . To create heterogeneous fact columns 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. The Fact Editor opens. 7 Click OK. © 2007 MicroStrategy. The following procedure describes how to create the Units Sold fact that already exists in MicroStrategy Tutorial. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. you create the Units Sold fact and map its corresponding heterogeneous fact columns to it. In the procedure. The Fact Editor opens and the fact expression you just created appears in the Fact expression pane. select the ORDER_FACT table. You must map heterogeneous fact columns to their corresponding facts to ensure that accurate and complete data is displayed on reports. and then select Fact. 5 From the Available columns pane. 6 In the Mapping method area.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 Example: mapping heterogeneous fact columns The Units Sold fact in MicroStrategy Tutorial consists of two fact columns in the warehouse. 4 From the Source table drop-down list. point to New. Qty_Sold and Tot_Unit_Sales. Although these fact columns have different names and exist in different fact tables. This is one of the tables in which a heterogeneous fact column for the Units Sold fact exists. 2 Navigate to the My Personal Objects folder. with the Create New Fact Expression dialog box displayed on top of it. they represent the same data and are therefore both mapped to the Unit Sold fact. For a more generalized procedure to map heterogeneous fact columns. and open the My Objects folder. 3 From the File menu.

15 When you create a fact for your project. 13 From the File menu. This is the other table in which a heterogeneous fact column for the Units Sold fact exists. select Save As. . select the CITY_CTR_SALES table. it is not necessary to update the schema. double-click the TOT_UNIT_SALES column to add it to the Fact expression pane on the right. The Fact Editor opens and the fact expression you just created appears in the Fact expression pane. However. select Automatic. you must update the project schema. The Create New Fact Expression dialog box opens. 12 Click OK. since this is only an example. 8 Click New. 104 How facts are defined © 2007 MicroStrategy. 10 From the Available columns pane. 9 From the Source table drop-down list. at this point. Inc. Now the Units Sold fact you are creating maps correctly to its heterogeneous fact columns. 11 In the Mapping method area.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide Now you must add the other heterogeneous fact column as separate expression for the Units Sold fact. 14 Enter a name for the new fact and click Save. The Save menu opens.

The SQL you create may be different. you can define a fact to be the difference between two dates to perform a calculation such as the average number of days between a start and an end date.#0. Fact column names and data types: Column aliases 105 . However. Inc. [End_Date_Id]) The expression syntax is specific to your database type. [Start_Date_Id]. You could create this fact using the following expression: ApplySimple("DateDiff(day. This syntax is specific to Microsoft SQL Server. #1)".Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 Fact column names and data types: Column aliases A column alias specifies both the name of the column to be used in temporary tables and the data type to be used for the fact. the data type for a fact is inherited from the data type of the column on which the fact is defined in the data warehouse. there are cases where you may need to change this. For example. © 2007 MicroStrategy. By default.

6 You can modify the following properties for the column alias: • Column name: The name for the column alias which is used in any SQL statements which include the fact column. 3 Select the Column Alias tab. Inc. 5 Select New to create a new column alias. You can use the Fact Editor to create column aliases. 4 In the Column alias area. The Fact Editor opens. is an integer. The Column Editor . This can cause an error for some database platforms. Data Types. see Appendix D. To avoid the possibility of an error due to conflicting data types. you should modify the column alias for the fact to change the default Date data type to an Integer data type. Data type: The data type for the fact. click Modify.Definition dialog box opens. For a description of the different data types supported by MicroStrategy. To create a column alias for a fact This procedure assumes you have already created a fact with a valid fact expression for which to create a new column alias. • 106 Fact column names and data types: Column aliases © 2007 MicroStrategy. However. 2 Right-click the fact and select Edit. log in to the project source that contains the fact to create a new column alias for. . 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop.Column Selection dialog box opens. If you did not change the data type of the column alias. the result of the calculation. The Column Editor . then the system uses a Date data type and tries to insert integer data into this column. the difference between the two dates.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide The data type for this fact is automatically set to a Date data type because the Start_Date_ID and End_Date_ID have Date data types. This is used when a temporary SQL table needs to be created for the calculation. that is.

bit length. you can specify the byte length. Fact Table 1 Item Quarter Quantity_Sold Price Level extensions are necessary when facts are stored in the data warehouse at one level and reported at different levels. scale. 7 Click OK to save your changes and return to the Column Editor . Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 107 . the fact table shown below contains several attribute IDs. These attribute IDs imply that the fact is reported at the item and quarter levels by default. Inc. see the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. or time scale for your column alias. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions Facts are stored at a particular business level in the warehouse.Column Selection dialog box. 9 Select Save and Close to save your changes. For a detailed description on each of these properties. Every fact is tied to a set of attributes that may or may not © 2007 MicroStrategy. The level of a fact is defined by the attribute IDs present in the table. 8 Click OK to save your changes and return to the Fact Editor. precision.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 • Depending on the data type selected. For example. including Item and Quarter.

You can use level extensions to change a fact level and extend a fact level to a level in a completely different hierarchy. all attributes at a higher logical level in the hierarchy are available for use as well. . That is.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide satisfy all users’ reporting requirements. page 118). Inc. 108 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. you have to extend the level of the Discount fact to the Call Center level. facts require level extensions to be related to any attributes that are at a lower logical level in the same hierarchy than the entry level for a fact (see Lowering the level of fact data: Fact degradations. For example. without the use of level extensions. For example if you have a cost fact at the level of a date attribute in a time hierarchy. you record a Discount fact at the Item/Date level. MicroStrategy can aggregate the cost fact data to the level of the year attribute because it is in the same hierarchy as the date attribute and at a higher level. If the entry level of a fact is at the lowest level of a hierarchy. which is an attribute from a different hierarchy. discounts apply to particular items on particular days. A fact extension is needed when a fact does not relate directly or indirectly to an attribute included on a report. However. To see if some call centers are selling significantly more items at a discount than other call centers.

page 110 Defining a join on fact tables using fact relations. You can create fact level extensions by using any of the following methods: • • • • • Defining a join on fact tables using table relations. page 116 Lowering the level of fact data: Fact degradations. or disallowed to other attributes across the schema. you are allowing facts or attributes that have been captured at one level to be extended to other levels to meet reporting requirements. lowered.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 Level extensions define how facts can be extended. a level extension must be defined for the fact. Before a metric containing a fact can be used with an attribute that is not in or related to the attribute’s entry level. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 109 . a level extension must exist to relate the fact data to the attribute. © 2007 MicroStrategy. You can use the Fact Editor to create level extensions. and they tend to be used only in specific cases. By creating a level extension. Otherwise. Inc. page 118 Disallowing the reporting of a fact at a certain level. This is because if a fact is stored at a level unrelated to an attribute on a report. there is no way to make a connection between the fact data and the attribute. page 122 You can find complete descriptions for each of these methods in the online help for the Level Extension Wizard in the Fact Editor. Level extensions are not required like the fact definition and column alias. page 114 Forcing facts to relate to attributes: Using cross product joins.

An allocation expression is required to extend Freight to the Item level. Since the ORDER_FACT table that defines Freight does not include the identity column for the Item attribute. For example. Inc. The procedure also describes general principles of creating fact extensions which you can use to create fact extensions for the facts in your project. 110 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. and ORDER_DETAIL contains the Item attribute’s identity column to extend the fact to Item. This metric has a table relation fact extension to the Item attribute. The join is important as the table contains an attribute in the entry level and the attribute to which to extend. you are creating a table relation to extend a fact. the Freight fact cannot be reported at the Item level. A fact extension is required to view freight values for each item included in an order. A fact extension can be used to relate a fact to an attribute using a fact table. In this example. When you specify a table to join with a fact. The following procedure steps through how to create the fact extension that has been created for the Freight fact of the Tutorial project. Notice that the ORDER_FACT and ORDER_DETAIL tables include Order-level Units Sold and Item-level Units Sold columns respectively. the ORDER_DETAIL table is used to create the Freight fact extension to Item because: 1 The ORDER_FACT and ORDER_DETAIL tables both contain the Order attribute’s identity column to join the tables. These two columns are used to allocate the fact expression in the procedure below.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide Defining a join on fact tables using table relations A table relation defines a join on tables. 2 The Freight fact cannot simply be joined with a table containing Item information to return a meaningful freight value for each item. . the MicroStrategy Tutorial project includes a Freight metric.

The Level Extension Wizard opens. this example steps through how the Freight fact extension Extension to Item was created. 3 Click the Extensions tab. To lower. extend. However. The General Information page opens. 5 Read the Welcome statement and click Next.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 To define a fact extension with a table relation 1 In Desktop. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 111 . page 122) • • For this example you are creating a fact extension on a table relation. Inc. The Extended Attributes page opens. log in to the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. or disallow the fact entry level 6 Enter a name and a description for your fact extension (already provided). To create a new fact extension you would click New. 2 Browse to the Facts folder and double-click the Freight fact to edit it. and click Next. The Fact Editor opens. so select Extend the fact entry level. page 118) Extend the fact entry level: define a fact extension on a table relation. Then select whether you want to: • Lower the fact entry level: define a fact degradation (see Lowering the level of fact data: Fact degradations. dynamic fact relation. 4 Select Extension to Item and click Modify. or a cross product join Disallow partially or completely the fact entry level: define a fact extension that does not allow a fact to be reported at a certain level (see Disallowing the reporting of a fact at a certain level. © 2007 MicroStrategy.

Select the relationship table dynamically: select a fact and join attributes. Since you know that you want to join the ORDER_FACT and ORDER_DETAIL tables using the Order attribute. To select the type of fact extension 8 Select how you want to extend the fact: • • Specify the relationship table used to extend the fact: select a relationship table and join attributes. • For this example select Specify the relationship table used to extend the fact. or manually select the attribute(s). page 116) . choose the lowest level attribute in that hierarchy. To select the table. allowing the fact to be reported at the new level. Inc. Click Next. 10 Select whether to allow Intelligence Server to dynamically select what attribute(s) to perform the join. The Table Selection page opens. and click Next to continue defining your fact extension on a table relation. page 114). Click Next. the ORDER_DETAIL table is already selected. The Join Type page opens. For this example. and define the allocation expression 9 Select the table used to extend the fact to the new level. join attributes. For this example Item is already selected. select Order and click Next. This allows the MicroStrategy Engine to select the table that includes the fact and join attributes you choose to create the fact extension (see Defining a join on fact tables using fact relations. . 112 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. The Join Attributes Direction page opens. Perform the extension through a cross product: select to apply a cross product join (see Forcing facts to relate to attributes: Using cross product joins. The Extension Type page opens. To extend the fact so that it can be reported at any level in a hierarchy.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide To select attributes to extend the fact to 7 Select the attributes you want to extend the fact to.

[FREIGHT] * a12. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 113 . Inc.[QTY_SOLD])) AS WJXBFS1 from [ORDER_FACT] a11. sum(((a11.[ITEM_ID] = a13. 12 Enter an allocation expression that calculates the fact at the new level. The SQL for your reports may vary depending on the type of DBMS you use. Order. and Freight (metric mapped to the Freight fact) is: select a11.[ORDER_ID] AS ORDER_ID. Day. 13 Click Finish to create the fact extension. Notice that the expression returns an average freight amount per item of an order. A more detailed description of why this occurs follows this procedure. a12. and Freight. the extension of Freight provides an estimate of the freight for each item of an order. a12.[ITEM_ID] The SQL statement above is for an Access database. [LU_ITEM] a13 where a11. the allocation expression is already provided. When the engine processes a report containing Order.[ITEM_NAME]) AS ITEM_NAME. max(a13. it joins ORDER_FACT and ORDER_DETAIL and considers the resulting table as one logical fact table at the Item. ((Freight * [Item-level Units Sold]) / [Order-level Units Sold]).[ITEM_ID] AS ITEM_ID. not an exact calculation. Employee. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Click Next. [ORDER_DETAIL] a12. In this case Order has no children. Therefore. max(a11. or join using the attribute and its children.[ITEM_ID] group by a11.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 11 You can choose to join using the attribute.[ORDER_ID]. so you do not have to click the Join against arrow to change the default.[ORDER_ID] and a12. Item. Take a moment to review the allocation expression.[QTY_SOLD]) / a11. Promotion level. Item. For this example. The SQL generated for the report containing Order.[ORDER_ID] = a12. The Allocation page opens.[ORDER_DATE]) AS ORDER_DATE.

the table join is possible on any table that contains the fact. Inc.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide To view how the fact extension is an estimation of freight values for each item of an order. If you want to provide exact values of data at a certain level. With a fact relation. This illustrates how fact extensions often provide an estimation of values at a different level rather than an exact calculation. you most likely need to capture such data and store it in your data source. rather than you having to select tables manually. . Defining a join on fact tables using fact relations Fact extensions can be defined by a fact relation instead of a table relation. Notice that the Freight metric averages the amount of freight per item in an order. 114 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. This allows more flexibility in defining the relations. since the MicroStrategy Engine is responsible for choosing the appropriate table to join. review the values of the first order with an extra metric that calculates the number of each item type in an order shown below. The larger freight values occur because more than one of the item type was included in the order.

The MicroStrategy Engine tries to join a table containing Freight to a table containing Order Unit Sales. you can create a fact relation using the Order Unit Sales fact. select the Select the relationship table dynamically option and specify the tables to use for the extension. This option is set in the step immediately after To select the type of fact extension.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 The following diagram shows the schema from the example in Defining a join on fact tables using table relations. You can define the fact relation in the Level Extension Wizard which you can access from the Fact Editor. Inc. page 110 after two summary tables are added to it. © 2007 MicroStrategy. and Order Table 1 and Table 4 on Distribution Center Table 2 and Table 3 on Distribution Center Table 3 and Table 4 on Distribution Center The joins described above demonstrate how the join attributes can be either Distribution Center and Order or just Distribution Center. Next. depending on the join attributes specified: • • • • Table 1 and Table 2 on Distribution Center. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 115 . Open the Order Unit Sales fact and extend it to either Distribution Center and Order or just Distribution Center. To extend the entry level of the Freight fact to Customer. The engine can make the following joins.

a2.DIST_CENTER = a2. When you specify a cross product join to relate a fact to an attribute. Cross products should only be used when no other way to extend the fact exists. and Freight is shown below. The cross product join is an extension that allows a single fact value to relate to all elements of an unrelated attribute. MicroStrategy does not recommend using the cross product join. you can specify the best fit as the join strategy so that the engine calculates the joins.DIST_CENTER. As with table relations.CUSTOMER The SQL statement above is for an Access database. a2.CUSTOMER.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide page 112 in the procedure above. 116 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. the set of join attributes must contain the entire key of the left-hand-side fact table (Table 3 in the example SQL above). This method can produce incorrect data because data can be repeated and counted twice in some cases. The SQL generated for a report containing Distribution Center. TABLE4 a2 where a1. you are creating a Cartesian product of the lookup attribute. Customer. Inc. The SQL for your reports may vary depending on the type of DBMS you use. The tables and attributes you specify in the wizard determine the different types of joins that are created. Since this method can be inefficient.Freight) from TABLE3 a1. In a best fit join.DIST_CENTER. Forcing facts to relate to attributes: Using cross product joins You can use a cross product join when a join does not exist and you need to force a fact to relate to an attribute by extending the fact. . as explained above. select a1. if the only join attribute is Distribution Center. sum(a1.DIST_CENTER group by a1.

This option is set in the step immediately after To select the type of fact extension. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 117 . a cross product join must be used. in the following schema. TABLE2 a2 group by a1. sum(a2. You can define this cross product join in the Level Extension Wizard in the Fact Editor. Next. The MicroStrategy Engine always cross-joins the lookup tables of the attributes in the extension. you do not need to specify an allocation expression. For this example. Notice that no join attributes are specified. Open the Dollar Sales fact and extend it to the Distribution Center attribute. Distribution Center does not relate to Dollar Sales: Table 1 Table 2 Order Customer Dollar Sales Distribution Center To report Dollar Sales by Distribution Center.DIST_CENTER The SQL statement above is for an Access database. select the Perform the extension through a cross product option. and Dollar Sales is: select a1. a2.DIST_CENTER. Inc. © 2007 MicroStrategy. The SQL generated for a report containing Customer.CUSTOMER. The SQL for your reports may vary depending on the type of DBMS you use. page 112 of the procedure above. Distribution Center.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 For example.DOLLAR_SALES) from TABLE1 a1.

you must support those users who wish to view and analyze the same fact data at a lower logical level. For example. is the logical opposite of aggregation. which lowers a fact level. as shown below: The analytical value of this fact degradation is not immediately recognizable. Inc. now that Planned Compensation is available at the Employee level. and metrics used in this example can all be found in this Analytics Module). and has a fact degradation to the Employee level (the attributes. The fact extension does not use an allocation expression to degrade Planned Compensation to the Employee level. the Human Resources Analysis Module of the MicroStrategy BIDK includes a Planned Compensation fact that is stored at the Department level. To view fact data at a lower logical level than the fact is stored at.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide Lowering the level of fact data: Fact degradations Degradation. However. . facts. you can create more meaningful analysis with other fact data that is 118 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. However. you must degrade the fact to a lower level. This causes every employee to be listed with the same planned compensation value as the employee’s department. This scenario may occur because you stored a fact at a level that is used most commonly in reports.

For example.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 stored at the Employee level. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 119 . Inc. as shown below: Without using a degradation of Planned Compensation to Employee. which performs a division of metrics defined from the Compensation Cost and Planned Compensation facts. The Fact Editor opens. © 2007 MicroStrategy. To define a fact degradation 1 In Desktop. The following procedure steps through how to create the fact degradation that has been created for the Planned Compensation fact of the Human Resources Analysis Module. log in to the Human Resources Analysis Module. You can now view what percentage of your planned compensation per department has been spent per employee. 2 Browse to the Facts / Compensation / Planning folder and double-click the Planned Compensation fact to edit it. The metric Actual as % Planned Compensation has been created to calculate the actual compensation of an employee as a percentage of the planned compensation for the entire department of the employee. The metric definition is ([Compensation Cost]/[Planned Compensation]). respectively. you could not include Department and Employee on a report with these metrics and return accurate values. the Compensation Cost fact is stored at the Employee level. The procedure also describes general principles of creating fact degradations which you can use to create fact degradations for the facts in your project.

5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide 3 Click the Extensions tab. The Level Extension Wizard opens. page 110 and Defining a join on fact tables using fact relations. Inc. To extend the fact so that it can be reported at any level in a hierarchy. choose the lowest level attribute in that hierarchy. dynamic fact relation. The Join Type page opens. The General Information page opens. page 122) • For this example you are creating a fact degradation so select Lower the fact entry level. 8 Select what attribute(s) to perform the join. For this example. 4 Select Degradation to Employee and click Modify. or a cross product join (see Defining a join on fact tables using table relations. this example steps through how the Planned Compensation fact degradation Degradation to Employee was created. To create a new fact degradation you would click New. Click Next. 6 Enter a name and a description for your fact extension (already provided). the Department attribute is already selected. For this example Employee is already selected. Click Next. 120 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. . page 114) Disallow partially or completely the fact entry level: define a fact extension that does not allow a fact to be reported at a certain level (see Disallowing the reporting of a fact at a certain level. allowing the fact to be reported at the new level. The Join Attributes Direction page opens. The Extended Attributes page opens. Then select whether you want to: • • Lower the fact entry level: define a fact degradation Extend the fact entry level: define a fact extension on a table relation. 7 Select the attributes you want to degrade the fact to. 5 Read the Welcome statement and click Next. However. and click Next.

Using such an allocation expression would spread a year’s fact data evenly over the 12 months of that year. page 121 for an example of using an allocation expression for a fact degradation. For this example. or join using the attribute and its children. The Allocation page opens. you do not need to include an allocation expression. See Fact degradations with allocation expressions. and so on) when aggregating data to higher levels. Allocation expressions are defined by operations you set on attributes and facts in the Level Extension Wizard in the Fact Editor. Such fact degradations should be used 121 © 2007 MicroStrategy. This is similar in concept to choosing an aggregation function (Sum. Ordinarily. Click Next. you define how higher-level facts are degraded to lower-level attributes. this is often an unlikely scenario. you can create a degradation on the fact to relate it to the monthly level. While it is possible that the fact data would be the same for every month of the year. Fact degradations often produce data estimates rather than exact values for the fact data at lower logical levels. you must add an allocation expression. to change the definition of the fact in a level extension. Avg. which allows the distribution of values according to a calculation you specify. Fact degradations with allocation expressions Not all fact degradations can simply be lowered to a new level. the join is performed on the Department attribute and its children. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions . For this example. For example. consider the allocation expression fact/12 for a degradation from Year to Month. You select Month to be the attribute to which to degrade.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 9 You can choose to join using the attribute. 10 Enter an allocation expression that calculates the fact at the new level. if your fact is stored at the yearly level and you want to report the data at the monthly level. For example. 11 Click Finish to create the fact degradation. You then specify that the allocation expression is fact/12. Inc. By creating allocation expressions.

Consider a schema containing three dimensions: Geography. Inc. Disallowing a fact to be extended to a level lower than the fact’s entry level due to unnecessary complexity and the cost of analyzing fact data at such a level is a common use for this feature. The setting prevents unnecessary joins to lookup tables. Disallowing the reporting of a fact at a certain level The Disallow partially or completely the fact entry level setting within the Fact Editor is like a lock which prevents a fact from being reported at a specific level. if you create a report and attempt to include the fact at the Minute or Second level. the Analytical Engine does a dynamic cross-join and evaluates the report. If a fact is stored at a level that is counterproductive to a query. When you create a report containing the Month attribute and the Sales metric. After updating the schema and re-executing the report. indicating that the report cannot be run at that level.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide only when fact data is not stored at a lower logical level and there is no way to directly relate the fact data to the lower logical level. and Product. This setting. extend. page 111 of the procedure to create a fact extension above. Time. the report fails because the disallow setting now prevents the cross-joins between the lookup tables and fact tables. For example. The following examples describe instances in which disallowing a fact entry level can prove useful. To explicitly disallow an extension of the Sales fact to the Time dimension. querying at the Minute or Second level consumes too many resources and returns extensive data. or disallow the fact entry level. . if you have three years’ worth of data. you can disallow the lower levels. does not affect normal joins. 122 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. Suppose you create a fact called Sales at the Item level in the Product dimension and a metric called Sales as the sum of the Sales fact. an error is returned. such as data that is stored at the Minute or Second level. you would use the Disallow partially or completely the fact entry level setting and select the lowest attribute in the Time dimension such as Day. With a disallow in place. however. This option is set in the step immediately after To lower.

for the Sales fact. There must be a valid reason to disallow reporting a fact at a certain level. although the engine returns a valid SQL. So you encounter only normal joins and no extensions. This is not an expected design condition. If you re-execute the report. which is defined as sum of the Revenue fact. Inc. the engine sorts the extension conditions specified in some order and calculates the report based on the sorted order of extensions.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 In the previous example. Month. This is because Revenue exists at the same level as Item in the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. You now disallow an extension on the Revenue fact for the Item attribute and update the schema. In this case. For example. The Disallow the fact entry level setting applies only to attributes that can be considered as extended attributes. assume you specify an extension to the Month attribute and also disallow extension to Year which is a parent of the extended attribute. disallowing the Revenue fact at the level it is stored at in the data warehouse does not make logical sense. This implies that the fact extension has not been disallowed. © 2007 MicroStrategy. It is advisable to avoid fact definitions that contain contradictory extension definitions. In this case. If you execute the report containing the Year attribute and Sales metric. you can still see Revenue by Item. you create a report that contains the attributes Subcategory and Item and the Revenue metric. the report runs successfully. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 123 .

.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide 124 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc.

When executed. Inc. While knowing your company’s total sales is useful. which take the form of attributes in MicroStrategy. a substantial amount of information is available. and year levels. Year. For example. including which regions produced the least revenue and which years saw the highest growth in revenue. Attributes provide the business model with a context in which to report on and analyze facts. and Region attributes on the template. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Because of the attributes on the report. the report displays your company’s revenue at the region. knowing where and when the sales took place provides the kind of analytical depth users require on a daily basis.6 6. THE CONTEXT OF YOUR BUSINESS DATA: ATTRIBUTES Introduction Business data represented by facts can offer little insight without the presence of business concepts and context. If you remove the attributes from the report. month. as well as a Revenue metric based on the Revenue fact. you have a report with the Month. you can only find out how much revenue the company generated in total. 125 .

6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Creating attributes is an important step in the initial project design effort. New user and application requirements make attribute creation and modification an important part of the entire project life cycle. instructs the engine how to build the SQL for that report. Intelligence Server. sum(Sales) From Store_Fact Group By Store_ID. A report designer creates a report in part by determining these report column headers. which comes after creating facts when using the Project Creation Assistant. In the data warehouse. Date. Date 126 © 2007 MicroStrategy. using this report definition. consider the following: Select Store_ID. attributes are normally identified by a unique ID column in a lookup table. The expressions of attributes and facts in the report define the SELECT clause of the SQL command. attributes are identified by the column headers of the reports. . For example. In MicroStrategy reports. Inc.

is the lowest level of detail reported. See Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms. report analyzers do not have to know SQL to extract information from a data warehouse. A discussion about metrics. Attributes can have multiple attribute forms. filters.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 In the SQL above. Because of this process. Customer First Name. Attributes are defined by these properties: • Attribute form: contains an identifier or descriptor of an attribute. and reports is beyond the scope of this guide and is covered in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. A high-level report. Customer Email. It is important to understand the data is still the same. for the Customer attribute. 127 . The lowest level attribute you include in a report. Attribute expression: maps a MicroStrategy attribute form to one or more columns in the warehouse. Inc. page 159. • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. includes the Year attribute but lacks the detail of a similar report which includes the lower level attributes Month and Week. See Attribute relationships. such as a report at the Year level. page 147. it is just not aggregated. For example. such as Day. The attributes and metrics in the report tell Intelligence Server where to look in the data warehouse for the information and how to create the SQL that will retrieve it. page 143. Attribute relationship: allows interaction of data at different conceptual levels and shows how data is related within a project. See Attribute form expressions. sales information will be retrieved by store and date. and Customer Last Name are examples of attribute forms.

it is often necessary to modify and create attributes throughout the life cycle of a project.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide The following diagram illustrates how the attribute properties listed above are related: While creating attributes is a major step in the initial creation of a project. Inc. . as well as highlight some advanced attribute design techniques and procedures. 128 © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 129) of this chapter. The later sections discuss conceptual information on attributes. The procedures to perform these tasks are discussed in the first section (Creating attributes.

• Simultaneously creating multiple attributes During your initial project design effort. For steps to access the Project Creation Wizard. Inc. This includes adding advanced features such as attribute forms to attributes that already exist or adding new attributes as your project evolves. © 2007 MicroStrategy. creating attributes is a major step in any project design effort. Creating attributes 129 . which launches the Attribute Creation Wizard to complete the attribute creation tasks. see To create a new project using the Project Creation Assistant. you can create multiple attributes using the Attribute Creation Wizard. This section provides steps to create attributes at different phases of the project design process. therefore.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Creating attributes An attribute is primarily used to group and aggregate fact data to add business context to the fact data. using different techniques and MicroStrategy interfaces: • Simultaneously creating multiple attributes. Adding and modifying attributes. To create attributes using the Attribute Creation Wizard This procedure is part of an initial project creation effort using the Project Creation Assistant. page 129—steps to create multiple attributes as part of the initial project design effort or later in a project’s life cycle. page 134—steps to add and modify attributes for an existing project. The ability to report on and analyze data requires data to have a business context.

4 The Column data type area allows you to select the column data types to be available as possible attribute ID columns. 2 Review the introduction page that is displayed.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide page 78. 130 Creating attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. Define attribute creation rules These rules can make the process of choosing attribute columns and naming your attributes considerably easier. especially if you use consistent naming conventions and data types in your data warehouse. as shown below. 3 Click Define Rules to set some basic attribute creation rules. You can also access the Attribute Creation Wizard at any time in the development of a project from the Schema menu in MicroStrategy Desktop. 1 In the Project Creation Assistant. The Attribute Creation Wizard opens. The Attribute Creation Rules page opens. . click Create attributes. Select the check boxes for the data types that should be included when the wizard searches the data warehouse for available attribute ID columns. Inc. Change these rules if the naming or data type conventions in your warehouse do not conform to these defaults. The Attribute Creation Wizard uses these rules below to help automate the attribute creation process.

Doing so results in unexpected behavior and errors. You should never use a column that has NULL or repeated values as the ID column for an attribute. Creating attributes 131 . 7 Click OK to accept your rule changes and return to the Attribute Creation Wizard. You can select the appropriate check boxes to set the following default behaviors for creating attribute names: • • • Replace underscores in the attribute name with spaces Remove the word “ID” from the name Capitalize the first letter 6 The Warehouse search area determines naming conventions to help locate your warehouse objects. Only those columns with data types that match those chosen in the rules you defined above appear on the ID Selection page. The defaults are ID for identifier columns. make sure that all values in the column are unique and that it does not contain NULL values. Inc. DESC for description columns. The columns that match the identifier naming convention that you set in the warehouse search rule above are automatically highlighted.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 5 The Attribute name area allows you to determine how to create default attribute names. When choosing the ID column for an attribute. © 2007 MicroStrategy. 8 Click Next. ID column selection An ID column is a column or group of columns that uniquely identifies each element of an attribute. The ID Column Selection page opens. and LOOKUP for lookup tables.

page 153. This implies that more than one ID column is needed to uniquely identify the elements of that attribute (see Attributes with more than one ID column: Compound attributes. see Joining dissimilar column names: Heterogeneous mappings. Click >> to add all the listed columns. For more information about mapping attributes to heterogeneous columns. Description column selection Description columns provide the data which gives context and meaning to your attributes. Create compound attributes A compound attribute is defined as an attribute with more than one column specified as the ID column. select the columns to use for your attribute IDs and click > to add them to your project.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide 9 From the Available columns pane. – To remove attribute ID columns from your project. . page 183). Type a name for the attribute. select the attribute IDs in the Attributes pane and click < to move them to the Available columns pane. 132 Creating attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. complete the following steps: • • • Click Compound Attributes and then click Add. 10 To create a compound attribute. You are returned to the Attribute Creation Wizard. – The Attribute Creation Wizard cannot handle columns that hold the same information but have different column names (that is. Select the columns that are required to uniquely identify the compound attribute and click OK. heterogeneous columns). Inc. The New Compound Attribute dialog box opens. Note the following: – You can rename any attribute name to make it more user-friendly by right-clicking the attribute and selecting Rename.

click Next. it may make sense to use the ID column as the description column. In some cases. 15 Click Next: • If you have created compound attributes. 13 Click Next when you are finished selecting description columns for attributes. they provide the information for an attribute through data stored in their ID and description columns. The Lookup Table Selection page opens. – Other attribute forms need to be created through the Attribute Editor after you complete steps in the Project Creation Assistant. Refer to Adding attributes with the Attribute Editor. Lookup table selection Lookup tables are the physical representation of attributes. Specify the lookup table and description column for the compound attributes and click Next. In general. Note the following: – In general. you should choose the default lookup table for each attribute.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 11 After adding all your attribute ID columns. 14 Select the lookup table for each attribute. page 136. however. The Description Column Selection page opens. The table that follows the lookup naming convention that you set in the warehouse search rule is automatically selected. the Relationship Definition page opens. such as Year. the Compound Attribute Definition page opens. The column that meets the description naming convention that you set in the warehouse search rule is automatically selected. • © 2007 MicroStrategy. The Relationship Definition page opens. Creating attributes 133 . 12 Select whether to use the ID or a different column for the description of the attribute. If you have not created a compound attribute. for more information about attribute forms. you should use the default description column for each attribute. Inc.

Adding and modifying attributes Just as you can add more facts to your project once you have created it. whereas attributes in different hierarchies cannot be related. This completes the initial creation of a project with the Project Creation Assistant. like Location. The Finish page opens. you specify the children and the type of relationship: one-to-one. select the relationship type for the attribute to its child attribute. State. After you have completed the steps of the Attribute Creation Wizard. • 17 When you have defined children for all the attributes that need them. Related attributes such as City. or many-to-many. page 159. the attributes are created. 18 Review the summary information in the Finish page and click Finish to create the attributes. click Next. You are returned to the Attribute Creation Wizard. In the Children of: attribute name pane. As a company evolves. The Select Children Attributes dialog box opens. 16 For each attribute. In a logical data model. or Region are often grouped in a common hierarchy. When you design a logical data model for your project (see Chapter 2. one-to-many. select an attribute and click Add. see Attribute relationships. the relationships between attributes should become apparent. The Logical Data Model). so does its 134 Creating attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. For more information on the different attribute relationship types. when attributes are in the same hierarchy they must be related to each other. define child attributes: • • In the Attributes pane. .6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Relationship definition For each attribute. you can also create and add attributes as they become necessary. Select the child attributes from the list of available child attributes and click OK. Inc.

with offices only in the United States. when the company opens its offices in Europe and Asia.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 reporting requirements. Before the shift overseas. define advanced expressions. You can use the Attribute Editor to edit existing attributes and create additional attribute forms. In general. map heterogeneous column names. or the Attribute Editor. Creating attributes 135 . it must add lookup tables that contain data about its new offices to its warehouse. decides to extend its operations into Europe and Asia. © 2007 MicroStrategy. a health care company. which you use to create the first attributes for your project. It must then add these tables to its MicroStrategy project. the company does not include lookup tables with information about different countries in its data warehouse. which allows you to define attributes. but you cannot use it to modify existing attributes or to define more advanced attributes. and so on. and attribute form expressions. these requirements can lead to changes to the data warehouse as well as to the schema within its MicroStrategy projects. Inc. and create the appropriate attributes so report users can analyze business data for their appropriate country. for creating most of the attributes for the project. configure additional settings. You can create attributes with either the Attribute Creation Wizard. However. you only use the Attribute Creation Wizard as part of the initial project creation. For example. attribute forms. • The Attribute Creation Wizard allows you to: Create simple attributes Create multiple attributes quickly Add a large number of attributes during project creation • The Attribute Editor allows you to: Create simple and advanced attributes Edit existing attributes and configure additional schema-level settings The Attribute Creation Wizard works well for building a large number of attributes initially.

See the Permissions and Privileges appendix of the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide for more information. 3 From the Schema menu. 2 From the Folder List. Follow the steps below to use the Attribute Creation Wizard to create simple attributes in bulk. select the project to which to add new attributes. you may still find it useful if you need to create multiple attributes from remaining lookup columns in your warehouse. Inc. . You can also use it to add new attributes to your project. The Attribute Creation Wizard opens. follow the steps outlined in Simultaneously creating multiple attributes. log in to the project source that contains your project and expand your project. 136 Creating attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 129. choose Attribute Creation Wizard. Adding attributes with the Attribute Editor The Attribute Editor is used to add advanced features such as attribute forms to attributes that already exist. 4 To create attributes with the Attribute Creation Wizard.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Adding attributes with the Attribute Creation Wizard Although the Attribute Creation Wizard is primarily used to create most of a project’s attributes during initial project creation. You must use a login that has Architect privileges. To create simple attributes in bulk using the Attribute Creation Wizard 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop.

Creating attributes 137 . Inc. select New. © 2007 MicroStrategy. 3 From the Source table drop-down list. 4 To create a simple attribute form expression (Attribute form expressions. 6 Under Mapping Method. You do not have to include any operators. use a combination of any of the following techniques: • • • Enter constants in double quotes. 2 From the File menu. you are only required to select an available column and move it to the Form expression pane. You can then clear any tables mapped automatically. 5 Click Validate to make sure your expression is valid. Click any operator in the Form expression toolbar to insert it into the expression. with the Create New Form Expression dialog box displayed on top of it. drag a column name from the Available columns pane to the Form expression pane. log in to the project source that contains your project and expand your project. and then Attribute. page 147). Click f(x) in the Form expression toolbar to create a function using the Insert Function Wizard. Its columns are listed in the Available Columns pane. select Automatic or Manual: • Automatic mapping means that MicroStrategy scans all of the tables in the project and selects all tables with the columns used in the attribute form expression as possible source tables for the attribute form. functions. select a table which contains the columns of data for the attribute. To create a more advanced attribute form expression. The Attribute Editor opens.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 To create an attribute using the Attribute Editor 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. When you create an expression for an attribute form. or parentheses. or select other tables.

– These mapping methods are NOT the same as the automatic mapping methods for the Warehouse Catalog. You then select which of those tables are used as source tables for the attribute form. 8 From the Source tables pane. 7 Click OK. Note the following: – The mapping method defaults to Automatic for the first attribute or attribute form expression you create. Using automatic mapping in the Attribute Editor helps you decide which tables to map your attribute to when creating an attribute. Inc. The system maps the expression to each of the source tables. page 231) determine whether attributes or facts are automatically mapped to new tables when they are added after an attribute or fact is created. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. type a name and description in the associated fields for the attribute form. the default is Manual. from which you can create attribute forms for the attribute (Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms. – A constant expression cannot use the automatic mapping method. 138 Creating attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. A lookup table holds the information for an attribute. page 143). . For subsequent attributes. The Warehouse Catalog mapping methods (discussed in Mapping schema objects and calculating logical sizes for tables. select the check boxes of the tables to map to the attribute form.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide • Manual mapping means that MicroStrategy scans all of the tables in the project and locates all tables with the columns used in the attribute form expression. select a table and click Set as Lookup to set the lookup table for the attribute. 9 In the Form general information area. If you chose manual mapping.

For a description of form categories. do one of the following: • Select a form category from the drop-down list. if you select a column with a non-numeric data type and set it as an ID column. The Save dialog box opens. page 146. refer to the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. 11 In the Form format area. see Attribute form properties. Click Modify to create a new form category. Using a column with a non-numeric data type as an ID column of an attribute can result in SQL generation issues. Inc. 15 From the Schema menu. you can modify the attribute at any time using the Attribute Editor. select Save As. The Attribute Editor opens. 14 Navigate to the folder in which to save the attribute. a warning message appears by default when you click OK in the Create New Attribute Form dialog box. select Update Schema to update the project schema. Enter a name for the derived fact. Click Save. select a display type and a default sorting option from the associated drop-down lists.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 10 In the Category used drop-down list. • Modifying attributes After creating an attribute. Creating attributes 139 . 12 Click OK. Custom groups are sorted by the Default sort of the form that appears first in the Report display forms. © 2007 MicroStrategy. 13 From the File menu. This ensures that your project is updated to recognize the new attribute definition. For more information on custom groups. You cannot use the Attribute Creation Wizard to modify attributes. Therefore.

Baltimore BA. . open the folder that contains the attribute to modify. Unique sets of attribute information: Attribute elements Attribute elements are the unique sets of information or values of an attribute. The Attribute Editor opens. For example. 2 Double-click the attribute to edit. You can learn how to create more advanced attributes in the various sections below. and Boston BN are elements of the attribute City: 140 Unique sets of attribute information: Attribute elements © 2007 MicroStrategy. in the following diagram. Customer is the attribute and New York NY.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide To modify an existing attribute 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. which is described in the previous procedure To create an attribute using the Attribute Editor. You can then modify all the options available when creating and attribute in the Attribute Editor. Inc. page 137.

and so on which are defined by the attribute forms (see Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms. an attribute element is a unique set of information defined by the attribute forms of an attribute. each attribute element is an individual customer. With the Customer attribute. email address. in the image above. Attribute elements are identified by their browse forms. which should be forms that provide a general description of the attribute element. first name. For example. Unique sets of attribute information: Attribute elements . Inc. Each attribute element is a row in an attribute lookup table in your data warehouse. page 143).Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 The following example displays the physical warehouse table that stores elements and data for the Customer attribute. as shown below: The Customer attribute is a good example to understand the components of an attribute and the concept of an attribute element. the First Name and Last Name forms are used to identify the 141 © 2007 MicroStrategy. Each customer (attribute element) has its own set of information such as last name. As shown above.

Just as you would not refer to a customer by his or her street address. attribute elements are displayed depending on the location of the attribute they are associated with. page 189. For example. For more information on selecting the attribute forms used to identify attribute elements. . and Sporting Goods: In MicroStrategy reports. Shoes. the report below (created from the Sales 142 Unique sets of attribute information: Attribute elements © 2007 MicroStrategy. you would not want to use the Address form to identify the Customer attribute elements. Inc. see Using attributes to browse and report on data. Attribute elements can be identified in logical data models. the attribute Division has multiple attribute elements. As shown below.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide attribute elements. such as Men’s Clothing.

The report above uses the common practice of putting the metrics (Sales Orders Quantity (Base Units) and Cost Sales Orders) on the columns of the report. page 33.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 and Distribute Analysis Module of the MicroStrategy BIDK) has two attributes. Every attribute must have at least one form. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms 143 . Sales Organization and Year. and most have at least two: © 2007 MicroStrategy. Year is on the columns of the report along with its attribute elements such as 2005. The display of attributes and their attribute elements is also affected by the location of the metrics on the report. as explained in Logical data modeling conventions. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms Attribute forms are identifiers or descriptors of an attribute. Sales Organization is on the rows of the report along with its attribute elements such as USA Central. Inc.

For example. These types of forms give context and information about the Customer attribute. . which is a column of unique numeric values to identify each customer.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide • • The ID form (required) A description form Every attribute must have an ID form (identity form). The Customer attribute in the MicroStrategy Tutorial has various forms. Inc. Some attributes can have additional descriptive forms that do not serve as the primary description form. including the Customer Name and the Address forms. each customer must have a different value for their identity column. as shown in the following diagram: 144 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. For the Customer attribute. In this case John Smith can have a value of 1 in the Customer_ID column and Fred Black can have a value of 2 in the Customer_ID column. the Customer attribute’s ID form is Customer_ID. Email is included as an additional descriptive form. ID forms serve to uniquely identify each attribute element from other elements for the same attribute. Attributes also have description forms. To differentiate between two customers such as John Smith and Fred Black.

and SSN. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms 145 . Heterogeneous column names are discussed in Joining dissimilar column names: Heterogeneous mappings. you can choose a lookup table in the Attribute Editor from a list of tables existing in the project. you must map the appropriate columns to the same attribute to retrieve accurate and complete results when using an attribute on a report. and Email forms and the tables will join together through the ID columns because that is the column they have in common. two columns with different names can represent the same information about an attribute. Name. Inc. The forms you create must have a reference to a lookup table and can include multiple expressions. identifying number for each customer (ID form) Customer_Full_Name: the full name of each customer (Description form) EMAIL: the email address for the specific customer (Additional description form) In this example. two tables exist. The second lookup table contains Customer _ID and Email. a lookup table with three columns holds the following separate forms. the ID forms are used to join tables. the LU_CUSTOMER table records all of the attribute form data for the Customer attribute. SSN. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Name. The attribute will have the Customer_ID. described below: • • • Customer_ID: a unique. When creating an attribute form.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 In the data warehouse. page 153. one with the forms Customer_ID. Attributes must contain at least one ID form. In such cases. Each table must have an ID form. For example. In the warehouse. which uniquely identifies the attribute.

and None. There is no way to distinguish a Desc attribute form from a None attribute form on a MicroStrategy report. • Default sorting of multiple attribute forms When creating attribute forms. Inc. While there is no difference in how a Desc attribute form and None attribute form are used in MicroStrategy. These properties affect the display of the forms and include the following: • Categories help group the types of forms.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Attribute form properties You must select properties for each form when you create forms in the Attribute Editor in MicroStrategy Desktop. the other description forms must be mapped to None forms. For information on how attribute forms are sorted when multiple attribute forms of a single attribute define a default sort order. You can create new form categories in the Attribute Editor. Each attribute can have only one Desc form. Big Decimal is discussed in detail in Appendix D. • Format types control how the form is displayed and how filters are built. or None. specifying a format type of Big Decimal allows users to preserve precision when qualifying on a form with more than 15 digits. . Desc. below. mapping the most commonly used or most important description form can be helpful for project designers to quickly distinguish this attribute form from the other secondary forms. You can choose from Ascending. When you have attributes that require multiple description forms. If you define multiple attribute forms of an attribute with ascending or descending sort orders. For example. the first attribute form with a default sort order is 146 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. The standard category options are ID. you can define the default sort order for each attribute form. Data Types. it is a good practice to map the most commonly used or most important description form to the Desc form of the attribute. Default sort governs how the form is sorted by default when included in a report. Descending. see Default sorting of multiple attribute forms.

