Project Design Guide

Version: 8.1.1
Document Number: 09330811

Fourth Edition, September 2007, version 8.1.1
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CONTENTS
Description of Guide ................................................................ xiii About this book .............................................................................xv How to find business scenarios and examples .......................xv Prerequisites .......................................................................... xvi Who should use this guide..................................................... xvi Resources.................................................................................... xvi Documentation....................................................................... xvi Education ............................................................................. xxiii Consulting ............................................................................ xxiii International support ............................................................ xxiii Technical Support ................................................................. xxv Feedback .................................................................................... xxx

1. BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform

Introduction.................................................................................. 1 Business intelligence architecture ................................................. 2 Source systems for data collection .......................................... 3 Extraction, transformation, and loading process...................... 4 Data warehouse for data storage and relational design .......... 5 The MicroStrategy platform ........................................................... 7 MicroStrategy metadata........................................................... 8 MicroStrategy Intelligence Server .......................................... 11 MicroStrategy Desktop........................................................... 11 MicroStrategy Web and Web Universal ................................. 13 MicroStrategy project ............................................................. 14 The project design process.......................................................... 15

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Project Design Guide

2. The Logical Data Model

Introduction................................................................................ 17 Facts: Business data and measurements.................................... 21 Attributes: Context for your levels of data.................................... 22 Attribute elements: Data level values..................................... 23 Attribute relationships ............................................................ 24 Hierarchies: Data relationship organization ................................. 25 Sample data model...................................................................... 26 Building a logical data model ....................................................... 26 User requirements ................................................................. 27 Existing source systems ........................................................ 28 Converting source data to analytical data.............................. 28 Logical data modeling conventions.............................................. 33 Unique identifiers ................................................................... 34 Cardinalities and ratios .......................................................... 35 Attribute forms ....................................................................... 36

3. Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model

Introduction................................................................................ 39 Columns: Data identifiers and values .......................................... 41 Tables: Physical groupings of related data.................................. 41 Uniquely identifying data in tables with key structures........... 42 Lookup tables: Attribute storage ............................................ 43 Relate tables: A unique case for relating attributes ............... 45 Fact tables: Fact data and levels of aggregation ................... 46 Homogeneous versus heterogeneous column naming.......... 49 Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage......................................................................................... 51 Highly normalized schema: Minimal storage space............... 52 Moderately normalized schema: Balanced storage space and query performance.......................................................... 54 Highly denormalized schema: Enhanced query performance........................................................................... 56 Design trade-offs ......................................................................... 59 Schema type comparisons .......................................................... 60

4. Creating and Configuring a Project

Introduction................................................................................ 63 Project connectivity components ................................................. 64 MicroStrategy metadata......................................................... 64 Metadata shell ....................................................................... 65 Project source ........................................................................ 65

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Database instance ................................................................. 67 Project.................................................................................... 67 Summary of project connectivity ............................................ 68 Creating a project ........................................................................ 68 Creating the metadata repository ................................................ 71 Connecting to the metadata repository and data source ............. 71 Connecting to the metadata repository .................................. 72 Connecting to a data source .................................................. 72 Creating the project ..................................................................... 73 Creating a test or prototype project using Project Builder...... 74 Creating a production project using Project Creation Assistant ................................................................................ 75 Creating facts and attributes........................................................ 82 Configuring additional schema-level settings .............................. 83 Deploying your project and creating reports ................................ 84

5. The Building Blocks of Introduction................................................................................ 85 Business Data: Facts Creating facts............................................................................... 87 Simultaneously creating multiple, simple facts ...................... 88 Creating and modifying simple and advanced facts .............. 91 The structure of facts ................................................................... 96 How facts are defined ................................................................. 97 Mapping physical columns to facts: Fact expressions ........... 98 Fact column names and data types: Column aliases ................ 105 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions.................................................................................. 107 Defining a join on fact tables using table relations............... 110 Defining a join on fact tables using fact relations................. 114 Forcing facts to relate to attributes: Using cross product joins ........................................................................ 116 Lowering the level of fact data: Fact degradations .............. 118 Disallowing the reporting of a fact at a certain level............. 122

6. The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes

Introduction.............................................................................. 125 Creating attributes ..................................................................... 129 Simultaneously creating multiple attributes.......................... 129 Adding and modifying attributes .......................................... 134 Unique sets of attribute information: Attribute elements ............ 140

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Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms ......... 143 Attribute form properties ...................................................... 146 Attribute form expressions ................................................... 147 Modifying attribute data types: Column aliases ................... 156 Attribute forms versus separate attributes ........................... 158 Attribute relationships ................................................................ 159 Viewing and editing the parents and children of attributes .............................................................................. 161 Supporting many-to-many and joint child relationships ....... 163 Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles ......... 175 Specifying attribute roles ..................................................... 177 Attributes with more than one ID column: Compound attributes .................................................................................... 183 Example: Creating compound attributes.............................. 184 Collections of attribute forms: Form groups............................... 186 Supporting compound attributes .......................................... 187 Displaying and organizing related forms.............................. 188 Using attributes to browse and report on data........................... 189 Setting how attribute forms are displayed by default ........... 191

7. Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes

Introduction.............................................................................. 193 Creating user hierarchies........................................................... 194 Types of hierarchies .................................................................. 196 System hierarchy: Project schema definition ....................... 197 User hierarchies: Logical business relationships ................. 197 Hierarchy organization............................................................... 198 Hierarchy structure............................................................... 199 Viewing hierarchies: Hierarchy Viewer ................................ 200 Configuring hierarchy display options........................................ 200 Controlling the display of attribute elements ........................ 201 Filtering attributes in a hierarchy.......................................... 203 Entry point............................................................................ 205 Hierarchy browsing .............................................................. 206 Using the Hierarchy Viewer and Table Viewer .......................... 211 Using the Hierarchy Viewer ................................................. 211 Using the Table Viewer........................................................ 213

8. Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project viii

Introduction.............................................................................. 215 Updating your MicroStrategy project schema............................ 216

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Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog ...................................................................................... 218 What should I know before I use the Warehouse Catalog? .............................................................................. 219 Accessing the Warehouse Catalog...................................... 219 Adding and removing tables for a project ............................ 220 Managing warehouse and project tables ............................. 221 Modifying data warehouse connection and operation defaults ................................................................................ 226 Customizing catalog SQL statements.................................. 233 Troubleshooting table and column messages ..................... 239 Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables ............. 241 When to use aggregate tables............................................. 242 Determining the frequency of queries at a specific level...... 246 Considering any related parent-child relationships .............. 246 Compression ratio................................................................ 247 Creating aggregate tables ................................................... 248 The size of tables in a project: Logical table size................. 249 Dividing tables to increase performance: Partition mapping...... 250 Server versus application partitioning .................................. 250 Metadata partition mapping ................................................. 251 Warehouse partition mapping .............................................. 254 Metadata versus warehouse partition mapping ................... 255

9. Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons

Introduction.............................................................................. 257 Creating transformations ........................................................... 258 Expression-based versus table-based transformations ....... 259 Building a table-based transformation ................................. 260 Building an expression-based transformation...................... 261 Transformation components ...................................................... 263 Transformation metrics and joint child attributes ....................... 265

A. MicroStrategy Tutorial Introduction.............................................................................. 267 What is the MicroStrategy Tutorial?........................................... 267 MicroStrategy Tutorial data model............................................. 271 Geography hierarchy ........................................................... 272 Products hierarchy ............................................................... 274 Customers hierarchy............................................................ 276 Time hierarchy ..................................................................... 277 Promotions hierarchy ........................................................... 278

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....................................................... 349 Creating metrics from OLAP cube data with MDX and compound metric techniques .......................................................................... 294 Authentication ......................Contents Project Design Guide MicroStrategy Tutorial schema .... 340 Configuring the XMLA Provider ................................ 311 Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy .... 302 Supporting SAP BW variables ................................................ 283 Products schema ............ 287 Sales fact tables ................................................................ 327 Connecting to SAP BW servers on Windows ....................................................... 317 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy................... 334 Configuring the XMLA Provider .............................. 334 Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 292 Understanding MicroStrategy architecture. 337 Configuring the XMLA Provider ...... 286 Promotions schema ..................... Inc............... 285 Time schema .......................................... 297 Understanding the SAP BW terminology ..... ................................................... 328 Connecting to SAP BW servers on UNIX and Linux. Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Introduction....................................................................................................... 341 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy......................................................................................................... 322 Connecting to SAP BW servers..................................... 284 Customers schema ....... 343 Importing OLAP cubes......................................................................................... 287 Inventory fact tables....................................................................................................................................................................... 288 B... 330 Connecting to Essbase servers ........................................... 338 Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers............ 359 x © 2007 MicroStrategy................................................................ 308 SAP BW structures ......... 291 MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources .................................................................... 288 Miscellaneous fact tables........ 311 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy......................................................................................... 280 Geography schema ..... 298 Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy ............ 344 Mapping OLAP cubes ...................

........................................... 390 D..................................................................................................................... 376 Business case 2: Attribute form expression across multiple tables ......................................... 395 Mapping of external data types to MicroStrategy data types.......... 375 Logical view examples.......... 403 Index .................... 370 How should I use logical tables? .......................... 377 Business case 3: Slowly changing dimensions................................................... 373 Using SQL for logical views ................... 376 Business case 1: Distinct attribute lookup table.................................. xi .............................. 399 Big Decimal........... 400 Using the Big Decimal data type........................................................................................................................... 397 Format types........................... 398 Data type and format type compatibility....Project Design Guide Contents C..... 371 Creating logical tables ...................................................................................................................... 395 MicroStrategy data types ..................... 369 Logical tables............ 401 Glossary ................................................................................................................................................... Inc.................. 389 Business case 5: Outer joins between attribute lookup tables............................................. Logical Tables Introduction................................................................................................ 378 Business case 4: One-to-many transformation tables ................................................. Data Types Introduction................... 427 © 2007 MicroStrategy...........................

.Contents Project Design Guide xii © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc.

and modifying a project in MicroStrategy and covers a wide range of project-related topics. Creating and Configuring a Project. describes components of the physical warehouse schema such as columns and tables and explores how you can map components from the logical data model to components in the database to form the physical warehouse schema. xiii . including the following: • Chapter 1. Chapter 4. The Logical Data Model. • • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform. Inc.PREFACE Description of Guide The MicroStrategy Project Design Guide provides comprehensive information on planning. explores logical data modeling and how it can help you identify the different elements within your business data and plan your project. Chapter 3. describes the major components involved in project creation and guides you through the process of creating a project in MicroStrategy. Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model. creating. provides a brief introduction to business intelligence architecture and some of the main components within the MicroStrategy platform. Chapter 2.

Chapter 7. which you may or may not require depending on your specific needs: • Appendix A. Appendix B. discusses the different types of hierarchies in MicroStrategy. discusses the different types of transformations in MicroStrategy and describes how you can create transformations in your project. describes the structure of facts and explores different types of facts and how they relate to your business data. or Hyperion® Essbase® for use within MicroStrategy. MicroStrategy Tutorial. Logical Tables. Appendix C. This chapter also covers all the steps necessary to create facts for your project. and how to create logical tables and views in MicroStrategy. Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes. discusses logical tables. The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts. provides a conceptual look at the structure of attributes and explores different types of attributes and how they relate to your business data. and explains how you can create user hierarchies to help organize and enhance your project. describes methods you can implement to better optimize and maintain your project for both the short and long term. The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes. This chapter also covers all the steps necessary to create attributes for your project. Chapter 9. Inc. • • • • The appendixes contain the following additional reference information. Chapter 8. the different types of logical tables. and a set of demonstration applications designed to illustrate the features of the MicroStrategy platform. Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources. Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project. which includes a metadata and warehouse. Microsoft® Analysis Services. provides information about connecting to an OLAP Cube source such as SAP® BW. • • xiv © 2007 MicroStrategy. .Preface Project Design Guide • Chapter 5. Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons. provides information on the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. Chapter 6.

metadata. which is MicroStrategy’s sample warehouse. Information about the MicroStrategy Tutorial can be found in the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. and describe the user roles the information in this book was designed for. For examples of reporting functionality. and project. The Analytics Modules are part of a product bundle called the MicroStrategy Business Intelligence Developer Kit (BIDK). Detailed examples of advanced reporting functionality can be found in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. each from a different business area. © 2007 MicroStrategy. How to find business scenarios and examples Within this guide. Inc.Project Design Guide Preface • Appendix D. which are a set of sample analytics. About this book xv . provides information about the different data types in MicroStrategy. Business scenarios can be found in the Analytics Modules. see the MicroStrategy Tutorial. and customer analysis. human resources. The following sections provide the location of additional examples. many of the concepts discussed are accompanied by business scenarios or other descriptive examples. list prerequisites for using this book. About this book This book is divided into chapters that begin with a brief overview of the chapter’s content. Each module comes with a sample data model and a collection of packaged reports that allow dozens of analytical variations. Example analysis includes such business areas as financial reporting. Data Types.

In short. the following business intelligence application users should read this guide: • • Project Designers Database Administrators Resources Documentation MicroStrategy provides both manuals and online help. create. . Inc.Preface Project Design Guide Prerequisites Before working with this document. these two information sources provide different types of information. and modify a MicroStrategy project using the MicroStrategy platform. as described below. you should be familiar with: • • the information provided in the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide the nature and structure of the data you want to use for your business intelligence application Who should use this guide This document is designed for all users who require an understanding of how to design. Manuals: MicroStrategy manuals provide • • • introductory information concepts checklists xvi Resources © 2007 MicroStrategy.

The procedure to access them is below. and HP platforms.com. Inc. © 2007 MicroStrategy. you can download it from www. and Analysis Products • MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide Information to install and configure MicroStrategy products on Windows. MicroStrategy Overview • Introduction to MicroStrategy: Evaluation Guide Instructions for installing. • MicroStrategy Upgrade Guide Instructions to upgrade existing MicroStrategy products. and using the MicroStrategy Evaluation Edition of the software. Resources xvii . Adobe Acrobat Reader 4. UNIX.adobe. Linux.Project Design Guide Preface • • examples high-level procedures to get started Online help: MicroStrategy online help provides • • detailed steps to perform procedures descriptions of each option on every software screen Manuals The following manuals are available from your CD-ROM or the machine where MicroStrategy was installed. and additional resources. Reporting. Manuals for Query.0 or higher is required to view these documents. • MicroStrategy Quick Start Guide Overview of the installation and evaluation process. If you do not have Acrobat Reader installed on your computer. as well as basic maintenance guidelines. configuring.

and project optimization. consolidations. advanced schemas. Includes the basics for creating reports. and distribute business data. • MicroStrategy Office User Guide Instructions for using MicroStrategy Office to work with MicroStrategy reports and documents in Microsoft® Excel.Preface Project Design Guide • MicroStrategy System Administration Guide Concepts and high-level steps to implement. Freeform SQL reports. and how to analyze data in a report. building on information in the Basic Reporting Guide. Query Builder reports. deploy. • MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide Instructions to get started with MicroStrategy Desktop and MicroStrategy Web. attributes. • MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide Instructions for advanced topics in the MicroStrategy system. tune. • MicroStrategy Mobile User Guide Instructions for using MicroStrategy Mobile to view and analyze data. and perform other business tasks with MicroStrategy reports and documents on a mobile device. metrics. hierarchies. Inc. and prompts. OLAP Cube reports. maintain. custom groups. Topics include reports. to analyze. and Outlook. Covers installation and configuration of MicroStrategy Mobile and how a designer working in MicroStrategy xviii Resources © 2007 MicroStrategy. and troubleshoot a MicroStrategy business intelligence system. building on information in the Basic Reporting Guide and Advanced Reporting Guide. and prompts. filters. • MicroStrategy Project Design Guide Information to create and modify MicroStrategy projects. Data Mining Services. format. Word. filters. and understand facts. transformations. metrics. • MicroStrategy Report Services Document Creation Guide Instructions to design and create Report Services documents. PowerPoint®. .

and troubleshoot Narrowcast Server. maintain. Resources xix . • MicroStrategy Narrowcast Server Application Designer Guide Fundamentals of designing Narrowcast Server applications. • MicroStrategy Web Services Administration Guide Concepts and tasks to install. attribute forms. • MicroStrategy Narrowcast Server Upgrade Guide Instructions to upgrade an existing Narrowcast Server. tune. filters. instructions to use functions in metrics. • MicroStrategy Functions Reference Function syntax and formula components. and troubleshoot MicroStrategy Web Services. configure. • MicroStrategy Narrowcast Server Installation and Configuration Guide Information to install and configure Narrowcast Server. Manuals for Information Delivery and Alerting Products • MicroStrategy Narrowcast Server Getting Started Guide Instructions to work with the tutorial to learn Narrowcast Server interfaces and features. • MicroStrategy Narrowcast Server System Administrator Guide Concepts and high-level steps to implement. © 2007 MicroStrategy. examples of functions in business scenarios. tune.Project Design Guide Preface Desktop or MicroStrategy Web can create effective reports and documents for use with MicroStrategy Mobile. Inc.

including details about architecture. and embed Narrowcast Server functionality within other applications.Preface Project Design Guide Manuals for Analytics Modules • • • • • • Business Intelligence Developer Kit (BIDK) Installation and Porting Guide Customer Analysis Module Reference Sales Force Analysis Module Reference Financial Reporting Analysis Module Reference Sales and Distribution Analysis Module Reference Human Resources Analysis Module Reference Software Development Kits • MicroStrategy Developer Library (MSDL) Information to understand the MicroStrategy SDK. and the Narrowcast Server SPI. then Product Manuals. xx Resources © 2007 MicroStrategy. • MicroStrategy Web SDK The Web SDK is available in the MicroStrategy Developer Library. object models. To access installed online documentation 1 From the Windows Start menu. and so on. . A Web page opens with a list of available manuals in PDF format. choose Programs. integrate Narrowcast Server with other systems. • Narrowcast Server SDK Guide Instructions to customize Narrowcast Server functionality. MicroStrategy. customization scenarios. 2 Click the link for the desired manual. Documents the Narrowcast Server Delivery Engine and Subscription Portal APIs. Inc. code samples. which is sold as part of the MicroStrategy SDK.

© 2007 MicroStrategy. F1 key: Press F1 to see context-sensitive help addressing the function or task you are currently performing. Online help MicroStrategy provides several ways to access online help: • • • Help button: Use the Help button at the bottom of most software screens to see context-sensitive help. If bookmarks are not visible on the left side of an Acrobat (PDF) document. click the Bookmarks and Page from the View menu. and click OK. Inc. Select Open this file from its current location. When you select one of these guides. Resources xxi . the File Download dialog box opens.Project Design Guide Preface 3 Some documentation is provided in HTML help format. Help menu: Select Contents and Index to see the main table of contents for the help system.

+ A keyboard command that calls for the use of more than one key (for example. Example: Type copy c:\filename d:\foldername\filename Courier font • • • • • • calculations code samples registry keys path and file names URLs messages displayed in the screen Example: Sum(revenue)/number of months.Preface Project Design Guide Documentation standards MicroStrategy online help and PDF manuals (available both online and in printed format) provides standards to help you identify concepts and procedures.scp and press ENTER. dialog boxes. italic • new terms defined within the text and in the glossary • names of other product manuals • when part of a command syntax. The following table lists these conventions. UPPERCASE • keyboard command key (such as ENTER) • shortcut key (such as CTRL+V) Example: To bold the selected text. xxii Resources © 2007 MicroStrategy. options. these should be read before continuing. lists. Inc. and menus that are the focus of actions or part of a list of such GUI elements and their definitions • text to be entered by the user Example: Click Select Warehouse. press CTRL+B. Type bold Indicates • button names. indicates variable information to be replaced by the user Example: The aggregation level is the level of calculation for the metric. A warning icon alerts you to important information such as potential security risks. SHIFT+F1) A note icon indicates helpful information for specific situations. . Example: Type cmdmgr -f scriptfile. check boxes.

microstrategy. metadata. visit www. Consulting MicroStrategy Consulting Services provides proven methods for delivering leading-edge technology solutions. and statistics databases MicroStrategy Intelligence Server MicroStrategy Web server MicroStrategy Desktop client Web browser © 2007 MicroStrategy. decimal formats. The level of support is defined in terms of the components of a MicroStrategy business intelligence environment. visit www. currency symbols.com/Education. International support MicroStrategy supports several locales. It also includes the availability of translated interfaces and documentation. strategic planning. and more. collectively known as a configuration: • • • • • warehouse. A MicroStrategy business intelligence environment consists of the following components. Resources xxiii . For a detailed description of education offerings and course curriculums. and more. support for date formats.microstrategy.com/Consulting. For a detailed description of consulting offerings.Project Design Guide Preface Education MicroStrategy Education Services provides a comprehensive curriculum and highly skilled education consultants. performance and tuning. project and testing strategies and recommendations. Offerings include complex security architecture designs. Support for a locale typically includes native database and operating system support. Inc. Many customers and partners from over 800 different organizations have benefited from MicroStrategy instruction.

Italian. In addition. The following table lists the language selection possibilities for different installation cases. Japanese. A translated user interface is available in each of the above languages. MicroStrategy also provides limited support for heterogeneous configurations (where some of the components may lie in different locales).Preface Project Design Guide MicroStrategy is certified in homogeneous configurations (where all the components lie in the same locale) in the following languages: English (US). Spanish. Repair or maintenance installation on a system on which MicroStrategy application has been installed before All subsequent executions of the installation routine are displayed in the language that you selected the first time you installed the product on the system. French. Portuguese (Brazilian). Once the product is installed. Please contact MicroStrategy Technical Support for more details. German.3 The user language preference that was set previously in version 7. The user language in the product interface is the language that you select during installation. xxiv Resources © 2007 MicroStrategy.2. the Online Help is displayed in the same language that the user selects in the language prompt of the installation routine. . The user language in the product interface is also the language that you selected the first time you installed the product on the system.2. translated versions of the online help files and product documentation are available in several of the above languages. Installation Fresh installation on a system in which MicroStrategy application has never been installed before Result The MicroStrategy Installation Wizard prompts you to select the language from the drop-down list.3 is the language of display of the installation routine and the user language of the product interface. Inc. Korean. Chinese (simplified) and Swedish. Upgrading an earlier installation from version 7.

com/support/ k_base/index.Project Design Guide Preface Installation Upgrading an earlier installation from version 7. 2 Consult the MicroStrategy Knowledge Base online at http://www.2. the installation Online Help is displayed in English only. the MicroStrategy Installation Wizard prompts you to select the language from the drop-down list. you should: 1 Consult the product guides. Completely uninstalling all the MicroStrategy products and installing the same version or a newer version If you uninstall all the products and install either the same version or a higher version again.asp © 2007 MicroStrategy. it has no effect on the default language of the product interfaces. readme files.x Result The MicroStrategy Installation Wizard prompts you to select the language from the drop-down list. However. including 7. unless overridden by the command line parameter.2 or earlier. online help. Paths to access each are described above. Note: Even if you select a language from the language prompt in the installation routine. the user language of the product interface language remains the same as the one set in the product interface before running the upgrade installation. all subsequent executions of the installation routine for maintenance or for upgrade. are displayed in the language that you selected during the upgrade installation. Resources xxv . The installation routine is displayed in the selected language. Inc.microstrategy. and release notes.1. Besides. During installation. Technical Support If you have questions about a specific MicroStrategy product.

MicroStrategy Technical Support may be contacted by your company’s Support Liaison.microstrategy.microstrategy. Inc. contact MicroStrategy Technical Support directly. . review the Policies and Procedures document posted at http://www. Refer to the terms of your purchase agreement to determine the type of support available to you. the Support Liaison may follow the steps below to ensure that issues are resolved quickly: 1 Verify that the issue is with MicroStrategy software and not a third party software.asp. Your company may request to change their Support Liaisons two times per year with prior written notice to MicroStrategy Technical Support. 4 Minimize the complexity of the system or project object definition to isolate the cause.com/ Support/Policies. 2 Verify that the system is using a currently supported version of MicroStrategy software by checking the Product Support Expiration Schedule at http://www. All customer inquiries and case communications must come through these named individuals. xxvi Resources © 2007 MicroStrategy.Preface Project Design Guide A technical administrator in your organization may be able to help you resolve your issues immediately.com/Support/ Expiration. Ensure issues are resolved quickly Before logging a case with MicroStrategy Technical Support. 3 If the resources listed in the steps above do not provide you with a solution. 3 Attempt to reproduce the issue and determine whether it occurs consistently. Your company may designate two employees to serve as their Support Liaisons. A Support Liaison is a person whom your company has designated as a point-of-contact with MicroStrategy’s support personnel. To ensure the most effective and productive relationship with MicroStrategy Technical Support.

microstrategy. and Africa (EMEA) © 2007 MicroStrategy. or log a case using the Online Support Interface.com Fax: (703) 842–8709 Phone: (703) 848–8700 Hours: 9:00 A.–6:00 P. Phone: • United Kingdom: +44 (0) 208 396 0085 • Benelux: +31 20 346 9210 • Finland: +35 8 9 6937 9620 • France: +33 1 41 91 86 49 • Germany: +49 69 95096206 • Ireland: +35 3 1242 1522 • Italy: +39 02696 33 456 • Spain: +34 91 406 90 10 • International distributors: +44 (0) 208 396 0080 Hours: • United Kingdom: 9:00 A. If your Support Liaison is unable to reach MicroStrategy Technical Support by phone during the hours of operation. North America E-mail: support@microstrategy.com Web: https://support. GMT. The table on the following page shows where.microstrategy.M.–7:00 P. Eastern Time (1400–0000 GMT).Project Design Guide Preface 5 Determine whether the issue occurs on a local machine or on multiple machines in the customer environment. Monday-Friday except holidays Europe. Inc. These holidays reflect the national public holidays in each country. the Middle East. and how to contact MicroStrategy Technical Support.com Web: https://support. Monday-Friday except holidays • Mainland Europe: 9:00 A.M.com. Resources xxvii .M. Monday–Friday except holidays E-mail: eurosupp@microstrategy.–6:00 P. send e-mail or fax. when.microstrategy.M.M.com Fax: +44 (0) 208 396 0001 The European Technical Support Centre is closed on certain public holidays.M. 6 Discuss the issue with other users by posting a question about the issue on the MicroStrategy Customer Forum at https://forums. CET. they can leave a voicemail message.

6303. Inc.com Fax: +81 3 5456 5464 Phone: • Korea: +82 2 560 6565 • Singapore (supporting Singapore. these holidays reflect the national public holidays in each country. Required information when calling When contacting MicroStrategy Technical Support. In Europe. India. MicroStrategy Technical Support personnel may make recommendations that require administrative privileges on the MicroStrategy projects.8969 • Japan (supporting Japan.microstrategy. we recommend you designate Support Liaisons who have permissions to be MicroStrategy project administrators. JST (Tokyo).com Web: https://support. The individual Technical Support Centers are closed on certain public holidays. national holidays. China.M.com Fax: +55 11 3044 4088 Phone: LATAM (except Argentina): +55 11 3054 1010 Argentina: 0 800 444 MSTR Hours: 9:00 A.M.S.–7:00 P. Taiwan.microstrategy. these holidays reflect many U.M. and Sri Lanka): +65. please provide the following information: • xxviii Resources Personal information: © 2007 MicroStrategy. Australia. Pakistan. Asia Pacific. This can eliminate security conflicts and improve case resolution time.–6:00 P. In North America. and all other Asia Pacific countries not listed in this section): +81 3 3511 6720 Hours: 9:00 A. and Latin America. BST (Sao Paulo). Monday-Friday except holidays E-mail: latamsupport@microstrategy.M.com Web: https://support. or that assume that the designated Support Liaison has a security level that permits them to fully manipulate the MicroStrategy projects and has access to potentially sensitive project data such as security filter definitions. Monday–Friday except holidays Latin America Support Liaisons should contact the Technical Support Center from which they obtained their MicroStrategy software licenses or the Technical Support Center to which they have been designated. During the course of troubleshooting and researching issues. Malaysia. New Zealand. .Preface Project Design Guide Asia Pacific E-mail: apsupport@microstrategy. Although not a requirement. Hong Kong.

be prepared to provide the following additional information: • case number: Please keep a record of the number assigned to each case logged with MicroStrategy Technical Support. error messages(s). Inc. Resources • • xxix . e-mail addresses) • Case details: Configuration information. and steps taken to troubleshoot the case thus far • Business/system impact If this is the Support Liaison’s first call.Project Design Guide Preface Name (first and last) Company and customer site (if different from company) Contact information (phone and fax numbers. they should also be prepared to provide the following: • • • • street address phone number fax number e-mail address To help the Technical Support representative work to resolve the problem promptly and effectively. including MicroStrategy software product(s) and versions Full description of the case including symptoms. and be ready to provide it when inquiring about an existing case software version and product registration numbers of the MicroStrategy software products you are using case description: What causes the condition to occur? Does the condition occur sporadically or each time a certain action is performed? Does the condition occur on all machines or just on one? © 2007 MicroStrategy.

or a software upgrade)? If there was an error message. Inc. what was its exact wording? What steps have you taken to isolate and resolve the issue? What were the results? • system configuration (the information needed depends on the nature of the problem. If the Technical Support representative is responsible for an action item. not all items listed below may be necessary): computer hardware specifications (processor speed. a major database load. and so on) network protocol used ODBC driver manufacturer and version database gateway software version (for MicroStrategy Web-related problems) browser manufacturer and version (for MicroStrategy Web-related problems) Web server manufacturer and version If the issue requires additional investigation or testing. . The Support Liaison may call MicroStrategy Technical Support at any time to inquire about the status of the issue. the Support Liaison and the MicroStrategy Technical Support representative should agree on certain action items to be performed. The Support Liaison should perform any agreed-upon actions before contacting MicroStrategy Technical Support again regarding the issue.Preface Project Design Guide When did the condition first occur? What events took place immediately prior to the first occurrence of the condition (for example. disk space. a database move. RAM. Feedback Please send any comments or suggestions about user documentation for MicroStrategy products to: xxx Feedback © 2007 MicroStrategy.

Your feedback is important to us as we prepare for future releases.Project Design Guide Preface documentationfeedback@microstrategy. please include the name and version of the products you are currently using.com Send suggestions for product enhancements to: support@microstrategy.com When you provide feedback to us. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. Feedback xxxi .

Preface Project Design Guide xxxii Feedback © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. .

specifically.1 1. Business intelligence (BI) systems facilitate the analysis of volumes of complex data by providing the ability to view data from multiple perspectives. how the MicroStrategy platform interacts with your business data to provide a wide range of functionality. BI ARCHITECTURE AND THE MICROSTRATEGY PLATFORM Introduction Before planning and creating a project in MicroStrategy. 1 . it is important to understand how business intelligence systems work and. Inc. An optimum business intelligence application: • • • Gives users access to data at various levels of detail Allows users to request information and have it delivered to them accurately and quickly Provides a foundation for the proactive delivery of information to system subscribers © 2007 MicroStrategy.

2 Business intelligence architecture © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. as well as some of the components within the MicroStrategy platform that allow you to create and analyze your business intelligence. For more information on how MicroStrategy can access your data sources. . Excel files. transformation. but other systems or files that capture or hold data of interest are also possible An extraction. Microsoft Analysis Services. and loading (ETL) process A data warehouse—typically an online analytical processing (OLAP) system A business intelligence platform such as MicroStrategy • • • The diagram above illustrates the common setup for standardizing data from source systems and transferring that data into MicroStrategy. Hyperion Essbase. Business intelligence architecture A BI architecture has the following components: • A source system—typically an online transaction processing (OLTP) system. MicroStrategy can also access data from text files. see Data warehouse for data storage and relational design. SAP BW. page 5. and other data sources.1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide This chapter introduces you to the basic architecture of BI systems.

Each of these business services has a different and specific workflow. An average bank offers several services such as account activity updates and loan disbursement. For more information on data warehouse design.Project Design Guide BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform 1 Source systems for data collection Source systems refer to any system or file that captures or holds data of interest. For example. or deletions. This processing is relied upon daily by nearly every industry. insertions. Business intelligence architecture 3 . A bank is an example of a business with many source systems. and order processing. © 2007 MicroStrategy. • • • Recall the example of a bank that relies on several source systems to store data related to the many services the bank offers. inventory. and many others. and therefore has many source systems to support these services. by business activities and workflow. Data formats are not necessarily uniform across systems. website usage. including health care. see Data warehouse for data storage and relational design. This is in contrast to data warehouses which are often designed for reading data for analysis with a minimum number of updates. e-commerce. page 5. OLTP systems are databases or mainframes that store real-time processing data and have the following characteristics: • Data access is optimized for frequent reading and writing. Data is aligned by application. Inc. a different source system—another file on the server—keeps track of each customer’s contact information. A source system is usually the most significant site of online transaction processing (OLTP). as the system records huge volumes of data every day. An example of data that benefits from this type of optimization is the number of credit card transactions that an OLTP system might record in a single day. telecommunications. suppose one source system—a database file on the bank’s server—keeps track of deposits and withdrawals as they occur. Meanwhile. that is. Transactional processing involves the simple recording of transactions and other business data such as sales. manufacturing. deposits. Data history is limited to recent or current data.

However. you can withdraw or deposit money as well as check on balances. .1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide At an automated teller machine (ATM). to get a money order. transformation. and loading (ETL) process. filling in incomplete data. account balances. the customer information stored in each of these different systems must be consolidated. transformation. This process can be explained with the example of a bank that wants to consolidate a variety of information about a particular customer. Extraction. and loading process The extraction. and account balances. Since 4 Business intelligence architecture © 2007 MicroStrategy. and similar processes to standardize the format and structure of data. This consolidation is achieved using the extraction. Inc. transformation. loan status. and loading (ETL) process represents all the steps necessary to move data from different source systems to an integrated data warehouse. including the customer's ATM activity. loan status. eliminating unwanted data. The ETL process involves the following steps: 1 Data is gathered from various source systems. Each of these different sets of data is likely gathered by different source systems. correcting typographical errors. you must enter the bank and perform the transaction with a bank teller. 2 The data is transformed and prepared to be loaded into the data warehouse. If a bank wants to see a unified view of a particular customer. This is because the operational systems supporting these two services are designed to perform specific tasks. 3 The data is loaded into the data warehouse. such as a customer's ATM activity. and these two services require different operational systems. The ETL process consolidates data so it can be stored in a data warehouse. Transformation procedures can include converting data types and names. and money market account information.

see Storing and analyzing data with alternative data sources. Data warehouses are usually based on relational databases or some form of relational database management system (RDBMS) platform. updated. trend reporting. and then loads the data into the data warehouse. the data that comes from one system may be inconsistent with the data that comes from another system. This is in contrast to most © 2007 MicroStrategy. You can integrate different types of data sources with MicroStrategy such as text files. Excel files. and profit analysis.Project Design Guide BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform 1 each source system can have its own naming conventions. page 6. the ETL process extracts the data from the different banking source systems. Data is rarely inserted. such as OLTP systems. growth patterns. a language developed specifically to interact with RDBMS software. Data warehouse for data storage and relational design A well-designed and robust data warehouse is the source of data for the decision support system or business intelligence system. the data warehouse also provides the foundation for a robust online analytical processing (OLAP) system. These relational databases can be queried directly with Structured Query Language (SQL). The source systems described above. percent-to-total contributions. Most data warehouses have the following characteristics: • Data access is typically read-only. whereas data warehouses are usually designed and optimized for analytical processing. It enables its users to leverage the competitive advantage that the business intelligence provides. Inc. However. transforms it until it is standardized and consistent. In combination with MicroStrategy tools and products. MicroStrategy does not require that data be stored in a relational database. and OLAP cubes. Analytical processing involves activities such as choosing to see sales data by month and selecting the applicable metric to calculate sales trends. are generally designed and optimized for transactional processing. Business intelligence architecture 5 . For more information on accessing data stored in alternative data sources. or deleted. The most common action is the selection of data for analysis. In this case.

and Hyperion Essbase. as explained in Extraction. page 4). which are a common type of data warehouse. transformation. For more information on the steps of the project design process. or storage location which stores data that is to be used in MicroStrategy for query. and loading process. which are referred to as 6 Business intelligence architecture © 2007 MicroStrategy. • • Storing and analyzing data with alternative data sources Along with integrating with relational databases. The following are different data source alternatives which MicroStrategy can integrate with: • OLAP cube sources: In MicroStrategy you can integrate with sets of data from SAP BW. Microsoft Analysis Services. see Source systems for data collection. MicroStrategy can also integrate with a number of alternative data sources. page 3. Data history extends long-term. and loading process. and refers specifically to using a database as your data source. A data warehouse is populated with data from the existing operational systems using an ETL process. Defining a project’s logical data model and physical warehouse schema are important steps in preparing your data for a MicroStrategy project. • • Data is aligned by business subjects. Data formats are uniformly integrated using an ETL process (see Extraction. . A data source is any file. Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model. see Chapter 2. reporting. page 4. The Logical Data Model and Chapter 3. For more information on source systems. usually two to five years. The structure of data in a data warehouse and how it relates to your MicroStrategy environment can be defined and understood through a logical data model and physical warehouse schema. Inc.1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide OLTP source systems which must be able to handle frequent updates as data is gathered. A data warehouse can be thought of as one type of data source. and analysis. transformation. system.

deployment. and report on data stored in text files and Excel files. see Appendix B.Project Design Guide BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform 1 OLAP cube sources. page 11—an analytical server optimized for enterprise querying. • Text files and Excel files: With MicroStrategy’s Freeform SQL and Query Builder features. The MicroStrategy platform 7 . Some of the main components of the MicroStrategy platform include: • MicroStrategy metadata. page 8—a repository that stores MicroStrategy object definitions and information about the data warehouse MicroStrategy Intelligence Server. and maintenance of business intelligence applications. As with OLAP cube sources described above. reporting. The MicroStrategy platform A business intelligence platform offers a complete set of tools for the creation. For more information on connecting to and integrating OLAP cube sources in MicroStrategy. MicroStrategy can report against these alternative data sources while concurrently accessing a relational database to integrate all of your data into one cohesive project. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. Inc. analyze. Windows-based environment providing a complete range of analytical functions designed to facilitate the deployment of reports MicroStrategy Web and Web Universal. you can query. and OLAP analysis MicroStrategy Desktop. page 13—a highly interactive user environment and a low-maintenance interface for reporting and analysis • • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources. MicroStrategy can integrate with these data sources while simultaneously accessing a relational database effectively. For more information on using text files and Excel files with the Freeform SQL and Query Builder features. page 11—an advanced. support.

as shown in the following diagram. Inc. which together provide a flexible reporting environment The MicroStrategy platform components work together to provide an analysis and reporting environment to your user community. page 14—where you build and store all schema objects and information you need to create application objects such as reports in the MicroStrategy environment. . For more detailed information about these and the other components that make up the MicroStrategy platform. MicroStrategy metadata MicroStrategy metadata is a repository that stores MicroStrategy object definitions and information about your data warehouse. To learn how to administer and tune the MicroStrategy platform. see the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide.1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide • MicroStrategy project. refer to the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. The information is stored in a proprietary 8 The MicroStrategy platform © 2007 MicroStrategy. The sections that follow provide a brief overview of each of these components.

see the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. The metadata also stores the definitions of all objects created with MicroStrategy Desktop and Web such as templates. and columns. hierarchies. Facts are discussed in more detail in Chapter 5. and hierarchies are three essential pieces to any business intelligence application. views. The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts. These schema objects are often created and managed by a MicroStrategy architect: Facts relate numeric data values from the data warehouse to the MicroStrategy reporting environment. user privileges. Schema objects—Objects that are created in the application to correspond to database objects. report creation in MicroStrategy is achieved through using various types of objects which represent your data as report building blocks. such as tables. facts. For more information about creating and administering configuration objects. groups. and project administration.Project Design Guide BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform 1 format within a relational database. and so on. and so on. The MicroStrategy platform 9 . Examples include database instances. attributes. metrics. attributes. Facts are used to create metrics. The number of units sold is one example of a fact. which are described below. these objects. In general. Inc. These objects are not used directly for reporting. Schema objects include facts. Facts. are all created and stored in the metadata repository. You can build and manipulate several fundamentally different kinds of objects in MicroStrategy. • © 2007 MicroStrategy. and other objects which are stored in the Schema Objects folder in MicroStrategy Desktop’s folder list. • Configuration objects—Objects that provide important information or governing parameters for connectivity. configuration objects are created and maintained with the managers in MicroStrategy Desktop within the Administration icon. users. which are analytical calculations that are displayed on a report. The metadata maps MicroStrategy objects—which are used to build reports and analyze data—to your data warehouse structures and data. reports. but are created by a project architect or administrator to configure and govern the platform. As a general rule.

see MicroStrategy Web and Web Universal. Application objects include reports. Reports and documents can also be created and managed in MicroStrategy Web. Southeast represents the attribute or context of the sales data. and prompts. Attributes are discussed in more detail in Chapter 6. Quarter.1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide Attributes represent the business context in which fact data is relevant. In the example of regional sales in the Southeast. The metadata enables the sharing of objects across MicroStrategy applications by providing a central repository for all object definitions. • Application objects—Objects used to provide analysis of and insight into relevant data. Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes. MicroStrategy Intelligence Server evaluates the most efficient data retrieval scenario to provide excellent query performance. . It converts user requests into SQL queries and 10 The MicroStrategy platform © 2007 MicroStrategy. Hierarchies are groupings of attributes so that they can be displayed to reflect their relationships to other attributes. All application objects can be created and maintained in MicroStrategy Desktop. MicroStrategy metadata also facilitates the retrieval of data from the data warehouse when using MicroStrategy applications. metrics. Information on creating application objects is in the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide and MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. Hierarchies are discussed in more detail in Chapter 7. documents. filters. For more information about MicroStrategy Web. These groupings can help users make logical connections between attributes when reporting and analyzing data. The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes. and so on. page 13. templates. Month. Inc. Application objects are created using schema objects as building blocks. One of the most common examples of a hierarchy is a time hierarchy which includes attributes such as Year. custom groups. Attributes are used to define the level at which you want to view the numeric data on a report.

and OLAP analysis. Windows-based environment providing a complete range of analytical functionality designed to facilitate the deployment of reports. © 2007 MicroStrategy. For a detailed description of MicroStrategy Intelligence Server functionality and tuning recommendations. See the MicroStrategy Functions Reference for details about these functions. MicroStrategy Desktop provides the project designer functionality essential to creating both schema and application objects necessary to serve the user communities of both MicroStrategy Desktop and Web. Inc.Project Design Guide BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform 1 translates the results of those SQL queries back into MicroStrategy objects such as reports and documents which can be easily analyzed and understood. You can also add and define your own functions. reporting. refer to the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. The important functions of MicroStrategy Intelligence Server are: • • • • Sharing objects Sharing data Managing the sharing of data and objects in a controlled and secure environment Protecting the information in the metadata MicroStrategy Intelligence Server also provides a library of over 150 different sophisticated mathematical and statistical functions. MicroStrategy Intelligence Server MicroStrategy Intelligence Server is an analytical server optimized for enterprise querying. The MicroStrategy platform 11 . refer to the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. MicroStrategy Desktop MicroStrategy Desktop is an advanced. For information on how to install and configure MicroStrategy Intelligence Server.

One of the other functions of MicroStrategy Desktop is to create projects. If you need to change how to view your business information or how the data is modeled. For information about the various components that comprise MicroStrategy Desktop. report designers and analysts can deploy them through different interfaces. facts are used to create metrics. thus providing access to your data. Tables in MicroStrategy are references to tables in your data warehouse. . and metrics. The change automatically takes effect in the application. attributes. Inc. including MicroStrategy Desktop. Desktop provides the ability to modify one aspect of the application without affecting the others. refer to the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. which are in turn used to design reports. filters. Schema objects allow application objects to interact with the data warehouse to access the data for analysis. This modification is necessary if you have new requirements that require you to add or remove new levels of data in a hierarchy. Desktop is where you can manage application objects such as reports. Projects are discussed in Chapter 4. The following examples highlight some ways in which Desktop allows you to model your business intelligence applications: • Every report or query can automatically benefit from the tables you include in an application. It provides a unified environment for creating and maintaining business intelligence projects. and other schema objects are the building blocks for application objects such as reports and documents. MicroStrategy Web. Application objects such as reports are used to analyze and provide insight into the relevant data. before application objects are created.1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide Desktop enables you to model applications using an intuitive. hierarchies. However. • After reports have been created. schema objects must first exist. Facts. graphical interface. 12 The MicroStrategy platform © 2007 MicroStrategy. without making any alterations to the database. and MicroStrategy Office. For example. You can change the structure of a business hierarchy by re-ordering it. Creating and Configuring a Project.

and share data through any web browser on many operating systems. MicroStrategy Web and Web Universal MicroStrategy Web provides users with a highly interactive environment and a low-maintenance interface for reporting and analysis.Project Design Guide BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform 1 For more information about creating application objects such as reports in MicroStrategy Desktop. making it easy for users to make informed business decisions. analyze. MicroStrategy Web Universal is a version of MicroStrategy Web that provides the added benefits of also working with: • • • Operating systems such as Sun Solaris™. Sun ONE®. refer to the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. MicroStrategy Web provides ad-hoc querying. quick deployment. page 64. and Apache Tomcat All web servers and browsers supported by MicroStrategy Web MicroStrategy Intelligence Server must be running for users to retrieve information from your data warehouse using MicroStrategy Web products. IBM AIX®. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Additional MicroStrategy definitions. and HP-UX Application servers such as BEA WebLogic™. IBM WebSphere®. users can access. see the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. Oracle®. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. For information on advanced Desktop functionality. The MicroStrategy platform 13 . industry-leading analysis. Red Hat® Linux®. For more information about deploying MicroStrategy Web. and rapid customization potential. Using the Web interface. are discussed in Project connectivity components. Inc. including many project-related terms.

projects appear one level below project sources in the Folder List. For example. and reports that you can create using schema objects such as attributes and facts. A project also represents the intersection of a data source. you may have a project source separated into four different projects with analysis areas such as human resources. and 14 The MicroStrategy platform © 2007 MicroStrategy. filters. and so on. metadata repository.1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide MicroStrategy project A project is where you build and store all schema objects and information you need to create application objects such as reports in the MicroStrategy environment. hierarchies. and user community. Conceptually. Security and other project-level administrative features are discussed in the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. reports. A project can contain many types of objects. inventory. Reporting objects include metrics. and therefore the set of data available to be analyzed. Inc. and so on. Security objects include security filters. Schema objects include facts. Report objects are covered in the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide and the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. . prompts. attributes. Contains all schema objects used to interpret the data in those tables. a project the environment in which all related reporting is done. access control. Projects are often used to separate data from a data warehouse into smaller sections of related data that fit user requirements. sales distribution. Defines the security scheme for the user community that accesses these objects. metrics. which together provide a flexible reporting environment. Contains all reporting objects used to create reports and analyze the data. In MicroStrategy Desktop. including application objects such as filters. and so on. A project: • • Determines the set of data warehouse tables to be used. security roles. • • A project can contain any number of reports in addition to a number of other objects that support simple and advanced reporting requirements. privileges. Schema objects are discussed in later chapters in this guide.

one of the connections you create is between the project and your data warehouse. Inc. This allows all of your users in the human resources department to use the human resources project and they do not have to look through inventory data that they are not interested in. page 73. Some key concepts to understand before you begin creating a project are as follows: • A project is created within a specified metadata repository. The project’s warehouse location is specified by associating it with the appropriate database instance. determined by the project source through which you create the project.Project Design Guide BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform 1 customer satisfaction. The project design process When you create a project in MicroStrategy Desktop. The project design process 15 . © 2007 MicroStrategy. you can then create schema objects based on the columns and tables in the warehouse. • The procedures associated with these concepts are explained in Creating the project. In the project.