This is the default functionality for how attributes are sorted by their attribute forms on reports. In a report you can use advanced sorting to define how attribute forms. This is because Last Name was created first and therefore is considered for sorting before the Address form. Attribute form expressions Attributes act like holders of information and provide context for fact data. Each attribute form must have at least one expression. Modify the Address form so that it has a descending default sort order. the Customer attribute holds information about the customer such as Name and Address. Inc. the Customer attribute in the MicroStrategy Tutorial project has the five attribute forms shown below: Of these five attribute forms. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms . and so on. If you remove the Last Name form from the report. then the second attribute form with a default sort order is used for sorting. Sorting defined for a report takes precedence over default sorting defined for attribute forms. customers are sorted by their Last Name in ascending order. If you include Customer on a report with both Last Name and Address. These information units are called attribute forms. and other report objects are sorted. For example. refer to the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. It is important to note that you can change how attribute forms are sorted from within a report.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 used to sort the attribute on the report. customers are sorted by their address in descending order. For example. metrics. 147 © 2007 MicroStrategy. If the first attribute form with a default sort order is not included on a report. only Last Name has a default sort order set. An attribute form expression defines what columns in the warehouse are used to represent the attribute form in SQL. For more information on advanced sorting.

148 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. the CUST_FIRST_NAME and CUST_LAST_NAME columns in the warehouse provide information about first and last names respectively. The definition of the simple expression includes the tables in which the column is found. • • Simple expressions A simple expression is based on a single warehouse column. You can create expressions using attribute columns. Derived expressions. In this instance. +. . page 148: Simple form expressions access data through columns in the data warehouse. These functions are discussed in the Pass-through Expressions appendix in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. The types of attribute form expressions are: • • Simple expressions. -. Implicit expressions. Inc. the form expression for the Customer First Name attribute form is CUST_FIRST_NAME. since they only use the constants you declare. and/or mathematical operators. These form expressions create virtual data by combining or using columns to generate the data. Joining dissimilar column names: Heterogeneous mappings. a form cannot have two different expressions in the same source table. constants.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide For example. The form expression for the Customer Last Name attribute form is CUST_LAST_NAME. page 150: Derived form expressions perform some type of mathematical calculation on columns in the data warehouse to create an attribute form. page 155: Implicit form expressions do not relate directly to data stored in the data warehouse. You can also create a form expression using Apply functions. page 153: Heterogeneous mappings allow you to use columns with different names in the data warehouse as the same attribute form. *. /. Only implicit attributes do not include a column in the expression. for example. Although you can have multiple expressions in different tables.

open the Attributes folder. 3 Double-click the Customer attribute. The retailer intends to analyze the data gathered from the surveys to better market their products in the future. 2 Navigate to the Schema Objects folder. ID and Description. Example: creating an attribute form with a simple expression A retailer begins a promotion that offers customers 25% off of their purchases if they fill out a feedback survey on the company website. Category is an attribute in the MicroStrategy Tutorial. both of which are defined by simple expressions. Once gathered. This will enable report designers to display each customer’s date of birth alongside each customer’s name on reports. At this point. log in to the project source that contains the MicroStrategy Tutorial project and then log in to MicroStrategy Tutorial. Both of these columns reside in the table LU_CATEGORY.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 For example. It has two forms. the date of birth data eventually becomes part of the retailer’s data warehouse and the appropriate lookup table is added to the retailer’s project in MicroStrategy. Follow the procedure below to create Customer Birth Date as an attribute form in the Customer attribute. and then the Customers folder. To create an attribute form with a simple expression 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. the project designer must add the column containing the customer dates of birth as an additional attribute form of the Customer attribute. including their dates of birth. Inc. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms 149 . The Attribute Editor opens. The retailer’s customers provide a variety of information on the surveys. © 2007 MicroStrategy. The expression for the ID form is the CATEGORY_ID column and the expression for the description form is the CATEGORY_DESC column.

Any operation on a column (such as adding a constant. Inc. 8 In the Form general information area. select DATE since Customer Birth Date is neither the ID form of Customer nor the primary description form. . 11 Because this is only an example. 5 From the Source table drop-down list. in the Name field. type Customer Birth Date. This is the table that contains customers’ dates of birth. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. select the LU_CUSTOMER table. By creating an attribute to calculate age in this manner. 7 Click OK. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. functions. adding another column. 10 Click OK. the attribute’s value 150 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. 9 From the Category used drop-down list. and constants.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide 4 Click New. close the Attribute Editor without saving your changes. derived expressions are defined using one or more columns as well as other operators and values. While simple expressions have their value determined by just one column in a warehouse table. you can create an attribute to hold the age of a customer or an employee that has been derived from the two columns. you can create a derived attribute to calculate age or anniversaries. or setting the expression to be an absolute value) creates a derived expression. For example. 6 Double-click the CUST_BIRTHDATE column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. The mapping method is selected as Automatic by default. Derived expressions Derived expressions are created using a combination of warehouse columns. By calculating the difference between the columns Date of Birth and Current Date. mathematical operators. The new Customer Birth Date attribute form is added to the Attribute form pane in the Attribute Editor.

Using the Customer attribute. open the Attributes folder. this information is displayed as Mary Jones under the Name column. the SQL query and resulting report can fail. you store Customer names in two different columns. CUST_FIRST_NAME and CUST_LAST_NAME. As another example. and then the Customers folder. You can achieve this using a derived form expression Name. you want reports to display a customer’s first name and last name together as a single entry on a report. If you created an attribute for age in which you included a constant number. the information is displayed as Jones. the syntax of the derived expression for Name reads: CUST_FIRST_NAME + “ “ + CUST_LAST_NAME On a report. Inc. Calculations and functions used in a derived expression can assist in deriving data from the database. which consists of the two strings. However. but you must make sure you use expressions that meet the requirements of your database-specific SQL syntax.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 is automatically updated as the age changes. First Name using the following syntax: CUST_LAST_NAME + “. the attribute would need to be updated every time a customer or an employee has a birthday. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Example: creating an attribute form with a derived expression In your database. log in to the project source that contains the MicroStrategy Tutorial project and then log in to MicroStrategy Tutorial. you could create a derived expression for Name in the format of Last Name. If you use syntax that is not supported by your database or other data source. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms 151 . To create an attribute form with a derived expression 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. “ + CUST_FIRST_NAME Using this expression. Mary under the Name column. 2 Navigate to the Schema Objects folder.

6 Double-click the CUST_LAST_NAME column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. 152 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. “ +. 8 Double-click the CUST_FIRST_NAME column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. select None since Last Name. First Name is neither the ID form of Customer nor the primary description form. The new attribute form is added to the Attribute form pane in the Attribute Editor. First Name. 13 Click OK. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. 7 In the Form expression pane. place the cursor to the right of [CUST_LAST_NAME] and type + “. Inc. 12 From the Category used drop-down list.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide 3 Double-click the Customer attribute. 11 In the Form general information area. Your expression should be defined as shown below. 14 Because this is only an example. close the Attribute Editor without saving your changes. 5 From the Source table drop-down list. type Last Name. in the Name field. 10 Click OK. 4 Click New. This is the table that contains customers’ first and last names. 9 Select Automatic as the mapping method. . select the LU_CUSTOMER table. The Attribute Editor opens. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens.

in the MicroStrategy Tutorial.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Joining dissimilar column names: Heterogeneous mappings Heterogeneous mapping allows Intelligence Server to perform joins on dissimilar column names. heterogeneous mapping automatically occurs when tables and column names require it. In the above example. you can use heterogeneous mapping to map the Day attribute to all of the columns in the data warehouse that represent the same concept of Day. the ID form of the attribute Day contains two expressions. If you define more than one expression for a given form. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms 153 . your company may have multiple columns in different tables that all represent the same business concept. Each expression is linked to a set of source tables that contain the columns used in the expression. most databases cannot join a data type of Text to a data type of Number. you can view the chosen tables in the source Tables area to the right of the Form Expressions area. However. you might be able to join columns with data types of Number and Integer. You can map Order_Date and Day_Date to the Day attribute—this ensures that both columns are used when information about the Day attribute is displayed on a report. you can select as many or as few as you want to be used as part of the attribute’s definition. Because different source systems may store information in various contexts. The Day_Date column occurs in the LU_DATE table and the Order_Date column occurs in the ORDER_DETAIL and ORDER_FACT tables. Of all the tables in which the columns exist. © 2007 MicroStrategy. For example. For example. In the Attribute Editor. Inc. The data types of columns used in a heterogeneous mapping for a given attribute must be identical or similar enough for your particular RDBMS to join them properly. depending on your database platform.

open the Attributes folder.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide To create an attribute form with a heterogeneous column mapping 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. both of which use different tables as the source of their information. 10 Double-click the ORDER_DATE column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. log in to the project source that contains the MicroStrategy Tutorial project and then log in to MicroStrategy Tutorial. select the ORDER_DETAIL table. 154 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. 11 Click OK. The mapping method is selected as Automatic by default. . The Create New Form Expression dialog box opens. select the LU_DAY table. and then the Time folder. 7 Click OK. The mapping method is selected as Automatic by default. 9 From the Source table drop-down list. 3 Double-click the Day attribute. The Attribute Editor opens. 4 Click New. 5 From the Source table drop-down list. 2 Navigate to the Schema Objects folder. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. Notice that there are now two expressions for the attribute form definition. The Create New Form Expression dialog box opens. 8 Click New. Inc. You could continue this process to add as many heterogeneous columns as part of one attribute form as necessary. 6 Double-click the DAY_DATE column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens.

rather than being defined in terms of columns. Implicit expressions are not defined by column names.” This implicit expression is used to keep track of which orders are rush orders. a “Y” is displayed in the Rush Order column. select None since this is simply an example scenario. close the Attribute Editor without saving your changes. Such an attribute has an implicit expression. Implicit expressions While most attributes map directly to one or more physical columns in the warehouse. for example. On a report with the Order and Rush Order attributes on the template. they are defined by constants you specify. 14 Click OK. For example. in the Name field.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 12 In the Form general information area. the Rush Order attribute in MicroStrategy Tutorial is an example of an implicit attribute. Inc. © 2007 MicroStrategy. The new Date Example attribute form is added to the Attribute form pane in the Attribute Editor. Implicit attributes are useful in analyzing and retrieving relevant information. although nothing is saved in an actual column. for each order that is a rush order. Some attribute definitions can be implied by the existence of a row in a certain table. which is a constant value. Suppose you want a report to display which orders are rush orders so you can better keep track of your shipments. an implicit attribute is a virtual or constant attribute that does not physically exist in the warehouse. but are useful in special cases such as the scenario described above. 15 Because this is only an example. 13 From the Category used drop-down list. Any constant is acceptable. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms 155 . RushOrder=‘Yes’. Implicit attributes are not commonly used. type Date Example. An implicit attribute such as Rush Order is useful for this purpose. which stands for “Yes. The Rush Order attribute is defined by two expressions: the Rush_Order column in the Order_Fact table and the implicit expression “Y”.

Inc. Another example could be a case in which your warehouse does not have a lookup table for year information. In your data warehouse you have a lookup table for an Accounts attribute where the ID is Account Number and the ID is stored in the database as DECIMAL(18. drilling. However. depending on your database or data source type. They can also help you take more advantage of the data in your data warehouse. . However.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Modifying attribute data types: Column aliases A column alias is a new data type that you can specify in place of the default data type for a given attribute form. This inheritance is governed by MicroStrategy. Many database platforms have functions that can extract parts of a date from a Date data type. the data type for an attribute form is inherited from the data type of the column on which the form is defined. or page-by on the Account attribute. Data Types for more information on how MicroStrategy selects a matching data type). a column alias performs the same function as it does for facts. Big Decimal. 0). the precision can be preserved when performing filtering. By doing so. you may need to use a different syntax. Because this column stores high-precision values. The following are some examples of such cases. there are cases where you may need to change the data type. you can create a Year attribute using the following form expression: ApplySimple("Year(#0)". For attributes. which attempts to use a data type as similar as possible to the data type in your database or other data source (see Appendix D. For example. you must modify the column alias for the attribute form and map it to a special data type.[Date_Id]) The ApplySimple expression above is syntactically correct for SQL Server. SQL Server has a Year function that extracts just the year from a date. In such a case. By default. 156 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. Column aliases allow you to specify a more appropriate data type that can help avoid errors in your SQL. but you would like to create a Year attribute.

When you create a form expression using a custom expression or multiple columns (as discussed in Attribute form expressions.Date_Id) While the column alias name does not affect the actual results or your report. You can use the Attribute Editor to create column aliases. page 147). modify the column alias for the attribute form and change the default Date data type to an Integer data type. However. When a temporary SQL table is created. such as 2002. log in to the project source that contains the attribute to create a new column alias for.Date_Id) CustCol_1. Inc. but this can be useful for troubleshooting the SQL for a particularly complex report. © 2007 MicroStrategy. the column alias for the attribute form defaults to CustCol (or CustCol_1. you can change the column alias name to be more meaningful. the result of the calculation is a year. where the column alias name is used: SELECT Year(a12. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms 157 .Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 The data type for this attribute is automatically set to a Date data type. The above example is a simple one. To avoid the possibility of an error due to conflicting data types. sum(a11. While this does not create a problem in all database platforms. and it is an integer. CustCol_2. in bold. In addition to specifying the data type to be used for an attribute form. This is because Date_ID is a Date data type. and so on).Tot_Dollar_Sales) WJXBFS1 FROM YR_CATEGORY_SLS a11 cross join TRANS_DATE_LW_LY a12 GROUP BY Year(a12. The following piece of SQL shows. if you do not change the data type of the column alias. 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. the system uses a Date data type and tries to insert integer data into this column. some databases will return an error. the column alias also lets you specify the column alias name to be used in the SQL generated by MicroStrategy. To create a column alias for an attribute This procedure assumes you have already created an attribute with a valid attribute expression for which to create a new column alias.

The Modify Attribute Form dialog box opens. Inc. For a description of the different data types supported by MicroStrategy. 5 In the Column alias area. For a detailed description on each of these properties. • • 8 Click OK to save your changes and return to the Column Editor . Attribute forms versus separate attributes Attribute forms can be considered as additional descriptions for an attribute. whereas attributes themselves can be considered as report elements or group-by elements that have a one-to-many or a many-to-many relationship with 158 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. or time scale for your column alias. The Column Editor . 4 Select the Column Alias tab. scale. bit length. 9 Click OK to save your changes and return to the Attribute Editor.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide 2 Right-click the attribute and select Edit. 7 You can modify the following properties for the column alias: • Column name: The name for the column alias which is used in any SQL statements which include the fact column.Definition dialog box opens. Data type: The data type for the fact. . The Column Editor . 3 Select an attribute form and click Modify. The Attribute Editor opens. 10 Select Save and Close to save your changes. Depending on the data type selected. see the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. see Appendix D.Column Selection dialog box.Column Selection dialog box opens. you can specify the byte length. click Modify. 6 Select New to create a new column alias. Data Types. precision.

Attribute relationships 159 . The data that you map to attributes can be represented as separate attributes or as an attribute form of an attribute. © 2007 MicroStrategy. In other words. as explained in Attribute relationships. A Cartesian join. is very database intensive as every row in one table is joined to every row in the other table. however. page 36. how tables and columns are joined and used. The decision to model data as an attribute form for a given attribute or as a separate attribute is usually determined during the logical data modeling phase of project design. Attribute relationships You link directly related attributes to each other by defining parent-child relationships. A report with two unrelated attributes. page 24. or else a Cartesian join occurs. For more information on whether to model data as an attribute form or as a separate attribute. you should map data to an attribute form rather than a separate attribute if: • • There is a one-to-one relationship between an attribute and the data. You do not group by the data. Inc. or cross join. dictate the relationships that you define between attributes. The parent-child relationships you create determine the system hierarchy within the project. In general. or the actual data values for an attribute. You can run a report with two attributes that are related—Country and City. and which tables are related to other tables. these relationships define how the engine generates SQL.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 other attributes. see Attribute forms. for example—without any problems. The implications of whether attributes are related become clear when you begin building reports. Attribute elements. which is generally undesirable. must include a metric based on a fact that is on or below the level of the two attributes.

as part of the initial project design effort and in Viewing and editing the parents and children of attributes. One-to-one: Each element in the parent attribute has one and only one corresponding element in the child attribute. customers and accounts are an example of a many-to-many relationship. and so on. In banking. Attributes can be either related or unrelated to one another: • Related: A parent-child relationship is defined between two or more attributes. page 161. One-to-many: Each element in the parent attribute corresponds to one or more elements in the child attribute. such as in the case of a joint checking account. The relationship is defined through the attribute’s lookup table or a relationship table. This assumes that quarters are defined with an accompanying year such as Q4 2006. but a specific quarter can be in one year only. you can define relationships for the attributes in your project. Attributes can also be related to other attributes through a chain of attribute relationships.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide In MicroStrategy Desktop. These are the most common types of attribute relationships. A citizen can have only one Taxpayer ID and a Taxpayer ID can be assigned to only one citizen. after a project has already been created. and each account may be associated with many customers. and these relationships are defined by the attribute elements that exist in the related attributes. Many-to-many: Each element in the parent attribute can have multiple children and each child element in the child attribute can have multiple parents. Inc. . Q1 2007. page 129. Attributes of this type are often in the same hierarchy. A common example of a one-to-one relationship is citizen and Taxpayer ID. One year has many quarters. For example. consider the Geography hierarchy of the Customer Analysis Analytics 160 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy. One customer may have many accounts. Three types of direct relationships can exist between related attributes. Year has a one-to-many relationship to quarter. This step is covered in Simultaneously creating multiple attributes.

Don Addison. care must be taken when using unrelated attributes on a single report. For example. This allows you to include Customer Region and Customer City on a report and view the different customer cities for each customer region. Customer State. determines the output of a report. How attributes relate to one another and the types of relationships they share define the system hierarchy which is used to generate SQL. Unrelated attributes can exist together in fact tables. Customer Region and Customer State are directly related to each other and Customer State and Customer City also have a direct relationship. and Customer City: In this scenario. spent $2.500 on January 5.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Module of the MicroStrategy BIDK. Viewing and editing the parents and children of attributes The relationships that exist between attributes rely on the parent-child specifications that you assign to attributes. For example. these attributes are relatively straightforward to deal with from a project design perspective. A particular customer and a particular day only make sense together if a fact is associated with that combination. In this case. these two attributes are related through Customer State. in turn. This SQL. giving context to the fact. a certain customer. which contains the attributes Customer Region. Attribute relationships 161 . In general. © 2007 MicroStrategy. While Customer City is not directly related to Customer Region. the Customer and Day attributes have no relationship to one another. Inc. No relationship is present in the lookup tables or relationship tables for these attributes. however. • Unrelated: No parent-child relationship has been defined and the attributes are not related through a chain of attribute relationships. 2003 on behalf of the health care company in which he works.

162 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 193. . 4 Click the Children tab. Also. A one-to-one relationship exists between Distribution Center and Call Center. open the Attributes folder. So these two attributes have a one-to-many relationship. To view and edit the parents and children of an attribute 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. log in to the project source that contains the MicroStrategy Tutorial project and then log in to MicroStrategy Tutorial. Country. you can continue to make changes to the relationships between attributes even after creating your project. For example. 2 Navigate to the Schema Objects folder. and then the Geography folder. is the parent of Distribution Center and multiple distribution centers exist in each country. when a report generates inaccurate SQL and results. Assigning parent-child relationships to attributes allows you to connect attributes to one another in user hierarchies. 3 Double-click the Distribution Center attribute. This means that only one call center exists in each distribution center. and the relationship table in which the relationship exists. However. in turn. as discussed in Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes. along with the relationship type it shares with Distribution Center. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. For a general procedure to view and edit the parents and children of an attribute. viewing and changing parent-child relationships may be a necessary troubleshooting method. The Call Center attribute is listed. Follow the procedure below to view and edit the parents and children of the Distribution Center attribute. The Attribute Editor opens. Inc.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Parent-child relationships were designated when attributes were selected for the new project. the Distribution Center attribute is the parent of the Call Center attribute.

you should know what logical data models and physical warehouse schemas are. select the LU_Employee table from the Relationship table drop-down list. 5 To change the relationship type. While the topics are largely related to logical model design. Attribute relationships 163 . 6 You also want the relationship between the two attributes to be defined in the LU_Employee table instead of the LU_Call_Ctr table in which it is defined now. © 2007 MicroStrategy. close the Distribution Center attribute without saving your changes. you must change the relationship type between Call Center and Distribution Center. 7 Because this is only an example. Inc. The following sections discuss the considerations you must make to ensure an effective warehouse design in light of the unique nature of these relationships. These chapters discuss how to plan and create a conceptual framework for your business intelligence data. To change the relationship table.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Consider a scenario in which multiple call centers now exist in the same distribution center so they no longer have a one-to-one relationship. a working knowledge of physical schemas is helpful when dealing with the challenges involved with these topics. can introduce additional complexity to the schema and warehouse design process. Supporting many-to-many and joint child relationships Two forms of attribute relationships. Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model respectively. select One to Many from the Relationship type drop-down list. and how to read and interpret them. Before reading this section. in this case. Logical data models and physical warehouse schemas are discussed in Chapter 2. The Logical Data Model and Chapter 3. many-to-many relationships and joint child relationships.

each calling center has many salespeople. That is. With the presence of many-to-many relationships. blue hats. Likewise. there are many colors for a single type of car. red socks. One item can come in many colors—red hats.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Many-to-many relationships The presence of many-to-many relationships introduces complexity during the warehouse design process. there are usually two business questions for which users want answers: 1 In what colors are certain items available? 2 How much of a particular item/color combination was sold? 164 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy. each salesperson can work in more than one calling center. green hats—and one color can be associated with many items—red dress. and many types of cars can be associated with the same color. red shoes. Potential problems with many-to-many relationships usually come in the following forms. Inc. and each comes in several colors. red hat. many models of cars are produced. both of which can be avoided by correctly modeling the relationship: • • Loss of analytical capability Multiple counting Loss of analytical capability With the color/item many-to-many relationship. Below are some real-life examples of many-to-many relationships which must be carefully handled in the data model and schema: • In a certain organization. • The following sections use the example of items and colors to demonstrate a many-to-many relationship and the options you have for dealing with them. you must make additional considerations to effectively plan your design. In a car manufacturing plant. .

Recall that one-to-many relationships are usually in the child’s lookup table. Answering the second question requires a fact table that has sales information as well as color and item information. color. but in addition it shows a simple fact table containing sales data keyed by item. Rather. In many-to-many relationships this is not feasible.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Answering the first question requires a table that contains a list of all possible item/color combinations. Attribute relationships 165 . Inc. © 2007 MicroStrategy. The following diagram shows the same scenario as before. The following diagram shows the lookup and relationship tables for item and color: The Rel_Color_Item table provides a row for every possible item/color combination. a distinct relationship table needs to be present in your warehouse. and date.

loss of analytical capability is only one challenge. Inc. Only item/color combinations that were actually sold—and therefore have sales recorded—can be retrieved from this table. The relationship exists in a distinct relationship table. to prevent any loss of analytical flexibility when dealing with a many-to-many attribute relationship. . If you have item/color combinations that are available but that have never been sold. this fact table cannot provide a complete list of item/color combinations to answer question one. • • 166 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy. In summary. page 168. All of the attributes in the many-to-many relationship are not in the fact table. Multiple counting occurs when all of the following takes place: • You attempt to aggregate data to the level of one of the attributes in the many-to-many relationship. Another equally significant issue is multiple counting.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide The fact table in the above diagram alone is not sufficient to answer the first question. or a higher level than one of the attributes in the many-to-many relationship. which are discussed in Working with many-to-many relationships. Multiple counting When dealing with many-to-many relationships. the following requirements must be met: • • A distinct relationship table to identify all the possible combinations of attribute elements between attributes Both the attribute ID columns in the fact table You can implement the above points in several different ways.

which come in only green and blue. This query would require both the fact table—which has the sales information by item—and the relationship table—since color is not recorded in the fact table. Inc. The following diagram shows this data in the lookup tables as well as some simple sales data: The risk of multiple counting occurs when you run a query requesting the sales by color. and socks—and that they come in three colors—red. effectively aggregating to the item attribute level in the many-to-many relationship. Assume that there are three items—hats. and green—with the exception of socks. © 2007 MicroStrategy. dresses.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Recall the example from above. but make the following change: remove color from the fact table. blue. Attribute relationships 167 .

which can be calculated directly from the fact table. Working with many-to-many relationships As you can see. however. There is no way to directly relate the sales of an item in the fact table to the color of that particular item. This obviously leads to numbers that are higher than the true sales for red items. It is entirely possible that all the dresses sold are green. • What are the total sales for red dresses? Again. The three techniques all have differing levels of 168 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy. the following questions cannot all be answered accurately: • What are the total sales for hats? The answer is $35. . you cannot determine an accurate answer. The following section describes several ways to prevent multiple counting when dealing with many-to-many relationships. including blue ones and green ones. • What are the total sales for red items? You cannot determine an accurate answer. the query aggregates sales for all items that come in red according to the relationship table. which is the total for all hats and dresses. the correct answer is $0. For example. instead of calculating the sales of red items. Inc. If all the dresses sold are indeed green. The answer you get is $85.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide The difficulty lies in the fact that color is not in the fact table. but the answer you will get based on the data in the fact table is $50. you cannot confirm this since color is not recorded in the fact table. For example. The sum includes all hats and all dresses. using the given data. seemingly simple questions can require you to take a number of steps to answer them when many-to-many relationships are involved. since socks do not come in red. You can use one of three techniques to provide physical support to answer the types of questions that cannot be answered accurately when using many-to-many relationships.

the fact table is used to answer the query. you need to have data in the source system as to what the color is of each item sold. Rel_Color_Item) and add both attribute IDs to the fact table as shown in the following diagram. the SQL Engine uses the related table when no metric is included on the report. and flexibility is always a trade-off with complexity. © 2007 MicroStrategy. All of the following methods require additional data in the fact table. you cannot fully resolve the many-to-many relationship to calculate the amount of sales for items of a certain color.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 flexibility. Method 1 This method is the most straightforward way to effectively manage many-to-many relationships. If you make both of the above physical implementations. This means that you must capture the additional data in the source system. Method 1 requires you to create a separate relationship table (in this case. In all cases. the two fundamental components remain in place in one form or another: • • A relationship table to define the attribute relationship Both the attribute’s ID columns in the fact table MicroStrategy builds the rules that MicroStrategy SQL Engine uses to generate SQL when a report request is made. Attribute relationships 169 . For example. When a metric is included. If this additional data was never captured in the source system. Inc.

Here the many-to-many relationship is converted into a compound attribute relationship. Also. Inc. While this method eliminates the need for a separate relationship table. lower in level than either Color or Item. you add both attribute IDs. you lose the ability to view items independent of color. This attribute is essentially a concatenation of Color and Item.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Method 2 Method 2 eliminates the many-to-many relationship and the need for a distinct relationship table. which gives it a 170 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy. rather than two Here you must create a new attribute. Method 3 Method 3 is the most versatile solution and has the following characteristics: • • • Further simplifies the compound attribute relationship from Method 2 into a simple attribute relationship Provides the ability to view item and color together or independently Requires only one attribute column in the fact table for complete flexibility. . in this case Item_ID and Color_ID. or vice versa. You treat one attribute as a child of the other and have a compound key for the lower level attribute. to the fact table as shown in the following diagram.

Consequently. SKU. Attribute relationships 171 . they exist at the intersection of multiple attribute levels. Joint child relationships connect special attributes that are sometimes called cross-dimensional attributes. or qualities. as well as possibly adding complexity to the ETL process. Joint child relationships Some attributes exist at the intersection of other indirectly related attributes. which extends the relationship of each item/color combination into a single value. text facts. like facts. you can use this single value in the fact table. These relationships can be modeled and conceptualized like traditional attributes but. rather than including Color and Item in the fact table. Such attributes are called joint children. This is the SKU attribute. you only need to include this new child attribute SKU. The major disadvantage of Method 3 lies in creating the new attribute if your business model does not already use a similar structure. They do not fit neatly into the modeling schemes you have learned about thus far. The major difference is that the distinct relationship table from Method 1 has an additional column. © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 one-to-many relationship between itself and each of its parent attributes. This method is actually quite similar to Method 1. Finally. particularly common in retail data models or situations. Inc. as shown in the following diagram.

if flags are referenced in your source system documentation. Inc.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Many source systems refer to these special attributes as flags. Item. you might create 172 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy. Supporting joint child relationships One way to resolve a many-to-many relationship is to have a relationship table for the attributes involved in the many-to-many relationships. as shown in the following diagram. Promotion has a many-to-many relationship to both Item and Quarter. In this case. . For example. A business might run this promotion around Valentine's Day and again at Christmas time. Joint child relationships are really another type of many-to-many relationship where one attribute has a many-to-many relationship to two otherwise unrelated attributes. and Quarter. Therefore. consider the relationship between three attributes: Promotion. these are likely candidates for joint child relationships. An example of a promotion might be a “Red Sale” where all red items are on sale. In this case.

Alternatively. these tables are not sufficient to answer the following more detailed and insightful questions: • • What items were in what promotions in a given quarter? In what quarters was a certain item involved in a certain type of promotion? To answer these questions. The relationship in the distinct relationship table must exist for a joint child relationship to be properly defined. Promotion—would be fine. These two tables are sufficient to answer questions such as: • • What items have been in what promotions? What quarters have had what promotions? However. distinct relationship table. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. However. you can build the relationship directly into the fact table. one to relate Promotion and Item. creating one table to relate all three attributes. it does not necessarily have to be in its own.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 two relationship tables. Attribute relationships 173 . Defining the relationship directly in the lookup table for the parent of the joint child—in this case. The second relates Promotion and Quarter as shown in the following diagram. you must combine the two relationship tables.

6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide In these examples. as opposed to it being related to Item and Quarter separately. The Promotion attribute is related to a particular Item-Quarter pair. It is important to notice the relationship between the three attributes. The issues with many-to-many relationships—loss of analytical capability and multiple counting—also apply to many-to-many joint child relationships. Notice that a joint child relationship can be one-to-many or many-to-many. Inc. it is important for you to define it in MicroStrategy so that you get the correct data for reports that use the parent attribute in a joint child attribute. 174 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy. This is the essence of a joint child relationship and is shown in the following diagram. . to see sales by promotion—the join will always use both joint children rather than just one or the other. This ensures that when you need to join the fact table to the parent attribute of a joint child relationship—for example. If you have a joint child relationship in your data.

it is understood that destination airport data differs from origin airport data. notice that the attributes Origin Airport and Destination Airport are defined using the same lookup table. How an attribute plays multiple roles depends on the specific attribute. © 2007 MicroStrategy. AIRPORT_ID. Creating two separate lookup tables would create redundancy. in the following image. When multiple attributes are defined using the same lookup table and column. Suppose you define two attributes that have the same data definition but play different roles in your business model. and column. the attributes are essentially playing different attribute roles. You need to support the logical concepts of an origin airport and a destination airport.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles Attribute roles allow you to use the same data to define and support two separate attributes. and thus take up more storage space and be harder to maintain. but you do not want to create two separate lookup tables with identical data. LU_AIRPORT. For example. Although it makes sense to see JFK as either an origin or destination airport on a report. Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles 175 . Inc.

page 177. and so on. as shown below. If you identify that one of your attributes needs to play multiple roles. you must create an attribute in the logical model for each of the roles. an empty result set is returned.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide The Origin Airport and Destination Airport attributes share the same attribute forms. a separate column exists for each of their roles. In one case. In the fact table. . such as description. This occurs because the SQL statement tries to obtain the description of an airport that is both MIA and LGA at the same time (Airport_ID = "MIA" AND Airport_ID = "LGA"). as explained in Specifying attribute roles. the fact columns are ORIGIN_AIRPORT_ID and DESTINATION_AIRPORT_ID. location. In the following diagram. Inc. it refers to the 176 Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles © 2007 MicroStrategy. however. State is another example of an attribute that can have two roles since it relates to both the Vendor and Store attributes. If a report designer places both the Origin Airport and Destination Airport attributes on a report to obtain the number of flights that originated from MIA and arrived at LGA. This ensures that a report with attributes playing multiple roles returns correct data. or various aspects about them.

you must treat them as different attributes. Specifying attribute roles To see both roles on the same report. generating the empty result set. In an OLTP system. as shown in the above diagram. where you create multiple attributes that have the same lookup table and allow MicroStrategy to automatically detect the multiple roles.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 location of a vendor. roles are most often implemented as a single table. a query involving both Vendor State and Store State needs to use the State table twice in the same query. The SQL statement tries to obtain the description of a state that is both Arkansas and New York simultaneously. it refers to the location of a store. The State attribute is therefore said to be playing two roles. Automatic recognition is enabled by the VLDB © 2007 MicroStrategy. you have the following options: • Automatic attribute role recognition. they must have different attribute names. The results may be blank if the data warehouse structure was set up incorrectly. Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles 177 . a report is created to display vendors from Arkansas who sold to New York stores. In the data warehouse. For example. To create unique attributes. That is. In the other. Inc.

MicroStrategy recommends that you take advantage of automatic role recognition if you do not know the details of the modeling logic or the database. if you identify that any one of your attributes needs to play multiple roles. If you create more than this number of attributes. . is enabled). you encounter an error. Inc. In summary. Engine Attribute Role Options. as Ship Month and Order Month. you can have a maximum of 99 attributes defined on the same column of the same lookup table. refer to the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. If you are upgrading or have a very complex schema. In a MicroStrategy project in which automatic attribute role recognition is enabled (meaning that the database instance-level VLDB property. For more information. 178 Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles © 2007 MicroStrategy. If you are new to MicroStrategy. the attribute has multiple roles. the two State attributes do not have a common child attribute.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide property Engine Attribute Role Options at the database instance level. meaning that a child attribute is shared. it may be the better alternative. however. it is easier to use automatic attribute role recognition. For example. You can use either automatic attribute role recognition or explicit table aliasing to create the attribute roles. Automatic recognition does not work if the attributes are in the same hierarchy. an attribute must be created in the logical model for each of the roles. for example. In this example. Month is the attribute that has multiple roles. • Explicit table aliasing. in the State example provided above. Remember this rule to help you identify attribute roles: If you want to see the same attribute multiple times on one report. where you create multiple logical tables pointing to the same physical table and define those two logical tables as the lookup tables for the two attributes. and are unable to update the project schema or restart Intelligence Server. Table aliasing provides advanced users with more control.

Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Using automatic attribute role recognition In the data warehouse. which in most cases simply represents a column or columns in a lookup table. Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles 179 . LU_State. Automatic recognition allows these two attributes. to access the same lookup table. “Show me total sales by Store State for all my vendors in Arkansas (Store State ID = 15). the logical model must reflect that. the request is. Store State and Vendor State. Automatic role recognition works only when the attributes use exactly the same expression. both of which use the same lookup table. Vendor State and Store State. Consider the following sample desired report: Vendor_State_ID=15 (Arkansas) Metrics Vendor State Vendor Store Store State Dollar Sales In this case.” The same lookup table. The resulting SQL code contains a self-join with the LU_State table. a query involving both Vendor State and Store State needs to use the State table twice in the same query to get correct results. You can set up two attributes. Since the state in which a vendor resides and the state in which one of the stores is located are two different things. The logical model would look like the following: Note that both roles for the State attribute are included in the logical model so that “State” can be considered from two different perspectives. can be used for both © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. using different attribute names for the same expression.

To use automatic attribute role recognition. The two attributes refer to the same columns of that table.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide attributes. found in the database instance-level VLDB Properties under Query Optimization. Inc. you must select the Engine Attribute Role Options. just as it would if you used automatic recognition: 180 Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles © 2007 MicroStrategy. the State attribute is said to play two roles: it refers to both the location of a vendor as well as the location of a store. if attribute roles are used. Explicitly aliasing tables to specify attribute roles Explicit table aliasing provides more robust functionality than automatic recognition. See the MicroStrategy Desktop online help or the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide for steps to set this VLDB property. so advanced users are encouraged to take advantage of this solution. . An attribute such as State can play more than one role in the data warehouse. The logical model would look like the following. it can represent the Vendor State or the Store State. In this case. both roles for the State attribute are included in the logical model so that State can be considered from two different perspectives. When you use explicit table aliasing to designate attributes that have multiple roles. Store State and Vendor State.

If you use explicit table aliasing for the Store attribute. Since they are just different names for the same physical table. Inc. you create separate lookup tables in the schema.State_Desc as State_Desc SELECT a13. one table (LU_State_Store) contains the attribute Store State while the other (LU_State_Vendor) contains Vendor State.State_Desc as State_Desc FROM LU_State a12 LU_State a13 © 2007 MicroStrategy. as shown in the following diagram. but point them each to the same physical table.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 The difference between automatic recognition and explicit table aliasing is that when you use explicit table aliasing. the report accesses the same physical table. for both state names. as shown by this sample SQL: SELECT a12. the two lookup tables LU_State_Store and LU_State_Vendor are used. Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles 181 . Consider the following sample desired report that should provide data about the total sales by Store State for all vendors in Arkansas (Store State ID = 15): Vendor_State_ID=15 (Arkansas) Metrics Vendor State Vendor Store Store State Dollar Sales When explicit table aliasing is used. LU_State.

and rename the table as LU_State_Store. Inc.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide You create table aliases in the Schema Objects/Tables folder in MicroStrategy Desktop. you would select the LU_State_Store table for the Store State attribute and LU_State_Vendor for Vendor State. and then select the Tables folder. 4 Right-click LU_State(1). the selected table is copied. and rename the table as LU_State_Vendor. When you are ready to create new attributes—as in the example discussed above—you can map the appropriate table to each attribute. . 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. In the case above. 6 Right-click LU_State(1). 5 Right-click the LU_State table and select Create Table Alias. 2 Navigate to the Schema Objects folder. An LU_State(1) table is created. 182 Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles © 2007 MicroStrategy. log in to the project source that contains the MicroStrategy Tutorial project and then log into MicroStrategy Tutorial. Create the attributes 7 Select the Attributes folder. To create attribute roles with explicit table aliasing This procedure provides steps to re-create the example of explicit table aliasing described in this section. select Rename. select Rename. An LU_State(1) table is created. refer to Appendix C. When you create a table alias. allowing you to rename a copy of the same table. Logical Tables. 3 Right-click the LU_State table and select Create Table Alias. Table aliases are one kind of logical table. You can use the same high-level procedure and concepts as guidelines to create attribute roles in your project setup. For information about logical tables.

select the LU_State_Store table. Attributes with more than one ID column: Compound attributes 183 . Do NOT select the LU_State_Vendor table as a source table. The Create New Form Expression dialog box opens. Generally. You must make sure to map any State Store attribute forms to columns from the LU_State_Store table. and then Attribute. select New. Attributes with more than one ID column: Compound attributes A compound attribute is an attribute with more than one column specified as the ID column. 13 Click OK. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. 16 Create a Vendor State attribute with the same sub-procedure (Create the attributes. 9 From the Source table drop-down list. 14 Click New to map any other columns to attribute forms for the State Store attribute. 11 Select Manual mapping and click OK. double-click STATE_ID. 12 In the Source tables pane. select LU_State_Store. otherwise the attributes cannot have separate roles. 15 Save the State Store attribute once you are finished mapping attribute forms to columns of the LU_State_Store table. page 182) used to create State Store above. The Attribute Editor opens. you build a compound © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. 10 In the Available columns pane. except you must use the LU_State_Vendor table instead of the LU_State_Store table. This implies that more than one ID column is needed to uniquely identify the elements of that attribute.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 8 From the File menu.

. Class is the parent of Item and has a one-to-many relationship with it.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide attribute when your logical data model reflects that a compound key relationship is present. This creates a unique identifier for each distribution center. Therefore. Therefore. The item shirt has an Item_ID of 1. to uniquely identify a man’s shirt. women’s. regardless of country. a retail project has two attributes. page 186. In the relational database. However. select the source table columns for Country ID and Distribution Center ID. one must know two details about the distribution center: the ID of the distribution center and the country in which it exists. Item_ID and Class_ID must be grouped together. see Collections of attribute forms: Form groups. a compound key is a primary key that consists of more than one database column. For information about form groups. and children’s. ID and Description. Class and Item. Example: Creating compound attributes Distribution Center is an example of a compound attribute in the MicroStrategy Tutorial. there are different shirts. creating a compound attribute. It is an attribute that requires that two different columns are specified as the ID column. Inc. When defining the ID form. For example. each distribution center has a unique identification number. To uniquely identify a distribution center. with two attribute forms. but in the same country. 184 Attributes with more than one ID column: Compound attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. You can create a compound attribute. This data is represented by the Dist_Ctr_ID and Country_ID columns respectively. both the Country_ID and Dist_Ctr_ID columns must be mapped to the Distribution Center attribute to ensure that data about distribution centers is displayed correctly and completely on a report. They should also use the same lookup table. Distribution Center. The same Distribution Center identification numbers can exist for different distribution centers. All of the ID forms of the compound attribute should be grouped together using form groups. The values in the Item_ID column do not uniquely identify an item. depending on the class—men’s.

2 Navigate to the My Personal Objects folder. select the LU_DIST_CTR table. 11 Select Automatic mapping and click OK. log in to the project source that contains the MicroStrategy Tutorial project and then log into MicroStrategy Tutorial. 6 Select Automatic mapping and click OK. and then Attribute. in the Name field. This is the table in which the two ID columns of Distribution Center reside. For a general procedure to create compound attributes. and open the My Objects folder. select New. To create the Distribution Center compound attribute 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. 3 From the File menu. 10 Double-click the DIST_CTR_ID column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. This attribute form maps to the distribution center ID column necessary to complete the definition of the Distribution Center attribute. Inc. type Country ID. with the Create New Form Expression dialog box displayed on top of it. 9 In the Attribute Editor. Attributes with more than one ID column: Compound attributes 185 . and click OK. 4 From the Source table drop-down list. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Follow the procedure below to create the Distribution Center compound attribute. click New to create the other attribute ID form. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. 7 In the Form general information area. 5 Double-click the COUNTRY_ID column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. 8 Keep all other defaults. © 2007 MicroStrategy. The Attribute Editor opens.

you create form groups to create compound attributes. In general. You can also use form groups to link similar forms together so that they are displayed together on a report. type Distribution Center ID Number. Inc. page 186. This is necessary when creating compound attributes. . which are attributes with more than one column specified as the ID column. 15 In the Name field. refer to Collections of attribute forms: Form groups. with the form group you created in the Attribute forms pane. Collections of attribute forms: Form groups A form group is a grouping of attribute forms that are related in a way that justifies combining the forms into a single form. close the Distribution Center attribute without saving your changes. Create a form group 14 A dialog box notifies you that another form (in this case. type Distribution Center and click OK.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide 12 In the Form general information area. The Attribute Editor opens. 13 In the Form category section. which identifies that an attribute form requires more than one ID column to uniquely identify its elements. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. select ID from the Category drop-down list. You must designate this attribute form as an ID column so that it can be combined with the Country_ID form to create one unique identifier ID for the Distribution Center attribute. You must create a form group to create a compound key. 16 Because this is only an example. COUNTRY_ID) is already using the ID form category and that you must create a form group to combine the two ID columns. Click Yes. For basic information and examples about form groups. in the Name field. Click OK. 186 Collections of attribute forms: Form groups © 2007 MicroStrategy.