1 BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform Project Design Guide The diagram below shows this high-level view of data modeling. It is important to keep this in mind as you design your project and plan for the next phase of development. Designing a project is very rarely a single. new user requirements and project enhancements require modification to the initial project design. which are each covered in the following chapters: Notice that the project design process includes a feedback loop. linear process. Inc. and project creation. schema design and implementation. As projects are deployed and tested. . 16 The project design process © 2007 MicroStrategy.

and can also help you decide what you intend to learn from the data. Inc. THE LOGICAL DATA MODEL Conceptualizing your business model and the data on which to report Introduction Devising a model of your business data can help you analyze the structure of the data. You also need a plan that is visible and laid out correctly. For example.2 2. This chapter describes one of the major components of data modeling: the logical data model. providing a way of organizing data so it can be analyzed from different business perspectives. 17 . A logical data model is a logical arrangement of data as experienced by the general user or business analyst. The logical data model graphically depicts the flow and structure of data in a business environment. A logical data model is similar in concept to using a map and an itinerary when going on a trip. This is different from the physical data model or warehouse schema. You need to know where you are going and how to get there. which arranges data for efficient database use. how its various parts interact. a simple logical data model for a retail company can organize all necessary © 2007 MicroStrategy.

As the MicroStrategy platform does not require you to define dimensions explicitly. The more sophisticated and complex the reporting requirements and source data. Inc. If you are familiar with multidimensional data modeling. the word logical is a more accurate term than multidimensional. and time. product. 18 © 2007 MicroStrategy. This is the key concept of the logical data model. which are three common business perspectives typically associated with a retail business. a logical data model may or may not have any explicitly defined dimensions. Logical data models are independent of a physical data storage device. logical data modeling is similar to multidimensional data modeling. the more complex the logical data model becomes.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide facts by store. The scope and complexity of a logical data model depends on the requirements of the reporting needs of the user community and the availability of source data. While a multidimensional data model must have at least one dimension. The reason that a logical data model must be independent of technology is because technology is changing so rapidly. but the blueprint remains the same. and you do not need to start over completely. What occurs under the logical data model can change with need or with technology. .

characteristics. © 2007 MicroStrategy. conceptual. 19 . This process can help you think about the various elements that compose your company’s business data and how those elements relate to one another. and relationships of data in a technical. Inc. or business environment.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 The logical data modeling process produces a diagram similar to the one shown in the following diagram: A logical data model represents the definition.

page 22 Hierarchies: Data relationship organization. A logical data model is a graphic representation of the following concepts: • • • Facts: Business data and measurements. the elements that exist within them. page 25 20 © 2007 MicroStrategy. . This is usually one of the first steps in designing a project. page 21 Attributes: Context for your levels of data.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide Devising a logical data model for your business intelligence environment allows you to then consider various ways to physically store the business data in the data warehouse. as shown in the following diagram: This chapter provides conceptual information about logical data models. Inc. and also general instructions and guidelines for creating these models.

while you capture stock and inventory data in another system and track it weekly. To those familiar with SQL. Conceptually. In MicroStrategy. you can capture sales data in one system and track it daily. Facts: Business data and measurements 21 . facts are schema objects that relate data values (typically numeric data) from the data warehouse to the MicroStrategy reporting environment. For example. data. For example. you can think of facts as business measurements. or variables that are typically numeric and suitable for aggregation. 9.EMP_ID) WHERE a22. They can come from different source systems and they can have different levels of detail.ORDER_AMT) EMP_NAME FROM ORDER_FACT a21 JOIN LU_EMPLOYEE a22 ON (a21. The rest of data modeling consists mostly of providing context for the data that facts provide access to. Facts allow you to access data stored in a data warehouse and they form the basis for the majority of users’ analysis and report requirements. Inventory.CALL_CTR_ID in (5. such as SUM and AVG.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 Facts: Business data and measurements One of the first things you do when you create a logical data model is to determine the facts. Inc. facts exist as columns within the fact tables. Sales. In a data warehouse.EMP_ID = a22. facts generally represent the numeric columns in database tables on which you perform SQL aggregations. in the following SQL statement. and Account Balance are some examples of facts you can use as business measurements. 12) © 2007 MicroStrategy. Facts are the building blocks used to create business measurements or metrics from which to derive insight into your data. the ORDER_AMT column in the warehouse may correspond to the Order Amount fact in the MicroStrategy environment: SELECT sum(a21.

local. such as national. sum(a21. If you were informed that your company had sales of $10. while ORDER_AMT is the fact. which are business calculations often built using facts. you would need to know more about the source of that sales figure such as: • • • • A time frame for the sales Who and how many people contributed to the sales total What products were sold from which departments The scope of the sale. To those familiar with SQL. Attributes allow you to answer questions about a fact and provide a context for reporting and analyzing those facts. For example. These columns are used to qualify and group fact data. attributes generally represent the non-numeric and non-aggregatable columns in database tables. The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts. 22 Attributes: Context for your levels of data © 2007 MicroStrategy. you can gather little useful information. Inc. regional. They are used to answer business questions about facts at varying levels of detail. the attributes must be identified. if your sales data is stored at the day level. consider the sales figures of your company.000.ORDER_AMT) represents a metric. To make the sales figure meaningful. Fore a more complete discussion about facts. Attributes: Context for your levels of data After the facts are determined. or a single store Attributes provide context and levels for convenient summarization and qualification of your data to help answer the type of questions listed above. Metrics are discussed in detail in the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. a Month attribute allows you to see the same sales data summarized at the month level. For example. . refer to Chapter 5.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide In addition.

the MONTH_ID column in the warehouse maps to the Month attribute in the MicroStrategy environment: SELECT a11.MONTH_ID Attribute forms contain additional descriptive information about a given attribute and are discussed in terms of the logical data model in Attribute forms. 2005 and 2006 are elements of the Year attribute while New York and London are elements of the City attribute. Inc.MONTH_ID) WHERE a11. © 2007 MicroStrategy.200202.MONTH_DESC) MONTH_DESC.MONTH_ID = a12. sum(a11.MONTH_ID MONTH_ID.MONTH_ID in (200201. attributes are used to build the report and the attribute elements are displayed in rows or columns on the executed report. max(a12. For example. On a report. For a complete discussion about attributes. page 36. The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 For example. refer to Chapter 6.TOT_DOLLAR_SALES) DLRSALES FROM MNTH_CATEGORY_SLS a11 join LU_MONTH a12 on (a11. Attributes: Context for your levels of data 23 . in the following SQL statement. For example. a Customer attribute allows you to see sales data at the customer level and you can qualify on the elements of the Customer attribute to see sales data for groups such as customers with last names beginning with the letter h.200203) GROUP BY al1. Attribute elements: Data level values Attribute elements are the unique values or contents of an attribute. Attribute elements also allow you to qualify on data to retrieve specific results.

Every direct relationship between attributes has two parts—a parent and a child. they are necessary in understanding attribute relationships. are essential to the logical data model. The relationships give meaning to the data by providing logical associations of attributes based on business rules. Although attribute elements are not included in the logical data model. there is no interaction between data. to have a solid understanding of all the attributes in the project. Attribute elements are discussed in more detail in Unique sets of attribute information: Attribute elements. The parent attribute is at a 24 Attributes: Context for your levels of data © 2007 MicroStrategy. which are associations between attributes that specify how attributes are connected. and therefore no logical structure. Attribute relationships Building an effective project in MicroStrategy requires you.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide The following diagram shows some examples of attributes and attribute elements. Attribute relationships. . Inc. page 140. By recognizing and understanding the elements of an attribute. A child must always have a parent and a parent can have multiple children. as the project designer. as well as how each of them relates to the other attributes. you can better design your data model and project. Without relationships.

Hierarchies: Data relationship organization 25 . In a logical data model. Examples of related and unrelated attributes. Month. which represent the level at which a fact is stored. the fact is a customer purchase. Attributes are either related or unrelated to each other. A graphical example of how facts. It is the existence of a fact that ties the Time hierarchy to the Customer hierarchy. For example. Hierarchies: Data relationship organization Hierarchies in a logical data model are ordered groupings of attributes arranged to reflect their relationship with other attributes. In this case.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 higher logical level than the child is. © 2007 MicroStrategy. For example. and hierarchies are related and form a complete logical data model is shown in the section Sample data model. Year and Quarter are attributes that are usually directly related to each other. Therefore. you can group the attributes Year. if you want to create a report that shows information about customer purchases in a particular year. Year and Customer are related through a fact. Year is the parent attribute and Quarter is the child. are discussed in Attribute relationships. there must be some way to determine how these two attributes are related. For example. hierarchies contain attributes that are directly related to each other. facts exist at the intersection of hierarchies. One year has many quarters and both attributes are in the Time hierarchy. They are identified by multiple attributes. Inc. page 26 below. along with more detailed information about attribute relationships. in a relationship between Year and Quarter. page 159. and Day to form the Time hierarchy. Usually the best design for a hierarchy is to organize or group attributes into logical business areas. However. Year and Customer are attributes that are usually not in the same hierarchy and are not directly related to each other. attributes. Attributes in one hierarchy are not directly related to attributes in another hierarchy.

refer to Chapter 7. relationships. and hierarchies—a logical data model begins to take shape. Some of the things to consider when creating a logical data model are • • • User requirements Existing source systems Converting source data to analytical data 26 Sample data model © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. .2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide For a complete discussion about hierarchies. Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes. The following diagram is an example of a logical data model: Building a logical data model The first thing you must do before creating a logical data model is study the factors that influence your design. attributes. Sample data model When all of the components are placed in a single diagram—facts.

However. lack of data in the source systems can limit user requirements. Your user community can consist of people with vastly different requirements. company executives are typically interested in overall trends and may want reports showing data aggregated across the company and over a long period of time. When creating the logical data model. Developing such a model involves the following: • • • Identification of user requirements Design of solutions Evaluation of those solutions Logical data modeling is a reiterative process. Sometimes. additional user requirements can be encountered after deploying a project as users encounter areas for enhancement. page 28. new user requirements may require you to modify the logical data model to better support the type of analysis and the retrieval of data that users demand. to satisfy user requirements. you must consider all the potential users and how to accommodate their varied requirements. In some cases. These managers may want reports about their specific region or store over short-and long-terms. Building a logical data model 27 .Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 User requirements The primary goal of logical data modeling is to meet the needs of your users’ reporting requirements. you can derive additional data not found in the source systems. as explained in Existing source systems. where additional questions and concerns arise with each draft of the logical data model. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Lower-level managers are typically more interested in data about their particular areas of responsibility. Inc. In some cases. For example. User requirements are an important part of the initial project design process.

Additionally. . Conversely. While a review of your data is initially helpful in identifying components of your logical data model. this does not mean that it should not be included in the logical data model. Although some data may not exist in a source system. users also want to see data at the monthly or yearly level. You must determine what facts and attributes in the existing data are necessary for supporting the decision support requirements of your user community. attributes. although data is stored at a daily level in the source system. consisting of a large number of facts and attributes. The existing data should suggest a number of facts. For example. However. Converting source data to analytical data If there are no existing systems and you are just beginning your data warehousing initiative. In this case. User requirements should drive the decision on what to include and what to exclude. you can plan additional attributes to provide the levels at which you intend to analyze the facts in your data model. and relationships. Inc. but the business analysts want to see data for different states or regions. an insurance company’s transactional system records data by customer and city.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide Existing source systems Understanding what data is available is an important step in creating a logical data model. you can build the logical data model based heavily on current user requirements. you may not find all the facts and attributes to meet your needs within the data itself. State and region do not appear in the existing source data and so you need to extract them from another source. but a substantial portion of the work in creating a suitable logical data model involves determining what additional components are required to satisfy the needs of the user community. Existing data is usually abundant. most logical models begin with an examination of the source data once existing systems are developed and 28 Building a logical data model © 2007 MicroStrategy. everything you find in the source data does not necessarily need to be included in the logical data model.

Building a logical data model 29 . for example. An ERD provides a graphical representation of the physical structure of the data in the source system. page 29 Step 2: Identify the attributes. for a particular item. in this guide the logical data model also takes into account how your data can be integrated into MicroStrategy to develop a business intelligence solution. A product inventory fact. For example. determine the business level at which each fact is recorded. Step 1: Identify the facts Using your existing data. on a particular day. The source data usually has some sort of documented physical structure. which lets you easily recognize tables and columns and the data stored in those columns. Whether you start from nothing or have an existing source system to use. page 30 Step 3: Determine attribute relationships.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 implemented. in retail models. However. or day level. For example. can be © 2007 MicroStrategy. A logical data model is similar in concept to an ERD. Remember that facts can be calculated and are usually numeric and aggregatable. page 31 Step 4: Define hierarchies. the steps to create a logical data model are as follows: • • • • Step 1: Identify the facts. however. After you have all the facts listed. sales facts are often stored at the store. meaning that a sale takes place in a particular store. item. sales and profit figures. Inc. page 32 The details in these steps are related to using an existing source system. most OLTP systems have an entity relationship diagram (ERD). make a list of all data that can be represented as facts in MicroStrategy.

item. For example. month. This information may only be apparent to you after you deploy your project and you determine that a high percentage of your users are viewing sales data at the yearly level. your users are interested in analyzing data at more than just at the day level. These business levels become the attributes in your logical data model (see Step 2: Identify the attributes. or week level. in the existing data there may be fact data recorded only at the day level. Step 2: Identify the attributes Uncover attributes by considering the levels at which you would like to view the facts on your reports. Start by looking at the levels at which each fact is recorded and build from there. This practice is sometimes a reaction to user requirements established after project deployment. They also want to view their data at the year. but such considerations should be taken into account during your initial project design initiative.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide stored at the region. page 30). You can then design a Year attribute for your project. page 241). you can include an aggregate table that stores sales data at the year level (see Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables. However. 30 Building a logical data model © 2007 MicroStrategy. . Inc. and week levels. This analysis requires MicroStrategy to aggregate the sales data from the day level to the year level. To improve performance and meet the requirements of the majority of your users.

in the diagram below. you should determine the type of relationship. For example. you must then determine which attributes are related to each other. in the Sales Force Analysis Module of the MicroStrategy BIDK opportunity information is stored with an Opportunity attribute which is directly related to the attributes Opportunity Close Date. Additionally. Primary Competitor. and for every month. Step 3: Determine attribute relationships Once you have identified your data to be defined as attributes in MicroStrategy. Logical data modeling is an iterative process. Opportunity Open Date. if necessary. several months exist. It is usually unnecessary to bring all data from the source system into the analytical environment.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 Be careful not to include more facts and attributes than necessary. and so on. for a number of dates (in a © 2007 MicroStrategy. Only include facts and attributes that can serve your user community. several dates exist. This one-to-many relationship specifies that. Inc. Building a logical data model 31 . For example. you can always add more attributes and facts later. From the reverse perspective the same relationship specifies that. These attributes are all related to the Opportunity attribute because they all answer questions about opportunity information. for every year. Year has a one-to-many relationship to Month. and Month has a one-to-many relationship to Day.

If you have documentation for the existing data. Jan 2006. Step 4: Define hierarchies Hierarchies provide a structure for your data and can help your users easily and intuitively browse for related attributes and include them in a report. If you define the attribute Month as simply the month name (Dec. only one year exists. This example may not accurately define how you store time information. You can 32 Building a logical data model © 2007 MicroStrategy. you can organize all time-related attributes into the Time hierarchy. and so on) then the relationship would become many-to-many. Consider the Year to Month attribute relationship type of one-to-many. Attribute relationships are discussed in detail in Attribute relationships. only one month exists (in a form such as Dec 2005). Jan. such as an ERD. In the context of a logical data model. think of hierarchies as logical arrangements of attributes into business areas. . page 24. and so on) and not directly connected to a year (Dec 2005.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide form such as 12/01/2005). For example. it is likely that the documentation provides some additional details about the nature of the data and any inherent relationships. and for a number of months. Inc.

These include: • • • Unique identifiers Cardinalities and ratios Attribute forms These logical modeling conventions can provide cues for system optimization opportunities. in which case you may have one big hierarchy. Depending on the complexity of your data and the nature of your business. you may have very few hierarchies or you may have many. help with system maintenance. Although the user community is the ultimate beneficiary of a © 2007 MicroStrategy. Logical data modeling conventions 33 . and make for a more robust logical data model. the requirements of your user community should help you determine what hierarchies are necessary. It is possible that all the data is directly related.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 have a Customer hierarchy containing all attributes related to your customers and a Supplier hierarchy for all attributes related to supplier data. Inc. Again. Logical data modeling conventions There are numerous logical data modeling conventions you can use to enhance your logical data model.

page 42). when applicable. Some attributes rely on more than 34 Logical data modeling conventions © 2007 MicroStrategy. This additional information can be particularly useful to a person learning about the system. Unique identifiers An additional modeling convention is to add unique identifiers for each attribute and fact. Unique identifiers denote the key that maps an attribute to its source data in the source system. administrators. Inc.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide well-optimized and maintained system. Each convention adds more information about the data to the logical data model. and advanced report designers. This information can help define primary keys in the physical warehouse schema (see Uniquely identifying data in tables with key structures. Remember that facts are usually identified by multiple attributes and therefore will have multiple unique identifiers. these conventions are primarily intended for project designers. . The following diagram shows a logical data model with unique identifiers added.

Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes. Ratios can be particularly helpful when trying to © 2007 MicroStrategy. Cardinalities and ratios Another enhancement to the logical data model is the addition of cardinalities and ratios for each attribute. Inc. For example. Logical data modeling conventions 35 . which requires both the Item_ID and Class_ID columns to uniquely identify its elements. note the Item attribute.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 one ID column to identify its elements. Cardinalities help the database administrator estimate the size of the data warehouse and help project designers determine the best paths for users to navigate through the data using hierarchies in MicroStrategy. Cardinality is the number of unique elements for an attribute and ratios are the ratios between the cardinalities of related attributes. which are discussed in Chapter 7.

Note the cardinalities in the upper right corner of each attribute rectangle and the ratios next to some of the relationships between attributes. The following diagram shows a logical data model which includes cardinalities and ratios. For example. it is impossible to determine how many customers have different dates of birth in the warehouse. Attribute forms Including attribute forms in your logical data model can help you get a more complete view of all of the information that is made available in your project. This additional information can be invaluable to database administrators and project designers. this is because this information varies and is unpredictable.2 The Logical Data Model Project Design Guide decide where creating aggregate tables will be most effective. Also note that the cardinality of some attributes such as Date of Birth are unknown. Inc. . 36 Logical data modeling conventions © 2007 MicroStrategy.

these attributes simply provide additional information about the Customer attribute. Each element of the Customer attribute represents a different customer. you can model these additional © 2007 MicroStrategy. you create an attribute called Customer to represent customers in your system. When a one-to-one relationship exists between an attribute and one of its descriptions. though. and in the data. Logical data modeling conventions 37 . In reality. you could have included each of these pieces of information as separate attributes. and it is part of the Customer hierarchy.Project Design Guide The Logical Data Model 2 Attribute forms contain additional descriptive information about a given attribute. you store the following information about your customers: • • • • • Customer number (some numeric code used to uniquely identify customers) First name Last name Address Email address In your logical data model. each with a one-to-one relationship to the Customer attribute. For example. they do not represent different levels within the Customer hierarchy. Inc.

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pieces of descriptive information as attribute forms. The following diagram shows how you add attribute forms to a logical data model:

Attribute forms are discussed in terms of their role in MicroStrategy in Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms, page 143.

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3.

Physical Warehouse Schema

WAREHOUSE STRUCTURE FOR YOUR LOGICAL DATA MODEL

Introduction
As discussed in the previous chapter, the logical data model can help you think about the logical structure of your business data and the many relationships that exist within that information. The physical warehouse schema is based on the logical data model. It is a detailed graphic representation of your business data as it is stored in the data warehouse. The physical warehouse schema organizes the logical data model in a method that makes sense from a database perspective. In contrast, the logical data model is a logical arrangement of data from the perspective of the general user or business analyst. For more information on what a logical data model is and how to create one, see Chapter 2, The Logical Data Model. The logical data model is only concerned with logical objects of the business model, such as Day, Item, Store, or Account. Several physical warehouse schemas can be derived from the same logical data model. The structure of the schema
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depends on how the data representing those logical objects are to be stored in the warehouse. For example you can store logical objects in the same table, in separate tables, duplicated across several tables, or in some other arrangement. While the logical data model tells you what facts and attributes to create, the physical warehouse schema tells you where the underlying data for those objects is stored. The physical warehouse schema describes how your data is stored in the data warehouse and how it can be retrieved for analysis. Creating a physical warehouse schema is the next step in organizing your business data before you create a project, as shown below:

The key components that make up the physical warehouse schema are columns and tables. Columns and tables in the physical warehouse schema represent facts and attributes from the logical data model. The rows in a table represent attribute elements and fact data.

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Columns: Data identifiers and values
Columns are fields in the warehouse that contain attribute and fact data. The types of columns are: • ID columns contain attribute element identification codes. These codes are typically numeric because computers can process numbers much more rapidly than text. All attributes must have an ID column. Description columns contain descriptions (text or numeric) of attribute elements. Description columns are optional. An ID column can serve a dual purpose as both an ID and description. Date is one example of an attribute that usually does not have a description column. The majority of attributes typically have an ID column and at least one description column. If an attribute has many attribute forms—additional descriptive information about a given attribute—they are represented by additional description columns. • Fact columns contain fact data.

Tables: Physical groupings of related data
The different types of tables are • • • Lookup tables: Attribute storage, page 43 Relate tables: A unique case for relating attributes, page 45 Fact tables: Fact data and levels of aggregation, page 46

While each type of table may function differently within the data warehouse, each type of table can be assigned a primary key that uniquely identifies the elements within the given table.

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Uniquely identifying data in tables with key structures
In relational databases, each table has a primary key that creates a unique value identifying each distinct data record or row. This applies to every type of table within the data warehouse. The types of keys that can be assigned to a table include: • • Simple key requires only one column to identify a record uniquely within a table. Compound key requires multiple columns to identify a unique record.

Which key structure you use to identify a unique attribute in a table depends on the nature of your data and business requirements. The following diagram shows how the different key structures can be used to identify a calling center.

The simple key shows how you can identify a calling center with only its Call_Ctr_id. This means that every calling center has its own unique ID. In the compound key, calling centers are identified by both Call_Ctr_id and Region_id. This means that two calling centers from different regions can share the same Call_Ctr_id. For example, there can be a calling center with ID 1 in region A, and another calling center with ID 1 in region B. In this case, you cannot identify a unique calling center without knowing both the Call_Ctr_id and the Region_id. Simple keys are generally easier to handle in the data warehouse than are compound keys because they require less storage space and they allow for simpler SQL. Compound

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keys tend to increase SQL query complexity, query time, and required storage space. However, compound keys have a more efficient ETL process. Which key structure you use for a particular attribute depends entirely on the nature of the data and your system. Consider what key structures work best when creating lookup tables in the physical warehouse schema.

Lookup tables: Attribute storage
Lookup tables are the physical representation of attributes. They provide the ability to aggregate data at different levels. Lookup tables store the information for an attribute in ID and description columns (see Columns: Data identifiers and values, page 41). Depending on how you choose to organize the physical schema, a lookup table can store information for one or more related attributes. If a table only stores data about one attribute, it is said to be a normalized table. If a table holds data about multiple attributes, it is said to be a denormalized table. The following diagram shows the different ways in which you can organize the same attribute information. Notice that the denormalized table holds the exact same data as the normalized tables. While the denormalized table consolidates

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information about attributes within one table, the normalized tables each contain only a subset of all of the information about the attributes.

You can use either structure for any table in the physical warehouse schema, though each structure has its advantages and disadvantages, as explained in the following sections and outlined in the table in Schema type comparisons, page 60.

Attribute relationships and lookup table structure
Attribute relationships are a major factor in determining the structure of lookup tables in a physical warehouse schema. In general, the following guidelines apply: • One-to-one relationships usually denote the existence of an attribute form. The description column of an attribute form should simply be included as an additional column in the attribute’s lookup table. Many-to-many relationships usually require the use of a relate table distinct from either attribute lookup table. A relate table should include the ID columns of the two attributes in question. For more information on how to use relate tables, see Relate tables: A unique case for relating attributes, page 45.

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Relate tables: A unique case for relating attributes
While lookup tables store information about attributes, relate tables store information about the relationship between two attributes. Relate tables contain the ID columns of two or more attributes, thus defining associations between them. Relate tables are often used to create relationships between attributes that have a many-to-many relationship to each other. With attributes whose direct relationship is one-to-many—in which every element of a parent attribute can relate to multiple elements of a child attribute—you define parent-child relationships by placing the ID column of the parent attribute in the lookup table of the child attribute. The parent ID column in the child table is called a foreign key. This technique allows you to define relationships between attributes in the attributes’ lookup tables, creating tables that function as both lookup tables and relate tables as shown in the following diagram:

In the case of a many-to-many relationship—in which multiple elements of a parent attribute can relate to multiple elements of a child attribute—you must create a separate relate table as shown in the following diagram:

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Fact tables: Fact data and levels of aggregation
Fact tables are used to store fact data. Since attributes provide context for fact values, both fact columns and attribute ID columns are included in fact tables. Facts help to link indirectly related attributes. The attribute ID columns included in a fact table represent the level at which the facts in that table are stored. For example, fact tables containing sales and inventory data look like the tables shown in the following diagram:

For more details on the level of aggregation of your fact data, see Fact table levels: The context of your data, page 48.

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The following diagram shows an example of a fact table and how you can create a derived fact column from base fact columns: In the example. the derived fact exists in several tables. Also.Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 Base fact columns versus derived fact columns The types of fact columns are base fact columns and derived fact columns: • Base fact columns are represented by a single column in a fact table. The following diagram shows an example of a fact table and base fact columns: • Derived fact columns are created through a mathematical combination of other existing fact columns. and Discount fact columns. Inc. Tables: Physical groupings of related data 47 . © 2007 MicroStrategy. the derived fact Tot_Dollar_Sales is created using the Qty_Sold. including Item_Mnth_Sls and City_Ctr_Sls. Unit_Price.

Metrics allow you to perform calculations and aggregations on fact data from one or more fact columns. There are advantages and disadvantages to consider when deciding if you should create a derived fact column. Fact table levels: The context of your data Facts and fact tables have an associated level based on the attribute ID columns included in the fact table. The Sales and Inventory facts can be analyzed at the item. You can create the same type of data analysis in MicroStrategy with the use of metrics. 48 Tables: Physical groupings of related data © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc.3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide Because facts in different fact tables are typically stored at different levels. For example. the following image shows two facts with an Item/Day/Call Center level. page 97. which translates into simpler SQL and a speedier query at report run time. and call center levels because those levels exist as ID columns in the fact table. derived fact columns can only contain fact columns from the same fact table. . and Call_Ctr_id columns in the table above represent practical levels at which sales and inventory data can be analyzed on a report. day. For more information on what metrics are and how to create them. The advantage of storing derived fact columns in the warehouse is that the calculation of data is previously performed and stored separately. For more information on the different types of facts in MicroStrategy and how they are defined. The Item_id. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. see How facts are defined. The disadvantage is that derived fact columns require more storage space and more time during the ETL process. Day_id.

For example. as shown in the diagram below. Fact tables should only include attribute ID columns that represent levels at which you intend to analyze the specific fact data. The levels at which facts are stored become especially important when you begin to have complex queries with multiple facts in multiple tables that are stored at levels different from one another. You must be able to support fact reporting at the business levels which users require. and when a reporting request involves still a different level.Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 You do not need to include more lookup column IDs than are necessary for a given fact table. they store the same data: information about regions. Inc. Tables: Physical groupings of related data 49 . this is because analyzing inventory data at the customer level does not result in a practical business calculation. This is called heterogeneous column naming. Though the Region_id and Reg_id columns have different names. Homogeneous versus heterogeneous column naming Suppose the data warehouse has information from two source systems. These naming inconsistencies occur because source systems use different naming conventions to name the data they collect. © 2007 MicroStrategy. and in one source system regions are identified by column name Region_id and in the other the column name is Reg_id. notice that the table above does not include the Customer_id column.

In order for reports to retrieve accurate and complete results. In this case. This is called homogeneous column naming. For consistency. heterogeneous columns must be mapped to their corresponding facts and attributes. as shown in the following diagram: 50 Tables: Physical groupings of related data © 2007 MicroStrategy. if you create a Region attribute given the tables in the example above. When you define facts and attributes in MicroStrategy Desktop.3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide The data for the Lookup_Region table came from a different source system than the data for the Lookup_Call_Ctr and the source systems have different naming conventions. Inc. the Region_ID column has the same name in both tables. consider the heterogeneous column names that may exist in your source systems. . it is a good idea for columns that contain the same data to have the same column name. you must map both the Region_id and Reg_id columns to the attribute so all information about regions is calculated correctly and displayed on reports when the Region attribute is used. This explains why the same information about regions is represented by two columns with different names. For example.

Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 Just as it is possible for the same attribute data to exist in different lookup tables. Typically. one of the schema types. Inc. How you choose to structure the warehouse depends on the nature of your data. A fact column may or may not have the same name in different tables. These schema types are: • • • Highly normalized schema: Minimal storage space Moderately normalized schema: Balanced storage space and query performance Highly denormalized schema: Enhanced query performance Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage © 2007 MicroStrategy. is used to organize the physical schema to enhance query performance while maintaining and acceptable amount of data storage space. the available storage space. and the requirements of your user community. or a combination of them. as shown below: Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage There are many ways to structure your data warehouse and no method is inherently right or wrong. it is also possible for the same fact data to exist in different fact tables. 51 .

such as Call_Ctr_desc. These operations are necessary. and Region_id. . However. With no data redundancy. Inc. In highly normalized schemas. • Highly normalized schema: Minimal storage space The following diagram is an example of a highly normalized schema. The most obvious drawback is that redundant data requires more storage space to hold the same amount of data as a system with no redundancy. you should keep in mind the following concepts: • Redundant data can cause a couple of drawbacks. The schema examples that follow show data at the Item/Call Center/Date level. The sections below are not meant to be an exhaustive list of all possible schema types. page 241). the number of joins required to build your queries affects the performance of those queries. Data redundancy also makes updating data a more intensive and difficult process because data resides in multiple places. Fact table keys consist of attribute keys relevant to the level of data stored in the table. When comparing the different schema types.3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide In each of these schemas a base fact table and any number of aggregate fact tables are used (For more information on aggregate fact tables. lookup tables contain unique developer-designed attribute keys. see Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables. and 52 Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage © 2007 MicroStrategy. Dist_Ctr_desc. as shown in the figure below. Dist_Ctr_id. data only has to be updated in a single place. They also contain attribute description columns. but as with any operation performed on your data warehouse. such as Call_Ctr_id. the sections below are meant to give a description of the most common or general schema types that are used to develop a physical warehouse schema. • Joins are SQL operations that are required to combine two tables together in order to retrieve data.

Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage 53 . the lookup table for an attribute contains the ID column of the parent attribute.Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 Region_desc. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. Also. such as Dist_Ctr_id in the Lookup_Call_Ctr table.

Moderately normalized schema: Balanced storage space and query performance The following diagram shows an example of a moderately normalized schema. However. When accessing higher-level lookup tables such as Lookup_Region in the example above.3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide The following diagram shows what physical lookup tables look like in the warehouse: One benefit of using a highly normalized schema is that it requires minimal storage space in the warehouse because of it uses smaller lookup tables than the other schema types. This is because each table contains only a small amount of information about a given attribute. therefore. numerous joins are required to retrieve information about the higher-level tables. This schema type has the same basic structure as the highly normalized schema. there is a drawback to using only small tables in the data warehouse. The difference 54 Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage © 2007 MicroStrategy. multiple tables must be joined until the required column is found. Inc. .

Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 here is the higher-level attribute ID columns are present within all tables of related attributes. Inc. Region_id is included in the Lookup_Call_Ctr table. For example. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage 55 .

since some tables contain the same ID columns (as shown above with the Region_ID column). fewer joins are required when retrieving information about an attribute. Because the ID columns of both the parents and grandparents of an attribute exist in multiple tables. The following diagram shows what the physical lookup tables look like in the warehouse. Inc. A highly denormalized schema has the same basic structure as the other two schema types. Using a moderately normalized schema provides a balance between the pros and cons of normalized and denormalized schema types. the tables within this type of schema take up some redundant storage space in the warehouse.3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide The fact table structure within a moderately normalized schema is identical to that of the highly normalized schema. With 56 Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage © 2007 MicroStrategy. . Highly denormalized schema: Enhanced query performance The following diagram is an example of a highly denormalized schema. However.

However. not only are higher-level attribute ID columns present within all related tables. Region_desc is included in the Lookup_Call_Ctr table. High denormalized schemas also cause the highest level of data redundancy. this schema type requires the largest amount of storage space within the warehouse because of its large lookup tables. This is possible because Lookup_Call_CTR contains all information (including description data) for Call Center as well as for Distribution Center and Region.Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 this type. Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage 57 . and Region along with Sales Dollars in the same report while only having to join the Lookup_Call_CTR and Fact_Sales tables. you can include the descriptions of Call Center. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Distribution Center. Inc. For example. For example. but the description columns are present as well. Using a highly denormalized schema further reduces the joins necessary to retrieve attribute descriptions.

3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide Star schema: Consolidating lookup tables When using the highly denormalized schema. only one lookup table is used to contain all of the attribute IDs and description columns for a given hierarchy. it is possible to eliminate most of the lookup tables and leave just a few. . A star schema can also reduce the amount of storage space necessary in a highly denormalized schema. as shown below. Inc. star schemas can often 58 Schema types: Data retrieval performance versus redundant storage © 2007 MicroStrategy. the amount of join operations are reduced by using a star schema. as shown below: As with any schema type model there are advantages and disadvantages to using a star schema. however. Arranging the warehouse schema this way produces a star schema. the lookup tables are consolidated so that every attribute ID and description column for a given hierarchy exists in one table. In this type of schema. Recall that in a highly denormalized schema. In a star schema. However. geography) consists of several lookup tables. each hierarchy (for example. As with a highly denormalized schema type.

Design trade-offs 59 . you will have to create an extensive data model and schema to support those requirements. You must decide which factors are most important in your particular environment and weigh them against the other factors. The following diagram shows the three major requirements that must be balanced to create an effective system. This results in an increased load on the warehouse.Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 require large lookup tables that can take a more time to search than the smaller tables that are used in the other schema types. If you try to satisfy every single user requirement from the simplest to the most complex. if you have the storage space necessary to accommodate data in a star schema it may seem that you would never want to normalize your schema. SQL queries directed at a consolidated table require the use of a DISTINCT operator and these types of queries tend to be very © 2007 MicroStrategy. slower query performance. Design trade-offs Constructing a logical data model and physical warehouse schema is an iterative process of compromises and trade-offs. Inc. and greater maintenance for the database administrator. For example. Each of these categories affects the others. However.

Schema Type Highly normalized schema Lookup Table Structure • Attribute ID • Attribute description column • ID column of parent • Attribute ID • Attribute description column • ID column of parent • ID column of grandparents Advantages Minimal storage space and minimal data redundancy which makes updating data less intensive than for the other schema types Greatly reduces the number of joins necessary to relate an attribute to its grandparents as compared to a highly normalized schema Disadvantages Requires numerous joins to retrieve information from higher-level lookup tables Moderately normalized schema Requires some redundant storage 60 Schema type comparisons © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 241. You can even use different schema types within the same hierarchy. For more comparisons between the different schema types described in this chapter. Inc. which are discussed in Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables. Schema type comparisons One way to achieve a balance of the various trade-offs in your schema design is to use a variety of schema types in your physical warehouse schema. see the following section Schema type comparisons. you may need higher level lookup tables to take advantage of aggregate tables. One hierarchy can be highly normalized while another can be highly denormalized.3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide expensive in terms of database resources and processing time. The use of a resource-intensive DISTINCT query could therefore negate any performance gain achieved by reducing the number of joins between higher-level lookup tables. The table below compares the different schema types. In addition to the previous points. . page 60.

Project Design Guide Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model 3 Schema Type Highly denormalized schema Lookup Table Structure • Attribute ID • Attribute description column • ID column of parent • description column of parent • ID column of grandparents • description column of grandparents • Consolidates an entire hierarchy into a single lookup table Advantages Further reduces joins necessary to retrieve attribute descriptions as compared to a moderately normalized schema Disadvantages Requires the most storage space and redundant data requires a more intensive process to update Star schema • Further reduces joins necessary to retrieve attribute descriptions as compared to a moderately normalized schema • Requires less storage space and data redundancy than a highly denormalized schema and thus data is easier to update Large lookup tables can negatively affect query performance when searching tables and requiring DISTINCT operations to be performed Now that you have gained an understanding of data modeling and the roles of facts and attributes. you can learn about these same schema objects in terms of how they exist in the MicroStrategy environment. Schema type comparisons 61 . © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. As facts and attributes are the cornerstones of the reports you intend to create using MicroStrategy. it is essential to understand the structure of each of these schema objects before creating a project.

Inc.3 Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model Project Design Guide 62 Schema type comparisons © 2007 MicroStrategy. .

To see a sample project. For definitions and descriptions of the components within the MicroStrategy platform that allow you to create and analyze your business intelligence applications. 63 . access the MicroStrategy Tutorial provided with the MicroStrategy platform. BI Architecture and the MicroStrategy Platform. The Tutorial is a sample data warehouse and demonstration project you can use to learn about the various features of the MicroStrategy platform. This chapter guides you through the first few major steps involved in creating a project in MicroStrategy. For more information about the © 2007 MicroStrategy.4 4. you are ready to create a project in MicroStrategy. It is ready to be used and requires no additional configuration tasks. Inc. see Chapter 1. CREATING AND CONFIGURING A PROJECT Introduction Once you create a logical model of your business data and arrange the data within the data warehouse.

Metadata is stored in a relational database with a predefined structure. Project connectivity components This section defines some of the basic terminology used in project creation in MicroStrategy Desktop. 64 Project connectivity components © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. see Appendix A. configuration objects. application objects. MicroStrategy Tutorial. refer to the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. It is intended to familiarize you with some of the terms discussed in this guide. MicroStrategy metadata All schema objects. To view the structure of the MicroStrategy Tutorial. The RDBMS for the metadata and warehouse do not need to be the same. and project settings are stored in the MicroStrategy metadata. .4 Creating and Configuring a Project Project Design Guide Tutorial.

© 2007 MicroStrategy. This first step in the project creation process is outlined in Creating the metadata repository. and password to a metadata repository. MicroStrategy strongly suggests you always connect to the metadata through Intelligence Server because of the security and scalability it provides. In MicroStrategy Desktop. the necessary tables to hold the data must be present. It is highly recommended that you never use direct mode connection in a production environment. To view the readme from the Start menu select Programs. login. A connection to a metadata repository is achieved in one of two ways: • Direct or two-tier mode ( ): Connects to the metadata by specifying a DSN. and then select ReadMe. which creates the blank tables and populates some of the tables with basic initialization data. You create the metadata shell with the MicroStrategy Configuration Wizard. page 71. Metadata shell Before you can populate the metadata repository with data. Project source The project source is a configuration object which represents a connection to a metadata repository. The metadata shell is the set of blank tables that are created when you initially implement a MicroStrategy business intelligence environment. Inc. You should not connect directly to the metadata unless you are implementing a prototype environment. Project connectivity components 65 . then MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide Creating and Configuring a Project 4 You can find the list of supported RDBMS platforms in the readme file that is installed with MicroStrategy products. the project source appears in the Folder List with an icon that varies depending on the type of connection it represents.

This is the type of connection used to create a production-ready project in MicroStrategy. which in turn governs and validates the connection to the metadata. The project metadata is the first tier. Intelligence Server.4 Creating and Configuring a Project Project Design Guide • Server or three-tier mode( ): Connects to the metadata by pointing to an Intelligence Server definition. and ensures metadata integrity. Intelligence Server manages all connections to databases. The following diagram illustrates Server connectivity between a MicroStrategy metadata repository. every object definition you create within this project source is stored in this metadata. This includes application objects. 66 Project connectivity components © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 8 for definitions of these object types). However. enforces security. the same metadata repository can be accessed by multiple project sources. After the connection to the metadata is established. A project source may contain any number of projects. MicroStrategy Desktop is the second tier. A four-tier connection is a Server (three-tier) connection in conjunction with MicroStrategy Web deployed on a web server. . A project source connects to a single metadata repository. and configuration objects from any number of projects defined within this project source (see MicroStrategy metadata. For these reasons. and MicroStrategy Desktop. Inc. and Intelligence Server is the third tier. schema objects. Intelligence Server is a necessary part of any production project.

and user community. see the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. For more information on what a project is in MicroStrategy. Project connectivity components 67 . page 72. A project also represents the intersection of a data source. Project A project is where you build and store all schema objects and information you need to create application objects such as reports in the MicroStrategy environment. Connecting to a data source through a database instance is explained in detail in Connecting to a data source. © 2007 MicroStrategy. metadata repository. see MicroStrategy project. page 14. When you define a project.Project Design Guide Creating and Configuring a Project 4 Database instance The database instance is a configuration object that represents a connection to a data source. Inc. For information on database instances. you specify the data source location by creating and selecting a database instance with the appropriate connection parameters.

. It acts as the 68 Creating a project © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. database instances. Bear this process in mind as you proceed through the rest of this guide. you can begin to build an understanding of how these various pieces work together to provide an integrated business intelligence environment as shown in the following diagram. 1 Creating the metadata repository The metadata repository contains the objects and definitions associated with your project. project sources. These steps provide you with a high-level view of the project creation process.4 Creating and Configuring a Project Project Design Guide Summary of project connectivity With a firm understanding of the MicroStrategy metadata. and projects. Creating a project The following procedure describes the main steps to create a MicroStrategy project.

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intermediary between your business data and your reporting environment. Therefore, the first step in the project creation process is to create a metadata repository. For detailed instructions, see Creating the metadata repository, page 71. 2 Connecting to the metadata repository and data source Once the metadata repository is created and populated with initialization data, you must establish connections to both the metadata repository and data source. For detailed instructions, see Connecting to the metadata repository and data source, page 71. 3 Creating the project Having created a metadata repository and established the necessary connections between the different parts of your MicroStrategy environment, you are ready to create the basic definition of your project. For detailed instructions, see Creating the project, page 73. 4 Creating facts and attributes Schema objects such as facts and attributes are the basic components of the logical structure of a project. The business data your user community wants to report on is represented by schema objects in MicroStrategy. Therefore, it is necessary to setup schema objects before reports can be created. This step is covered in Creating facts and attributes, page 82 of this chapter. You can use Query Builder or Freeform SQL to create schema objects as you design reports. For more information for these features, see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide.

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5 Configuring additional schema-level settings Once you create the initial schema objects, you can configure additional schema-level settings that allow you to add complexity and depth to objects in your project and to the project as a whole. For example, you can create advanced facts and attributes to retrieve specific result sets. You can also use attributes to create time-series analysis schema objects called transformations and implement various tools to optimize and maintain your project over time. For information about: • • • Advanced fact creation, see Creating and modifying simple and advanced facts, page 91. Advanced attribute creation, see Adding and modifying attributes, page 134. Hierarchies and hierarchy creation, see Chapter 7, Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes. Transformations and transformation creation, see Chapter 9, Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons. Project optimization and maintenance, see Chapter 8, Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project. The steps listed above relate to the process of creating a project which connects to a database or other data source such as a text file or Excel file. MicroStrategy also supports connecting to data stored in SAP BW, Microsoft Analysis Services 2000 and 2005, and Hyperion Essbase systems. When integrated with MicroStrategy, these systems are referred to as OLAP cube sources. You can connect to any of these OLAP cube sources to report and analyze the data concurrently within a project that also connects to a database, or you can create a a standalone connection to your OLAP cube source (see Appendix B, Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources).

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Creating the metadata repository
Your first step in project creation is to create a metadata repository. This repository stores all the objects necessary to support your project. You can create an empty metadata repository in the database location of your choice using the Metadata Tables option in the Configuration Wizard. Before proceeding to the next section, make sure your metadata repository exists in a non-Microsoft Access database. An Access database is unsuitable for a production project. Create a metadata repository using the guidelines outlined in the Configuring and Connecting Intelligence Server chapter of the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. When you create the metadata repository, MicroStrategy creates a default configuration in the repository. The default configuration populates the tables with the basic data required for the metadata, such as the default project folder structure and basic connection information. These tables are populated with your project information during the project creation step in the Project Creation Assistant, outlined in Creating the project, page 73. For instructions on creating a metadata repository in a database, see the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide.

Connecting to the metadata repository and data source
Once you have created a metadata repository, your next step is to connect MicroStrategy Desktop to the metadata repository and to your data source.