Distribution Center is an example of a compound attribute. choose the same form category for both forms—you are then prompted to name your new form group. © 2007 MicroStrategy. For an example of creating a form group (form group creation is a subtask of the complete procedure). When you create a form group. England which has Dist_Ctr_ID=1. page 185. When you create a form group. you can design a uniquely defined form that groups two or more forms under an attribute. France which has a Dist_Ctr_ID=1 as well. the included forms are joined together and act as one form. a compound attribute is created by using a form group to group together two forms to create the attribute’s ID. the Distribution Center attribute is identified using a form group that combines these two forms. In the MicroStrategy Tutorial. Inc. By grouping forms. This is because all countries identify distribution centers with numbers starting at 1. one needs information from both the Country_ID and Dist_Ctr_ID tables. Collections of attribute forms: Form groups 187 . For example. To uniquely identify the two distribution centers you must include the Country_ID as part of the attribute ID.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Supporting compound attributes Compound attributes are required when an attribute requires two or more columns to uniquely identify its elements. Therefore. and you also have a distribution center in Paris. you have a distribution center in London. To uniquely identify a distribution center. see the procedure To create the Distribution Center compound attribute. In the Attribute Editor.

log in to the project source that contains the MicroStrategy Tutorial project and then log into MicroStrategy Tutorial. For example. 188 Collections of attribute forms: Form groups © 2007 MicroStrategy. the user can simply display the Name form and the report then includes both the customers’ first and last names. page 185. You can also group two or more attribute forms as a form group after creating all of the attribute forms. To group attribute forms as a form group 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. . You can group two or more attribute forms together while creating the attribute forms as described in To create the Distribution Center compound attribute. Inc.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Displaying and organizing related forms Form groups are also used to conveniently organize common attribute forms that can be paired on a report. the form group in the diagram below joins the forms Last_Name and First_Name to create the form group Name for the attribute Customer: By grouping these two forms. as described in the procedure below.

The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. Inc. The Attribute Editor opens. in the Category used drop-down list. 7 In the Form general information area. open the Attributes folder. 3 Double-click the Item attribute. The Attribute Editor opens. Users browse through attributes to locate an attribute to use on a report. type Item and Foreign Name and click OK. do not save the changes to the Item attribute. A form group which includes an item’s name and foreign name is created for the Item attribute. Using attributes to browse and report on data 189 . 9 Click OK. 4 Select New. The Attribute Editor opens. and users place an attribute on a report to display details about the particular attribute and how it relates to fact data. they are used in two primary ways—browsing and reporting. in the Name field. type Item Name2. 5 Double-click the ITEM_NAME column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. select None. and then right-click the selected attribute forms and select Group.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 2 Navigate to the Schema Objects folder. and then the Item folder. Using attributes to browse and report on data Once attributes are built. 11 In the Name field. 10 Select the Item Name 2 and Foreign Name attribute forms. Each © 2007 MicroStrategy. Since this is only an example of how to create a form group. 8 In the Form category area. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. 6 Select Automatic mapping and click OK. The Create New Form Expression dialog box opens.

In Grid view. but you still must specify the global.com. . or project-wide. you can add the attribute forms in Report Objects to the report without re-executing the report. instead of the URL attribute form.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide attribute can be displayed in a variety of forms so you must specify the default display of each of the attributes in the project. Therefore. the display could be a number such as four. then you might choose to display the Long Description form. browse forms identify attribute elements. all forms are included as report display forms and browse forms by default. This separation allows for greater attribute display flexibility depending on the application. For example you can include a cities URL attribute form as a browse attribute form so that your users can choose to display the form on a report. that is. The only exception is if you create multiple attribute forms. You can do this on a report-by-report basis. such as Northwest. An attribute’s report display forms determine which attribute forms are displayed by default when the report is executed. www. When creating attributes. By selecting different forms for the attribute. the display could be a name.chicago. such as Chicago. you select a different set of values for display. For example. Inc. Browse forms are the attribute forms that appear as a user browses through the element list of an attribute in the Data Explorer in a project. a report includes Region as an attribute. the first form you create is not included as a report display or browse form. Report display forms are the attribute forms that appear as columns in a completed report. You must choose a default attribute display for browsing and another for reporting. If Description is selected as the attribute form. default for each attribute. You can modify the attribute forms displayed by: • Right-clicking an attribute on a report or template and selecting the desired attribute forms 190 Using attributes to browse and report on data © 2007 MicroStrategy. If a report lists the cities in which you have stores. These browse forms are found in the Report Objects pane. If ID is selected as the attribute form. You can also select which attribute forms are retrieved with the report results but not displayed on the grid.

The Description form of Distribution Center. For a general procedure to set how attribute forms are displayed by default. Country_ID and Dist_Ctr_ID. Setting how attribute forms are displayed by default You can generally display attribute forms in a number of ways. Inc. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Using attributes to browse and report on data 191 . displays the actual name of the Distribution Center such as “San Diego. you can specify whether the identification number of each distribution center. You can also determine which attribute forms are displayed when browsing a project with the Data Explorer.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 • From the Data menu. the distribution center names. selecting Attribute Display to open the Attribute Display dialog box For steps to display attribute forms on a report or template. see the online help and the section below. or both are displayed. Follow the example procedure below to set one of the Distribution Center attribute’s forms to be displayed in reports and while browsing the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. In the case of the Distribution Center attribute. For example. the Dist_Ctr_ID form shows the identification numbers of specific distribution centers in the data warehouse. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. the Distribution Center attribute in the MicroStrategy Tutorial consists of an ID form group and a Description form. The ID form group is made up of two separate ID columns.” You can use the Attribute Editor to determine how the attribute forms are displayed on a report. however. Displayed on a report.

in the Report display forms pane. The Attribute Editor opens. the description form of the Distribution Center is set as the only display form. page 209. 3 Click the Display tab. 4 You can set the ID 2 form to be displayed in the following ways: • To set the ID 2 form as a form that is displayed on a report by default: Select ID 2 from the Available forms pane and click the top > button to add the form to the Report display forms pane on the right. The Data Explorer is discussed in Enabling hierarchy browsing in reports: Data Explorer. when the Distribution Center attribute is used on a report. 2 Double-click the Distribution Center attribute. On the right. The ID 2 form in the Available forms pane represents the distribution centers’ identification numbers. . See the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide for details. open the Attributes folder. This means that. navigate to the Schema Objects folder. Inc. To set the ID 2 form so it is displayed in the Data Explorer when a user browses the Distribution Center attribute: Select ID 2 from the Available forms pane and click the bottom > button to add the form to the Browse forms pane on the right.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide To display an attribute form in reports and in the Data Explorer 1 In the MicroStrategy Tutorial. the actual names of the distribution centers are displayed. 5 Because this is only an example. The Data Explorer makes hierarchies available for users to facilitate placing objects on reports. You can also determine how attributes are displayed while users are editing and viewing reports. • 192 Using attributes to browse and report on data © 2007 MicroStrategy. close the Attribute Editor without saving your changes. and then the Geography folder.

either ordered or unordered. For example. and Year attributes. 193 . The Logical Data Model. Week. This chapter discusses hierarchies as they exist in the MicroStrategy environment and provides information on the two different types of hierarchies in MicroStrategy. In Chapter 2. Month. Inc. you can include a Time hierarchy in your model that consists of Day.7 7. CREATING HIERARCHIES TO ORGANIZE AND BROWSE ATTRIBUTES Introduction Hierarchies are groupings of attributes that can be displayed. These types of hierarchies include the system hierarchy and the user hierarchy. to reflect the relationships that exist between the attributes in a project. The system hierarchy is automatically created when you create a project and is maintained by the © 2007 MicroStrategy. you learned how to use hierarchies to group related attributes in practical business areas.

Inc. page 196. The user hierarchy is a hierarchy which you create specifically for your report designers.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide relationships that exist among the project’s schema objects. For information on user hierarchies and system hierarchies. . see Types of hierarchies. you create user hierarchies using the Hierarchy Editor. 194 Creating user hierarchies © 2007 MicroStrategy. This chapter explores how to create and configure user hierarchies in MicroStrategy and provides additional information about hierarchy functionality in MicroStrategy Desktop. Follow the procedure below to learn how to create a user hierarchy. Creating user hierarchies In MicroStrategy Desktop.

log into the project source that contains your project and open the project. 5 In the Select Attributes dialog box. The Hierarchy Editor opens. select New. If arrows do not appear between attributes you know are related. a dialog box opens notifying you that the hierarchy you are about to save is drillable in reports. 3 Open the Hierarchies folder. page 209. arrows appear between related attributes. and update the schema. or filtered. Click OK to close the Select Attributes dialog box.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 To create a new user hierarchy 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. Inc. 7 Click Save and Close. If the Use as a drill hierarchy check box at the bottom of the Hierarchy Editor is selected. 6 In the Hierarchy Editor. you can view the details of each attribute in the hierarchy. from the View menu. select Show Details. 2 In the Folder List. © 2007 MicroStrategy. 4 From the File menu. and then Hierarchy. followed immediately by the Select Objects dialog box. Type a name for the hierarchy. page 161. The attributes you selected appear in the Hierarchy Viewer. and then the Data Explorer folder. To do so. select the attributes to use in the hierarchy and click the arrow to add them to the Selected objects window. The arrows that connect certain attributes denote the presence of a relationship between the connected attributes. These details include whether or not the attribute is locked. Creating user hierarchies 195 . you must edit the attribute(s) in the Attribute Editor. Once you save and re-open the hierarchy. assign the appropriate parent or child relationship to the attributes. in the Available objects window. navigate to and open the Schema Objects folder. This procedure is covered in Viewing and editing the parents and children of attributes. Drill hierarchies are discussed in Drilling using hierarchies. an entry point.

Inc. You can save user hierarchies in any folder. As the structure of your business intelligence evolves. User hierarchy: User hierarchies are named sets of attributes and their relationships to each other. 9 Update the project schema by selecting Update Schema from the Schema menu. page 194. This type of hierarchy is created to provide flexibility in element browsing and report drilling. You do not need to create the system hierarchy. it is automatically created in Desktop when you create a project. . Types of hierarchies The two types of hierarchies that exist in MicroStrategy include: • System hierarchy: The system hierarchy is created according to the relationships defined between the attributes in your project. you can easily change the design of a user hierarchy to include additional attributes or limit user access to certain attributes. navigate to the location in which you want to save the hierarchy. you must place it in the Data Explorer sub-folder within the Hierarchies folder. is defined in user hierarchies. Steps to create user hierarchies are discussed in Creating user hierarchies. • 196 Types of hierarchies © 2007 MicroStrategy. Although the system hierarchy specifies an ordered set of all attributes in the project. They are user-defined and do not need to follow the logical data model. However. to make the user hierarchy available for element browsing in the Data Explorer. The ordering and grouping of attributes. arranged in specific ways that make sense to a business organization. it does not define ordering or grouping among attributes. among other configurations.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide 8 In the Save As dialog box.

The Hierarchy Viewer is discussed in detail in Using the Hierarchy Viewer. you can double-click Year to get to Quarter and double-click Quarter to get to Month. You can view the system hierarchy in the Data Explorer or in the Hierarchy Viewer. the only hierarchy it contains is the system hierarchy. The system hierarchy holds information on the relationships between attributes in the project. Any attributes that are not assigned to a user hierarchy remain available to the system as report objects. It contains all of the attributes in the project and is actually part of the schema definition. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Types of hierarchies 197 . User hierarchies: Logical business relationships User hierarchies are sets of attributes and their relationships. The system hierarchy cannot be edited but is updated every time you add or remove attribute children or parents in the Attribute Editor. but not the Hierarchy Editor. you can create a Time hierarchy that contains the Year. These report objects are discussed in detail in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. When you first create a project. The system hierarchy is useful in determining relationships between all objects in the project. arranged in specific sequences for a logical business organization. Month. and so on. You create user hierarchies to define the browse and drill relationships between attributes. or when you define attribute children in the Project Creation Assistant. page 211. When you browse the attributes in the Data Explorer. You can access the Hierarchy Viewer from Graphical View in the Schema menu. and Day attributes. and components of consolidations. Attributes from the system hierarchy do not need to be part of an explicitly-defined user hierarchy. Inc. Quarter. For example.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 System hierarchy: Project schema definition The system hierarchy is the default hierarchy that MicroStrategy sets up for you each time you create a project. filter conditions.

A user hierarchy is the only type of hierarchy you can define. or across to an attribute within another hierarchy. up to Year. and Store are organized according to their relationships to each other. and Customer. Contact. Inc. You should define user hierarchies that correspond to specific areas of your company business model and data warehouse schema. Hierarchy organization The best design for a user hierarchy is to organize or group attributes into logical business areas. City. if the user drills on the Quarter attribute in a report. For example. and you can create any number of user hierarchies for each project. The Customer hierarchy also groups together the attributes Company. The example below demonstrates the Location and Customer hierarchies. You can create user hierarchies in the Hierarchy Editor using one or more attributes from the system hierarchy. For example. State. in drilling the user actually chooses to move to higher or lower levels on a report or move across to levels within different hierarchies. he or she can drill down to Month. 198 Hierarchy organization © 2007 MicroStrategy.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide Whereas browsing occurs through the Data Explorer. . This allows users to more easily locate attributes in a project and navigate from one attribute to another. you can place related attributes into hierarchies by their level. Within the Location hierarchy.

One hierarchy demonstrates Region having multiple States and the States having multiple Stores.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 When creating user hierarchies. However. only the user hierarchy allows you to logically define and order groups of attributes. keep in mind that hierarchies do not have to be separate from one another or necessarily follow the dimensional structure of your logical data model. there are two instances of the Region hierarchy. then the only options for drilling or browsing are the Region and Store levels. Hierarchy structure While both a system hierarchy and user hierarchy allow you to navigate attributes in your project. you are developing a working design of the display and browse functions of the attributes. © 2007 MicroStrategy. In the example below. Hierarchy organization 199 . When you group attributes together into user hierarchies. if you only include Store in the Region hierarchy. This hierarchy allows you to create drilling and browsing options to the lower levels to view Region. State. and Store on a report. as in the second example. Inc. The rest of this chapter discusses user hierarchies and how to create and configure them in your project.

In user hierarchies. You can use the Hierarchy Editor to configure each of these properties. as shown in the following procedures: • Element Display: Determines the elements a user can see. • • • 200 Configuring hierarchy display options © 2007 MicroStrategy. Entry Point/Not an Entry Point: Specifies whether the user can begin browsing in this hierarchy using this attribute (see Entry point. its decreased scale allows you to navigate through the entire project. . page 211.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide Viewing hierarchies: Hierarchy Viewer The Hierarchy Viewer graphically represents user hierarchies and the system hierarchy. Browse Attributes: Shows the attributes to which users can browse from a given attribute. Inc. page 206). Attribute Filters: Specifies whether the data retrieved and displayed should be complete or filtered by any specific criteria. The Hierarchy Viewer is discussed in further detail in Using the Hierarchy Viewer. unlocked. The element display may be locked. Configuring hierarchy display options Each attribute in a user hierarchy has properties that affect how that attribute is displayed and accessed in a hierarchy. In the system hierarchy. A filter on a hierarchy acts like a filter in a report. The Aerial perspective provides an overview of hierarchies. page 205). page 201). page 203). The Hierarchy Viewer is accessed from the Graphical View option in the Schema menu. the connections show the browse paths between the attributes. the connections between the attributes represent the parent-child relationships. Only data satisfying the filter criteria is displayed (see Filtering attributes in a hierarchy. or limited (see Controlling the display of attribute elements. Represented by lines that connect one attribute to others (see Hierarchy browsing.

Controlling the display of attribute elements Locked/Unlocked attribute elements Locking a hierarchy prevents a user from viewing all elements of the specific attribute and any lower level attributes in the hierarchy. you can prevent the expansion of long attribute element lists that can consume system resources. A hierarchy is referred to as locked when at least one attribute within that hierarchy has the Element Display option set to Locked. When you set the element display to locked. The Order attribute may be locked in order to prevent unauthorized users from accessing sensitive information about customer orders. By restricting the view of attribute elements and lower level attributes in the Data Explorer. You can lock the hierarchy to restrict the user from viewing elements and lower level attributes for security reasons or to better manage lengthy hierarchies. Inc. For example. Anything higher in the hierarchy is still visible. © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 The following sections explain these properties and how to use the Hierarchy Editor to configure each. he or she cannot view information about each customer’s order. Configuring hierarchy display options 201 . the attribute Order is locked in the Data Explorer sample shown below. a padlock icon appears next to the attribute name. While the user can view the attribute elements of Customer Region and Customer City.

The padlock icon is removed from the attribute. and then Locked. For example. 6 Update the project schema by selecting Update Schema from the Schema menu. Also. 202 Configuring hierarchy display options © 2007 MicroStrategy. if the attribute Year is locked in the Attribute Editor. retrieving a large number of elements at once can negatively impact system performance. 4 To unlock a locked attribute.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide To lock or unlock an attribute in a hierarchy 1 Double-click the hierarchy to edit. Limited attribute elements Another way to restrict users from viewing attribute elements in the Data Explorer is to limit the number of elements that appear at one time. and users can now view the elements of this attribute. not any user hierarchies that contain the attributes. 5 In the Hierarchy Editor. from the right-click menu. Instead of loading all attribute elements at once. 3 To lock an attribute. select Element display. select Element display. . this locks and unlocks the attributes within the system hierarchy. Inc. A padlock icon appears next to the locked attribute. The user can then click the arrows to see the next set of elements for that attribute. 2 Right-click the attribute to lock or unlock. no elements for Year display in the Data Explorer when Year is expanded. you can set the limit to five or ten at a time. and users can no longer view elements of this attribute. and then Unlocked. from the right-click menu. You can also lock and unlock attributes when you edit them in the Display tab of the Attribute Editor. The Hierarchy Editor opens. However. click Save and Close. This method is useful when there are extensive attribute elements in a hierarchy.

Configuring hierarchy display options 203 . click Save and Close. select Element display. Rather than displaying all of them at once and overwhelming the user. refer to the Filters chapter in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide to understand what filters are and how to create them in MicroStrategy. and then Limit. contains many items. You can add filters to a hierarchy to control how data is retrieved and displayed. With a filter you can choose exactly which attribute elements to display in a hierarchy. the Chocolate subcategory. 3 In the Limit dialog box. 2 From the right-click menu. right-click the attribute to limit. shown below. you can filter a hierarchy so that data for only one © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 For example. The following graphic displays this view in the Data Explorer. a limit of five items has been set. Inc. 5 Update the project schema by selecting Update Schema from the Schema menu. To limit the display of attributes in a hierarchy 1 In the Hierarchy Editor. Filtering attributes in a hierarchy Before reading this section. type the number of elements you want to see at one time and click OK. For example. 4 In the Hierarchy Editor.

To apply a filter to an attribute in a hierarchy 1 Create a filter in MicroStrategy Desktop. Creating a limited hierarchy reduces the number of elements displayed at one time. however. and the user is unable to see additional data in the hierarchy. Update the project schema. You cannot use a prompt-based filter to filter a hierarchy. The filters allow the Data Explorer to display only the criteria you select. and view the Customer hierarchy in the Data Explorer. right-click the attribute to filter and select Define Attribute Filters. you need to make sure that each filter is relevant to the attribute’s information. click OK. limit the elements a user is allowed to see and therefore. perform a type of security. add the filter to the Customer attribute. . First. In the Hierarchy Editor. you want to view only those customers who are younger than 30 years old. See the MicroStrategy Desktop online help for more details. Filters increase efficiency when retrieving data because you can limit user access to parts of a hierarchy when you apply filters to attributes. For example. Inc. 2 In the Hierarchy Editor. or data for only a few days of one quarter. Only those customers younger than 30 years old are displayed. Filters. Filters make data retrieval faster by only allowing specific data to be displayed. 204 Configuring hierarchy display options © 2007 MicroStrategy. When filtering attributes in a hierarchy. MicroStrategy does not validate that the associated filter makes sense on that attribute. create a filter on Customer Age less than 30. you are limiting the elements of the data returned when you browse the Data Explorer. When adding filters to an attribute in a hierarchy. 3 If a tip about filtering opens.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide quarter is displayed. Each attribute in the hierarchy can have multiple filters applied to it.

and 2005. Q3. To create entry points in a hierarchy 1 In the Hierarchy Editor. Entry point An entry point is a shortcut to an attribute in the Data Explorer.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 4 In the Select Filters dialog box. and Q4. If an attribute is not set to be an entry point. opens. Inc. When you set an attribute to be an entry point. © 2007 MicroStrategy. open. Q2. If you are seeking Week 24. select the filters to apply and click > to add them to the Selected objects list. and their elements appear in the Data Explorer. an element for each Quarter. When you click on 2006. The attribute to which you applied the filter appears in the hierarchy with a filter icon. it appears in its normal position within the hierarchy structure. which is Week. it still appears in the hierarchy but with a padlock icon. such as Q1. the hierarchy. click Save and Close. 5 Click OK to close the Select Filters dialog box. This is especially useful when accessing frequently-used attributes. 2006. 6 In the Hierarchy Editor. You can see the locked attribute. such as 2007. a typical hierarchy is Time. If you set the attribute Week as an entry point. the attribute Week appears in the Data Explorer at the same level as Year. but are unable to access elements or attributes below that level. If you set a locked attribute as an entry point. For example. Creating an entry point grants users faster access to the attribute without having to browse through multiple attributes to reach different levels in a hierarchy. right-click the attribute to set as an entry point. the attributes. in the Available objects list. you need to open several levels of attributes to reach the correct data level. elements for each Year. When you click on Time. you are creating a shorter route to access that attribute. When you create a user hierarchy. Configuring hierarchy display options 205 .

Hierarchy browsing Once you choose which attributes to place in a hierarchy. Category is a parent attribute of Category and Category is the child attribute of Category. Inc. you can define the relationships between them. and Item are the attributes that comprise the user hierarchy Catalog Items. . Category. select Set as entry point. For example. showing the parent/child relationships between the attributes. Some of the attributes in the Hierarchy Viewer may already be set as entry points.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide 2 From the right-click menu. For example. select Remove Entry Point from the right-click menu. These relationships determine how users can browse the attributes from the Hierarchies folder. if Catalog. in the hierarchy below. 3 In the Hierarchy Editor. attributes set as entry points are denoted by a green check. Subcategory. the hierarchy resembles the example below. 206 Configuring hierarchy display options © 2007 MicroStrategy. To remove an entry point from an attribute. click Save and Close. 4 Update the project schema by selecting Update Schema from the Schema menu.

Attributes in a hierarchy can have both browsing and drilling relationships between them. It can simply be a collection of attributes. Inc. Specifically: Hierarchy Attribute Catalog Category Subcategory Item Browse Attribute(s) Category. you are specifying what levels of detail are visible when browsing the Data Explorer. When you apply browse attributes to attributes in a hierarchy. without having to first browse down through the Category © 2007 MicroStrategy. Browse attributes are attributes you specify a user can directly browse to from a given attribute in the user hierarchy. Using the example above. For more information on including hierarchies in the Data Explorer. Including hierarchies in the Data Explorer makes the hierarchies available for reports and to users in the project. Configuring hierarchy display options 207 . some of these attributes have been assigned a browse attribute.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 A user hierarchy does not need to have these direct relationships defined. Subcategory Subcategory Catalog. Item The addition of these browse attributes allows users to see the Subcategory elements directly from the Catalog attribute. see Enabling hierarchy browsing in reports: Data Explorer. For each attribute in a hierarchy. page 209. you can assign one or more browse attributes to it.

The ability to browse more directly through the hierarchy can be represented as shown below.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide attributes to get to Subcategory. the hierarchy described above resembles the example below. . Inc. Users can now view the subcategories in the catalog without first having to browse through the categories. 208 Configuring hierarchy display options © 2007 MicroStrategy. In the Data Explorer.

reports can allow users to drill down. Moving hierarchies to and from this folder also allows you to keep some hierarchies visible to users while hiding others. When a user selects a drilling path in a report. This allows a user to drill down from Year to Month and. Depending on the level of the attributes included in the drilling specification. Configuring hierarchy display options 209 . You can save user hierarchies in any folder. In the example of the Year and Month attributes. at a project level. to make a user hierarchy available for browsing in the Data Explorer you must place it in the Data Explorer folder—a subfolder of the Hierarchies folder. Inc. on a report with the Year attribute and Revenue metric. The Data Explorer is a tool in the Object Browser that holds the system hierarchy and the user hierarchies. However. and across to different levels of detail. When you create a new project. on the new report. the system hierarchy for that project is automatically placed in the Data Explorer. the attributes to which users can drill from other attributes. You can make user hierarchies available for drilling. the user can drill down on the Year attribute to a lower level attribute such as the Month attribute. Drilling using hierarchies Drilling is a function in MicroStrategy reports that allows users to browse different levels of attributes along specified paths. Revenue data is reported at the Month level.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 Enabling hierarchy browsing in reports: Data Explorer You can make hierarchies available for browsing and including in reports by storing the hierarchies in the Data Explorer. drill back up from Month to Year. which contains the two attributes. A new report is automatically executed. up. the report refreshes to display the selected level of detail. This option enables you to determine. For example. drilling is enabled in the Time hierarchy. © 2007 MicroStrategy. which is located in the Schema Objects folder. if they need to.

For example. select the Use as a drill hierarchy check box. click Save and Close. 2 At the bottom of the Hierarchy Editor. you can think of browsing paths in a user hierarchy as potential drilling paths. in the following hierarchy. . you can drill from Catalog down to Subcategory—and any other browse attributes of Catalog—on a report. To enable drilling in a user hierarchy 1 Open the hierarchy in which to enable drilling. you must enable the user hierarchy to be used as a drill hierarchy in the Hierarchy Editor. which means that you can access the elements of Subcategory without having to necessarily access the elements of Catalog in Data Explorer. See Hierarchy browsing.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide To enable a user hierarchy as a drill path. the default drill path is defined by the System Hierarchy. 3 In the Hierarchy Editor. Subcategory is a browse attribute of Catalog. Therefore. 4 Update the project schema by selecting Update Schema from the Schema menu. Inc. 210 Configuring hierarchy display options © 2007 MicroStrategy. If you enable drilling in this hierarchy. If a user hierarchy is not enabled. page 206 for more details about browsing attributes.

For instance. the attribute Week appears in the drill-down list. Using the Hierarchy Viewer The Hierarchy Viewer allows you to select the hierarchy you want to examine. • When you view the system hierarchy. When you view a user hierarchy. or you may select only one at a time. and also allows you direct access to the attributes that comprise it. • The Hierarchy Viewer gives you flexibility over how much of a given hierarchy you choose to view at once. you can see the actual relationships between attributes. Inc. Additional information on drilling is available in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. You can see all of the entry points into a hierarchy at once. to facilitate user browsing and report development. When a user right-clicks on Year and selects Drill Down. assume Week is a browsing attribute assigned to Year. you do not see true attribute relationships. You can use the Hierarchy Viewer to view either the system hierarchy or any of your user hierarchies. It is used to view all of the tables in your project graphically. Using the Hierarchy Viewer and Table Viewer Through the Hierarchy Viewer. For details on entry points.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 After a user hierarchy is enabled for drilling. the hierarchy contributes to the drilling path of any attributes in it. Using the Hierarchy Viewer and Table Viewer 211 . but rather the structure of the user hierarchy as defined by a project designer. page 205. as defined by the system when the project was created. see Entry point. MicroStrategy Architect gives you the ability to view the system hierarchy as well as all of your user hierarchies in a single place. The Table Viewer is another tool within MicroStrategy Architect that provides you with a bird’s eye view of some of the information within your project. © 2007 MicroStrategy.

from the Hierarchy menu. See Entry point.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide The Hierarchy Viewer also gives you direct access to any of the attributes in the hierarchy you choose to view. Its decreased scale allows you to navigate through the entire project. The green squares indicate attributes that are entry points. from the Schema menu. select Aerial perspective. select the hierarchy to view. 2 Select Hierarchies. . you can define them as entry points. 2 Select Edit. When you access a hierarchy’s attributes directly. In the Hierarchy Viewer. To view the system hierarchy in the Hierarchy Viewer 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. 2 Attributes that have a green check mark next to them are entry points. 212 Using the Hierarchy Viewer and Table Viewer © 2007 MicroStrategy. from the View menu. An aerial view of the hierarchy you are currently viewing is displayed. To edit an attribute from the Hierarchy Viewer 1 In the Hierarchy Viewer. page 205 for more details on creating entry points. the Aerial perspective provides an overview of the hierarchies in your project. To view a user hierarchy in the Hierarchy Viewer 1 In the Hierarchy Viewer. To access Aerial perspective mode in the Hierarchy Viewer 1 In the Hierarchy Viewer. right-click the attribute to edit. Inc. select Graphical View. page 205 for more details on creating entry points. See Entry point.

Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 2 The hierarchy in the Hierarchy Viewer shifts according to where you navigate in the aerial view. from the Schema menu. 2 In the Table Viewer. The tables that are displayed here are logical tables. 2 Select Tables. If you make changes to the actual tables in the data warehouse. To view your project’s tables in the Table Viewer 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. To view more or less information about each table in the project 1 Open the Table Viewer. They represent and indicate how Architect sees the tables that were brought into the project when it was created. Using the Table Viewer The Table Viewer allows you to view all of the tables in your project as well as the joins and/or relationships between those tables and the names of the individual columns in each table. Inc. select Options. you will need to update the logical table structure. See The size of tables in a project: Logical table size. as described above. select Graphical View. Using the Hierarchy Viewer and Table Viewer 213 . © 2007 MicroStrategy. Click a section of the aerial view display to shift your view of a hierarchy to that particular section. page 249 for information on updating logical table structures.

Inc. select or clear the options for any of the following. depending on what you want to see in the Table Viewer: • • • • • Show joins Use circular joins Show relationships Show relationship types Show columns 214 Using the Hierarchy Viewer and Table Viewer © 2007 MicroStrategy.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide 3 From the Options menu. .

you are ready to start thinking about ways to better maintain the project and optimize it for both the short and long term. and explains how to use these methods to enhance your project. 215 . To see any enhancements and changes to your project schema. Inc. creating aggregate tables. you will need to make various schema changes. page 216—As you continue to enhance the design and functionality of your project. © 2007 MicroStrategy. This chapter introduces you to maintenance and optimization concepts such as tuning the interaction between your data warehouse and your project. and using partition mapping. You can find this information in the sections listed below: • Updating your MicroStrategy project schema.8 8. you must update your project schema. OPTIMIZING AND MAINTAINING YOUR PROJECT Introduction Once your MicroStrategy project is set up and populated with schema objects.

Although the concepts are related. You can do any of the following to update your project schema: 216 Updating your MicroStrategy project schema © 2007 MicroStrategy. This can include adding new tables to your project or removing tables that are no longer used. and minimize the amount of data that must be aggregated and sorted at run time.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide • Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog. page 241—Aggregate tables store data at higher levels than the data was originally collected in the data warehouse. the project schema is not the same as the physical warehouse schema. Whenever you make any changes to a schema object you must indicate to MicroStrategy that new schema object definitions have been included and that these definitions need to be loaded into memory. attributes. table sizes. hierarchies. and so on within the project. Partitions improve query performance by minimizing the number of tables and records within a table that must be read to satisfy queries issued against the warehouse. You can also tune the interaction between your data warehouse and your MicroStrategy project to bring your data into MicroStrategy in a way that meets your requirements. fact levels. Rather. your project must reflect these changes. • • Updating your MicroStrategy project schema All of the schema objects—facts. and so on—in your project come together to form your project’s schema. page 250—Partition mapping involves the division of large logical tables into smaller physical tables. These summary tables provide quicker access to frequently-used data. . reduce input/output and other resource requirements. Inc. page 218—As your data warehouse changes to meet new data logging requirements. Dividing tables to increase performance: Partition mapping. the project schema refers to an internal map that MicroStrategy uses to keep track of attribute relationships. transformations. Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables.

Disconnect and reconnect to the project or the project source. Manually update the schema.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 • • • Stop and restart MicroStrategy Intelligence Server. if in direct (2-tier) mode. 2 In the Schema Update dialog box. To manually update the schema 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. if in server-connected (3-tier) mode. • 3 Click Update. Updating your MicroStrategy project schema 217 . select Update Schema. or deleted a schema object. select or clear the following check boxes: • • Update schema logical information: Use this option if you added. Logical table sizes are a significant part of how the MicroStrategy SQL Engine determines the tables to use in a query. Recalculate table logical sizes: Use this option to use MicroStrategy Desktop’s algorithm to recalculate logical table sizes and override any modifications that you have made to logical table sizes. Recalculate table keys and fact entry levels: Use this option if you changed the key structure of a table or if you changed the level at which a fact is stored. You can also update the schema with the last saved settings by clicking the Update Schema icon in the toolbar. Manually updating the schema allows you to determine which specific elements of the schema are updated. Inc. • Recalculate project client object cache size: Use this option to update the object cache size for the project. © 2007 MicroStrategy. modified. from the Schema menu.

Adding tables through Project Builder is useful only when you are creating a project for the first time.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog This section discusses how the Warehouse Catalog can control the interaction between the data warehouse and the database instance for a project. page 233 Troubleshooting table and column messages. page 219 Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. This section also discusses customizing catalog SQL statements. . and the default SQL statements used for each database. page 239 218 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. You can add warehouse tables to your project with the Warehouse Catalog or MicroStrategy Project Builder. This section covers the following topics: • • • • • • • What should I know before I use the Warehouse Catalog?. you can select the tables to add to your project. The Warehouse Catalog queries the data warehouse and lists the tables and columns that exist in it. as later. page 226 Customizing catalog SQL statements. page 220 Managing warehouse and project tables. page 219 Adding and removing tables for a project. adding tables in the project through Project Builder can become a cumbersome process. the structure of the SQL catalogs. Every project can have a unique set of warehouse tables. page 221 Modifying data warehouse connection and operation defaults. From this list. The Warehouse Catalog is better for maintaining the warehouse tables used for an existing project.

you need to be familiar with: • • Your schema. refer to Appendix B. and expand your project. Inc. For more information on Query Builder. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. 2 Log in to the project source that contains your project in MicroStrategy Desktop. and Microsoft Analysis Services instead of a relational database. the OLAP Cube Catalog handles tasks similar to the Warehouse Catalog. point to Programs. • What should I know before I use the Warehouse Catalog? Before you begin using the Warehouse Catalog. Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources. © 2007 MicroStrategy. then to MicroStrategy. Hyperion Essbase. For more information.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 Note the following: • You can also add tables to a project using MicroStrategy Query Builder. then Desktop. For more information about privileges see the Permissions and Privileges appendix of the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. You must use a login that has Architect privileges. In this case. You can connect to OLAP cube sources such as SAP BW. so you know how the information in your data warehouse should be brought into MicroStrategy How to create a project Accessing the Warehouse Catalog To access the Warehouse Catalog 1 On the Windows Start menu. and then select Desktop. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 219 .

Click >> to add all the listed tables. as your project matures.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide 3 Select a project and then from the Schema menu. • 220 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. and expand your project. Log in to the project source that contains your project in MicroStrategy Desktop. To remove tables—From the left side. Adding and removing tables for a project As you become aware of the additional needs of report designers and users. To add or remove tables after creating a project 1 Access the Warehouse Catalog for your project as described in To access the Warehouse Catalog. . it may become necessary to add additional tables from the data warehouse to your project. and click > to add the selected tables. and click > to add the selected tables. You can access the Warehouse Catalog at any time to add additional tables from your data warehouse to your project and remove tables from your project. select Warehouse Catalog. you may need to remove tables from your project that are no longer used and are taking up space in the metadata. Also. The list on the right shows all the tables already being used in the project: • To add tables—From the left side. page 219. Inc. 2 The left side of the Warehouse Catalog lists all available tables and the number of rows each table contains. select the tables you want to add to the Warehouse Catalog. select the tables you want to add to the Warehouse Catalog. The Warehouse Catalog opens after it retrieves the table information from the warehouse database. Click >> to add all the listed tables.

Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 3 In the toolbar. This process can take some time to complete. Menu File • Save Saves the current settings and status of the Warehouse Catalog. see Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. The table definitions are written to the metadata. you need to periodically load the updates into the Warehouse Catalog. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 221 . The Warehouse Catalog has the following sections: • Tables available in the warehouse: Displays tables that are located in the warehouse. as well as those tables that are available in the warehouse but have not been included in the project. Description • © 2007 MicroStrategy. You can add tables to the project by double-clicking the tables or by selecting the tables and then clicking >. Warehouse Catalog has the following menu options. by selecting Update Schema. Tables being used in the project: Displays tables that have been selected to be part of the project. You can remove tables from the project by double-clicking the tables or by selecting the tables and then clicking <. Inc. As you make changes to the tables in the warehouse. but have not been included in the project. You can add or remove all the tables from one section to the other by clicking << and >> buttons. 4 Update the project schema from the Schema menu. click Save and Close to save your changes to the Warehouse Catalog. To access the Warehouse Catalog for a project. page 219. Managing warehouse and project tables The Warehouse Catalog allows you to view tables that have been included in the project. You can update it by selecting Read the Warehouse Catalog from the Actions menu.

row calculation. right-click any table in the Warehouse Catalog (see Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. page 219) and choose Table Structure from the 222 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. Allows you to assign or update a database instance for the project. and so on. Inc. Calculates the number of rows in the selected tables.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide Menu • Exit Tools • View Partitions Description Exits the Warehouse Catalog. Allows you to import the prefixes from the warehouse table name space. . see Data warehouse connection and read operations. Displays the list of tables referred to by the selected partition mapping table in the Table Partitions dialog box. page 227 of this appendix. Displays MicroStrategy help options Some of these options are also available through toolbar buttons and through right-click menus for quick access. changing or assigning default table prefixes and structures. Allows you to add or remove a table prefix for the selected table. • Table Structure • Calculate Table Row Count • Table Prefix • Table Database Instances • Import Prefix • Options Actions • Read the Warehouse Catalog Help Allows you to update and reflect the changes done to tables in the warehouse. Allows you to specify various settings for the Warehouse Catalog such as changing the database instance. For more information. This option is enabled when a partition mapping table is selected. Viewing table structure To view the table structure of a table. Displays the structure of a table selected in the Warehouse Catalog. automatic mapping.

Click Cancel to undo all data type changes. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Updating table structure Whenever the structure of the warehouse table changes you have to update the table structure in the Warehouse Catalog for the changes to reflect in the MicroStrategy system. which provides the following options: • • Click OK to apply the change to this column in all the tables it appears. Inc. delete. You can also click Update Structure to reflect any recent changes done to that table (see Updating table structure. you get a warning message of this change. The table structure of the selected table is displayed in the dialog box. right-click the table that has changed and select Update Structure. To update the structure of a table 1 Access the Warehouse Catalog for your project (see Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. When the data type of one or more columns is modified. The Warehouse Catalog opens. 2 In the Tables being used in the project list. The dialog box displays the columns available in the selected table and the data type of each column. page 223). This action results in no changes being applied to any tables or columns. Some examples of these type of changes are when you add.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 shortcut menu. This option is selected by default. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 223 . or rename a column in a table associated with a project. You can also select Table Structure from the Tools menu. The warning message appears only if you have selected the Display a warning if the columns data types are modified when updating the table structure option in the Warehouse Catalog Options dialog box. page 219).

The Fact Editor opens. For example. . the warehouse structure gets updated completely with the Update Structure command. – Select the fact expression and click Modify. you have to manually update the schema objects that depend on the outdated structure. The procedure for manually updating the fact is as follows: – Right-click the fact and select Edit. – Click Save and Close to save the changes and close the Fact Editor. Verify the changes from the information dialog box that opens and click OK to apply the change in this column to all the tables in which it appears. this would apply if you rename a column in the table and the column is not being used in any fact expression. you receive a message warning of this change.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide If the data type of one or more columns is modified. – Repeat the first to steps of this procedure to open the Warehouse Catalog and update the table structure. select Update Schema. Inc. Then. For example. You are returned to the Fact Editor. you have to manually update the facts that use this column. if you rename a column in a table. The Modify Fact Expression dialog box opens. • If no object definitions have changed. Edit the fact expression and click OK. – From the list of source tables select the source table from which the fact has been created. – Click Update. the table structure is only partially updated with the Update Structure command. 3 Click Save and Close to close the Warehouse Catalog dialog box. The Schema Update dialog box opens. – From the Schema menu. • 224 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. If any of the object definitions have changed.

You can also select Show Sample Data from the Tools menu. MicroStrategy products know how to generate SQL for each table. click Reload table values. which is used to support database gateways. you need to define two database instances. Viewing sample data To view sample data from a table. you must set the secondary database instance for any tables that are found in the secondary database. in your environment you might have a gateway between two databases such as an Oracle database and a DB2 database. The default database instance for the project is set to be the primary database. To refresh the table data. From the perspective of MicroStrategy products in this environment. page 219) and choose Show Sample Data from the shortcut menu. Inc. For example. One of them is the primary database and the other is the secondary database. In the Warehouse Catalog. The primary database receives all SQL requests and passes them to the correct database. © 2007 MicroStrategy. The first 100 rows of the table are returned as sample data in the Values dialog box.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 – Click Save and Close to save the changes and close the Warehouse Catalog dialog box. This way. one for the primary database and another for the secondary database. Specifying a secondary database to support database gateways MicroStrategy allows you to specify a secondary database instance for a table. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 225 . right-click a table in the Warehouse Catalog (see Accessing the Warehouse Catalog.

row calculation. select Save and Close to save your changes and close the Warehouse Catalog. changing or assigning default table prefixes and structures. 3 In the Primary Database Instance drop-down list. The Warehouse Catalog Options dialog box opens. automatic mapping. page 219). page 219 for steps to access the Warehouse Catalog). . 5 Click OK to accept your changes and return to the Warehouse Catalog. select the primary database instance for the table. Example settings include changing the database instance. (in the pane on the right side) and select Table Database Instances. You cannot select the primary database instance as a secondary database instance. row counts. 2 Right-click a table being used in the project. Inc. The settings are available from the Warehouse Catalog. by choosing Options from the Tools menu (see Accessing the Warehouse Catalog.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide To specify a secondary database for a table 1 Access the Warehouse Catalog for your project (see Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. Modifying data warehouse connection and operation defaults You can specify various settings for data warehouse connection and operation defaults using the Warehouse Catalog. The Available Database Instances dialog box opens. 6 From the toolbar. and so on. The Warehouse Catalog opens. which allows you to perform the following tasks: • • • Data warehouse connection and read operations Displaying table prefixes. and name spaces Mapping schema objects and calculating logical sizes for tables 226 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. 4 Select one or more Secondary Database Instances.

or if it does but needs to be modified. Database Instance: You can select the database instance for the Warehouse Catalog from the drop-down list. the Settings option is disabled. • Read Settings: You can customize the SQL that reads the Warehouse Catalog for every platform except Microsoft Access. For more information on the database login. by © 2007 MicroStrategy. When connected to a Microsoft Access data source. The default catalog SQL retrieves a DISTINCT list of tables and columns from all users. You can make these type of modification from the Catalog category. The Database Instance Wizard opens. Custom Database Login: You can either select the database login or clear the login to use no database login. You could restrict the information returned. Refer to the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide for more information on either of these dialog boxes. as well as change how the database catalog tables are read. Inc. you can select from the following: – Click Edit to modify the selected database instance. for example. – Click New to create a new database instance. The General tab of the Database Instances dialog box opens. see the online help. which is divided into the following subcategories: • Warehouse Connection: Select the desired database instance to use for the project as well as the custom database login. Clicking Settings allows you to directly edit the catalog SQL statements that are used to retrieve the list of available tables from the Warehouse Catalog and the columns for the selected tables. If the desired database instance does not appear in the Database Instance box. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 227 .Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 Data warehouse connection and read operations You can modify the database instance and database login used to connect the data warehouse to a project.

You can also select the following check boxes: Count the number of rows for all tables when reading the database catalog: Select this option if you want to control whether or not the Warehouse Catalog should get the number of rows each table has when loading from the data warehouse. page 233). If performance is more important than obtaining the row count. page 232 of this appendix. Inc. Column Merging Options: When you add a new table to your data warehouse. This option is helpful when you want to identify fact tables and aggregation tables. Automatically update information for all Partition Mapping tables when reading the database catalog: Select this option to read the latest information for the partition mapping tables (PMTs) currently present in the project. By default this option is selected. For more information. By default this option is selected when you open the Warehouse Catalog for the first time. it may redefine the data type for a column included in the project. The check for the data type change is only performed when updating a table’s structure. do not select this option as it will have a negative effect on performance. . your project includes a table named Table1 that has 228 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. see Ignoring table name spaces when migrating tables. For example. By default this option is selected. Display a warning if the column data types are modified when updating the table structure: Select this option if you want to be warned when the data type for a column stored in the project is different from the one read from the data warehouse.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide specifying certain conditions and table owners (see Customizing catalog SQL statements. By default this option is selected. Ignore current table name space when reading from the database catalog and update using new table name space: This option allows you to switch between warehouses found in different database name spaces. This setting should be cleared when the number of PMTs in the project is so large that reading their structure is causing performance problems when opening the Warehouse Catalog.

the column data types are modified to maintain a consistent schema in one of three ways. This is because char(4) has a higher precision than char(1) defined in Table1. depending on the option you select. but it has column C1 set to data type char(4). For example. the data type with the largest precision or scale is used. © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 column C1 of data type char(1). In the example above. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 229 . the column data type for C1 would be changed to char(4). In the example above. as defined in Table2. a warning is displayed and you are asked if you want to use the new data type. – Use most recent data type: This option updates the column data type to use the most recent column definition. When you update the table structure. The options below do not handle the merge if the data type has changed to an incompatible data type. a column is changed from data type char to data type integer. – Use maximum denominator data type: This option updates the column data type to use the data type with the largest precision or scale. as illustrated in the image below. If the data type has been changed to a different compatible data type. This example is used to illustrate the options described below. the column data type for C1 would be changed to char(4) since Table2 was added after Table1. Inc. If the data type has changed to an incompatible data type. Then a new table named Table2 is added to the project.