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Connecting to the metadata repository
You connect to the metadata repository in MicroStrategy Desktop or Web through a project source. Recall that a project source is a pointer to a metadata repository. It connects either through a DSN that points to the appropriate database location or by pointing to an instance of Intelligence Server which, in turn, points to the metadata repository location. To configure Intelligence Server and establish a server connection between the metadata, Intelligence Server, and MicroStrategy Desktop, follow the steps in the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide.

Connecting to a data source
A data source contains the business data from which you intend to gain analytical insight. Once you connect to the metadata repository through Intelligence Server, your next step is to create a connection to the data source to which your project can connect. You connect to the data source by creating a database instance in MicroStrategy Desktop. Create a database instance using the procedures outlined in the Configuring and Connecting Intelligence Server chapter of the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. When you create a project, you must assign a database instance to that project. A project specifies only one database instance at a time, but a database instance can be assigned to multiple projects.

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MicroStrategy also allows you to connect to your SAP BW, Microsoft Analysis Services, and Hyperion Essbase data sources. For information about connecting to these OLAP cube sources, see Appendix B, Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources.

Creating the project
You can now begin building the MicroStrategy project that connects to the metadata repository and data source. Project creation involves creating a basic project definition and creating your project’s first schema objects. There are several methods for creating and editing a project, which includes: • Creating a test or prototype project using Project Builder With Project Builder, you can build project prototypes for proof-of-concept tests with your own data. Project Builder is best suited for creating a test project, and it is not intended to create production projects. • Creating a production project using Project Creation Assistant This section guides you through the creation of a production-ready MicroStrategy project. The following table compares the main features of both the Project Creation Assistant and Project Builder. Use the table to determine the project creation tool that best suits your needs.
Features Intended audience Project type Complexity Project Creation Assistant Advanced users Production-ready or other large projects Extensive features require more project design knowledge Project Builder Newer users Test or basic projects Easier to use but fewer features

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Features

Project Creation Assistant Advanced; can create the following objects and more: • multiple tables, attributes, and facts at once • attributes with many-to-many and joint child relationships A variety of databases and other data sources

Project Builder Limited; cannot be used to create multiple schema objects at once, but can be used to create basic hierarchies and metrics

Functionality

Metadata repository type Metric and report creation

Microsoft Access

No, must be done after project creation Yes, basic metrics and reports only

Creating a test or prototype project using Project Builder
Project Builder is a wizard that allows you to create simple MicroStrategy projects quickly and efficiently. Project Builder was created with speed in mind; thus it provides only a subset of the features and functionality of the Project Creation Assistant. It allows you to rapidly create user hierarchies and simple metrics and reports. With Project Builder, you can build project prototypes for proof-of-concept tests with your own data and simple yet functional projects. To create a project for your production environment, it is highly recommended you follow the steps outlined in Creating a production project using Project Creation Assistant, page 75. The Project Creation Assistant can add greater functionality and capability to your project in your production environment. To learn more about Project Builder, proceed through this section. You can also refer to the Introduction to MicroStrategy: Evaluation Guide and the Project Builder online help (press F1 from within Project Builder).

Using Project Builder
By default, Project Builder uses a Microsoft Access database for the metadata repository. A Microsoft Access database is suitable for creating the metadata repository for a prototype

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project, but not a production project. You should not use Microsoft Access for anything other than a proof-of-concept or demonstration type of application. You can use Project Mover to move a demonstration project into a production-ready database (see the System Administration Guide.) Project Builder contains the following options that assist you in creating a prototype project: • My Database allows you to name the project and select the database that contains the business information you want to analyze with the project you create. My Business Model allows you to identify relationships that define the business information in your database. Project Builder uses this structure to help you analyze the data. My Reports allows you to use the attributes and metrics you defined using My Business Model, to create a variety of reports. These reports are based on pre-defined templates. You can also preview and run the reports. You can learn about creating and designing reports in more detail in the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. To access Project Builder from the Start menu select Programs, then MicroStrategy, then Desktop, and then select Project Builder.

Creating a production project using Project Creation Assistant
This section describes how to create a Server-connected (three-tier) project for your production setup using MicroStrategy Desktop. It is assumed you intend to implement Intelligence Server in your business intelligence environment as the means of connecting to your project as opposed to using a two-tier setup.

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Creating a project using the Project Creation Assistant in MicroStrategy Desktop provides advanced functionalities and greater complexity to your project than Project Builder. It allows you to create a new project and add the following objects to it or to an existing project: • • • Tables Facts Attributes

With the Project Creation Assistant you create and configure a project and some of the essential schema objects that reside within it. The intended audience for this tool includes experienced project creators who have planned all their facts, attributes, and data relationships. This information is covered elsewhere in this guide. For a listing of information covered in specific chapters, see Planning your project below. The main advantage of the Project Creation Assistant over Project Builder is its ability to create multiple schema objects at once. Since you can efficiently add multiple tables and develop numerous attributes and facts, it is especially useful for large projects which contain many tables and schema objects. With the Project Creation Assistant you can also create attributes with many-to-many relationships.

Planning your project
Before using the Project Creation Assistant, you should plan your project and consider the following: • The logical data model you intend to use for this project; logical data models are covered in Chapter 2, The Logical Data Model. The tables to use in the project; physical warehouse schema models are covered in Chapter 3, Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model. The facts to include in the project and the data types used to identify them; facts are covered in Chapter 5, The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts.

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The attributes to create in the project and the data types used to identify them, including: The description column name for each attribute. Any other attribute forms for each attribute. The child attributes for each attribute. Attributes are covered in Chapter 6, The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes.

Creating a new project using the Project Creation Assistant
Once you have planned your project and completed the prerequisites, you can use the Project Creation Assistant to build the project and populate the metadata based on the data structures present in your data warehouse. The steps of the Project Creation Assistant are: 1 Initialize/create the project. Initializing the project means giving the project a name and selecting the metadata repository in which to create the project—that is, the project source. After you specify these settings, the shell of a project is created in the metadata. This configures the folder structure and default connectivity settings. Be aware that this process can take some time to complete. 2 Select tables from the Warehouse Catalog. In this step, you use the Warehouse Catalog to specify which data warehouse tables to include in your project. 3 Create facts. 4 Create attributes. You should complete all the steps in the Project Creation Assistant at the same time. While you can save an incomplete project definition, you cannot finish creating it later with the Project Creation Assistant. Instead, you must complete it using the
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Inc. see the Configuring and Connecting Intelligence Server chapter of the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. see the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. such as the Warehouse Catalog.4 Creating and Configuring a Project Project Design Guide appropriate interface. For more details on how to setup HTML documents for a project. The New Project page opens. To create a project source which connects to your data through Intelligence Server. and default document directory location for the project. description. To create a new project using the Project Creation Assistant 1 Log in to a project source in MicroStrategy Desktop. The default document directory for a project is the directory location to store all HTML documents. 2 From the Schema menu. or Attribute Creation Assistant. select Create New Project. 4 Enter the name. . 78 Creating the project © 2007 MicroStrategy. The Project Creation Assistant opens. as shown below: 3 Click Create project. Fact Creation Assistant.

The Login dialog box opens. The Warehouse Catalog lists all the tables in the data source to which you are connected through your database instance and to which your database login has read privileges. The Project Creation Assistant creates an empty project in the metadata repository. Inc. 8 Enter a valid login ID and password and click OK. From this list. When these properties do not match. 7 Click OK. select the project source in which you created the database instance to connect to your metadata repository. select Enable the guest user account for this project. it can lead to inconsistencies in the language display. 6 From the Project Source drop-down list. Adding tables using the Warehouse Catalog The warehouse tables for a project determines the set of data available to be analyzed in the project. The language check prevents these inconsistencies and ensures that the language display is consistent across the project. you cannot proceed to the next step. the language of the local machine (the LOCAL_MACHINE registry key). fact. Creating the project 79 . you select the lookup. and the Project locale property match. The Warehouse Catalog queries the data source and lists the tables and columns that exist in it. a language check ensures that the language settings of the user profile of the local machine (the CURRENT_USER registry key).Project Design Guide Creating and Configuring a Project 4 5 To support anonymous authentication mode for guest users for this project. When you create a new project. If you are not authorized by your database or system administrator to create projects in the data source you have selected. and relationship tables to use in your new © 2007 MicroStrategy. Proceed to the next section to determine the tables to be used in your project. You use the Warehouse Catalog to add warehouse tables to your project.

To learn more about these objects. MicroStrategy schema objects such as attributes. The database instance selected in this dialog box determines which data source is accessed. and are discussed in detail in Appendix C. select Select tables from the Warehouse Catalog. Logical Tables. . including transformation tables. Database instances and database logins are MicroStrategy objects that determine the warehouse to which a project connects. 80 Creating the project © 2007 MicroStrategy. The Warehouse Database Instance dialog box opens.4 Creating and Configuring a Project Project Design Guide project. 2 Select a database instance from the drop-down list and click OK. You should also include all other tables needed to complete your project. they become schema objects known as logical tables in MicroStrategy. Once tables are selected from the data source and added to your project. You can edit your database instance by clicking Edit. refer to the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. aggregate tables. The database login you use must have read privileges so you are able to view the tables in the selected warehouse. Inc. Logical tables are representations of the tables that are available in the data warehouse. To add and remove tables to the project using the Warehouse Catalog 1 In the Project Creation Assistant. facts. and partition mapping tables. and tables are abstractions built on top of the tables and columns in the data source. The Warehouse Catalog opens.

For more information on these abilities and how to use them. Warehouse Catalog options 6 Right-clicking any table provides you with additional Warehouse Catalog functionality. if any: 4 From the left side. page 221. The list on the right shows all the tables currently being used in the project. or specify a database instance for a table. 5 To remove tables from your project. select the tables you want to add to the Warehouse Catalog. Click << to remove all the tables from your project. Click >> to add all the listed tables. Creating the project 81 .Project Design Guide Creating and Configuring a Project 4 3 The left side of the Warehouse Catalog lists all available tables and the number of rows each table contains. Inc. copy a table. and click > to add the selected tables. select them from the right side and click < to remove them. specify a table prefix. see Managing warehouse and project tables. © 2007 MicroStrategy. For example you can view rows in a table.

Follow the instructions outlined in Creating facts and attributes. page 83 to learn how to create these schema objects and configure additional schema-level settings for those objects. The table definitions are written to the metadata. This information is covered in Chapter 5. 82 Creating facts and attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. For more information on these abilities and how to use them. 8 In the toolbar. Creating facts and attributes This step in the project creation process involves using the Project Creation Assistant to create two kinds of schema objects: facts and attributes. page 226. you can still access the Warehouse Catalog to add additional tables. and decide whether schema objects are mapped automatically or manually. customize how tables and columns are read from the database system catalog. For steps to access the Warehouse Catalog to add tables to a project. page 82 and Configuring additional schema-level settings. The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes. The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts and Chapter 6. Before you create facts and attributes. display extra table and row information. it is important to understand what facts and attributes are and the defining characteristics of each.4 Creating and Configuring a Project Project Design Guide 7 To set advanced options you can click Options on the Warehouse Catalog toolbar. however. you can change the database instance. page 220. After exiting the Project Creation Assistant. The next step in the Project Creation Wizard involves creating schema objects: facts and attributes. For example. This process can take some time to complete. see Adding and removing tables for a project. see Modifying data warehouse connection and operation defaults. . Inc. click Save and Close to save your changes to the Warehouse Catalog.

This is covered in Adding and modifying attributes. edit. These settings include: • Fact definitions: The Fact Editor allows you to create. Configuring additional schema-level settings 83 . and attribute form expressions. This information is covered in Chapter 8. Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project. Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes. Now that you have completed most of the key steps in creating a new project. • • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. the Metadata Partition Mapping Editor. Attribute definitions: The Attribute Editor allows you to create and edit attributes. aggregate tables. Transformations are covered in Chapter 9. proceed to the chapters referenced above to complete the next steps in the project creation process. attribute forms. which facilitate access to attribute and element browsing and drilling. User hierarchies: The Hierarchy Editor allows you to create user hierarchies. and configure facts. Advanced configurations: These objects include transformations.Project Design Guide Creating and Configuring a Project 4 Configuring additional schema-level settings The final step in the project creation process involves configuring additional schema-level settings to add more analytical depth to your schema objects and optimize the project as a whole. and the Warehouse Partition Mapping Editor. This is covered in Chapter 7. which are schema objects used for time-series analysis. page 91. page 134. This is covered in Creating and modifying simple and advanced facts. and partitioning and partition mappings: The Transformation Editor allows you to create transformations. Inc. The tools used to create aggregate tables and partitions are the Warehouse Catalog. Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons.

Note the following: • MicroStrategy allows you to connect to your SAP BW. For information on how to use your own customized SQL statements to create reports. you can deploy it to your user community using MicroStrategy Web. refer to the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide and the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. Inc. Facts are used to create metrics. You can also begin creating reports in MicroStrategy Desktop and MicroStrategy Web. and metrics and attributes are essential components of reports. For information about creating reports in MicroStrategy Desktop. Microsoft Analysis Services.4 Creating and Configuring a Project Project Design Guide Deploying your project and creating reports After you create a project. the project you deploy will contain only basic facts and attributes. filters. for creating reports in MicroStrategy Web. see the MicroStrategy Web online help. Metrics. that if you completed only the steps in this chapter. see the Creating Freeform SQL reports chapter in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. however. see Appendix B. . reports. Keep in mind. are beyond the scope of this guide. For information about connecting to OLAP cube sources. and other report objects such as filters. Facts and attributes provide the backbone of the reports and documents created by report designers. and Hyperion Essbase data sources. and other report objects. • 84 Deploying your project and creating reports © 2007 MicroStrategy. custom groups. To learn more about how to deploy your project using MicroStrategy Web. Proceed to the chapters listed above to add analytical depth and more functionality to your project. and prompts. refer to the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. refer to the Deploying your Project with MicroStrategy Web chapter of the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources. For a complete discussion of metrics.

Facts form the basis for metrics. In this case. © 2007 MicroStrategy. For example. In the MicroStrategy environment. facts are numeric data and attributes are contextual data for the facts. you want to analyze the amount of sales at a certain store during January. Inc. THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF BUSINESS DATA: FACTS Introduction Facts are one of the essential elements within the business data model. 85 . Facts generally represent the answers to the business questions on which users want to report. and the store and month represent attributes. which are used in the majority of analyses and reports that users can create with MicroStrategy. The facts you create in MicroStrategy allow users to access data stored in the data warehouse. They relate numeric data values from the data warehouse to the MicroStrategy reporting environment. In a MicroStrategy project. the amount of sales represents the fact.5 5. Facts and attributes are necessary to define projects. As the project designer. facts are schema objects created by and shared between MicroStrategy users.

Facts are stored in the data warehouse in fact tables. This data is used to create a metric (such as profit) which is a business measure. as shown below. . Each cell in the columns represents a specific piece of information. 86 © 2007 MicroStrategy.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide you must create projects that contain facts and attributes. Users can then use these facts and attributes as building blocks for metrics and reports. Inc. Facts are based on physical columns within tables in the data warehouse. that column is accessed to retrieve the necessary data. When fact information is requested for a report in MicroStrategy. These fact tables are composed of different columns.

and cost. using different techniques and MicroStrategy interfaces: • Simultaneously creating multiple. as well as highlight some advanced fact design techniques and procedures. simple facts. page 88 covers steps to create multiple. Creating facts A fact has two common characteristics: it is numeric and it is aggregatable. facts do not describe data. Inc. units sold. page 87) of this chapter. Facts also allow you to create advanced metrics containing data that is not stored in the warehouse but can be derived by extending facts. facts such as Tenure and Compensation Cost could exist in a data warehouse that contains human resources data. Facts such as Quantity and Item Cost could exist in a warehouse containing sales and distribution data. facts are logical MicroStrategy objects that correspond to physical columns and tables. it can often be necessary to modify and create facts throughout the life cycle of a project. page 91 covers steps to add and modify both simple and advanced facts for an existing project. Unlike attributes. Creating and modifying simple and advanced facts. Examples of facts include sales dollars. While creating facts is a major step in the initial creation of a project. For example.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 Like other schema objects such as attributes. 87 . It is important to understand how to define facts because facts are the basis for almost all metrics. simple facts as part of the initial project design effort or later in a project’s life cycle. profit. A fact entry level is the lowest set of attributes at which a fact is stored. Facts are the actual data values stored at a specific fact level. This section provides steps to create facts at different phases of the project design process. The later sections discuss conceptual information on facts. Creating facts • © 2007 MicroStrategy. Data warehouses contain different types of facts depending on the purpose of the data. The procedures to perform these tasks are discussed in the first section (Creating facts.

is used to add advanced features to facts that already exist or to create new simple or advanced facts as your project evolves. page 91. which is discussed in Creating and modifying simple and advanced facts. • The Fact Editor. However. utilizing the following MicroStrategy tools: • The Fact Creation Wizard is a step-by-step interface that is typically used when you first create a project. It allows you to create multiple facts in a single creation process. you can create multiple simple facts using the Project Creation Assistant and the Fact Creation Wizard. Inc. The Project Creation Assistant utilizes the Fact Creation Wizard to help you create the facts for your initial project creation effort. You can also access the Fact Creation Wizard in MicroStrategy Desktop from the Schema menu. simple facts During your initial project design effort. fact creation and modification can be done throughout the entire life cycle of a project. 88 Creating facts © 2007 MicroStrategy.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide Simultaneously creating multiple. Facts can be created and modified using a number of various techniques. .

If the naming conventions in your warehouse do not conform to the defaults in the Fact Creation Rules page. if you select Character and Numeric and leave the remaining check boxes cleared. Therefore. you can only select data types for the ID columns of your facts. For example. Select the check boxes for the data types to be included when the wizard searches the data warehouse for available fact columns. select Create facts. Inc. Rules help automate and govern the fact creation process. only columns whose data types are numeric or character-based are displayed in the Fact Creation Wizard as possible columns to use for your facts. you may need to change these rules. Unlike most attributes which can access multiple columns of description information. as shown below: 2 Click Define Rules to set some basic fact creation rules.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 To create facts with the Fact Creation Wizard 1 In the Project Creation Assistant. 3 The Column data type area allows you to select the column data types that are available as possible fact ID columns. 89 © 2007 MicroStrategy. The Fact Creation Rules page opens. The Fact Creation Wizard opens. Creating facts . a fact does not have description information.

The Column Selection page opens. – The Fact Creation Wizard cannot handle columns that hold the same information but have different column names (that is. The selected fact definitions are stored in the metadata. Note the following: – You can rename any fact to make its name more user-friendly by right-clicking the fact and selecting Rename. 8 To remove fact columns from your project. that is. select the fact columns to use for your facts and click > to add them to your project. see Simultaneously creating multiple attributes. page 129. The Finish page opens. Click << to remove all the columns in your project. page 102. For more information about mapping facts to heterogeneous columns. Inc.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide 4 The Fact name area allows you to determine how to create default fact names. 9 Click Next. 90 Creating facts © 2007 MicroStrategy. heterogeneous columns). 7 From the Available columns pane. select them from the Facts pane and click < to move them to the left side. Click >> to add all the listed columns. . 5 Click OK to accept your rule changes and return to the Fact Creation Wizard. Fact column selection 6 Click Next. To continue creating a project with the Project Creation Assistant. with columns that are not currently being used in the project listed in the Available columns pane. Select the appropriate check boxes to create the desired default fact names. 10 Review the summary information in the Finish page and click Finish to create the facts. whether to replace underscores in the fact name with spaces and whether the first letter is capitalized. see Facts with different column names: Heterogeneous column names.

level extensions. for creating most of the facts for the project. However. Creating one or more simple facts with the Fact Creation Wizard Although the Fact Creation Wizard is primarily used to create most of a project’s facts during initial project creation. column aliases. log in to the project source that contains your project and expand your project. Typically. and configure other settings. map multiple or heterogeneous columns. you can use either the Fact Creation Wizard or the Fact Editor to create new facts in your project: • With the Fact Creation Wizard you can: Create simple facts Create multiple facts quickly Add a large number of facts during project creation • With the Fact Editor you can: Create simple and advanced facts Edit existing facts and configure additional schema-level settings The Fact Creation Wizard can create multiple facts quickly and easily. You can use the Fact Editor to edit existing facts and create fact expressions. To create facts with the Fact Creation Wizard 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. Creating facts 91 . you can use it to create one or more simple facts at the same time. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. it limits you to creating simple facts and does not allow you to edit existing facts. you only use the Fact Creation Wizard as part of the initial project creation.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 Creating and modifying simple and advanced facts After you have created a project.

select Fact Creation Wizard.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide You must use a login that has Architect privileges. . The Fact Creation Wizard opens. 92 Creating facts © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. select the project to which to add additional facts. To create a simple fact with the Fact Editor 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. page 89. follow the procedures outlined in To create facts with the Fact Creation Wizard. select the project to which to add additional facts. log in to the project source that contains your project and expand your project. For more information about privileges. For more information about privileges. To use the Fact Creation Wizard to add facts. you can create additional facts and modify existing facts with the Fact Editor. The following procedure describes how to use the Fact Editor to create a simple fact based on a single fact column in a table. You can also use the Fact Editor to add extensions to those facts and configure additional settings within them to support various analytical requirements. You must use a login that has Architect privileges. Creating simple and advanced facts with the Fact Editor As your project evolves. see Permissions and Privileges of the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. 3 From the Schema menu. 2 From the Folder List in MicroStrategy Desktop. 2 From the Folder List in MicroStrategy Desktop. see Permissions and Privileges of the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide.

and then Fact. select Automatic or Manual. manually select the appropriate source tables for each fact. The Warehouse Catalog mapping methods (discussed in Mapping schema objects and calculating logical sizes for tables. select the source table for the fact. 5 From the Available columns pane. • Automatic mapping means that MicroStrategy scans all of the tables in the project and selects all tables with the columns used in the fact expression as possible source tables for the fact. 6 In the Mapping area. Using automatic mapping in the Attribute Editor helps you decide which tables to map your facts to when creating a fact. Inc. – If the same column name does not contain the same data across different tables. drag and drop a fact column into the Fact expression pane. The source table is the table or logical view that contains the fact column on which you want to base a new fact. • © 2007 MicroStrategy. select New. Creating facts 93 . 4 From the Source table drop-down list. The Fact Editor opens. Manual mapping means that MicroStrategy scans all of the tables in the project and locates all tables with the columns used in the fact expression. with the Create New Fact Expression dialog box displayed on top of it. select the tables for which you want your constant expression to apply. page 231) determine whether attributes or facts are automatically mapped to new tables when they are added after an attribute or fact is created. – If you are creating a constant expression that is not based on a physical column in a project table. You then select which of those tables are used as source tables for the fact. You can then remove any tables mapped automatically or select other tables.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 3 From the File menu. – These mapping methods are different from the automatic mapping methods for the Warehouse Catalog.

• • 9 When your changes are complete. Sales). 7 Click OK to close the Create New Fact Expression dialog box.e. In other words. . If you use the Automatic mapping method in both cases. When creating the Discount fact. 8 Use the tabs of the Fact Editor to define fact expressions. which exists in both the Fact_Sales table and the Fact_Discount table. • Definition: This tab allows you to define fact expressions. For detailed information about the options on each tab within the Fact Editor. the Sales column contains discount data. although the column name is the same in both tables (i. page 97. Column Alias: This tab allows you to create a column alias for the fact. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. In the Fact_Sales table. suppose you have a column named Sales. 94 Creating facts © 2007 MicroStrategy. the MicroStrategy SQL Engine may use the incorrect column for the facts. the Sales column contains revenue data. When creating the Revenue fact. you must select the Manual mapping method so you can select the Fact_Sales table as a source table for the Revenue fact. Extensions: This tab allows you to create fact level extensions. create column aliases. the columns contain different fact data in each table. you must select the Manual mapping method so you can select the Fact_Discount table as a source table for the Discount fact. and create extensions. Fact definitions are discussed in How facts are defined. page 105. Column aliases are discussed in Fact column names and data types: Column aliases. page 107.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide For example. Inc. as described below. However. Fact extensions are discussed in Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions. click Save and Close. in the Fact_Discount table.

Modifying simple and advanced facts To modify an existing fact 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. Enter a name for the fact and click Save. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Creating facts 95 . You can learn how to create more advanced facts in the various sections below. select Update Schema to update the project schema. Inc. open the folder that contains the fact to modify. navigate to the location in which to save the fact. 11 From the Schema menu. 2 Double-click the fact to open the Fact Editor and edit the fact. The fact is saved and the Fact Editor closes.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 10 In the Save As dialog box.

Fact level extensions allow facts stored in the data warehouse at one level to be reported at an unrelated level. Level extensions are discussed in detail in Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions. facts are made up of the following components: • The fact definition is composed of one or more fact expressions. Every fact must have a column alias. Level extensions are very effective for advanced data modeling scenarios. page 107. even though it is stored at that level. .5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide The structure of facts As shown in the diagram below. unless you create a new column alias. The column alias stores the column name MicroStrategy uses to generate SQL statements when creating temporary tables related to the fact. page 97. Column aliases are discussed in detail in Fact column names and data types: Column aliases. MicroStrategy selects a default column alias depending on the type of fact. • • 96 The structure of facts © 2007 MicroStrategy. Extensions can also prevent a fact from being reported at a certain level. Fact definitions are discussed in detail in How facts are defined. Every fact must have at least one expression. page 105. Inc.

How facts are defined A fact definition contains properties that define a fact and its components. both the fact definition and column alias are automatically defined. How facts are defined 97 . Fact Name Unit Price Expression All_Sales Source Tables LU_ITEM ORDER_DETAIL In the example.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 You create facts in MicroStrategy Desktop using the Fact Creation Wizard and the Fact Editor. multiple expressions can exist within a fact definition. page 87. including the fact name. when you select the numeric column used to represent the fact. While the Unit Price fact only has one expression. During project creation with the Fact Creation Wizard. which includes the fact’s name. expression. Facts can be found in multiple tables in a warehouse schema. expression. The fact definition is composed of at least one fact expression and basic information about the fact. In this case. The fact expression contained in the definition represents how the fact is calculated by MicroStrategy. and the source tables it uses. some facts use more advanced expressions to perform calculations on multiple columns of data to return a single fact. Inc. and source tables. Level extensions are optional. © 2007 MicroStrategy. see Creating facts. The following table provides an example of a fact definition. the fact expression is simply the name of the column which holds the fact data. For a discussion of the tools used to created facts and procedures on how to use them. and often must be calculated differently from one table to the next. However. the fact expression maps the fact to the All_Sales columns in the LU_ITEM and ORDER_DETAIL tables in the warehouse.

a fact expression represents a mapping to specific fact information in the warehouse. . Inc.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide Note the following: • • Each fact expression relates to one or more related tables that contain the fact. Mapping physical columns to facts: Fact expressions A fact expression maps facts to physical columns in the warehouse. For each of the tables. These expressions can be as simple as a fact column name from the warehouse or as sophisticated as a formula containing multiple fact column names and numeric constants. Regardless of how it is defined. The following image illustrates a column in the fact table and the associated fact expressions: Valid fact expressions are formulas constructed from fact columns with or without numeric constants or mathematical operators. The mathematical operators that can be used in a fact expression are: • • • • Addition (+) Subtraction (-) Multiplication (*) Division (/) 98 How facts are defined © 2007 MicroStrategy. fact expressions define how the fact is calculated. A fact definition must have one or more fact expressions.

you can use implicit fact expressions to create “temporary columns” in the database with a value of “1” for every row. The implicit fact can have its expression defined as a constant value. A fact can also be defined using an ApplySimple function. although nothing is saved in a table column. or setting the expression to be an absolute value. page 91. Derived facts and derived fact expressions A derived fact has its value determined by an expression that contains more than just a column in a table. How facts are defined 99 . adding another column’s values. if you want to build a metric defined as Sum(1). You may also find it helpful to use implicit facts when building metrics. Any operation on a column such as adding a constant. In other words. where you can sum the column holding the constant to create a COUNT. you can define a fact equal to the constant “1”. as explained in the following sections. An implicit fact indicates a fact table from which to retrieve data. Implicit facts and implicit fact expressions Implicit facts are virtual or constant facts that do not physically exist in the database. For detailed information about metrics. Inc. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. • Most facts represent physical columns in the data warehouse. Apply functions are discussed in the Pass-Through Expressions appendix in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. These temporary columns allow you to keep track of how many rows are returned for a certain attribute. For example. creates a derived fact.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 Note the following: • You can use the Fact Editor to create fact expressions. For example. However. some facts do not exist at all in the warehouse and are defined in other ways. These steps are covered in Creating and modifying simple and advanced facts. you are creating a fact © 2007 MicroStrategy.

For example. Inc. by creating the following derived fact: Sales = Quantity_Sold * Price One advantage of creating a derived fact is that a derived fact allows one consistent fact to exist in the project in lieu of having to retrieve multiple intermediary facts from multiple tables. Example: creating derived facts The Cost fact in the MicroStrategy Tutorial contains the derived fact expression Qty_Sold * Unit_Cost. 100 How facts are defined © 2007 MicroStrategy. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. For a more generalized procedure to create derived facts. Using a single fact saves storage space and limits the number of SQL passes used in queries. For more information on what metrics are and how to create them. “How much did it cost the company to create the items purchased by customers?” The following procedure describes how to create a derived fact that uses the derived fact expression described above. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. a table in your data warehouse contains the following elements: Fact Table 1 Item Quarter Quantity_Sold Price You can create a new fact.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide from information that is available in the data warehouse. . In this case. This expression implies that columns containing data about the quantity of items sold and the price of those units can be multiplied to produce a useful business calculation. Sales. Metrics allow you to perform calculations and aggregations on your fact data. you can create such analysis in MicroStrategy with the use of metrics. Rather than creating a derived fact. the columns are used to answer the business question.

The derived fact expression appears in the Fact expression pane in the Fact Editor. with the Create New Fact Expression dialog box displayed on top of it. 3 From the File menu. double-click the QTY_SOLD column to add it to the Fact expression pane on the right. and open the My Objects folder. select the ORDER_DETAIL table. 9 Click Validate to check whether the syntax of the expression is correct. How facts are defined 101 . The expression should appear as shown below: 10 Click OK. 7 From the Available columns list. 5 From the Available columns pane. © 2007 MicroStrategy. point to New. 6 With the cursor in the Fact expression pane.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 To create a derived fact 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. Inc. 8 Under Mapping method. The Fact Editor opens. select Automatic. 4 From the Source table drop-down list. click * (multiplication operator) to add it to the expression. 2 Navigate to the My Personal Objects folder. and then select Fact. log in to the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. double-click the UNIT_PRICE column to add it to end of the fact expression.

With heterogeneous column names. Facts with different column names: Heterogeneous column names In your warehouse. Table 2 includes a fact called Dollar_Sls. you must update the project schema.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide 11 From the File menu. Table 1 Year Dollar_Sales Table 2 Month Dollar_Sls MicroStrategy allows you to identify heterogeneous fact column names for each fact. the same fact can access columns with different column names. two fact tables in a warehouse each contain columns for dollar sales. In the example above. When you call for the information in a report through the use of a metric. creating a heterogeneous fact column name for dollar sales informs the system that the Dollar_Sales and Dollar_Sls columns represent the same fact. resulting in an accurate representation of the fact in the report. Inc. it is not necessary to update the schema. The Save menu opens. since this is only an example. In the example below. 13 When you create a fact for your project. . you can refer the same fact to multiple columns with different column names and from different tables that identify the same quantitative value. select Save As. 102 How facts are defined © 2007 MicroStrategy. These two items represent the same information. However. both fact columns are used in the SQL. 12 Enter a name for the derived fact and click Save. at this point. Table 1 contains a fact called Dollar_Sales.

In the procedure. How facts are defined 103 . The following procedure describes how to create the Units Sold fact that already exists in MicroStrategy Tutorial. and open the My Objects folder. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Qty_Sold and Tot_Unit_Sales. and then select Fact. Inc. This is one of the tables in which a heterogeneous fact column for the Units Sold fact exists. double-click the QTY_SOLD column to add it to the Fact expression pane on the right. you create the Units Sold fact and map its corresponding heterogeneous fact columns to it. they represent the same data and are therefore both mapped to the Unit Sold fact. point to New. 3 From the File menu. select Automatic. 4 From the Source table drop-down list. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 Example: mapping heterogeneous fact columns The Units Sold fact in MicroStrategy Tutorial consists of two fact columns in the warehouse. The Fact Editor opens and the fact expression you just created appears in the Fact expression pane. with the Create New Fact Expression dialog box displayed on top of it. Although these fact columns have different names and exist in different fact tables. To create heterogeneous fact columns 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. 7 Click OK. For a more generalized procedure to map heterogeneous fact columns. 6 In the Mapping method area. You must map heterogeneous fact columns to their corresponding facts to ensure that accurate and complete data is displayed on reports. The Fact Editor opens. log in to the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. 5 From the Available columns pane. 2 Navigate to the My Personal Objects folder. select the ORDER_FACT table.

The Save menu opens. 104 How facts are defined © 2007 MicroStrategy.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide Now you must add the other heterogeneous fact column as separate expression for the Units Sold fact. The Create New Fact Expression dialog box opens. 10 From the Available columns pane. . since this is only an example. you must update the project schema. select Save As. 13 From the File menu. 14 Enter a name for the new fact and click Save. it is not necessary to update the schema. select the CITY_CTR_SALES table. 9 From the Source table drop-down list. 11 In the Mapping method area. This is the other table in which a heterogeneous fact column for the Units Sold fact exists. Now the Units Sold fact you are creating maps correctly to its heterogeneous fact columns. 12 Click OK. The Fact Editor opens and the fact expression you just created appears in the Fact expression pane. However. 8 Click New. double-click the TOT_UNIT_SALES column to add it to the Fact expression pane on the right. Inc. 15 When you create a fact for your project. at this point. select Automatic.

[End_Date_Id]) The expression syntax is specific to your database type. You could create this fact using the following expression: ApplySimple("DateDiff(day. However. This syntax is specific to Microsoft SQL Server. Inc. The SQL you create may be different.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 Fact column names and data types: Column aliases A column alias specifies both the name of the column to be used in temporary tables and the data type to be used for the fact. [Start_Date_Id]. For example. Fact column names and data types: Column aliases 105 .#0. you can define a fact to be the difference between two dates to perform a calculation such as the average number of days between a start and an end date. #1)". the data type for a fact is inherited from the data type of the column on which the fact is defined in the data warehouse. © 2007 MicroStrategy. By default. there are cases where you may need to change this.

You can use the Fact Editor to create column aliases. click Modify. see Appendix D. To create a column alias for a fact This procedure assumes you have already created a fact with a valid fact expression for which to create a new column alias.Definition dialog box opens. 2 Right-click the fact and select Edit. This can cause an error for some database platforms. that is. log in to the project source that contains the fact to create a new column alias for. If you did not change the data type of the column alias. is an integer. The Column Editor . The Column Editor .Column Selection dialog box opens. The Fact Editor opens. the difference between the two dates. you should modify the column alias for the fact to change the default Date data type to an Integer data type. However. . • 106 Fact column names and data types: Column aliases © 2007 MicroStrategy. This is used when a temporary SQL table needs to be created for the calculation. the result of the calculation. 5 Select New to create a new column alias.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide The data type for this fact is automatically set to a Date data type because the Start_Date_ID and End_Date_ID have Date data types. To avoid the possibility of an error due to conflicting data types. Data Types. Inc. 3 Select the Column Alias tab. 6 You can modify the following properties for the column alias: • Column name: The name for the column alias which is used in any SQL statements which include the fact column. 4 In the Column alias area. 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. For a description of the different data types supported by MicroStrategy. then the system uses a Date data type and tries to insert integer data into this column. Data type: The data type for the fact.

Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 • Depending on the data type selected. Fact Table 1 Item Quarter Quantity_Sold Price Level extensions are necessary when facts are stored in the data warehouse at one level and reported at different levels. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 107 . 7 Click OK to save your changes and return to the Column Editor . bit length. scale. 9 Select Save and Close to save your changes. including Item and Quarter. or time scale for your column alias. the fact table shown below contains several attribute IDs. precision. For a detailed description on each of these properties. 8 Click OK to save your changes and return to the Fact Editor. These attribute IDs imply that the fact is reported at the item and quarter levels by default. For example. Inc. Every fact is tied to a set of attributes that may or may not © 2007 MicroStrategy. see the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. The level of a fact is defined by the attribute IDs present in the table. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions Facts are stored at a particular business level in the warehouse.Column Selection dialog box. you can specify the byte length.

page 118). If the entry level of a fact is at the lowest level of a hierarchy. That is. For example. Inc. all attributes at a higher logical level in the hierarchy are available for use as well. which is an attribute from a different hierarchy. To see if some call centers are selling significantly more items at a discount than other call centers. facts require level extensions to be related to any attributes that are at a lower logical level in the same hierarchy than the entry level for a fact (see Lowering the level of fact data: Fact degradations. you have to extend the level of the Discount fact to the Call Center level. For example if you have a cost fact at the level of a date attribute in a time hierarchy. You can use level extensions to change a fact level and extend a fact level to a level in a completely different hierarchy. 108 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. discounts apply to particular items on particular days. MicroStrategy can aggregate the cost fact data to the level of the year attribute because it is in the same hierarchy as the date attribute and at a higher level. without the use of level extensions. A fact extension is needed when a fact does not relate directly or indirectly to an attribute included on a report.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide satisfy all users’ reporting requirements. However. . you record a Discount fact at the Item/Date level.

Otherwise. You can create fact level extensions by using any of the following methods: • • • • • Defining a join on fact tables using table relations. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 109 . there is no way to make a connection between the fact data and the attribute. a level extension must be defined for the fact. page 122 You can find complete descriptions for each of these methods in the online help for the Level Extension Wizard in the Fact Editor. page 116 Lowering the level of fact data: Fact degradations. page 114 Forcing facts to relate to attributes: Using cross product joins. page 110 Defining a join on fact tables using fact relations. or disallowed to other attributes across the schema. a level extension must exist to relate the fact data to the attribute. This is because if a fact is stored at a level unrelated to an attribute on a report. page 118 Disallowing the reporting of a fact at a certain level. Before a metric containing a fact can be used with an attribute that is not in or related to the attribute’s entry level. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Level extensions are not required like the fact definition and column alias. you are allowing facts or attributes that have been captured at one level to be extended to other levels to meet reporting requirements. By creating a level extension. You can use the Fact Editor to create level extensions. lowered. and they tend to be used only in specific cases. Inc.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 Level extensions define how facts can be extended.

5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide Defining a join on fact tables using table relations A table relation defines a join on tables. In this example. and ORDER_DETAIL contains the Item attribute’s identity column to extend the fact to Item. Notice that the ORDER_FACT and ORDER_DETAIL tables include Order-level Units Sold and Item-level Units Sold columns respectively. The join is important as the table contains an attribute in the entry level and the attribute to which to extend. the ORDER_DETAIL table is used to create the Freight fact extension to Item because: 1 The ORDER_FACT and ORDER_DETAIL tables both contain the Order attribute’s identity column to join the tables. 2 The Freight fact cannot simply be joined with a table containing Item information to return a meaningful freight value for each item. The procedure also describes general principles of creating fact extensions which you can use to create fact extensions for the facts in your project. the Freight fact cannot be reported at the Item level. These two columns are used to allocate the fact expression in the procedure below. 110 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. the MicroStrategy Tutorial project includes a Freight metric. A fact extension can be used to relate a fact to an attribute using a fact table. . Inc. For example. An allocation expression is required to extend Freight to the Item level. This metric has a table relation fact extension to the Item attribute. Since the ORDER_FACT table that defines Freight does not include the identity column for the Item attribute. A fact extension is required to view freight values for each item included in an order. The following procedure steps through how to create the fact extension that has been created for the Freight fact of the Tutorial project. When you specify a table to join with a fact. you are creating a table relation to extend a fact.

Inc.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 To define a fact extension with a table relation 1 In Desktop. log in to the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. page 122) • • For this example you are creating a fact extension on a table relation. 4 Select Extension to Item and click Modify. 2 Browse to the Facts folder and double-click the Freight fact to edit it. this example steps through how the Freight fact extension Extension to Item was created. and click Next. However. page 118) Extend the fact entry level: define a fact extension on a table relation. The General Information page opens. The Level Extension Wizard opens. 3 Click the Extensions tab. © 2007 MicroStrategy. so select Extend the fact entry level. 5 Read the Welcome statement and click Next. or disallow the fact entry level 6 Enter a name and a description for your fact extension (already provided). The Extended Attributes page opens. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 111 . or a cross product join Disallow partially or completely the fact entry level: define a fact extension that does not allow a fact to be reported at a certain level (see Disallowing the reporting of a fact at a certain level. The Fact Editor opens. dynamic fact relation. To create a new fact extension you would click New. To lower. Then select whether you want to: • Lower the fact entry level: define a fact degradation (see Lowering the level of fact data: Fact degradations. extend.

The Join Attributes Direction page opens. page 116) . The Table Selection page opens. The Extension Type page opens. Click Next. To extend the fact so that it can be reported at any level in a hierarchy. The Join Type page opens. select Order and click Next. For this example. Select the relationship table dynamically: select a fact and join attributes. 10 Select whether to allow Intelligence Server to dynamically select what attribute(s) to perform the join. and click Next to continue defining your fact extension on a table relation. This allows the MicroStrategy Engine to select the table that includes the fact and join attributes you choose to create the fact extension (see Defining a join on fact tables using fact relations. 112 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. To select the table.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide To select attributes to extend the fact to 7 Select the attributes you want to extend the fact to. the ORDER_DETAIL table is already selected. and define the allocation expression 9 Select the table used to extend the fact to the new level. To select the type of fact extension 8 Select how you want to extend the fact: • • Specify the relationship table used to extend the fact: select a relationship table and join attributes. For this example Item is already selected. . Click Next. • For this example select Specify the relationship table used to extend the fact. Inc. page 114). join attributes. choose the lowest level attribute in that hierarchy. allowing the fact to be reported at the new level. or manually select the attribute(s). Perform the extension through a cross product: select to apply a cross product join (see Forcing facts to relate to attributes: Using cross product joins. Since you know that you want to join the ORDER_FACT and ORDER_DETAIL tables using the Order attribute.

[LU_ITEM] a13 where a11. it joins ORDER_FACT and ORDER_DETAIL and considers the resulting table as one logical fact table at the Item.[ORDER_ID] AS ORDER_ID. Therefore. In this case Order has no children.[ITEM_ID] The SQL statement above is for an Access database. and Freight (metric mapped to the Freight fact) is: select a11. a12. Notice that the expression returns an average freight amount per item of an order.[ITEM_NAME]) AS ITEM_NAME. © 2007 MicroStrategy. When the engine processes a report containing Order.[QTY_SOLD])) AS WJXBFS1 from [ORDER_FACT] a11. max(a11.[ITEM_ID] AS ITEM_ID. Item.[ORDER_DATE]) AS ORDER_DATE. The SQL for your reports may vary depending on the type of DBMS you use. a12.[ITEM_ID] = a13. [ORDER_DETAIL] a12. 12 Enter an allocation expression that calculates the fact at the new level.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 11 You can choose to join using the attribute. Employee.[ORDER_ID] and a12. max(a13. not an exact calculation. ((Freight * [Item-level Units Sold]) / [Order-level Units Sold]). and Freight. 13 Click Finish to create the fact extension. The Allocation page opens.[QTY_SOLD]) / a11. Day. Promotion level. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 113 . The SQL generated for the report containing Order. Item. or join using the attribute and its children. Order. For this example.[FREIGHT] * a12. sum(((a11.[ORDER_ID] = a12.[ITEM_ID] group by a11.[ORDER_ID]. the allocation expression is already provided. Click Next. the extension of Freight provides an estimate of the freight for each item of an order. so you do not have to click the Join against arrow to change the default. Inc. Take a moment to review the allocation expression. A more detailed description of why this occurs follows this procedure.

114 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. This illustrates how fact extensions often provide an estimation of values at a different level rather than an exact calculation. The larger freight values occur because more than one of the item type was included in the order. Inc. With a fact relation. rather than you having to select tables manually. If you want to provide exact values of data at a certain level. . review the values of the first order with an extra metric that calculates the number of each item type in an order shown below. since the MicroStrategy Engine is responsible for choosing the appropriate table to join. This allows more flexibility in defining the relations. the table join is possible on any table that contains the fact.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide To view how the fact extension is an estimation of freight values for each item of an order. you most likely need to capture such data and store it in your data source. Notice that the Freight metric averages the amount of freight per item in an order. Defining a join on fact tables using fact relations Fact extensions can be defined by a fact relation instead of a table relation.

Inc. select the Select the relationship table dynamically option and specify the tables to use for the extension. To extend the entry level of the Freight fact to Customer. you can create a fact relation using the Order Unit Sales fact. Open the Order Unit Sales fact and extend it to either Distribution Center and Order or just Distribution Center. This option is set in the step immediately after To select the type of fact extension. Next. depending on the join attributes specified: • • • • Table 1 and Table 2 on Distribution Center. page 110 after two summary tables are added to it. You can define the fact relation in the Level Extension Wizard which you can access from the Fact Editor. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 115 .Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 The following diagram shows the schema from the example in Defining a join on fact tables using table relations. © 2007 MicroStrategy. The engine can make the following joins. and Order Table 1 and Table 4 on Distribution Center Table 2 and Table 3 on Distribution Center Table 3 and Table 4 on Distribution Center The joins described above demonstrate how the join attributes can be either Distribution Center and Order or just Distribution Center. The MicroStrategy Engine tries to join a table containing Freight to a table containing Order Unit Sales.

sum(a1. a2. When you specify a cross product join to relate a fact to an attribute. as explained above. the set of join attributes must contain the entire key of the left-hand-side fact table (Table 3 in the example SQL above). The tables and attributes you specify in the wizard determine the different types of joins that are created. The SQL generated for a report containing Distribution Center. Cross products should only be used when no other way to extend the fact exists. select a1. Since this method can be inefficient. As with table relations.DIST_CENTER group by a1. Inc. .DIST_CENTER = a2. if the only join attribute is Distribution Center. 116 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy.CUSTOMER The SQL statement above is for an Access database. and Freight is shown below.Freight) from TABLE3 a1.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide page 112 in the procedure above.DIST_CENTER. you are creating a Cartesian product of the lookup attribute. a2. you can specify the best fit as the join strategy so that the engine calculates the joins. The SQL for your reports may vary depending on the type of DBMS you use. In a best fit join. This method can produce incorrect data because data can be repeated and counted twice in some cases. The cross product join is an extension that allows a single fact value to relate to all elements of an unrelated attribute. MicroStrategy does not recommend using the cross product join. Customer.DIST_CENTER. Forcing facts to relate to attributes: Using cross product joins You can use a cross product join when a join does not exist and you need to force a fact to relate to an attribute by extending the fact.CUSTOMER. TABLE4 a2 where a1.