This option can cause unwanted schema changes and should be used only when necessary. row counts.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide – Do not merge: This option renames the column in the newly added table. This category is divided into the following subcategories: • Table Prefixes: You can specify whether table prefixes are displayed in table names and how prefixes are automatically defined for tables that are added to the project. Manual: This option sets the Warehouse Catalog tables to be read only when the read catalog action is selected. or restricted to only be read when a read is manually requested: Automatic: This option sets the Warehouse Catalog tables to be read as soon as the catalog browser is loaded. • Read Mode: The Warehouse Catalog can be automatically read upon opening the Warehouse Catalog. and name spaces. including new tables added to the project. Automatically define prefixes for all tables that are added to this project: This setting enables/disables the following options: – Set a prefix based on the warehouse table name space or owner (import prefix): When this option is selected. Displaying table prefixes. By default this option is selected. You have the following options: Display table prefixes in the main dialog: Select this option to display all prefixes in table names. the Warehouse Catalog reads the 230 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. From the example above. Column C1 in Table2 is defined as a separate copy of C1 and uses the char(4) data type. which allows the columns to have different data types. Inc. . and name spaces You can choose to show or hide table prefixes. by using the View category. column C1 uses the char(1) data type for Table1. row counts.

For more information on modifying the prefix list. This option is only active when the database supports prefixes. using the check box: Display the name space for each table (if applicable): You can show or hide the owner or table name space where the table is located in the warehouse. using the following options: © 2007 MicroStrategy. • Table Row Counts: You can show or hide the number of rows per table. The Table Prefixes dialog box opens.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 name space for each table being added. this option is selected and the number of rows are shown. – Modify prefix list: You can create a new tables prefix or delete an existing prefix by selecting this option. By default. You can select the default prefix from the Default prefix box drop-down list or create a new table prefix by clicking Modify prefix list. • Table Name Spaces: You can show or hide the name space for each table. and associates it with the table being added. creates a prefix having the same text as the name space. using the check box: Display the number of rows per table: You can show or hide the values calculated for the number of rows for the tables. By default. Mapping schema objects and calculating logical sizes for tables The Schema category is divided into the following subcategories: • Automatic Mapping: When you add new tables to the Warehouse Catalog. see the online help. – Set a default prefix: Select this to add a prefix to tables when they are added to a project. you can determine whether existing schema objects in the project are mapped to these new tables automatically. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 231 . Inc. this option is selected and table name spaces are shown.

Do not map schema objects to the new tables: Objects in the schema are not automatically mapped to tables you add to the project. you change the project to point to the primary warehouse. the Warehouse Catalog automatic mapping settings do not determine whether the attribute and table are automatically mapped.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide Map schema objects to new tables automatically: Existing objects in the schema automatically map to tables you add to the project. If the table was added to the Warehouse Catalog first and then the attribute was created. Ignoring table name spaces when migrating tables It is a common practice to establish a secondary warehouse with less information than the primary warehouse for development and testing. • Table Logical Sizes: You can select whether the Warehouse Catalog calculates logical sizes for new tables using one of the following options: Calculate the logical table sizes automatically: Logical sizes are automatically calculated for tables you add to the project. . the attribute Year with an attribute form mapped to YEAR_ID is included in a project. Inc. With the Map schema objects to new tables automatically option selected. Before going into production. Automatically mapping tables to schema objects when adding attributes or facts to a project is controlled by the Attribute Editor and Fact Editor. the Year attribute is automatically mapped when the new table is added. For example. Do not calculate table logical sizes: Logical sizes are not calculated for the tables you add to the project. These automatic mapping methods are only applied to existing schema objects when tables are added to the Warehouse Catalog. Then a new table which includes a YEAR_ID column is added to the Warehouse Catalog. 232 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. respectively.

you can have LU_STORE in a table name space called dbo and another table LU_STORE in another table name space called admin. The table name space provides an extra piece of information that uniquely identifies the table. You now have two tables dbo.LU_STORE. 233 © 2007 MicroStrategy. DB2. MicroStrategy uses SQL statements to query the relational database management system (RDBMS) catalog tables to obtain warehouse catalog information. This setting allows you to migrate much more easily between warehouses. For instance. If the check box is cleared. Customizing catalog SQL statements In all supported warehouse platforms other than Microsoft Access. To solve this problem. the Warehouse Catalog defaults to identifying the table by both table name space and table name. the Warehouse Catalog recognizes the two tables as the same table and saves the new table name space information. and their data types. This can cause a problem when you migrate from a warehouse that resides in a certain table name space to another warehouse in a different table name space. and the table is actually stored as admin. which is a way of organizing database tables into different storage spaces. the Warehouse Catalog saves information to the appropriate table name space. This method allows you to repeat the same table name in different table name spaces. Inc. This information includes catalog tables. Thus. You can find this option in the Warehouse Catalog Options dialog box under the Catalog . This is because the Warehouse Catalog is looking for a table named dbo. the Warehouse Catalog ignores the current table name space when it reads the catalog information. select the Ignore current table name space when reading from the database catalog and update using new table name space check box.LU_STORE and admin. and others) support the concept of a table name space. The Warehouse Catalog interprets the table as already in the project and not found in the new warehouse. When you add tables to a project. columns.LU_STORE. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog . If you select this option.LU_STORE in the new production warehouse.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 Most database management systems (Oracle.Read Settings options subcategory.

but both can be customized in the Warehouse Catalog Options dialog box. so an ODBC call must be used to retrieve information about tables and columns in Access.or two-pass SQL mode. Microsoft Access does not have catalog tables. The two retrieval options use different catalog SQL. The structure of individual tables is read only when the table is selected. the name Catalog Table SQL refers to the catalog SQL to retrieve the tables in the warehouse. The name Full Catalog SQL refers to the SQL used to read all the tables and columns in one pass. One-pass SQL mode. In two-pass SQL mode. which increases processing speed. By default. In the following sections. a similar ODBC call is used for the Generic DBMS database type. it first reads only the tables from the database. . but you can choose to use custom catalog SQL for the generic type if you wish. that is. Inc. 234 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. the first SQL used in a two-pass catalog retrieval. The MicroStrategy Warehouse Catalog can be configured to read the catalog information in one. reads all the tables and columns in one SQL statement. This is the recommended option for interactive warehouse catalog building because no unnecessary catalog information is read from the database.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide These catalog SQL statements vary from platform to platform and can be customized according to the characteristics of the specific warehouse. on the other hand. This option is recommended only if the catalog SQL is well customized to limit the amount of data returned by it.

Depending on the type of RDBMS. you must understand several important concepts and procedures: • • • • • • The table name space. page 235 Structure of Catalog Table SQL. This helps you to avoid confusing tables that share the same table name. SQL placeholder strings and incomplete catalog SQL The default system catalog SQL can contain certain placeholder strings that can be resolved at run time or must be completed manually by the user. In both the Catalog Table SQL and Full Catalog SQL. Inc. A table name space is a partition of the database installation in which table names are unique. a table name does not uniquely identify it in a particular database installation. a name space gives each table a unique name. You can leave this template in the customized SQL if you want the catalog SQL to yield © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 235 SQL placeholder strings and incomplete catalog SQL. page 238 The table name space In a typical RDBMS platform. page 236 Modifying catalog SQL. page 237 Default catalog SQL. the owner of the table. page 236 Structure of Full Catalog SQL. A customized catalog SQL can omit the name space if duplicate table names do not present a problem in the warehouse database. These placeholders are: • #LOGIN_NAME#—This placeholder is automatically replaced at run time with the login name used to connect to the database. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 235 . this name space can be the name of the database. The table name space is optional.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 To customize a catalog SQL. or a combination of both database and owner.

Inc. only the table name column is required. Duplicates are not allowed.0: SELECT DISTINCT OWNER NAME_SPACE. The following example is the default Catalog Table SQL for Oracle 8. TABLE_NAME TAB_NAME FROM ALL_TAB_COLUMNS WHERE OWNER = '#LOGIN_NAME#' Structure of Full Catalog SQL Full Catalog SQL is expected to return between five and seven columns. • #?Database_Name?#. used with DB2 AS/400. must be replaced with the name of the schema in which the database tables reside. The column that identifies the table name space uses the SQL column alias NAME_SPACE. one identifying the name space of the table and the other the name of the table. The following aliases identify each column returned: • • NAME_SPACE (optional): the table name space TAB_NAME (required): name of the table 236 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. . #?Schema_Name?#—This catalog SQL placeholder is an incomplete SQL string that must be completed by the user before it can be executed. depending on the RDBMS platform and the customization.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide different results depending on the warehouse login used. The string starts with #? and ends with ?#. #?Schema_Name?#. The command #?Database_Name?#. must be replaced with the name of the database containing the database tables. Otherwise. this template is replaced with the name of the database user who owns the warehouse tables of interest. If a name space is not provided. Each row of the SQL result must uniquely identify a table. Structure of Catalog Table SQL Catalog Table SQL is expected to return two columns. The column that identifies the table name has the alias TAB_NAME. used with Teradata.

length DATA_LEN.id = C. C. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 237 . C. sysusers WHERE T. The Warehouse Catalog opens. 2 Modifying catalog SQL You can customize and modify the catalog SQL that is run against your database for each project.prec DATA_PREC.uid = U.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 • • • • • COL_NAME (required): name of the column DATA_TYPE (required): a string or a number that identifies the major data type of the column DATA_LEN (required): a number that describes the length or size of the column data DATA_PREC (optional): a number that describes the precision of the column data DATA_SCALE (optional): a number that describes the scale of a floating point column data Full Catalog SQL must return its rows ordered first by NAME_SPACE. page 219).type DATA_TYPE.uid ORDER BY 1. 'V') AND T. The following example is the default Full Catalog SQL for Microsoft SQL Server 7. and then by TAB_NAME. The catalog SQL can be modified in the Warehouse Catalog options for your project. To modify the catalog SQL for your project 1 Access the Warehouse Catalog for your project (see Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. syscolumns C.name TAB_NAME.0: SELECT U.name NAME_SPACE. C.id and T. T.scale DATA_SCALE FROM sysobjects T. C.name COL_NAME. C. if available. Inc. © 2007 MicroStrategy.type in ('U'.

4 Click the Settings button.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide 2 From the Tools menu. . select Options. 3 Expand the Catalog Category. and select Read Settings. Inc. The catalog SQL settings are unavailable if your project is connected to a Microsoft Access database. the catalog SQL options are displayed as shown below. Default catalog SQL When customizing the catalog SQL that is executed on your database. The Warehouse Catalog Options dialog box opens. The top pane controls the Catalog Table SQL and the bottom pane controls the Full Catalog SQL. The Catalog . it is recommended you consult the default catalog SQL that MicroStrategy uses to support different database 238 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy.Read Settings options are displayed.

Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 platforms. click the bottom-most Use Default button. 2 Generate and view the default catalog SQL for your database platform. Before performing the next step. • The top pane controls the Catalog Table SQL. This allows you to save any modifications you have made previously to the catalog SQL statements. which retrieves column information for the selected tables. cut and paste the SQL statements in the two panes into any text editor. which retrieves a list of available tables in the Warehouse Catalog. Inc. click the upper-most Use Default button. Troubleshooting table and column messages You may encounter the following messages while using the Warehouse Catalog: © 2007 MicroStrategy. To generate and view the default catalog SQL 1 Access the catalog SQL options for your project (see Modifying catalog SQL. The bottom pane controls the Full Catalog SQL. and then compare them to the default statements you are about to generate. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 239 . Any text in the panes is overwritten with the default catalog SQL statements: • To generate and view the default Catalog Table SQL for your database platform. • • You can use the default catalog SQL statements or compare and combine them with your own customized catalog SQL statements. You can generate the default catalog SQL in MicroStrategy for the database platform your project connects to. page 237). A dialog box for the catalog SQL options is displayed. To generate and view the default Full Catalog SQL for your database platform.

the Warehouse Catalog does not check for any dependencies until you save the changes. In this case. . 240 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. Remove the table from the project.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide • • • Tables missing Columns data type changed Columns missing Tables missing This happens when one or more tables already in the project are removed from the data warehouse. • When the Warehouse Catalog tries to update the structure of a table that is missing in the warehouse. no changes occur and the original table structure remains intact. a message is shown which explains that the table structure update cannot proceed because the table was not found in the warehouse. you get a warning message showing the table name. column name. This can result in SQL errors when running reports that need data from a “missing” table. However the definition in the project may be inconsistent with the real physical structure in the warehouse. In this case. Two cases can be seen: • When the Warehouse Catalog is starting and retrieving the table information from the data warehouse and it detects that one or more tables already in the project are missing. If there are any dependencies. Columns data type changed When the table structure is updated for one or more tables in which the column data types have been changed. and you have the option to proceed or cancel the operation. they are presented to you. Inc. it displays an error message which gives you the following options: Leave the Table in the project: This leaves everything as is in the project metadata.

while retaining the traditional power of ROLAP to directly query the database to answer any questions. then no error message is shown. This section describes how and why aggregate tables are used. see Chapter 2. Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables 241 . Inc. This results in no changes being applied to the tables and columns. the Warehouse Catalog checks for the following: • • Column is not mapped to any schema object: If this is the case. The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts. Chapter 3. which are mapped to the missing column and the update structure operation is canceled. you should be familiar with fact tables in the context of data modeling and data warehousing. For more information on these topics. Columns missing Missing columns are detected when Update Structure is performed. then a message is displayed that gives details on objects. Aggregate tables provide quicker access to frequently requested information. Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables Aggregate tables are summary tables that store data at higher levels than it was stored when the data was initially captured and saved. Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model. To understand aggregate tables. The Logical Data Model. You are asked to remove the mapping before continuing with the update structure and original table structure is restored. If this happens. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Column is mapped to a schema object: If this is the case. MicroStrategy creates aggregates only on fact tables since lookup tables and relationship tables are usually significantly smaller. and new data type. and Chapter 5.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 original data type. You can click Cancel at any time to undo all data type changes.

and swapping requirements Eliminate the need to perform dynamic calculations Decrease the number of physical disk reads and the number of records that must be read to satisfy a query Minimize the amount of data that must be aggregated and sorted at run time Move time-intensive calculations with complicated logic or significant computations into a batch routine from dynamic SQL executed at report run time In summary. 242 Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables © 2007 MicroStrategy. MicroStrategy’s solution is the use of aggregate tables to provide quicker access to frequently-accessed data while still retaining the power to answer any user query.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide When to use aggregate tables MicroStrategy uses optimized SQL to query the relational database directly to answer users’ questions. . The disadvantage to this relational OLAP (ROLAP) methodology is that accessing huge fact tables can be potentially time-consuming. Users can ask any question that is supported by the data in their warehouse and then analyze the results until they find a precise answer. MOLAP is not scalable for large projects because of the difficulty of maintaining every possible combination of aggregates as the number of attributes and the amount of data increases. Aggregate tables are advantageous because they • • • • • Reduce input/output. in combination with aggregate tables and caching. Multidimensional OLAP (MOLAP) is sometimes considered by some to be the answer to this problem. can produce results at about the same speed as MOLAP. the MicroStrategy SQL Engine. CPU. However. RAM. This combined solution allows questions to be answered on the fly and is also scalable for large databases. Inc.

The daily values from the fact table are selected.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 Aggregation versus pre-aggregation Whenever the display level of data on a report must differ from the level at which the data is initially captured. If sales data is frequently requested at the month level. A report requesting month-level data is executed. For example. aggregation. © 2007 MicroStrategy. aggregation occurs dynamically with a SQL statement at report run-time. must occur. as in the previous example. as shown below. Inc. and added to produce the monthly totals. that is. Aggregation can also be completed before reports are executed. You can build these pre-aggregated—or aggregate—tables as part of the ETL process. the results of the aggregation are stored in an aggregate table. the rolling up of data. This process is called pre-aggregation. Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables 243 . sales data is stored by day in a fact table. By default. sorted. an aggregate table with the sales data rolled up to the month level is useful.

it requires a completely aggregated schema to answer most questions. In these terms. sorting. Degree of aggregation While MOLAP can provide fast performance when it answers a question. If the daily sales fact table is the lowest-level fact table and contains atomic-level data. Inc.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide Pre-aggregation eliminates the reading. an aggregate table is any fact table whose data is derived by aggregating data from an existing base table. as shown in the following example. That is. lower-level fact table at run time. and calculation of data from many database rows in a large. . every possible combination of aggregate associations must be generated when the multidimensional cube is built. This ensures that all possible 244 Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables © 2007 MicroStrategy. it is referred to as a base table.

the degree of aggregation can be as dense or as sparse as is appropriate for your users. since the creation and maintenance of aggregate tables requires additional work by the database administrator. A densely aggregated warehouse has a large number of aggregate tables while a sparsely aggregated warehouse has fewer. Only the aggregate combinations that you determine are beneficial must be created. page 246 The compression ratio—Compression ratio. Consider the following factors when deciding whether to create aggregate tables: • • The frequency of queries at that level—Determining the frequency of queries at a specific level. page 247 • © 2007 MicroStrategy. provides much greater flexibility than MOLAP. That is. Build aggregate tables only if they can benefit users.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 questions can be answered. In a ROLAP environment. if a certain aggregate combination is rarely or never used. page 246 The relationship between the parent and child—Considering any related parent-child relationships. and therefore is not very scalable. therefore. if the aggregate table is useful in answering frequently-asked queries. Sparse aggregation refers to the fact that a given project only requires as many aggregate fact tables as is useful to its users. This scenario becomes very difficult to maintain as the number of attributes and the amount of data increase. However. Also. the space in the RDBMS does not need to be consumed and the resources to build that table during the batch process do not need to be used. ROLAP. Inc. Not every attribute level or hierarchy intersection is suitable for pre-aggregation. do not waste database space for tables that will not be used. Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables 245 . its presence provides a response as fast as a MOLAP system can provide.

consider the following hierarchy: A summary of data at the department level seems to be a good candidate for an aggregate table. If aggregate tables are never accessed. If any table is not used. eliminate it from the warehouse. as well as the database backup routines. when the parent-child relationship is altered. Therefore. they consume disk space and impose unnecessary burdens on the extraction. Inc. the query must use item-level data and summarize the department data dynamically. However. based on the key combinations in a relationship table. Once your warehouse is in production. usefulness is not always easy to quantify. the child records are usually summarized into the parent record. if users frequently want to exclude inactive items. For more information on Enterprise Manager. trace the usage of any aggregate tables to determine how frequently they are used in a day-to-day business environment. see the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. . For example. and loading process.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide Determining the frequency of queries at a specific level Build aggregate tables only if they can be useful to your users. translation. all 246 Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables © 2007 MicroStrategy. In any hierarchical relationship. MicroStrategy Enterprise Manager allows you to easily track table usage. However. Considering any related parent-child relationships When an aggregate table is created. the department aggregate tables would not be used in this situation.

Compression ratio The process of data aggregation applies an aggregate function. and then balance the disadvantages against the advantages of having an aggregate table. For example.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 tables that hold that relationship or data relevant to it must be updated. and complicate the batch process. time hierarchies are seldom dynamic—days do not migrate into different weeks. or the addition. consume resources. a table contains one value for the sum of all stores. the table size. such as sum or average. Aggregate tables that contain dynamic relationships must be recalculated every time a change is made. they are a part of static relationships. and the impact on the batch process. reclassification. the relationship is called dynamic. For example. to a set of child records to produce a single parent record. this process can take time. Inc. If the tables are large. Static relationships When elements rarely or never change relationships. Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables 247 . For example. Consider the frequency of the changes. maintaining aggregate tables is very easy. geographical realignment. Frequent changes can mean aggregate tables are not optimal for this situation. Dynamic relationships When the relationship between parent and child elements change. The average number of child records combined to calculate one parent record is called the © 2007 MicroStrategy. rolling up an entire hierarchy can avoid many problems with relationship changes. It is not affected by a reorganization within the geography hierarchy. Also. In these cases. a store can decide to reclassify the department to which items belong. These changes often occur because of organizational restructuring. Whether these relationships are dynamic or static change how they are aggregated into tables. and fiscal weeks do not move into different months. or discontinuation of items or services.

For example. For more information on ratios. the aggregate table reduces the number of records by 3/4 and uses only 1/4 of the storage space. you must balance the importance of speed of query response time and the availability of disk space and resources to maintain the schema. Creating aggregate tables You can integrate aggregate tables in your project using the Warehouse Catalog in MicroStrategy Desktop. Therefore. In contrast. the resource demands placed on the database server by dynamic aggregations decrease and therefore so does the effectiveness of pre-aggregation. as outlined in the following procedure. the compression ratio suggests that an aggregate table can provide more efficient queries. if the compression ratio is 4:1. Inc. for smaller base tables. refer to Cardinalities and ratios. pre-aggregating data is effective only if the compression ratio is significant. One measure of effectiveness of an aggregate table can be estimated from this number. Also. page 35. When the number of elements differs significantly between two attributes in the same hierarchy. the aggregate table requires 2/3 of the base table’s storage space but yields only a 1/3 reduction in the number of records. if the compression ratio is 3:2. . To determine when pre-aggregation is worthwhile for your system. 248 Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables © 2007 MicroStrategy.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide compression ratio. since it represents the decrease in records that must be read to respond to a query at that level. Recall that some of the reasons to build aggregate tables include the reduction of disk I/O and the number of records that must be dynamically sorted and aggregated.

when either could provide the answer to a query? The answer is logical table size. These size assignments are stored in the metadata and are calculated based on the table columns and their corresponding attributes. see Adding and removing tables for a project. add the table to the project. How does Architect know to use the aggregate table rather than the base fact table. that contains enough data to answer the query. Changing the logical table size The initial logical table size is based on the number of attribute columns and the various levels at which they exist in their respective hierarchies. Suppose the base fact table contains millions of rows of transaction-level detail. Architect is aggregate-aware. Inc. When you run a report. the Analytical Engine chooses the smallest of all tables. 2 Use the new table in the desired fact expressions and attribute form expressions. Because Desktop uses the conceptual or logical attribute definitions when assigning sizes. however.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 To use an aggregate table in an existing project 1 Using the Warehouse Catalog. Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables 249 . In other words. The size of tables in a project: Logical table size MicroStrategy Desktop assigns a size to every table in the project when you first add them to the project. If your aggregate table structure is consistent with your base fact table structure. Because the attribute levels are lower in the base fact © 2007 MicroStrategy. For steps to add tables using the Warehouse Catalog. page 220. Architect automatically adds it to the definitions of your existing attributes and facts. have only higher-level or summary data. this measurement is known as the logical table size. The other tables. based on logical table size.

Logical tables are discussed in detail in Appendix C. see the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. Time is the most common category for partitioning databases. not where the tables are split. such as month or department. Logical Tables. Inc. partitions improve the speed and efficiency of database queries. For steps to use the Logical Table Editor.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide table. the Logical Table Editor allows you to alter the logical table sizes based on their true relative sizes. By distributing usage across multiple tables. Of course. Partitions improve query performance by minimizing the number of tables and records within a table that must be read to satisfy queries issued against the warehouse. Either way. this division is based on a definable data level. . this is not always true in a real warehouse. 250 Dividing tables to increase performance: Partition mapping © 2007 MicroStrategy. the table as a whole is assigned a higher value for the logical table size than are the summary tables with higher-level attributes. tables are partitioned at the database level. Logically. Dividing tables to increase performance: Partition mapping Partition mapping involves the division of large logical tables into smaller physical tables. Partitioning by time limits growth of the database tables and increases stability. a table with a higher-level attribute should be smaller in size. Server versus application partitioning Partitioning can be managed by either the database server or the MicroStrategy application. Therefore. The terms “application” and “server” refer to what manages the partitioned tables.

MicroStrategy manages the mapping between the logical table and the physical tables. Partition tables are usually divided along logical lines. A partition base table (PBT) is a warehouse table that contains one part of a larger set of data. This approach makes it easier for you to specify a flexible partitioning schema. the partitioning is transparent to MicroStrategy. 251 © 2007 MicroStrategy. In contrast. such as time or geography. Inc. manages the partition tables. Dividing tables to increase performance: Partition mapping . page 254—uses a specialized warehouse table to determine which table to access Metadata partition mapping Metadata partition mapping is the mapping of partitions where the mapping of partitions is performed and maintained in the project metadata by the application. in application-level partitioning the relational database is unaware of the partitioned tables. Instead. rather than the RDBMS server. MicroStrategy. manages the partitioned tables in RDBMS server-level partitioning.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 Server-level partitioning The database server. rather than MicroStrategy. MicroStrategy supports two types of partitioning: • • Metadata partition mapping. page 251—stores the mapping information in the project metadata Warehouse partition mapping. Refer to your database documentation for details on server partitioning for your particular platform. the database server logically partitions the table according to parameters specified by the database administrator. in this case. Since only the logical table is displayed to the end user. You do not need to take any action in MicroStrategy to support the partitioning. The original fact table is not physically broken into smaller tables. Application-level partitioning In application-level partitioning the application.

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Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project

Project Design Guide

In metadata partition mapping, you specify one or more partitioning attributes in the Metadata Partition Mapping Editor. Next you define what attribute elements within those attributes should point to which PBT. You create all of the rules for choosing the appropriate PBT here and the rules are stored in the MicroStrategy metadata. For steps to create a metadata partition mapping, refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help.

Homogenous and heterogeneous partitions
Metadata partitions can be homogenous or heterogeneous. With heterogeneous partitioning, the PBTs can have different amounts of data stored in them at different levels. For example, one table can contain six months of sales data, while another stores an entire year. The PBT level, or key, refers to how the data is stored. For example, sales data for the current year can be stored at the daily level, while historical sales data is saved by month only. Heterogeneous partitions can therefore require additional long-term maintenance and organization because the data contained in them is stored at various levels throughout the partition. MicroStrategy stores one PBT level for each partition. If all the PBTs within a partition are not stored at the same level, the highest PBT level is used as the PBT level of the partition. For instance, if all the sales data in the previous example is stored in one partition, you cannot access current sales at the day level. This is because the PBT level for the partition is month, which is higher than day. If you save current data in a partition at the daily level and the historical data in another partition at the month level, you are able to fully access the data. In contrast, homogenous partitions must have the same amount of data stored at the same PBT level. The logical structure of the PBTs must be the same, that is, they must have the same facts and attributes defined. To continue with the previous examples, each table must store one year of data at the month level. Homogeneous partitions work well for frequently-accessed data such as information about the previous year.

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When you define the particular PBT to which an attribute is linked in MicroStrategy, you do not need to specify whether or not the PBT is homogeneous or heterogeneous. MicroStrategy makes the distinction automatically depending, in part, on how the data is stored in the PBT.

Data slices
After PBTs are created, you define a data slice. The data slice acts as a filter that describes what portions of data are placed in the partition table. Based on this data slice, the MicroStrategy engine knows which table to get data from when generating the SQL. A data slice holds the parameters that a partition is based upon, for example, Month=January. Instead of retrieving data for all months, the server knows to access a particular table that contains the data for January only. By creating a data slice with the partition, you can retrieve specific data quickly without time-consuming joins and searches. It is important to create a reasonable and valid data slice because MicroStrategy cannot verify its accuracy or relevance. The data slice must make sense for the data. A poorly crafted data slice can lead to errors from generating incorrect SQL and retrieving the wrong data. Data slicing displays and can be modified only for the metadata partitioning. Each partition mapping table must include at least one data slice. In a heterogeneous mapping, data slices can exist at different levels and can be composed of different keys.

Attribute qualifications
To create data slices, you use attribute qualifications. Attribute qualifications are types of filters that are applied to attribute forms. These qualifications allow you to limit the type and amount of data that is returned for a report. For example, if you create a report that contains the attribute Country but you want to return only the data for France, you can create a qualification on the attribute Country and select France as the element that appears on the report.

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For steps to create a data slice, refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help.

Warehouse partition mapping
Warehouse partition mapping is the mapping of partitions, where the mapping is performed by and maintained in the data warehouse. You can define a warehouse partition by using the MicroStrategy Warehouse Catalog to add a table with a special structure. This table contains the map for the partition, and is stored in the warehouse. Warehouse partitions divide tables physically along any number of attributes, although this is not visible to the user. Warehouse partitions must be homogenous, unlike metadata partitions, so that the same amount of data is stored at the same PBT level and the same facts and attributes are defined. Homogenous partitioning divides data of equal levels, like January and February. A sample fact table and warehouse partitioning table are shown below for months. Note how the data exists at equal levels, for example, different months of the same year.

The original fact table, which contains all of the data, is not brought into the project. Rather, the database administrator creates multiple smaller physical tables in the data warehouse. Each table contains a subset of the data in the original fact table. The database administrator is responsible for keeping the partitions consistent and up-to-date. He or

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she must also create and maintain a partition mapping table (PMT), which is used to identify and keep track of the partitioned base tables as part of a logical whole. After the PMT is created, when you run a report in Desktop or Web that requires information from one of the PBTs, the Query Engine first runs a pre-query to the PMT to determine which PBT to access to bring the data back for the report. The pre-query requests the PBT names associated with the attribute IDs from the filtering criteria. When it finds the name of the PBT, it calls the SQL Engine to write the appropriate SQL for the warehouse. When using warehouse partition mapping, it is usually not necessary to bring in the individual PBT tables into the project. Doing so can cause errors if such tables are mistakenly mapped directly to schema objects. You should only include the PMT table in the project. With this strategy you can map all related schema objects to the PMT, which then accesses the correct PBT in the warehouse. Note the following: • • There are no data slices in a warehouse partition. MicroStrategy supports warehouse partitions on both upgraded and newly created projects. These are added using the Warehouse Catalog Browser. For steps to add warehouse partitions, refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help.

Metadata versus warehouse partition mapping
Metadata partition mapping does not require any additional tables in the warehouse. Metadata partition mapping is generally recommended over warehouse partition mapping in MicroStrategy. However, if you already have warehouse partition tables set up and are migrating to a newer version of MicroStrategy, you can continue to use the warehouse partitions. If you are creating partitions for the first time, however, it is recommended you implement metadata partition mapping.

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Metadata partition mapping is recommended because you create the rules in MicroStrategy that the Query Engine uses to generate the SQL to run reports. Because you create the partitions directly in the metadata, it is easier to maintain. Metadata partition mapping also allows both heterogeneous and homogenous partitions, unlike warehouse partition mapping. With heterogeneous partitions, the PBTs can have different amounts of data stored in them at different levels. Only homogenous partitions can be used in warehouse partition mapping. For steps to map partitions, refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help.

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9.

CREATING TRANSFORMATIONS TO DEFINE TIME-BASED AND OTHER COMPARISONS

Introduction
Suppose you want to compare how much revenue your company grew last year to how much it grew this year. This type of analysis, called a TY/LY comparison (This Year versus Last Year), is a commonly used form of time-series analysis and is relevant to many different industries, including retail, banking, and telecommunications. Transformations—schema objects you can create using attributes in your project—are one of the many MicroStrategy techniques used to perform time-series analysis. To calculate a variance or a growth percentage such as last year’s revenue versus this year’s revenue, it is very convenient to use a transformation. Transformations are often the most generic approach and can be reused and applied to other time-series analyses. To use a transformation, a report designer creates a metric and applies the transformation to it. This chapter discusses the different types of transformations and how to create them. It is assumed that you have some understanding of what metrics are, as transformation metrics
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are discussed in this chapter. For information on metrics and using transformations in metrics and reports, see the Metrics chapter of the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide.

Creating transformations
A transformation is a schema object that typically maps a specified time period to another time period, applying an offset value, such as current month minus one month. Usually defined by a project designer, transformations are used in the definition of a metric to alter the behavior of that metric. Such a metric is referred to as a transformation metric. For example, time-related transformations are commonly used in metrics to compare values at different times, such as this year versus last year or current date versus month-to-date. Any transformation can be included as part of the definition of a metric and multiple transformations can be applied to the same metric. Transformation metrics are beyond the scope of this guide; for information about transformation metrics, refer to the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. Recall the example used in the introduction, the TY/LY comparison. To calculate this year’s revenue, you can use the Revenue metric in conjunction with a filter for this year. Similarly, to calculate last year's revenue, you can use the Revenue metric in conjunction with a filter for last year. However, a more flexible alternative is to use a previously created Last Year transformation in the definition of a new metric, last year’s revenue. With a single filter, on 2003 for example, the two metrics Revenue and Last Year Revenue give you results for 2003 and 2002, respectively. Since a transformation represents a rule, it can describe the effect of that rule for different levels. For instance, the Last Year transformation intuitively describes how a specific year relates to the year before. It can in addition express how each month of a year corresponds to a month of the prior year. In the same way, the transformation can describe how each day of a year maps to a day of the year before. This information defines the transformation and abstracts all cases into a

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generic concept. That is, you can use a single metric with a last year transformation regardless of the time attribute contained on the report. While transformations are most often used for discovering and analyzing time-based trends in your data, not all transformations have to be time-based. An example of a non-time-based transformation is This Catalog/Last Catalog, which might use Catalog_ID-1 to perform the transformation.

Expression-based versus table-based transformations
The definition of the association between an original value and a transformed one can be represented in an expression that uses columns of the warehouse, constants, arithmetic operators, and mathematical functions. This is known as an expression-based transformation. However, it is sometimes desirable to precalculate these values and store them in a table designed for the transformation. This method is sometimes referred to as a table-based transformation. The advantage of a table-based transformation is the possible use of indexing to speed query times. Another advantage is that table-based transformations provide additional flexibility beyond what formula expressions can produce. The drawback of this kind of transformation is that it requires the creation and management of an additional table in the warehouse. However, once the table is created, it usually significantly decreases the query time. Returning to the TY/LY example, you have the option of using a simple formula such as Year_ID - 1 in the definition of the transformation or precalculating the data and storing it in a column in a table. A table-based transformation is required when a many-to-many transformation is performed. An example is a year-to-date calculation. A significant advantage to the dynamic calculation of an expression-based transformation is that the database administrator does not have to create and maintain a transformation table. The drawback is that the system must perform the calculation every time.

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A single transformation can use a combination of table-based and expression-based transformations. For example, you can create a last year transformation based on Year and Month. The ID of the Year attribute is in the format YYYY, so the transformation can use the expression Year_ID - 1. The ID for the Month attribute is in the format ‘MonthName,’ so you cannot easily use a mathematical expression. You must use a table instead. The following sections walk you through creating both a table-based transformation and an expression-based one.

Building a table-based transformation
The following example shows how to create a last year transformation based on a lookup table in MicroStrategy Tutorial, which pairs each year with the previous year. This transformation is used in the report displayed below, which compares revenue for this year and last year.

Creating the transformation metric and the report are discussed in the Transformation metrics section in the Metrics chapter of the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide.

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which maps this year to last year. The table's columns appear in the Available columns list. For example. The Transformation Editor opens with the Select a Member Attribute dialog box displayed. Notice that this table contains a previous year column. © 2007 MicroStrategy.Define a new member attribute expression dialog box opens. 3 Double-click Time to open the folder. 4 Select the LU_Year table from the Table drop-down list. Creating transformations 261 . so the previous year is simply Year_ID minus one.Project Design Guide Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons 9 To create a last year transformation based on a table 1 Log in to the project source that contains your project in MicroStrategy Desktop and expand your project. You have now created the transformation. The Year_ID is in the format YYYY. A report designer can now use the transformation in a revenue metric to calculate last year’s revenue. point to New. Building an expression-based transformation This example shows how to create a last year transformation using an expression rather than a table. Name the transformation Last Year (Table). The Year . Inc. 6 Click OK. 5 Double-click the PREV_YEAR_ID column to place it in the expression box. 7 Click Save and Close on the toolbar. one subtracted from the year 2005 results in the previous year. 2 From the File menu. 2004. and select Transformation. then create a report using that transformation metric to obtain last year’s revenue. then double-click Year.

3 Select the LU_Year table from the Table drop-down list. Again. 5 Type -1 in the expression box. Inc.9 Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons Project Design Guide This transformation is added to the report shown in the table-based transformation example above. 4 Double-click the YEAR_ID column to place it in the expression box. The Transformation Editor opens with the Select a Member Attribute dialog box displayed. and select Transformation. point to New. The Year . then double-click Year. The table's columns appear in the Available columns list. . To create a last year transformation based on an expression 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. 2 Double-click Time to open the folder.Define a new member attribute expression dialog box opens. from the File menu. The resulting report is displayed below. creating the transformation metric and the report are discussed in the Transformation metrics section in the Metrics chapter of the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. 262 Creating transformations © 2007 MicroStrategy. The transformation will subtract 1 from the Year ID to calculate last year’s ID.

Quarter. For example. For example. 8 Click Save and Close on the toolbar.Project Design Guide Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons 9 6 Click Validate. in the Last Year transformation. • Member tables: These tables store the data for the member attributes. A report designer can now use the transformation in a revenue metric to calculate last year’s revenue. this is the transformation table defining the relationship. Inc. each member expression is based on a specific table. The message “Valid expression” appears with a green check mark. the member attributes are Year. generally the lookup table corresponding to the attribute being transformed. Month. Name the transformation Last Year (Expression). You have now created the last year transformation. For a table-based transformation. Transformation components All transformations have the following components: • Member attributes: This component contains the attributes to which the transformation applies. and LU_DAY. • Member expressions: Each member attribute has a corresponding expression. the member tables are LU_YEAR. © 2007 MicroStrategy. in the Last Year transformation in the MicroStrategy Tutorial. the different levels to which the rule applies. that is. respectively. 7 Click OK. and Day. Month. Transformation components 263 . LU_QUARTER. Quarter. LU_MONTH. for the member attributes Year. For an expression-based transformation. then add it to the report created in the previous example. and Day.

many other dates are included in the year-to-date calculation. consider YearToDate defined as a many-to-many transformation and Revenue (YTD) as a transformation metric. However. this is simply a column from a specific warehouse table specifically populated with data supporting the transformation. many cases can exist where the data is not conducive to such calculation. this is a mathematical expression. . It is particularly effective when no straightforward formula can express the rule. For a table-based transformation. These are all columns from the lookup tables set in the Member tables field. you cannot subtract one and receive December 1999 as the result. Since the data defines the rule. and columns from the warehouse. you can create a Last Year transformation using Year_ID-1 as the expression. mathematical functions. Many-to-many: A typical many-to-many relationship is year-to-date. For example. For example.9 Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons Project Design Guide For an expression-based transformation. Many-to-many transformations can lead to double-counting scenarios. In fact. and PREV_YEAR_ID. Suppose this metric is used on 264 Transformation components © 2007 MicroStrategy. The rule is then not encapsulated in an expression but directly in the data of the column. a separate table is required. The mapping can be one of the following: One-to-one: A typical one-to-one relationship is “last year to this year. LY_QUARTER_ID. arithmetic operators. • Mapping type: This component determines how the transformation is created based on the nature of the data. Inc. if you store Month as 200001 (January 2000). in the case of a many-to-many transformation. in the Last Year transformation. In the most generic case. typically the attribute ID column. this expression uses constants. For one date. the member expressions are LY_DAY_DATE. LY_MONTH_ID.” One day or month this year maps exactly to one day or month from last year. For example. For instance. this approach provides considerable flexibility in the transformation definition.

For more information about joint child attributes. Transformation metrics and joint child attributes Review the discussion of joint child attributes and relationships in Joint child relationships. which is the member attribute on the template. a report contains Quarter and the transformation metric Last Year’s Revenue. see Joint child relationships.Project Design Guide Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons 9 a report that does not include the Day attribute. Each quarter is displayed. The report displays the quarter. For example. the © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. as shown below: When a joint child attribute—an attribute that exists at the intersection of other indirectly related attributes—is added. In the report. a transformation metric displays the current attribute with transformed data. For example. a range of dates is specified in the filter. The joint child attribute cannot be transformed because not all of its joint children—Quarter and Item—are time-related. page 171. In this instance. page 171 before proceeding in this section. a conflict arises. the values for the transformation. the joint child attribute Promotion is added to the previous report. that is. Transformation metrics and joint child attributes 265 . the Revenue (YTD) metric will double count. In a report. with the previous year’s revenue.

not the attributes. In summary. 266 Transformation metrics and joint child attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. Notice that the Valentine’s Day promotion existed in 2003 but not in 2002. While you may want to see it listed for 2002. the Valentine’s Day promotion is not listed for Q1 2002 despite the existence of the last year transformation. remember that only the metric values are transformed.9 Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons Project Design Guide promotion associated with a given quarter. displaying transformed data. but not attributes such as Promotion. However. again. . and the revenue data from the date-promotion combination. since the Valentine’s Day promotion was not run in 2002. Inc. This is the case because. minus one year. the Valentine’s Day-Q1 2002 combination cannot be displayed on the report. A sample report is shown below: The displayed attributes should still be current. since the joint child attribute Promotion essentially exists in both the time dimension and a non-time dimension. That is. transformations “transform” metric values such as Revenue. it is not intuitive how the transformation should be performed.

metadata repository. filters. Conceptually. and user community. and a set of demonstration applications designed to illustrate the features of the MicroStrategy platform. and functions. the project is the environment in which all related reporting is done.A A. metrics. Inc. © 2007 MicroStrategy. including the data model and physical warehouse schema. which includes a metadata and warehouse. A project is the highest-level of intersection of a data warehouse. What is the MicroStrategy Tutorial? The MicroStrategy Tutorial is a MicroStrategy project. You create projects that users access to run reports. What is the MicroStrategy Tutorial? 267 . A typical project contains reports. MICROSTRATEGY TUTORIAL Introduction This appendix provides information on the MicroStrategy Tutorial.

books. movies and music. such as Customer. Company Executives. Geography. Inventory. production and operational reports. managed metrics reports. invoices and statements. The Supplier folder contains a Supplier Sales report. or Call Center. the Billing Managers folder contains an Invoice report and a customer-level transaction detail report. Promotions. including Billing Managers. District Sales Managers. Category Managers. Operations Managers. Numerous customers and purchased items. Employee. Category. • • • MicroStrategy Tutorial reporting areas MicroStrategy Tutorial reports are grouped into four folders: • Business Roles: This folder contains subfolders that reflect different types of business intelligence users within an organization. The key features include the following: • Hierarchies—Customer. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Human Resources Analysis. Inc. Options to create reports from MicroStrategy Desktop and MicroStrategy Web focusing on a particular analysis area. and Suppliers.A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide The theme of the MicroStrategy Tutorial project is a retail store for the time 2003 to 2006 that sells electronics. Regional Sales Managers. They are a sampling of the types of reporting documents that can be built using MicroStrategy Report Services. and Supplier Analysis. • Enterprise Reporting Documents: This folder contains various examples of different types of standard enterprise reporting documents. Products. Each hierarchy can be viewed graphically through MicroStrategy Desktop and MicroStrategy Web. Sales and Profitability Analysis. and Time. Inventory and Supply Chain Analysis. Enterprise Performance Management. and the Brand Managers subfolder contains a report called Brand Performance by Region. and business reports. 268 What is the MicroStrategy Tutorial? . Each subfolder contains reports that would be of interest to the type of business user for which the subfolder is named. Brand Managers. Reporting areas: Customer Analysis. For instance. Time. Products. such as scorecards and dashboards.

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MicroStrategy Platform Capabilities: This folder contains examples of many of the sophisticated capabilities within the MicroStrategy platform. Evaluators of the software, as well as customers, can use the examples to get a better feel for many of the platform’s capabilities. Customers can use the examples to guide their own development. The subfolders under these folders are named according to the capabilities that their reports exemplify. For instance, the Graph Styles folder contains examples of most of the graph types that can be created in MicroStrategy, and the Analytics and Data Mining folder contains examples of Linear Regression models built within MicroStrategy.