© 2007 MicroStrategy. The MicroStrategy Engine always cross-joins the lookup tables of the attributes in the extension. The SQL for your reports may vary depending on the type of DBMS you use. and Dollar Sales is: select a1. in the following schema.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 For example. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 117 .CUSTOMER. TABLE2 a2 group by a1. The SQL generated for a report containing Customer. Next. a cross product join must be used. Inc. sum(a2. Notice that no join attributes are specified. Open the Dollar Sales fact and extend it to the Distribution Center attribute. select the Perform the extension through a cross product option. You can define this cross product join in the Level Extension Wizard in the Fact Editor. page 112 of the procedure above. For this example.DOLLAR_SALES) from TABLE1 a1. you do not need to specify an allocation expression. Distribution Center does not relate to Dollar Sales: Table 1 Table 2 Order Customer Dollar Sales Distribution Center To report Dollar Sales by Distribution Center. a2.DIST_CENTER.DIST_CENTER The SQL statement above is for an Access database. Distribution Center. This option is set in the step immediately after To select the type of fact extension.

you must support those users who wish to view and analyze the same fact data at a lower logical level. This scenario may occur because you stored a fact at a level that is used most commonly in reports. and metrics used in this example can all be found in this Analytics Module). Inc.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide Lowering the level of fact data: Fact degradations Degradation. and has a fact degradation to the Employee level (the attributes. The fact extension does not use an allocation expression to degrade Planned Compensation to the Employee level. now that Planned Compensation is available at the Employee level. This causes every employee to be listed with the same planned compensation value as the employee’s department. as shown below: The analytical value of this fact degradation is not immediately recognizable. you can create more meaningful analysis with other fact data that is 118 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. However. which lowers a fact level. For example. facts. is the logical opposite of aggregation. you must degrade the fact to a lower level. the Human Resources Analysis Module of the MicroStrategy BIDK includes a Planned Compensation fact that is stored at the Department level. To view fact data at a lower logical level than the fact is stored at. However. .

which performs a division of metrics defined from the Compensation Cost and Planned Compensation facts. 2 Browse to the Facts / Compensation / Planning folder and double-click the Planned Compensation fact to edit it. © 2007 MicroStrategy. To define a fact degradation 1 In Desktop. you could not include Department and Employee on a report with these metrics and return accurate values. The procedure also describes general principles of creating fact degradations which you can use to create fact degradations for the facts in your project. You can now view what percentage of your planned compensation per department has been spent per employee. the Compensation Cost fact is stored at the Employee level. log in to the Human Resources Analysis Module.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 stored at the Employee level. The metric Actual as % Planned Compensation has been created to calculate the actual compensation of an employee as a percentage of the planned compensation for the entire department of the employee. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 119 . respectively. The Fact Editor opens. The following procedure steps through how to create the fact degradation that has been created for the Planned Compensation fact of the Human Resources Analysis Module. Inc. For example. as shown below: Without using a degradation of Planned Compensation to Employee. The metric definition is ([Compensation Cost]/[Planned Compensation]).

page 122) • For this example you are creating a fact degradation so select Lower the fact entry level. the Department attribute is already selected. page 114) Disallow partially or completely the fact entry level: define a fact extension that does not allow a fact to be reported at a certain level (see Disallowing the reporting of a fact at a certain level. 8 Select what attribute(s) to perform the join. The Join Type page opens. Inc. allowing the fact to be reported at the new level. To extend the fact so that it can be reported at any level in a hierarchy. For this example. However. page 110 and Defining a join on fact tables using fact relations. or a cross product join (see Defining a join on fact tables using table relations. this example steps through how the Planned Compensation fact degradation Degradation to Employee was created. Then select whether you want to: • • Lower the fact entry level: define a fact degradation Extend the fact entry level: define a fact extension on a table relation. and click Next. To create a new fact degradation you would click New. . 5 Read the Welcome statement and click Next. dynamic fact relation.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide 3 Click the Extensions tab. 6 Enter a name and a description for your fact extension (already provided). Click Next. The Extended Attributes page opens. The Join Attributes Direction page opens. For this example Employee is already selected. 7 Select the attributes you want to degrade the fact to. choose the lowest level attribute in that hierarchy. 4 Select Degradation to Employee and click Modify. The Level Extension Wizard opens. 120 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. Click Next. The General Information page opens.

For example. 10 Enter an allocation expression that calculates the fact at the new level. You select Month to be the attribute to which to degrade. consider the allocation expression fact/12 for a degradation from Year to Month. Avg. or join using the attribute and its children. this is often an unlikely scenario. you do not need to include an allocation expression. you must add an allocation expression. See Fact degradations with allocation expressions. For this example. While it is possible that the fact data would be the same for every month of the year. For example. Fact degradations often produce data estimates rather than exact values for the fact data at lower logical levels. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions . to change the definition of the fact in a level extension. This is similar in concept to choosing an aggregation function (Sum.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 9 You can choose to join using the attribute. Click Next. you can create a degradation on the fact to relate it to the monthly level. which allows the distribution of values according to a calculation you specify. Using such an allocation expression would spread a year’s fact data evenly over the 12 months of that year. Fact degradations with allocation expressions Not all fact degradations can simply be lowered to a new level. if your fact is stored at the yearly level and you want to report the data at the monthly level. The Allocation page opens. Such fact degradations should be used 121 © 2007 MicroStrategy. Allocation expressions are defined by operations you set on attributes and facts in the Level Extension Wizard in the Fact Editor. By creating allocation expressions. you define how higher-level facts are degraded to lower-level attributes. You then specify that the allocation expression is fact/12. page 121 for an example of using an allocation expression for a fact degradation. Ordinarily. For this example. Inc. and so on) when aggregating data to higher levels. 11 Click Finish to create the fact degradation. the join is performed on the Department attribute and its children.

. such as data that is stored at the Minute or Second level. page 111 of the procedure to create a fact extension above. For example. does not affect normal joins.5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide only when fact data is not stored at a lower logical level and there is no way to directly relate the fact data to the lower logical level. This option is set in the step immediately after To lower. the Analytical Engine does a dynamic cross-join and evaluates the report. or disallow the fact entry level. however. 122 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. With a disallow in place. if you create a report and attempt to include the fact at the Minute or Second level. extend. After updating the schema and re-executing the report. Inc. if you have three years’ worth of data. The following examples describe instances in which disallowing a fact entry level can prove useful. To explicitly disallow an extension of the Sales fact to the Time dimension. querying at the Minute or Second level consumes too many resources and returns extensive data. indicating that the report cannot be run at that level. you would use the Disallow partially or completely the fact entry level setting and select the lowest attribute in the Time dimension such as Day. The setting prevents unnecessary joins to lookup tables. you can disallow the lower levels. Disallowing the reporting of a fact at a certain level The Disallow partially or completely the fact entry level setting within the Fact Editor is like a lock which prevents a fact from being reported at a specific level. an error is returned. Suppose you create a fact called Sales at the Item level in the Product dimension and a metric called Sales as the sum of the Sales fact. When you create a report containing the Month attribute and the Sales metric. Disallowing a fact to be extended to a level lower than the fact’s entry level due to unnecessary complexity and the cost of analyzing fact data at such a level is a common use for this feature. This setting. Consider a schema containing three dimensions: Geography. and Product. If a fact is stored at a level that is counterproductive to a query. Time. the report fails because the disallow setting now prevents the cross-joins between the lookup tables and fact tables.

In this case. which is defined as sum of the Revenue fact. This implies that the fact extension has not been disallowed. It is advisable to avoid fact definitions that contain contradictory extension definitions. the engine sorts the extension conditions specified in some order and calculates the report based on the sorted order of extensions. you can still see Revenue by Item. If you re-execute the report. disallowing the Revenue fact at the level it is stored at in the data warehouse does not make logical sense. the report runs successfully. In this case. There must be a valid reason to disallow reporting a fact at a certain level.Project Design Guide The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts 5 In the previous example. You now disallow an extension on the Revenue fact for the Item attribute and update the schema. So you encounter only normal joins and no extensions. The Disallow the fact entry level setting applies only to attributes that can be considered as extended attributes. This is not an expected design condition. assume you specify an extension to the Month attribute and also disallow extension to Year which is a parent of the extended attribute. you create a report that contains the attributes Subcategory and Item and the Revenue metric. If you execute the report containing the Year attribute and Sales metric. Inc. This is because Revenue exists at the same level as Item in the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Month. For example. for the Sales fact. Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions 123 . although the engine returns a valid SQL.

5 The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts Project Design Guide 124 Modifying the levels at which facts are reported: Level extensions © 2007 MicroStrategy. . Inc.

For example. Because of the attributes on the report. When executed. including which regions produced the least revenue and which years saw the highest growth in revenue. 125 . Year. the report displays your company’s revenue at the region. and year levels. month. THE CONTEXT OF YOUR BUSINESS DATA: ATTRIBUTES Introduction Business data represented by facts can offer little insight without the presence of business concepts and context. and Region attributes on the template. as well as a Revenue metric based on the Revenue fact. © 2007 MicroStrategy. If you remove the attributes from the report. Attributes provide the business model with a context in which to report on and analyze facts. you have a report with the Month. you can only find out how much revenue the company generated in total.6 6. Inc. While knowing your company’s total sales is useful. which take the form of attributes in MicroStrategy. knowing where and when the sales took place provides the kind of analytical depth users require on a daily basis. a substantial amount of information is available.

6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Creating attributes is an important step in the initial project design effort. . Intelligence Server. which comes after creating facts when using the Project Creation Assistant. sum(Sales) From Store_Fact Group By Store_ID. A report designer creates a report in part by determining these report column headers. In the data warehouse. Inc. consider the following: Select Store_ID. instructs the engine how to build the SQL for that report. For example. Date. using this report definition. The expressions of attributes and facts in the report define the SELECT clause of the SQL command. attributes are identified by the column headers of the reports. In MicroStrategy reports. New user and application requirements make attribute creation and modification an important part of the entire project life cycle. attributes are normally identified by a unique ID column in a lookup table. Date 126 © 2007 MicroStrategy.

Attributes can have multiple attribute forms. 127 . and reports is beyond the scope of this guide and is covered in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. such as Day. page 143. page 159. Attribute expression: maps a MicroStrategy attribute form to one or more columns in the warehouse. For example. Customer First Name. and Customer Last Name are examples of attribute forms. page 147. Because of this process. The attributes and metrics in the report tell Intelligence Server where to look in the data warehouse for the information and how to create the SQL that will retrieve it. The lowest level attribute you include in a report. A high-level report. sales information will be retrieved by store and date. Attribute relationship: allows interaction of data at different conceptual levels and shows how data is related within a project. Customer Email. Inc. such as a report at the Year level. See Attribute form expressions. See Attribute relationships. it is just not aggregated. Attributes are defined by these properties: • Attribute form: contains an identifier or descriptor of an attribute. See Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 In the SQL above. A discussion about metrics. report analyzers do not have to know SQL to extract information from a data warehouse. filters. for the Customer attribute. It is important to understand the data is still the same. is the lowest level of detail reported. • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. includes the Year attribute but lacks the detail of a similar report which includes the lower level attributes Month and Week.

128 © 2007 MicroStrategy. . The procedures to perform these tasks are discussed in the first section (Creating attributes. page 129) of this chapter. as well as highlight some advanced attribute design techniques and procedures. The later sections discuss conceptual information on attributes. it is often necessary to modify and create attributes throughout the life cycle of a project.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide The following diagram illustrates how the attribute properties listed above are related: While creating attributes is a major step in the initial creation of a project. Inc.

This includes adding advanced features such as attribute forms to attributes that already exist or adding new attributes as your project evolves. To create attributes using the Attribute Creation Wizard This procedure is part of an initial project creation effort using the Project Creation Assistant. Inc. The ability to report on and analyze data requires data to have a business context. creating attributes is a major step in any project design effort. you can create multiple attributes using the Attribute Creation Wizard. For steps to access the Project Creation Wizard. © 2007 MicroStrategy. therefore. Adding and modifying attributes. using different techniques and MicroStrategy interfaces: • Simultaneously creating multiple attributes. Creating attributes 129 . page 129—steps to create multiple attributes as part of the initial project design effort or later in a project’s life cycle. • Simultaneously creating multiple attributes During your initial project design effort. page 134—steps to add and modify attributes for an existing project.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Creating attributes An attribute is primarily used to group and aggregate fact data to add business context to the fact data. This section provides steps to create attributes at different phases of the project design process. which launches the Attribute Creation Wizard to complete the attribute creation tasks. see To create a new project using the Project Creation Assistant.

Change these rules if the naming or data type conventions in your warehouse do not conform to these defaults. Define attribute creation rules These rules can make the process of choosing attribute columns and naming your attributes considerably easier. 130 Creating attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. especially if you use consistent naming conventions and data types in your data warehouse. . The Attribute Creation Wizard uses these rules below to help automate the attribute creation process. as shown below. 2 Review the introduction page that is displayed.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide page 78. Select the check boxes for the data types that should be included when the wizard searches the data warehouse for available attribute ID columns. Inc. You can also access the Attribute Creation Wizard at any time in the development of a project from the Schema menu in MicroStrategy Desktop. The Attribute Creation Wizard opens. 1 In the Project Creation Assistant. click Create attributes. The Attribute Creation Rules page opens. 3 Click Define Rules to set some basic attribute creation rules. 4 The Column data type area allows you to select the column data types to be available as possible attribute ID columns.

When choosing the ID column for an attribute. make sure that all values in the column are unique and that it does not contain NULL values. You should never use a column that has NULL or repeated values as the ID column for an attribute. and LOOKUP for lookup tables. Inc.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 5 The Attribute name area allows you to determine how to create default attribute names. © 2007 MicroStrategy. The defaults are ID for identifier columns. Creating attributes 131 . The ID Column Selection page opens. Doing so results in unexpected behavior and errors. You can select the appropriate check boxes to set the following default behaviors for creating attribute names: • • • Replace underscores in the attribute name with spaces Remove the word “ID” from the name Capitalize the first letter 6 The Warehouse search area determines naming conventions to help locate your warehouse objects. ID column selection An ID column is a column or group of columns that uniquely identifies each element of an attribute. DESC for description columns. Only those columns with data types that match those chosen in the rules you defined above appear on the ID Selection page. 8 Click Next. The columns that match the identifier naming convention that you set in the warehouse search rule above are automatically highlighted. 7 Click OK to accept your rule changes and return to the Attribute Creation Wizard.

– To remove attribute ID columns from your project. . Select the columns that are required to uniquely identify the compound attribute and click OK. For more information about mapping attributes to heterogeneous columns. Type a name for the attribute. 10 To create a compound attribute. Inc. Click >> to add all the listed columns. page 183). select the columns to use for your attribute IDs and click > to add them to your project.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide 9 From the Available columns pane. You are returned to the Attribute Creation Wizard. Note the following: – You can rename any attribute name to make it more user-friendly by right-clicking the attribute and selecting Rename. select the attribute IDs in the Attributes pane and click < to move them to the Available columns pane. page 153. Create compound attributes A compound attribute is defined as an attribute with more than one column specified as the ID column. The New Compound Attribute dialog box opens. – The Attribute Creation Wizard cannot handle columns that hold the same information but have different column names (that is. complete the following steps: • • • Click Compound Attributes and then click Add. Description column selection Description columns provide the data which gives context and meaning to your attributes. heterogeneous columns). This implies that more than one ID column is needed to uniquely identify the elements of that attribute (see Attributes with more than one ID column: Compound attributes. see Joining dissimilar column names: Heterogeneous mappings. 132 Creating attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy.

however. Note the following: – In general. click Next. you should choose the default lookup table for each attribute. The Lookup Table Selection page opens.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 11 After adding all your attribute ID columns. the Compound Attribute Definition page opens. 12 Select whether to use the ID or a different column for the description of the attribute. for more information about attribute forms. In general. Specify the lookup table and description column for the compound attributes and click Next. In some cases. 13 Click Next when you are finished selecting description columns for attributes. The Description Column Selection page opens. The column that meets the description naming convention that you set in the warehouse search rule is automatically selected. you should use the default description column for each attribute. • © 2007 MicroStrategy. they provide the information for an attribute through data stored in their ID and description columns. 14 Select the lookup table for each attribute. The Relationship Definition page opens. Inc. The table that follows the lookup naming convention that you set in the warehouse search rule is automatically selected. it may make sense to use the ID column as the description column. – Other attribute forms need to be created through the Attribute Editor after you complete steps in the Project Creation Assistant. Refer to Adding attributes with the Attribute Editor. page 136. Creating attributes 133 . such as Year. Lookup table selection Lookup tables are the physical representation of attributes. 15 Click Next: • If you have created compound attributes. the Relationship Definition page opens. If you have not created a compound attribute.

page 159. When you design a logical data model for your project (see Chapter 2. so does its 134 Creating attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. you specify the children and the type of relationship: one-to-one. For more information on the different attribute relationship types. 16 For each attribute. The Finish page opens. State. the attributes are created. As a company evolves. 18 Review the summary information in the Finish page and click Finish to create the attributes. Related attributes such as City. In the Children of: attribute name pane. You are returned to the Attribute Creation Wizard. This completes the initial creation of a project with the Project Creation Assistant. • 17 When you have defined children for all the attributes that need them. see Attribute relationships. In a logical data model. select the relationship type for the attribute to its child attribute. The Logical Data Model). whereas attributes in different hierarchies cannot be related. Adding and modifying attributes Just as you can add more facts to your project once you have created it. like Location. select an attribute and click Add. Inc. The Select Children Attributes dialog box opens.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Relationship definition For each attribute. define child attributes: • • In the Attributes pane. Select the child attributes from the list of available child attributes and click OK. when attributes are in the same hierarchy they must be related to each other. one-to-many. you can also create and add attributes as they become necessary. After you have completed the steps of the Attribute Creation Wizard. . or Region are often grouped in a common hierarchy. the relationships between attributes should become apparent. or many-to-many. click Next.

You can create attributes with either the Attribute Creation Wizard. However. the company does not include lookup tables with information about different countries in its data warehouse. • The Attribute Creation Wizard allows you to: Create simple attributes Create multiple attributes quickly Add a large number of attributes during project creation • The Attribute Editor allows you to: Create simple and advanced attributes Edit existing attributes and configure additional schema-level settings The Attribute Creation Wizard works well for building a large number of attributes initially. for creating most of the attributes for the project. © 2007 MicroStrategy. which you use to create the first attributes for your project. attribute forms. and so on. You can use the Attribute Editor to edit existing attributes and create additional attribute forms. define advanced expressions. with offices only in the United States. map heterogeneous column names. you only use the Attribute Creation Wizard as part of the initial project creation. For example. when the company opens its offices in Europe and Asia. decides to extend its operations into Europe and Asia. It must then add these tables to its MicroStrategy project. a health care company. but you cannot use it to modify existing attributes or to define more advanced attributes. Creating attributes 135 . it must add lookup tables that contain data about its new offices to its warehouse. and create the appropriate attributes so report users can analyze business data for their appropriate country. configure additional settings. which allows you to define attributes. In general.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 reporting requirements. these requirements can lead to changes to the data warehouse as well as to the schema within its MicroStrategy projects. and attribute form expressions. or the Attribute Editor. Inc. Before the shift overseas.

6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Adding attributes with the Attribute Creation Wizard Although the Attribute Creation Wizard is primarily used to create most of a project’s attributes during initial project creation. 2 From the Folder List. 4 To create attributes with the Attribute Creation Wizard. log in to the project source that contains your project and expand your project. 3 From the Schema menu. page 129. See the Permissions and Privileges appendix of the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide for more information. To create simple attributes in bulk using the Attribute Creation Wizard 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. 136 Creating attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. Adding attributes with the Attribute Editor The Attribute Editor is used to add advanced features such as attribute forms to attributes that already exist. Inc. follow the steps outlined in Simultaneously creating multiple attributes. The Attribute Creation Wizard opens. select the project to which to add new attributes. You can also use it to add new attributes to your project. you may still find it useful if you need to create multiple attributes from remaining lookup columns in your warehouse. Follow the steps below to use the Attribute Creation Wizard to create simple attributes in bulk. choose Attribute Creation Wizard. . You must use a login that has Architect privileges.

Its columns are listed in the Available Columns pane. or parentheses. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. 4 To create a simple attribute form expression (Attribute form expressions. Creating attributes 137 . The Attribute Editor opens. select a table which contains the columns of data for the attribute. and then Attribute. When you create an expression for an attribute form.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 To create an attribute using the Attribute Editor 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. 3 From the Source table drop-down list. You can then clear any tables mapped automatically. You do not have to include any operators. select Automatic or Manual: • Automatic mapping means that MicroStrategy scans all of the tables in the project and selects all tables with the columns used in the attribute form expression as possible source tables for the attribute form. 2 From the File menu. 6 Under Mapping Method. 5 Click Validate to make sure your expression is valid. log in to the project source that contains your project and expand your project. Click f(x) in the Form expression toolbar to create a function using the Insert Function Wizard. use a combination of any of the following techniques: • • • Enter constants in double quotes. Click any operator in the Form expression toolbar to insert it into the expression. you are only required to select an available column and move it to the Form expression pane. or select other tables. To create a more advanced attribute form expression. with the Create New Form Expression dialog box displayed on top of it. drag a column name from the Available columns pane to the Form expression pane. functions. select New. page 147).

7 Click OK. select a table and click Set as Lookup to set the lookup table for the attribute. Inc. A lookup table holds the information for an attribute. page 231) determine whether attributes or facts are automatically mapped to new tables when they are added after an attribute or fact is created. . The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. The system maps the expression to each of the source tables. You then select which of those tables are used as source tables for the attribute form. – A constant expression cannot use the automatic mapping method. If you chose manual mapping. Using automatic mapping in the Attribute Editor helps you decide which tables to map your attribute to when creating an attribute. – These mapping methods are NOT the same as the automatic mapping methods for the Warehouse Catalog. Note the following: – The mapping method defaults to Automatic for the first attribute or attribute form expression you create. 138 Creating attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. For subsequent attributes. from which you can create attribute forms for the attribute (Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms. The Warehouse Catalog mapping methods (discussed in Mapping schema objects and calculating logical sizes for tables. type a name and description in the associated fields for the attribute form. 8 From the Source tables pane. select the check boxes of the tables to map to the attribute form. page 143). 9 In the Form general information area. the default is Manual.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide • Manual mapping means that MicroStrategy scans all of the tables in the project and locates all tables with the columns used in the attribute form expression.

14 Navigate to the folder in which to save the attribute. Using a column with a non-numeric data type as an ID column of an attribute can result in SQL generation issues. select a display type and a default sorting option from the associated drop-down lists.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 10 In the Category used drop-down list. if you select a column with a non-numeric data type and set it as an ID column. You cannot use the Attribute Creation Wizard to modify attributes. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Creating attributes 139 . refer to the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. Inc. Custom groups are sorted by the Default sort of the form that appears first in the Report display forms. 13 From the File menu. This ensures that your project is updated to recognize the new attribute definition. 15 From the Schema menu. The Save dialog box opens. For a description of form categories. 11 In the Form format area. you can modify the attribute at any time using the Attribute Editor. page 146. Enter a name for the derived fact. see Attribute form properties. Therefore. For more information on custom groups. • Modifying attributes After creating an attribute. Click Modify to create a new form category. select Save As. select Update Schema to update the project schema. Click Save. do one of the following: • Select a form category from the drop-down list. a warning message appears by default when you click OK in the Create New Attribute Form dialog box. 12 Click OK. The Attribute Editor opens.

You can then modify all the options available when creating and attribute in the Attribute Editor. which is described in the previous procedure To create an attribute using the Attribute Editor. . and Boston BN are elements of the attribute City: 140 Unique sets of attribute information: Attribute elements © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. Baltimore BA. open the folder that contains the attribute to modify. The Attribute Editor opens. in the following diagram. For example. page 137. You can learn how to create more advanced attributes in the various sections below. Unique sets of attribute information: Attribute elements Attribute elements are the unique sets of information or values of an attribute.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide To modify an existing attribute 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. 2 Double-click the attribute to edit. Customer is the attribute and New York NY.

Inc. which should be forms that provide a general description of the attribute element. as shown below: The Customer attribute is a good example to understand the components of an attribute and the concept of an attribute element. in the image above. Each attribute element is a row in an attribute lookup table in your data warehouse. an attribute element is a unique set of information defined by the attribute forms of an attribute. With the Customer attribute. For example. first name. and so on which are defined by the attribute forms (see Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms. the First Name and Last Name forms are used to identify the 141 © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 143).Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 The following example displays the physical warehouse table that stores elements and data for the Customer attribute. As shown above. Unique sets of attribute information: Attribute elements . Each customer (attribute element) has its own set of information such as last name. each attribute element is an individual customer. Attribute elements are identified by their browse forms. email address.

Shoes. page 189. Attribute elements can be identified in logical data models. and Sporting Goods: In MicroStrategy reports. Just as you would not refer to a customer by his or her street address. attribute elements are displayed depending on the location of the attribute they are associated with. you would not want to use the Address form to identify the Customer attribute elements. For example. . For more information on selecting the attribute forms used to identify attribute elements. Inc. such as Men’s Clothing. As shown below. the attribute Division has multiple attribute elements.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide attribute elements. see Using attributes to browse and report on data. the report below (created from the Sales 142 Unique sets of attribute information: Attribute elements © 2007 MicroStrategy.

Sales Organization is on the rows of the report along with its attribute elements such as USA Central. as explained in Logical data modeling conventions. The report above uses the common practice of putting the metrics (Sales Orders Quantity (Base Units) and Cost Sales Orders) on the columns of the report. The display of attributes and their attribute elements is also affected by the location of the metrics on the report. and most have at least two: © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 33. Sales Organization and Year. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms Attribute forms are identifiers or descriptors of an attribute. Every attribute must have at least one form.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 and Distribute Analysis Module of the MicroStrategy BIDK) has two attributes. Inc. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms 143 . Year is on the columns of the report along with its attribute elements such as 2005.

For the Customer attribute. For example. . each customer must have a different value for their identity column. To differentiate between two customers such as John Smith and Fred Black. as shown in the following diagram: 144 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. the Customer attribute’s ID form is Customer_ID.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide • • The ID form (required) A description form Every attribute must have an ID form (identity form). Some attributes can have additional descriptive forms that do not serve as the primary description form. ID forms serve to uniquely identify each attribute element from other elements for the same attribute. Email is included as an additional descriptive form. which is a column of unique numeric values to identify each customer. including the Customer Name and the Address forms. Attributes also have description forms. Inc. In this case John Smith can have a value of 1 in the Customer_ID column and Fred Black can have a value of 2 in the Customer_ID column. These types of forms give context and information about the Customer attribute. The Customer attribute in the MicroStrategy Tutorial has various forms.

Inc. and Email forms and the tables will join together through the ID columns because that is the column they have in common. and SSN. SSN. two tables exist. the LU_CUSTOMER table records all of the attribute form data for the Customer attribute. In such cases. © 2007 MicroStrategy. which uniquely identifies the attribute. the ID forms are used to join tables. identifying number for each customer (ID form) Customer_Full_Name: the full name of each customer (Description form) EMAIL: the email address for the specific customer (Additional description form) In this example. Each table must have an ID form. you can choose a lookup table in the Attribute Editor from a list of tables existing in the project. a lookup table with three columns holds the following separate forms. Attributes must contain at least one ID form. page 153. The attribute will have the Customer_ID. you must map the appropriate columns to the same attribute to retrieve accurate and complete results when using an attribute on a report. Heterogeneous column names are discussed in Joining dissimilar column names: Heterogeneous mappings. For example. two columns with different names can represent the same information about an attribute. one with the forms Customer_ID. When creating an attribute form. The forms you create must have a reference to a lookup table and can include multiple expressions. The second lookup table contains Customer _ID and Email. In the warehouse. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms 145 . Name. described below: • • • Customer_ID: a unique.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 In the data warehouse. Name.

or None. There is no way to distinguish a Desc attribute form from a None attribute form on a MicroStrategy report. Desc. below. the first attribute form with a default sort order is 146 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. These properties affect the display of the forms and include the following: • Categories help group the types of forms. Descending. • Format types control how the form is displayed and how filters are built. see Default sorting of multiple attribute forms. Default sort governs how the form is sorted by default when included in a report. it is a good practice to map the most commonly used or most important description form to the Desc form of the attribute. Inc.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Attribute form properties You must select properties for each form when you create forms in the Attribute Editor in MicroStrategy Desktop. When you have attributes that require multiple description forms. you can define the default sort order for each attribute form. For information on how attribute forms are sorted when multiple attribute forms of a single attribute define a default sort order. • Default sorting of multiple attribute forms When creating attribute forms. If you define multiple attribute forms of an attribute with ascending or descending sort orders. You can create new form categories in the Attribute Editor. The standard category options are ID. While there is no difference in how a Desc attribute form and None attribute form are used in MicroStrategy. Each attribute can have only one Desc form. the other description forms must be mapped to None forms. Data Types. specifying a format type of Big Decimal allows users to preserve precision when qualifying on a form with more than 15 digits. Big Decimal is discussed in detail in Appendix D. and None. For example. . mapping the most commonly used or most important description form can be helpful for project designers to quickly distinguish this attribute form from the other secondary forms. You can choose from Ascending.

the Customer attribute in the MicroStrategy Tutorial project has the five attribute forms shown below: Of these five attribute forms. and other report objects are sorted. This is the default functionality for how attributes are sorted by their attribute forms on reports. metrics. Each attribute form must have at least one expression. For example. These information units are called attribute forms. Modify the Address form so that it has a descending default sort order. the Customer attribute holds information about the customer such as Name and Address. If the first attribute form with a default sort order is not included on a report. An attribute form expression defines what columns in the warehouse are used to represent the attribute form in SQL. Attribute form expressions Attributes act like holders of information and provide context for fact data. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms . customers are sorted by their address in descending order. then the second attribute form with a default sort order is used for sorting. Sorting defined for a report takes precedence over default sorting defined for attribute forms. It is important to note that you can change how attribute forms are sorted from within a report. In a report you can use advanced sorting to define how attribute forms. customers are sorted by their Last Name in ascending order. only Last Name has a default sort order set. If you include Customer on a report with both Last Name and Address. and so on. refer to the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. 147 © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 used to sort the attribute on the report. For more information on advanced sorting. If you remove the Last Name form from the report. For example. Inc. This is because Last Name was created first and therefore is considered for sorting before the Address form.

Implicit expressions. the CUST_FIRST_NAME and CUST_LAST_NAME columns in the warehouse provide information about first and last names respectively. for example. The form expression for the Customer Last Name attribute form is CUST_LAST_NAME. +.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide For example. page 153: Heterogeneous mappings allow you to use columns with different names in the data warehouse as the same attribute form. . Derived expressions. Only implicit attributes do not include a column in the expression. You can also create a form expression using Apply functions. Joining dissimilar column names: Heterogeneous mappings. Although you can have multiple expressions in different tables. 148 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. The types of attribute form expressions are: • • Simple expressions. Inc. a form cannot have two different expressions in the same source table. The definition of the simple expression includes the tables in which the column is found. In this instance. -. You can create expressions using attribute columns. /. page 155: Implicit form expressions do not relate directly to data stored in the data warehouse. page 148: Simple form expressions access data through columns in the data warehouse. the form expression for the Customer First Name attribute form is CUST_FIRST_NAME. page 150: Derived form expressions perform some type of mathematical calculation on columns in the data warehouse to create an attribute form. These functions are discussed in the Pass-through Expressions appendix in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. These form expressions create virtual data by combining or using columns to generate the data. constants. and/or mathematical operators. *. • • Simple expressions A simple expression is based on a single warehouse column. since they only use the constants you declare.

Example: creating an attribute form with a simple expression A retailer begins a promotion that offers customers 25% off of their purchases if they fill out a feedback survey on the company website. Both of these columns reside in the table LU_CATEGORY. To create an attribute form with a simple expression 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. both of which are defined by simple expressions. Once gathered. The retailer intends to analyze the data gathered from the surveys to better market their products in the future. and then the Customers folder.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 For example. 3 Double-click the Customer attribute. 2 Navigate to the Schema Objects folder. log in to the project source that contains the MicroStrategy Tutorial project and then log in to MicroStrategy Tutorial. including their dates of birth. open the Attributes folder. This will enable report designers to display each customer’s date of birth alongside each customer’s name on reports. At this point. It has two forms. the project designer must add the column containing the customer dates of birth as an additional attribute form of the Customer attribute. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms 149 . Inc. ID and Description. The retailer’s customers provide a variety of information on the surveys. Category is an attribute in the MicroStrategy Tutorial. The Attribute Editor opens. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Follow the procedure below to create Customer Birth Date as an attribute form in the Customer attribute. the date of birth data eventually becomes part of the retailer’s data warehouse and the appropriate lookup table is added to the retailer’s project in MicroStrategy. The expression for the ID form is the CATEGORY_ID column and the expression for the description form is the CATEGORY_DESC column.

The new Customer Birth Date attribute form is added to the Attribute form pane in the Attribute Editor. adding another column. Derived expressions Derived expressions are created using a combination of warehouse columns. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. While simple expressions have their value determined by just one column in a warehouse table. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. you can create an attribute to hold the age of a customer or an employee that has been derived from the two columns. select DATE since Customer Birth Date is neither the ID form of Customer nor the primary description form. 6 Double-click the CUST_BIRTHDATE column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. By calculating the difference between the columns Date of Birth and Current Date. select the LU_CUSTOMER table. 11 Because this is only an example. Any operation on a column (such as adding a constant. in the Name field. For example. the attribute’s value 150 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. . 9 From the Category used drop-down list. or setting the expression to be an absolute value) creates a derived expression. type Customer Birth Date. mathematical operators. close the Attribute Editor without saving your changes.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide 4 Click New. you can create a derived attribute to calculate age or anniversaries. and constants. The mapping method is selected as Automatic by default. 8 In the Form general information area. 7 Click OK. 10 Click OK. Inc. derived expressions are defined using one or more columns as well as other operators and values. functions. By creating an attribute to calculate age in this manner. This is the table that contains customers’ dates of birth. 5 From the Source table drop-down list.

2 Navigate to the Schema Objects folder. which consists of the two strings. © 2007 MicroStrategy. First Name using the following syntax: CUST_LAST_NAME + “. As another example. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms 151 . log in to the project source that contains the MicroStrategy Tutorial project and then log in to MicroStrategy Tutorial. open the Attributes folder. CUST_FIRST_NAME and CUST_LAST_NAME. you could create a derived expression for Name in the format of Last Name. and then the Customers folder. To create an attribute form with a derived expression 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. you store Customer names in two different columns. Using the Customer attribute. the syntax of the derived expression for Name reads: CUST_FIRST_NAME + “ “ + CUST_LAST_NAME On a report. this information is displayed as Mary Jones under the Name column. If you use syntax that is not supported by your database or other data source. the attribute would need to be updated every time a customer or an employee has a birthday. If you created an attribute for age in which you included a constant number. “ + CUST_FIRST_NAME Using this expression. Mary under the Name column. You can achieve this using a derived form expression Name. the information is displayed as Jones. Calculations and functions used in a derived expression can assist in deriving data from the database.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 is automatically updated as the age changes. Inc. you want reports to display a customer’s first name and last name together as a single entry on a report. Example: creating an attribute form with a derived expression In your database. the SQL query and resulting report can fail. However. but you must make sure you use expressions that meet the requirements of your database-specific SQL syntax.

. First Name. in the Name field. close the Attribute Editor without saving your changes. Your expression should be defined as shown below.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide 3 Double-click the Customer attribute. 14 Because this is only an example. 8 Double-click the CUST_FIRST_NAME column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. select None since Last Name. 12 From the Category used drop-down list. 10 Click OK. Inc. The Attribute Editor opens. 152 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. place the cursor to the right of [CUST_LAST_NAME] and type + “. 9 Select Automatic as the mapping method. “ +. 6 Double-click the CUST_LAST_NAME column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. select the LU_CUSTOMER table. 7 In the Form expression pane. 11 In the Form general information area. 5 From the Source table drop-down list. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. This is the table that contains customers’ first and last names. 13 Click OK. 4 Click New. The new attribute form is added to the Attribute form pane in the Attribute Editor. First Name is neither the ID form of Customer nor the primary description form. type Last Name.

For example. you might be able to join columns with data types of Number and Integer. your company may have multiple columns in different tables that all represent the same business concept. The data types of columns used in a heterogeneous mapping for a given attribute must be identical or similar enough for your particular RDBMS to join them properly. you can select as many or as few as you want to be used as part of the attribute’s definition. the ID form of the attribute Day contains two expressions. Inc. depending on your database platform. heterogeneous mapping automatically occurs when tables and column names require it. Each expression is linked to a set of source tables that contain the columns used in the expression. In the Attribute Editor. in the MicroStrategy Tutorial. you can use heterogeneous mapping to map the Day attribute to all of the columns in the data warehouse that represent the same concept of Day. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms 153 . The Day_Date column occurs in the LU_DATE table and the Order_Date column occurs in the ORDER_DETAIL and ORDER_FACT tables. you can view the chosen tables in the source Tables area to the right of the Form Expressions area. © 2007 MicroStrategy. However. If you define more than one expression for a given form. most databases cannot join a data type of Text to a data type of Number. For example. You can map Order_Date and Day_Date to the Day attribute—this ensures that both columns are used when information about the Day attribute is displayed on a report. Because different source systems may store information in various contexts.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Joining dissimilar column names: Heterogeneous mappings Heterogeneous mapping allows Intelligence Server to perform joins on dissimilar column names. Of all the tables in which the columns exist. In the above example.

4 Click New. open the Attributes folder. both of which use different tables as the source of their information. log in to the project source that contains the MicroStrategy Tutorial project and then log in to MicroStrategy Tutorial. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. The Attribute Editor opens. The Create New Form Expression dialog box opens. 11 Click OK. 2 Navigate to the Schema Objects folder.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide To create an attribute form with a heterogeneous column mapping 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. . 6 Double-click the DAY_DATE column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. select the ORDER_DETAIL table. 3 Double-click the Day attribute. Inc. The Create New Form Expression dialog box opens. 5 From the Source table drop-down list. You could continue this process to add as many heterogeneous columns as part of one attribute form as necessary. select the LU_DAY table. 154 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. 9 From the Source table drop-down list. Notice that there are now two expressions for the attribute form definition. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. The mapping method is selected as Automatic by default. and then the Time folder. 10 Double-click the ORDER_DATE column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. 7 Click OK. 8 Click New. The mapping method is selected as Automatic by default.

close the Attribute Editor without saving your changes. The new Date Example attribute form is added to the Attribute form pane in the Attribute Editor. Suppose you want a report to display which orders are rush orders so you can better keep track of your shipments. 13 From the Category used drop-down list. Any constant is acceptable. On a report with the Order and Rush Order attributes on the template. Such an attribute has an implicit expression. rather than being defined in terms of columns. Some attribute definitions can be implied by the existence of a row in a certain table. but are useful in special cases such as the scenario described above. The Rush Order attribute is defined by two expressions: the Rush_Order column in the Order_Fact table and the implicit expression “Y”. Inc. the Rush Order attribute in MicroStrategy Tutorial is an example of an implicit attribute. Implicit expressions are not defined by column names.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 12 In the Form general information area. an implicit attribute is a virtual or constant attribute that does not physically exist in the warehouse. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms 155 . © 2007 MicroStrategy. they are defined by constants you specify. 15 Because this is only an example. in the Name field. Implicit attributes are not commonly used. select None since this is simply an example scenario. for each order that is a rush order.” This implicit expression is used to keep track of which orders are rush orders. which stands for “Yes. RushOrder=‘Yes’. For example. type Date Example. although nothing is saved in an actual column. for example. Implicit attributes are useful in analyzing and retrieving relevant information. An implicit attribute such as Rush Order is useful for this purpose. a “Y” is displayed in the Rush Order column. which is a constant value. 14 Click OK. Implicit expressions While most attributes map directly to one or more physical columns in the warehouse.

there are cases where you may need to change the data type. Data Types for more information on how MicroStrategy selects a matching data type). Inc. but you would like to create a Year attribute. SQL Server has a Year function that extracts just the year from a date. Column aliases allow you to specify a more appropriate data type that can help avoid errors in your SQL. . you must modify the column alias for the attribute form and map it to a special data type. the precision can be preserved when performing filtering. a column alias performs the same function as it does for facts. The following are some examples of such cases. Big Decimal. In your data warehouse you have a lookup table for an Accounts attribute where the ID is Account Number and the ID is stored in the database as DECIMAL(18. Another example could be a case in which your warehouse does not have a lookup table for year information. 0). Many database platforms have functions that can extract parts of a date from a Date data type. By doing so. In such a case. drilling. However. For attributes. you can create a Year attribute using the following form expression: ApplySimple("Year(#0)".[Date_Id]) The ApplySimple expression above is syntactically correct for SQL Server. However. This inheritance is governed by MicroStrategy. which attempts to use a data type as similar as possible to the data type in your database or other data source (see Appendix D. For example. They can also help you take more advantage of the data in your data warehouse. By default. you may need to use a different syntax. Because this column stores high-precision values. the data type for an attribute form is inherited from the data type of the column on which the form is defined. 156 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Modifying attribute data types: Column aliases A column alias is a new data type that you can specify in place of the default data type for a given attribute form. depending on your database or data source type. or page-by on the Account attribute.

in bold.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 The data type for this attribute is automatically set to a Date data type.Date_Id) CustCol_1. Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms 157 . you can change the column alias name to be more meaningful. the system uses a Date data type and tries to insert integer data into this column. When you create a form expression using a custom expression or multiple columns (as discussed in Attribute form expressions. When a temporary SQL table is created. the result of the calculation is a year. This is because Date_ID is a Date data type. The following piece of SQL shows. Inc. CustCol_2. page 147). the column alias also lets you specify the column alias name to be used in the SQL generated by MicroStrategy. You can use the Attribute Editor to create column aliases. if you do not change the data type of the column alias.Date_Id) While the column alias name does not affect the actual results or your report. The above example is a simple one. © 2007 MicroStrategy. and so on). some databases will return an error. such as 2002. sum(a11. but this can be useful for troubleshooting the SQL for a particularly complex report.Tot_Dollar_Sales) WJXBFS1 FROM YR_CATEGORY_SLS a11 cross join TRANS_DATE_LW_LY a12 GROUP BY Year(a12. However. To avoid the possibility of an error due to conflicting data types. and it is an integer. 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. the column alias for the attribute form defaults to CustCol (or CustCol_1. log in to the project source that contains the attribute to create a new column alias for. modify the column alias for the attribute form and change the default Date data type to an Integer data type. where the column alias name is used: SELECT Year(a12. In addition to specifying the data type to be used for an attribute form. While this does not create a problem in all database platforms. To create a column alias for an attribute This procedure assumes you have already created an attribute with a valid attribute expression for which to create a new column alias.

Definition dialog box opens. see the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. click Modify. 9 Click OK to save your changes and return to the Attribute Editor. 5 In the Column alias area. For a description of the different data types supported by MicroStrategy. 6 Select New to create a new column alias. The Column Editor . Depending on the data type selected. precision. or time scale for your column alias. see Appendix D. 10 Select Save and Close to save your changes. bit length. The Modify Attribute Form dialog box opens. Inc. you can specify the byte length. 3 Select an attribute form and click Modify.Column Selection dialog box opens. For a detailed description on each of these properties.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide 2 Right-click the attribute and select Edit. Data Types. Data type: The data type for the fact. • • 8 Click OK to save your changes and return to the Column Editor . The Attribute Editor opens. 7 You can modify the following properties for the column alias: • Column name: The name for the column alias which is used in any SQL statements which include the fact column. The Column Editor . .Column Selection dialog box. scale. whereas attributes themselves can be considered as report elements or group-by elements that have a one-to-many or a many-to-many relationship with 158 Column data descriptions and identifiers: Attribute forms © 2007 MicroStrategy. 4 Select the Column Alias tab. Attribute forms versus separate attributes Attribute forms can be considered as additional descriptions for an attribute.

Attribute relationships You link directly related attributes to each other by defining parent-child relationships. which is generally undesirable. how tables and columns are joined and used. In general. page 36. or cross join. Attribute relationships 159 . you should map data to an attribute form rather than a separate attribute if: • • There is a one-to-one relationship between an attribute and the data. Inc. must include a metric based on a fact that is on or below the level of the two attributes. dictate the relationships that you define between attributes. A report with two unrelated attributes. The implications of whether attributes are related become clear when you begin building reports. The decision to model data as an attribute form for a given attribute or as a separate attribute is usually determined during the logical data modeling phase of project design. or else a Cartesian join occurs. these relationships define how the engine generates SQL. for example—without any problems. You can run a report with two attributes that are related—Country and City. The data that you map to attributes can be represented as separate attributes or as an attribute form of an attribute. see Attribute forms. as explained in Attribute relationships.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 other attributes. The parent-child relationships you create determine the system hierarchy within the project. © 2007 MicroStrategy. For more information on whether to model data as an attribute form or as a separate attribute. A Cartesian join. however. page 24. and which tables are related to other tables. is very database intensive as every row in one table is joined to every row in the other table. or the actual data values for an attribute. You do not group by the data. Attribute elements. In other words.

and these relationships are defined by the attribute elements that exist in the related attributes. customers and accounts are an example of a many-to-many relationship. These are the most common types of attribute relationships. Year has a one-to-many relationship to quarter. consider the Geography hierarchy of the Customer Analysis Analytics 160 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy. One-to-one: Each element in the parent attribute has one and only one corresponding element in the child attribute. In banking. . A citizen can have only one Taxpayer ID and a Taxpayer ID can be assigned to only one citizen. as part of the initial project design effort and in Viewing and editing the parents and children of attributes. One-to-many: Each element in the parent attribute corresponds to one or more elements in the child attribute. This step is covered in Simultaneously creating multiple attributes. page 161. Q1 2007. Attributes can also be related to other attributes through a chain of attribute relationships. and each account may be associated with many customers. but a specific quarter can be in one year only. Attributes can be either related or unrelated to one another: • Related: A parent-child relationship is defined between two or more attributes. One customer may have many accounts. A common example of a one-to-one relationship is citizen and Taxpayer ID. Attributes of this type are often in the same hierarchy. Three types of direct relationships can exist between related attributes.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide In MicroStrategy Desktop. after a project has already been created. page 129. such as in the case of a joint checking account. This assumes that quarters are defined with an accompanying year such as Q4 2006. Inc. Many-to-many: Each element in the parent attribute can have multiple children and each child element in the child attribute can have multiple parents. you can define relationships for the attributes in your project. The relationship is defined through the attribute’s lookup table or a relationship table. and so on. For example. One year has many quarters.