Subject Areas: This folder contains reports that are categorized further by topic. Topics covered include Customer Analysis, Enterprise Performance Management, Human Resource Analysis, Inventory and Supply Chain Analysis, Sales and Profitability Analysis, and Supplier Analysis. Customer Analysis: Reports analyzing the customer base, studying areas such as Customer Income, Customer Counts, Revenue per Customer, and Revenue Growth. Enterprise Performance Management: Reports containing information on revenue amounts, trends and forecasts, profits, profit margins, and profit forecasts. These reports make it easy for an executive at any level of the company to understand how the company is performing as a whole or at the region, category, and subcategory levels. Human Resource Analysis: Reports containing information on employees, including headcount, birthdays, length of employment, and the top five employees by revenue. These reports are based on employees, time, geography, and sales. The Human Resources Analysis reports provide insight into human capital so that managers can boost the efficiency and effectiveness of their employees. Human Resource Representatives can highlight under-performing employees and misallocated headcount. Managers at all levels can focus on the

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performance of their employees, drill down to an individual employee detail level, view trends, and extract intelligence not otherwise evident. Inventory and Supply Chain Analysis: Reports containing information based on supplier, product, cost, revenue and profit, such as Inventory and Unit Sales, or Inventory Received from Suppliers by Quarter. The Inventory reports track inventory information within the company and through to suppliers. Essentially, these reports show how many units of an item are on hand, how many are expected from a particular supplier, and how many units have been sold. Inventory reports are used to ensure that the supply chain is as efficient as possible. Using these reports, employees can analyze trends and details, quickly adjust inventory and distribution, and understand underlying supply chain costs and inefficiencies. Sales and Profitability Analysis: Reports analyzing revenue and profit from multiple perspectives. Examples include Sales by Region, Revenue over Time, and Brand Performance by Region. The Product Sales reports allow managers and analysts to monitor and analyze sales trends, track corporate revenue goals, compare store-to-store performance, and respond more quickly and accurately to feedback from the marketplace. In turn, executives can analyze sales trends and details, quickly adjust pricing and promotions, identify product affinities and key profit centers, and understand costs and revenue trends. Supplier Analysis: Reports containing supplier, sales, profit, and revenue information, such as Brand Sales by Supplier, Supplier Sell-Through Percentage, and Units Sold and Profit by Supplier. The Supplier reports allow managers and analysts to monitor and analyze vendor performance so that they can quickly identify performance problems. These reports track brands and items sold that came from a particular vendor. They also correlate profit and revenue information with particular suppliers so that relationships with key vendors can be strengthened.

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These reports and documents are located in the Public Objects/Reports folder of the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. Once the areas of analysis are determined, a data model is created.

MicroStrategy Tutorial data model
A logical data model graphically depicts the flow and structure of data in a business environment. It provides a way of organizing facts so that they can be analyzed from different business perspectives. For example, a simple logical data model for a retail company can organize all necessary facts by store, product, and time, which are the three common business perspectives typically associated with retail business. For detailed information about data modeling, see Chapter 2, The Logical Data Model. For MicroStrategy Tutorial, the areas of analysis discussed earlier, Customer Analysis, Human Resources Analysis, and so on, are organized into the following hierarchical groupings: • • • • • Geography Products Customers Time Promotions

These MicroStrategy Tutorial hierarchies are displayed on the following pages for your reference.

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Data modeling notations
The following notations are used in graphical depictions of hierarchies.
Symbol Indicates entry point Definition An entry point is a shortcut to an attribute element in the Data Explorer. Creating an entry point grants you faster access to the attribute without having to browse through multiple attributes to reach different levels of the hierarchy.

attribute

A data level defined by the system architect and associated with one or more columns in the data warehouse lookup table. Attributes include data classifications like Region, Order, Customer, Age, Item, City, and Year. They provide a handle for aggregating and filtering at a given level. An attribute relationship in which every element of a parent attribute relates to multiple elements of a child attribute, while every element of the child attribute relates to only one element of the parent. The one-to-many attribute relationship is the most common in data models.

one-to-many relationship

Geography hierarchy
The Geography hierarchy contains attributes, such as Country and Region, as well as Distribution Center, Call Center, and employee-specific attributes. It is easy to understand why Country and Region are in the Geography hierarchy, but what about Distribution Center, Call Center, and the employee-related attributes? The data used in MicroStrategy Tutorial is based upon a fictitious company that sells electronics, movies, music, and books. The company does not have physical stores, but instead does its business from catalog and Web sales. Customers review the products in a printed or online catalog and call in their order over the phone. The order is then processed by an employee located at one of the call centers. The order is then fulfilled by a distribution center that holds the correct item and sends it through one of the shippers.

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The Geography hierarchy contains the following attributes.
Attribute Country Region Call Center Distribution Center Manager Employee Experience Hire Date Salary Employee Age Employee Birth Date Employee Description Countries where the company does or hopes to do business in the future. Also refers to countries where employees work. Each country is split into regions. Where product phone-in orders are taken. Each call center is located in a different city. The location where product orders are sent out to customers. Currently, each is located in the same city as the call center it services. Person responsible for a specific call center. The number of years an employee has worked for the organization. The date on which a particular employee was hired. The amount of money an employee makes per year. The age of each employee. The date each employee was born. The lowest level in the Geography hierarchy, representing the individual responsible for each order placed. Example USA, Spain, France. Central, Northeast, Southwest. Atlanta, Boston, Charleston. Miami, New Orleans, Fargo. Peter Rose, Alice Cooper. 3, 5, 6. 2/16/97, 3/15/99. 24,000, 35,000. 29, 36, 52. 5/6/66, 1/1/77. Jennifer Lee, Laura Kelly.

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Refer to the following image to see how all these attributes are organized into the MicroStrategy Tutorial Geography hierarchy.

Products hierarchy
The products hierarchy contains attributes, such as Category, Brand, Catalog, and Supplier. The Products hierarchy contains the following attributes.
Attribute Category Subcategory Description Products are organized into categories at the highest level. Used to further differentiate a subset of products within a category. Example Electronics, Music. Business, Cameras, Drama.

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Attribute Warranty Brand Catalog Supplier Discontinued Code Item

Description The time period in months during which a manufacturer repairs a broken item (specific to Narrowcast Server). The manufacturer or artist for a particular product. The medium used to sell products. The distributor for a set of brands. 0 = discontinued product, 1 = non-discontinued product. The individual product sold.

Example 3, 5. Ayn Rand, 3Com, Sony. Spring 2002, Fall 2003. McGraw Hill, Disney Studios. 0, 1 The Great Gatsby, Sony Discman.

Refer to the following image to see how all these attributes are organized into the MicroStrategy Tutorial Products hierarchy.

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Customers hierarchy
The Customers hierarchy contains customer demographic and purchase information, such as Customer Age, Income Bracket, Payment Method, and Ship Date. The Customers hierarchy contains the following attributes.
Attribute Customer Country Customer Region Customer State Customer City Customer Age Customer Birth Date Income Bracket Zip Code Customer Shipper Rush Order Description The highest level of differentiation for where Customers live The highest level of differentiation for where customers live. Each Customer Region is divided into multiple States. Each Customer State is broken down into cities. The age of a particular customer at a current point in time. The date on which the Customer was born. The salary range reported by the customer. The lowest level of differentiation for where customers live. The name of the individual customer. The vendor used to send products to the customer. (Currently not implemented in the project.) Indicates whether a customer chose to expedite delivery of an order. The way a customer pays for an order. The date on which an order is shipped from the distribution center. The tracking number associated with a particular group of items purchased. Amex, Check. 9/15/02, 3/26/03. 167, 2635. Example USA, Spain, France Northeast, South, France. Maine, North Dakota. Albany, Chicago, Memphis. 26, 38, 59. 8/4/50, 4/30/72. $31,000 - 40,000, $61,000 70,000. 07026, 36303. Selene Allen, Chad Laurie. Pronto Packages, MailFast.

Payment Method Ship Date Order

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Refer to the following image to see how all these attributes are organized into the MicroStrategy Tutorial Customers hierarchy.

Time hierarchy
The Time hierarchy contains time-specific attributes, Year, Quarter, Month, and Day.

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Q2 02. Inc. Promotions hierarchy The Promotions hierarchy contains Promotion and Promotion Type. Month of purchase. 5/14/02. Example 2002. 2003. Calendar quarter of purchase. Calendar month of purchase. Aug 03.A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide The Time hierarchy contains the following attributes. 278 MicroStrategy Tutorial data model © 2007 MicroStrategy. Refer to the following image to see how all these attributes are organized into the MicroStrategy Tutorial Time hierarchy. Jul 02. Attribute Year Quarter Month of Year Month Day Description Calendar year of purchase. 12/26/03. . This hierarchy is useful for recording whether a sale was a promotional purchase. November. Calendar date of purchase. Q3 03. January.

Project Design Guide MicroStrategy Tutorial A The Promotions hierarchy contains the following attributes. To view the MicroStrategy Tutorial data model 1 If you are not already using the MicroStrategy Tutorial. 2/16/03 2/19/03.9/4/02.) Type of discount period offered (Sale type). (Currently not implemented in the project. You must log on as an Administrator. 9/1/02 . Refer to the following image to see how all these attributes are organized into the MicroStrategy Tutorial Promotions hierarchy. © 2007 MicroStrategy. you can also view it directly in the product. MicroStrategy Tutorial data model 279 . Viewing the MicroStrategy Tutorial data model Although the MicroStrategy Tutorial data model is displayed in the previous pages. log on to the project source containing the MicroStrategy Tutorial and expand the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. Attribute Promotion Type Promotion Description (Currently not implemented in the project. Example Mother’s Day.) Date range for a particular discount period under which an item is purchased (Sales Date). Specify the user name as Administrator and provide a blank password to complete these steps. Labor Day. Inc.

Inc. the HierarchiesMicroStrategy Tutorial dialog box opens.A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide 2 From the Schema menu. It is a graphic-intensive technique that results in a data model representing the definition. and then choose Hierarchies. 3 To view a different hierarchy. select it from the Hierarchy drop-down list on the toolbar. 8 To save the layout view of the hierarchy. click Save in the toolbar. and relationships of data in a business. characteristics. select it from the Entry Point drop-down list in the toolbar. point to Graphical View. but allows you to view the hierarchy in a way meaningful to you. this saved view is displayed. After the data model is created. . click Fit in window from the toolbar. and interrelationships. MicroStrategy Tutorial schema A schema is a logical and physical definition of warehouse data elements. click Auto arrange in the toolbar. The next time you open the Hierarchy Viewer. 6 You can rearrange the attributes by dragging and dropping them. Once loaded. This does not affect the browse order. The logical data model is a picture of all the pieces of information necessary to understand your data and how it relates to your business. the next step is to create the schema. technical. 4 To focus on a different entry point. 5 To view the entire hierarchy in the window. or conceptual environment. 7 To return to the default view. 280 MicroStrategy Tutorial schema © 2007 MicroStrategy. physical characteristics.

For more detailed information on the physical schema. Inc. MicroStrategy Tutorial schema 281 . They typically consist of descriptions of dimensions.Project Design Guide MicroStrategy Tutorial A The physical warehouse schema is based on the logical data model. or Account. such as Day. Lookup tables are usually joined to fact tables in order to group the numeric facts in the fact table by dimensional attributes in the lookup tables. Symbol LU_ Indicates Definition a lookup table A database table used to uniquely identify attribute elements. This appendix shows the physical warehouse schema. including data types. the set of columns required to uniquely identify a record in a table. Store. Item. refer to earlier chapters in this guide. The physical warehouse schema describes how your data is stored in the data warehouse. © 2007 MicroStrategy. a primary key In a relational database. Several physical warehouse schemas can be derived from the same logical data model. The MicroStrategy Tutorial schema is divided into the following parts: • • • • • • Geography Products Customers Time Promotions Fact tables Schema notations The following notations are used in the graphical depictions of the MicroStrategy Tutorial schema. While the logical data model tells you what facts and attributes to create. the physical warehouse schema tells you where the underlying data for those objects is stored.

The number of individual items acquired from a supplier. The amount of money charged by the supplier to the company per individual item purchased. The amount of money charged by the company to the customer per individual item sold. thus defining associations between them. PMT_ a partition A warehouse table that contains information used to identify the mapping table partitioned base tables as part of a logical whole. The number of individual items bought by customers. Begin on hand The number of individual items available at the beginning of each month. The total income produced by a given source accounting for all product sales deducting discounts. A fact table is a database table containing numeric data that may be aggregated along one or more dimensions. Relate tables contain the ID columns of two or more attributes. Inc.A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide Symbol REL_ Indicates a relationship table Definition While lookup tables store information about one or more attributes. . Also referred to as a PMT. Unit price .unit cost. The schema also contains fact tables. A monetary reduction made from a regular price. Freight Profit Revenue Rush Charge Unit Cost Unit Price Unit Profit Units Received Units Sold The compensation paid for the transportation of goods. The basic facts from which all metrics in the MicroStrategy Tutorial were created from are listed below. The amount of money charged to expedite delivery service. Fact tables may contain atomic or summarized data. Fact Cost Discount End on hand Description The total amount charged by the supplier to the company. relate tables store information about the relationship between two attributes. The number of individual items remaining at the close of each month. 282 MicroStrategy Tutorial schema © 2007 MicroStrategy. The excess of the selling price of goods over their cost.

Inc.Project Design Guide MicroStrategy Tutorial A Geography schema © 2007 MicroStrategy. MicroStrategy Tutorial schema 283 .

.A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide Products schema 284 MicroStrategy Tutorial schema © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc.

MicroStrategy Tutorial schema 285 . Inc.Project Design Guide MicroStrategy Tutorial A Customers schema © 2007 MicroStrategy.

A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide Time schema 286 MicroStrategy Tutorial schema © 2007 MicroStrategy. . Inc.

MicroStrategy Tutorial schema 287 .Project Design Guide MicroStrategy Tutorial A Promotions schema Sales fact tables © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc.

Inc. .A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide Inventory fact tables Miscellaneous fact tables 288 MicroStrategy Tutorial schema © 2007 MicroStrategy.

Show column data types: Select whether to show the data type and size for each column. Once loaded. use the following options from the Options menu: • • • • Show joins: Select whether to connect the tables to represent the joins between the warehouse tables. To view the MicroStrategy Tutorial schema 1 If you are not already using the Tutorial. 3 To switch to the logical view. 4 To change display preferences for the physical view. and then choose Tables. Use circular joins: Select whether to use circular joins. the TablesMicroStrategy Tutorial dialog box opens with the physical view displayed. You must login as an Administrator to complete these steps. MicroStrategy Tutorial schema 289 . point to Graphical View. 5 To change display preferences for the logical view.Project Design Guide MicroStrategy Tutorial A Viewing the MicroStrategy Tutorial schema Although the MicroStrategy Tutorial physical schema is displayed in the previous pages. select View. Inc. 2 From the Schema menu. © 2007 MicroStrategy. use the following options from the Options menu: • • Show joins: Select whether to connect the tables to represent the joins between the table columns. log in to the project source containing the MicroStrategy Tutorial and expand the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. Use circular joins: Select whether to use circular joins. then Logical View. Show table prefixes: Select whether to display the table prefix as part of the table name. you can also view it or the logical schema directly in the product.

10 To save the layout view of the tables. as a link between the logical and physical views.A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide • • Show relationships: Choose whether to map the relationships between the tables. 11 To copy the layout view. and many-to-many relationships. Show columns: Select whether to display the warehouse columns that define each attribute. Show relationship types: Choose whether to differentiate between one-to-one. 290 MicroStrategy Tutorial schema © 2007 MicroStrategy. This does not affect the relationships or joins. one-to-many. click Save in the toolbar. The next time you open the Table Viewer. many-to-one. . 7 To view the entire schema in the window. Inc. then Physical View. 8 You can rearrange the tables by dragging and dropping them. this saved view is displayed. select Copy as Metafile from the File menu. 9 To return to the default view. • 6 To switch back to the physical view. click the Fit in window button on the toolbar. select View. click Auto arrange in the toolbar. but allows you to view the tables in a way meaningful to you.

and Essbase uses XML for Analysis (XMLA). Analysis Services 2005. This system setup requires an integrated business intelligence (BI) solution. This appendix describes how MicroStrategy Intelligence Server integrates with these products using MultiDimensional Expressions (MDX). Hyperion Essbase. page 298 © 2007 MicroStrategy. and Microsoft Analysis Services Introduction Many companies have both a data warehouse and an OLAP cube source such as SAP Business Intelligence Warehouse (SAP BW). The integration with SAP BW uses SAP’s OLAP Business Application Programming Interface (BAPI). Specifically.B CONNECTING TO OLAP CUBE SOURCES B. 291 . such as MicroStrategy. that can concurrently access OLAP cube sources and the data warehouse effectively. this appendix discusses the following topics: • • MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources. SAP BW. or Hyperion Essbase (Essbase). Inc. Microsoft Analysis Services (Analysis Services). page 292 Understanding the SAP BW terminology. Integration with Analysis Services 2000.

page 343 MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources MicroStrategy provides a rich set of functionality ranging from OLAP Services and Report Services to Narrowcast capabilities.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • • • • • • • • • Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy.1 and 3. all of which can be exposed via a unified Web interface. page 317 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy. page 322 Connecting to SAP BW servers. page 337 Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers. page 340 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy. These additional OLAP cube sources include the following: • SAP BW 3. Using the MicroStrategy standard interface. SAP has renamed SAP BW to SAP BI.0. • • • Microsoft Analysis Services 2000 Microsoft Analysis Services 2005 Hyperion Essbase 7. page 311 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy. Intelligence Server can join data from different OLAP cube sources. in addition to relational databases. Inc. page 334 Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers.0 With version 7. .1 292 MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources © 2007 MicroStrategy. and bring the data into one single MicroStrategy project. MicroStrategy refers to SAP BW/SAP BI OLAP cube sources as SAP BW.5 and SAP BI 7. page 327 Connecting to Essbase servers. page 302 Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy.

1 of the specification is available at www. This data is stored in cubes or other SAP objects. Version 1. integration allows MicroStrategy to gain additional data sources for analysis.xmla. For more information on MDX syntax. and MicroStrategy Web and SDK are certified to run with SAP Enterprise Portal through iView Packages. The XMLA integration provides a Web Service interface for OLAP and data mining functions. Likewise. CRM. Analysis Services and Essbase store data in cubes obtained from various sources. refer to http://msdn. including the following: © 2007 MicroStrategy. An MDX expression returns a multidimensional result set (dataset) that consists of axis data.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B For MicroStrategy’s support status with the OLAP cube sources listed above. Rather.0.com/ and search for MDX. If you use OLAP cube sources and MicroStrategy as your combined BI solution. MicroStrategy Intelligence Server is certified to connect and execute reports against SAP BW cubes. Inc. MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources 293 . see the MicroStrategy readme.5. With the Powered by Net Weaver Certification on MicroStrategy 7i -7. In other words.microsoft. SEM. MDX is similar to SQL but is used to query cubes. With the SAP BW OLAP BAPI Certification on MicroStrategy 8. or another SAP data source system. To access the data. It is important to understand that the MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources does not change the overall structure of the MicroStrategy product. you can get the best out of both products. each of these products is simply another data warehouse that holds data for report generation. MicroStrategy has chosen to use the OLAP BAPI approach because it is the most native interface that SAP provides. and properties data. Defined by Microsoft. SAP BW obtains data from R/3. the Intelligence Server generates MDX.org and is the basis for the MicroStrategy implementation. As SAP’s proprietary API for accessing SAP BW data and functionality.3. MicroStrategy Web Universal is certified to run on SAP Web Application Server. cell data. the OLAP BAPI provides an open interface through which Intelligence Server can access the SAP BW data.

Freeform SQL. see the Troubleshooting the System chapter of the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. . Analysis Services. all of which can be accessed through MicroStrategy Web. refer to the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. Report Services. Essbase. Once the data is retrieved. For information on Freeform SQL and Query Builder reporting. it is treated in the same 294 MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources © 2007 MicroStrategy. Support for SAP BW. Data is pulled from multiple OLAP cube sources using MDX and operational systems using Freeform SQL or Query Builder.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • • • • • Access to OLAP cube sources and a regular data warehouse Five styles of BI Custom development of reports and applications Transaction-level analysis Integration with other systems via Web Services For troubleshooting and diagnostics logging routines related to OLAP cube sources. and Query Builder provides additional mechanisms for pulling data into the MicroStrategy platform for analysis. and Narrowcast Server functionality. as illustrated in the following diagram. Understanding MicroStrategy architecture The MicroStrategy platform offers OLAP Services. Inc.

© 2007 MicroStrategy. Object model in MicroStrategy 7i In the 7i metadata model. Inc. This means that core MicroStrategy capabilities are available no matter what the original data source is. it is helpful to review the basic object model of MicroStrategy 7i and how various data sources were accessed then. shown below. To understand the current MicroStrategy architecture better. you could have multiple MicroStrategy projects. MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources 295 . One database instance could be referenced by multiple projects in a configuration.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B manner as data pulled from the relational data warehouse. which was represented by the database instance. Each project contained one project schema that held the logical model for that project. each pointing to a data warehouse.

Each report can only reference one specific cube. each OLAP cube report points directly to one cube in MicroStrategy. . a Report Services document can contain multiple datasets. but the only source is the data warehouse. due to the structure in OLAP cube sources where queries can only be run against one cube at a time. You can create multiple reports to run against one cube. In addition. which is a logical placeholder for a physical cube that exists in an OLAP cube source.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide When a report was executed. Object model in MicroStrategy 8 The MicroStrategy 8 model shown below highlights how a project can be extended to access OLAP cube sources through a separate database instance. and a single MicroStrategy project can reference multiple database instances. 296 MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources © 2007 MicroStrategy. each of which can represent a distinct OLAP cube source. the SQL Engine would implicitly reference the schema to determine which table(s) should be queried. note that instead of pointing to the project schema. However. Inc.

refer to the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. Freeform SQL reports. MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources 297 . By bringing these different types of reports together inside a document. For information on Freeform SQL and Query Builder reports. Authentication Most of the standard MicroStrategy platform authentication features also apply to OLAP cube sources and OLAP cube reports. refer to the MicroStrategy Document Creation Guide. For information on Report Services documents. described as follows: © 2007 MicroStrategy. and OLAP cube reports in one Report Services document. Query Builder reports.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B The model also shows how you can include any number of standard reports. report designers can create rich reports and analytics that take advantage of data from both data warehouses and OLAP cube sources. Inc.

Warehouse pass-through authentication: is supported in the same way as for relational data providers. then the same login information must be applicable to all sources. In addition. This is explained in Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy. Some of these terms are provided in the following section. Connection mapping: is supported the same way as for standard MicroStrategy reports. 298 Understanding the SAP BW terminology © 2007 MicroStrategy. NT Authentication can be used to authenticate the user to the Intelligence Server. . page 302. To enforce OLAP cube source security in MicroStrategy. it is recommended that you use connection mapping or pass-through authentication. refer to the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. Understanding the SAP BW terminology Before looking in depth into how MicroStrategy integrates with SAP BW. specific connection mappings may be designated for each database instance and user or group combination. Further information is provided later in this appendix on how the SAP BW objects are related to those in the MicroStrategy environment. NT authentication: used for database logins are not supported with OLAP cube sources. but not to the cube sources. refer to your SAP documentation. relational databases or OLAP cube sources. • • • For information on authentication in general.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • Standard authentication and LDAP authentication: are supported independent of the data source that is being used. If multiple sources are configured for warehouse pass-through execution. For a comprehensive and detailed explanation on SAP BW objects. for example. you need to be familiar with the terms that are used to describe the SAP BW objects. Inc.

They include objects such as characteristics and key figures. which is described below. Understanding the SAP BW terminology 299 . • • InfoCube: is the primary object that SAP BW uses to store data for analysis. A query cube includes characteristics (dimensions/attributes) and key figures (metrics) from its source provider. MultiProvider: is a logical union of two or more InfoProviders that are used to combine data from two different subject areas. which are roughly equivalent to attributes and facts in a MicroStrategy project. finance or sales. InfoSets. To release a query for analysis in MicroStrategy. InfoProvider: is a generic term defining all SAP BW data structures available for reporting and analysis purposes such as the following: InfoCube: is a multi-dimensional cube. for example. ODS object: is an operational data store object. Inc. ODS objects are flat relational tables and are similar to MicroStrategy fact tables. Any existing query can be released for analysis within MicroStrategy. Data is organized by dimension and stored physically in a star schema. and MultiProviders. Query cubes also provide MicroStrategy users access to additional InfoProviders including ODS objects. Query cube (or query): defines a subset of data from an InfoCube or another InfoProvider. Query cubes generally offer better performance than InfoCubes because they are smaller and can be scheduled and cached within SAP BW. The fact table at the center of an InfoCube contains the data available for analysis.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B • InfoObject: are the building blocks for individual cubes. three InfoCubes or two ODS objects. for example. select the Allow External Access to This Query check box under the Extended tab in the SAP Query Properties dialog box in the Query Analyzer • © 2007 MicroStrategy. The relationship between the InfoCube and the query cube is very similar to how a MicroStrategy report includes a subset of modeled attributes and metrics that are available in the data warehouse. InfoCubes define a specific domain of analysis in special areas.

• Key figure: describes numeric data. For example. date. as noted later. hierarchy nodes. they are presented with the traditional attribute-based parent-child relationships. fiscal year. • • 300 Understanding the SAP BW terminology . these variables are filled with values by the system or by the user. hierarchies can be associated with a specific characteristic within SAP BW. ODS objects. and formulas. a Sales Region characteristic can have North. and number of call centers. This is similar to creating derived metrics and conditional metrics within the MicroStrategy environment. Defined in the Query Designer. This is a different paradigm from MicroStrategy’s model where each attribute defines its own level. However. customer group. texts. and South specifications. • Characteristic: provides classification possibilities for a dataset. and period. and time. Inc. SAP BW also has an object called an attribute. such as revenue. In addition. variables can be of such types as characteristic values. when each characteristic is translated into a cube. For example. These hierarchies are also available when you work with a cube in MicroStrategy. numbers. but it is equivalent to an attribute form in MicroStrategy. Subcategory. all of which can be used in InfoCubes. When the query is executed. profit. Central. the Item characteristic might have a hierarchy that includes Category. product. it is treated as a separate dimension for analysis. There are five types of key figures: amount. Hierarchy: is a way of defining the relationships among elements within a characteristic. © 2007 MicroStrategy. such as sales region. and finally Item. hierarchies.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide interface. With this option enabled. Variable: is used as a parameter of a query in SAP BW. SAP BW characteristics are similar to MicroStrategy attributes. You can also create calculated key figures and restricted key figures in the query definition in the Business Explorer. designers can quickly access existing query cubes and business content when working in MicroStrategy. and master data attributes. quantities. when the levels of a hierarchy are viewed in MicroStrategy. However.

page 308. Understanding the SAP BW terminology 301 . you also need to have a basic understanding of the SAP Query Designer. In addition. For more information. and MultiProviders. you will find a list of available cubes for reporting. refer to documentation provided by SAP BW. including all of the published query cubes. For more information on variables. When working in MicroStrategy. Besides the above-mentioned terminology.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B When an OLAP cube is imported into a MicroStrategy project. Inc. InfoCubes. where you define queries. You can select and combine InfoObjects or reusable structures for an InfoProvider and specify the view of the data (query view) by distributing them to filters. For step-by-step instructions on how to create MicroStrategy reports from the data in SAP BW cubes. and free characteristics. standard prompts can also be created for this report. © 2007 MicroStrategy. columns. see Supporting SAP BW variables. When the OLAP cube is used to create a MicroStrategy report. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. rows. all the variables in this cube are represented as prompts. the report inherits all those prompts.

but not identical. The translation process involves the following steps: 1 From SAP BW to ODBO: SAP exposes its query cubes and InfoCubes to Intelligence Server through the ODBO model.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy As a Web or Desktop Analyst. . However. Inc. Thus. 302 Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. it is helpful to understand how SAP’s metadata model is translated into MicroStrategy’s metadata model. The ODBO model is similar to SAP’s standard model. when thinking about SAP objects. ODBO stands for OLE database for OLAP and is a protocol defined by Microsoft. if you are a report designer. keep in mind how those objects appear in ODBO. you can treat SAP BW reports as if they were standard MicroStrategy reports. ODBO defines an object model that is used in conjunction with MDX to query cubes.

© 2007 MicroStrategy. The following sub-sections—each starting with a table—describe each level of comparison from top to bottom as shown in the above illustration.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B 2 From ODBO to MicroStrategy: After SAP objects are translated into the ODBO model. SAP BW ---> InfoCube ODBO ---> catalog MicroStrategy (catalog) • SAP BW: InfoCube Each InfoCube that has queries associated with it is exposed as a catalog in ODBO. You can then interact with SAP content while working within the paradigm that is consistent with the rest of MicroStrategy’s products. Query cubes are accessed through their respective InfoCube catalogs. Inc. Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy 303 . they are then translated into the MicroStrategy metadata model. The following image demonstrates how SAP BW objects are exposed in ODBO and then how they are related to objects in the MicroStrategy environment.

The cube can be used to represent InfoCubes. In the same way that a regular table maps the physical columns of a relational table to attributes and metrics. • MicroStrategy: not supported SAP BW ---> InfoCube/ query cube ODBO ---> cube MicroStrategy cube • • • SAP BW: InfoCube/query cube ODBO: cube MicroStrategy: cube A MicroStrategy cube is an object that is used to map the levels of an SAP BW cube into the MicroStrategy environment. a MicroStrategy cube maps the physical columns of an SAP BW cube to attributes and metrics. ODBO catalogs are exposed in a few editors when selecting and managing cubes. • MicroStrategy: (Catalog) Each catalog includes one InfoCube and associated query cubes. Inc. Therefore. MultiProviders. Catalogs in MicroStrategy are represented in a folder. 304 Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. if any. Cubes are treated in a manner very similar to tables in the MicroStrategy metadata. . and query cubes.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • ODBO: Catalog Catalogs are used to group cubes. SAP BW ---> N/A ODBO ---> schema MicroStrategy N/A • • SAP BW: not supported ODBO: schema Schema in ODBO provides another grouping mechanism.

Time and Geography are dimensions along which you can slice data. see the following sub-section.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B SAP BW ---> characteristic ODBO ---> dimension MicroStrategy dimension • SAP BW: characteristic Characteristics in SAP BW are similar to attributes in MicroStrategy. However. • ODBO: dimension A dimension in ODBO defines a logical category of analysis. Therefore. which represents months just like it does in MicroStrategy. Each characteristic in SAP is modeled as a dimension in ODBO and is shared across cubes. these same levels could either be specifically defined as part of the hierarchy. A characteristic appears as a dimension for MicroStrategy users. This hierarchy defines a number of levels including Year. and Month. Shared dimensions allow a designer to use only one definition for a dimension across multiple cubes. and the second level is the detailed data. For example. They can only be seen inside the SAP BEx Query Designer when you build a query cube. each with an arbitrary number of levels. or they could be other characteristics that are used to define the levels of this one hierarchy. all dimensions in cubes coming from SAP BW are shared. For more information. you can build a Time hierarchy that is attached to the Month characteristic. For example. A characteristic can have any number of additional hierarchies. For example. Quarter. The SAP BW characteristic hierarchies appear as hierarchies to MicroStrategy users. Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy 305 . Inc. an InfoCube might include the Month characteristic. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Each characteristic (dimension) has at least one hierarchy with two levels: the first level is an aggregate of all the data. Dimensions in SAP BW are used to group characteristics and are not exposed through the ODBO interface.

SAP BW ---> virtual level ODBO ---> level MicroStrategy attribute • SAP BW: virtual level Levels are generated automatically based on either the definition of the characteristic or the hierarchies associated with a characteristic. MicroStrategy reuses the hierarchy objects to represent both dimensions and hierarchies from ODBO. SAP BW ---> hierarchy ODBO ---> hierarchy MicroStrategy hierarchy • • • SAP BW: hierarchy ODBO: hierarchy MicroStrategy: hierarchy Hierarchies are used to group attributes (levels) together and define the relationships between these attributes. and so on. In this way. The inclusion of the term “Level” is an SAP BW convention. It is used to group attributes and define parent-child relationships. In MicroStrategy. Region Level 02. architects have the option to rename the levels of a cube with a more readable convention. and they are represented as physical columns.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Measures (metrics) are stored in a special measure dimension. SAP BW levels have names such as Region Level 01. Measures in ODBO are called key figures in SAP BW. which are very similar to metrics in MicroStrategy. Inc. measures are simply one more dimension of a cube. 306 Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. • MicroStrategy: dimension A dimension object in MicroStrategy is very similar to an ODBO dimension. .

In SAP BW. SAP BW ---> characteristic attribute ODBO ---> property MicroStrategy attribute form • • • SAP BW: characteristic attribute ODBO: property MicroStrategy: attribute form Attribute forms provide additional information about a given attribute. For example. the Customer attribute may have the forms First Name and Last Name. Inc. SAP BW also supports navigational attributes. © 2007 MicroStrategy. For example. SAP BW ---> characteristic value ODBO ---> member MicroStrategy (attribute element) • • • SAP BW: characteristic value ODBO: member MicroStrategy: (attribute element) Element values come from either the database or a cube. each ODBO level generates two physical columns and forms in MicroStrategy—ID and DESC. This concept also applies to ODBO and SAP BW. 2003 and 2004 are elements of the Year attribute. However. Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy 307 . forms are sometimes referred to directly as attributes.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B • • ODBO: level MicroStrategy: attribute (ID/DESC) MicroStrategy attributes map to ODBO levels. These attributes are presented as distinct dimensions when working in MicroStrategy.

including characteristic values. you must remove them before importing the cube into MicroStrategy. . an error occurs when you attempt to import the SAP BW cube. Inc. Originally created in an SAP query cube. Otherwise. Only variables with the Manual Entry/Default processing type are presented to users for resolution. For more information. 2 When a MicroStrategy report is created using a MicroStrategy OLAP cube. variables are represented as prompts in the MicroStrategy environment. additional standard MicroStrategy prompts can also be created for the report. hierarchy nodes. texts. 308 Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Supporting SAP BW variables Variables are used in SAP BW to enter values as parameters for the queries on a cube. If your SAP BW cube included variables of type Replacement Path. hierarchies. the report inherits the prompts included in the OLAP cube. Variable types with the Customer Exit/SAP Exit and Authorization processing types are automatically resolved by the SAP BW system. For detailed information on variables. and formula elements. The conversion process involves the following general steps: 1 When an SAP query cube is imported into a MicroStrategy project. see the Prompts section of the Creating OLAP Cube Reports chapter of the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. There are several types of variables. When the query is being executed. refer to your SAP documentation. variables are automatically turned into prompts in the MicroStrategy OLAP cube. these variables are filled with values. On top of the “inherited” variable prompts. SAP BW variables of type Replacement Path cannot be imported into MicroStrategy.

using the right-mouse click you can Edit the prompt in the Prompt Generation Wizard. you can view any variable’s properties by right-clicking its name and then selecting Properties. The OLAP Cube Catalog lists all the prompts that were converted from variables. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Details about this variable in SAP BW are displayed on the Variable tab. Default Low. as shown in the following image. in addition to cube names. Default Low Description.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Mapping between variables and prompts can be viewed in the OLAP Cube Catalog. or Map the variable to a prompt in an existing MicroStrategy project. and Variable Ordinal. Rename the prompt. Variable Type. dimensions. In addition. Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy 309 . In the OLAP Cube Catalog. Selection Type. Entry Type. and measures/key figures. Inc. including Variable Name.

while those in the Excluding section restrict the data from being displayed in the query. SAP Variable Type ---> Characteristic Value variable Hierarchy variable MicroStrategy Prompt Element list prompt or attribute qualification prompt N/A Notes See the note below for more information. No major changes. This allows the same prompt answer to be used to resolve multiple variables during document execution.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide One prompt can be mapped to more than one variable across cubes. Not supported. Not available from SAP BW. Inc. When executing a Report Services document with multiple datasets using these cubes. If you use any SAP BW key date variables in your query. The following table contains information on how the different types of SAP BW variables are mapped to MicroStrategy prompts. After an OLAP cube report is executed. . This is especially useful if you want to get a summary of the variable elements that are used in answering the variable prompts. a prompt is displayed only once. Qualifications in the Including section cause the data to be brought into the query. Both single and multiple selection are supported. Hierarchy Node variable Hierarchy element list prompt Text variable Formula variable N/A Value prompt: all types Characteristic value variables offer an “Including/Excluding” option. you need to manually set the variable’s property in the OLAP Cube Catalog. For more information about prompts in OLAP cube reports. see the Prompts section of the Creating OLAP Cube Reports chapter of the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. 310 Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. To be consistent with the SAP functionality. the MicroStrategy interface qualifies on the key value of each element by default. so it is distinguished from a simple characteristic variable on date. you can view the prompt details in the Report Details pane in the Report Editor.

Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy As a Web or Desktop Analyst. you cannot drill down into the elements of characteristic structures. In a MicroStrategy report. In addition to key figure structures. a query could also have characteristic structures. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy 311 . each of which is represented as a single flat dimension with one level. and then click OK. However. 2 On the Variable tab. The Properties [variable name] dialog box is displayed. it is helpful to understand how Essbase’s metadata model is translated into MicroStrategy’s metadata model.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Set the properties for key date variables 1 Right-click the variable name and select Properties. This representation is consistent with how characteristic variables are represented in SAP BW through the OLAP Business Application Programming Interface (BAPI). select the Set Key Date check box. Inc. SAP BW structures Structures in an SAP BW query cube define the two axes of a query (rows and columns) and are of two types: key figure structures and characteristic structures. you can treat OLAP cube reports from an Essbase OLAP cube as if they were standard MicroStrategy reports. Each element of a key figure structure is represented as a unique metric in the MicroStrategy environment. if you are a report designer.

Inc. You can then interact with Essbase content while working within the paradigm that is consistent with the rest of MicroStrategy’s products. they are then translated into the MicroStrategy metadata model. 2 From XMLA to MicroStrategy: After Essbase objects are translated into the XMLA model. When thinking about Essbase objects. 312 Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. keep in mind how those objects appear in XMLA. The Essbase model predates XMLA so there are some differences. XMLA defines an object model that is used in conjunction with MDX to query cubes. . The following image demonstrates how Essbase objects are exposed in XMLA and then how they are related to objects in the MicroStrategy environment.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide The translation process involves the following steps: 1 From Essbase to XMLA: Essbase exposes its databases through the XMLA model which is derived from the ODBO model used by SAP.

Inc. • XMLA: catalog Catalogs are used to group cubes. • MicroStrategy: (catalog) Each catalog includes one application and associated databases. • MicroStrategy: not supported Essbase ---> database XMLA ---> cube MicroStrategy cube • • Essbase: database XMLA: cube © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B The following subsections (each starting with a table) describe each level of comparison from top to bottom as shown in the above illustration. Essbase ---> N/A XMLA ---> schema MicroStrategy N/A • • Essbase: not supported XMLA: schema Schema in XMLA provides another grouping mechanism. Essbase ---> Application XMLA ---> catalog MicroStrategy (catalog) • Essbase: Application Each Application is exposed as a catalog in XMLA. if any. Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy 313 . Therefore. Catalogs in MicroStrategy are represented as a folder. Databases are accessed through their respective catalogs. XMLA catalogs are exposed in editors when selecting and managing cubes.

Each dimension has a single root node or member and is a child of the outline root node which is the database. Measures in ODBO are the members of the dimension of type=Accounts in Essbase.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • MicroStrategy: cube A MicroStrategy cube is an object that is used to map the levels of an Essbase cube into the MicroStrategy environment. measures are simply one more dimension of a cube. The cube represents an Essbase database. The dimension therefore is both the highest level member in the dimension and the dimension itself. Time and Geography are dimensions along which you can slice data. • XMLA: dimension A dimension in XMLA defines a logical category of analysis. • MicroStrategy: dimension 314 Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. These can be raw data or formulas with associated calculation or aggregation rules. Essbase ---> dimension XMLA ---> dimension MicroStrategy dimension • Essbase: dimension In Essbase. . In this way. Each dimension has a single hierarchy with the number of levels determined by the greatest depth in the outline. Cubes are treated in a manner very similar to tables in the MicroStrategy metadata. A MicroStrategy cube maps the physical columns of an Essbase cube to attributes and metrics in the same way that a regular table maps the physical columns of a relational table to attributes and metrics. Measures (metrics) are stored in a special measure dimension. Inc. An Essbase dimension appears as a dimension for MicroStrategy users. a dimension represents the highest consolidation level in the database outline. For example.

Therefore the dimension is the same as the hierarchy in Essbase. In MicroStrategy. • • XMLA: level MicroStrategy: attribute (ID/DESC) © 2007 MicroStrategy. • • XMLA: hierarchy MicroStrategy: hierarchy Hierarchies are used to group attributes (levels) together and define the relationships between these attributes. Essbase levels may have default names such as Time.Levels(0). Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy 315 . Inc. Essbase ---> dimension XMLA ---> hierarchy MicroStrategy hierarchy • Essbase: dimension An Essbase dimension is defined as part of the database outline. the outline defines a single hierarchy. As a result. It is used to group attributes and define parent-child relationships. The outline is a hierarchical structure of database members with a parent containing its children. architects have the option to rename the levels of a cube with a more readable convention. MicroStrategy reuses the hierarchy objects to represent both dimensions and hierarchies from XMLA. Essbase ---> level XMLA ---> level MicroStrategy attribute • Essbase: level Levels group together members in an Essbase database outline.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B A dimension object in MicroStrategy is very similar to an XMLA dimension.

3 does not return any properties in the XMLA property schema rowset. Until they are returned as rows in the property schema rowset they are not available as attribute forms in MicroStrategy. For example. properties can be defined for a database as user defined attributes or attribute dimensions and used in an MDX statement. each XMLA level generates the two physical columns and forms ID and DESC in MicroStrategy. the Customer attribute may have the forms First Name and Last Name.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide MicroStrategy attributes map to XMLA levels. Inc.1. For example. Essbase ---> N/A XMLA ---> property MicroStrategy attribute form • Essbase: N/A Essbase as of version 7. • • XMLA: property MicroStrategy: attribute form Attribute forms provide additional information about a given attribute. However. 2003 and 2004 are elements of the Year attribute. 316 Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. . However. Essbase ---> member XMLA ---> member MicroStrategy attribute element • • • Essbase: member XMLA: member MicroStrategy: attribute element Element values come from either the database or a cube.

2 From XMLA to MicroStrategy: After Analysis Services 2000 objects are translated into the XMLA model. © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy Microsoft Analysis Services 2000 (Analysis Services 2000) cubes are exposed directly for XMLA access. it is helpful to understand how Analysis Services 2000’s metadata model is translated into MicroStrategy’s metadata model. XMLA defines an object model that is used in conjunction with MDX to query cubes. You can then interact with Analysis Services 2000 content while working within the paradigm that is consistent with the rest of MicroStrategy’s products. Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy 317 . they are then translated into the MicroStrategy metadata model. If you are a report designer. The translation process involves the following steps: 1 From Analysis Services 2000 to XMLA: Analysis Services 2000 exposes its cubes through the XMLA model which is derived from the ODBO model. Inc.

Inc. Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> database catalog MicroStrategy (catalog) • Analysis Services 2000: database Each database is exposed as a catalog in XMLA. The following sub-sections—each starting with a table—describe each level of comparison from top to bottom as shown in the above illustration. XMLA catalogs are exposed in editors when selecting and managing cubes. • MicroStrategy: (catalog) 318 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. Therefore.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide The following image demonstrates how Analysis Services 2000 objects are exposed in XMLA and then how they are related to objects in the MicroStrategy environment. • XMLA: catalog Catalogs are used to group cubes. . Cubes are accessed through their respective catalogs.

if any. In the same way that a regular table maps the physical columns of a relational table to attributes and metrics. Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy 319 . Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> dimension dimension MicroStrategy dimension • Analysis Services 2000: dimension © 2007 MicroStrategy. Catalogs in MicroStrategy are represented as a folder. Inc. The cube represents an Analysis Services 2000 cube. Cubes are treated in a manner very similar to tables in the MicroStrategy metadata. a MicroStrategy cube maps the physical columns of an Analysis Services 2000 cube to attributes and metrics. • MicroStrategy: not supported Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> cube cube MicroStrategy cube • • • Analysis Services 2000: cube XMLA: cube MicroStrategy: cube A MicroStrategy cube is an object that is used to map the levels of an Analysis Services 2000 cube into the MicroStrategy environment. Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> N/A schema MicroStrategy N/A • • Analysis Services 2000: not supported XMLA: schema Schema in XMLA provides another grouping mechanism.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Each catalog includes one database and associated cubes.