Attribute relationships 161 . 2003 on behalf of the health care company in which he works. No relationship is present in the lookup tables or relationship tables for these attributes. giving context to the fact. Don Addison. care must be taken when using unrelated attributes on a single report. which contains the attributes Customer Region. a certain customer. Customer Region and Customer State are directly related to each other and Customer State and Customer City also have a direct relationship. In this case. How attributes relate to one another and the types of relationships they share define the system hierarchy which is used to generate SQL.500 on January 5. For example. Customer State. determines the output of a report. A particular customer and a particular day only make sense together if a fact is associated with that combination. In general. Inc. While Customer City is not directly related to Customer Region. Viewing and editing the parents and children of attributes The relationships that exist between attributes rely on the parent-child specifications that you assign to attributes. For example. and Customer City: In this scenario. in turn. © 2007 MicroStrategy. these attributes are relatively straightforward to deal with from a project design perspective. however. these two attributes are related through Customer State. Unrelated attributes can exist together in fact tables. the Customer and Day attributes have no relationship to one another. This allows you to include Customer Region and Customer City on a report and view the different customer cities for each customer region. • Unrelated: No parent-child relationship has been defined and the attributes are not related through a chain of attribute relationships. This SQL.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Module of the MicroStrategy BIDK. spent $2.

log in to the project source that contains the MicroStrategy Tutorial project and then log in to MicroStrategy Tutorial. page 193. This means that only one call center exists in each distribution center. is the parent of Distribution Center and multiple distribution centers exist in each country. 2 Navigate to the Schema Objects folder. To view and edit the parents and children of an attribute 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. Country. the Distribution Center attribute is the parent of the Call Center attribute. and then the Geography folder. when a report generates inaccurate SQL and results. 3 Double-click the Distribution Center attribute. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. 162 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Parent-child relationships were designated when attributes were selected for the new project. Inc. A one-to-one relationship exists between Distribution Center and Call Center. The Attribute Editor opens. viewing and changing parent-child relationships may be a necessary troubleshooting method. Also. For example. For a general procedure to view and edit the parents and children of an attribute. along with the relationship type it shares with Distribution Center. So these two attributes have a one-to-many relationship. Assigning parent-child relationships to attributes allows you to connect attributes to one another in user hierarchies. in turn. However. you can continue to make changes to the relationships between attributes even after creating your project. . open the Attributes folder. as discussed in Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes. Follow the procedure below to view and edit the parents and children of the Distribution Center attribute. and the relationship table in which the relationship exists. The Call Center attribute is listed. 4 Click the Children tab.

To change the relationship table. 5 To change the relationship type. Before reading this section.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Consider a scenario in which multiple call centers now exist in the same distribution center so they no longer have a one-to-one relationship. 6 You also want the relationship between the two attributes to be defined in the LU_Employee table instead of the LU_Call_Ctr table in which it is defined now. Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model respectively. and how to read and interpret them. close the Distribution Center attribute without saving your changes. While the topics are largely related to logical model design. select One to Many from the Relationship type drop-down list. select the LU_Employee table from the Relationship table drop-down list. These chapters discuss how to plan and create a conceptual framework for your business intelligence data. many-to-many relationships and joint child relationships. in this case. can introduce additional complexity to the schema and warehouse design process. Inc. Attribute relationships 163 . you must change the relationship type between Call Center and Distribution Center. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Logical data models and physical warehouse schemas are discussed in Chapter 2. Supporting many-to-many and joint child relationships Two forms of attribute relationships. a working knowledge of physical schemas is helpful when dealing with the challenges involved with these topics. The following sections discuss the considerations you must make to ensure an effective warehouse design in light of the unique nature of these relationships. The Logical Data Model and Chapter 3. you should know what logical data models and physical warehouse schemas are. 7 Because this is only an example.

Inc. you must make additional considerations to effectively plan your design. and many types of cars can be associated with the same color. One item can come in many colors—red hats. . there are many colors for a single type of car. In a car manufacturing plant. Likewise. red hat. and each comes in several colors. there are usually two business questions for which users want answers: 1 In what colors are certain items available? 2 How much of a particular item/color combination was sold? 164 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Many-to-many relationships The presence of many-to-many relationships introduces complexity during the warehouse design process. red shoes. • The following sections use the example of items and colors to demonstrate a many-to-many relationship and the options you have for dealing with them. green hats—and one color can be associated with many items—red dress. With the presence of many-to-many relationships. Potential problems with many-to-many relationships usually come in the following forms. each salesperson can work in more than one calling center. many models of cars are produced. each calling center has many salespeople. both of which can be avoided by correctly modeling the relationship: • • Loss of analytical capability Multiple counting Loss of analytical capability With the color/item many-to-many relationship. blue hats. red socks. Below are some real-life examples of many-to-many relationships which must be carefully handled in the data model and schema: • In a certain organization. That is.

Attribute relationships 165 . © 2007 MicroStrategy. In many-to-many relationships this is not feasible. and date. Answering the second question requires a fact table that has sales information as well as color and item information. Recall that one-to-many relationships are usually in the child’s lookup table. a distinct relationship table needs to be present in your warehouse. but in addition it shows a simple fact table containing sales data keyed by item.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Answering the first question requires a table that contains a list of all possible item/color combinations. The following diagram shows the same scenario as before. color. Rather. The following diagram shows the lookup and relationship tables for item and color: The Rel_Color_Item table provides a row for every possible item/color combination. Inc.

Multiple counting occurs when all of the following takes place: • You attempt to aggregate data to the level of one of the attributes in the many-to-many relationship. this fact table cannot provide a complete list of item/color combinations to answer question one. page 168. the following requirements must be met: • • A distinct relationship table to identify all the possible combinations of attribute elements between attributes Both the attribute ID columns in the fact table You can implement the above points in several different ways. Multiple counting When dealing with many-to-many relationships. loss of analytical capability is only one challenge. The relationship exists in a distinct relationship table.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide The fact table in the above diagram alone is not sufficient to answer the first question. All of the attributes in the many-to-many relationship are not in the fact table. Only item/color combinations that were actually sold—and therefore have sales recorded—can be retrieved from this table. Another equally significant issue is multiple counting. . In summary. • • 166 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. If you have item/color combinations that are available but that have never been sold. to prevent any loss of analytical flexibility when dealing with a many-to-many attribute relationship. or a higher level than one of the attributes in the many-to-many relationship. which are discussed in Working with many-to-many relationships.

Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Recall the example from above. and socks—and that they come in three colors—red. blue. Attribute relationships 167 . Assume that there are three items—hats. effectively aggregating to the item attribute level in the many-to-many relationship. but make the following change: remove color from the fact table. The following diagram shows this data in the lookup tables as well as some simple sales data: The risk of multiple counting occurs when you run a query requesting the sales by color. © 2007 MicroStrategy. and green—with the exception of socks. dresses. This query would require both the fact table—which has the sales information by item—and the relationship table—since color is not recorded in the fact table. Inc. which come in only green and blue.

• What are the total sales for red dresses? Again. including blue ones and green ones. For example. which is the total for all hats and dresses. For example. There is no way to directly relate the sales of an item in the fact table to the color of that particular item. you cannot determine an accurate answer. Inc. If all the dresses sold are indeed green. you cannot confirm this since color is not recorded in the fact table. This obviously leads to numbers that are higher than the true sales for red items. The following section describes several ways to prevent multiple counting when dealing with many-to-many relationships. since socks do not come in red. . the query aggregates sales for all items that come in red according to the relationship table. You can use one of three techniques to provide physical support to answer the types of questions that cannot be answered accurately when using many-to-many relationships. • What are the total sales for red items? You cannot determine an accurate answer. which can be calculated directly from the fact table. Working with many-to-many relationships As you can see. The sum includes all hats and all dresses. but the answer you will get based on the data in the fact table is $50.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide The difficulty lies in the fact that color is not in the fact table. seemingly simple questions can require you to take a number of steps to answer them when many-to-many relationships are involved. the following questions cannot all be answered accurately: • What are the total sales for hats? The answer is $35. using the given data. the correct answer is $0. The three techniques all have differing levels of 168 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy. however. The answer you get is $85. It is entirely possible that all the dresses sold are green. instead of calculating the sales of red items.

the SQL Engine uses the related table when no metric is included on the report. Method 1 requires you to create a separate relationship table (in this case. Attribute relationships 169 . Rel_Color_Item) and add both attribute IDs to the fact table as shown in the following diagram. the fact table is used to answer the query. © 2007 MicroStrategy. the two fundamental components remain in place in one form or another: • • A relationship table to define the attribute relationship Both the attribute’s ID columns in the fact table MicroStrategy builds the rules that MicroStrategy SQL Engine uses to generate SQL when a report request is made. If you make both of the above physical implementations. All of the following methods require additional data in the fact table. If this additional data was never captured in the source system. Inc. This means that you must capture the additional data in the source system. When a metric is included. For example. Method 1 This method is the most straightforward way to effectively manage many-to-many relationships. and flexibility is always a trade-off with complexity.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 flexibility. you cannot fully resolve the many-to-many relationship to calculate the amount of sales for items of a certain color. In all cases. you need to have data in the source system as to what the color is of each item sold.

to the fact table as shown in the following diagram. in this case Item_ID and Color_ID. Inc. rather than two Here you must create a new attribute. Method 3 Method 3 is the most versatile solution and has the following characteristics: • • • Further simplifies the compound attribute relationship from Method 2 into a simple attribute relationship Provides the ability to view item and color together or independently Requires only one attribute column in the fact table for complete flexibility. you add both attribute IDs. Also. you lose the ability to view items independent of color. You treat one attribute as a child of the other and have a compound key for the lower level attribute. which gives it a 170 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Method 2 Method 2 eliminates the many-to-many relationship and the need for a distinct relationship table. . lower in level than either Color or Item. While this method eliminates the need for a separate relationship table. or vice versa. This attribute is essentially a concatenation of Color and Item. Here the many-to-many relationship is converted into a compound attribute relationship.

This is the SKU attribute. like facts. Such attributes are called joint children. Joint child relationships Some attributes exist at the intersection of other indirectly related attributes. they exist at the intersection of multiple attribute levels. SKU. This method is actually quite similar to Method 1. Joint child relationships connect special attributes that are sometimes called cross-dimensional attributes. They do not fit neatly into the modeling schemes you have learned about thus far. you only need to include this new child attribute SKU. Finally. Consequently. as shown in the following diagram. © 2007 MicroStrategy. or qualities. These relationships can be modeled and conceptualized like traditional attributes but.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 one-to-many relationship between itself and each of its parent attributes. particularly common in retail data models or situations. Inc. text facts. rather than including Color and Item in the fact table. you can use this single value in the fact table. as well as possibly adding complexity to the ETL process. Attribute relationships 171 . The major disadvantage of Method 3 lies in creating the new attribute if your business model does not already use a similar structure. which extends the relationship of each item/color combination into a single value. The major difference is that the distinct relationship table from Method 1 has an additional column.

In this case. these are likely candidates for joint child relationships. Item. A business might run this promotion around Valentine's Day and again at Christmas time. Therefore. An example of a promotion might be a “Red Sale” where all red items are on sale. Promotion has a many-to-many relationship to both Item and Quarter.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Many source systems refer to these special attributes as flags. Joint child relationships are really another type of many-to-many relationship where one attribute has a many-to-many relationship to two otherwise unrelated attributes. if flags are referenced in your source system documentation. Supporting joint child relationships One way to resolve a many-to-many relationship is to have a relationship table for the attributes involved in the many-to-many relationships. . you might create 172 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy. For example. as shown in the following diagram. consider the relationship between three attributes: Promotion. In this case. and Quarter. Inc.

one to relate Promotion and Item. you must combine the two relationship tables. these tables are not sufficient to answer the following more detailed and insightful questions: • • What items were in what promotions in a given quarter? In what quarters was a certain item involved in a certain type of promotion? To answer these questions. it does not necessarily have to be in its own. These two tables are sufficient to answer questions such as: • • What items have been in what promotions? What quarters have had what promotions? However. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Alternatively. distinct relationship table. Promotion—would be fine.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 two relationship tables. Inc. you can build the relationship directly into the fact table. creating one table to relate all three attributes. The second relates Promotion and Quarter as shown in the following diagram. However. Defining the relationship directly in the lookup table for the parent of the joint child—in this case. Attribute relationships 173 . The relationship in the distinct relationship table must exist for a joint child relationship to be properly defined.

The Promotion attribute is related to a particular Item-Quarter pair. as opposed to it being related to Item and Quarter separately. This ensures that when you need to join the fact table to the parent attribute of a joint child relationship—for example. it is important for you to define it in MicroStrategy so that you get the correct data for reports that use the parent attribute in a joint child attribute. This is the essence of a joint child relationship and is shown in the following diagram. Notice that a joint child relationship can be one-to-many or many-to-many. to see sales by promotion—the join will always use both joint children rather than just one or the other. If you have a joint child relationship in your data. Inc. The issues with many-to-many relationships—loss of analytical capability and multiple counting—also apply to many-to-many joint child relationships. 174 Attribute relationships © 2007 MicroStrategy. . It is important to notice the relationship between the three attributes.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide In these examples.

Suppose you define two attributes that have the same data definition but play different roles in your business model. AIRPORT_ID. For example. LU_AIRPORT. How an attribute plays multiple roles depends on the specific attribute. Inc. notice that the attributes Origin Airport and Destination Airport are defined using the same lookup table. Although it makes sense to see JFK as either an origin or destination airport on a report. You need to support the logical concepts of an origin airport and a destination airport. Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles 175 . it is understood that destination airport data differs from origin airport data. and column. © 2007 MicroStrategy. in the following image. When multiple attributes are defined using the same lookup table and column. the attributes are essentially playing different attribute roles. Creating two separate lookup tables would create redundancy. and thus take up more storage space and be harder to maintain.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles Attribute roles allow you to use the same data to define and support two separate attributes. but you do not want to create two separate lookup tables with identical data.

such as description. and so on. you must create an attribute in the logical model for each of the roles. a separate column exists for each of their roles. an empty result set is returned. as explained in Specifying attribute roles. the fact columns are ORIGIN_AIRPORT_ID and DESTINATION_AIRPORT_ID. Inc. . State is another example of an attribute that can have two roles since it relates to both the Vendor and Store attributes. page 177. If you identify that one of your attributes needs to play multiple roles. as shown below. This occurs because the SQL statement tries to obtain the description of an airport that is both MIA and LGA at the same time (Airport_ID = "MIA" AND Airport_ID = "LGA"). In one case. or various aspects about them. however. it refers to the 176 Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles © 2007 MicroStrategy. This ensures that a report with attributes playing multiple roles returns correct data. location. In the fact table.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide The Origin Airport and Destination Airport attributes share the same attribute forms. If a report designer places both the Origin Airport and Destination Airport attributes on a report to obtain the number of flights that originated from MIA and arrived at LGA. In the following diagram.

generating the empty result set. it refers to the location of a store.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 location of a vendor. as shown in the above diagram. Inc. Specifying attribute roles To see both roles on the same report. roles are most often implemented as a single table. That is. they must have different attribute names. For example. Automatic recognition is enabled by the VLDB © 2007 MicroStrategy. The SQL statement tries to obtain the description of a state that is both Arkansas and New York simultaneously. a query involving both Vendor State and Store State needs to use the State table twice in the same query. In the data warehouse. a report is created to display vendors from Arkansas who sold to New York stores. you must treat them as different attributes. The results may be blank if the data warehouse structure was set up incorrectly. In an OLTP system. To create unique attributes. In the other. where you create multiple attributes that have the same lookup table and allow MicroStrategy to automatically detect the multiple roles. you have the following options: • Automatic attribute role recognition. Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles 177 . The State attribute is therefore said to be playing two roles.

as Ship Month and Order Month. For example. Month is the attribute that has multiple roles. the two State attributes do not have a common child attribute. in the State example provided above. you can have a maximum of 99 attributes defined on the same column of the same lookup table. In a MicroStrategy project in which automatic attribute role recognition is enabled (meaning that the database instance-level VLDB property. . Engine Attribute Role Options. You can use either automatic attribute role recognition or explicit table aliasing to create the attribute roles. Inc. 178 Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles © 2007 MicroStrategy. it may be the better alternative. MicroStrategy recommends that you take advantage of automatic role recognition if you do not know the details of the modeling logic or the database. the attribute has multiple roles. For more information. meaning that a child attribute is shared. it is easier to use automatic attribute role recognition.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide property Engine Attribute Role Options at the database instance level. where you create multiple logical tables pointing to the same physical table and define those two logical tables as the lookup tables for the two attributes. In summary. and are unable to update the project schema or restart Intelligence Server. If you are new to MicroStrategy. refer to the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. you encounter an error. In this example. • Explicit table aliasing. If you create more than this number of attributes. is enabled). Remember this rule to help you identify attribute roles: If you want to see the same attribute multiple times on one report. an attribute must be created in the logical model for each of the roles. however. for example. Automatic recognition does not work if the attributes are in the same hierarchy. If you are upgrading or have a very complex schema. if you identify that any one of your attributes needs to play multiple roles. Table aliasing provides advanced users with more control.

Since the state in which a vendor resides and the state in which one of the stores is located are two different things. Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles 179 . “Show me total sales by Store State for all my vendors in Arkansas (Store State ID = 15). Store State and Vendor State. which in most cases simply represents a column or columns in a lookup table. You can set up two attributes. the logical model must reflect that. using different attribute names for the same expression. both of which use the same lookup table. LU_State. Consider the following sample desired report: Vendor_State_ID=15 (Arkansas) Metrics Vendor State Vendor Store Store State Dollar Sales In this case. the request is. Inc. The resulting SQL code contains a self-join with the LU_State table. The logical model would look like the following: Note that both roles for the State attribute are included in the logical model so that “State” can be considered from two different perspectives. Automatic recognition allows these two attributes. Automatic role recognition works only when the attributes use exactly the same expression.” The same lookup table. to access the same lookup table. can be used for both © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Using automatic attribute role recognition In the data warehouse. a query involving both Vendor State and Store State needs to use the State table twice in the same query to get correct results. Vendor State and Store State.

it can represent the Vendor State or the Store State. both roles for the State attribute are included in the logical model so that State can be considered from two different perspectives. See the MicroStrategy Desktop online help or the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide for steps to set this VLDB property. In this case. The two attributes refer to the same columns of that table. The logical model would look like the following. To use automatic attribute role recognition. Store State and Vendor State.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide attributes. An attribute such as State can play more than one role in the data warehouse. if attribute roles are used. found in the database instance-level VLDB Properties under Query Optimization. When you use explicit table aliasing to designate attributes that have multiple roles. . just as it would if you used automatic recognition: 180 Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles © 2007 MicroStrategy. so advanced users are encouraged to take advantage of this solution. you must select the Engine Attribute Role Options. the State attribute is said to play two roles: it refers to both the location of a vendor as well as the location of a store. Explicitly aliasing tables to specify attribute roles Explicit table aliasing provides more robust functionality than automatic recognition. Inc.

State_Desc as State_Desc SELECT a13. but point them each to the same physical table. Consider the following sample desired report that should provide data about the total sales by Store State for all vendors in Arkansas (Store State ID = 15): Vendor_State_ID=15 (Arkansas) Metrics Vendor State Vendor Store Store State Dollar Sales When explicit table aliasing is used. you create separate lookup tables in the schema. LU_State.State_Desc as State_Desc FROM LU_State a12 LU_State a13 © 2007 MicroStrategy. the two lookup tables LU_State_Store and LU_State_Vendor are used. Since they are just different names for the same physical table. one table (LU_State_Store) contains the attribute Store State while the other (LU_State_Vendor) contains Vendor State. Inc. If you use explicit table aliasing for the Store attribute. the report accesses the same physical table. as shown by this sample SQL: SELECT a12. for both state names.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 The difference between automatic recognition and explicit table aliasing is that when you use explicit table aliasing. as shown in the following diagram. Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles 181 .

For information about logical tables.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide You create table aliases in the Schema Objects/Tables folder in MicroStrategy Desktop. allowing you to rename a copy of the same table. select Rename. the selected table is copied. and rename the table as LU_State_Store. select Rename. An LU_State(1) table is created. To create attribute roles with explicit table aliasing This procedure provides steps to re-create the example of explicit table aliasing described in this section. and rename the table as LU_State_Vendor. refer to Appendix C. and then select the Tables folder. 6 Right-click LU_State(1). 3 Right-click the LU_State table and select Create Table Alias. 5 Right-click the LU_State table and select Create Table Alias. An LU_State(1) table is created. Logical Tables. Table aliases are one kind of logical table. Create the attributes 7 Select the Attributes folder. 182 Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles © 2007 MicroStrategy. 4 Right-click LU_State(1). You can use the same high-level procedure and concepts as guidelines to create attribute roles in your project setup. When you are ready to create new attributes—as in the example discussed above—you can map the appropriate table to each attribute. 2 Navigate to the Schema Objects folder. you would select the LU_State_Store table for the Store State attribute and LU_State_Vendor for Vendor State. 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. In the case above. . log in to the project source that contains the MicroStrategy Tutorial project and then log into MicroStrategy Tutorial. When you create a table alias. Inc.

double-click STATE_ID. You must make sure to map any State Store attribute forms to columns from the LU_State_Store table. The Attribute Editor opens. 16 Create a Vendor State attribute with the same sub-procedure (Create the attributes. page 182) used to create State Store above. 11 Select Manual mapping and click OK. select LU_State_Store. Do NOT select the LU_State_Vendor table as a source table. otherwise the attributes cannot have separate roles. The Create New Form Expression dialog box opens. 15 Save the State Store attribute once you are finished mapping attribute forms to columns of the LU_State_Store table.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 8 From the File menu. This implies that more than one ID column is needed to uniquely identify the elements of that attribute. Attributes with more than one ID column: Compound attributes 183 . select the LU_State_Store table. 14 Click New to map any other columns to attribute forms for the State Store attribute. 9 From the Source table drop-down list. Inc. and then Attribute. Generally. select New. except you must use the LU_State_Vendor table instead of the LU_State_Store table. 10 In the Available columns pane. you build a compound © 2007 MicroStrategy. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. 12 In the Source tables pane. Attributes with more than one ID column: Compound attributes A compound attribute is an attribute with more than one column specified as the ID column. 13 Click OK.

ID and Description. However. Distribution Center. select the source table columns for Country ID and Distribution Center ID. one must know two details about the distribution center: the ID of the distribution center and the country in which it exists. They should also use the same lookup table. In the relational database. To uniquely identify a distribution center. and children’s. The item shirt has an Item_ID of 1. but in the same country. each distribution center has a unique identification number. It is an attribute that requires that two different columns are specified as the ID column. This data is represented by the Dist_Ctr_ID and Country_ID columns respectively. to uniquely identify a man’s shirt. You can create a compound attribute. Therefore. . For example. The values in the Item_ID column do not uniquely identify an item. When defining the ID form. Class is the parent of Item and has a one-to-many relationship with it. a compound key is a primary key that consists of more than one database column. regardless of country. with two attribute forms. For information about form groups. there are different shirts. both the Country_ID and Dist_Ctr_ID columns must be mapped to the Distribution Center attribute to ensure that data about distribution centers is displayed correctly and completely on a report. see Collections of attribute forms: Form groups. The same Distribution Center identification numbers can exist for different distribution centers.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide attribute when your logical data model reflects that a compound key relationship is present. a retail project has two attributes. page 186. Example: Creating compound attributes Distribution Center is an example of a compound attribute in the MicroStrategy Tutorial. Therefore. 184 Attributes with more than one ID column: Compound attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. depending on the class—men’s. All of the ID forms of the compound attribute should be grouped together using form groups. creating a compound attribute. This creates a unique identifier for each distribution center. Class and Item. Item_ID and Class_ID must be grouped together. women’s.

For a general procedure to create compound attributes. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. 8 Keep all other defaults. 6 Select Automatic mapping and click OK. type Country ID. select New. This is the table in which the two ID columns of Distribution Center reside. click New to create the other attribute ID form. © 2007 MicroStrategy. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. 9 In the Attribute Editor. To create the Distribution Center compound attribute 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. log in to the project source that contains the MicroStrategy Tutorial project and then log into MicroStrategy Tutorial. in the Name field. 3 From the File menu. 10 Double-click the DIST_CTR_ID column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. 7 In the Form general information area. and then Attribute.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Follow the procedure below to create the Distribution Center compound attribute. 2 Navigate to the My Personal Objects folder. and open the My Objects folder. and click OK. Inc. 4 From the Source table drop-down list. Attributes with more than one ID column: Compound attributes 185 . 5 Double-click the COUNTRY_ID column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right. The Attribute Editor opens. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. This attribute form maps to the distribution center ID column necessary to complete the definition of the Distribution Center attribute. with the Create New Form Expression dialog box displayed on top of it. 11 Select Automatic mapping and click OK. select the LU_DIST_CTR table.

The Attribute Editor opens. page 186. You must designate this attribute form as an ID column so that it can be combined with the Country_ID form to create one unique identifier ID for the Distribution Center attribute. 13 In the Form category section. For basic information and examples about form groups. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. . Collections of attribute forms: Form groups A form group is a grouping of attribute forms that are related in a way that justifies combining the forms into a single form. You can also use form groups to link similar forms together so that they are displayed together on a report. 16 Because this is only an example. Create a form group 14 A dialog box notifies you that another form (in this case. refer to Collections of attribute forms: Form groups. Click Yes. type Distribution Center ID Number. Click OK. type Distribution Center and click OK. In general. This is necessary when creating compound attributes. with the form group you created in the Attribute forms pane. which are attributes with more than one column specified as the ID column. in the Name field. COUNTRY_ID) is already using the ID form category and that you must create a form group to combine the two ID columns. which identifies that an attribute form requires more than one ID column to uniquely identify its elements. select ID from the Category drop-down list. close the Distribution Center attribute without saving your changes.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide 12 In the Form general information area. You must create a form group to create a compound key. 15 In the Name field. you create form groups to create compound attributes. 186 Collections of attribute forms: Form groups © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc.

For an example of creating a form group (form group creation is a subtask of the complete procedure). a compound attribute is created by using a form group to group together two forms to create the attribute’s ID. In the MicroStrategy Tutorial.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 Supporting compound attributes Compound attributes are required when an attribute requires two or more columns to uniquely identify its elements. To uniquely identify a distribution center. choose the same form category for both forms—you are then prompted to name your new form group. France which has a Dist_Ctr_ID=1 as well. see the procedure To create the Distribution Center compound attribute. you can design a uniquely defined form that groups two or more forms under an attribute. In the Attribute Editor. page 185. This is because all countries identify distribution centers with numbers starting at 1. Collections of attribute forms: Form groups 187 . England which has Dist_Ctr_ID=1. © 2007 MicroStrategy. you have a distribution center in London. To uniquely identify the two distribution centers you must include the Country_ID as part of the attribute ID. the Distribution Center attribute is identified using a form group that combines these two forms. Therefore. By grouping forms. For example. Inc. the included forms are joined together and act as one form. and you also have a distribution center in Paris. When you create a form group. When you create a form group. Distribution Center is an example of a compound attribute. one needs information from both the Country_ID and Dist_Ctr_ID tables.

. log in to the project source that contains the MicroStrategy Tutorial project and then log into MicroStrategy Tutorial. the user can simply display the Name form and the report then includes both the customers’ first and last names. the form group in the diagram below joins the forms Last_Name and First_Name to create the form group Name for the attribute Customer: By grouping these two forms. To group attribute forms as a form group 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. as described in the procedure below. You can also group two or more attribute forms as a form group after creating all of the attribute forms. Inc. 188 Collections of attribute forms: Form groups © 2007 MicroStrategy. You can group two or more attribute forms together while creating the attribute forms as described in To create the Distribution Center compound attribute. page 185. For example.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide Displaying and organizing related forms Form groups are also used to conveniently organize common attribute forms that can be paired on a report.

4 Select New. in the Category used drop-down list. 10 Select the Item Name 2 and Foreign Name attribute forms. type Item Name2. Inc. Each © 2007 MicroStrategy. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. 9 Click OK. Using attributes to browse and report on data Once attributes are built. Since this is only an example of how to create a form group. do not save the changes to the Item attribute. A form group which includes an item’s name and foreign name is created for the Item attribute. The Create New Form Expression dialog box opens. The Attribute Editor opens. The Attribute Editor opens. 11 In the Name field. 6 Select Automatic mapping and click OK. 3 Double-click the Item attribute. and then the Item folder. Using attributes to browse and report on data 189 . The Attribute Editor opens. 7 In the Form general information area. 8 In the Form category area.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 2 Navigate to the Schema Objects folder. type Item and Foreign Name and click OK. select None. and users place an attribute on a report to display details about the particular attribute and how it relates to fact data. in the Name field. and then right-click the selected attribute forms and select Group. open the Attributes folder. The Create New Attribute Form dialog box opens. Users browse through attributes to locate an attribute to use on a report. they are used in two primary ways—browsing and reporting. 5 Double-click the ITEM_NAME column to add it to the Form expression pane on the right.

the display could be a number such as four. www. the display could be a name. When creating attributes. Therefore. that is. then you might choose to display the Long Description form. For example. An attribute’s report display forms determine which attribute forms are displayed by default when the report is executed. In Grid view. instead of the URL attribute form. browse forms identify attribute elements. If ID is selected as the attribute form. You can do this on a report-by-report basis. You can also select which attribute forms are retrieved with the report results but not displayed on the grid. For example you can include a cities URL attribute form as a browse attribute form so that your users can choose to display the form on a report. Report display forms are the attribute forms that appear as columns in a completed report. default for each attribute. You can modify the attribute forms displayed by: • Right-clicking an attribute on a report or template and selecting the desired attribute forms 190 Using attributes to browse and report on data © 2007 MicroStrategy. The only exception is if you create multiple attribute forms. You must choose a default attribute display for browsing and another for reporting.com. By selecting different forms for the attribute. This separation allows for greater attribute display flexibility depending on the application.chicago. but you still must specify the global. such as Northwest. all forms are included as report display forms and browse forms by default. If a report lists the cities in which you have stores. you can add the attribute forms in Report Objects to the report without re-executing the report. These browse forms are found in the Report Objects pane. the first form you create is not included as a report display or browse form.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide attribute can be displayed in a variety of forms so you must specify the default display of each of the attributes in the project. If Description is selected as the attribute form. you select a different set of values for display. such as Chicago. or project-wide. Browse forms are the attribute forms that appear as a user browses through the element list of an attribute in the Data Explorer in a project. Inc. . a report includes Region as an attribute.

For a general procedure to set how attribute forms are displayed by default.” You can use the Attribute Editor to determine how the attribute forms are displayed on a report. Country_ID and Dist_Ctr_ID. You can also determine which attribute forms are displayed when browsing a project with the Data Explorer.Project Design Guide The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes 6 • From the Data menu. selecting Attribute Display to open the Attribute Display dialog box For steps to display attribute forms on a report or template. For example. the Dist_Ctr_ID form shows the identification numbers of specific distribution centers in the data warehouse. however. Follow the example procedure below to set one of the Distribution Center attribute’s forms to be displayed in reports and while browsing the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. Using attributes to browse and report on data 191 . the distribution center names. or both are displayed. see the online help and the section below. you can specify whether the identification number of each distribution center. displays the actual name of the Distribution Center such as “San Diego. © 2007 MicroStrategy. The Description form of Distribution Center. Inc. In the case of the Distribution Center attribute. Setting how attribute forms are displayed by default You can generally display attribute forms in a number of ways. the Distribution Center attribute in the MicroStrategy Tutorial consists of an ID form group and a Description form. Displayed on a report. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. The ID form group is made up of two separate ID columns.

Inc. The Data Explorer makes hierarchies available for users to facilitate placing objects on reports. To set the ID 2 form so it is displayed in the Data Explorer when a user browses the Distribution Center attribute: Select ID 2 from the Available forms pane and click the bottom > button to add the form to the Browse forms pane on the right. close the Attribute Editor without saving your changes. See the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide for details. You can also determine how attributes are displayed while users are editing and viewing reports. • 192 Using attributes to browse and report on data © 2007 MicroStrategy. 2 Double-click the Distribution Center attribute. 3 Click the Display tab. The Data Explorer is discussed in Enabling hierarchy browsing in reports: Data Explorer. in the Report display forms pane. the actual names of the distribution centers are displayed. This means that.6 The Context of Your Business Data: Attributes Project Design Guide To display an attribute form in reports and in the Data Explorer 1 In the MicroStrategy Tutorial. The ID 2 form in the Available forms pane represents the distribution centers’ identification numbers. On the right. navigate to the Schema Objects folder. and then the Geography folder. 5 Because this is only an example. 4 You can set the ID 2 form to be displayed in the following ways: • To set the ID 2 form as a form that is displayed on a report by default: Select ID 2 from the Available forms pane and click the top > button to add the form to the Report display forms pane on the right. The Attribute Editor opens. when the Distribution Center attribute is used on a report. the description form of the Distribution Center is set as the only display form. . page 209. open the Attributes folder.

you can include a Time hierarchy in your model that consists of Day. This chapter discusses hierarchies as they exist in the MicroStrategy environment and provides information on the two different types of hierarchies in MicroStrategy. and Year attributes. to reflect the relationships that exist between the attributes in a project. In Chapter 2. you learned how to use hierarchies to group related attributes in practical business areas. 193 . The Logical Data Model. Week.7 7. either ordered or unordered. Inc. The system hierarchy is automatically created when you create a project and is maintained by the © 2007 MicroStrategy. Month. For example. CREATING HIERARCHIES TO ORGANIZE AND BROWSE ATTRIBUTES Introduction Hierarchies are groupings of attributes that can be displayed. These types of hierarchies include the system hierarchy and the user hierarchy.

page 196. Follow the procedure below to learn how to create a user hierarchy. Creating user hierarchies In MicroStrategy Desktop. For information on user hierarchies and system hierarchies. Inc. This chapter explores how to create and configure user hierarchies in MicroStrategy and provides additional information about hierarchy functionality in MicroStrategy Desktop. 194 Creating user hierarchies © 2007 MicroStrategy. you create user hierarchies using the Hierarchy Editor. see Types of hierarchies. The user hierarchy is a hierarchy which you create specifically for your report designers.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide relationships that exist among the project’s schema objects. .

Click OK to close the Select Attributes dialog box. The attributes you selected appear in the Hierarchy Viewer. 5 In the Select Attributes dialog box. navigate to and open the Schema Objects folder. page 209. Once you save and re-open the hierarchy. The arrows that connect certain attributes denote the presence of a relationship between the connected attributes. followed immediately by the Select Objects dialog box. These details include whether or not the attribute is locked.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 To create a new user hierarchy 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. To do so. assign the appropriate parent or child relationship to the attributes. Creating user hierarchies 195 . an entry point. page 161. log into the project source that contains your project and open the project. arrows appear between related attributes. you must edit the attribute(s) in the Attribute Editor. Drill hierarchies are discussed in Drilling using hierarchies. in the Available objects window. 7 Click Save and Close. or filtered. Inc. 3 Open the Hierarchies folder. and then Hierarchy. Type a name for the hierarchy. If the Use as a drill hierarchy check box at the bottom of the Hierarchy Editor is selected. select New. 4 From the File menu. from the View menu. a dialog box opens notifying you that the hierarchy you are about to save is drillable in reports. If arrows do not appear between attributes you know are related. you can view the details of each attribute in the hierarchy. and update the schema. The Hierarchy Editor opens. This procedure is covered in Viewing and editing the parents and children of attributes. 2 In the Folder List. select Show Details. 6 In the Hierarchy Editor. © 2007 MicroStrategy. and then the Data Explorer folder. select the attributes to use in the hierarchy and click the arrow to add them to the Selected objects window.

you must place it in the Data Explorer sub-folder within the Hierarchies folder.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide 8 In the Save As dialog box. Types of hierarchies The two types of hierarchies that exist in MicroStrategy include: • System hierarchy: The system hierarchy is created according to the relationships defined between the attributes in your project. This type of hierarchy is created to provide flexibility in element browsing and report drilling. . it is automatically created in Desktop when you create a project. you can easily change the design of a user hierarchy to include additional attributes or limit user access to certain attributes. User hierarchy: User hierarchies are named sets of attributes and their relationships to each other. • 196 Types of hierarchies © 2007 MicroStrategy. They are user-defined and do not need to follow the logical data model. The ordering and grouping of attributes. navigate to the location in which you want to save the hierarchy. page 194. to make the user hierarchy available for element browsing in the Data Explorer. it does not define ordering or grouping among attributes. Although the system hierarchy specifies an ordered set of all attributes in the project. is defined in user hierarchies. 9 Update the project schema by selecting Update Schema from the Schema menu. Steps to create user hierarchies are discussed in Creating user hierarchies. Inc. However. You do not need to create the system hierarchy. among other configurations. arranged in specific ways that make sense to a business organization. As the structure of your business intelligence evolves. You can save user hierarchies in any folder.

and components of consolidations. It contains all of the attributes in the project and is actually part of the schema definition. When you first create a project. and Day attributes. Any attributes that are not assigned to a user hierarchy remain available to the system as report objects. For example. the only hierarchy it contains is the system hierarchy. When you browse the attributes in the Data Explorer. The system hierarchy holds information on the relationships between attributes in the project. You create user hierarchies to define the browse and drill relationships between attributes. © 2007 MicroStrategy. These report objects are discussed in detail in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. page 211. Types of hierarchies 197 . The Hierarchy Viewer is discussed in detail in Using the Hierarchy Viewer. you can create a Time hierarchy that contains the Year. Month. filter conditions. User hierarchies: Logical business relationships User hierarchies are sets of attributes and their relationships. Inc. Quarter. arranged in specific sequences for a logical business organization. you can double-click Year to get to Quarter and double-click Quarter to get to Month. You can view the system hierarchy in the Data Explorer or in the Hierarchy Viewer. Attributes from the system hierarchy do not need to be part of an explicitly-defined user hierarchy.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 System hierarchy: Project schema definition The system hierarchy is the default hierarchy that MicroStrategy sets up for you each time you create a project. You can access the Hierarchy Viewer from Graphical View in the Schema menu. but not the Hierarchy Editor. and so on. The system hierarchy is useful in determining relationships between all objects in the project. The system hierarchy cannot be edited but is updated every time you add or remove attribute children or parents in the Attribute Editor. or when you define attribute children in the Project Creation Assistant.

up to Year. This allows users to more easily locate attributes in a project and navigate from one attribute to another. you can place related attributes into hierarchies by their level.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide Whereas browsing occurs through the Data Explorer. and Store are organized according to their relationships to each other. Hierarchy organization The best design for a user hierarchy is to organize or group attributes into logical business areas. You can create user hierarchies in the Hierarchy Editor using one or more attributes from the system hierarchy. For example. Within the Location hierarchy. City. The Customer hierarchy also groups together the attributes Company. State. he or she can drill down to Month. and you can create any number of user hierarchies for each project. or across to an attribute within another hierarchy. . Inc. A user hierarchy is the only type of hierarchy you can define. if the user drills on the Quarter attribute in a report. You should define user hierarchies that correspond to specific areas of your company business model and data warehouse schema. 198 Hierarchy organization © 2007 MicroStrategy. For example. in drilling the user actually chooses to move to higher or lower levels on a report or move across to levels within different hierarchies. Contact. The example below demonstrates the Location and Customer hierarchies. and Customer.

Hierarchy structure While both a system hierarchy and user hierarchy allow you to navigate attributes in your project. The rest of this chapter discusses user hierarchies and how to create and configure them in your project. you are developing a working design of the display and browse functions of the attributes. and Store on a report. One hierarchy demonstrates Region having multiple States and the States having multiple Stores. then the only options for drilling or browsing are the Region and Store levels. However. © 2007 MicroStrategy. When you group attributes together into user hierarchies.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 When creating user hierarchies. In the example below. only the user hierarchy allows you to logically define and order groups of attributes. This hierarchy allows you to create drilling and browsing options to the lower levels to view Region. Inc. there are two instances of the Region hierarchy. if you only include Store in the Region hierarchy. keep in mind that hierarchies do not have to be separate from one another or necessarily follow the dimensional structure of your logical data model. Hierarchy organization 199 . State. as in the second example.

the connections between the attributes represent the parent-child relationships. unlocked. or limited (see Controlling the display of attribute elements. Attribute Filters: Specifies whether the data retrieved and displayed should be complete or filtered by any specific criteria. Inc. Browse Attributes: Shows the attributes to which users can browse from a given attribute. The Hierarchy Viewer is discussed in further detail in Using the Hierarchy Viewer. In the system hierarchy.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide Viewing hierarchies: Hierarchy Viewer The Hierarchy Viewer graphically represents user hierarchies and the system hierarchy. Only data satisfying the filter criteria is displayed (see Filtering attributes in a hierarchy. page 203). In user hierarchies. page 205). A filter on a hierarchy acts like a filter in a report. Configuring hierarchy display options Each attribute in a user hierarchy has properties that affect how that attribute is displayed and accessed in a hierarchy. its decreased scale allows you to navigate through the entire project. The element display may be locked. page 206). The Aerial perspective provides an overview of hierarchies. page 201). page 211. Represented by lines that connect one attribute to others (see Hierarchy browsing. as shown in the following procedures: • Element Display: Determines the elements a user can see. The Hierarchy Viewer is accessed from the Graphical View option in the Schema menu. You can use the Hierarchy Editor to configure each of these properties. • • • 200 Configuring hierarchy display options © 2007 MicroStrategy. . Entry Point/Not an Entry Point: Specifies whether the user can begin browsing in this hierarchy using this attribute (see Entry point. the connections show the browse paths between the attributes.

Configuring hierarchy display options 201 . When you set the element display to locked. the attribute Order is locked in the Data Explorer sample shown below. By restricting the view of attribute elements and lower level attributes in the Data Explorer. Controlling the display of attribute elements Locked/Unlocked attribute elements Locking a hierarchy prevents a user from viewing all elements of the specific attribute and any lower level attributes in the hierarchy. The Order attribute may be locked in order to prevent unauthorized users from accessing sensitive information about customer orders. While the user can view the attribute elements of Customer Region and Customer City.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 The following sections explain these properties and how to use the Hierarchy Editor to configure each. For example. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Anything higher in the hierarchy is still visible. he or she cannot view information about each customer’s order. You can lock the hierarchy to restrict the user from viewing elements and lower level attributes for security reasons or to better manage lengthy hierarchies. Inc. A hierarchy is referred to as locked when at least one attribute within that hierarchy has the Element Display option set to Locked. you can prevent the expansion of long attribute element lists that can consume system resources. a padlock icon appears next to the attribute name.

and users can now view the elements of this attribute. The Hierarchy Editor opens. Limited attribute elements Another way to restrict users from viewing attribute elements in the Data Explorer is to limit the number of elements that appear at one time. You can also lock and unlock attributes when you edit them in the Display tab of the Attribute Editor. 4 To unlock a locked attribute. no elements for Year display in the Data Explorer when Year is expanded. 202 Configuring hierarchy display options © 2007 MicroStrategy. . select Element display. this locks and unlocks the attributes within the system hierarchy. you can set the limit to five or ten at a time. click Save and Close. and users can no longer view elements of this attribute. from the right-click menu. and then Locked. A padlock icon appears next to the locked attribute. 3 To lock an attribute. Inc. 5 In the Hierarchy Editor. This method is useful when there are extensive attribute elements in a hierarchy. retrieving a large number of elements at once can negatively impact system performance. For example. The padlock icon is removed from the attribute. and then Unlocked. 6 Update the project schema by selecting Update Schema from the Schema menu. select Element display. not any user hierarchies that contain the attributes. However.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide To lock or unlock an attribute in a hierarchy 1 Double-click the hierarchy to edit. from the right-click menu. if the attribute Year is locked in the Attribute Editor. The user can then click the arrows to see the next set of elements for that attribute. Instead of loading all attribute elements at once. Also. 2 Right-click the attribute to lock or unlock.

the Chocolate subcategory. a limit of five items has been set. shown below. and then Limit. To limit the display of attributes in a hierarchy 1 In the Hierarchy Editor. click Save and Close. The following graphic displays this view in the Data Explorer. For example. type the number of elements you want to see at one time and click OK. 2 From the right-click menu. Rather than displaying all of them at once and overwhelming the user. contains many items. Filtering attributes in a hierarchy Before reading this section.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 For example. select Element display. 5 Update the project schema by selecting Update Schema from the Schema menu. 4 In the Hierarchy Editor. 3 In the Limit dialog box. refer to the Filters chapter in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide to understand what filters are and how to create them in MicroStrategy. you can filter a hierarchy so that data for only one © 2007 MicroStrategy. right-click the attribute to limit. You can add filters to a hierarchy to control how data is retrieved and displayed. Configuring hierarchy display options 203 . With a filter you can choose exactly which attribute elements to display in a hierarchy. Inc.

you want to view only those customers who are younger than 30 years old. The filters allow the Data Explorer to display only the criteria you select.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide quarter is displayed. You cannot use a prompt-based filter to filter a hierarchy. 3 If a tip about filtering opens. create a filter on Customer Age less than 30. Only those customers younger than 30 years old are displayed. In the Hierarchy Editor. and the user is unable to see additional data in the hierarchy. When filtering attributes in a hierarchy. . perform a type of security. add the filter to the Customer attribute. For example. See the MicroStrategy Desktop online help for more details. and view the Customer hierarchy in the Data Explorer. right-click the attribute to filter and select Define Attribute Filters. MicroStrategy does not validate that the associated filter makes sense on that attribute. however. Update the project schema. Filters. Creating a limited hierarchy reduces the number of elements displayed at one time. Each attribute in the hierarchy can have multiple filters applied to it. 204 Configuring hierarchy display options © 2007 MicroStrategy. 2 In the Hierarchy Editor. Inc. or data for only a few days of one quarter. click OK. Filters increase efficiency when retrieving data because you can limit user access to parts of a hierarchy when you apply filters to attributes. Filters make data retrieval faster by only allowing specific data to be displayed. To apply a filter to an attribute in a hierarchy 1 Create a filter in MicroStrategy Desktop. limit the elements a user is allowed to see and therefore. you are limiting the elements of the data returned when you browse the Data Explorer. First. When adding filters to an attribute in a hierarchy. you need to make sure that each filter is relevant to the attribute’s information.

the attribute Week appears in the Data Explorer at the same level as Year. it appears in its normal position within the hierarchy structure. Q2. opens. Creating an entry point grants users faster access to the attribute without having to browse through multiple attributes to reach different levels in a hierarchy. you need to open several levels of attributes to reach the correct data level. you are creating a shorter route to access that attribute. When you set an attribute to be an entry point. Inc. it still appears in the hierarchy but with a padlock icon. When you create a user hierarchy. the attributes. such as 2007. If you are seeking Week 24. and 2005. and their elements appear in the Data Explorer. When you click on 2006.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 4 In the Select Filters dialog box. If an attribute is not set to be an entry point. a typical hierarchy is Time. select the filters to apply and click > to add them to the Selected objects list. Entry point An entry point is a shortcut to an attribute in the Data Explorer. When you click on Time. 6 In the Hierarchy Editor. such as Q1. which is Week. open. the hierarchy. an element for each Quarter. If you set a locked attribute as an entry point. This is especially useful when accessing frequently-used attributes. and Q4. elements for each Year. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Q3. You can see the locked attribute. To create entry points in a hierarchy 1 In the Hierarchy Editor. Configuring hierarchy display options 205 . If you set the attribute Week as an entry point. click Save and Close. For example. right-click the attribute to set as an entry point. but are unable to access elements or attributes below that level. 5 Click OK to close the Select Filters dialog box. 2006. The attribute to which you applied the filter appears in the hierarchy with a filter icon. in the Available objects list.

Hierarchy browsing Once you choose which attributes to place in a hierarchy. and Item are the attributes that comprise the user hierarchy Catalog Items. 206 Configuring hierarchy display options © 2007 MicroStrategy. Category is a parent attribute of Category and Category is the child attribute of Category. if Catalog. attributes set as entry points are denoted by a green check. Subcategory. For example. select Remove Entry Point from the right-click menu. Inc. . 3 In the Hierarchy Editor. click Save and Close. the hierarchy resembles the example below. Category. in the hierarchy below. showing the parent/child relationships between the attributes. 4 Update the project schema by selecting Update Schema from the Schema menu. To remove an entry point from an attribute.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide 2 From the right-click menu. Some of the attributes in the Hierarchy Viewer may already be set as entry points. These relationships determine how users can browse the attributes from the Hierarchies folder. select Set as entry point. For example. you can define the relationships between them.

It can simply be a collection of attributes. Item The addition of these browse attributes allows users to see the Subcategory elements directly from the Catalog attribute. When you apply browse attributes to attributes in a hierarchy. Using the example above. you can assign one or more browse attributes to it. For each attribute in a hierarchy. Browse attributes are attributes you specify a user can directly browse to from a given attribute in the user hierarchy. Configuring hierarchy display options 207 . For more information on including hierarchies in the Data Explorer. Attributes in a hierarchy can have both browsing and drilling relationships between them. see Enabling hierarchy browsing in reports: Data Explorer. page 209. Subcategory Subcategory Catalog. Including hierarchies in the Data Explorer makes the hierarchies available for reports and to users in the project. without having to first browse down through the Category © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. some of these attributes have been assigned a browse attribute. you are specifying what levels of detail are visible when browsing the Data Explorer. Specifically: Hierarchy Attribute Catalog Category Subcategory Item Browse Attribute(s) Category.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 A user hierarchy does not need to have these direct relationships defined.

the hierarchy described above resembles the example below. Users can now view the subcategories in the catalog without first having to browse through the categories. The ability to browse more directly through the hierarchy can be represented as shown below. 208 Configuring hierarchy display options © 2007 MicroStrategy.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide attributes to get to Subcategory. In the Data Explorer. Inc. .

which contains the two attributes. the user can drill down on the Year attribute to a lower level attribute such as the Month attribute. When a user selects a drilling path in a report. to make a user hierarchy available for browsing in the Data Explorer you must place it in the Data Explorer folder—a subfolder of the Hierarchies folder. However. the report refreshes to display the selected level of detail. at a project level. Depending on the level of the attributes included in the drilling specification. The Data Explorer is a tool in the Object Browser that holds the system hierarchy and the user hierarchies. and across to different levels of detail. up. the attributes to which users can drill from other attributes. Revenue data is reported at the Month level.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 Enabling hierarchy browsing in reports: Data Explorer You can make hierarchies available for browsing and including in reports by storing the hierarchies in the Data Explorer. on the new report. A new report is automatically executed. Drilling using hierarchies Drilling is a function in MicroStrategy reports that allows users to browse different levels of attributes along specified paths. which is located in the Schema Objects folder. if they need to. the system hierarchy for that project is automatically placed in the Data Explorer. drill back up from Month to Year. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Moving hierarchies to and from this folder also allows you to keep some hierarchies visible to users while hiding others. You can make user hierarchies available for drilling. When you create a new project. You can save user hierarchies in any folder. This allows a user to drill down from Year to Month and. on a report with the Year attribute and Revenue metric. This option enables you to determine. For example. reports can allow users to drill down. drilling is enabled in the Time hierarchy. In the example of the Year and Month attributes. Configuring hierarchy display options 209 . Inc.

page 206 for more details about browsing attributes. Inc. For example. Therefore. 3 In the Hierarchy Editor. 210 Configuring hierarchy display options © 2007 MicroStrategy. in the following hierarchy. . To enable drilling in a user hierarchy 1 Open the hierarchy in which to enable drilling. the default drill path is defined by the System Hierarchy. Subcategory is a browse attribute of Catalog. you must enable the user hierarchy to be used as a drill hierarchy in the Hierarchy Editor. See Hierarchy browsing. you can think of browsing paths in a user hierarchy as potential drilling paths. 2 At the bottom of the Hierarchy Editor. click Save and Close. If you enable drilling in this hierarchy. you can drill from Catalog down to Subcategory—and any other browse attributes of Catalog—on a report.7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide To enable a user hierarchy as a drill path. select the Use as a drill hierarchy check box. 4 Update the project schema by selecting Update Schema from the Schema menu. which means that you can access the elements of Subcategory without having to necessarily access the elements of Catalog in Data Explorer. If a user hierarchy is not enabled.

• When you view the system hierarchy. When you view a user hierarchy. For instance. Inc. You can use the Hierarchy Viewer to view either the system hierarchy or any of your user hierarchies. You can see all of the entry points into a hierarchy at once. For details on entry points. Using the Hierarchy Viewer and Table Viewer Through the Hierarchy Viewer. but rather the structure of the user hierarchy as defined by a project designer. It is used to view all of the tables in your project graphically. the hierarchy contributes to the drilling path of any attributes in it. to facilitate user browsing and report development. and also allows you direct access to the attributes that comprise it. When a user right-clicks on Year and selects Drill Down. MicroStrategy Architect gives you the ability to view the system hierarchy as well as all of your user hierarchies in a single place. assume Week is a browsing attribute assigned to Year. Using the Hierarchy Viewer and Table Viewer 211 . or you may select only one at a time. The Table Viewer is another tool within MicroStrategy Architect that provides you with a bird’s eye view of some of the information within your project. as defined by the system when the project was created. you do not see true attribute relationships. Using the Hierarchy Viewer The Hierarchy Viewer allows you to select the hierarchy you want to examine. © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 After a user hierarchy is enabled for drilling. the attribute Week appears in the drill-down list. • The Hierarchy Viewer gives you flexibility over how much of a given hierarchy you choose to view at once. page 205. see Entry point. Additional information on drilling is available in the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. you can see the actual relationships between attributes.

2 Select Edit. from the Schema menu. right-click the attribute to edit. select the hierarchy to view. The green squares indicate attributes that are entry points. To view a user hierarchy in the Hierarchy Viewer 1 In the Hierarchy Viewer. .7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide The Hierarchy Viewer also gives you direct access to any of the attributes in the hierarchy you choose to view. Inc. from the Hierarchy menu. To access Aerial perspective mode in the Hierarchy Viewer 1 In the Hierarchy Viewer. To edit an attribute from the Hierarchy Viewer 1 In the Hierarchy Viewer. you can define them as entry points. See Entry point. select Graphical View. See Entry point. When you access a hierarchy’s attributes directly. 212 Using the Hierarchy Viewer and Table Viewer © 2007 MicroStrategy. from the View menu. To view the system hierarchy in the Hierarchy Viewer 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. In the Hierarchy Viewer. page 205 for more details on creating entry points. 2 Select Hierarchies. An aerial view of the hierarchy you are currently viewing is displayed. page 205 for more details on creating entry points. the Aerial perspective provides an overview of the hierarchies in your project. Its decreased scale allows you to navigate through the entire project. select Aerial perspective. 2 Attributes that have a green check mark next to them are entry points.

2 In the Table Viewer. select Options. select Graphical View. Using the Hierarchy Viewer and Table Viewer 213 . They represent and indicate how Architect sees the tables that were brought into the project when it was created. See The size of tables in a project: Logical table size. from the Schema menu. To view more or less information about each table in the project 1 Open the Table Viewer. Inc. If you make changes to the actual tables in the data warehouse. The tables that are displayed here are logical tables. © 2007 MicroStrategy. To view your project’s tables in the Table Viewer 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. page 249 for information on updating logical table structures. Click a section of the aerial view display to shift your view of a hierarchy to that particular section.Project Design Guide Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes 7 2 The hierarchy in the Hierarchy Viewer shifts according to where you navigate in the aerial view. as described above. you will need to update the logical table structure. 2 Select Tables. Using the Table Viewer The Table Viewer allows you to view all of the tables in your project as well as the joins and/or relationships between those tables and the names of the individual columns in each table.

Inc. select or clear the options for any of the following. .7 Creating Hierarchies to Organize and Browse Attributes Project Design Guide 3 From the Options menu. depending on what you want to see in the Table Viewer: • • • • • Show joins Use circular joins Show relationships Show relationship types Show columns 214 Using the Hierarchy Viewer and Table Viewer © 2007 MicroStrategy.

and explains how to use these methods to enhance your project. © 2007 MicroStrategy. To see any enhancements and changes to your project schema. you must update your project schema. 215 .8 8. and using partition mapping. You can find this information in the sections listed below: • Updating your MicroStrategy project schema. This chapter introduces you to maintenance and optimization concepts such as tuning the interaction between your data warehouse and your project. page 216—As you continue to enhance the design and functionality of your project. OPTIMIZING AND MAINTAINING YOUR PROJECT Introduction Once your MicroStrategy project is set up and populated with schema objects. creating aggregate tables. you will need to make various schema changes. you are ready to start thinking about ways to better maintain the project and optimize it for both the short and long term. Inc.

your project must reflect these changes. These summary tables provide quicker access to frequently-used data. the project schema refers to an internal map that MicroStrategy uses to keep track of attribute relationships. hierarchies. and so on within the project. table sizes. page 218—As your data warehouse changes to meet new data logging requirements. Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables. . You can also tune the interaction between your data warehouse and your MicroStrategy project to bring your data into MicroStrategy in a way that meets your requirements. and so on—in your project come together to form your project’s schema. transformations. page 241—Aggregate tables store data at higher levels than the data was originally collected in the data warehouse. This can include adding new tables to your project or removing tables that are no longer used. fact levels. and minimize the amount of data that must be aggregated and sorted at run time.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide • Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog. Partitions improve query performance by minimizing the number of tables and records within a table that must be read to satisfy queries issued against the warehouse. You can do any of the following to update your project schema: 216 Updating your MicroStrategy project schema © 2007 MicroStrategy. Dividing tables to increase performance: Partition mapping. • • Updating your MicroStrategy project schema All of the schema objects—facts. attributes. Inc. Rather. reduce input/output and other resource requirements. page 250—Partition mapping involves the division of large logical tables into smaller physical tables. the project schema is not the same as the physical warehouse schema. Although the concepts are related. Whenever you make any changes to a schema object you must indicate to MicroStrategy that new schema object definitions have been included and that these definitions need to be loaded into memory.

select Update Schema. Inc. modified. Manually update the schema. Disconnect and reconnect to the project or the project source. select or clear the following check boxes: • • Update schema logical information: Use this option if you added. from the Schema menu. • 3 Click Update. • Recalculate project client object cache size: Use this option to update the object cache size for the project. 2 In the Schema Update dialog box. if in direct (2-tier) mode. Recalculate table keys and fact entry levels: Use this option if you changed the key structure of a table or if you changed the level at which a fact is stored. Recalculate table logical sizes: Use this option to use MicroStrategy Desktop’s algorithm to recalculate logical table sizes and override any modifications that you have made to logical table sizes. if in server-connected (3-tier) mode. To manually update the schema 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop. Logical table sizes are a significant part of how the MicroStrategy SQL Engine determines the tables to use in a query. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Updating your MicroStrategy project schema 217 . You can also update the schema with the last saved settings by clicking the Update Schema icon in the toolbar. or deleted a schema object.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 • • • Stop and restart MicroStrategy Intelligence Server. Manually updating the schema allows you to determine which specific elements of the schema are updated.

8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog This section discusses how the Warehouse Catalog can control the interaction between the data warehouse and the database instance for a project. You can add warehouse tables to your project with the Warehouse Catalog or MicroStrategy Project Builder. The Warehouse Catalog queries the data warehouse and lists the tables and columns that exist in it. adding tables in the project through Project Builder can become a cumbersome process. This section covers the following topics: • • • • • • • What should I know before I use the Warehouse Catalog?. . as later. From this list. This section also discusses customizing catalog SQL statements. page 221 Modifying data warehouse connection and operation defaults. the structure of the SQL catalogs. page 233 Troubleshooting table and column messages. page 226 Customizing catalog SQL statements. Every project can have a unique set of warehouse tables. page 239 218 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 219 Adding and removing tables for a project. Inc. and the default SQL statements used for each database. you can select the tables to add to your project. The Warehouse Catalog is better for maintaining the warehouse tables used for an existing project. page 220 Managing warehouse and project tables. page 219 Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. Adding tables through Project Builder is useful only when you are creating a project for the first time.

so you know how the information in your data warehouse should be brought into MicroStrategy How to create a project Accessing the Warehouse Catalog To access the Warehouse Catalog 1 On the Windows Start menu. point to Programs. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. then Desktop. Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources. you need to be familiar with: • • Your schema. and expand your project. Hyperion Essbase. © 2007 MicroStrategy. You can connect to OLAP cube sources such as SAP BW. and then select Desktop. • What should I know before I use the Warehouse Catalog? Before you begin using the Warehouse Catalog. Inc. the OLAP Cube Catalog handles tasks similar to the Warehouse Catalog. For more information.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 Note the following: • You can also add tables to a project using MicroStrategy Query Builder. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 219 . You must use a login that has Architect privileges. In this case. 2 Log in to the project source that contains your project in MicroStrategy Desktop. refer to Appendix B. For more information on Query Builder. For more information about privileges see the Permissions and Privileges appendix of the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. then to MicroStrategy. and Microsoft Analysis Services instead of a relational database.

8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide 3 Select a project and then from the Schema menu. 2 The left side of the Warehouse Catalog lists all available tables and the number of rows each table contains. and click > to add the selected tables. • 220 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. Click >> to add all the listed tables. Also. Click >> to add all the listed tables. . and click > to add the selected tables. To remove tables—From the left side. Log in to the project source that contains your project in MicroStrategy Desktop. page 219. it may become necessary to add additional tables from the data warehouse to your project. select the tables you want to add to the Warehouse Catalog. You can access the Warehouse Catalog at any time to add additional tables from your data warehouse to your project and remove tables from your project. select the tables you want to add to the Warehouse Catalog. Adding and removing tables for a project As you become aware of the additional needs of report designers and users. select Warehouse Catalog. To add or remove tables after creating a project 1 Access the Warehouse Catalog for your project as described in To access the Warehouse Catalog. The Warehouse Catalog opens after it retrieves the table information from the warehouse database. The list on the right shows all the tables already being used in the project: • To add tables—From the left side. and expand your project. you may need to remove tables from your project that are no longer used and are taking up space in the metadata. as your project matures.

see Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. Managing warehouse and project tables The Warehouse Catalog allows you to view tables that have been included in the project. Menu File • Save Saves the current settings and status of the Warehouse Catalog. but have not been included in the project.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 3 In the toolbar. You can add or remove all the tables from one section to the other by clicking << and >> buttons. you need to periodically load the updates into the Warehouse Catalog. As you make changes to the tables in the warehouse. Warehouse Catalog has the following menu options. by selecting Update Schema. Inc. This process can take some time to complete. Description • © 2007 MicroStrategy. You can remove tables from the project by double-clicking the tables or by selecting the tables and then clicking <. To access the Warehouse Catalog for a project. Tables being used in the project: Displays tables that have been selected to be part of the project. The table definitions are written to the metadata. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 221 . as well as those tables that are available in the warehouse but have not been included in the project. click Save and Close to save your changes to the Warehouse Catalog. The Warehouse Catalog has the following sections: • Tables available in the warehouse: Displays tables that are located in the warehouse. 4 Update the project schema from the Schema menu. You can update it by selecting Read the Warehouse Catalog from the Actions menu. You can add tables to the project by double-clicking the tables or by selecting the tables and then clicking >. page 219.

For more information. and so on. Viewing table structure To view the table structure of a table. Allows you to add or remove a table prefix for the selected table. Allows you to assign or update a database instance for the project. • Table Structure • Calculate Table Row Count • Table Prefix • Table Database Instances • Import Prefix • Options Actions • Read the Warehouse Catalog Help Allows you to update and reflect the changes done to tables in the warehouse. right-click any table in the Warehouse Catalog (see Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. automatic mapping. page 227 of this appendix. page 219) and choose Table Structure from the 222 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. Calculates the number of rows in the selected tables. Inc. row calculation. This option is enabled when a partition mapping table is selected. Displays the structure of a table selected in the Warehouse Catalog. . Allows you to import the prefixes from the warehouse table name space. changing or assigning default table prefixes and structures. Allows you to specify various settings for the Warehouse Catalog such as changing the database instance. Displays MicroStrategy help options Some of these options are also available through toolbar buttons and through right-click menus for quick access.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide Menu • Exit Tools • View Partitions Description Exits the Warehouse Catalog. Displays the list of tables referred to by the selected partition mapping table in the Table Partitions dialog box. see Data warehouse connection and read operations.

2 In the Tables being used in the project list. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Click Cancel to undo all data type changes. You can also click Update Structure to reflect any recent changes done to that table (see Updating table structure. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 223 . you get a warning message of this change. The Warehouse Catalog opens. Some examples of these type of changes are when you add. page 219). To update the structure of a table 1 Access the Warehouse Catalog for your project (see Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. or rename a column in a table associated with a project. The warning message appears only if you have selected the Display a warning if the columns data types are modified when updating the table structure option in the Warehouse Catalog Options dialog box. The table structure of the selected table is displayed in the dialog box. Updating table structure Whenever the structure of the warehouse table changes you have to update the table structure in the Warehouse Catalog for the changes to reflect in the MicroStrategy system. This action results in no changes being applied to any tables or columns. Inc. When the data type of one or more columns is modified. which provides the following options: • • Click OK to apply the change to this column in all the tables it appears. This option is selected by default. page 223).Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 shortcut menu. The dialog box displays the columns available in the selected table and the data type of each column. delete. You can also select Table Structure from the Tools menu. right-click the table that has changed and select Update Structure.

Verify the changes from the information dialog box that opens and click OK to apply the change in this column to all the tables in which it appears. – Click Update. select Update Schema. you receive a message warning of this change. you have to manually update the facts that use this column. the warehouse structure gets updated completely with the Update Structure command. if you rename a column in a table. this would apply if you rename a column in the table and the column is not being used in any fact expression. Edit the fact expression and click OK. For example. For example.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide If the data type of one or more columns is modified. If any of the object definitions have changed. The Fact Editor opens. • If no object definitions have changed. the table structure is only partially updated with the Update Structure command. The Modify Fact Expression dialog box opens. – Repeat the first to steps of this procedure to open the Warehouse Catalog and update the table structure. – Select the fact expression and click Modify. – From the list of source tables select the source table from which the fact has been created. – Click Save and Close to save the changes and close the Fact Editor. Then. The Schema Update dialog box opens. – From the Schema menu. You are returned to the Fact Editor. 3 Click Save and Close to close the Warehouse Catalog dialog box. you have to manually update the schema objects that depend on the outdated structure. . The procedure for manually updating the fact is as follows: – Right-click the fact and select Edit. • 224 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc.

page 219) and choose Show Sample Data from the shortcut menu. click Reload table values. This way. Viewing sample data To view sample data from a table. One of them is the primary database and the other is the secondary database. you need to define two database instances. From the perspective of MicroStrategy products in this environment. you must set the secondary database instance for any tables that are found in the secondary database. The primary database receives all SQL requests and passes them to the correct database. The first 100 rows of the table are returned as sample data in the Values dialog box. which is used to support database gateways. Inc. Specifying a secondary database to support database gateways MicroStrategy allows you to specify a secondary database instance for a table. right-click a table in the Warehouse Catalog (see Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. The default database instance for the project is set to be the primary database. MicroStrategy products know how to generate SQL for each table. In the Warehouse Catalog. one for the primary database and another for the secondary database. © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 – Click Save and Close to save the changes and close the Warehouse Catalog dialog box. To refresh the table data. For example. You can also select Show Sample Data from the Tools menu. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 225 . in your environment you might have a gateway between two databases such as an Oracle database and a DB2 database.

changing or assigning default table prefixes and structures. select Save and Close to save your changes and close the Warehouse Catalog. 2 Right-click a table being used in the project. The Available Database Instances dialog box opens. and so on. . which allows you to perform the following tasks: • • • Data warehouse connection and read operations Displaying table prefixes. The Warehouse Catalog Options dialog box opens. page 219). 5 Click OK to accept your changes and return to the Warehouse Catalog. Example settings include changing the database instance. and name spaces Mapping schema objects and calculating logical sizes for tables 226 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. You cannot select the primary database instance as a secondary database instance. page 219 for steps to access the Warehouse Catalog). select the primary database instance for the table. 4 Select one or more Secondary Database Instances. The Warehouse Catalog opens. 6 From the toolbar. (in the pane on the right side) and select Table Database Instances. row calculation. automatic mapping. Inc. 3 In the Primary Database Instance drop-down list. by choosing Options from the Tools menu (see Accessing the Warehouse Catalog.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide To specify a secondary database for a table 1 Access the Warehouse Catalog for your project (see Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. The settings are available from the Warehouse Catalog. Modifying data warehouse connection and operation defaults You can specify various settings for data warehouse connection and operation defaults using the Warehouse Catalog. row counts.

For more information on the database login. as well as change how the database catalog tables are read. Clicking Settings allows you to directly edit the catalog SQL statements that are used to retrieve the list of available tables from the Warehouse Catalog and the columns for the selected tables. The General tab of the Database Instances dialog box opens. You can make these type of modification from the Catalog category. the Settings option is disabled. Inc. When connected to a Microsoft Access data source. The default catalog SQL retrieves a DISTINCT list of tables and columns from all users.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 Data warehouse connection and read operations You can modify the database instance and database login used to connect the data warehouse to a project. by © 2007 MicroStrategy. you can select from the following: – Click Edit to modify the selected database instance. which is divided into the following subcategories: • Warehouse Connection: Select the desired database instance to use for the project as well as the custom database login. – Click New to create a new database instance. see the online help. • Read Settings: You can customize the SQL that reads the Warehouse Catalog for every platform except Microsoft Access. for example. You could restrict the information returned. If the desired database instance does not appear in the Database Instance box. The Database Instance Wizard opens. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 227 . Refer to the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide for more information on either of these dialog boxes. or if it does but needs to be modified. Custom Database Login: You can either select the database login or clear the login to use no database login. Database Instance: You can select the database instance for the Warehouse Catalog from the drop-down list.

This option is helpful when you want to identify fact tables and aggregation tables. Ignore current table name space when reading from the database catalog and update using new table name space: This option allows you to switch between warehouses found in different database name spaces. By default this option is selected when you open the Warehouse Catalog for the first time. By default this option is selected. your project includes a table named Table1 that has 228 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. it may redefine the data type for a column included in the project. This setting should be cleared when the number of PMTs in the project is so large that reading their structure is causing performance problems when opening the Warehouse Catalog. do not select this option as it will have a negative effect on performance. For more information. . see Ignoring table name spaces when migrating tables. If performance is more important than obtaining the row count. page 233). For example. By default this option is selected. By default this option is selected. page 232 of this appendix. Inc. The check for the data type change is only performed when updating a table’s structure. Automatically update information for all Partition Mapping tables when reading the database catalog: Select this option to read the latest information for the partition mapping tables (PMTs) currently present in the project. Column Merging Options: When you add a new table to your data warehouse.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide specifying certain conditions and table owners (see Customizing catalog SQL statements. Display a warning if the column data types are modified when updating the table structure: Select this option if you want to be warned when the data type for a column stored in the project is different from the one read from the data warehouse. You can also select the following check boxes: Count the number of rows for all tables when reading the database catalog: Select this option if you want to control whether or not the Warehouse Catalog should get the number of rows each table has when loading from the data warehouse.

This example is used to illustrate the options described below. Then a new table named Table2 is added to the project. Inc. a warning is displayed and you are asked if you want to use the new data type. the column data type for C1 would be changed to char(4). the column data types are modified to maintain a consistent schema in one of three ways. The options below do not handle the merge if the data type has changed to an incompatible data type. the column data type for C1 would be changed to char(4) since Table2 was added after Table1. © 2007 MicroStrategy. as illustrated in the image below. – Use most recent data type: This option updates the column data type to use the most recent column definition. If the data type has changed to an incompatible data type. but it has column C1 set to data type char(4). depending on the option you select. For example. If the data type has been changed to a different compatible data type. as defined in Table2. In the example above. In the example above. This is because char(4) has a higher precision than char(1) defined in Table1.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 column C1 of data type char(1). – Use maximum denominator data type: This option updates the column data type to use the data type with the largest precision or scale. a column is changed from data type char to data type integer. the data type with the largest precision or scale is used. When you update the table structure. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 229 .

Column C1 in Table2 is defined as a separate copy of C1 and uses the char(4) data type. You have the following options: Display table prefixes in the main dialog: Select this option to display all prefixes in table names. Manual: This option sets the Warehouse Catalog tables to be read only when the read catalog action is selected. which allows the columns to have different data types. column C1 uses the char(1) data type for Table1. Displaying table prefixes. From the example above. by using the View category. and name spaces. row counts. Inc. . or restricted to only be read when a read is manually requested: Automatic: This option sets the Warehouse Catalog tables to be read as soon as the catalog browser is loaded. • Read Mode: The Warehouse Catalog can be automatically read upon opening the Warehouse Catalog. and name spaces You can choose to show or hide table prefixes. row counts. This option can cause unwanted schema changes and should be used only when necessary. including new tables added to the project. Automatically define prefixes for all tables that are added to this project: This setting enables/disables the following options: – Set a prefix based on the warehouse table name space or owner (import prefix): When this option is selected. By default this option is selected. This category is divided into the following subcategories: • Table Prefixes: You can specify whether table prefixes are displayed in table names and how prefixes are automatically defined for tables that are added to the project.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide – Do not merge: This option renames the column in the newly added table. the Warehouse Catalog reads the 230 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy.

• Table Name Spaces: You can show or hide the name space for each table. creates a prefix having the same text as the name space. you can determine whether existing schema objects in the project are mapped to these new tables automatically. using the following options: © 2007 MicroStrategy. – Set a default prefix: Select this to add a prefix to tables when they are added to a project. Mapping schema objects and calculating logical sizes for tables The Schema category is divided into the following subcategories: • Automatic Mapping: When you add new tables to the Warehouse Catalog. – Modify prefix list: You can create a new tables prefix or delete an existing prefix by selecting this option. The Table Prefixes dialog box opens. this option is selected and the number of rows are shown. You can select the default prefix from the Default prefix box drop-down list or create a new table prefix by clicking Modify prefix list. this option is selected and table name spaces are shown. By default. using the check box: Display the name space for each table (if applicable): You can show or hide the owner or table name space where the table is located in the warehouse. • Table Row Counts: You can show or hide the number of rows per table. Inc. using the check box: Display the number of rows per table: You can show or hide the values calculated for the number of rows for the tables. This option is only active when the database supports prefixes.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 name space for each table being added. For more information on modifying the prefix list. see the online help. By default. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 231 . and associates it with the table being added.

respectively. you change the project to point to the primary warehouse. • Table Logical Sizes: You can select whether the Warehouse Catalog calculates logical sizes for new tables using one of the following options: Calculate the logical table sizes automatically: Logical sizes are automatically calculated for tables you add to the project. These automatic mapping methods are only applied to existing schema objects when tables are added to the Warehouse Catalog. . For example. Do not map schema objects to the new tables: Objects in the schema are not automatically mapped to tables you add to the project. Automatically mapping tables to schema objects when adding attributes or facts to a project is controlled by the Attribute Editor and Fact Editor. Inc. If the table was added to the Warehouse Catalog first and then the attribute was created. Ignoring table name spaces when migrating tables It is a common practice to establish a secondary warehouse with less information than the primary warehouse for development and testing. With the Map schema objects to new tables automatically option selected. the attribute Year with an attribute form mapped to YEAR_ID is included in a project. the Warehouse Catalog automatic mapping settings do not determine whether the attribute and table are automatically mapped. Then a new table which includes a YEAR_ID column is added to the Warehouse Catalog. 232 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide Map schema objects to new tables automatically: Existing objects in the schema automatically map to tables you add to the project. Do not calculate table logical sizes: Logical sizes are not calculated for the tables you add to the project. the Year attribute is automatically mapped when the new table is added. Before going into production.

you can have LU_STORE in a table name space called dbo and another table LU_STORE in another table name space called admin.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 Most database management systems (Oracle. If you select this option. and others) support the concept of a table name space. You now have two tables dbo. and their data types. select the Ignore current table name space when reading from the database catalog and update using new table name space check box. the Warehouse Catalog ignores the current table name space when it reads the catalog information. If the check box is cleared. and the table is actually stored as admin.LU_STORE. This is because the Warehouse Catalog is looking for a table named dbo.LU_STORE. columns. Customizing catalog SQL statements In all supported warehouse platforms other than Microsoft Access. This setting allows you to migrate much more easily between warehouses.LU_STORE in the new production warehouse. For instance. To solve this problem. This method allows you to repeat the same table name in different table name spaces.LU_STORE and admin. the Warehouse Catalog defaults to identifying the table by both table name space and table name. This can cause a problem when you migrate from a warehouse that resides in a certain table name space to another warehouse in a different table name space. the Warehouse Catalog saves information to the appropriate table name space.Read Settings options subcategory. Thus. When you add tables to a project. The table name space provides an extra piece of information that uniquely identifies the table. 233 © 2007 MicroStrategy. This information includes catalog tables. The Warehouse Catalog interprets the table as already in the project and not found in the new warehouse. You can find this option in the Warehouse Catalog Options dialog box under the Catalog . MicroStrategy uses SQL statements to query the relational database management system (RDBMS) catalog tables to obtain warehouse catalog information. DB2. Inc. which is a way of organizing database tables into different storage spaces. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog . the Warehouse Catalog recognizes the two tables as the same table and saves the new table name space information.

This option is recommended only if the catalog SQL is well customized to limit the amount of data returned by it. that is. which increases processing speed. but both can be customized in the Warehouse Catalog Options dialog box. The MicroStrategy Warehouse Catalog can be configured to read the catalog information in one. reads all the tables and columns in one SQL statement. The two retrieval options use different catalog SQL. By default. on the other hand. This is the recommended option for interactive warehouse catalog building because no unnecessary catalog information is read from the database.or two-pass SQL mode. the first SQL used in a two-pass catalog retrieval. . One-pass SQL mode. so an ODBC call must be used to retrieve information about tables and columns in Access. the name Catalog Table SQL refers to the catalog SQL to retrieve the tables in the warehouse. Microsoft Access does not have catalog tables. In two-pass SQL mode.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide These catalog SQL statements vary from platform to platform and can be customized according to the characteristics of the specific warehouse. it first reads only the tables from the database. a similar ODBC call is used for the Generic DBMS database type. The structure of individual tables is read only when the table is selected. Inc. but you can choose to use custom catalog SQL for the generic type if you wish. The name Full Catalog SQL refers to the SQL used to read all the tables and columns in one pass. In the following sections. 234 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy.

These placeholders are: • #LOGIN_NAME#—This placeholder is automatically replaced at run time with the login name used to connect to the database. A table name space is a partition of the database installation in which table names are unique. this name space can be the name of the database. A customized catalog SQL can omit the name space if duplicate table names do not present a problem in the warehouse database. you must understand several important concepts and procedures: • • • • • • The table name space. page 236 Modifying catalog SQL.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 To customize a catalog SQL. page 237 Default catalog SQL. In both the Catalog Table SQL and Full Catalog SQL. page 235 Structure of Catalog Table SQL. The table name space is optional. page 235 SQL placeholder strings and incomplete catalog SQL. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 235 . You can leave this template in the customized SQL if you want the catalog SQL to yield © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 238 The table name space In a typical RDBMS platform. This helps you to avoid confusing tables that share the same table name. Inc. a name space gives each table a unique name. Depending on the type of RDBMS. SQL placeholder strings and incomplete catalog SQL The default system catalog SQL can contain certain placeholder strings that can be resolved at run time or must be completed manually by the user. page 236 Structure of Full Catalog SQL. or a combination of both database and owner. the owner of the table. a table name does not uniquely identify it in a particular database installation.

this template is replaced with the name of the database user who owns the warehouse tables of interest. • #?Database_Name?#. depending on the RDBMS platform and the customization. Duplicates are not allowed. TABLE_NAME TAB_NAME FROM ALL_TAB_COLUMNS WHERE OWNER = '#LOGIN_NAME#' Structure of Full Catalog SQL Full Catalog SQL is expected to return between five and seven columns. one identifying the name space of the table and the other the name of the table. If a name space is not provided. Structure of Catalog Table SQL Catalog Table SQL is expected to return two columns. used with DB2 AS/400. The string starts with #? and ends with ?#. must be replaced with the name of the database containing the database tables. Otherwise. Inc. must be replaced with the name of the schema in which the database tables reside. . The column that identifies the table name space uses the SQL column alias NAME_SPACE. #?Schema_Name?#—This catalog SQL placeholder is an incomplete SQL string that must be completed by the user before it can be executed. The following aliases identify each column returned: • • NAME_SPACE (optional): the table name space TAB_NAME (required): name of the table 236 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. The command #?Database_Name?#. Each row of the SQL result must uniquely identify a table. The column that identifies the table name has the alias TAB_NAME. used with Teradata.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide different results depending on the warehouse login used.0: SELECT DISTINCT OWNER NAME_SPACE. only the table name column is required. The following example is the default Catalog Table SQL for Oracle 8. #?Schema_Name?#.

Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 237 . syscolumns C.prec DATA_PREC.name COL_NAME. To modify the catalog SQL for your project 1 Access the Warehouse Catalog for your project (see Accessing the Warehouse Catalog. C. 2 Modifying catalog SQL You can customize and modify the catalog SQL that is run against your database for each project.name NAME_SPACE. 'V') AND T. sysusers WHERE T. C.type in ('U'. C. C. Inc.uid ORDER BY 1.name TAB_NAME. The catalog SQL can be modified in the Warehouse Catalog options for your project. © 2007 MicroStrategy.uid = U. The Warehouse Catalog opens.scale DATA_SCALE FROM sysobjects T.length DATA_LEN. and then by TAB_NAME. The following example is the default Full Catalog SQL for Microsoft SQL Server 7.0: SELECT U. page 219). if available. T.id = C.type DATA_TYPE. C.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 • • • • • COL_NAME (required): name of the column DATA_TYPE (required): a string or a number that identifies the major data type of the column DATA_LEN (required): a number that describes the length or size of the column data DATA_PREC (optional): a number that describes the precision of the column data DATA_SCALE (optional): a number that describes the scale of a floating point column data Full Catalog SQL must return its rows ordered first by NAME_SPACE.id and T.

The Warehouse Catalog Options dialog box opens. 4 Click the Settings button. Inc. the catalog SQL options are displayed as shown below. The Catalog . Default catalog SQL When customizing the catalog SQL that is executed on your database. select Options. The top pane controls the Catalog Table SQL and the bottom pane controls the Full Catalog SQL. 3 Expand the Catalog Category. and select Read Settings. it is recommended you consult the default catalog SQL that MicroStrategy uses to support different database 238 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. The catalog SQL settings are unavailable if your project is connected to a Microsoft Access database.Read Settings options are displayed. .8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide 2 From the Tools menu.

This allows you to save any modifications you have made previously to the catalog SQL statements. • The top pane controls the Catalog Table SQL. To generate and view the default Full Catalog SQL for your database platform. 2 Generate and view the default catalog SQL for your database platform. cut and paste the SQL statements in the two panes into any text editor. Any text in the panes is overwritten with the default catalog SQL statements: • To generate and view the default Catalog Table SQL for your database platform. The bottom pane controls the Full Catalog SQL. which retrieves a list of available tables in the Warehouse Catalog. • • You can use the default catalog SQL statements or compare and combine them with your own customized catalog SQL statements. click the bottom-most Use Default button. Troubleshooting table and column messages You may encounter the following messages while using the Warehouse Catalog: © 2007 MicroStrategy. which retrieves column information for the selected tables. To generate and view the default catalog SQL 1 Access the catalog SQL options for your project (see Modifying catalog SQL. page 237). You can generate the default catalog SQL in MicroStrategy for the database platform your project connects to. and then compare them to the default statements you are about to generate. Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog 239 . Before performing the next step. click the upper-most Use Default button. A dialog box for the catalog SQL options is displayed.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 platforms. Inc.

no changes occur and the original table structure remains intact. Remove the table from the project. you get a warning message showing the table name. Inc. column name. However the definition in the project may be inconsistent with the real physical structure in the warehouse. a message is shown which explains that the table structure update cannot proceed because the table was not found in the warehouse. Columns data type changed When the table structure is updated for one or more tables in which the column data types have been changed. it displays an error message which gives you the following options: Leave the Table in the project: This leaves everything as is in the project metadata. the Warehouse Catalog does not check for any dependencies until you save the changes.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide • • • Tables missing Columns data type changed Columns missing Tables missing This happens when one or more tables already in the project are removed from the data warehouse. . If there are any dependencies. In this case. • When the Warehouse Catalog tries to update the structure of a table that is missing in the warehouse. In this case. 240 Data warehouse and project interaction: Warehouse Catalog © 2007 MicroStrategy. and you have the option to proceed or cancel the operation. Two cases can be seen: • When the Warehouse Catalog is starting and retrieving the table information from the data warehouse and it detects that one or more tables already in the project are missing. This can result in SQL errors when running reports that need data from a “missing” table. they are presented to you.

Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 original data type. © 2007 MicroStrategy. This results in no changes being applied to the tables and columns. the Warehouse Catalog checks for the following: • • Column is not mapped to any schema object: If this is the case. The Logical Data Model. You are asked to remove the mapping before continuing with the update structure and original table structure is restored. Column is mapped to a schema object: If this is the case. Columns missing Missing columns are detected when Update Structure is performed. Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables Aggregate tables are summary tables that store data at higher levels than it was stored when the data was initially captured and saved. Chapter 3. For more information on these topics. see Chapter 2. This section describes how and why aggregate tables are used. MicroStrategy creates aggregates only on fact tables since lookup tables and relationship tables are usually significantly smaller. Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables 241 . To understand aggregate tables. Warehouse Structure for Your Logical Data Model. and new data type. then a message is displayed that gives details on objects. You can click Cancel at any time to undo all data type changes. then no error message is shown. and Chapter 5. which are mapped to the missing column and the update structure operation is canceled. Inc. Aggregate tables provide quicker access to frequently requested information. The Building Blocks of Business Data: Facts. you should be familiar with fact tables in the context of data modeling and data warehousing. while retaining the traditional power of ROLAP to directly query the database to answer any questions. If this happens.

However. Aggregate tables are advantageous because they • • • • • Reduce input/output. MOLAP is not scalable for large projects because of the difficulty of maintaining every possible combination of aggregates as the number of attributes and the amount of data increases. . Users can ask any question that is supported by the data in their warehouse and then analyze the results until they find a precise answer. the MicroStrategy SQL Engine. 242 Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables © 2007 MicroStrategy. in combination with aggregate tables and caching. can produce results at about the same speed as MOLAP. This combined solution allows questions to be answered on the fly and is also scalable for large databases. and swapping requirements Eliminate the need to perform dynamic calculations Decrease the number of physical disk reads and the number of records that must be read to satisfy a query Minimize the amount of data that must be aggregated and sorted at run time Move time-intensive calculations with complicated logic or significant computations into a batch routine from dynamic SQL executed at report run time In summary. Inc. Multidimensional OLAP (MOLAP) is sometimes considered by some to be the answer to this problem. The disadvantage to this relational OLAP (ROLAP) methodology is that accessing huge fact tables can be potentially time-consuming. CPU. RAM.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide When to use aggregate tables MicroStrategy uses optimized SQL to query the relational database directly to answer users’ questions. MicroStrategy’s solution is the use of aggregate tables to provide quicker access to frequently-accessed data while still retaining the power to answer any user query.

aggregation occurs dynamically with a SQL statement at report run-time. © 2007 MicroStrategy. aggregation. must occur. A report requesting month-level data is executed. Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables 243 . This process is called pre-aggregation. that is.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 Aggregation versus pre-aggregation Whenever the display level of data on a report must differ from the level at which the data is initially captured. an aggregate table with the sales data rolled up to the month level is useful. If sales data is frequently requested at the month level. as in the previous example. as shown below. and added to produce the monthly totals. sorted. The daily values from the fact table are selected. You can build these pre-aggregated—or aggregate—tables as part of the ETL process. By default. the rolling up of data. the results of the aggregation are stored in an aggregate table. Aggregation can also be completed before reports are executed. Inc. For example. sales data is stored by day in a fact table.

sorting. as shown in the following example. an aggregate table is any fact table whose data is derived by aggregating data from an existing base table. If the daily sales fact table is the lowest-level fact table and contains atomic-level data. it requires a completely aggregated schema to answer most questions. Inc. it is referred to as a base table. This ensures that all possible 244 Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables © 2007 MicroStrategy. That is. In these terms. Degree of aggregation While MOLAP can provide fast performance when it answers a question. . every possible combination of aggregate associations must be generated when the multidimensional cube is built. and calculation of data from many database rows in a large. lower-level fact table at run time.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide Pre-aggregation eliminates the reading.

page 246 The relationship between the parent and child—Considering any related parent-child relationships. since the creation and maintenance of aggregate tables requires additional work by the database administrator. the degree of aggregation can be as dense or as sparse as is appropriate for your users. Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables 245 . page 246 The compression ratio—Compression ratio. That is. In a ROLAP environment. Only the aggregate combinations that you determine are beneficial must be created. A densely aggregated warehouse has a large number of aggregate tables while a sparsely aggregated warehouse has fewer. Consider the following factors when deciding whether to create aggregate tables: • • The frequency of queries at that level—Determining the frequency of queries at a specific level. This scenario becomes very difficult to maintain as the number of attributes and the amount of data increase. Build aggregate tables only if they can benefit users. Also.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 questions can be answered. if a certain aggregate combination is rarely or never used. provides much greater flexibility than MOLAP. do not waste database space for tables that will not be used. ROLAP. Inc. the space in the RDBMS does not need to be consumed and the resources to build that table during the batch process do not need to be used. if the aggregate table is useful in answering frequently-asked queries. its presence provides a response as fast as a MOLAP system can provide. page 247 • © 2007 MicroStrategy. Sparse aggregation refers to the fact that a given project only requires as many aggregate fact tables as is useful to its users. and therefore is not very scalable. However. Not every attribute level or hierarchy intersection is suitable for pre-aggregation. therefore.

usefulness is not always easy to quantify. In any hierarchical relationship. the query must use item-level data and summarize the department data dynamically. MicroStrategy Enterprise Manager allows you to easily track table usage. the child records are usually summarized into the parent record. the department aggregate tables would not be used in this situation. if users frequently want to exclude inactive items. Once your warehouse is in production. they consume disk space and impose unnecessary burdens on the extraction. However. Considering any related parent-child relationships When an aggregate table is created. see the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. . based on the key combinations in a relationship table. consider the following hierarchy: A summary of data at the department level seems to be a good candidate for an aggregate table. eliminate it from the warehouse. If aggregate tables are never accessed. However. as well as the database backup routines. and loading process. For more information on Enterprise Manager.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide Determining the frequency of queries at a specific level Build aggregate tables only if they can be useful to your users. For example. trace the usage of any aggregate tables to determine how frequently they are used in a day-to-day business environment. translation. when the parent-child relationship is altered. all 246 Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables © 2007 MicroStrategy. If any table is not used. Inc. Therefore.

rolling up an entire hierarchy can avoid many problems with relationship changes. they are a part of static relationships. to a set of child records to produce a single parent record. Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables 247 . time hierarchies are seldom dynamic—days do not migrate into different weeks. and then balance the disadvantages against the advantages of having an aggregate table. Inc. consume resources. It is not affected by a reorganization within the geography hierarchy. or discontinuation of items or services. a table contains one value for the sum of all stores. this process can take time. or the addition. For example. such as sum or average. and complicate the batch process. For example. Compression ratio The process of data aggregation applies an aggregate function. the relationship is called dynamic. Dynamic relationships When the relationship between parent and child elements change. Frequent changes can mean aggregate tables are not optimal for this situation. reclassification. maintaining aggregate tables is very easy. Static relationships When elements rarely or never change relationships.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 tables that hold that relationship or data relevant to it must be updated. The average number of child records combined to calculate one parent record is called the © 2007 MicroStrategy. Also. For example. and the impact on the batch process. Aggregate tables that contain dynamic relationships must be recalculated every time a change is made. Whether these relationships are dynamic or static change how they are aggregated into tables. Consider the frequency of the changes. a store can decide to reclassify the department to which items belong. These changes often occur because of organizational restructuring. and fiscal weeks do not move into different months. In these cases. the table size. geographical realignment. If the tables are large.

if the compression ratio is 4:1.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide compression ratio. if the compression ratio is 3:2. For example. the resource demands placed on the database server by dynamic aggregations decrease and therefore so does the effectiveness of pre-aggregation. When the number of elements differs significantly between two attributes in the same hierarchy. page 35. pre-aggregating data is effective only if the compression ratio is significant. the aggregate table reduces the number of records by 3/4 and uses only 1/4 of the storage space. the compression ratio suggests that an aggregate table can provide more efficient queries. since it represents the decrease in records that must be read to respond to a query at that level. for smaller base tables. refer to Cardinalities and ratios. you must balance the importance of speed of query response time and the availability of disk space and resources to maintain the schema. To determine when pre-aggregation is worthwhile for your system. as outlined in the following procedure. In contrast. . Inc. For more information on ratios. One measure of effectiveness of an aggregate table can be estimated from this number. the aggregate table requires 2/3 of the base table’s storage space but yields only a 1/3 reduction in the number of records. Recall that some of the reasons to build aggregate tables include the reduction of disk I/O and the number of records that must be dynamically sorted and aggregated. 248 Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables © 2007 MicroStrategy. Therefore. Also. Creating aggregate tables You can integrate aggregate tables in your project using the Warehouse Catalog in MicroStrategy Desktop.

that contains enough data to answer the query. page 220.Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 To use an aggregate table in an existing project 1 Using the Warehouse Catalog. when either could provide the answer to a query? The answer is logical table size. the Analytical Engine chooses the smallest of all tables. If your aggregate table structure is consistent with your base fact table structure. The size of tables in a project: Logical table size MicroStrategy Desktop assigns a size to every table in the project when you first add them to the project. Architect is aggregate-aware. 2 Use the new table in the desired fact expressions and attribute form expressions. see Adding and removing tables for a project. When you run a report. Architect automatically adds it to the definitions of your existing attributes and facts. based on logical table size. For steps to add tables using the Warehouse Catalog. How does Architect know to use the aggregate table rather than the base fact table. Changing the logical table size The initial logical table size is based on the number of attribute columns and the various levels at which they exist in their respective hierarchies. The other tables. this measurement is known as the logical table size. These size assignments are stored in the metadata and are calculated based on the table columns and their corresponding attributes. Because the attribute levels are lower in the base fact © 2007 MicroStrategy. In other words. add the table to the project. Inc. have only higher-level or summary data. however. Because Desktop uses the conceptual or logical attribute definitions when assigning sizes. Suppose the base fact table contains millions of rows of transaction-level detail. Using summary tables to store data: Aggregate tables 249 .