Measures in XMLA are the members of the Measures dimension in Analysis Services 2000.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide In Analysis Services 2000. • • XMLA: hierarchy MicroStrategy: hierarchy Hierarchies are used to group attributes (levels) together and define the relationships between these attributes. . • XMLA: dimension A dimension in XMLA defines a logical category of analysis. measures are simply one more dimension of a cube. Inc. For example. 320 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. It is used to group attributes and define parent-child relationships. An Analysis Services 2000 dimension appears as a dimension for MicroStrategy users. MicroStrategy reuses the hierarchy objects to represent both dimensions and hierarchies from XMLA. Measures (metrics) are stored in a special measure dimension. Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> dimension hierarchy MicroStrategy hierarchy • Analysis Services 2000: dimension Using a structured naming approach. related dimensions can be grouped together so that they represent hierarchies of the same dimension from an XMLA perspective. Time and Geography are dimensions along which you can slice data. a dimension is defined from one or more tables of data. Each dimension can have one or more hierarchies. • MicroStrategy: dimension A dimension object in MicroStrategy is very similar to an XMLA dimension. These can be columns in the table or calculated members represented by formulas with associated aggregation rules. In this way.

Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> member member MicroStrategy attribute element • • • Analysis Services 2000: member XMLA: member MicroStrategy: attribute element Element values come from a cube. Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> member property property MicroStrategy attribute form • Analysis Services 2000: member property A member property is a descriptive piece of information associated with the element of a level. XMLA: property MicroStrategy: attribute form Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy 321 . • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. each XMLA level generates two physical columns and forms in MicroStrategy—ID and DESC. Member properties are returned in the XMLA property schema rowset. 2003 and 2004 are elements of the Year attribute. For example. However. • • XMLA: level MicroStrategy: attribute (ID/DESC) MicroStrategy attributes map to XMLA levels.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> level level MicroStrategy attribute • Analysis Services 2000: level Levels are mapped to columns in a table and are organized into hierarchies and dimensions. Inc.

Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy Microsoft Analysis Services 2005 (Analysis Services 2005) has a unique modeling approach for building cubes. For example. The translation process involves the following steps: 1 From Analysis Services 2005 to XMLA: Analysis Services 2005 exposes its cubes through the XMLA model which is derived from the ODBO model. 2 From XMLA to MicroStrategy: After Analysis Services 2005 objects are translated into the XMLA model.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Attribute forms provide additional information about a given attribute. XMLA defines an object model that is used in conjunction with MDX to query cubes. . You can then interact with Analysis Services 2005 content while working within the paradigm that is consistent with the rest of MicroStrategy’s products. This section is limited to information on the basic cube object and how it relates to the XMLA model. 322 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. they are then translated into the MicroStrategy metadata model. the Customer attribute may have the forms First Name and Last Name.

The following sub-sections—each starting with a table—describe each level of comparison from top to bottom as shown in the above illustration. XMLA catalogs are exposed in editors when selecting and managing cubes. Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> database catalog MicroStrategy (catalog) • Analysis Services 2005: database Each database is exposed as a catalog in XMLA. Cubes are accessed through their respective catalogs. • MicroStrategy: (catalog) © 2007 MicroStrategy. Therefore. Inc. • XMLA: catalog Catalogs are used to group cubes. Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy 323 .Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B The following image demonstrates how Analysis Services 2005 objects are exposed in XMLA and then how they are related to objects in the MicroStrategy environment.

Inc. Cubes are treated in a manner very similar to tables in the MicroStrategy metadata. • MicroStrategy: not supported Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> perspective cube MicroStrategy cube • Analysis Services 2005: perspective A perspective in Analysis Services 2005 is a view of the defined cube and the list of perspectives includes the original cube. Catalogs in MicroStrategy are represented as a folder. In the same way that a regular table maps the physical columns of a relational table to attributes and metrics. Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> N/A schema MicroStrategy N/A • • Analysis Services 2005: not supported XMLA: schema Schema in XMLA provides another grouping mechanism. The cube represents an Analysis Services 2005 cube. 324 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. • • XMLA: cube MicroStrategy: cube A MicroStrategy cube is an object that is used to map the levels of an Analysis Services 2005 cube into the MicroStrategy environment. if any.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Each catalog includes one database and associated cubes. . a MicroStrategy cube maps the physical columns of an Analysis Services 2005 cube to attributes and metrics.

These can be columns in the data source table or calculated members represented by formulas with associated aggregation rules. • MicroStrategy: dimension A dimension object in MicroStrategy is very similar to an XMLA dimension.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> dimension dimension MicroStrategy dimension • Analysis Services 2005: dimension In Analysis Services 2005. It is used to group attributes and define parent-child relationships. Each attribute is used to define a hierarchy within the dimension and multi-level hierarchies can be defined as well. Unlike Analysis Services 2000. a dimension is defined from one or more data source tables. a data source does not always map directly to the tables in a relational database. Each dimension can have one or more hierarchies. In this way. All columns in the tables are eligible to become attributes of the dimension. measures are simply one more dimension of a cube. Measures (metrics) are stored in a special measure dimension. • XMLA: dimension A dimension in XMLA defines a logical category of analysis. For example. Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy 325 . Time and Geography are dimensions along which you can slice data. Measures in XMLA are the members of the Measures dimension in Analysis Services 2005. An Analysis Services 2005 dimension appears as a dimension for MicroStrategy users. Inc. Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> hierarchy hierarchy MicroStrategy hierarchy © 2007 MicroStrategy.

MicroStrategy reuses the hierarchy objects to represent both dimensions and hierarchies from XMLA. 326 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. . For example. 2003 and 2004 are elements of the Year attribute. However.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • Analysis Services 2005: hierarchy Analysis Services 2005 allows the definition of one or more hierarchies within a dimension as collections of attributes which become levels of the hierarchy. • • XMLA: hierarchy MicroStrategy: hierarchy Hierarchies are used to group attributes (levels) together and define the relationships between these attributes. Inc. Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> member member MicroStrategy attribute element • • • Analysis Services 2005: member XMLA: member MicroStrategy: attribute element Element values come from a cube. each XMLA level generates two physical columns and forms in MicroStrategy—ID and DESC. Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> level level MicroStrategy attribute • Analysis Services 2005: level Each attribute in a hierarchy becomes a level. • • XMLA: level MicroStrategy: attribute (ID/DESC) MicroStrategy attributes map to XMLA levels.

you need to establish a connection to the SAP BW system. Connecting to SAP BW servers 327 .0. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. and 7.1. MicroStrategy certifies connecting to SAP BW 3.5. For more information on establishing a connection to SAP BW. 3. Connecting to SAP BW servers In addition to relational databases. MicroStrategy can also use SAP BW as a data source to conduct enterprise reporting and analysis. This section discusses how to connect to SAP BW servers in the following environments: • • Connecting to SAP BW servers on Windows Connecting to SAP BW servers on UNIX and Linux © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. For example.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> member property property MicroStrategy attribute form • Analysis Services 2005: member property Attributes can be related as member properties when defining the levels of a dimension. For any late-breaking changes to the certification status of connecting to various SAP BW versions. the Customer attribute may have the forms First Name and Last Name. Before creating any reports using the SAP BW data. see the MicroStrategy readme. • • XMLA: property MicroStrategy: attribute form Attribute forms provide additional information about a given attribute. Member properties are returned in the XMLA property schema rowset.

2 Install the SAP Java Connector. you are required to install the new Visual Studio .com/~form/sapnet?_SHOR TKEY=01100035870000463649 MicroStrategy certifies version 2. Inc. For more information.0.sap. refer to the Tech Note TN5800-800-0559. you may have to perform some extra configuration and troubleshooting steps to connect to SAP BW servers. Take the following steps to connect to SAP BW servers in Windows. on the Advanced tab.4 and JCo 2. select Environment Variables. 3 Place the following SAP Java Connector files in any directory that is referenced in the Path environment variable: • • Librfc32. In 328 Connecting to SAP BW servers © 2007 MicroStrategy. .NET C/C++ run-time libraries on Windows platforms.3 and also supports more recent versions.dll Locate the Path environment variable from your machine’s System Properties dialog (right-click on My Computer and select Properties).1.11. To connect to SAP BW servers on Windows 1 Open the SAP Service Marketplace and download the SAP Java Connector.dll Sapjcorfc.” Depending on your system and SAP BW setup. See SAP Note 684106 for details on how to install them. You can use the following URL to download the Java Connector: https://service.1.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Connecting to SAP BW servers on Windows Important note from SAP: “Starting with JCo 2.

Verify that the directory is included in the value for the Path variable.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B the list of System Variables.jar in the Common Files MicroStrategy folder. as shown below. 8 Create a database instance with SAP BW as the database connection type. Connecting to SAP BW servers 329 . The Database Instance editor opens. locate Path. select a database connection or create a new database connection that provides the following information as required: • • • • Application Server is the name of the SAP BW Server or IP address. 7 Select New. and then Database Instance from the File menu. open a project source and expand Administration from the folder list. 4 Place the Sapjco. To specify database connection parameters 9 For the database instance. System Number from the SAP BW system. To create a database instance for your SAP BW connection 5 In Desktop. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Client Number from the SAP BW system. For example. SAP Router String if you use an SAP Router. C:\Program files\Common files\MicroStrategy. select Database Instance Manager. 6 From the folder list. Inc.

com/~form/sapnet?_SHOR TKEY=01100035870000463649 330 Connecting to SAP BW servers © 2007 MicroStrategy. Connecting to SAP BW servers on UNIX and Linux Take the following steps to connect to SAP BW servers in UNIX. you may have to perform some extra configuration and troubleshooting steps to connect to SAP BW servers. EN is the language code for English. Note the following: • • You can get the above information from your SAP Logon. For example.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • Language is the language code provided by your SAP administrator. refer to the MicroStrategy online help. To specify a database login 10 Create a database login with the user and password to use to connect to SAP BW. Depending on your system and SAP BW setup. refer to the MicroStrategy Tech Note TN5300-802-0734. For more information.sap. For more detailed steps on creating a database instance and related components to connect to SAP BW. You can use either the Database Instances Editor or the Database Instance Wizard to create a database instance for SAP BW. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. You can use the following URL to download the Java Connector: https://service. For more information. To connect to SAP BW servers on UNIX/Linux 1 Open the SAP Service Marketplace and download the SAP Java Connector. Inc. .

/opt/var/MicroStrategy/SAP. Inc. and create a new directory for them.so sapjco.sh file in the MicroStrategy installation directory [INSTALL_PATH]/env/SAP.so sapjco.o libsapjcorfc. This information indicates where the server needs to point to use the downloaded files.jar SUN librfccm. 2 Select the zip file for the platform you want to use and unzip it. The default is Read Only. For example. then xxxx_append_path LD_LIBRARY_PATH "${XXXX_SAP_LIBRARY_PATH:?}" export LD_LIBRARY_PATH fi • © 2007 MicroStrategy. for AIX: # # set up the environment for SAP # XXXX_SAP_LIBRARY_PATH='/opt/var/MicroStr ategy/SAP' if [ -n "${XXXX_SAP_LIBRARY_PATH}" ]. Connecting to SAP BW servers 331 . 3 Search for the files listed in the following table.3 and also supports more recent versions.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B • MicroStrategy certifies version 2.so libsapjcorfc.jar 4 Edit the SAP. AIX librfccm.sh by doing the following: • Add the Write and Execute privileges to this file. Open the SAP. For example.1.sh file and enter the information for XXXX_SAP_LIBRARY_PATH=’’. For example. copy them onto your machine. use the command gunzip [file name] or gzip [file name].so sapjco.so libsapjcorfc. You can type the command “chmod+wx SAP.jar Linux librfccm.sh” in the UNIX/Linux console.

The Database Instance editor opens. /install/jar. select Database Instance Manager. 6 Restart the server to get the latest updates. 332 Connecting to SAP BW servers © 2007 MicroStrategy.jar to the installation directory. for Solaris: # # set up the environment for SAP # XXXX_SAP_LIBRARY_PATH='/opt/var/MicroStr ategy/SAP’ if [ -n "${XXXX_SAP_LIBRARY_PATH}" ]. Inc. Make sure you have Write privilege to this directory. then xxxx_append_path LIBPATH "${XXXX_SAP_LIBRARY_PATH:?}" export LIBPATH fi • Save the file. open a project source and expand Administration from the folder list. To create a database instance for your SAP BW connection 7 In Desktop (available only in Windows). 9 Select New. 5 Add sapjco. and then Database Instance from the File menu. 8 From the folder list.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide For example. .

as shown below. if you use an SAP Router System Number from the SAP BW system Client Number from the SAP BW system Language: the language code provided by your SAP administrator. © 2007 MicroStrategy. You can also refer to Tech Note TN5300-802-0734 for more information on setting up SAP BW with Intelligence Server Universal. For more information. select a database connection or create a new database connection that provides the following information as required: • • • • • Application Server: name of the SAP BW Server or IP address SAP Router String. EN for English Note the following: • • You can get the above information from your SAP Logon.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B 10 Create a database instance with SAP BW as the database connection type. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. To specify database connection parameters 11 For the database instance. You can use either the Database Instances Editor or the Database Instance Wizard to create a database instance for SAP BW. Inc. Connecting to SAP BW servers 333 . for example.

1 specification found at www. MicroStrategy can also use Essbase as a data source to conduct enterprise reporting and analysis. . This section discusses how to connect to Essbase servers in the Windows or UNIX/Linux environment.xmla. For information on how to use the XMLA Connectivity Test Tool.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide To specify a database login 12 Create a database login with the user and password to use to connect to SAP BW. Connecting to Essbase servers In addition to relational databases. Before creating any reports using the Essbase data. A Discover request supports queries to metadata and the results are packaged in a DiscoverResponse message. The Execute request queries cube data and results are returned in an ExecuteResponse message. 334 Connecting to Essbase servers © 2007 MicroStrategy. You can think of XMLA as a Web Service that supports metadata and data queries against an OLAP Cube source. refer to the MicroStrategy online help. and the configuration of the XMLA provider for each of these products. For more detailed steps on creating a database instance and related components to connect to SAP BW. Inc.org. you need to establish a connection to the Essbase servers. You can perform a test of the XMLA connection to your OLAP cube servers completely separate of any MicroStrategy dependencies with the XMLA Connectivity Test Tool provided with your MicroStrategy installation. refer to MicroStrategy Tech Note TN1100-000-0635. Configuring the XMLA Provider The material in this section assumes familiarity with the XMLA 1.

• • • • Creating a database instance Perform the following steps to connect to Hyperion Essbase servers. Inc. The application server that hosts the Hyperion XMLA provider must enable anonymous access to the XMLA application. Install Hyperion Enterprise Deployment Services 7. The Hyperion XMLA provider supports BEA WebLogic 6. You can verify it is working by connecting to the provider URL from your browser. © 2007 MicroStrategy.1 on the application server machine to verify that access is available to the Essbase server via the Service Console.1 provider is correctly deployed and security settings are configured correctly.1 and Apache Tomcat. The Hyperion XMLA Provider must be installed and configured on a compatible web application server. refer to your 3rd-party documentation. You should receive a confirmation from the provider that includes a display of currently configured properties. Connecting to Essbase servers 335 . Note the following: • For the latest information on the 3rd-party connection prerequisites given below.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Make sure the XMLA 1. For information on installation procedures. Information for correctly installing the XMLA provider can be found in the 3rd-party documentation for Hyperion’s Enterprise Deployment Services product. Consult your 3rd-party documentation for further details on system requirements and the latest updates. The web application server may be installed on a different machine from the Essbase server. see MicroStrategy Tech Note TN5300-802-0794.

The fully-qualified-machinename is usually of the form machine. The Database Instance editor opens. You can also use the IP address as the fully-qualified-machinename. For example. select a database connection or create a new database connection that provides the following information as required: • URL: This is the URL of the XMLA Provider that was configured for HTTP access. 2 Expand Administration from the Folder List and select Database Instance Manager.domain. For Essbase the URL is most likely case sensitive. and then Database Instance.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide To create a database instance for Essbase 1 From the Desktop Folder List.company. To specify database connection parameters 5 For the database instance. http://fully-qualified-machinename:8080/ xmla/EssbaseXmlForAnalysis. • DSI: The DataSourceInfo (DSI) value is of the form: 336 Connecting to Essbase servers © 2007 MicroStrategy. . Inc. as shown below. 4 Create a database instance with Hyperion Essbase as the database connection type.com. select New. connect to a project source. 3 From the File menu.

A cube in XMLA is a database in Essbase. you should check that you meet all of the requirements listed in the tech note TN5200-802-0540. • Catalog: The Essbase Catalog value is the Essbase Application containing the database you want to work with in MicroStrategy. Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers In addition to relational databases.Data source=<machine name> The value is split between the DSI setting and an additional connection string parameters setting. MicroStrategy can also use Analysis Services 2000 as a data source to conduct enterprise reporting and analysis.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Provider=Essbase. Note the following: • Before connecting to your Analysis Services 2000 servers. Inc. Before creating any reports using the Analysis Services 2000 data. Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers . Use the Essbase Administration Console to view the applications and databases available on the server. you need to establish a connection to the Analysis Services 2000 servers. refer to the MicroStrategy online help. You can perform a test of the XMLA connection to your OLAP cube servers completely separate of any MicroStrategy dependencies with the XMLA 337 • © 2007 MicroStrategy. To specify a database login 6 Create a database login with the user and password to use to connect to the Web service hosting the Essbase XML Provider. This section discusses how to connect to Analysis Services 2000 servers in the Windows or UNIX/Linux environment. For more detailed steps on creating a database instance and related components to connect to Analysis Services.

xmla. You can verify Analysis Services 2000 is working by connecting to the provider URL from your browser. Information for correctly installing the XMLA provider can be found in your Microsoft documentation. You should receive an XML response indicating that the site is available as an XMLA provider. Make sure the XMLA 1. You can think of XMLA as a Web service that supports metadata and data queries against an OLAP Cube source.org. Inc. Creating a database instance Perform the following steps to connect to Microsoft Analysis Services 2000 servers. For information on how to use the XMLA Connectivity Test Tool. . The Execute request queries cube data and results are returned in an ExecuteResponse message.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Connectivity Test Tool provided with your MicroStrategy installation. 338 Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers © 2007 MicroStrategy. Configuring the XMLA Provider The material in this section assumes familiarity with the XMLA 1. refer to MicroStrategy Tech Note TN1100-000-0635. select Database Instance Manager.1 specification found at www. and the configuration of the XMLA provider for each of these products. A Discover request supports queries to metadata and the results are packaged in a DiscoverResponse message. Creating a database instance for Analysis Services 2000 1 In Desktop.1 provider is correctly deployed and security settings are configured correctly. open a project source and expand Administration from the folder list. 2 From the folder list.

dll The fully-qualified-machinename is usually of the form machine. http://fully-qualified-machinename/xmla/ msxisapi. and then Database Instance. • DSI: With Analysis Services 2000 the DataSourceInfo (DSI) value is the configuration setting for your data source labeled as DataSourceName in the datasources. as shown below. To specify database connection parameters 5 For the database instance. • © 2007 MicroStrategy. 4 Create a database instance with Microsoft Analysis Services as the database connection type. The Database Instance Editor opens.com. the URL is not case-sensitive. You can also use the IP address as the fully-qualified-machinename. Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers 339 . select a database connection or create a new database connection that provides the following information as required: • URL: This is the URL of the XMLA Provider that was configured for HTTP access. select New.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B 3 From the File menu.domain. The database that contains the cube becomes the catalog for XMLA. For Analysis Services XMLA running on IIS. For example. Catalog: Use Microsoft’s Analysis Manager to view the Analysis Server containing the cubes you want to work with in MicroStrategy.xml file.company. Inc.

For more detailed steps on creating a database instance and related components to connect to Analysis Services. Note the following: • Before connecting to your Analysis Services 2005 servers. Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers In addition to relational databases. For information on setting up authentication for Intelligence Server with Analysis Services. you should check that you meet all of the requirements listed in the tech note TN5200-802-0542. This section discusses how to connect to Analysis Services 2005 servers in the Windows or UNIX/Linux environment. Inc. refer to MicroStrategy Tech Note TN1100-000-0635. MicroStrategy can also use Analysis Services 2005 as a data source to conduct enterprise reporting and analysis. refer to the tech note TN5300-802-0755. . Before creating any reports using the Analysis Services 2005 data. You can perform a test of the XMLA connection to your OLAP cube servers completely separate of any MicroStrategy dependencies with the XMLA Connectivity Test Tool provided with your MicroStrategy installation. refer to the MicroStrategy online help. For information on how to use the XMLA Connectivity Test Tool. • 340 Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers © 2007 MicroStrategy. you need to establish a connection to the Analysis Services 2005 servers.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide To specify a database login 6 Create a database login with the user and password to use to connect to Analysis Services.

A Discover request supports queries to metadata and the results are packaged in a DiscoverResponse message.org.xmla.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Configuring the XMLA Provider The material in this section assumes familiarity with the XMLA 1. Creating a database instance Perform the following steps to connect to Microsoft Analysis Services 2005 servers. Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers 341 . Follow Microsoft documentation to make sure that the XMLA provider is correctly configured for HTTP access. XMLA is the native access method for Analysis Services 2005. You can think of XMLA as a Web Service that supports metadata and data queries against an OLAP Cube source. 3 From the File menu. which includes configuring security settings. select New. and the configuration of the XMLA provider for each of these products. open a project source and expand Administration from the folder list. However. © 2007 MicroStrategy. by default. The Database Instance Editor opens. select Database Instance Manager.1 specification found at www. and then Database Instance. 2 From the folder list. Creating a database instance for Analysis Services 2005 1 In Desktop. Inc. only the TCP/IP transport is configured. Information for correctly installing the XMLA provider can be found in your Microsoft documentation. The Execute request queries cube data and results are returned in an ExecuteResponse message.

dll The fully-qualified-machinename is usually of the form machine. as shown below. You can also use the IP address as the fully-qualified-machinename. For Analysis Services 2005 XMLA running on IIS. the URL is not case sensitive.domain.company. http://fully-qualified-machinename/xmla/ msmdpump.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide 4 Create a database instance with Microsoft Analysis Services as the database connection type. select a database connection or create a new database connection that provides the following information as required: • URL: This is the URL of the XMLA Provider that was configured for HTTP access. each URL will be configured to support only one data source. To specify database connection parameters 5 For the database instance. the DSI entry can be left blank.com. For example. Catalog: Use Microsoft’s SQL Server Management Studio to view the Analysis Server which contains the cubes to work with in MicroStrategy. • To specify a database login 6 Create a database login with the user and password to use to connect to Analysis Services. The database that contains the cube becomes the catalog for XMLA. Inc. • DSI: For Analysis Services 2005. . 342 Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers © 2007 MicroStrategy. Unlike Analysis Services 2000.

Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 343 . Like the Warehouse Catalog. where you can import OLAP cubes and remap the OLAP cubes before you create any OLAP cube reports. Note the following: • Once an OLAP cube is imported. refer to Chapter 5. Inc. refer to the tech note TN5300-802-0755.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B For information on setting up authentication for Intelligence Server with Analysis Services. you can start working with the OLAP cube data in MicroStrategy. page 327 – Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers. you can remap an OLAP cube to MicroStrategy objects and create metrics within an OLAP cube with the OLAP Cube Editor. The OLAP Cube Catalog is available only after an OLAP cube source database instance has been created. For more information. refer to the MicroStrategy online help. page 337 © 2007 MicroStrategy. Configuring and Connecting to Intelligence Server of the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. see one of the following sections: • – Connecting to SAP BW servers. To learn how to create a database instance for an OLAP cube source. page 359. For information on setting OLAP cube schema loading options for an OLAP cube source database instance. the OLAP Cube Catalog can be accessed from the Schema menu on Desktop. page 349 and Creating metrics from OLAP cube data with MDX and compound metric techniques. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy Once you understand the relationships among the objects in an OLAP cube source and MicroStrategy and connect to your OLAP cube source. The best place to start is with the OLAP Cube Catalog. For more detailed steps on creating a database instance and related components to connect to Analysis Services. see Mapping OLAP cubes.

Inc. You can choose to load the schema for imported OLAP cubes when Intelligence Server starts or during OLAP cube report execution. . Configuring and Connecting to Intelligence Server of the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. For information on setting OLAP cube schema loading options for an OLAP cube source database instance. For details on how to use the OLAP Cube Catalog. under their respective catalog names in the Available Cubes pane. SAP BW is used as the OLAP cube source but the procedure is similar for Analysis Services and Essbase. by default. refer to Chapter 5. you can expand or hide the cubes contained in this catalog. as shown in the image below. all the OLAP cubes are displayed.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide – Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers. OLAP cubes can be imported into a MicroStrategy project only by an architect with the “Import OLAP cube” privilege. 344 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. When you open the OLAP Cube Catalog. Using the plus (+) or minus (-) sign next to a catalog name. Importing OLAP cubes OLAP cube importing is performed on the Cube Selection tab. page 334 This section discusses how you can use the OLAP Cube Catalog to bring the OLAP cube data into a MicroStrategy project and what functions you can perform once the data is brought into MicroStrategy. page 340 – Connecting to Essbase servers. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help (search for “OLAP Cube Catalog”).

© 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. If you create new cubes in Analysis Services and the cubes are not being displayed in the OLAP Cube Catalog. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 345 . an InfoCube is marked with a cube icon in blue. 2 From the Schema menu. For details on how to make Analysis Services cubes available for import in the OLAP Cube Catalog. you may have to modify some permissions in Analysis Services. and a query cube is marked with a cube icon in green. log in to a project that is connected to an OLAP cube source. To import OLAP cubes 1 In Desktop. select OLAP Cube Catalog. see MicroStrategy Tech Note TN4100-802-1879.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B A catalog is marked with an icon showing a folder containing a cube.

select the OLAP cube to import. The catalog contains all the OLAP cubes associated with it. page 349. click the double arrows (>>). you can use the OLAP Cube Catalog to map the OLAP cube data to MicroStrategy objects (see Mapping OLAP cubes. You can edit. 8 Click Save to save your progress. using this dialog box. You can also select All to display the OLAP cubes for all catalogs. To import all OLAP cubes. Inc. click OK.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • If you have a single OLAP cube source database instance created for the project. the imported OLAP cubes are displayed in the Selected Cubes pane on the right. create. 346 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. 6 Use one of the following methods to import the OLAP cubes: • • To import the selected OLAP cubes. 5 Click the plus (+) sign to expand the catalog folder and display the OLAP cubes in the Available Cubes pane on the left. • 3 Select the Cube Selection tab. 4 From the Catalog drop-down list. you can build reports that access the imported OLAP cubes. Once you select a valid OLAP cube source database instance. the OLAP Cube Catalog opens. click the single arrow (>).) Once the data is mapped to MicroStrategy objects. If you have multiple OLAP cube source database instances created for the project. a Database Instance dialog box opens. Select Find from the Edit menu or click the Find icon on the toolbar to open the Find dialog box to search for a specific OLAP cube that you want to import. and select an OLAP cube source database instance to connect to. . 7 Once imported. After importing OLAP cubes. and the OLAP Cube Catalog opens.

when a new characteristic or key figure has been added to the InfoCube in SAP BW you can use the Update Structure option to update the MicroStrategy OLAP cube to include these modifications. Using the right-mouse click. you choose OLAP cubes for your report from the Select Cube dialog box. you can also select the Update Structure option to synchronize with the updated definition of cube structures in the OLAP cube source. under the associated MicroStrategy project.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B To remove an OLAP cube. You can find the Data Explorer in the Folder List of Desktop. Once the first OLAP cube for an OLAP cube source is imported into MicroStrategy. you can right-click any OLAP cube in the Selected Cubes pane. This dialog box can also be used by an architect with the “Import OLAP cubes” privilege to import cubes by using the Retrieve cubes option. Importing OLAP cubes during report creation When you create an OLAP cube report. Inc. For example. and select Remove [cube name]. This option is available only after a database © 2007 MicroStrategy. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 347 . a Data Explorer for that OLAP cube source is added to the MicroStrategy project.

However. from the Tools menu select Options. metrics. one way to access managed objects is by using the Search for Objects function from the Tools menu on Desktop. . columns. where you can search for a specific cube for your report by the cube’s name. Inc. see the related sections above on connecting to the different OLAP cube sources.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide instance has been defined. For details. and so on) are created to describe the OLAP cube. and then select the Display Managed Objects option so that managed objects are displayed in the 348 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. In the Search for Objects dialog box. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. A managed object is just like a normal object except that it is created by the system and is stored in a special system folder that is hidden from users. For detailed information. You can click Find at the bottom of this dialog box to open the Find dialog box. tables. managed objects (attributes. Managed objects When an OLAP cube is imported into a project.

A managed object can be removed once it is no longer referenced by another object in the project. referred to as managed objects. Once the managed objects are listed in the search result. and hierarchies that reflect the data and levels of the imported OLAP cube. you can perform the same mapping tasks available in the Cube Mapping tab of the OLAP Cube Catalog by editing the OLAP cube with the OLAP Cube Editor. the architect can then define a logical and physical model in the MicroStrategy metadata. Mapping OLAP cubes When an architect defines a project. such as SAP BW. as the architect. such as attributes and facts. right-click an OLAP cube in Desktop and select Edit. are new and are part of the project. see the Managing Your Applications chapter of the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. By default. In the context of OLAP cube sources. as described in Importing OLAP cubes. For more information on removing a database instance and its related managed objects. an architect might identify that the key for the Customer attribute exists in the table LU_CUSTOMER. you can rename or edit any of them by right-clicking its name. that exist in physical tables. instead of a single table. Although these objects. a MicroStrategy OLAP cube is created that maps to the definition of the source cube in the OLAP cube source. an OLAP cube. For example. To do this. you can simply select a cube by using the OLAP Cube Catalog or Select Cube dialog box. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 349 .Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B search result. metrics. page 344. When you. The removal of unused managed objects is usually performed by an administrator. much of the process centers on identifying logical entities. Intelligence Server creates new attributes. This model is referenced by the SQL Engine to generate SQL at run time. contains all the metadata information necessary to define a logical model and physical model. Inc. When an OLAP cube is imported into MicroStrategy. After you have imported an OLAP cube. they © 2007 MicroStrategy. Once the logical entities are identified. need to add an OLAP cube to a project in MicroStrategy.

a new managed object named Year has no relation to the Year attribute in the Tutorial project connected to the data warehouse. Inc. For more information on managed objects in OLAP cube reports. which ensures that a consistent logical model is maintained. Remapping OLAP cube data to existing attributes can also facilitate the use of MicroStrategy features such as security filters. This allows data to be joined across sources in Report Services documents. page 356. see the Reporting on External Data Sources: OLAP Cube Reports chapter of the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. If you decide to discontinue the use of OLAP cube reports. Once an OLAP cube is mapped. see Why do you need to remap OLAP cubes?. see the Managing Your Applications chapter of the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. For steps on how to perform these schema cleanup tasks. For more information on the benefits of remapping OLAP cube data to project attributes.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide are not related to the project’s schema and schema objects (see Managed objects above. you can remove the OLAP cube source database instance and all of its associated managed objects. In addition. 350 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. A new schema is created for each OLAP cube source database instance used in a MicroStrategy project. it can be used to build reports and documents in MicroStrategy. . you can remap OLAP cube data to existing attributes in a MicroStrategy project rather than new managed objects.) For example.

As shown in the image above: • The Physical View in the left-hand column represents the cube structure in the OLAP Cube Source. you can use the plus (+) sign next to the attribute levels to display the attribute forms. The Logical View in the right-hand column represents the equivalent structure in MicroStrategy. with the same symbols for hierarchies and attributes as in standard reports. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 351 . © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. the characteristic (dimension) is located at the very top with a green chart and box symbol. only the ID and DESC forms are automatically mapped for each attribute. and attributes are represented by a green symbol with two side-by-side rectangles. For SAP BW. hierarchy is below the dimension with a green stacked boxes symbol. you can map attribute forms for each attribute contained in the imported cube. By default. • In the Physical View column.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Using the Cube Mapping feature in the OLAP Cube Catalog shown below.

and Description in SAP BW. Rename the attribute or metric so it has a different name in the MicroStrategy project from the name of the characteristic or key figure it is mapped to in SAP BW. You can also use the Show Technical Names icon on the toolbar to display the SAP BW terms for each attribute and its attribute forms. This option opens the Attribute Editor to edit attributes and the Metric Editor to edit metrics. Technical Name. the columns are often returned as a string of characters. In the Properties dialog box. note that when you select Edit.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide By default. Use the Display All Columns icon on the toolbar to show additional attribute forms in the Physical View column and then map each one to an attribute form in the Logical View pane. only the ID and DESC forms are displayed. However. Inc. In the case of OLAP cube data that is mapped to attributes. For more information. Manually setting column data types for OLAP cube data When OLAP cube data is mapped to MicroStrategy objects. An ID form must be mapped for each attribute. you can view the information on its Name. you can perform the following manipulations by right-clicking the name in the Logical view column: • Edit the attribute or metric. MicroStrategy retrieves the column data type through MDX. Check the Properties of the characteristic or key figure. • • • For variables. the Prompt Generation Wizard is displayed. . Map the characteristic or key figure to an existing attribute or metric in the MicroStrategy project. you can also perform the above-mentioned manipulations. page 308. refer to Supporting SAP BW variables. This is because variables in SAP BW are represented as prompts in MicroStrategy. The Show Technical Names option applies to SAP BW OLAP cubes only. This can be the case even with ID columns of data that are of a 352 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. For MicroStrategy attributes and metrics.

Starting in MicroStrategy 8. You can perform this task during the initial import and mapping procedure for an OLAP cube with the OLAP Cube Catalog. To manually set column data types for OLAP cube data You manually set column data types for OLAP cube data when you are mapping OLAP cube data to MicroStrategy objects. or as a later modification with the OLAP Cube Editor. but the same steps apply for the OLAP Cube Editor.0 you can manually select the column data type that is applied to a column of OLAP cube data mapped to an attribute. you have OLAP cube data that is mapped to a Product attribute in MicroStrategy. starting with the step to expand data in the Physical view column. you can then include the two OLAP cube reports as datasets of a Report Services document and group the two Product attributes. Returning data such as ID columns of attributes as strings can make it impossible to group attributes with common data as the same attribute in Report Services documents.1. The ID attribute form for Product is returned as a string. For example. By setting the Product ID attribute form to read the OLAP cube data as an integer. but you know that its associated OLAP cube column is of type integer. © 2007 MicroStrategy. You can do this same mapping for another OLAP cube and create reports including the Product attribute. OLAP cube data that is mapped to MicroStrategy metrics is automatically converted to a numeric data type and thus does not need its column data type to be manually set. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 353 . This allows the OLAP cube data to be correctly represented in MicroStrategy and facilitates the grouping of related attributes as the same attribute in a Report Services document. The following procedure uses the OLAP Cube Catalog. Inc. You can access the OLAP Cube Editor by right-clicking an imported OLAP cube and selecting Edit.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B numeric type such as integer.

the OLAP Cube Catalog: Cube Selection tab opens. 354 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. 6 In the Physical view column. page 327 Connecting to Essbase servers. 4 Select the Cube Mapping tab. The OLAP cube data is displayed in the pane below. 5 From the Catalog\Cube drop-down list. . 7 Right-click the OLAP cube column data and select Data Type. select the OLAP cube you want to map to MicroStrategy objects. From the Select the Database Instance drop-down list. The Column Editor — Definition dialog box opens. The Cube Mapping tab opens. page 337 Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers. The OLAP Cube Catalog: Cube Selection tab opens. page 334 Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers. expand the OLAP cube data until you find the OLAP cube column data for which to manually set the data type. see one of the following sections depending on your OLAP cube source: • • • • Connecting to SAP BW servers. 8 Clear the Use default from source check box. 3 Move all OLAP cubes you want to import from the Available Cubes pane to the Selected Cubes pane by using the > button. For information on connecting to an OLAP cube source. Inc. If the project connects to more than one OLAP cube source the Database Instance dialog box opens. • • If the project connects to only one OLAP cube source. select the OLAP cube source database instance you want to connect to and click OK. select OLAP Cube Catalog.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide 1 Log in to a project that is connected to an OLAP cube source. page 340 2 From the Schema menu.

The terms balanced. • Balanced hierarchies have an equal number of levels in each branch of the hierarchy. However. Subcategory. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 355 . if you know that the structure of a hierarchy is unbalanced or ragged you must set the hierarchy’s properties to reflect its structure. in a Time hierarchy that includes Year. Subcategory. in a Product hierarchy that includes Category. • • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. a Product hierarchy may contain the levels Category. 10 Depending on the data type selected. specify the byte length. Unbalanced and ragged hierarchies include at least one branch that does not descend to the lowest level and one branch that includes a skipped level. Quarter. Unbalanced hierarchies have at least one branch that does not descend to the lowest level. all hierarchies of an OLAP cube are treated as balanced hierarchies. unbalanced. Inc. and Month one branch might only have data down to the Quarter level. 11 Click OK to save your changes and return to the OLAP Cube Catalog. precision. For example. Subcategory. Ragged hierarchies have at least one branch that includes a member whose logical parent is not the level above that member. Unbalanced and ragged hierarchies By default. and Item are displayed on the report there is an empty cell for the Subcategory of Item number 22. For example. and Item but Item number 22 does not have a Subcategory associated with it.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B 9 From the Data type drop-down list. select which data type to map the OLAP cube data as. 12 Click Save and Close to save your changes to the OLAP cube and exit the OLAP Cube Catalog. and ragged are used to describe the different set of characteristics of hierarchical sets of data. and scale for the data type. For example. and Item each branch would descend to a particular item. When Category.

refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help (search for the “Mapping OLAP cubes” topic). This modification also allows you to perform date qualifications on the mapped MDX property data. . Date form support for MDX properties You can support mapping MicroStrategy date forms to MDX property data of the date data type by performing a special modification of a VLDB property.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide The steps below are necessary for any unbalanced or ragged hierarchy to prevent inaccurate results when applying certain types of filters. A hierarchy in the Physical View column is represented with a green stacked boxes symbol. For information on how to support these date forms and qualifications. The word “(Unbalanced)” will be displayed next to the name of the hierarchy in the Logical View column. The Properties dialog box is displayed. Set a hierarchy as unbalanced or ragged 1 In the OLAP Cube Catalog. please refer to MicroStrategy Tech Note TN1100-000-0636. Why do you need to remap OLAP cubes? Although you can use the automatically generated managed object attributes. and hierarchies you may want to remap OLAP cube data to existing attributes in the MicroStrategy project for the following reasons: 356 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. metrics. 2 On the Hierarchies tab. Inc. right-click the hierarchy name in the Physical View column and select Properties. For detailed steps on mapping and remapping objects from OLAP cube sources to MicroStrategy objects. select the check box This hierarchy is unbalanced or ragged and then click OK.

However. the security filter on Year is applied. For example. In the case of attributes. MicroStrategy security filters can be applied to attributes in OLAP cube reports. For example. Inc. then Year can be used to group the data within a document. Data can be joined across sources within a Report Services document. Administrators can search for dependents and manage access control lists (ACLs) for attributes that map both to the data warehouse and an OLAP cube source. if an OLAP cube report and a standard report both use the Year attribute. they can be remapped to project attributes that participate in the ROLAP schema. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 357 . This also prevents maintenance issues because reports need to be modified if an OLAP cube is remapped after the report is created. Remapping simply replaces the managed object attributes that are used to represent the OLAP cube’s structure with attributes in an existing MicroStrategy project. metrics and hierarchies can only be remapped to other managed object metrics and hierarchies that are mapped to OLAP cube source data. it is recommended that you do the remapping initially so that subsequent users can take advantage of the mapping. three OLAP cubes can share the same managed object metric named Revenue. but the nature of the cube is not changed. • • • You can remap the levels of an OLAP cube. When should you remap cubes? Although you can remap the columns either when an OLAP cube is first imported or later on after you have created a project. © 2007 MicroStrategy. If a user with a security filter on Year runs the OLAP cube report that contains Year.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B • Report designers can integrate the logical model of the project with the data in the imported OLAP cube. thus creating a relation between the two sets of data. For example. you can map an OLAP cube level to the Year attribute in your project.

Although both models have a Time hierarchy. you can map the attributes within the OLAP cube to existing project attributes. This feature allows you to quickly start creating reports for your OLAP cube data. Example 2. The drawback with this setup is that you cannot create a relation between your OLAP cube data and your project data. With this technique. you cannot join data from these different sources in a Report Services document and you cannot support project security filters in OLAP cube reports. . The one on the left exists in a specific OLAP cube. and Month information for both your 358 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. you can create a Report Services document that contains Year. none of the individual attributes are shared. C u b e A ttr ib u te s C u s to m e r R e g io n P r o je c t A ttr ib u te s R e g io n Ye a r C u b e Ye a r Q u a r te r M onth of Ye a r C u s to m e r S ta te C u b e Q u a r te r C a ll C e n te r M onth C ube M o nth C u s to m e r C ity E m p lo ye e Da y Example 2: Partially mapped cube After an OLAP cube source has been included in MicroStrategy as an OLAP cube. The difference between the two examples is that the OLAP cube has been partially remapped so that it shares the attributes Year. Quarter. Since this relation is not created. also shows two logical models. shown in the diagram below.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Example 1: Unmapped cube You can map managed object attributes for your OLAP cubes instead of using project attributes. Quarter. and the one on the right exists in a MicroStrategy project. and Month. Inc. The diagram below shows two logical models.

Metrics created to map to your OLAP cube data are related only to their associated OLAP cube. Metrics created with MDX combine the robust set of MDX functions and expressions with MicroStrategy analytical tools such as prompts. when a level is remapped. Cu b e A ttrib u te s C usto m e r R e gio n Proje c t A ttrib u te s R e gio n Ye a r Ye a r Q ua rte r M o nt h o f Ye a r C usto m e r S ta te Q ua rte r C a ll C e nte r M o nt h M o nt h C usto m e r C ity Em plo ye e Da y The dimensions of OLAP cubes are always shared. In addition. Quarter. except by using calculated expressions in Report Services documents. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 359 . changes to the Time dimension apply to OLAP cubes in the project that contain this dimension.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B data warehouse and OLAP cube sources. Therefore. In this case. Therefore. Creating metrics from OLAP cube data with MDX and compound metric techniques When you map your OLAP cube data into MicroStrategy. you can take advantage of MDX (MultiDimensional eXpressions) to create advanced metrics. any security filters for Year. For information on creating calculated expressions. that change applies to all the OLAP cubes that share that dimension. © 2007 MicroStrategy. see the Designing Documents chapter of the MicroStrategy Report Services Document Creation Guide. You can also use basic arithmetic expressions to create these advanced metrics from OLAP cube data. these metrics cannot be directly integrated with data from a separate relational data source. and Month are applied to OLAP cube reports that include these mapped attributes. Inc.

You can reference one or more MicroStrategy metrics mapped to OLAP cube data using custom MDX just as you can with a standard arithmetic expression. such as Discount * 1. • MDX customization: Rather than relying only on MicroStrategy to create MDX to return data from your OLAP cube source./. The metrics created in this way for an OLAP cube are stored in a Compound Metrics folder within the Metrics folder for the OLAP cube. and so on). Inc. . where Revenue and Total Expenses are both metrics.-. to build a Profit metric. Once you create metrics using these techniques you can include them in your MicroStrategy reports and report filters in the same ways that you can include any MicroStrategy metric. If you do not make the metric a smart metric you can only use basic operators (+.5. you can create your own custom MDX to return data for a metric. see the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. For examples of smart metrics.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide You can create metrics that map to OLAP cube data using either of the following techniques: • Compound metrics: A compound metric is any MicroStrategy metric with an expression that includes a MicroStrategy metric and an arithmetic expression. For general information on smart metrics. The expression can be as simple as a metric multiplied by a constant value. see How to build analysis into metrics with custom MDX.*.Total Expenses. You can use MicroStrategy analytical and aggregation functions with metrics mapped to OLAP cube data only if the metric you create is defined as a smart metric. page 363. These metrics can also reference multiple MicroStrategy metrics within the OLAP cube with an expression such as Revenue . page 366). For tips and insights on how to build analysis with MDX in MicroStrategy. This technique allows you to use MDX functions and flexibility to query and report on your OLAP cube data. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. where Discount is a metric mapped to data in the OLAP cube. 360 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. The MDX you create is passed to your OLAP cube source to be executed and to return the data. You can also use prompts in these compound and custom MDX metrics (see Using prompts within OLAP cube metrics. To use MDX to create your calculated measures you must enclose MDX in double quotes (“”).

Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 361 . From the Select the Database Instance drop-down list. After right-clicking an OLAP cube and selecting Edit to access the OLAP Cube Editor. page 334 Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers. The following procedure uses the OLAP Cube Catalog. page 327 Connecting to Essbase servers. select OLAP Cube Catalog. © 2007 MicroStrategy. 3 Move all the OLAP cubes to import from the Available Cubes pane to the Selected Cubes pane by using the > button. Inc. If the project connects to more than one OLAP cube source the Database Instance dialog box opens. select the OLAP cube source database instance to connect to and click OK. the OLAP Cube Catalog: Cube Selection tab opens. starting with the step to access the Edit menu. page 340 2 From the Schema menu. These metrics can also be created as a later modification to an OLAP cube with the OLAP Cube Editor. the steps below apply for the OLAP Cube Editor. For information on connecting to an OLAP cube source. depending on your OLAP cube source: • • • • Connecting to SAP BW servers. To create a metric from OLAP cube data with MDX and compound metric techniques 1 Log in to a project that is connected to an OLAP cube source. see one of the following sections. • • If the project connects to only one OLAP cube source. 4 Select the Cube Mapping tab.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B You can create these metrics during the initial importing and mapping procedure of your OLAP cube data with the OLAP Cube Catalog. The OLAP Cube Catalog: Cube Selection tab opens. page 337 Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers.

B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide 5 From the Catalog\Cube drop-down list. see Using prompts within OLAP cube metrics. it does not validate the syntax of the expression. For example.Cost to create a Profit metric. arithmetic operators. enter your custom MDX in the Definition pane of the Metric Editor. 9 In the Object name text field. 362 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. select the OLAP cube to map to MicroStrategy objects.[Discount Amount] * 1. enter a name for your metric. The Save As dialog box opens. You can use MicroStrategy analytical and aggregation functions with metrics mapped to OLAP cube data only if the metric you create is defined as a smart metric. For an example of creating a metric that includes a prompt. For example. if you have Revenue and Cost metrics in your OLAP cube you can create the expression Revenue . while also including any required constants. • If you are creating a metric using custom MDX. The OLAP cube data is displayed in the pane below. Validating MDX verifies that the entire expression is enclosed in double quotes. you can enter the following: “[Measures]. Make sure to enclose the entire expression in double quotes. select Add New Compound Metric. you can simply drag and drop metrics from the OLAP cube’s Metrics folder.5” You cannot validate MDX in the Metric Editor as you can for a standard expression that is not enclosed by double quotes. 7 Create the expression for your metric: • If you are creating a compound metric. Inc. and MicroStrategy analytical and aggregation functions. 10 Click Save to save your metric. page 366. . 6 From the Edit menu. 8 Click Save and Close. The Metric Editor opens.

x TN5200-81x-2344—How to write a custom metric formula in MDX to implement a transformation in MicroStrategy 8.1. • • Basics Creating your own custom MDX allows you to draw further analysis from your OLAP cube source into MicroStrategy. This allows you to further combine the analysis capabilities of MDX and MicroStrategy. To use MDX to create your metrics you must enclose MDX in double quotes (“”).[Total Sales]” is valid syntax for a metric defined with MDX. “[Measures]. © 2007 MicroStrategy.x Creating such analysis requires appropriate knowledge of both MDX and MicroStrategy.x.1. TN5200-81x-2342—How to write a custom metric formula in MDX to ignore grouping on a cube dimension in MicroStrategy 8.x TN5200-81x-2343—How to write a custom metric formula in MDX to filter on an attribute in MicroStrategy 8. Be aware that MicroStrategy does not validate any custom MDX created by users to build metrics for OLAP cubes. MDX syntax and functionality is not described in depth in this section. Inc. For additional best practices and examples. only basic principles of analysis with the use of MDX and MicroStrategy is provided. How to build analysis into metrics with custom MDX You can build sophisticated analysis into your OLAP cube metrics by creating your own custom MDX.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B 11 Click Save and Close to save your changes to the OLAP cube.1. refer to the following MicroStrategy Tech Notes: • • TN5200-81x-2345—How to create customized metric expressions for OLAP cube sources in MicroStrategy 8. For example. This section provides some tips and best practices on how to build analysis into metrics with custom MDX.1. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 363 .

When you include an MDX function in your custom MDX. as shown below: “sum(YTD([Quarter]. For example. along with viewing your total revenue on a report. you can use the MDX year-to-date (YTD) function to create transformation-style analysis on your OLAP cube data.[Total Sales] * . the function is passed to the OLAP cube source and processed as a pass-through function. For example. You can also perform basic arithmetic in your MDX. Report designers can include these metrics on reports to view multiple perspectives of data on the same report. you can create conditional metrics in MicroStrategy from your OLAP cube data. In 364 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy.[Profit])” This expression returns year-to-date values by quarter for profit data. A conditional metric allows you to apply a filter to only one metric on a report while not affecting the other metrics. you can also utilize MDX functions to create more advanced analysis. Inc.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide The expression shown above is a simple expression that returns the Total Sales data from an OLAP cube. Conditional metrics Using MDX.CurrentMember). as shown in the report below. For example.06” Along with these simple expressions. [Measures]. you can also display revenue for a certain category such as electronics. . the following expression applies a multiplier to the Total Sales data: “[Measures].

Prompts are objects in MicroStrategy that provide users the ability to dynamically select what data is returned to their report to analyze. [2006])” Prompts All of the MDX examples in the sections above are static expressions.[2].[Year]. For example. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Using the ApplySimple function. 2 identifies the electronics category. The example below shows the basic structure of an ApplySimple statement to create metrics with custom MDX. a second condition on the year is included by adding another comma and conditional expression: “([Measures].[2])” In the example above. you can create the same metric to return electronics revenue for only the year 2006. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 365 .[Revenue].[Category]. you can include prompts in your MDX to provide dynamic analysis on your OLAP cube data. You can include more than one condition for each metric.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B the example expression below. meaning they will produce the same MDX every time. In the example expression below. Inc. bold highlights the part of the expression (including the comma) that applies the condition to the revenue data: “([Measures]. The values that identify data depend on how you have defined data in your OLAP cube source. The report shown below uses this metric to compare total revenue with electronics revenue.[Revenue].[Category].

you must use the ApplySimple function to 366 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. .?valueprompt) In the example syntax above.. For metrics created using MDX expressions. When the metrics are included on a report and the report is run.objectN) A simple application of this technique is to use a constant value prompt in your project as a multiplier of metric data as shown below.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide ApplySimple(“MDX expression with placeholders for objects”. you can simply include a prompt in the metric definition.#0)”. For metrics created with compound metric techniques without any custom MDX.. This adds flexibility to your queries. Inc.[Revenue]. allowing users to determine the data to see on the report. see the Using prompts within OLAP cube metrics section below. ?elementlistprompt) For more information on and a procedure for creating metrics in OLAP cubes with prompts. #0 is a placeholder in the MDX expression for the value prompt.[Total Sales] / #0)” . You can also use this technique with the conditional metrics techniques described in Conditional metrics.. page 364. To provide this analysis to users. Using prompts within OLAP cube metrics If you are creating new metrics in your OLAP cube. you can also include MicroStrategy prompts with the metrics. rather than always returning the revenue data for electronics.object0. ApplySimple(“([Measures]. The syntax for including a prompt as an object to replace a placeholder is ?promptname. you can allow users to choose what category to view revenue for..object1. the prompts are displayed to the user for completion. For example. you can include an element list prompt on the Category attribute of the OLAP cube as shown below. ApplySimple(“([Measures].

The following types of prompts can be included with metrics built from custom expressions: • • • Element list prompts defined on an attribute of the associated OLAP cube Value prompts Object prompts defined on objects of the associated OLAP cube To use prompts within OLAP cube metrics 1 Follow the steps in the procedure above (To create a metric from OLAP cube data with MDX and compound metric techniques. © 2007 MicroStrategy. you can enter expressions similar to the following: • ([Discount Amount] * ?constantprompt) This expression applies a special discount amount. page 361) until the step to create an expression for the metric. Inc. 2 Enter your expression in the Definition pane of the Metric Editor. entered by the user running the report.[Revenue]. The Save As dialog box opens.#0)”. In this example it is assumed that CategoryElementPrompt is the name of an element list prompt in the project that references a Category attribute within the OLAP cube. Users can then choose to view revenue data for different categories such as Books or Music. 3 Click Save and Close. Make sure to enclose the entire expression in double quotes. In this example it is assumed that constantprompt is the name of a value prompt in the project and Discount Amount is a metric within the OLAP cube. For example. which is conditional on an element list prompt answered by the user running the report. • ApplySimple(“([Measures]. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 367 . ?CategoryElementPrompt) This expression creates a Revenue metric.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B include prompts in the metric definition.

5 Click Save to save your metric and return to the OLAP Cube Catalog. You then create a new compound metric named Profit within the OLAP cube by subtracting the OLAP cube’s cost data from its revenue data. a list of metrics that are dependent on the metric you are removing is returned. 368 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. For example. and its data is automatically mapped to MicroStrategy metrics. you create a Profit Margin metric that uses the Profit metric you just created. Removing compound metrics from OLAP cubes When you remove metrics based on multiple metrics of an OLAP cube. you must first remove the Profit Margin metric. dependencies may need to be resolved before you can remove the metric. If a compound metric of an OLAP cube has been added to any reports. You can remove the compound metric from the report rather than deleting the report. If you try to remove the Profit metric. Inc. When you try to remove a metric with dependent metrics.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide 4 In the Object name text field. This removes the dependency between the metric and the report. enter a name for your metric. you import an OLAP cube. Once this metric is created in your OLAP cube. To remove the Profit metric. 6 Click Save and Close to save your changes to the OLAP cube and exit the OLAP Cube Catalog. You must remove all of the metrics and reports which depend on the metric you are trying to remove. and the Profit Margin metric is returned. a search for dependent objects is automatically triggered. you need to also delete those reports or remove the Profit metric from the reports before you can remove the Profit metric from the OLAP cube. and you can then remove the metric from the OLAP cube. This makes the Profit Margin metric dependent on the Profit metric. a list of reports that depend on the metric is also returned. . If the Profit metric is included on any reports. Then you can remove the metric.

LOGICAL TABLES Introduction Logical tables represent tables in the data warehouse. logical views are defined using SQL queries against the data warehouse. While logical tables are set up in a project by using the Warehouse Catalog. and logical views.C C. table aliases. © 2007 MicroStrategy. There are three types of logical tables in the MicroStrategy environment: logical tables. Different from the logical tables. 369 . This chapter introduces you to the different types of logical tables. which point to physical tables in the data warehouse. Inc. logical views are created using the Table Editor. with a focus on how you can use the logical view feature to take advantage of the enhanced schema support in MicroStrategy.

2 Table alias: is an additional logical table that points directly to an existing physical table. Table aliasing is used to create attribute roles (see Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles. A table alias is created outside of the Warehouse Catalog. Inc. The logical view is also referenced in the SQL that is generated for the report. . logical tables in the MicroStrategy schema consist of attributes and facts. These physical tables are referenced in the SQL that is generated for the report. While physical tables in a data warehouse consist of columns. and other schema objects can be defined. This type of logical table maps directly to physical tables in the data warehouse. the logical view can be used in the same way as the Type 1 logical table. 370 Logical tables © 2007 MicroStrategy.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide Logical tables Logical tables are MicroStrategy objects that form the foundation of a schema. based on which attributes. A table alias can have a different name from the physical table. In the MicroStrategy Tutorial. the whole SQL query is displayed in the place of physical tables as for Type 1 logical tables. It does not point directly to a physical table and is defined using a SQL query against the warehouse. facts. you can define your logical view using the SQL statement as well as view the content of all the logical tables and their associated warehouse tables. These attributes and facts are part of the report definition that the MicroStrategy Engine refers to when a report is executed. 3 Logical view: is a logical table that points to a SQL statement instead of directly to a physical table. There are three types of logical tables: 1 Logical table: is a logical representation of a table that the Engine uses to generate SQL. logical tables and all the other schema objects are stored in the Schema Objects folder. page 175). One physical table can have more than one table aliases. A logical table is created for each physical table that is imported into a project. Using the Logical Table Editor. Logical views are created using the Table Editor. Once created. using the Warehouse Catalog.

please refer to Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles. if the Customer table is used to represent both Ship to Customer and Bill to Customer. which is accessed from the Schema menu. Logical views are a little different from the above-mentioned logical tables and table aliases for the following reasons: • • • Logical views do not map directly to physical tables in the data warehouse. For step-by-step instructions. Logical views are created from scratch. To create a table alias. Based on these tables. When an attribute plays more than one role. you can create a table alias to resolve the double usage case. create a table alias by copying an existing logical table and giving it a new or different name. such as attributes and facts. right-click the logical table name and select Create Table Alias. One way to do this is to create explicit table aliases. Basically. page 175. How should I use logical tables? 371 . © 2007 MicroStrategy. you create multiple logical tables pointing to the same physical table and define those logical tables as the lookup tables for the attributes in different roles. Logical views are defined using SQL queries. For detailed information on attribute roles. Inc. you need to create an attribute in the logical model for each of the roles. First.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C How should I use logical tables? The most common logical tables are the ones that are imported into the project from the data warehouse using the Warehouse Catalog. you can create MicroStrategy schema objects. For example. please refer to the MicroStrategy online help (search for “Warehouse Catalog”). then define the new attributes using the appropriate tables. For more information on how to use the Warehouse Catalog. please refer to the MicroStrategy online help (search for “Step-by-step instructions to create a table alias”). instead of being imported from a data warehouse or duplicated from existing logical tables.

Inc. Whenever you create or add logical tables. they can be used in the same way as the regular logical tables (brought into the project using the Warehouse Catalog). table aliases. please refer to Logical view examples.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide However. The Update Schema option can be accessed from the Schema menu. The biggest benefit of using logical views is that you can model a MicroStrategy schema that cannot be supported with only the physical database structures in the warehouse. . or logical views to the project. such as the following: • • • • Slowly-changing dimensions Attribute form expressions from multiple tables Consolidated dimension tables Recursive hierarchies For common usage examples. There are many common modeling scenarios that are easier to manage with the use of logical views. you need to update the schema. once logical views are created. page 376. This means that you can use the logical views to build attributes and facts and that you can also create table aliases for the logical views. 372 How should I use logical tables? © 2007 MicroStrategy.

Object Browser lists all tables and columns that have been imported into the project. Inc. Creating a Logical View involves a few simple steps that require you to provide your own SQL statement and map the columns in the statement to the correct data types (see the following information). on the other hand. Detailed instructions on how to create them are provided in the online help (search for “Tables”). One way to access the Table Editor is to select New from the File menu and choose Logical Table. Creating logical tables 373 . are created in MicroStrategy Desktop using the Table Editor. As illustrated in the following image.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C Creating logical tables Most logical tables are brought into the project by using the Warehouse Catalog. Any physical table in the project database instance can be used in the SELECT statement. please refer to the online help (search for “Creating logical views”). For detailed instructions. The SQL statement panel is where you type in your SQL query. while the Mapping panel is where you map for the columns returned by the SQL query. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Logical views. and table aliases are created by duplicating existing logical tables.

Please check your database for best usage. The Table Editor is displayed with the Physical View tab selected by default. 374 Creating logical tables © 2007 MicroStrategy. type in your SQL statement. However. . 5 Select a Data Type for the column by using the drop-down list. By doing this. Inc. It is recommended that you use derived tables to define logical views because the logical view SQL syntax becomes nested inside SQL statements generated by the Engine. If you used an existing column in the mapping in Step 5. the order of the columns does not have to match the order in which the column aliases appear in the SQL statement. the change will affect all the tables with that column. you inherited the data type of that column. This creates a new column. Keep in mind that if you change the data type. 3 Click Add to map columns returned by the SQL statement. Alternatively. you can also drag and drop columns from the Object Browser to the Column Object cell. you map an existing column to the logical view.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide To create a logical table in the Table Editor 1 From the File menu. The names of the columns must match exactly the column aliases defined in the SQL statement. Although common table expressions (CTEs) are also supported for some databases. 2 In the SQL Statement panel. 4 Type in the column name under Column Object. You can drag and drop columns from the Object Browser to insert into the statement). select New and then Logical Table. these expressions cannot be nested in the SQL because this would result in invalid SQL syntax.

Derived tables are advantageous because they are nested in the SQL generated by the Engine. are not nested in the SQL because this would result in invalid SQL syntax. however. select Update Schema to ensure that the new logical table is loaded into the project. Because the MicroStrategy Engine does not parse through the SQL syntax. Creating logical tables 375 . It is your responsibility to ensure the accuracy and validity of your SQL statements. When the Engine needs to use a logical table that maps directly to a physical database table. 8 From the Schema menu. you should also understand that the SQL query entered for logical views is not modified in any way by MicroStrategy. © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C 6 Modify the Precision and Scale of the column. In the SQL generated for a report. The Engine generates derived table syntax to represent the logical view. in which case table objects accessed would are not logged either. CTEs. make sure that your RDBMS is optimized to answer the query that you create. For best usage. In addition. it inserts the name of the table into the FROM clause. the statistics log does not contain any information about the actual physical tables accessed. you should be experienced with using SQL before you use the logical view feature. 7 Save and close the logical table. For a logical view—which maps to a SQL statement—the Engine inserts the SQL syntax in the FROM clause. It is recommended that you use derived tables to define logical views. Using SQL for logical views Since SQL queries are the key to creating logical views. logical views are generated as either a derived table or a common table expression (CTE) depending on the type of database that you use. Therefore. the logical view is logged instead. please check your database. although CTEs are also supported by some databases. Inc. if applicable. The same holds true if you use a view in the database.

This restriction applies to summary tables as well as to intermediate results that may be generated by the SQL Engine. Business case 1: Distinct attribute lookup table Many star schemas feature a single lookup table that is shared by all the attributes in one dimension (see the following example). the logical view simply appears as additional syntax in the report SQL generated by MicroStrategy. and Region. . you may double count if you have to join to a table where that attribute is part of the key. The following is an example lookup table for Store. for example.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide The results of logical views are not cached. when populating pick lists for prompts. Logical view examples The following business cases are intended to help you understand how you can use the logical view feature in your applications. Inc. thus affecting element browsing requests that display a list of attribute elements. While it is possible to model a schema with such a dimension table. the MicroStrategy Engine joins the fact table with one lookup table and does the aggregation. Lookup_store Store_ID Store_Name Market_ID Market_Name Region_ID Region_Name Level 376 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. Usually. often two problems arise: • The model cannot support fact tables at the level of attributes that are not keys. If there is no distinct list of attribute elements. • Too many rows in the dimension table may slow down the SELECT DISTINCT query. in one-SQL-pass reports. Market.

the case is on Date columns. F_Table1 Ship_Date Order_ID Fact1 © 2007 MicroStrategy. if the requested fact table is at the Market or Region level.Market_Name Business case 2: Attribute form expression across multiple tables Customers often request the ability to generate an attribute form expression across multiple tables. Market_Name.Market_ID = a12. Inc. For example. Logical view examples 377 .a11.Market_ID. you can use the Logical View feature to define another logical table Lookup_Market as follows: Select Market_ID. Usually. the following report SQL is generated: Select a11.Market_ID Group by a11. Market and Region are not the keys. Market_Name.Region_ID From Lookup_store Where level=1 Then use this table as the lookup table for Market. a direct join between the fact table and the above lookup table may result in double-counting.Region_ID from Lookup_Store where level=1) a11. To avoid that. When it is joined with a Market-level fact table (Market_Sales).Project Design Guide Logical Tables C In this table.Market_ID. Market_Sales a12 Where a11. SUM(a12. Therefore. a11.Market_Desc.Sales) From (select Market_ID. you want to define an attribute based on the Date difference between two Date columns (Ship_Date and Order_Date) in two different tables as follows.

Fact1. it may be better to model separate dimensions. Kimball has further coined different distinctions among ways to handle SCDs in a dimensional model. a Type I SCD 378 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. F_table1. dimensional hierarchies are presented as independent of time.Fact2 From F_table1. Indeed. SCDs are well documented in the data warehousing literature. F_table2 Where F_table1. for instance). Inc.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide F_Table2 Order_Date Order_ID Fact2 Using the Logical View feature. “Slowly” typically means after several months or even years. if dimensional relationships change more frequently.Order_ID. Usually.Order_ID=F_table2. a company may annually reorganize their sales organization or recast their product hierarchy for each retail season. you can use the following SQL query to create a logical table to calculate the Date difference and then define the attribute on that new column: Select Ship_Date-Order_Date Cycle_time.Order_ID The new logical table (logical view) looks like the following table. and a new attribute can be defined on the Cycle_Time column. Ralph Kimball has been particularly influential in describing dimensional modeling techniques for SCDs (see The Data Warehouse Toolkit. Logical view Cycle_Time Order_ID Fact1 Fact2 Business case 3: Slowly changing dimensions Slowly changing dimensions (SCDs) are a common characteristic in many business intelligence environments. . For example. For example.

The discussion below is based on an example sales organization that changes slowly in time as the territories are reorganized. As-is vs. For example. “As-was” analysis presents a historical view of the slowly changing relationships. Logical view examples 379 . sales representatives switch districts in time. and so forth. and Kelly moved from District 38 to 39 on 7/1/2004. a Type II SCD preserves the history of a dimensional relationship. In the example below. as-was analysis One of the capabilities available with slowly changing dimensions is the ability to perform either “as-is” analysis or “as-was” analysis: • “As-is” analysis presents a current view of the slowly changing relationships.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C presents only the current view of a dimensional relationship. © 2007 MicroStrategy. please refer to Lookup tables: Attribute storage. for example. For example. show me sales by District according to the way Districts were organized at the time the sales transactions occurred. They also provide you an easy way to specify which type of analysis you would like to perform. Sales Rep Jones moved from District 37 to District 39 on 1/1/2004. For information on compound keys. page 43. Example 1: Compound key with Effective Date and End Date One way to physically store an SCD is to employ Effective Date and End Date columns that capture the period of time during which each element relationship existed. • The techniques described here provide the flexibility to perform either type of analysis. Inc. show me sales by District according to the way Districts are organized today.

Inc. the fact table must include a date field.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide LU_SALES_REP Sales_Rep_ID 1 2 3 4 1 3 Sales_Rep_Name Jones Smith Kelly Madison Jones Kelly District_ID 37 37 38 38 39 39 Eff_Dt 1/1/1900 1/1/1900 1/1/1900 1/1/1900 1/1/2004 7/1/2004 End_Dt 12/31/2003 12/31/2099 6/30/2004 12/31/2099 12/31/2099 12/31/2099 When using this type of dimensional lookup table. . LVW_CURRENT_ORG 380 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. such as a transaction date. FACT_TABLE Sales_Rep_ID 1 2 3 1 2 3 2 3 4 Trans_Dt 9/1/2003 9/10/2003 9/15/2003 3/1/2004 3/10/2004 3/15/2004 9/5/2004 9/15/2004 9/20/2004 Sales 100 200 150 200 250 300 125 275 150 To specify the MicroStrategy schema 1 Create a logical view to represent just the current District-Sales Rep relationships.

LVW_HIST_DISTRICT_SALES select District_ID. Inc. Trans_Dt. LVW_CURRENT_ORG.Sales_Rep_ID = F. Logical view examples 381 .Project Design Guide Logical Tables C select Sales_Rep_ID. resulting in a fact view at the District level. @Desc = district_name – Tables: LU_CURRENT_DISTRICT (lookup). 4 Define the following attributes: • Sales Rep: – @ID = sales_rep_id.Sales_Rep_ID) where F.Eff_Dt and L. which captures the Sales Rep-District relationships that existed at the time the transactions occurred. Trans_Dt 3 Create a table alias LU_CURRENT_DISTRICT for LU_DISTRICT. FACT_TABLE • Current District: – @ID = district_id. The resulting view is an “as-was” or historical view.Trans_Dt between L.End_Dt group by District_ID. sum(sales) sales from LU_SALES_REP L join FACT_TABLE F on(L. LVW_CURRENT_ORG – Child: Sales Rep • Historical District: – @ID = district_id. @Desc = sales_rep_name – Tables: LU_SALES_REP (lookup). @Desc = district_name © 2007 MicroStrategy. District_ID from LU_SALES_REP where End_Dt = '12/31/2099' 2 Create another logical view that performs the “as-was” join between the lookup table and fact table.

trans_dt – Tables: LU_TIME (lookup) . .C Logical Tables Project Design Guide – Tables: LU_DISTRICT (lookup). Inc. LVW_HIST_DISTRICT_SALES – Child: Sales Rep • Date: – @ID = date_id. LVW_HIST_DISTRICT_SALES 6 Define the metric as required: • Sales: SUM(sales) The result of this is a logical schema that looks like the following: LU_CURRENT_DISTRICT LU_CURRENT_ORG LU_SALES_REP FACT_TABLE Current District Sales Rep Current District Sales Rep Historical District Sales Rep Date Sales LU_TIME Date LVW_HISTORICAL_ DISTRICT_SALES Month Historical District Date Sales 382 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. FACT_TABLE. LVW_HIST_DISTRICT_SALES • Month: – @ID = MONTH_ID – Tables: LU_TIME (lookup) 5 Define the Sales fact: • • Expression: sales Tables: FACT_TABLE. LU_SALES_REP.

Trans_dt = a12.District_ID) group by a11. sum(a11. Sales Resulting SQL Select a11.Sales_rep_ID = F.trans_dt between L.District_Name) District_Name.EFF_DT and L. Month. Month. a12.Month_ID • Report results As-is analysis Specify the “as-is” analysis by using the Current District attribute on reports: • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. a12.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C As-was analysis Specify the “as-was” analysis by using the Historical District attribute on reports: • • Report definition: Historical District. Sales Resulting SQL Logical view examples 383 . Trans_dt) a11 join LU_TIME a12 on (a11.END_DT group by District_ID. max(a13. Trans_dt.District_ID =a13. Inc.sum(sales) sales from LU_SALES_REP L join FACT_TABLE F on (L.Month_ID Month_ID.SALES) WJXBFS1 From (select District_ID.Date_ID) join LU_DISTRICT a13 on (a11.Distrcit_ID.Sales_rep_ID) where F.District_ID District_ID. Report definition: Current District.

Another common characteristic is to include an indicator field that identifies the current relationship records.SALES) WJXBFS1 from FACT_TABLE a11 join (select Sales_rep_ID.District_ID = a14.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide select a12.District_ID) group by a12. LU_SALES_REP Sales_Rep_CD 1 2 3 Sales_Rep_ID 1 2 3 Sales_Rep_Name Jones Smith Kelly District_ID 37 37 38 Current_Flag 0 1 0 384 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy.Date_ID) join LU_DISTRICT a14 on (a12. a13. An example set of records is shown below. . Inc.Trans_dt = a13.District_ID.District_ID District_ID. District_ID from LU_SALES_REP where END_DT = '12/31/2099')a12 on (a11.District_Name) District_Name.Sales_Rep_ID = a12. a13. max (a14.Month_ID • Report result Example 2: New surrogate key for each changing element A more flexible way to physically store a SCD is to employ surrogate keys and introduce new rows in the dimension table whenever a dimensional relationship changes. sum(a11.Sales_Rep_ID) join LU_TIME a13 on (a11.Month_ID Month_ID.

A transaction date field may or may not exist. LVW_CURRENT_ORG select Sales_rep_ID.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C Sales_Rep_CD 4 5 6 Sales_Rep_ID 4 1 3 Sales_Rep_Name Madison Jones Kelly District_ID 38 39 39 Current_Flag 1 1 1 When using this type of dimensional lookup table. the fact table must also include the surrogate key. Logical view examples 385 . District_ID from LU_SALES_REP where Current_flag = 1 2 Create a table alias LU_CURRENT_DISTRICT for LU_DISTRICT. FACT_TABLE Sale-Rep_CD 1 2 3 5 2 3 2 6 4 Sale 100 200 150 200 250 300 125 275 150 Specifying the MicroStrategy schema 1 Create a logical view to represent just the current District-Sales Rep relationship. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc.

C Logical Tables Project Design Guide 3 Define the following attributes: • Sales Rep Surrogate: – @ID = sales_rep_cd – Tables: LU_SALES_REP (lookup). trans_dt – Tables: LU_TIME (lookup). @Desc = district_name – Tables: LU_CURRENT_DISTRICT (lookup). . Inc. FACT_TABLE • Month: – @ID = MONTH_ID – Tables: LU_TIME (lookup) – Child: Date 4 Define the Sales fact: • Expression: sales 386 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. @Desc = district_name – Tables: LU_DISTRICT (lookup). LVW_CURRENT_ORG – Child: Sales Rep • Historical District: – @ID = district_id. LVW_CURRENT_ORG – Child: Sales Rep Surrogate • Current District: – @ID = district_id. LU_SALES_REP – Child: Sales Rep • Date: – @ID = date_id. @Desc = sales_rep_name – Tables: LU_SALES_REP (lookup). FACT_TABLE • Sales Rep: – @ID = sales_rep_id.

sum(a11.Month_ID Month_ID.SALES) WJXBFS1 from FACT_TABLE a11 join LU_SALES_REP a12 on (a11. LVW_HIST_DISTRICT_SALES 5 Define the metric as required: • Sales: SUM(sales) The result is a logical schema as follows: LU_CURRENT_DISTRICT LU_CURRENT_ORG LU_SALES_REP FACT_TABLE LU_TIME Current District Sales Rep Current District Sales Rep Surrogate Sale rep Historical District Sales Rep Surrogate Date Sales Date Month LVW_HISTORICAL_ DISTRICT_SALES Historical District As-was analysis Specify the “as-was” analysis by using the Historical District attribute on reports: • • Report definition: Historical District.Distrcit_Name) Distrcit_Name.Trans_dt = a13.Date_ID) join LU_DISTRICT a14 on (a12.Sales_Rep_CD = a12. Sales Resulting SQL select a12. Month. Logical view examples 387 .District_ID District_ID. a13. max(a14.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C • Tables: FACT_TABLE. Inc.District_ID = © 2007 MicroStrategy.Sales_Rep_CD) join LU_TIME a13 on (a11.

a14.Month_ID • Report results As-is analysis Specify the “as-is” analysis by using the Current District attribute on reports: • • Report definition: Current District. District_ID from LU_SALES_REP where current_flag = 1) a13 on (a12.Sales_Rep_CD) join (select Sales_rep_ID. .SALES) WJXBFS1 from FACT_TABLE a11 join LU_SALES_REP a12 on (a11. a13. sum(a11.District_ID = a15.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide a14.District_ID District_ID.Sales_Rep_CD = a12. Sales Resulting SQL: select a13.Distrcit_Name) District_Name. Inc.Date_ID) join LU_DISTRICT a15 on (a13. a14.Month_ID Month_ID.Sales_Rep_ID) join LU_TIME a14 on (a11.District_ID.Sales_Rep_ID = a13. max(a15.Month_ID 388 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy.District_ID.District_ID) group by a13.District_ID) group by a12. Month.Trans_dt = a14.

day_date) = YEAR(B. Although one-to-one transformations. such as month-to-date and year-to-date calculations. one-to-many transformations require tables in the database that map each date to all the previous dates that make up “month-to-date”.day_date) © 2007 MicroStrategy. lu_day B Where A. lu_day B Where A. can be defined in terms of an expression.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C • Report result Business case 4: One-to-many transformation tables In order to support time-series analysis.day_date mtd_date From lu_day A.day_date >= B. Select day_date day_date. The MTD transformation can then be defined using the MTD_DATE column. B. Select A.day_date)= MONTH(B. such as Last Month.day_date ytd_date From lu_day A. If you do not already have such a table in the warehouse and your circumstances do not allow you to add additional tables to the database. then you can use the logical view approach to address this issue as long as you already have a lookup table for the Day attribute. you need to define transformations. B. The SQL below can be used to define a logical MTD_DATE table.day_date And YEAR(A.day_date >= B.day_date) The same technique can be used to define a year-t0-date transformation.day_date day_date. Logical view examples 389 .day_date And MONTH(A. Inc. which contains the Day attribute.

For example..C Logical Tables Project Design Guide Business case 5: Outer joins between attribute lookup tables A common request is the ability to generate an outer join between attribute lookup tables for a report that contains only attributes (that is.. which means not all employees have contacts on record. One of the reports you probably would like to create may look like the following: Employee Gonzalez... you could model an attribute hierarchy as follows: • • • Business Unit -< Department -< Employee Hire Date -< Employee Emergency Contact -< Employee In addition. no metrics). Mary Walker.. James Dawson. Jane Taylor.. Inc. Abraham Walker. John Larkins.. . Martha . Department Marketing Finance R&D Finance . Dawson. 390 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. Emergency Contact Phone Number NULLS are displayed for employees who do not have emergency contacts. 555-1212 555-3456 555-9876 . consider the tables below.. EMPLOYEE EMP_ID FIRST_NAME LAST_NAME HIRE_DATE DEPT_ID EMERGENCY CONTACT EMP_ID CONTACT_FIRST_NAME CONTACT_LAST_NAME CONTACT_PHONE_NUMBER DEPARTMENT DEPT_ID DEPT_NAME BUS_UNIT_ID Given this structure. the relationship between Employees and Emergency Contacts is such that each employee may have up to one contact. George .

EMPLOYEE Child: Employee • Hire Date: @ID = HIRE_DATE Tables: EMPLOYEE (lookup) Child: Employee • Emergency Contact: @ID = CONTACT_PHONE_NUMBER.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C However. © 2007 MicroStrategy. In order to see all employees. @[Last Name] = CONTACT_LAST_NAME Tables: EMERGENCY_CONTACT (lookup) Child: Employee Using the above model. @[Last Name] = LAST_NAME Tables: EMPLOYEE (lookup). EMERGENCY_CONTACT • Department: @ID = DEPT_ID Tables: DEPARTMENT (lookup). you would not get the desired output: • Employee: @ID = EMP_ID. the SQL generated would join the EMPLOYEE table to the EMERGENCY_CONTACT table. @[First Name] = FIRST_NAME. @[First Name] = CONTACT_FIRST_NAME. Logical view examples 391 . Inc. described as follows. and only those employees who have emergency contacts would appear in the final result. if you model the attributes as described below. you can perform an outer join using a logical view.

EMP_ID. E.CONTACT_PHONE_NUMBER from EMPLOYEE E left outer join EMERGENCY_CONTACT C on (E. EMPLOYEE). C. @[First Name] = FIRST_NAME.CONTACT_FIRST_NAME.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide Using a logical view for an outer join To perform an outer join for the case described above. E.CONTACT_LAST_NAME.EMP_ID = C.LAST_NAME.DEPT_ID. . C. E. Inc. LVW_EMERGENCY_CONTACT 392 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. The new logical table LVW_EMERGENCY_CONTACT can then be used to define attributes as follows: • Employee: @ID = EMP_ID.EMP_ID) LVW_EMERGENCY_CONTACT EMP_ID FIRST_NAME LAST_NAME HIRE_DATE DEPT_ID CONTACT_FIRST_NAME CONTACT_LAST_NAME CONTACT_PHONE_NUMBER Make sure to include all columns from the original child table (for example.HIRE_DATE. @[Last Name] = LAST_NAME Tables: EMPLOYEE (lookup). E.FIRST_NAME. C. you can use the following SQL and the list of columns to map to the view: select E.

Inc. @[First Name] = CONTACT_FIRST_NAME. The technique does not work when the lookup tables should sometimes be outer joined and sometimes be inner joined. the EMERGENCY_CONTACT table will be joined only when necessary. © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C • Department: @ID = DEPT_ID Tables: DEPARTMENT (lookup). the EMPLOYEE table will be outer joined to the EMERGENCY_CONTACT table. Also note that if we run a report that includes only the Employee attribute. This technique is applicable any time that the lookup tables should always be outer joined. and NULLs will be returned for any employees who do not have emergency contacts. Logical view examples 393 . it will be executed against the EMPLOYEE table. Now if we run a report with Employee and Emergency Contact attributes. LVW_EMERGENCY_CONTACT Child: Employee • Emergency Contact: @ID = CONTACT_PHONE_NUMBER. LVW_EMERGENCY_CONTACT Child: Employee • Hire Date: @ID = HIRE_DATE Tables: EMPLOYEE (lookup). @[Last Name] = CONTACT_LAST_NAME Tables: EMERGENCY_CONTACT (lookup). EMPLOYEE. LVW_EMERGENCY_CONTACT Child: Employee The Employee attribute is not represented in the original EMERGENCY_CONTACT table and all attributes represented in the EMPLOYEE table are also represented in the LVW_EMERGENCY_CONTACT table.

C Logical Tables Project Design Guide 394 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. .

D D. MicroStrategy generalizes them into a set of MicroStrategy-specific data types. MicroStrategy must be aware of the data types that exist in your database. Mapping of external data types to MicroStrategy data types 395 . Each column from your database becomes associated with a MicroStrategy data type. © 2007 MicroStrategy. MicroStrategy automatically maps the columns within those tables to MicroStrategy-specific data types. DATA TYPES Introduction To generate SQL or retrieve data from data sources. Inc. As each RDBMS supports a different set of data types. Mapping of external data types to MicroStrategy data types When you create a project and add tables from your data warehouse to the MicroStrategy Warehouse Catalog.

MicroStrategy must map every column brought into the project schema to an internal data type. . “INTEGER. a column within that table has a data type of “SMALLINT.D Data Types Project Design Guide This external-to-internal mapping is necessary. as with custom groups.pds) in any way. and data mart tables. Suppose you add a table to the Warehouse Catalog. For more information about data marts and custom groups. The data type is also used whenever multi-pass SQL is used. for example. in part.” MicroStrategy maps this column to a MicroStrategy-specific data type. 396 Mapping of external data types to MicroStrategy data types © 2007 MicroStrategy. For information about how your relational database’s data types are mapped to MicroStrategy data types and the specific mappings that pertain to your RDBMS.” This allows MicroStrategy to maintain a consistent SQL generation process. refer to MicroStrategy Technical Note TN5200-7X0-0166. because each database names data types in different ways. The MicroStrategy data type stores data values internally and in the metadata repository and is later used during SQL generation when defining intermediate tables. Data types that may be conceptually the same can have different names. It is strongly recommended that you do not alter the mapping file (DTMAPPING. and generating the correct syntax for literals. In your relational database. Inc. Therefore. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide.

Similar to ANSI INTEGER. Date Calendar dates. LongVarChar Large strings of characters. Similar to ANSI REAL. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. Similar to ANSI NUMERIC. Similar to ANSI DECIMAL. Integer Signed integer values. Float 4-byte floating point numbers. Real 4-byte floating point numbers. Similar to ANSI BIT.Project Design Guide Data Types D MicroStrategy data types When the data warehouse catalog is read from the Warehouse Catalog. Similar to ANSI BLOB. Numeric Fixed point numbers up to 15 digits of precision. MicroStrategy data types 397 . Similar to ANSI FLOAT. Similar to ANSI CHAR. Double 8-byte floating point numbers. Similar to ANSI DATE. LongVarBin Large strings of bits. Similar to ANSI TIMESTAMP. Fixed-length bit strings. Time Time of day. Data Type Big Decimal Binary Description High-precision fixed point numbers. Unsigned Unsigned integer values. Similar to ANSI CLOB. Decimal Fixed point numbers up to 15 digits of precision. Char Fixed-length character strings. all columns in the database are automatically mapped to one of the following MicroStrategy data types. Timestamp Combinations of calendar date and time of day. Similar to ANSI TIME. Similar to ANSI DOUBLE PRECISION.

page 400. which specifies how attribute form values should be displayed on MicroStrategy interfaces. which represents high-precision fixed point numbers. Format Type Big Decimal Description Information is stored and displayed in the Big Decimal form. Information is stored and displayed as an HTML tag. Date Datetime Email HTML Tag Number 398 Format types © 2007 MicroStrategy. Format types Attribute forms are also associated with a MicroStrategy format type. For more information about Big Decimal. Information is stored and displayed as dates in a sequential form to perform calculations on the dates. You specify the format type of an attribute form in the Form Format: Type drop-down menu in the Attribute Editor. It represents dates in the MM/DD/YYYY format. see Big Decimal. . Similar to ANSI BIT VARYING. Varchar Variable-length character strings. Information is stored and displayed in the form of an e-mail address. Information is stored and displayed both as date and time in the format specific to the data.D Data Types Project Design Guide Data Type Varbin Description Variable-length bit strings. Inc. If the Warehouse Catalog displays a column with data type as Unknown. The attribute form format types are described in the following table. it implies that the data type in the database has not mapped to one of the MicroStrategy data types. The date follows the MM/DD/YYYY format and time follows the HH:MM:SS format. Similar to ANSI VARCHAR. Information is stored and displayed in a number format.

If you select a format type that is incompatible with the data type and click OK to exit the Attribute Editor. However. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Information is stored and displayed as time in the HH:MM:SS format. Data type and format type compatibility 399 . such as bitmap. This displays only the time and not the date. you edit the ID form of the Year attribute in the Attribute Editor. Although you have the option to continue by clicking Yes. This format type must be compatible with the data type you assigned in the Column Alias tab. Information is stored and displayed as either an absolute or a relative Universal Resource Locator. In the Column Alias tab. you notice that the Year attribute is assigned an “Integer” data type. JPG. a warning message appears notifying you of the incompatibility. for example—you must also change the format type of the attribute. The data type of your column must be consistent with the format type you select because SQL generation issues can occur if the format type and data type are incompatible. URL Data type and format type compatibility If you change the MicroStrategy data type of one of the columns in your project—using a column alias. you must select an appropriate format type from the Form Format: Type drop-down menu.Project Design Guide Data Types D Format Type Picture Text Time Description stored and displayed the form of an image file. You are warned in the Attribute Editor whenever you have selected a format type that is incompatible with the data type of your column. When you return to the Definition pane in the Attribute Editor. For example. you create a new column alias and assign it the “Date” data type. Inc. Information is stored and displayed in a text format. or GIF. doing so can still result in SQL generation issues.

Datetime Datetime. Text depending on data Picture. Picture Big Decimal Big Decimal is a MicroStrategy-specific data type that allows users to support high-precision attribute ID values that have more than 15 digits of precision. such as BIGINT and 400 Big Decimal © 2007 MicroStrategy. Text Text. Datetime Number Number Number Number Picture. Date or Time depending on data Number Picture. URL. . E-mail. Data Type Big Decimal Binary Char Date Decimal Double Float Integer LongVarBin LongVarChar Numeric Real Time Timestamp Unsigned Varbin Varchar Compatible Format Types Big Decimal Number. HTML Tag. Text Number Number Time. Text. URL. Picture Text. Different format types are compatible with different data types given the specific data in your column. E-mail. Inc. HTML Tag Date.D Data Types Project Design Guide The following chart is intended to guide you in assigning format types that are compatible with the data type you have assigned to a column. some of the data type-format type combinations below may not work with your specific data. Therefore.

If you do not associate high-precision database fields with the Big Decimal data type.Project Design Guide Data Types D DECIMAL (precision. Examples of such attribute ID values are account numbers. MicroStrategy preserves the precision of attribute ID values and attribute ID forms when displaying IDs and performing operations such as filtering. Using the Big Decimal data type With the Big Decimal data type. you must also select Big Decimal as the form format type in the Form format: Type drop-down menu in the Definition tab. Attribute form: If you change the column data type to Big Decimal on the Column Alias tab in the Attribute Editor. credit card numbers. Inc. These numeric columns can have more than 15 digits of precision. and long integers. • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. When using the Big Decimal data type. you may see numbers truncated starting with the 16th digit. Big Decimal 401 . For example. and page-by may not return results. Attribute ID: Follow the steps in the topic Defining attributes with high-precision ID forms in the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. You must use the Big Decimal data type to handle these values. see the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. drilling. even though 12345678 does not necessarily require the Big Decimal data type. and page-by. The WHERE clause in the report SQL statement in drill reports may truncate numbers starting from the 16th digit. follow the rules listed below: • Constant: You can force a constant to be stored as a Big Decimal value by enclosing it in hash marks. such as account numbers and other long integers. scale) data types. you can define a filter as "Customer@ID exactly #12345678#". You can define attributes that are identified by numeric columns in the database. For more information about these operations. because these data values have higher precision and cannot be stored in normal numeric data types.

When qualifying on a Big Decimal metric. Some number formatting strings are not supported in MicroStrategy Desktop. This is because Big Decimal should only be used when the column is used as an attribute ID form. s) columns to the Big Decimal MicroStrategy data type even when the precision is greater than 15. or metric values are displayed in Graph view.D Data Types Project Design Guide • Metric: Although it is possible to define Big Decimal as the data type for metric values. Number formatting strings are not supported on the Web. 402 Big Decimal © 2007 MicroStrategy. For example. you must explicitly identify high-precision constants by enclosing the value within hash (#) symbols. the metric is subtotaled. Note that the Warehouse Catalog does not automatically map DECIMAL(p. the metric is used in a calculated field in a document. s) or NUMERIC(p. #1234567890123456#. . consider the following drawbacks: Precision is lost when any Analytical Engine calculation is performed. Inc.

custom groups. MAX. application-level In application-level partitioning. All of these objects can be built and manipulated in MicroStrategy Desktop. the application rather than partition the database server manages the partition tables. © 2007 MicroStrategy. COUNT. filters. aggregate function 403 .GLOSSARY aggregate function A numeric function that acts on a column of data and produces a single result. MIN. aggregate table A fact table that stores data that has been aggregated along one or more dimensions. documents. templates. Compare database-level partition. metrics. MicroStrategy supports two methods of application-level partitioning: metadata partition mapping and warehouse partition mapping. and prompts are derived from schema objects. Reports and documents can also be created and manipulated in MicroStrategy Web. The definition of application objects such as reports. See pre-aggregation. and AVG. Inc. application object An object used to provide analysis of and insight into relevant data. Examples include SUM.

and Year. defined by the attribute forms. Order. February. See also: • • • • • • attribute element attribute form child attribute constant attribute derived attribute parent attribute attribute element A unique set of information for an attribute. For example. Attributes include data classifications like Region. and March are elements of the attribute Month. attribute form A mapping to the columns in the warehouse that are used to expression represent a specific attribute form in SQL. Every attribute supports its own collection of forms. Age. For example. attribute role A database column that is used to define more than one attribute. 404 attribute © 2007 MicroStrategy. They provide a means for aggregating and filtering at a given level. Last Name. . Name. Long Description.Glossary Project Design Guide attribute A data level defined by the system architect and associated with one or more columns in a data warehouse lookup table. January. Customer. City. New York and Dallas are elements of the attribute City. Billing City and Shipping City are two attributes that have the same table and columns defined as a lookup table. Item. attribute relationship See relationship. Inc. and Abbreviation could be forms of the attribute Customer. attribute form One of several columns associated with an attribute that are different aspects of the same thing. ID.

and Page. whose execution is faster because they need not run against the database. consolidations. cardinality The number of unique elements for an attribute. axis 405 . he places template units—attributes. In the MicroStrategy environment. When a user defines a template for a report. This is normally done for frequently requested reports. and custom groups—along each axis.Project Design Guide Glossary axis A vector along which data is displayed. There are three axes—Row. when a user runs a report for the first time. the results can be returned immediately without having to wait for the database to process the job the next time the report is run. Column. metrics. Inc. business intelligence A system that facilitates the analysis of volumes of complex (BI) system data by providing the ability to view data from multiple perspectives. Results from the data warehouse are stored separately and can be used by new job requests that require the same data. the job is submitted to the database for processing. However. See also: • • column row base fact column A fact column represented by a single column in a fact table. © 2007 MicroStrategy. browse attribute An attribute a user can directly browse to from a given attribute in a user hierarchy. cache A special data store holding recently accessed information for quick future access. if the results of that report are cached. dimensions.

See also: • • axis row column alias In a fact definition. compound key In a relational database. 406 child attribute © 2007 MicroStrategy. See also: • • parent attribute relationship column 1) A one-dimensional vertical array of values in a table. a primary key consisting of more than one database column. This is used to determine where aggregate tables would have the greatest impact. Column aliases also include the data type to be used for the fact and allow you to modify the names of existing metrics for use in data mart reports without affecting the original metric. The larger the compression ratio between two attributes. the specific name of the column to be used in temporary tables and SQL statements. compression ratio The average number of child records combined to calculate one parent record. the more you stand to gain by creating an aggregate table that pre-calculates the higher-level data. Inc. . 3) MicroStrategy object in the schema layer that can represent one or more physical table columns or no columns. For example. the compression of ratio between monthly data and yearly data is 12:1.Glossary Project Design Guide child attribute The lower-level attribute in an attribute relationship. compound attribute An attribute that has more than one key (ID) form. 2) The set of fields of a given name and data type in all the rows of a given table.

system. and analysis. Other data sources include text files. Configuration objects include these object types: users. Used for decision support or business intelligence. constant attribute See implicit attribute. reporting. or storage location which stores data that is to be used in MicroStrategy for query. and analysis. which refers more specifically to using a database as your data source. See also: • • data warehouse OLAP cube source data warehouse 1) A database. Excel files. Users can navigate through hierarchies of attributes that are defined by the administrator to find the data they need. data source A data source is any file. database instances. and OLAP cube sources such as SAP BW. containing the historical data of an enterprise. Inc. © 2007 MicroStrategy. reporting. Data Explorer A portion of the interface used to browse through data contained in the warehouse. typically very large. schedules. it organizes data and allows coordinated updates and loads. A data warehouse can be thought of as one type of data source.Project Design Guide Glossary conditionality Conditionality of a metric enables you to associate an existing filter object with the metric so that only data that meets the filter conditions is included in the calculation. Microsoft Analysis Services 2000 and 2005. See also data source. database login IDs. and Hyperion Essbase. configuration object A MicroStrategy object appearing in the system layer and usable across multiple projects. 2) A copy of transaction data specifically structured for query. conditionality 407 .

408 database instance © 2007 MicroStrategy. Although it is technically possible to have more than one instance running on a machine. derived fact column A fact column created through a mathematical combination of other existing fact columns. description column Optional columns that contain text descriptions of attribute elements. Login ID and password. lower attribute level. It is calculated by Intelligence Server. derived metric A metric based on data already available in a report. . Age might be calculated from this expression: Current Date–Birth Date Compare implicit attribute. that is. Database server software running on a particular machine. calculations on other metrics. such as the data warehouse DSN. 2. Use a derived metric to perform column math. derived attribute An attribute calculated from a mathematical operation on columns in a warehouse table. and other data warehouse specific information. A MicroStrategy object created in MicroStrategy Desktop that represents a connection to the warehouse. Compare allocation. on report data after it has been returned from the database. there is usually only one instance per machine. not in the database. For example. A database instance specifies warehouse connection information. degradation A type of fact extension in which values at one level of aggregation are reported at a second.Glossary Project Design Guide database instance 1. Inc.

drill 409 . entry level The lowest level set of attributes at which a fact is available for analysis. reclassification. entity relationship A diagram that provides a graphical representation of the diagram (ERD) physical structure of the data in the source system. viewing the list of months in a year. entry point In a user hierarchy. See also: • • • • • page-by pivot sort subtotal surf dynamic relationship When the relationship between elements of parent and child attributes changes. © 2007 MicroStrategy. or discontinuation of items or services. a shortcut to an attribute in the Data Explorer which is helpful in allowing users to more easily access frequently-used attributes in the Data Explorer. a store may decide to reclassify the department to which items belong. For example. For example. or the addition. These changes often occur because of organizational restructuring. geographical realignment. which lets you easily recognize tables and columns and the data stored in those columns. The new data is retrieved by re-querying the Intelligent Cube or database at a different attribute or fact level. element browsing Navigating through hierarchies of attribute elements.Project Design Guide Glossary drill A method of obtaining supplementary information after a report has been executed. Inc.

and disparate existing database systems. fact column A column in a database table that contains fact data. 410 extraction. or inventory quantities in counts. 2) A schema object representing a column in a data warehouse table and containing basic or aggregated numbers—usually prices. Facts can have multiple fact expressions. Multiple qualifications in a single filter are combined using logical operators. often numeric and typically aggregatable. fact 1) A measurement value. . since a report queries the database against all the data stored in the data warehouse. See also metric. Using a filter on a report narrows the data to consider only the information that is relevant to answer your business question. filter A MicroStrategy object that specifies the conditions that the data must meet to be included in the report results. Examples include "Region = Northeast" or "Revenue > $1 million". A filter is composed of at least one qualification. Inc.Glossary Project Design Guide extraction. Fact tables can contain atomic or summarized data. transformation. Fact expressions can be as simple as a fact column name from the warehouse or as sophisticated as a formula containing fact columns and numeric constants. A filter is normally implemented in the SQL WHERE clause. and loading (ETL) © 2007 MicroStrategy. loading (ETL) 2) Third-party software used to facilitate such a process. which is the actual condition that must be met for the data to be included on a report. or sales in dollars. fact table A database table containing numeric data that can be aggregated along one or more dimensions. 1) The process used to populate a data warehouse from transformation. fact expression A mapping of facts to physical columns in the warehouse. stored in a data warehouse.

Such an attribute has its expression defined as a constant value. form group 411 © 2007 MicroStrategy. ID column A column that contains attribute element identification codes. Inc. one column named Customer in one table and one named Customer Name in a different table. For example.Project Design Guide Glossary form group A grouping of attribute forms that are related in a way that justifies combining the forms into a single form. though nothing is saved in a column. homogeneous column Columns in different tables of a database that contain the naming same data and have the same column name. you may wish to create columns in the database with a value of 1 for every row to get around COUNT limitations. which identifies that an attribute form requires more than one ID column to uniquely identify its elements. implicit attribute An attribute that does not physically exist in the database because it is created at the application level. All attributes must have an ID column. both containing customer names. The order of the attributes is typically—though not always—defined such that a higher attribute has a one-to-many relationship with its child attributes. highly normalized Schema type where lookup tables contain unique schema developer-designed attribute keys. You do not have to actually create the column. For example. See also compound key. A form group must be created to create a compound key. highly denormalized Schema type where not only are higher-level attribute ID schema columns present within all related tables. though. because in the Attribute Editor. heterogeneous column Columns in different tables in a database that store the same naming data but have different names. hierarchy A set of attributes defining a meaningful path for element browsing or drilling. . but the description columns are present as well.

They typically consist of descriptions of dimensions. A business might run this promotion around Valentine's Day (Q1) and again at Christmas time (Q4). When analyzing data. locked hierarchy A hierarchy that has at least one attribute that may not be browsed by end users. Any constant is acceptable. These relationships can be modeled and conceptualized like traditional attributes.Glossary Project Design Guide you can just enter a “1” in the expression to create a count. which arranges data for efficient database use. where you can sum the column holding the constant to create a COUNT. Inc. item. joint children Joint child relationships are another type of many-to-many relationship where one attribute has a many-to-many relationship to two otherwise unrelated attributes. as opposed to the physical data model or warehouse schema. Lookup tables are usually joined to fact tables to group the numeric facts in the fact table by dimensional attributes in the lookup tables. Compare derived attribute. promotion has a many-to-many relationship to both item and quarter. . You can use constant attributes when building metrics. An example of a promotion might be a “Red Sale” where all red items are on sale. and quarter. 412 joint children © 2007 MicroStrategy. lookup table A database table used to uniquely identify attribute elements. Implicit attributes are useful in analyzing and retrieving information. In this case. but like facts.For example. logical data model A graphical representation of data that is arranged logically for the general user. consider the relationship between three attributes: promotion. they exist at the intersection of multiple attribute levels. you can use constant attributes to create a COUNT to keep track of the number of rows returned. Hierarchies are usually locked if there are so many attribute elements that element browsing is not usable.

terms. Query Builder. and OLAP cube reports. © 2007 MicroStrategy. See also metadata shell.Project Design Guide Glossary managed object A schema object unrelated to the project schema. and (2) every element of the child attribute can relate to multiple elements of the parent. many-to-many An attribute relationship in which multiple elements of a parent attribute can relate to multiple elements of a child attribute. See also: • • • • one-to-one one-to-many many-to-one relationship many-to-one An attribute relationship in which (1) multiple elements of a parent attribute relate to only one element of a child attribute. Inc. It can even be held in a different RDBMS. and needs to the underlying database structure. Metadata can reside on the same server as the data warehouse or on a different database server. Managed objects are used to map data to attributes. which is created by the system and stored in a separate system folder. hierarchies and other schema objects for Freeform SQL. metrics. managed object 413 . See also: • • • • one-to-one one-to-many many-to-many relationship metadata A repository whose data associates the tables and columns of a data warehouse with user-defined attributes and facts to enable the mapping of the business view. and vice versa.

moderately normalized Schema type having the same basic structure as the highly schema normalized schema. used by the user to achieve the goal of specified data analysis. In MicroStrategy.Glossary Project Design Guide metadata shell A set of blank tables that are created when you initially implement a MicroStrategy business intelligence environment. reports.[Cost] 2) The MicroStrategy object that contains the metric definition. facts. More concretely. the process terminates. See also fact. object Conceptually. When the primary thread terminates. and mobile devices. narrowcast application In a business intelligence environment. attributes. metrics. MOLAP Multidimensional online analytical processing. file services. See also metadata. Narrowcast Server is a proactive information delivery server that allows for this distribution of information through e-mail. an object is any item that can be selected and manipulated. or other metrics. an object is the highest grouping level of information about one concept. and so on. but here the higher-level attribute ID columns are present within all related tables. For example: sum(dollar_sales) or [Sales] . an application that allows for the distribution of personalized business information to subscribed users. facts. printers. . 414 metadata shell © 2007 MicroStrategy. metric 1) A business calculation defined by an expression built with functions. SMS. Inc. The startup code initiates the primary thread of a process by passing the main function address to the operating system. including folders. multithreaded Characteristic of a process that supports the simultaneous execution of multiple threads.

OLAP cube 415 . The one-to-many attribute relationship is the most common in data models. while every element of the child attribute relates to only one element of the parent. and analyze data with MicroStrategy. Inc. See also: • • OLAP cube data source one-to-many An attribute relationship in which every element of a parent attribute can relate to multiple elements of a child attribute. See also: • • • • one-to-one many-to-many many-to-one relationship © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide Glossary OLAP cube An OLAP cube is a collection or set of data retrieved from an OLAP cube source. and analysis on the data. reporting. report on. and Hyperion Essbase are referred to as OLAP cube sources. You can import and map data from these different OLAP cube sources in MicroStrategy to query. Microsoft Analysis Services. which is imported into MicroStrategy and mapped to various objects to allow query. the third-party tools SAP BW. OLAP cube source When integrated with MicroStrategy. MicroStrategy can integrate with OLAP cube source data as well as access data from a relational database concurrently. See also OLAP cube source.

databases or mainframes that store transactional processing (OTLP) data. withdrawals. consolidations. or deposits. The slice is characterized by the choice of elements on the Page axis. Since a grid is two-dimensional. See also: • • • • • drill pivot sort subtotal surf 416 one-to-one © 2007 MicroStrategy. and metrics on a third axis called the Page axis. page-by Segmenting data in a grid report by placing available attributes. Inc. percent to total contributions. online transaction Typically. Transactional processing involves the simple recording of transactions such as sales. and vice versa. . inventory. trend reporting.Glossary Project Design Guide one-to-one An attribute relationship in which every element of the parent attribute relates to exactly one element of the child attribute. the user can page through the cube. only a slice of the cube can be seen at any one time. See also: • • • • one-to-many many-to-one many-to-many relationship online analytical A system with analytical processing that involves activities processing (OLAP) such as manipulating transaction records to calculate sales trends. By varying the selection of elements. growth patterns. and profit analysis.

such as time or geography. Inc. such as month or department. while the opposite is not necessarily true. Also referred to as a PBT. See also: • • • • relationship one-to-many many-to-one many-to-many partition base table A warehouse table that contains one part of a larger set of data. See also: • • child attribute relationship partial relationship An attribute relationship in which elements of one attribute relate to elements of a second attribute. Partition tables are usually divided along logical lines. By distributing usage across multiple tables. Partitions minimize the number of tables and records within a table that must be read to satisfy queries issued against the warehouse. parent attribute 417 . partitions improve the speed and efficiency of database queries. See also partition mapping. partition mapping The division of large logical tables into smaller physical tables based on a definable data level. © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide Glossary parent attribute The higher-level attribute in an attribute relationship with one or more children.

See also schema. Inc. to reconfigure a grid report by interchanging row and column headers. See also: • • • • • drill page-by sort subtotal surf port number The port number is how a server process identifies itself on the machine on which it is running. 418 partition mapping table © 2007 MicroStrategy. Command Manager. metrics. For example. Also. Also referred to as a PMT.Glossary Project Design Guide partition mapping table A warehouse table that contains information used to identify the partitioned base tables as part of a logical whole. and hence the associated data. pivot To reconfigure data on a grid report by placing report objects (attributes. . It organizes the logical data model in a method that make sense from a database perspective. See also: • • partition base table partition mapping physical warehouse A detailed graphic representation of your business data as it schema is stored in the data warehouse. Narrowcast Server. Subset of cross-tab. Web. when the Intelligence Server machine receives a network call from a client (Desktop. and so on). it knows to forward those calls to the Intelligence Server port number that is specified in the call. consolidations) on different axes.

metrics. and user community. as defined in (1). A direct project source is a two-tier connection directly to a metadata repository. See also table name space. Inc. process An executing application comprising one or more threads. that is completed before reports are run. with the results stored in an aggregate table. See also: • • aggregate table aggregation prefix A prefix is stored in the project metadata associated with a table or tables and is used by the Engine to generate SQL. or the calculation of numeric data at a specific attribute level. pipes. pre-aggregation 419 . project source Defines a connection to the metadata repository and is used by various MicroStrategy products to access projects. and functions. In most cases. Processes use temporary private address spaces and control operating system resources such as files. The project object is specified when requesting the establishment of a session. project 1) The highest-level intersection of a data warehouse. it should match the name space field since it is used to qualify on a specific table belonging to a certain owner or name space. A server project source is a 3-tier connection to a MicroStrategy Intelligence Server. the Catalog Server uses it to obtain table sample values and row counts.Project Design Guide Glossary pre-aggregation Aggregation. metadata repository. Also. One project source can contain many projects and the administration tools found at the project source level are used to monitor and administer all projects in the project source. containing reports. and synchronization objects. © 2007 MicroStrategy. dynamic memory allocations. 2) An object containing the definition of a project. filters. Prefixes can be defined and modified from the Warehouse Catalog interface.

quality relationship The relationship between a parent attribute and two or more “joint child” attributes. 2) In general.Glossary Project Design Guide prompt 1) MicroStrategy object in the report definition that is incomplete by design. update. The leading RDBMS products are Oracle. thus defining associations between them.” qualification The actual condition that must be met for data to be included on a report. The user is asked during the resolution phase of report execution to provide an answer that completes the information. ratio The relationship in quantity. and then set how to combine the qualifications using the logical operators AND. IBM DB2 and Microsoft SQL Server. Examples include "Region = Northeast" or "Revenue > $1 million". A relational database is a collection of data items organized as a set of formally-described tables from which data can be accessed or reassembled in many different ways without having to reorganize the database tables. OR. or size between the cardinalities of related attributes. as in “type login ID and password at the prompt. Inc. You can create multiple qualifications for a single filter or custom group. Qualifications are used in filters and custom groups. . and administer a relational database. relational database A relational database management system (RDBMS) is a management system program that lets you create. 420 prompt © 2007 MicroStrategy. The parent attribute is referred to as a “quality” because its definition is complete only with the intersection of its joint children. A typical example with a filter is choosing a specific attribute on which to qualify. See also cardinality. relate table A table containing the ID columns of two or more attributes. AND NOT. a window requesting user input. amount. and OR NOT.

See also: • • • • • • • • parent attribute child attribute partial relationship quality relationship one-to-one one-to-many many-to-one many-to-many report The central focus of any decision support investigation. analyze that data. For example.Project Design Guide Glossary relationship An association specifying the nature of the connection between one attribute (the parent) and one or more other attributes (the children). Inc. predesigned reports in MicroStrategy Desktop or in MicroStrategy Web. report design The process of building reports from basic report components using the Report Editor in MicroStrategy Desktop or MicroStrategy Web. City is a child attribute of State. See also: • • filter template report creation The process of building reports from existing. and then present it in a visually pleasing manner. a report allows users to query for data. © 2007 MicroStrategy. relationship 421 .

facts. 422 row © 2007 MicroStrategy. metric. the fields in each table. functions. Inc. usually by a project designer. shortcut object A MicroStrategy object that represents a link to any other MicroStrategy object such as report. and the relationships between fields and tables. the schema defines the tables. 2) The layout or structure of a database system. partition mappings.Glossary Project Design Guide row The horizontal axis of a report. filter. operators. schema object A MicroStrategy object created. . Schema objects directly reflect the warehouse structure and include attributes. tables. server instance The combination of an Intelligence Server running with a particular server definition. and transformations. server definition A MicroStrategy object stored in the metadata containing information about the configuration of an Intelligence Server. which can be accessed from MicroStrategy Desktop. that relates the information in the logical data model and physical warehouse schema to the MicroStrategy environment. and so forth. See also: • • axis column schema 1) The set of tables in a data warehouse associated with a logical data model. hierarchies. These objects are developed in MicroStrategy Architect. The attribute and fact columns in those tables are considered part of the schema itself. In relational databases. a primary key that requires only one column to uniquely identify a record within a table. simple key In a relational database.

Project Design Guide Glossary sort Arranging data according to some characteristic of the data itself (alphabetical descending. numeric ascending. and so forth). subtotal A totaling operation performed for a portion of a result set. Structured Query The query language standardized in 1986 by the American Language (SQL) National Standards Institute (ANSI) and used to request information from tables in a relational database and to manipulate the tables’ structure and data. statistics tables Tables that are used to record a variety of statistical information about the usage and performance of a MicroStrategy system. star schema A highly denormalized physical warehouse schema in which lookup tables are consolidated so that every attribute ID and description column for a given hierarchy exists in one table. drill page-by pivot sort surf sort 423 . See also: • • • • • drill page-by pivot subtotal surf source system Any system or file that captures or holds data of interest. Inc. See also: • • • • • © 2007 MicroStrategy.

and so on) that defines the columns of data to be included in the result set. and functions to existing analysis objects.Glossary Project Design Guide surf To add filters. custom groups. metrics. This field cannot be modified from the product since it is actually stored in the warehouse. metrics. table size The estimated size of a database table in terms of number of rows. This is needed to uniquely identify each table saved in the project when comparing table information in the metadata to the real one in the warehouse. The layout and format of these objects are defined within the template's view definition. 424 surf © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. Each table object in the metadata stores the name space or owner from which it came. it is not explicitly created but is automatically deduced by the MicroStrategy platform from all information available to it. See also: • • • • • drill page-by pivot sort subtotal system hierarchy The superset hierarchy containing all attributes in a project. template The data definition portion of the template consists of the group of objects (attribute. Compare user hierarchy. . Unlike a browse hierarchy. attribute elements. attributes. table name space A field that is read from the warehouse catalog and used to organize databases.

Although the vast majority are based on time. arranged in specific sequences for a logical business organization.Project Design Guide Glossary transformation A schema object that maps a specified time period to another time period. transformation metric An otherwise simple metric that takes the properties of the transformation applied to it. For example. No physical cube is created or loaded. 2) The result of mapping a logical data model to an OLE DB for OLAP multidimensional model after hierarchies and metrics have been selected from a project. a virtual cube does not perform data retrieval and consequently lacks the performance problems and size limitations associated with a physical cube. a conceptual. such as defunct product codes to new ones. a transformation can also map different objects. multidimensional representation of data. They are user-defined and are used to define the browse and drill relationships between attributes. such as current month minus one month. virtual cube 1) In an OLAP data model. user hierarchy A named set of attributes and their relationships. a metric calculates total sales. For example. Inc. but a definition of the virtual cube structure is stored in MicroStrategy metadata. Unlike a physical cube. such as this year versus last year or current date versus month-to-date. if revenue is greater than $200. A virtual cube maps MicroStrategy objects such as hierarchies and metrics to OLE DB for OLAP objects. Time transformations are used in metrics to compare values at different times. transformation 425 . © 2007 MicroStrategy. threshold Used to create conditional formatting for metric values. format that cell to have a blue background with bold type. applying an offset value. Add a transformation for last year and the metric now calculates last year’s total sales.

Glossary Project Design Guide 426 virtual cube © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. .

180 allocation expression 121 Analysis Services 2000 catalog 339 connecting to 337 DSI 339 metadata models 317 relating objects to MicroStrategy 317 URL 339 Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy cube 319 database 318 database instance 338 dimension 319. 105 table 178. Inc. 320 level 321 member property 321 relating objects 317 Analysis Services 2005 catalog 342 connecting to 340 DSI 342 hierarchy 326 relating objects to MicroStrategy 322 URL 342 427 .INDEX A accessing Project Creation Assistant 78 Warehouse Catalog 219 adding tables to a project 79 aerial perspective of hierarchy 200. 212 aggregate function defined on 247 aggregate table defined on 241 advantages 242 base table 244 compression ratio 248 effectiveness 248 integrate into project 249 logical table size 249 parent-child relationship 246 pre-aggregation 243 query frequency 246 aggregate-aware 249 aggregation defined on 243 degree of 244 dense 244 dynamic 243 sparse 244 alias attribute column 156 © 2007 MicroStrategy. fact column 96.

compound 183 compound key 184 creating in Project Creation Assistant 130 creating using Attribute Editor 136 cross-dimensional. heterogeneous mapping 153 identifying 30 implicit. 164 MicroStrategy to Analysis Services 2000 321 MicroStrategy to Analysis Services 2005 326 MicroStrategy to Essbase 315 MicroStrategy to SAP BW 307 multiple counting in relationship 166 nonrelated 161 one-to-many relationship 160 one-to-one relationship 160 overview 22 parent 24 properties 127. See attribute form. Inc. MicroStrategy 294 atomic defined on 244 attribute defined on 10 Attribute Creation Wizard 129 Attribute Editor 135 browse form 190 cardinality 35 child 24 column alias 156 component. simple expression 148 system hierarchy 159 attribute component. Attribute Creation Wizard about 129 using 130 Attribute Editor about 135 creating attribute forms 146 creating attributes 136 updating hierarchies 197 attribute element defined on 23 about 140 © 2007 MicroStrategy. See attribute role. 428 . See report display form and browse form. expression 127 filtering in a hierarchy 203 form. See attribute relationship.Index Project Design Guide Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy cube 322 database 323 database instance 341 dimension 325 level 326 member 326 member property 327 perspective 324 relating objects 322 analysis. See attribute element. derived attribute 150 derived expression 150 display 189 element. 128 qualification 253 ratio 35 relationship. See joint-child relationship. See report display form and browse form. attribute constant 155 in hierarchy 25 joint child relationship 171 many-to-many relationship 160. time-series 257 application for Essbase 313 application-level partition defined on 251 architecture. report display form 190 role.

See hierarchy. derived fact 47 description 41 fact 41 heterogeneous naming 49 homogeneous naming 50 ID 41 physical warehouse schema 40.Project Design Guide Index for Analysis Services 2000 321 for Analysis Services 2005 326 for Essbase 316 for SAP BW 307 overview 23 attribute form defined on 37 creating using Attribute Editor 146 display 189 expression 147 for Analysis Services 2000 321 for Analysis Services 2005 327 for Essbase 316 for SAP BW 307 group 186 qualification 253 attribute relationship defined on 24 about 159 as property of attribute 127 identifying 31 in lookup table 44 overview 24 attribute role defined on 175 automatic recognition 179 automatic recognition of 177 explicit table alias 178. 41 column alias attribute 156 429 B base fact column 47 base table defined on 244 pre-aggregation 243 BI architecture 2 browse attribute 207 form 190 browsing © 2007 MicroStrategy. 223 base fact column 47 data type. See hierarchy. See column data type. . 180 authenticating OLAP cube reports 297 automatic attribute role recognition 177 about 207 enabling in a hierarchy 209 building a logical data model 26 business intelligence (BI) system defined on 1 C calculating growth percentage 257 variance 257 calculating logical table sizes 231 cardinality for an attribute 35 Cartesian join 159 catalog for Analysis Services 2000 318 for Analysis Services 2005 323 for Essbase 313 for SAP BW 304 SQL 234 category. SAP BW 300 child attribute 24 class. attribute form 307 characteristic value 307 characteristics. column defined on 41. Inc. characteristic attribute vs.

data provider. See logical data model. 209 data model. See joint child relationship. data slice 253 data source defined on 6 data type and mapping 395 Big Decimal 400 changed in column 240 high-precision 400 warehouse catalog 397 data warehouse defined on 5 and physical schema 39 connecting to 72 schema type 51 structure 51 Warehouse Catalog 218 database 323 connection operations 227 custom login 227 gateway support 225 instance.Index Project Design Guide fact 96. 105 column data type changed 240 manually setting for OLAP cube 352 compound attribute defined on 183 creating 184 compound key defined on 42 and compound attributes 184 compound metric. creating for OLAP cube 359 compression ratio defined on 248 Configuration Wizard 71 connecting to a database 227 to Analysis Services 2000 337 to Analysis Services 2005 340 to Essbase 334 to SAP BW 327 consolidating lookup tables 58 constant attribute 155 creating attributes 136 compound attributes 184 compound metric for OLAP cube 359 facts 87 logical data model 26 project 75 creating hierarchies 194 cross product join 116 cross-dimensional attribute. . See database instance. See project source. Inc. cube 319 for Analysis Services 2000 319 for Analysis Services 2005 324 for Essbase 314 for SAP BW 304 mapping 349 customizing catalog SQL 233 D Data Explorer defined on 209 about 209 enabling hierarchy browsing 196. read operations 227 secondary 225 database instance defined on 67 for Analysis Services 2000 338 for Analysis Services 2005 341 for Essbase 335 for SAP BW 329 for SAP BW (UNIX/Linux) 333 database management system 233 degradation defined on 118 dense aggregation 244 derived 430 © 2007 MicroStrategy.

See hierarchy. dimension for Analysis Services 2000 319. direct access approach 292 disallowing fact entry level 122 drilling using hierarchies 209 dynamic aggregation 243 dynamic relationship defined on 247 E element. 97 Fact Editor 88. and loading (ETL) process defined on 4. attribute 140 entity relationship diagram (ERD) defined on 29 entity.Project Design Guide Index attribute 150 fact 99 fact column 47 description column defined on 41 Desktop. 180 expression map 98 expression. level 107 extraction. 105 creating 87 cross product join 116 degradation defined on 118 derived 99 derived fact column 47 disallowing 122 expression 98 extension 107 Fact Creation Wizard 88 fact definition 96. example data model sample 26 physical schema 289 project 267 table data sample 225 explicit table alias 178. Inc. member 316 relating objects 311 ETL. transformation. 320 for Analysis Services 2005 325 for Essbase 314. and loading. 92 fact entry level 87 431 . 315 for SAP BW 306 See also hierarchy. fact 98 expression-based transformation 259 creating 261 member expressions 264 member tables 263 extension. See extraction. entry level defined on 87 entry point 205 ERD. transformation. 6 F fact defined on 85 allocation expression 121 base fact column 47 column defined on 41 column alias 96. 315 level 315 © 2007 MicroStrategy. Essbase catalog 337 connecting to 334 database instance 335 DSI (DataSourceInfo) 336 metadata models 311 relating objects to MicroStrategy 311 URL 336 Essbase to MicroStrategy application 313 database 313 dimension 314. See MicroStrategy Desktop. See entity relationship diagram.

210 Hierarchy Viewer 200 © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. See fact table. 200. 210 Hierarchy Viewer 200 in a logical data model 25 in SAP BW 300 limited 202 locked 201 organization 198 Project Creation Assistant 197 ragged 355 See also dimension. . 209 Attribute Editor 197 attribute filter 203 attributes in 25 browse attribute 207 browsing 207 browsing. structure 199 system hierarchy 197 unbalanced 355 user hierarchy 197 Hierarchy Editor 198. enabling 209 creating 194 defining 32 displaying 201 drilling 209 entry point 205 facts in 25 filtering attributes in 203 for Analysis Services 2000 320 for Analysis Services 2005 326 for Essbase 315 for SAP BW 306 Hierarchy Editor 198. 93 fact expression 98 fact table defined on 86 column naming 51 in a warehouse 46 level 48 overview 21 filtered hierarchy 203 flag 172 form attribute form 143 expression 147 group 186 G gateway support for database 225 growth percentage calculation 257 H heterogeneous attribute mapping 153 column naming defined on 49 432 fact column 102 partition mapping 252 hierarchy defined on 193 aerial perspective 212 and the Data Explorer 196. 200. 107 overview 21 table 46 table relation 110 table.Index Project Design Guide fact relation 114 heterogeneous fact column 102 identifying 29 implicit 99 in hierarchy 25 level extension 96. fact column defined on 41 base 47 derived 47 heterogeneous 102 Fact Creation Wizard 88 Fact Editor 88.

I implicit attribute 155 fact 99 importing OLAP cubes 343. cross product 116 joint child attribute transformation metrics 265 joint child relationship 171 joint children defined on 171 for Analysis Services 2005 326 for Essbase 315 virtual 306 limited hierarchy 202 locating OLAP cubes 348 locked hierarchy defined on 201 logical data model defined on 17 attributes in 24 building 26 cardinality 35 conventions 33 design factors 59 for MicroStrategy Tutorial 271. 254 Hyperion Essbase. 330 join. . 304 InfoObjects 299 InfoProviders 299 international technical support xxiii J Java Connector 328. See Essbase. 344 InfoCube 303. Inc. custom 227 lookup table defined on 43 attribute relationships and 44 consolidating 58 many-to-many relationship 44 one-to-one relationship 44 K key compound 42 figures 300 simple 42 M managed object 349 managed objects OLAP cubes 348 many-to-many relationship defined on 160 design considerations 164 example 32 lookup table 44 relate table 45 many-to-many transformation 433 L level extension 107 for Analysis Services 2000 321 © 2007 MicroStrategy. 280 ratio 35 sample 26 schema type 51 source of structure 29 unique identifier 34 Logical Table Editor 250 logical table size 249 login.Project Design Guide Index highly denormalized schema 57 higher level lookup tables 58 highly normalized schema 52 homogeneous column naming 50 partition mapping 252.

MicroStrategy to Analysis Services 2000 317 attribute 321 attribute element 321 attribute form 321 catalog 318 cube 319 dimension 320 hierarchy 320 MicroStrategy to Analysis Services 2005 322 attribute 326 attribute element 326 attribute form 327 catalog 323 cube 324 dimension 325 hierarchy 326 MicroStrategy to Essbase 311 434 © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. See MultiDimensional Expressions. MicroStrategy Project Builder. . See Analysis Services 2005. member attributes 263 expressions 263 for Analysis Services 2000 321 for Analysis Services 2005 326 for Essbase 316 property. Microsoft Analysis Services 2005. See metadata. MicroStrategy architecture 294 object model 7i 295 object model 8 296 MicroStrategy Desktop 11 MicroStrategy metadata. See Project Builder. tables 263 member property for Analysis Services 2000 321 for Analysis Services 2005 327 metadata defined on 8 connecting to 72 shell 65 table 71 metadata model Analysis Services 2000 317 Essbase 311 SAP BW 302 metadata partition mapping attribute qualification 253 data slice 253 overview 251 versus warehouse partition mapping 255 metadata shell defined on 65 metric creating compound metrics for OLAP cube data 359 creating with custom MDX 359 prompts within custom MDX 366 removing compound metrics from OLAP cubes 368 transformations 258 Microsoft Analysis Services 2000.Index Project Design Guide and table-based transformations 259 double-counting 264 mapping OLAP cubes 343 OLAP cubes examples 358 schema objects in Warehouse Catalog 231 mapping type about 264 many-to-many 264 one-to-one 264 MDX. See Analysis Services 2000. See member property.

general 280 view physical schema 289 MicroStrategy Web Universal 13 migrating tables 232 moderately normalized schema 54 MOLAP defined on 242 multidimensional data model. 55 © 2007 MicroStrategy. OLAP cube defined on 343 creating compound metrics 359 creating metrics with custom MDX 359 importing 344 integration 292 manually setting column data type 352 mapping 349 prompts within custom MDX metrics 366 remapping 356 removing 347 removing compound metrics 368 searching for 348 source 291 unbalanced and ragged hierarchies 355 OLAP Cube Catalog 309. See logical data model.Project Design Guide Index attribute 315 attribute element 316 attribute form 316 catalog 313 cube 314 dimension 314 hierarchy 315 MicroStrategy to SAP BW 302 attribute 307 attribute element 307 attribute form 307 catalog 304 cube 304 dimension 306 hierarchy 306 MicroStrategy Tutorial 267 data model. 435 . viewing 279 logical data model 271. 280 physical warehouse schema 281 schema. Inc. user 10 ODS object 299 OLAP BAPI certification 293 Cube Catalog 309 Cube Editor 349 cube. See OLAP cube. 343 OLAP Cube Editor 349 OLAP cube reports authentication 297 managed objects 348 OLTP 3 one-to-many relationship defined on 160 example 31 relate table 45 N nonrelated attributes 161 normalized schema 53. MultiDimensional Expressions about 291 remapping objects 356 multiple counting 164 MultiProviders 299 O object models in MicroStrategy 7i 295 in MicroStrategy 8 296 using SAP direct access 296 object.

80 aggregate table. 197 project source defined on 65 connecting to 72 creating 77 prompt. perspective 324 physical warehouse schema defined on 39 design factors 59 for MicroStrategy Tutorial 281 sample 289 planning a project 76 PMT.Index Project Design Guide one-to-one relationship defined on 160 lookup table 44 online analytical processing. See partition mapping table. 436 pre-aggregation defined on 243 aggregate table 241 base table 244 compression ratio 248 integrate aggregate table 249 logical table size 249 parent-child relationship 246 query frequency 246 prefix 230 project defined on 14 adding tables to 79. . online transaction processing. 255 partition base table 255 server-level 251 table 222. 255 PBT. See partition base table. 254 metadata 251. See OLAP. Inc. opening Project Creation Assistant 78 Warehouse Catalog 219 Operational Data Store object. integrating 248 creating 75 data warehouse 79 integrating aggregate tables 248 managing tables for 220 planning 76 Project Builder 74 Project Creation Assistant 78. See joint child relationship. 80 removing tables from 80 sample project 267 schema 216 source. in metrics with custom MDX 366 properties for SAP BW 311 Q qualification for an attribute form 253 quality. See OLTP. See project source tables.See ODS object. P parent attribute 24 parent-child relationship 246 dynamic 247 overview 25 static 247 partition base table defined on 251. defined on 255 types 251 warehouse 254. managing 220 Warehouse Catalog 79 warehouse tables in 79 Project Builder 74 Project Creation Assistant 77. 255 partition mapping defined on 250 application-level 251 attribute qualification 253 data slice 253 heterogeneous 252 homogeneous 252. © 2007 MicroStrategy.

304 relating objects 302 virtual level 306 SAP. 343 query cubes 299 relating objects to MicroStrategy 302 SAP.Project Design Guide Index query cubes 299 query frequency 246 R ragged hierarchy 355 ratio for an attribute 35 RDBMS defined on 5 server-level partitioning 251 read operations for database 227 relate table 45 related attributes. See RDBMS. See attribute relationship. 333 hierarchies 300 InfoObjects 299 InfoProviders 299 Java Connector 328. configuring 331 schema for project 216 highly denormalized 57 highly normalized 53 MicroStrategy Tutorial project 280 moderately normalized 55 object 14 physical warehouse defined on 39 star 58 © 2007 MicroStrategy. relationship dynamic 247 many-to-many 164 parent-child 246 relate table 45 static 247 remapping OLAP cubes 356 removing compound metric from OLAP cube 368 OLAP cube 347 table from project 80 report display form 190 row count for table 230 S SAP BW characteristics 300 connecting to 327 on UNIX/Linux 330 on Windows 328 database instance 329. 308 SAP BW to MicroStrategy characteristic attribute 307 characteristic value 307 characteristics 305 hierarchy 306 InfoCube 303. fact 114 relational database management system.sh. Inc. 330 key figures 300 mapping cubes 349 metadata models 302 OLAP Cube Catalog 309. relating objects to MicroStrategy from Analysis Services 2000 317 from Analysis Services 2005 322 from Essbase 311 from SAP BW 302 relation.sh 331 structures 311 terminology 298 variable properties 309 variables 300. 437 .

44 managing for a project 221 migrating 232 name space 222. summary table 241 support. system hierarchy 159. See schema type. Inc. See SQL. defined on 197 T table adding to a project 79 aggregate 241 alias 178. See technical support. . 180 calculating logical sizes 231 calculating size 231 compound key 42 fact table defined on 46. 261 many-to-many 259 mapping types 264 member attributes 263 member expressions 263 member tables 263 438 © 2007 MicroStrategy. 228 name spaces 230 physical warehouse schema 40 prefixes 230 primary key 42 relation 110 row counts 230 sample data 225 simple key 42 size defined on 249 summary 241 transformation 259 updating structure 223 viewing structure 222 warehouse tables in Project Creation Assistant 79 table-based member expressions 264 transformations 259 creating 260 member tables 263 technical support xxv international xxiii text fact. time-series analysis 257 transformation defined on 258 components 263 double-counting 264 expression-based 259.Index Project Design Guide type. See joint child relationship. 86 key 42 Logical Table Editor 250 lookup 43. 28 sparse aggregation 244 SQL defined on 5 attributes and columns in 22 catalog 233 default catalog SQL 239 facts and columns in 21 star schema 58 static relationship defined on 247 structure in SAP BW query cube 311 of hierarchy 199 of table 222 Structured Query Language. 5. updating 217 schema type 51 comparison 60 searching for OLAP cubes 348 server-level partitioning 251 simple expression 148 key 42 source system defined on 3.

Project Design Guide Index metric. setting 311 supporting 308 variance calculation 257 viewing sample data model 279 sample table data 225 sample warehouse schema 289 table structure 222 virtual level 306 U unbalanced and ragged hierarchy 355 unique identifier 34 UNIX/Linux. See fact expression. 260 transformation metric defined on 258 joint child attributes 265 troubleshooting column data type changed 240 column missing 241 data warehouse connection 239 tables missing 240 V variables overview 300 properties. connecting to SAP BW 330 updating project schema 217 updating table structure 223 URL for Analysis Services 2000 339 for Analysis Services 2005 342 for Essbase 336 user defined object. enabling 209 creating 194 displaying 201 drilling 209 entry point 205 filtering attributes in 203 limited 202 locked 201 structure 199 user object 10 using attribute form vs characteristic attribute 158 © 2007 MicroStrategy. See transformation metric. W Warehouse Catalog accessing 219 column missing 241 connection operations 227 data types 240 database gateway support 225 default catalog SQL 239 displaying information 230 managing 221 mapping schema objects 231 read operations 227 troubleshooting 239 updating table structure 223 usage and settings 218 viewing table structure 222 warehouse partition mapping overview 254 partition base table 255 partition mapping table 255 versus metadata partition mapping 255 warehouse table in Project Creation Assistant 79 439 . user hierarchy defined on 197 browse attribute 207 browsing 207 browsing. Inc. metrics 258 one-to-one mapping types 264 table-based 259.

Inc. physical schema defined on 39. 281 Windows.Index Project Design Guide warehouse. connecting to SAP BW 327 X XMLA 293 Analysis Services 2000 317 Analysis Services 2005 322 Essbase 312 provider for Analysis Services 2000 338 provider for Analysis Services 2005 341 provider for Essbase 335 440 © 2007 MicroStrategy. .

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