Logically. For steps to use the Logical Table Editor. a table with a higher-level attribute should be smaller in size. . Server versus application partitioning Partitioning can be managed by either the database server or the MicroStrategy application. Logical tables are discussed in detail in Appendix C. this is not always true in a real warehouse.8 Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project Project Design Guide table. the Logical Table Editor allows you to alter the logical table sizes based on their true relative sizes. partitions improve the speed and efficiency of database queries. see the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. Inc. Either way. not where the tables are split. such as month or department. Time is the most common category for partitioning databases. Therefore. Dividing tables to increase performance: Partition mapping Partition mapping involves the division of large logical tables into smaller physical tables. tables are partitioned at the database level. this division is based on a definable data level. Partitions improve query performance by minimizing the number of tables and records within a table that must be read to satisfy queries issued against the warehouse. 250 Dividing tables to increase performance: Partition mapping © 2007 MicroStrategy. Partitioning by time limits growth of the database tables and increases stability. Of course. the table as a whole is assigned a higher value for the logical table size than are the summary tables with higher-level attributes. By distributing usage across multiple tables. The terms “application” and “server” refer to what manages the partitioned tables. Logical Tables.

Project Design Guide Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project 8 Server-level partitioning The database server. the partitioning is transparent to MicroStrategy. page 254—uses a specialized warehouse table to determine which table to access Metadata partition mapping Metadata partition mapping is the mapping of partitions where the mapping of partitions is performed and maintained in the project metadata by the application. Inc. Partition tables are usually divided along logical lines. Dividing tables to increase performance: Partition mapping . MicroStrategy manages the mapping between the logical table and the physical tables. rather than the RDBMS server. rather than MicroStrategy. page 251—stores the mapping information in the project metadata Warehouse partition mapping. Since only the logical table is displayed to the end user. in this case. The original fact table is not physically broken into smaller tables. MicroStrategy. You do not need to take any action in MicroStrategy to support the partitioning. This approach makes it easier for you to specify a flexible partitioning schema. A partition base table (PBT) is a warehouse table that contains one part of a larger set of data. MicroStrategy supports two types of partitioning: • • Metadata partition mapping. In contrast. such as time or geography. manages the partitioned tables in RDBMS server-level partitioning. manages the partition tables. Application-level partitioning In application-level partitioning the application. in application-level partitioning the relational database is unaware of the partitioned tables. the database server logically partitions the table according to parameters specified by the database administrator. Instead. Refer to your database documentation for details on server partitioning for your particular platform. 251 © 2007 MicroStrategy.

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Optimizing and Maintaining Your Project

Project Design Guide

In metadata partition mapping, you specify one or more partitioning attributes in the Metadata Partition Mapping Editor. Next you define what attribute elements within those attributes should point to which PBT. You create all of the rules for choosing the appropriate PBT here and the rules are stored in the MicroStrategy metadata. For steps to create a metadata partition mapping, refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help.

Homogenous and heterogeneous partitions
Metadata partitions can be homogenous or heterogeneous. With heterogeneous partitioning, the PBTs can have different amounts of data stored in them at different levels. For example, one table can contain six months of sales data, while another stores an entire year. The PBT level, or key, refers to how the data is stored. For example, sales data for the current year can be stored at the daily level, while historical sales data is saved by month only. Heterogeneous partitions can therefore require additional long-term maintenance and organization because the data contained in them is stored at various levels throughout the partition. MicroStrategy stores one PBT level for each partition. If all the PBTs within a partition are not stored at the same level, the highest PBT level is used as the PBT level of the partition. For instance, if all the sales data in the previous example is stored in one partition, you cannot access current sales at the day level. This is because the PBT level for the partition is month, which is higher than day. If you save current data in a partition at the daily level and the historical data in another partition at the month level, you are able to fully access the data. In contrast, homogenous partitions must have the same amount of data stored at the same PBT level. The logical structure of the PBTs must be the same, that is, they must have the same facts and attributes defined. To continue with the previous examples, each table must store one year of data at the month level. Homogeneous partitions work well for frequently-accessed data such as information about the previous year.

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When you define the particular PBT to which an attribute is linked in MicroStrategy, you do not need to specify whether or not the PBT is homogeneous or heterogeneous. MicroStrategy makes the distinction automatically depending, in part, on how the data is stored in the PBT.

Data slices
After PBTs are created, you define a data slice. The data slice acts as a filter that describes what portions of data are placed in the partition table. Based on this data slice, the MicroStrategy engine knows which table to get data from when generating the SQL. A data slice holds the parameters that a partition is based upon, for example, Month=January. Instead of retrieving data for all months, the server knows to access a particular table that contains the data for January only. By creating a data slice with the partition, you can retrieve specific data quickly without time-consuming joins and searches. It is important to create a reasonable and valid data slice because MicroStrategy cannot verify its accuracy or relevance. The data slice must make sense for the data. A poorly crafted data slice can lead to errors from generating incorrect SQL and retrieving the wrong data. Data slicing displays and can be modified only for the metadata partitioning. Each partition mapping table must include at least one data slice. In a heterogeneous mapping, data slices can exist at different levels and can be composed of different keys.

Attribute qualifications
To create data slices, you use attribute qualifications. Attribute qualifications are types of filters that are applied to attribute forms. These qualifications allow you to limit the type and amount of data that is returned for a report. For example, if you create a report that contains the attribute Country but you want to return only the data for France, you can create a qualification on the attribute Country and select France as the element that appears on the report.

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For steps to create a data slice, refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help.

Warehouse partition mapping
Warehouse partition mapping is the mapping of partitions, where the mapping is performed by and maintained in the data warehouse. You can define a warehouse partition by using the MicroStrategy Warehouse Catalog to add a table with a special structure. This table contains the map for the partition, and is stored in the warehouse. Warehouse partitions divide tables physically along any number of attributes, although this is not visible to the user. Warehouse partitions must be homogenous, unlike metadata partitions, so that the same amount of data is stored at the same PBT level and the same facts and attributes are defined. Homogenous partitioning divides data of equal levels, like January and February. A sample fact table and warehouse partitioning table are shown below for months. Note how the data exists at equal levels, for example, different months of the same year.

The original fact table, which contains all of the data, is not brought into the project. Rather, the database administrator creates multiple smaller physical tables in the data warehouse. Each table contains a subset of the data in the original fact table. The database administrator is responsible for keeping the partitions consistent and up-to-date. He or

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she must also create and maintain a partition mapping table (PMT), which is used to identify and keep track of the partitioned base tables as part of a logical whole. After the PMT is created, when you run a report in Desktop or Web that requires information from one of the PBTs, the Query Engine first runs a pre-query to the PMT to determine which PBT to access to bring the data back for the report. The pre-query requests the PBT names associated with the attribute IDs from the filtering criteria. When it finds the name of the PBT, it calls the SQL Engine to write the appropriate SQL for the warehouse. When using warehouse partition mapping, it is usually not necessary to bring in the individual PBT tables into the project. Doing so can cause errors if such tables are mistakenly mapped directly to schema objects. You should only include the PMT table in the project. With this strategy you can map all related schema objects to the PMT, which then accesses the correct PBT in the warehouse. Note the following: • • There are no data slices in a warehouse partition. MicroStrategy supports warehouse partitions on both upgraded and newly created projects. These are added using the Warehouse Catalog Browser. For steps to add warehouse partitions, refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help.

Metadata versus warehouse partition mapping
Metadata partition mapping does not require any additional tables in the warehouse. Metadata partition mapping is generally recommended over warehouse partition mapping in MicroStrategy. However, if you already have warehouse partition tables set up and are migrating to a newer version of MicroStrategy, you can continue to use the warehouse partitions. If you are creating partitions for the first time, however, it is recommended you implement metadata partition mapping.

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Metadata partition mapping is recommended because you create the rules in MicroStrategy that the Query Engine uses to generate the SQL to run reports. Because you create the partitions directly in the metadata, it is easier to maintain. Metadata partition mapping also allows both heterogeneous and homogenous partitions, unlike warehouse partition mapping. With heterogeneous partitions, the PBTs can have different amounts of data stored in them at different levels. Only homogenous partitions can be used in warehouse partition mapping. For steps to map partitions, refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help.

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9.

CREATING TRANSFORMATIONS TO DEFINE TIME-BASED AND OTHER COMPARISONS

Introduction
Suppose you want to compare how much revenue your company grew last year to how much it grew this year. This type of analysis, called a TY/LY comparison (This Year versus Last Year), is a commonly used form of time-series analysis and is relevant to many different industries, including retail, banking, and telecommunications. Transformations—schema objects you can create using attributes in your project—are one of the many MicroStrategy techniques used to perform time-series analysis. To calculate a variance or a growth percentage such as last year’s revenue versus this year’s revenue, it is very convenient to use a transformation. Transformations are often the most generic approach and can be reused and applied to other time-series analyses. To use a transformation, a report designer creates a metric and applies the transformation to it. This chapter discusses the different types of transformations and how to create them. It is assumed that you have some understanding of what metrics are, as transformation metrics
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are discussed in this chapter. For information on metrics and using transformations in metrics and reports, see the Metrics chapter of the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide.

Creating transformations
A transformation is a schema object that typically maps a specified time period to another time period, applying an offset value, such as current month minus one month. Usually defined by a project designer, transformations are used in the definition of a metric to alter the behavior of that metric. Such a metric is referred to as a transformation metric. For example, time-related transformations are commonly used in metrics to compare values at different times, such as this year versus last year or current date versus month-to-date. Any transformation can be included as part of the definition of a metric and multiple transformations can be applied to the same metric. Transformation metrics are beyond the scope of this guide; for information about transformation metrics, refer to the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. Recall the example used in the introduction, the TY/LY comparison. To calculate this year’s revenue, you can use the Revenue metric in conjunction with a filter for this year. Similarly, to calculate last year's revenue, you can use the Revenue metric in conjunction with a filter for last year. However, a more flexible alternative is to use a previously created Last Year transformation in the definition of a new metric, last year’s revenue. With a single filter, on 2003 for example, the two metrics Revenue and Last Year Revenue give you results for 2003 and 2002, respectively. Since a transformation represents a rule, it can describe the effect of that rule for different levels. For instance, the Last Year transformation intuitively describes how a specific year relates to the year before. It can in addition express how each month of a year corresponds to a month of the prior year. In the same way, the transformation can describe how each day of a year maps to a day of the year before. This information defines the transformation and abstracts all cases into a

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generic concept. That is, you can use a single metric with a last year transformation regardless of the time attribute contained on the report. While transformations are most often used for discovering and analyzing time-based trends in your data, not all transformations have to be time-based. An example of a non-time-based transformation is This Catalog/Last Catalog, which might use Catalog_ID-1 to perform the transformation.

Expression-based versus table-based transformations
The definition of the association between an original value and a transformed one can be represented in an expression that uses columns of the warehouse, constants, arithmetic operators, and mathematical functions. This is known as an expression-based transformation. However, it is sometimes desirable to precalculate these values and store them in a table designed for the transformation. This method is sometimes referred to as a table-based transformation. The advantage of a table-based transformation is the possible use of indexing to speed query times. Another advantage is that table-based transformations provide additional flexibility beyond what formula expressions can produce. The drawback of this kind of transformation is that it requires the creation and management of an additional table in the warehouse. However, once the table is created, it usually significantly decreases the query time. Returning to the TY/LY example, you have the option of using a simple formula such as Year_ID - 1 in the definition of the transformation or precalculating the data and storing it in a column in a table. A table-based transformation is required when a many-to-many transformation is performed. An example is a year-to-date calculation. A significant advantage to the dynamic calculation of an expression-based transformation is that the database administrator does not have to create and maintain a transformation table. The drawback is that the system must perform the calculation every time.

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A single transformation can use a combination of table-based and expression-based transformations. For example, you can create a last year transformation based on Year and Month. The ID of the Year attribute is in the format YYYY, so the transformation can use the expression Year_ID - 1. The ID for the Month attribute is in the format ‘MonthName,’ so you cannot easily use a mathematical expression. You must use a table instead. The following sections walk you through creating both a table-based transformation and an expression-based one.

Building a table-based transformation
The following example shows how to create a last year transformation based on a lookup table in MicroStrategy Tutorial, which pairs each year with the previous year. This transformation is used in the report displayed below, which compares revenue for this year and last year.

Creating the transformation metric and the report are discussed in the Transformation metrics section in the Metrics chapter of the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide.

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Creating transformations 261 . then create a report using that transformation metric to obtain last year’s revenue.Project Design Guide Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons 9 To create a last year transformation based on a table 1 Log in to the project source that contains your project in MicroStrategy Desktop and expand your project. 4 Select the LU_Year table from the Table drop-down list. so the previous year is simply Year_ID minus one. which maps this year to last year. 3 Double-click Time to open the folder. Name the transformation Last Year (Table). For example. 2 From the File menu.Define a new member attribute expression dialog box opens. then double-click Year. The Year . The Transformation Editor opens with the Select a Member Attribute dialog box displayed. You have now created the transformation. and select Transformation. 7 Click Save and Close on the toolbar. Inc. point to New. © 2007 MicroStrategy. A report designer can now use the transformation in a revenue metric to calculate last year’s revenue. 5 Double-click the PREV_YEAR_ID column to place it in the expression box. 2004. The table's columns appear in the Available columns list. Building an expression-based transformation This example shows how to create a last year transformation using an expression rather than a table. The Year_ID is in the format YYYY. Notice that this table contains a previous year column. 6 Click OK. one subtracted from the year 2005 results in the previous year.

then double-click Year. The resulting report is displayed below. 3 Select the LU_Year table from the Table drop-down list. Inc. from the File menu. creating the transformation metric and the report are discussed in the Transformation metrics section in the Metrics chapter of the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. The transformation will subtract 1 from the Year ID to calculate last year’s ID. point to New. The Year . 4 Double-click the YEAR_ID column to place it in the expression box. 5 Type -1 in the expression box. Again. The Transformation Editor opens with the Select a Member Attribute dialog box displayed. 2 Double-click Time to open the folder. To create a last year transformation based on an expression 1 In MicroStrategy Desktop.9 Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons Project Design Guide This transformation is added to the report shown in the table-based transformation example above. .Define a new member attribute expression dialog box opens. 262 Creating transformations © 2007 MicroStrategy. The table's columns appear in the Available columns list. and select Transformation.

Name the transformation Last Year (Expression). respectively. A report designer can now use the transformation in a revenue metric to calculate last year’s revenue. Transformation components 263 . Quarter. LU_MONTH. 7 Click OK. Transformation components All transformations have the following components: • Member attributes: This component contains the attributes to which the transformation applies. and Day. Inc. Month. For a table-based transformation. for the member attributes Year. the member attributes are Year. © 2007 MicroStrategy. For example. Month. then add it to the report created in the previous example. each member expression is based on a specific table.Project Design Guide Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons 9 6 Click Validate. this is the transformation table defining the relationship. the different levels to which the rule applies. generally the lookup table corresponding to the attribute being transformed. 8 Click Save and Close on the toolbar. • Member expressions: Each member attribute has a corresponding expression. • Member tables: These tables store the data for the member attributes. You have now created the last year transformation. For an expression-based transformation. For example. and Day. in the Last Year transformation in the MicroStrategy Tutorial. Quarter. that is. and LU_DAY. The message “Valid expression” appears with a green check mark. in the Last Year transformation. LU_QUARTER. the member tables are LU_YEAR.

Inc. The rule is then not encapsulated in an expression but directly in the data of the column. and columns from the warehouse. Suppose this metric is used on 264 Transformation components © 2007 MicroStrategy. In fact. this approach provides considerable flexibility in the transformation definition. For instance. For one date. if you store Month as 200001 (January 2000). For example. you cannot subtract one and receive December 1999 as the result. you can create a Last Year transformation using Year_ID-1 as the expression.” One day or month this year maps exactly to one day or month from last year. For example. typically the attribute ID column. this is simply a column from a specific warehouse table specifically populated with data supporting the transformation. many cases can exist where the data is not conducive to such calculation. in the Last Year transformation. • Mapping type: This component determines how the transformation is created based on the nature of the data. These are all columns from the lookup tables set in the Member tables field. this is a mathematical expression. The mapping can be one of the following: One-to-one: A typical one-to-one relationship is “last year to this year. Many-to-many: A typical many-to-many relationship is year-to-date. . arithmetic operators. LY_QUARTER_ID. this expression uses constants. mathematical functions. For example. For a table-based transformation. consider YearToDate defined as a many-to-many transformation and Revenue (YTD) as a transformation metric. many other dates are included in the year-to-date calculation. In the most generic case. a separate table is required. However. the member expressions are LY_DAY_DATE. in the case of a many-to-many transformation. It is particularly effective when no straightforward formula can express the rule. Many-to-many transformations can lead to double-counting scenarios. Since the data defines the rule.9 Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons Project Design Guide For an expression-based transformation. and PREV_YEAR_ID. LY_MONTH_ID.

page 171 before proceeding in this section. In a report. which is the member attribute on the template. as shown below: When a joint child attribute—an attribute that exists at the intersection of other indirectly related attributes—is added. The report displays the quarter. Each quarter is displayed. a transformation metric displays the current attribute with transformed data. For example. a range of dates is specified in the filter. that is. The joint child attribute cannot be transformed because not all of its joint children—Quarter and Item—are time-related. the joint child attribute Promotion is added to the previous report. the values for the transformation. a report contains Quarter and the transformation metric Last Year’s Revenue. In this instance. For more information about joint child attributes. For example. In the report. see Joint child relationships. Transformation metrics and joint child attributes Review the discussion of joint child attributes and relationships in Joint child relationships. with the previous year’s revenue.Project Design Guide Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons 9 a report that does not include the Day attribute. Inc. page 171. a conflict arises. Transformation metrics and joint child attributes 265 . the Revenue (YTD) metric will double count. the © 2007 MicroStrategy.

A sample report is shown below: The displayed attributes should still be current. remember that only the metric values are transformed. not the attributes. the Valentine’s Day promotion is not listed for Q1 2002 despite the existence of the last year transformation. again. While you may want to see it listed for 2002. since the joint child attribute Promotion essentially exists in both the time dimension and a non-time dimension.9 Creating Transformations to Define Time-Based and Other Comparisons Project Design Guide promotion associated with a given quarter. minus one year. . In summary. since the Valentine’s Day promotion was not run in 2002. but not attributes such as Promotion. Inc. However. 266 Transformation metrics and joint child attributes © 2007 MicroStrategy. That is. transformations “transform” metric values such as Revenue. the Valentine’s Day-Q1 2002 combination cannot be displayed on the report. This is the case because. and the revenue data from the date-promotion combination. displaying transformed data. Notice that the Valentine’s Day promotion existed in 2003 but not in 2002. it is not intuitive how the transformation should be performed.

A typical project contains reports. and user community. You create projects that users access to run reports.A A. Conceptually. and functions. MICROSTRATEGY TUTORIAL Introduction This appendix provides information on the MicroStrategy Tutorial. metadata repository. metrics. filters. © 2007 MicroStrategy. What is the MicroStrategy Tutorial? The MicroStrategy Tutorial is a MicroStrategy project. the project is the environment in which all related reporting is done. which includes a metadata and warehouse. including the data model and physical warehouse schema. and a set of demonstration applications designed to illustrate the features of the MicroStrategy platform. What is the MicroStrategy Tutorial? 267 . Inc. A project is the highest-level of intersection of a data warehouse.

They are a sampling of the types of reporting documents that can be built using MicroStrategy Report Services. For instance. invoices and statements. such as scorecards and dashboards. books. Category Managers. Employee. Reporting areas: Customer Analysis. Brand Managers. Operations Managers. Numerous customers and purchased items. Time. managed metrics reports. Category. Inventory. and Time. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Company Executives. The Supplier folder contains a Supplier Sales report. Geography. Each subfolder contains reports that would be of interest to the type of business user for which the subfolder is named. and the Brand Managers subfolder contains a report called Brand Performance by Region. Regional Sales Managers. production and operational reports. Options to create reports from MicroStrategy Desktop and MicroStrategy Web focusing on a particular analysis area. Human Resources Analysis. including Billing Managers. the Billing Managers folder contains an Invoice report and a customer-level transaction detail report. Each hierarchy can be viewed graphically through MicroStrategy Desktop and MicroStrategy Web. Promotions. Enterprise Performance Management. such as Customer. Products. • • • MicroStrategy Tutorial reporting areas MicroStrategy Tutorial reports are grouped into four folders: • Business Roles: This folder contains subfolders that reflect different types of business intelligence users within an organization. Inventory and Supply Chain Analysis. District Sales Managers. • Enterprise Reporting Documents: This folder contains various examples of different types of standard enterprise reporting documents. Sales and Profitability Analysis. movies and music.A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide The theme of the MicroStrategy Tutorial project is a retail store for the time 2003 to 2006 that sells electronics. The key features include the following: • Hierarchies—Customer. Inc. and Suppliers. and Supplier Analysis. and business reports. 268 What is the MicroStrategy Tutorial? . or Call Center. Products.

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MicroStrategy Platform Capabilities: This folder contains examples of many of the sophisticated capabilities within the MicroStrategy platform. Evaluators of the software, as well as customers, can use the examples to get a better feel for many of the platform’s capabilities. Customers can use the examples to guide their own development. The subfolders under these folders are named according to the capabilities that their reports exemplify. For instance, the Graph Styles folder contains examples of most of the graph types that can be created in MicroStrategy, and the Analytics and Data Mining folder contains examples of Linear Regression models built within MicroStrategy.

Subject Areas: This folder contains reports that are categorized further by topic. Topics covered include Customer Analysis, Enterprise Performance Management, Human Resource Analysis, Inventory and Supply Chain Analysis, Sales and Profitability Analysis, and Supplier Analysis. Customer Analysis: Reports analyzing the customer base, studying areas such as Customer Income, Customer Counts, Revenue per Customer, and Revenue Growth. Enterprise Performance Management: Reports containing information on revenue amounts, trends and forecasts, profits, profit margins, and profit forecasts. These reports make it easy for an executive at any level of the company to understand how the company is performing as a whole or at the region, category, and subcategory levels. Human Resource Analysis: Reports containing information on employees, including headcount, birthdays, length of employment, and the top five employees by revenue. These reports are based on employees, time, geography, and sales. The Human Resources Analysis reports provide insight into human capital so that managers can boost the efficiency and effectiveness of their employees. Human Resource Representatives can highlight under-performing employees and misallocated headcount. Managers at all levels can focus on the

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performance of their employees, drill down to an individual employee detail level, view trends, and extract intelligence not otherwise evident. Inventory and Supply Chain Analysis: Reports containing information based on supplier, product, cost, revenue and profit, such as Inventory and Unit Sales, or Inventory Received from Suppliers by Quarter. The Inventory reports track inventory information within the company and through to suppliers. Essentially, these reports show how many units of an item are on hand, how many are expected from a particular supplier, and how many units have been sold. Inventory reports are used to ensure that the supply chain is as efficient as possible. Using these reports, employees can analyze trends and details, quickly adjust inventory and distribution, and understand underlying supply chain costs and inefficiencies. Sales and Profitability Analysis: Reports analyzing revenue and profit from multiple perspectives. Examples include Sales by Region, Revenue over Time, and Brand Performance by Region. The Product Sales reports allow managers and analysts to monitor and analyze sales trends, track corporate revenue goals, compare store-to-store performance, and respond more quickly and accurately to feedback from the marketplace. In turn, executives can analyze sales trends and details, quickly adjust pricing and promotions, identify product affinities and key profit centers, and understand costs and revenue trends. Supplier Analysis: Reports containing supplier, sales, profit, and revenue information, such as Brand Sales by Supplier, Supplier Sell-Through Percentage, and Units Sold and Profit by Supplier. The Supplier reports allow managers and analysts to monitor and analyze vendor performance so that they can quickly identify performance problems. These reports track brands and items sold that came from a particular vendor. They also correlate profit and revenue information with particular suppliers so that relationships with key vendors can be strengthened.

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These reports and documents are located in the Public Objects/Reports folder of the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. Once the areas of analysis are determined, a data model is created.

MicroStrategy Tutorial data model
A logical data model graphically depicts the flow and structure of data in a business environment. It provides a way of organizing facts so that they can be analyzed from different business perspectives. For example, a simple logical data model for a retail company can organize all necessary facts by store, product, and time, which are the three common business perspectives typically associated with retail business. For detailed information about data modeling, see Chapter 2, The Logical Data Model. For MicroStrategy Tutorial, the areas of analysis discussed earlier, Customer Analysis, Human Resources Analysis, and so on, are organized into the following hierarchical groupings: • • • • • Geography Products Customers Time Promotions

These MicroStrategy Tutorial hierarchies are displayed on the following pages for your reference.

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Data modeling notations
The following notations are used in graphical depictions of hierarchies.
Symbol Indicates entry point Definition An entry point is a shortcut to an attribute element in the Data Explorer. Creating an entry point grants you faster access to the attribute without having to browse through multiple attributes to reach different levels of the hierarchy.

attribute

A data level defined by the system architect and associated with one or more columns in the data warehouse lookup table. Attributes include data classifications like Region, Order, Customer, Age, Item, City, and Year. They provide a handle for aggregating and filtering at a given level. An attribute relationship in which every element of a parent attribute relates to multiple elements of a child attribute, while every element of the child attribute relates to only one element of the parent. The one-to-many attribute relationship is the most common in data models.

one-to-many relationship

Geography hierarchy
The Geography hierarchy contains attributes, such as Country and Region, as well as Distribution Center, Call Center, and employee-specific attributes. It is easy to understand why Country and Region are in the Geography hierarchy, but what about Distribution Center, Call Center, and the employee-related attributes? The data used in MicroStrategy Tutorial is based upon a fictitious company that sells electronics, movies, music, and books. The company does not have physical stores, but instead does its business from catalog and Web sales. Customers review the products in a printed or online catalog and call in their order over the phone. The order is then processed by an employee located at one of the call centers. The order is then fulfilled by a distribution center that holds the correct item and sends it through one of the shippers.

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The Geography hierarchy contains the following attributes.
Attribute Country Region Call Center Distribution Center Manager Employee Experience Hire Date Salary Employee Age Employee Birth Date Employee Description Countries where the company does or hopes to do business in the future. Also refers to countries where employees work. Each country is split into regions. Where product phone-in orders are taken. Each call center is located in a different city. The location where product orders are sent out to customers. Currently, each is located in the same city as the call center it services. Person responsible for a specific call center. The number of years an employee has worked for the organization. The date on which a particular employee was hired. The amount of money an employee makes per year. The age of each employee. The date each employee was born. The lowest level in the Geography hierarchy, representing the individual responsible for each order placed. Example USA, Spain, France. Central, Northeast, Southwest. Atlanta, Boston, Charleston. Miami, New Orleans, Fargo. Peter Rose, Alice Cooper. 3, 5, 6. 2/16/97, 3/15/99. 24,000, 35,000. 29, 36, 52. 5/6/66, 1/1/77. Jennifer Lee, Laura Kelly.

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Refer to the following image to see how all these attributes are organized into the MicroStrategy Tutorial Geography hierarchy.

Products hierarchy
The products hierarchy contains attributes, such as Category, Brand, Catalog, and Supplier. The Products hierarchy contains the following attributes.
Attribute Category Subcategory Description Products are organized into categories at the highest level. Used to further differentiate a subset of products within a category. Example Electronics, Music. Business, Cameras, Drama.

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Attribute Warranty Brand Catalog Supplier Discontinued Code Item

Description The time period in months during which a manufacturer repairs a broken item (specific to Narrowcast Server). The manufacturer or artist for a particular product. The medium used to sell products. The distributor for a set of brands. 0 = discontinued product, 1 = non-discontinued product. The individual product sold.

Example 3, 5. Ayn Rand, 3Com, Sony. Spring 2002, Fall 2003. McGraw Hill, Disney Studios. 0, 1 The Great Gatsby, Sony Discman.

Refer to the following image to see how all these attributes are organized into the MicroStrategy Tutorial Products hierarchy.

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Customers hierarchy
The Customers hierarchy contains customer demographic and purchase information, such as Customer Age, Income Bracket, Payment Method, and Ship Date. The Customers hierarchy contains the following attributes.
Attribute Customer Country Customer Region Customer State Customer City Customer Age Customer Birth Date Income Bracket Zip Code Customer Shipper Rush Order Description The highest level of differentiation for where Customers live The highest level of differentiation for where customers live. Each Customer Region is divided into multiple States. Each Customer State is broken down into cities. The age of a particular customer at a current point in time. The date on which the Customer was born. The salary range reported by the customer. The lowest level of differentiation for where customers live. The name of the individual customer. The vendor used to send products to the customer. (Currently not implemented in the project.) Indicates whether a customer chose to expedite delivery of an order. The way a customer pays for an order. The date on which an order is shipped from the distribution center. The tracking number associated with a particular group of items purchased. Amex, Check. 9/15/02, 3/26/03. 167, 2635. Example USA, Spain, France Northeast, South, France. Maine, North Dakota. Albany, Chicago, Memphis. 26, 38, 59. 8/4/50, 4/30/72. $31,000 - 40,000, $61,000 70,000. 07026, 36303. Selene Allen, Chad Laurie. Pronto Packages, MailFast.

Payment Method Ship Date Order

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Refer to the following image to see how all these attributes are organized into the MicroStrategy Tutorial Customers hierarchy.

Time hierarchy
The Time hierarchy contains time-specific attributes, Year, Quarter, Month, and Day.

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A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide The Time hierarchy contains the following attributes. Q2 02. 5/14/02. 278 MicroStrategy Tutorial data model © 2007 MicroStrategy. November. Calendar date of purchase. Attribute Year Quarter Month of Year Month Day Description Calendar year of purchase. Q3 03. Month of purchase. Aug 03. Calendar quarter of purchase. Jul 02. January. This hierarchy is useful for recording whether a sale was a promotional purchase. 2003. Refer to the following image to see how all these attributes are organized into the MicroStrategy Tutorial Time hierarchy. Example 2002. 12/26/03. . Calendar month of purchase. Promotions hierarchy The Promotions hierarchy contains Promotion and Promotion Type. Inc.

© 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide MicroStrategy Tutorial A The Promotions hierarchy contains the following attributes. Labor Day.9/4/02. Attribute Promotion Type Promotion Description (Currently not implemented in the project.) Type of discount period offered (Sale type). (Currently not implemented in the project. Inc. log on to the project source containing the MicroStrategy Tutorial and expand the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. Viewing the MicroStrategy Tutorial data model Although the MicroStrategy Tutorial data model is displayed in the previous pages. you can also view it directly in the product. 9/1/02 . Refer to the following image to see how all these attributes are organized into the MicroStrategy Tutorial Promotions hierarchy. 2/16/03 2/19/03.) Date range for a particular discount period under which an item is purchased (Sales Date). You must log on as an Administrator. Specify the user name as Administrator and provide a blank password to complete these steps. Example Mother’s Day. MicroStrategy Tutorial data model 279 . To view the MicroStrategy Tutorial data model 1 If you are not already using the MicroStrategy Tutorial.

The next time you open the Hierarchy Viewer. Inc. but allows you to view the hierarchy in a way meaningful to you. 4 To focus on a different entry point. and relationships of data in a business. This does not affect the browse order. . 280 MicroStrategy Tutorial schema © 2007 MicroStrategy. It is a graphic-intensive technique that results in a data model representing the definition. technical. 6 You can rearrange the attributes by dragging and dropping them. the HierarchiesMicroStrategy Tutorial dialog box opens. 8 To save the layout view of the hierarchy. this saved view is displayed. The logical data model is a picture of all the pieces of information necessary to understand your data and how it relates to your business. select it from the Hierarchy drop-down list on the toolbar. the next step is to create the schema. and then choose Hierarchies. click Save in the toolbar.A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide 2 From the Schema menu. and interrelationships. MicroStrategy Tutorial schema A schema is a logical and physical definition of warehouse data elements. 7 To return to the default view. or conceptual environment. select it from the Entry Point drop-down list in the toolbar. After the data model is created. click Fit in window from the toolbar. point to Graphical View. 3 To view a different hierarchy. 5 To view the entire hierarchy in the window. Once loaded. physical characteristics. characteristics. click Auto arrange in the toolbar.

a primary key In a relational database. Lookup tables are usually joined to fact tables in order to group the numeric facts in the fact table by dimensional attributes in the lookup tables. Store. The physical warehouse schema describes how your data is stored in the data warehouse. This appendix shows the physical warehouse schema. Inc. the physical warehouse schema tells you where the underlying data for those objects is stored. refer to earlier chapters in this guide. Several physical warehouse schemas can be derived from the same logical data model. The MicroStrategy Tutorial schema is divided into the following parts: • • • • • • Geography Products Customers Time Promotions Fact tables Schema notations The following notations are used in the graphical depictions of the MicroStrategy Tutorial schema.Project Design Guide MicroStrategy Tutorial A The physical warehouse schema is based on the logical data model. MicroStrategy Tutorial schema 281 . such as Day. including data types. Symbol LU_ Indicates Definition a lookup table A database table used to uniquely identify attribute elements. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Item. While the logical data model tells you what facts and attributes to create. For more detailed information on the physical schema. They typically consist of descriptions of dimensions. the set of columns required to uniquely identify a record in a table. or Account.

The excess of the selling price of goods over their cost. The total income produced by a given source accounting for all product sales deducting discounts. thus defining associations between them.unit cost. Freight Profit Revenue Rush Charge Unit Cost Unit Price Unit Profit Units Received Units Sold The compensation paid for the transportation of goods. 282 MicroStrategy Tutorial schema © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. Unit price . PMT_ a partition A warehouse table that contains information used to identify the mapping table partitioned base tables as part of a logical whole. The basic facts from which all metrics in the MicroStrategy Tutorial were created from are listed below. The amount of money charged by the supplier to the company per individual item purchased. Also referred to as a PMT. A fact table is a database table containing numeric data that may be aggregated along one or more dimensions. The number of individual items remaining at the close of each month. The amount of money charged to expedite delivery service. Fact tables may contain atomic or summarized data. The number of individual items acquired from a supplier. Begin on hand The number of individual items available at the beginning of each month. The number of individual items bought by customers. Fact Cost Discount End on hand Description The total amount charged by the supplier to the company. The amount of money charged by the company to the customer per individual item sold. . The schema also contains fact tables. Relate tables contain the ID columns of two or more attributes. A monetary reduction made from a regular price.A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide Symbol REL_ Indicates a relationship table Definition While lookup tables store information about one or more attributes. relate tables store information about the relationship between two attributes.

Inc. MicroStrategy Tutorial schema 283 .Project Design Guide MicroStrategy Tutorial A Geography schema © 2007 MicroStrategy.

A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide Products schema 284 MicroStrategy Tutorial schema © 2007 MicroStrategy. . Inc.

MicroStrategy Tutorial schema 285 . Inc.Project Design Guide MicroStrategy Tutorial A Customers schema © 2007 MicroStrategy.

A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide Time schema 286 MicroStrategy Tutorial schema © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. .

Inc. MicroStrategy Tutorial schema 287 .Project Design Guide MicroStrategy Tutorial A Promotions schema Sales fact tables © 2007 MicroStrategy.

Inc. .A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide Inventory fact tables Miscellaneous fact tables 288 MicroStrategy Tutorial schema © 2007 MicroStrategy.

Use circular joins: Select whether to use circular joins. and then choose Tables. 2 From the Schema menu. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Use circular joins: Select whether to use circular joins. MicroStrategy Tutorial schema 289 . You must login as an Administrator to complete these steps. 5 To change display preferences for the logical view. Show column data types: Select whether to show the data type and size for each column. Show table prefixes: Select whether to display the table prefix as part of the table name. the TablesMicroStrategy Tutorial dialog box opens with the physical view displayed. log in to the project source containing the MicroStrategy Tutorial and expand the MicroStrategy Tutorial project. then Logical View. you can also view it or the logical schema directly in the product. select View. To view the MicroStrategy Tutorial schema 1 If you are not already using the Tutorial. point to Graphical View. Once loaded. 3 To switch to the logical view. Inc. 4 To change display preferences for the physical view. use the following options from the Options menu: • • • • Show joins: Select whether to connect the tables to represent the joins between the warehouse tables.Project Design Guide MicroStrategy Tutorial A Viewing the MicroStrategy Tutorial schema Although the MicroStrategy Tutorial physical schema is displayed in the previous pages. use the following options from the Options menu: • • Show joins: Select whether to connect the tables to represent the joins between the table columns.

9 To return to the default view. Show relationship types: Choose whether to differentiate between one-to-one. Inc. but allows you to view the tables in a way meaningful to you. this saved view is displayed. 10 To save the layout view of the tables. 8 You can rearrange the tables by dragging and dropping them. 11 To copy the layout view. 7 To view the entire schema in the window. This does not affect the relationships or joins. one-to-many. then Physical View. select Copy as Metafile from the File menu. select View. . 290 MicroStrategy Tutorial schema © 2007 MicroStrategy. Show columns: Select whether to display the warehouse columns that define each attribute. click Auto arrange in the toolbar. many-to-one.A MicroStrategy Tutorial Project Design Guide • • Show relationships: Choose whether to map the relationships between the tables. The next time you open the Table Viewer. and many-to-many relationships. • 6 To switch back to the physical view. as a link between the logical and physical views. click Save in the toolbar. click the Fit in window button on the toolbar.

B CONNECTING TO OLAP CUBE SOURCES B. The integration with SAP BW uses SAP’s OLAP Business Application Programming Interface (BAPI). Analysis Services 2005. Inc. and Microsoft Analysis Services Introduction Many companies have both a data warehouse and an OLAP cube source such as SAP Business Intelligence Warehouse (SAP BW). this appendix discusses the following topics: • • MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources. Specifically. that can concurrently access OLAP cube sources and the data warehouse effectively. Microsoft Analysis Services (Analysis Services). or Hyperion Essbase (Essbase). Integration with Analysis Services 2000. This system setup requires an integrated business intelligence (BI) solution. page 298 © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 292 Understanding the SAP BW terminology. such as MicroStrategy. SAP BW. and Essbase uses XML for Analysis (XMLA). 291 . Hyperion Essbase. This appendix describes how MicroStrategy Intelligence Server integrates with these products using MultiDimensional Expressions (MDX).

MicroStrategy refers to SAP BW/SAP BI OLAP cube sources as SAP BW. page 340 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy. page 343 MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources MicroStrategy provides a rich set of functionality ranging from OLAP Services and Report Services to Narrowcast capabilities. Using the MicroStrategy standard interface. all of which can be exposed via a unified Web interface. . page 337 Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers.0 With version 7.0.1 292 MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 327 Connecting to Essbase servers. page 322 Connecting to SAP BW servers. page 334 Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers. page 302 Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy. page 317 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy. SAP has renamed SAP BW to SAP BI. Intelligence Server can join data from different OLAP cube sources. in addition to relational databases. These additional OLAP cube sources include the following: • SAP BW 3. • • • Microsoft Analysis Services 2000 Microsoft Analysis Services 2005 Hyperion Essbase 7.1 and 3.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • • • • • • • • • Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy. and bring the data into one single MicroStrategy project. Inc.5 and SAP BI 7. page 311 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy.

MicroStrategy has chosen to use the OLAP BAPI approach because it is the most native interface that SAP provides. and MicroStrategy Web and SDK are certified to run with SAP Enterprise Portal through iView Packages. It is important to understand that the MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources does not change the overall structure of the MicroStrategy product. SEM.microsoft. CRM. Analysis Services and Essbase store data in cubes obtained from various sources. integration allows MicroStrategy to gain additional data sources for analysis.0. and properties data. see the MicroStrategy readme. refer to http://msdn. MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources 293 . MicroStrategy Web Universal is certified to run on SAP Web Application Server. you can get the best out of both products. Inc. Defined by Microsoft. MDX is similar to SQL but is used to query cubes. With the SAP BW OLAP BAPI Certification on MicroStrategy 8. cell data.xmla. To access the data.org and is the basis for the MicroStrategy implementation. SAP BW obtains data from R/3. Likewise.3. the OLAP BAPI provides an open interface through which Intelligence Server can access the SAP BW data. including the following: © 2007 MicroStrategy. MicroStrategy Intelligence Server is certified to connect and execute reports against SAP BW cubes. If you use OLAP cube sources and MicroStrategy as your combined BI solution. The XMLA integration provides a Web Service interface for OLAP and data mining functions. In other words. For more information on MDX syntax. or another SAP data source system. With the Powered by Net Weaver Certification on MicroStrategy 7i -7. Rather.5. the Intelligence Server generates MDX. each of these products is simply another data warehouse that holds data for report generation.com/ and search for MDX.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B For MicroStrategy’s support status with the OLAP cube sources listed above.1 of the specification is available at www. An MDX expression returns a multidimensional result set (dataset) that consists of axis data. As SAP’s proprietary API for accessing SAP BW data and functionality. This data is stored in cubes or other SAP objects. Version 1.

refer to the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. Support for SAP BW. and Query Builder provides additional mechanisms for pulling data into the MicroStrategy platform for analysis.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • • • • • Access to OLAP cube sources and a regular data warehouse Five styles of BI Custom development of reports and applications Transaction-level analysis Integration with other systems via Web Services For troubleshooting and diagnostics logging routines related to OLAP cube sources. For information on Freeform SQL and Query Builder reporting. Understanding MicroStrategy architecture The MicroStrategy platform offers OLAP Services. Analysis Services. and Narrowcast Server functionality. Essbase. Freeform SQL. Once the data is retrieved. it is treated in the same 294 MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources © 2007 MicroStrategy. . Inc. see the Troubleshooting the System chapter of the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. all of which can be accessed through MicroStrategy Web. Report Services. as illustrated in the following diagram. Data is pulled from multiple OLAP cube sources using MDX and operational systems using Freeform SQL or Query Builder.

it is helpful to review the basic object model of MicroStrategy 7i and how various data sources were accessed then. © 2007 MicroStrategy. MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources 295 . which was represented by the database instance. This means that core MicroStrategy capabilities are available no matter what the original data source is. One database instance could be referenced by multiple projects in a configuration. Inc.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B manner as data pulled from the relational data warehouse. To understand the current MicroStrategy architecture better. each pointing to a data warehouse. Each project contained one project schema that held the logical model for that project. you could have multiple MicroStrategy projects. Object model in MicroStrategy 7i In the 7i metadata model. shown below.

a Report Services document can contain multiple datasets. Inc. each OLAP cube report points directly to one cube in MicroStrategy.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide When a report was executed. You can create multiple reports to run against one cube. the SQL Engine would implicitly reference the schema to determine which table(s) should be queried. 296 MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources © 2007 MicroStrategy. note that instead of pointing to the project schema. due to the structure in OLAP cube sources where queries can only be run against one cube at a time. Each report can only reference one specific cube. However. Object model in MicroStrategy 8 The MicroStrategy 8 model shown below highlights how a project can be extended to access OLAP cube sources through a separate database instance. but the only source is the data warehouse. and a single MicroStrategy project can reference multiple database instances. each of which can represent a distinct OLAP cube source. which is a logical placeholder for a physical cube that exists in an OLAP cube source. . In addition.

Query Builder reports. report designers can create rich reports and analytics that take advantage of data from both data warehouses and OLAP cube sources. refer to the MicroStrategy Document Creation Guide. MicroStrategy integration with OLAP cube sources 297 . Freeform SQL reports. described as follows: © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B The model also shows how you can include any number of standard reports. refer to the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. For information on Freeform SQL and Query Builder reports. and OLAP cube reports in one Report Services document. Authentication Most of the standard MicroStrategy platform authentication features also apply to OLAP cube sources and OLAP cube reports. For information on Report Services documents. By bringing these different types of reports together inside a document.

If multiple sources are configured for warehouse pass-through execution. it is recommended that you use connection mapping or pass-through authentication. To enforce OLAP cube source security in MicroStrategy. you need to be familiar with the terms that are used to describe the SAP BW objects. NT Authentication can be used to authenticate the user to the Intelligence Server.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • Standard authentication and LDAP authentication: are supported independent of the data source that is being used. refer to your SAP documentation. but not to the cube sources. specific connection mappings may be designated for each database instance and user or group combination. refer to the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. . This is explained in Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy. for example. NT authentication: used for database logins are not supported with OLAP cube sources. 298 Understanding the SAP BW terminology © 2007 MicroStrategy. then the same login information must be applicable to all sources. Further information is provided later in this appendix on how the SAP BW objects are related to those in the MicroStrategy environment. Some of these terms are provided in the following section. • • • For information on authentication in general. relational databases or OLAP cube sources. In addition. Connection mapping: is supported the same way as for standard MicroStrategy reports. Inc. Understanding the SAP BW terminology Before looking in depth into how MicroStrategy integrates with SAP BW. For a comprehensive and detailed explanation on SAP BW objects. page 302. Warehouse pass-through authentication: is supported in the same way as for relational data providers.

Any existing query can be released for analysis within MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B • InfoObject: are the building blocks for individual cubes. Data is organized by dimension and stored physically in a star schema. The fact table at the center of an InfoCube contains the data available for analysis. InfoCubes define a specific domain of analysis in special areas. Query cube (or query): defines a subset of data from an InfoCube or another InfoProvider. MultiProvider: is a logical union of two or more InfoProviders that are used to combine data from two different subject areas. finance or sales. Query cubes also provide MicroStrategy users access to additional InfoProviders including ODS objects. A query cube includes characteristics (dimensions/attributes) and key figures (metrics) from its source provider. To release a query for analysis in MicroStrategy. • • InfoCube: is the primary object that SAP BW uses to store data for analysis. and MultiProviders. which is described below. for example. Understanding the SAP BW terminology 299 . Inc. They include objects such as characteristics and key figures. InfoProvider: is a generic term defining all SAP BW data structures available for reporting and analysis purposes such as the following: InfoCube: is a multi-dimensional cube. three InfoCubes or two ODS objects. ODS object: is an operational data store object. which are roughly equivalent to attributes and facts in a MicroStrategy project. The relationship between the InfoCube and the query cube is very similar to how a MicroStrategy report includes a subset of modeled attributes and metrics that are available in the data warehouse. select the Allow External Access to This Query check box under the Extended tab in the SAP Query Properties dialog box in the Query Analyzer • © 2007 MicroStrategy. Query cubes generally offer better performance than InfoCubes because they are smaller and can be scheduled and cached within SAP BW. ODS objects are flat relational tables and are similar to MicroStrategy fact tables. InfoSets. for example.

quantities. However. However. they are presented with the traditional attribute-based parent-child relationships. This is similar to creating derived metrics and conditional metrics within the MicroStrategy environment. such as revenue. Variable: is used as a parameter of a query in SAP BW. numbers. date. Hierarchy: is a way of defining the relationships among elements within a characteristic. when the levels of a hierarchy are viewed in MicroStrategy. There are five types of key figures: amount. all of which can be used in InfoCubes. and finally Item. This is a different paradigm from MicroStrategy’s model where each attribute defines its own level. as noted later. • Characteristic: provides classification possibilities for a dataset. a Sales Region characteristic can have North. these variables are filled with values by the system or by the user. texts. ODS objects. • Key figure: describes numeric data. With this option enabled. such as sales region. hierarchies. Subcategory. In addition. and formulas. SAP BW characteristics are similar to MicroStrategy attributes. • • 300 Understanding the SAP BW terminology . SAP BW also has an object called an attribute. designers can quickly access existing query cubes and business content when working in MicroStrategy. Inc. For example. product. and period. the Item characteristic might have a hierarchy that includes Category. and South specifications. it is treated as a separate dimension for analysis. fiscal year. but it is equivalent to an attribute form in MicroStrategy. When the query is executed. when each characteristic is translated into a cube. You can also create calculated key figures and restricted key figures in the query definition in the Business Explorer. and master data attributes. hierarchy nodes.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide interface. variables can be of such types as characteristic values. © 2007 MicroStrategy. These hierarchies are also available when you work with a cube in MicroStrategy. For example. Central. and time. profit. Defined in the Query Designer. and number of call centers. customer group. hierarchies can be associated with a specific characteristic within SAP BW.

When working in MicroStrategy. When the OLAP cube is used to create a MicroStrategy report. all the variables in this cube are represented as prompts. You can select and combine InfoObjects or reusable structures for an InfoProvider and specify the view of the data (query view) by distributing them to filters. For more information on variables. standard prompts can also be created for this report. page 308. the report inherits all those prompts. InfoCubes. For more information. you will find a list of available cubes for reporting. In addition. Inc. refer to documentation provided by SAP BW. and free characteristics. you also need to have a basic understanding of the SAP Query Designer. where you define queries. For step-by-step instructions on how to create MicroStrategy reports from the data in SAP BW cubes. including all of the published query cubes. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. see Supporting SAP BW variables. rows. and MultiProviders. Understanding the SAP BW terminology 301 . © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B When an OLAP cube is imported into a MicroStrategy project. columns. Besides the above-mentioned terminology.

if you are a report designer. but not identical. However. The ODBO model is similar to SAP’s standard model. when thinking about SAP objects. 302 Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. keep in mind how those objects appear in ODBO. . you can treat SAP BW reports as if they were standard MicroStrategy reports. Thus. Inc. ODBO stands for OLE database for OLAP and is a protocol defined by Microsoft. The translation process involves the following steps: 1 From SAP BW to ODBO: SAP exposes its query cubes and InfoCubes to Intelligence Server through the ODBO model. it is helpful to understand how SAP’s metadata model is translated into MicroStrategy’s metadata model. ODBO defines an object model that is used in conjunction with MDX to query cubes.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy As a Web or Desktop Analyst.

Query cubes are accessed through their respective InfoCube catalogs. Inc. SAP BW ---> InfoCube ODBO ---> catalog MicroStrategy (catalog) • SAP BW: InfoCube Each InfoCube that has queries associated with it is exposed as a catalog in ODBO. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy 303 .Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B 2 From ODBO to MicroStrategy: After SAP objects are translated into the ODBO model. The following image demonstrates how SAP BW objects are exposed in ODBO and then how they are related to objects in the MicroStrategy environment. they are then translated into the MicroStrategy metadata model. You can then interact with SAP content while working within the paradigm that is consistent with the rest of MicroStrategy’s products. The following sub-sections—each starting with a table—describe each level of comparison from top to bottom as shown in the above illustration.

• MicroStrategy: not supported SAP BW ---> InfoCube/ query cube ODBO ---> cube MicroStrategy cube • • • SAP BW: InfoCube/query cube ODBO: cube MicroStrategy: cube A MicroStrategy cube is an object that is used to map the levels of an SAP BW cube into the MicroStrategy environment. Cubes are treated in a manner very similar to tables in the MicroStrategy metadata. MultiProviders. if any. a MicroStrategy cube maps the physical columns of an SAP BW cube to attributes and metrics. Therefore. In the same way that a regular table maps the physical columns of a relational table to attributes and metrics. . SAP BW ---> N/A ODBO ---> schema MicroStrategy N/A • • SAP BW: not supported ODBO: schema Schema in ODBO provides another grouping mechanism. The cube can be used to represent InfoCubes. Catalogs in MicroStrategy are represented in a folder. 304 Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • ODBO: Catalog Catalogs are used to group cubes. and query cubes. Inc. • MicroStrategy: (Catalog) Each catalog includes one InfoCube and associated query cubes. ODBO catalogs are exposed in a few editors when selecting and managing cubes.

all dimensions in cubes coming from SAP BW are shared. Therefore. Time and Geography are dimensions along which you can slice data. Quarter. each with an arbitrary number of levels. For more information. which represents months just like it does in MicroStrategy. For example. and Month. However. and the second level is the detailed data. The SAP BW characteristic hierarchies appear as hierarchies to MicroStrategy users. • ODBO: dimension A dimension in ODBO defines a logical category of analysis. © 2007 MicroStrategy. an InfoCube might include the Month characteristic. They can only be seen inside the SAP BEx Query Designer when you build a query cube. A characteristic appears as a dimension for MicroStrategy users. A characteristic can have any number of additional hierarchies. you can build a Time hierarchy that is attached to the Month characteristic. Each characteristic in SAP is modeled as a dimension in ODBO and is shared across cubes.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B SAP BW ---> characteristic ODBO ---> dimension MicroStrategy dimension • SAP BW: characteristic Characteristics in SAP BW are similar to attributes in MicroStrategy. Dimensions in SAP BW are used to group characteristics and are not exposed through the ODBO interface. Inc. Shared dimensions allow a designer to use only one definition for a dimension across multiple cubes. For example. or they could be other characteristics that are used to define the levels of this one hierarchy. For example. see the following sub-section. these same levels could either be specifically defined as part of the hierarchy. Each characteristic (dimension) has at least one hierarchy with two levels: the first level is an aggregate of all the data. Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy 305 . This hierarchy defines a number of levels including Year.

In this way. .B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Measures (metrics) are stored in a special measure dimension. Inc. 306 Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. In MicroStrategy. Measures in ODBO are called key figures in SAP BW. architects have the option to rename the levels of a cube with a more readable convention. • MicroStrategy: dimension A dimension object in MicroStrategy is very similar to an ODBO dimension. MicroStrategy reuses the hierarchy objects to represent both dimensions and hierarchies from ODBO. SAP BW ---> hierarchy ODBO ---> hierarchy MicroStrategy hierarchy • • • SAP BW: hierarchy ODBO: hierarchy MicroStrategy: hierarchy Hierarchies are used to group attributes (levels) together and define the relationships between these attributes. SAP BW ---> virtual level ODBO ---> level MicroStrategy attribute • SAP BW: virtual level Levels are generated automatically based on either the definition of the characteristic or the hierarchies associated with a characteristic. and they are represented as physical columns. measures are simply one more dimension of a cube. SAP BW levels have names such as Region Level 01. and so on. The inclusion of the term “Level” is an SAP BW convention. It is used to group attributes and define parent-child relationships. which are very similar to metrics in MicroStrategy. Region Level 02.

Inc. SAP BW ---> characteristic value ODBO ---> member MicroStrategy (attribute element) • • • SAP BW: characteristic value ODBO: member MicroStrategy: (attribute element) Element values come from either the database or a cube. SAP BW ---> characteristic attribute ODBO ---> property MicroStrategy attribute form • • • SAP BW: characteristic attribute ODBO: property MicroStrategy: attribute form Attribute forms provide additional information about a given attribute. These attributes are presented as distinct dimensions when working in MicroStrategy. © 2007 MicroStrategy. For example. each ODBO level generates two physical columns and forms in MicroStrategy—ID and DESC. For example. However. 2003 and 2004 are elements of the Year attribute. SAP BW also supports navigational attributes. In SAP BW. the Customer attribute may have the forms First Name and Last Name. Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy 307 . This concept also applies to ODBO and SAP BW. forms are sometimes referred to directly as attributes.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B • • ODBO: level MicroStrategy: attribute (ID/DESC) MicroStrategy attributes map to ODBO levels.

. you must remove them before importing the cube into MicroStrategy. Originally created in an SAP query cube. see the Prompts section of the Creating OLAP Cube Reports chapter of the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. refer to your SAP documentation. including characteristic values. For detailed information on variables. hierarchies. For more information. hierarchy nodes. Otherwise. 308 Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. Only variables with the Manual Entry/Default processing type are presented to users for resolution. variables are represented as prompts in the MicroStrategy environment. additional standard MicroStrategy prompts can also be created for the report. these variables are filled with values. Inc. On top of the “inherited” variable prompts. Variable types with the Customer Exit/SAP Exit and Authorization processing types are automatically resolved by the SAP BW system. If your SAP BW cube included variables of type Replacement Path. The conversion process involves the following general steps: 1 When an SAP query cube is imported into a MicroStrategy project. There are several types of variables. variables are automatically turned into prompts in the MicroStrategy OLAP cube. SAP BW variables of type Replacement Path cannot be imported into MicroStrategy. When the query is being executed. and formula elements. an error occurs when you attempt to import the SAP BW cube. 2 When a MicroStrategy report is created using a MicroStrategy OLAP cube. the report inherits the prompts included in the OLAP cube. texts.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Supporting SAP BW variables Variables are used in SAP BW to enter values as parameters for the queries on a cube.

Variable Type. dimensions. Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy 309 . Default Low Description. The OLAP Cube Catalog lists all the prompts that were converted from variables. you can view any variable’s properties by right-clicking its name and then selecting Properties. and measures/key figures. in addition to cube names.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Mapping between variables and prompts can be viewed in the OLAP Cube Catalog. Default Low. Entry Type. Selection Type. In addition. Rename the prompt. In the OLAP Cube Catalog. as shown in the following image. Details about this variable in SAP BW are displayed on the Variable tab. including Variable Name. © 2007 MicroStrategy. or Map the variable to a prompt in an existing MicroStrategy project. using the right-mouse click you can Edit the prompt in the Prompt Generation Wizard. and Variable Ordinal. Inc.

you need to manually set the variable’s property in the OLAP Cube Catalog. you can view the prompt details in the Report Details pane in the Report Editor. Inc. If you use any SAP BW key date variables in your query. SAP Variable Type ---> Characteristic Value variable Hierarchy variable MicroStrategy Prompt Element list prompt or attribute qualification prompt N/A Notes See the note below for more information. Not supported. a prompt is displayed only once. while those in the Excluding section restrict the data from being displayed in the query. This allows the same prompt answer to be used to resolve multiple variables during document execution. The following table contains information on how the different types of SAP BW variables are mapped to MicroStrategy prompts. For more information about prompts in OLAP cube reports. To be consistent with the SAP functionality. 310 Relating objects from SAP BW to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. After an OLAP cube report is executed.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide One prompt can be mapped to more than one variable across cubes. Qualifications in the Including section cause the data to be brought into the query. Hierarchy Node variable Hierarchy element list prompt Text variable Formula variable N/A Value prompt: all types Characteristic value variables offer an “Including/Excluding” option. the MicroStrategy interface qualifies on the key value of each element by default. When executing a Report Services document with multiple datasets using these cubes. . see the Prompts section of the Creating OLAP Cube Reports chapter of the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. so it is distinguished from a simple characteristic variable on date. Both single and multiple selection are supported. Not available from SAP BW. No major changes. This is especially useful if you want to get a summary of the variable elements that are used in answering the variable prompts.

you cannot drill down into the elements of characteristic structures. Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy As a Web or Desktop Analyst. In a MicroStrategy report. © 2007 MicroStrategy. a query could also have characteristic structures.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Set the properties for key date variables 1 Right-click the variable name and select Properties. In addition to key figure structures. Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy 311 . The Properties [variable name] dialog box is displayed. Inc. it is helpful to understand how Essbase’s metadata model is translated into MicroStrategy’s metadata model. However. if you are a report designer. This representation is consistent with how characteristic variables are represented in SAP BW through the OLAP Business Application Programming Interface (BAPI). each of which is represented as a single flat dimension with one level. and then click OK. you can treat OLAP cube reports from an Essbase OLAP cube as if they were standard MicroStrategy reports. SAP BW structures Structures in an SAP BW query cube define the two axes of a query (rows and columns) and are of two types: key figure structures and characteristic structures. 2 On the Variable tab. select the Set Key Date check box. Each element of a key figure structure is represented as a unique metric in the MicroStrategy environment.

312 Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide The translation process involves the following steps: 1 From Essbase to XMLA: Essbase exposes its databases through the XMLA model which is derived from the ODBO model used by SAP. they are then translated into the MicroStrategy metadata model. The Essbase model predates XMLA so there are some differences. . You can then interact with Essbase content while working within the paradigm that is consistent with the rest of MicroStrategy’s products. When thinking about Essbase objects. 2 From XMLA to MicroStrategy: After Essbase objects are translated into the XMLA model. XMLA defines an object model that is used in conjunction with MDX to query cubes. Inc. The following image demonstrates how Essbase objects are exposed in XMLA and then how they are related to objects in the MicroStrategy environment. keep in mind how those objects appear in XMLA.

XMLA catalogs are exposed in editors when selecting and managing cubes.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B The following subsections (each starting with a table) describe each level of comparison from top to bottom as shown in the above illustration. • MicroStrategy: not supported Essbase ---> database XMLA ---> cube MicroStrategy cube • • Essbase: database XMLA: cube © 2007 MicroStrategy. Essbase ---> Application XMLA ---> catalog MicroStrategy (catalog) • Essbase: Application Each Application is exposed as a catalog in XMLA. • MicroStrategy: (catalog) Each catalog includes one application and associated databases. Inc. Essbase ---> N/A XMLA ---> schema MicroStrategy N/A • • Essbase: not supported XMLA: schema Schema in XMLA provides another grouping mechanism. Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy 313 . Catalogs in MicroStrategy are represented as a folder. Therefore. if any. • XMLA: catalog Catalogs are used to group cubes. Databases are accessed through their respective catalogs.

The cube represents an Essbase database. a dimension represents the highest consolidation level in the database outline. . Cubes are treated in a manner very similar to tables in the MicroStrategy metadata. • MicroStrategy: dimension 314 Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. Measures in ODBO are the members of the dimension of type=Accounts in Essbase. Inc. measures are simply one more dimension of a cube. • XMLA: dimension A dimension in XMLA defines a logical category of analysis. Each dimension has a single root node or member and is a child of the outline root node which is the database. For example. Measures (metrics) are stored in a special measure dimension. Each dimension has a single hierarchy with the number of levels determined by the greatest depth in the outline. These can be raw data or formulas with associated calculation or aggregation rules. The dimension therefore is both the highest level member in the dimension and the dimension itself. An Essbase dimension appears as a dimension for MicroStrategy users. In this way. Essbase ---> dimension XMLA ---> dimension MicroStrategy dimension • Essbase: dimension In Essbase. Time and Geography are dimensions along which you can slice data.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • MicroStrategy: cube A MicroStrategy cube is an object that is used to map the levels of an Essbase cube into the MicroStrategy environment. A MicroStrategy cube maps the physical columns of an Essbase cube to attributes and metrics in the same way that a regular table maps the physical columns of a relational table to attributes and metrics.

Levels(0). architects have the option to rename the levels of a cube with a more readable convention. Inc. Essbase ---> dimension XMLA ---> hierarchy MicroStrategy hierarchy • Essbase: dimension An Essbase dimension is defined as part of the database outline. the outline defines a single hierarchy.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B A dimension object in MicroStrategy is very similar to an XMLA dimension. • • XMLA: level MicroStrategy: attribute (ID/DESC) © 2007 MicroStrategy. MicroStrategy reuses the hierarchy objects to represent both dimensions and hierarchies from XMLA. Therefore the dimension is the same as the hierarchy in Essbase. • • XMLA: hierarchy MicroStrategy: hierarchy Hierarchies are used to group attributes (levels) together and define the relationships between these attributes. As a result. Essbase levels may have default names such as Time. Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy 315 . The outline is a hierarchical structure of database members with a parent containing its children. It is used to group attributes and define parent-child relationships. In MicroStrategy. Essbase ---> level XMLA ---> level MicroStrategy attribute • Essbase: level Levels group together members in an Essbase database outline.

each XMLA level generates the two physical columns and forms ID and DESC in MicroStrategy. Until they are returned as rows in the property schema rowset they are not available as attribute forms in MicroStrategy. Inc.1. However. • • XMLA: property MicroStrategy: attribute form Attribute forms provide additional information about a given attribute.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide MicroStrategy attributes map to XMLA levels. . However. properties can be defined for a database as user defined attributes or attribute dimensions and used in an MDX statement. the Customer attribute may have the forms First Name and Last Name.3 does not return any properties in the XMLA property schema rowset. For example. 316 Relating objects from Essbase to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. Essbase ---> N/A XMLA ---> property MicroStrategy attribute form • Essbase: N/A Essbase as of version 7. Essbase ---> member XMLA ---> member MicroStrategy attribute element • • • Essbase: member XMLA: member MicroStrategy: attribute element Element values come from either the database or a cube. 2003 and 2004 are elements of the Year attribute. For example.

Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy Microsoft Analysis Services 2000 (Analysis Services 2000) cubes are exposed directly for XMLA access. You can then interact with Analysis Services 2000 content while working within the paradigm that is consistent with the rest of MicroStrategy’s products. If you are a report designer. Inc. 2 From XMLA to MicroStrategy: After Analysis Services 2000 objects are translated into the XMLA model. © 2007 MicroStrategy. The translation process involves the following steps: 1 From Analysis Services 2000 to XMLA: Analysis Services 2000 exposes its cubes through the XMLA model which is derived from the ODBO model. they are then translated into the MicroStrategy metadata model. Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy 317 . XMLA defines an object model that is used in conjunction with MDX to query cubes. it is helpful to understand how Analysis Services 2000’s metadata model is translated into MicroStrategy’s metadata model.

Therefore. The following sub-sections—each starting with a table—describe each level of comparison from top to bottom as shown in the above illustration. XMLA catalogs are exposed in editors when selecting and managing cubes. • XMLA: catalog Catalogs are used to group cubes. Inc.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide The following image demonstrates how Analysis Services 2000 objects are exposed in XMLA and then how they are related to objects in the MicroStrategy environment. Cubes are accessed through their respective catalogs. Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> database catalog MicroStrategy (catalog) • Analysis Services 2000: database Each database is exposed as a catalog in XMLA. . • MicroStrategy: (catalog) 318 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy.

a MicroStrategy cube maps the physical columns of an Analysis Services 2000 cube to attributes and metrics. Catalogs in MicroStrategy are represented as a folder. if any. Inc. Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> dimension dimension MicroStrategy dimension • Analysis Services 2000: dimension © 2007 MicroStrategy. • MicroStrategy: not supported Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> cube cube MicroStrategy cube • • • Analysis Services 2000: cube XMLA: cube MicroStrategy: cube A MicroStrategy cube is an object that is used to map the levels of an Analysis Services 2000 cube into the MicroStrategy environment. Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy 319 . Cubes are treated in a manner very similar to tables in the MicroStrategy metadata. In the same way that a regular table maps the physical columns of a relational table to attributes and metrics. Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> N/A schema MicroStrategy N/A • • Analysis Services 2000: not supported XMLA: schema Schema in XMLA provides another grouping mechanism. The cube represents an Analysis Services 2000 cube.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Each catalog includes one database and associated cubes.

For example. MicroStrategy reuses the hierarchy objects to represent both dimensions and hierarchies from XMLA. a dimension is defined from one or more tables of data. In this way. related dimensions can be grouped together so that they represent hierarchies of the same dimension from an XMLA perspective. . It is used to group attributes and define parent-child relationships. 320 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. measures are simply one more dimension of a cube. Measures (metrics) are stored in a special measure dimension. Measures in XMLA are the members of the Measures dimension in Analysis Services 2000. These can be columns in the table or calculated members represented by formulas with associated aggregation rules.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide In Analysis Services 2000. Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> dimension hierarchy MicroStrategy hierarchy • Analysis Services 2000: dimension Using a structured naming approach. • XMLA: dimension A dimension in XMLA defines a logical category of analysis. An Analysis Services 2000 dimension appears as a dimension for MicroStrategy users. Inc. Time and Geography are dimensions along which you can slice data. • • XMLA: hierarchy MicroStrategy: hierarchy Hierarchies are used to group attributes (levels) together and define the relationships between these attributes. Each dimension can have one or more hierarchies. • MicroStrategy: dimension A dimension object in MicroStrategy is very similar to an XMLA dimension.

However. • • XMLA: level MicroStrategy: attribute (ID/DESC) MicroStrategy attributes map to XMLA levels. For example. XMLA: property MicroStrategy: attribute form Relating objects from Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy 321 . Member properties are returned in the XMLA property schema rowset. 2003 and 2004 are elements of the Year attribute.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> level level MicroStrategy attribute • Analysis Services 2000: level Levels are mapped to columns in a table and are organized into hierarchies and dimensions. each XMLA level generates two physical columns and forms in MicroStrategy—ID and DESC. Inc. Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> member member MicroStrategy attribute element • • • Analysis Services 2000: member XMLA: member MicroStrategy: attribute element Element values come from a cube. • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. Analysis Services 2000 ---> XMLA ---> member property property MicroStrategy attribute form • Analysis Services 2000: member property A member property is a descriptive piece of information associated with the element of a level.

322 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. You can then interact with Analysis Services 2005 content while working within the paradigm that is consistent with the rest of MicroStrategy’s products. they are then translated into the MicroStrategy metadata model. . 2 From XMLA to MicroStrategy: After Analysis Services 2005 objects are translated into the XMLA model. the Customer attribute may have the forms First Name and Last Name. This section is limited to information on the basic cube object and how it relates to the XMLA model.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Attribute forms provide additional information about a given attribute. Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy Microsoft Analysis Services 2005 (Analysis Services 2005) has a unique modeling approach for building cubes. XMLA defines an object model that is used in conjunction with MDX to query cubes. Inc. The translation process involves the following steps: 1 From Analysis Services 2005 to XMLA: Analysis Services 2005 exposes its cubes through the XMLA model which is derived from the ODBO model. For example.

Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> database catalog MicroStrategy (catalog) • Analysis Services 2005: database Each database is exposed as a catalog in XMLA. Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy 323 . XMLA catalogs are exposed in editors when selecting and managing cubes. The following sub-sections—each starting with a table—describe each level of comparison from top to bottom as shown in the above illustration. • MicroStrategy: (catalog) © 2007 MicroStrategy. Cubes are accessed through their respective catalogs.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B The following image demonstrates how Analysis Services 2005 objects are exposed in XMLA and then how they are related to objects in the MicroStrategy environment. • XMLA: catalog Catalogs are used to group cubes. Therefore. Inc.

Cubes are treated in a manner very similar to tables in the MicroStrategy metadata. • MicroStrategy: not supported Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> perspective cube MicroStrategy cube • Analysis Services 2005: perspective A perspective in Analysis Services 2005 is a view of the defined cube and the list of perspectives includes the original cube. . Catalogs in MicroStrategy are represented as a folder.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Each catalog includes one database and associated cubes. Inc. The cube represents an Analysis Services 2005 cube. • • XMLA: cube MicroStrategy: cube A MicroStrategy cube is an object that is used to map the levels of an Analysis Services 2005 cube into the MicroStrategy environment. a MicroStrategy cube maps the physical columns of an Analysis Services 2005 cube to attributes and metrics. Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> N/A schema MicroStrategy N/A • • Analysis Services 2005: not supported XMLA: schema Schema in XMLA provides another grouping mechanism. if any. 324 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. In the same way that a regular table maps the physical columns of a relational table to attributes and metrics.

a dimension is defined from one or more data source tables. For example. Inc. Time and Geography are dimensions along which you can slice data. a data source does not always map directly to the tables in a relational database.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> dimension dimension MicroStrategy dimension • Analysis Services 2005: dimension In Analysis Services 2005. Unlike Analysis Services 2000. These can be columns in the data source table or calculated members represented by formulas with associated aggregation rules. • MicroStrategy: dimension A dimension object in MicroStrategy is very similar to an XMLA dimension. It is used to group attributes and define parent-child relationships. Each attribute is used to define a hierarchy within the dimension and multi-level hierarchies can be defined as well. Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> hierarchy hierarchy MicroStrategy hierarchy © 2007 MicroStrategy. All columns in the tables are eligible to become attributes of the dimension. • XMLA: dimension A dimension in XMLA defines a logical category of analysis. Each dimension can have one or more hierarchies. Measures (metrics) are stored in a special measure dimension. An Analysis Services 2005 dimension appears as a dimension for MicroStrategy users. Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy 325 . measures are simply one more dimension of a cube. In this way. Measures in XMLA are the members of the Measures dimension in Analysis Services 2005.

However. Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> level level MicroStrategy attribute • Analysis Services 2005: level Each attribute in a hierarchy becomes a level. 2003 and 2004 are elements of the Year attribute. Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> member member MicroStrategy attribute element • • • Analysis Services 2005: member XMLA: member MicroStrategy: attribute element Element values come from a cube. • • XMLA: hierarchy MicroStrategy: hierarchy Hierarchies are used to group attributes (levels) together and define the relationships between these attributes. • • XMLA: level MicroStrategy: attribute (ID/DESC) MicroStrategy attributes map to XMLA levels. MicroStrategy reuses the hierarchy objects to represent both dimensions and hierarchies from XMLA. Inc. each XMLA level generates two physical columns and forms in MicroStrategy—ID and DESC. 326 Relating objects from Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. For example. .B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • Analysis Services 2005: hierarchy Analysis Services 2005 allows the definition of one or more hierarchies within a dimension as collections of attributes which become levels of the hierarchy.

Member properties are returned in the XMLA property schema rowset. Before creating any reports using the SAP BW data. Inc. For any late-breaking changes to the certification status of connecting to various SAP BW versions. MicroStrategy can also use SAP BW as a data source to conduct enterprise reporting and analysis.0.1. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. For example. see the MicroStrategy readme.5. Connecting to SAP BW servers 327 . • • XMLA: property MicroStrategy: attribute form Attribute forms provide additional information about a given attribute. Connecting to SAP BW servers In addition to relational databases. For more information on establishing a connection to SAP BW. and 7. the Customer attribute may have the forms First Name and Last Name. MicroStrategy certifies connecting to SAP BW 3. you need to establish a connection to the SAP BW system.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Analysis Services 2005 ---> XMLA ---> member property property MicroStrategy attribute form • Analysis Services 2005: member property Attributes can be related as member properties when defining the levels of a dimension. This section discusses how to connect to SAP BW servers in the following environments: • • Connecting to SAP BW servers on Windows Connecting to SAP BW servers on UNIX and Linux © 2007 MicroStrategy. 3.

11. Take the following steps to connect to SAP BW servers in Windows.4 and JCo 2.1.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Connecting to SAP BW servers on Windows Important note from SAP: “Starting with JCo 2.dll Locate the Path environment variable from your machine’s System Properties dialog (right-click on My Computer and select Properties). 3 Place the following SAP Java Connector files in any directory that is referenced in the Path environment variable: • • Librfc32. In 328 Connecting to SAP BW servers © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. refer to the Tech Note TN5800-800-0559. select Environment Variables.” Depending on your system and SAP BW setup. You can use the following URL to download the Java Connector: https://service. on the Advanced tab.1. 2 Install the SAP Java Connector. See SAP Note 684106 for details on how to install them.com/~form/sapnet?_SHOR TKEY=01100035870000463649 MicroStrategy certifies version 2.0. For more information.dll Sapjcorfc. you may have to perform some extra configuration and troubleshooting steps to connect to SAP BW servers. . To connect to SAP BW servers on Windows 1 Open the SAP Service Marketplace and download the SAP Java Connector. you are required to install the new Visual Studio .sap.3 and also supports more recent versions.NET C/C++ run-time libraries on Windows platforms.

and then Database Instance from the File menu. 6 From the folder list. select a database connection or create a new database connection that provides the following information as required: • • • • Application Server is the name of the SAP BW Server or IP address. System Number from the SAP BW system.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B the list of System Variables. C:\Program files\Common files\MicroStrategy. Inc. select Database Instance Manager. Client Number from the SAP BW system. as shown below. To specify database connection parameters 9 For the database instance. To create a database instance for your SAP BW connection 5 In Desktop. Connecting to SAP BW servers 329 . 8 Create a database instance with SAP BW as the database connection type. 7 Select New. For example. Verify that the directory is included in the value for the Path variable. 4 Place the Sapjco. The Database Instance editor opens. © 2007 MicroStrategy. SAP Router String if you use an SAP Router. locate Path. open a project source and expand Administration from the folder list.jar in the Common Files MicroStrategy folder.

To connect to SAP BW servers on UNIX/Linux 1 Open the SAP Service Marketplace and download the SAP Java Connector. Connecting to SAP BW servers on UNIX and Linux Take the following steps to connect to SAP BW servers in UNIX. EN is the language code for English. . Note the following: • • You can get the above information from your SAP Logon. For more information.sap. you may have to perform some extra configuration and troubleshooting steps to connect to SAP BW servers. refer to the MicroStrategy online help. For example. Inc. Depending on your system and SAP BW setup. refer to the MicroStrategy Tech Note TN5300-802-0734. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. For more information.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • Language is the language code provided by your SAP administrator. You can use the following URL to download the Java Connector: https://service. To specify a database login 10 Create a database login with the user and password to use to connect to SAP BW. You can use either the Database Instances Editor or the Database Instance Wizard to create a database instance for SAP BW.com/~form/sapnet?_SHOR TKEY=01100035870000463649 330 Connecting to SAP BW servers © 2007 MicroStrategy. For more detailed steps on creating a database instance and related components to connect to SAP BW.

For example. The default is Read Only. copy them onto your machine. For example.jar 4 Edit the SAP.sh” in the UNIX/Linux console. 3 Search for the files listed in the following table. use the command gunzip [file name] or gzip [file name].1.sh file and enter the information for XXXX_SAP_LIBRARY_PATH=’’. 2 Select the zip file for the platform you want to use and unzip it. AIX librfccm. Inc. /opt/var/MicroStrategy/SAP.jar SUN librfccm. Connecting to SAP BW servers 331 . This information indicates where the server needs to point to use the downloaded files.jar Linux librfccm.sh file in the MicroStrategy installation directory [INSTALL_PATH]/env/SAP. for AIX: # # set up the environment for SAP # XXXX_SAP_LIBRARY_PATH='/opt/var/MicroStr ategy/SAP' if [ -n "${XXXX_SAP_LIBRARY_PATH}" ]. then xxxx_append_path LD_LIBRARY_PATH "${XXXX_SAP_LIBRARY_PATH:?}" export LD_LIBRARY_PATH fi • © 2007 MicroStrategy.so libsapjcorfc. For example. and create a new directory for them.sh by doing the following: • Add the Write and Execute privileges to this file.o libsapjcorfc.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B • MicroStrategy certifies version 2.so sapjco. You can type the command “chmod+wx SAP.so sapjco.so libsapjcorfc.so sapjco.3 and also supports more recent versions. Open the SAP.

select Database Instance Manager. 5 Add sapjco. Make sure you have Write privilege to this directory. then xxxx_append_path LIBPATH "${XXXX_SAP_LIBRARY_PATH:?}" export LIBPATH fi • Save the file. 8 From the folder list. and then Database Instance from the File menu. Inc. 9 Select New.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide For example. The Database Instance editor opens. . open a project source and expand Administration from the folder list. To create a database instance for your SAP BW connection 7 In Desktop (available only in Windows).jar to the installation directory. for Solaris: # # set up the environment for SAP # XXXX_SAP_LIBRARY_PATH='/opt/var/MicroStr ategy/SAP’ if [ -n "${XXXX_SAP_LIBRARY_PATH}" ]. 332 Connecting to SAP BW servers © 2007 MicroStrategy. /install/jar. 6 Restart the server to get the latest updates.

EN for English Note the following: • • You can get the above information from your SAP Logon. for example.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B 10 Create a database instance with SAP BW as the database connection type. select a database connection or create a new database connection that provides the following information as required: • • • • • Application Server: name of the SAP BW Server or IP address SAP Router String. For more information. Connecting to SAP BW servers 333 . as shown below. To specify database connection parameters 11 For the database instance. You can also refer to Tech Note TN5300-802-0734 for more information on setting up SAP BW with Intelligence Server Universal. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. You can use either the Database Instances Editor or the Database Instance Wizard to create a database instance for SAP BW. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. if you use an SAP Router System Number from the SAP BW system Client Number from the SAP BW system Language: the language code provided by your SAP administrator.

For more detailed steps on creating a database instance and related components to connect to SAP BW. Inc. This section discusses how to connect to Essbase servers in the Windows or UNIX/Linux environment. A Discover request supports queries to metadata and the results are packaged in a DiscoverResponse message. and the configuration of the XMLA provider for each of these products. For information on how to use the XMLA Connectivity Test Tool.xmla. you need to establish a connection to the Essbase servers.1 specification found at www. 334 Connecting to Essbase servers © 2007 MicroStrategy.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide To specify a database login 12 Create a database login with the user and password to use to connect to SAP BW. Configuring the XMLA Provider The material in this section assumes familiarity with the XMLA 1. refer to the MicroStrategy online help. Connecting to Essbase servers In addition to relational databases. MicroStrategy can also use Essbase as a data source to conduct enterprise reporting and analysis. refer to MicroStrategy Tech Note TN1100-000-0635. Before creating any reports using the Essbase data.org. The Execute request queries cube data and results are returned in an ExecuteResponse message. . You can think of XMLA as a Web Service that supports metadata and data queries against an OLAP Cube source. You can perform a test of the XMLA connection to your OLAP cube servers completely separate of any MicroStrategy dependencies with the XMLA Connectivity Test Tool provided with your MicroStrategy installation.

• • • • Creating a database instance Perform the following steps to connect to Hyperion Essbase servers.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Make sure the XMLA 1.1 and Apache Tomcat. Note the following: • For the latest information on the 3rd-party connection prerequisites given below. see MicroStrategy Tech Note TN5300-802-0794. The web application server may be installed on a different machine from the Essbase server. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. Consult your 3rd-party documentation for further details on system requirements and the latest updates. You can verify it is working by connecting to the provider URL from your browser. The Hyperion XMLA provider supports BEA WebLogic 6. refer to your 3rd-party documentation. You should receive a confirmation from the provider that includes a display of currently configured properties. For information on installation procedures. Connecting to Essbase servers 335 . Information for correctly installing the XMLA provider can be found in the 3rd-party documentation for Hyperion’s Enterprise Deployment Services product.1 provider is correctly deployed and security settings are configured correctly. The application server that hosts the Hyperion XMLA provider must enable anonymous access to the XMLA application.1 on the application server machine to verify that access is available to the Essbase server via the Service Console. The Hyperion XMLA Provider must be installed and configured on a compatible web application server. Install Hyperion Enterprise Deployment Services 7.

http://fully-qualified-machinename:8080/ xmla/EssbaseXmlForAnalysis. select a database connection or create a new database connection that provides the following information as required: • URL: This is the URL of the XMLA Provider that was configured for HTTP access. To specify database connection parameters 5 For the database instance. You can also use the IP address as the fully-qualified-machinename. 4 Create a database instance with Hyperion Essbase as the database connection type. • DSI: The DataSourceInfo (DSI) value is of the form: 336 Connecting to Essbase servers © 2007 MicroStrategy. 3 From the File menu. For example. 2 Expand Administration from the Folder List and select Database Instance Manager. The fully-qualified-machinename is usually of the form machine. as shown below. connect to a project source. The Database Instance editor opens. and then Database Instance.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide To create a database instance for Essbase 1 From the Desktop Folder List. select New. Inc.domain. .company. For Essbase the URL is most likely case sensitive.com.

you need to establish a connection to the Analysis Services 2000 servers.Data source=<machine name> The value is split between the DSI setting and an additional connection string parameters setting. Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers In addition to relational databases. Use the Essbase Administration Console to view the applications and databases available on the server.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Provider=Essbase. Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers . Note the following: • Before connecting to your Analysis Services 2000 servers. To specify a database login 6 Create a database login with the user and password to use to connect to the Web service hosting the Essbase XML Provider. Before creating any reports using the Analysis Services 2000 data. • Catalog: The Essbase Catalog value is the Essbase Application containing the database you want to work with in MicroStrategy. refer to the MicroStrategy online help. For more detailed steps on creating a database instance and related components to connect to Analysis Services. This section discusses how to connect to Analysis Services 2000 servers in the Windows or UNIX/Linux environment. MicroStrategy can also use Analysis Services 2000 as a data source to conduct enterprise reporting and analysis. A cube in XMLA is a database in Essbase. you should check that you meet all of the requirements listed in the tech note TN5200-802-0540. Inc. You can perform a test of the XMLA connection to your OLAP cube servers completely separate of any MicroStrategy dependencies with the XMLA 337 • © 2007 MicroStrategy.

select Database Instance Manager.xmla. You should receive an XML response indicating that the site is available as an XMLA provider. Inc. The Execute request queries cube data and results are returned in an ExecuteResponse message. Make sure the XMLA 1. Configuring the XMLA Provider The material in this section assumes familiarity with the XMLA 1. . 338 Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers © 2007 MicroStrategy. You can think of XMLA as a Web service that supports metadata and data queries against an OLAP Cube source. Creating a database instance Perform the following steps to connect to Microsoft Analysis Services 2000 servers.org. You can verify Analysis Services 2000 is working by connecting to the provider URL from your browser. Information for correctly installing the XMLA provider can be found in your Microsoft documentation.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Connectivity Test Tool provided with your MicroStrategy installation.1 provider is correctly deployed and security settings are configured correctly. refer to MicroStrategy Tech Note TN1100-000-0635. 2 From the folder list. For information on how to use the XMLA Connectivity Test Tool.1 specification found at www. and the configuration of the XMLA provider for each of these products. open a project source and expand Administration from the folder list. Creating a database instance for Analysis Services 2000 1 In Desktop. A Discover request supports queries to metadata and the results are packaged in a DiscoverResponse message.

xml file.com. To specify database connection parameters 5 For the database instance. • DSI: With Analysis Services 2000 the DataSourceInfo (DSI) value is the configuration setting for your data source labeled as DataSourceName in the datasources.dll The fully-qualified-machinename is usually of the form machine. For example. 4 Create a database instance with Microsoft Analysis Services as the database connection type. Catalog: Use Microsoft’s Analysis Manager to view the Analysis Server containing the cubes you want to work with in MicroStrategy. • © 2007 MicroStrategy. The database that contains the cube becomes the catalog for XMLA.domain. Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers 339 . as shown below. The Database Instance Editor opens. the URL is not case-sensitive. select New. For Analysis Services XMLA running on IIS. Inc. You can also use the IP address as the fully-qualified-machinename. http://fully-qualified-machinename/xmla/ msxisapi.company. and then Database Instance.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B 3 From the File menu. select a database connection or create a new database connection that provides the following information as required: • URL: This is the URL of the XMLA Provider that was configured for HTTP access.

MicroStrategy can also use Analysis Services 2005 as a data source to conduct enterprise reporting and analysis. Before creating any reports using the Analysis Services 2005 data. refer to MicroStrategy Tech Note TN1100-000-0635. • 340 Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers © 2007 MicroStrategy. This section discusses how to connect to Analysis Services 2005 servers in the Windows or UNIX/Linux environment. you need to establish a connection to the Analysis Services 2005 servers. Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers In addition to relational databases. Note the following: • Before connecting to your Analysis Services 2005 servers. For information on how to use the XMLA Connectivity Test Tool. Inc.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide To specify a database login 6 Create a database login with the user and password to use to connect to Analysis Services. refer to the tech note TN5300-802-0755. refer to the MicroStrategy online help. . For more detailed steps on creating a database instance and related components to connect to Analysis Services. you should check that you meet all of the requirements listed in the tech note TN5200-802-0542. You can perform a test of the XMLA connection to your OLAP cube servers completely separate of any MicroStrategy dependencies with the XMLA Connectivity Test Tool provided with your MicroStrategy installation. For information on setting up authentication for Intelligence Server with Analysis Services.

XMLA is the native access method for Analysis Services 2005. and then Database Instance. Creating a database instance Perform the following steps to connect to Microsoft Analysis Services 2005 servers. The Execute request queries cube data and results are returned in an ExecuteResponse message. select Database Instance Manager.org. 3 From the File menu. and the configuration of the XMLA provider for each of these products.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Configuring the XMLA Provider The material in this section assumes familiarity with the XMLA 1. Creating a database instance for Analysis Services 2005 1 In Desktop. Follow Microsoft documentation to make sure that the XMLA provider is correctly configured for HTTP access. Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers 341 . only the TCP/IP transport is configured. The Database Instance Editor opens.xmla. A Discover request supports queries to metadata and the results are packaged in a DiscoverResponse message. © 2007 MicroStrategy.1 specification found at www. You can think of XMLA as a Web Service that supports metadata and data queries against an OLAP Cube source. open a project source and expand Administration from the folder list. select New. by default. Inc. However. Information for correctly installing the XMLA provider can be found in your Microsoft documentation. 2 From the folder list. which includes configuring security settings.

the URL is not case sensitive. each URL will be configured to support only one data source. You can also use the IP address as the fully-qualified-machinename. For Analysis Services 2005 XMLA running on IIS. . Inc. • DSI: For Analysis Services 2005. as shown below.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide 4 Create a database instance with Microsoft Analysis Services as the database connection type. select a database connection or create a new database connection that provides the following information as required: • URL: This is the URL of the XMLA Provider that was configured for HTTP access. Unlike Analysis Services 2000. To specify database connection parameters 5 For the database instance. http://fully-qualified-machinename/xmla/ msmdpump. the DSI entry can be left blank.com. 342 Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers © 2007 MicroStrategy.company. • To specify a database login 6 Create a database login with the user and password to use to connect to Analysis Services. Catalog: Use Microsoft’s SQL Server Management Studio to view the Analysis Server which contains the cubes to work with in MicroStrategy.dll The fully-qualified-machinename is usually of the form machine. The database that contains the cube becomes the catalog for XMLA. For example.domain.

Configuring and Connecting to Intelligence Server of the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. The OLAP Cube Catalog is available only after an OLAP cube source database instance has been created. The best place to start is with the OLAP Cube Catalog. To learn how to create a database instance for an OLAP cube source. For more information. For more detailed steps on creating a database instance and related components to connect to Analysis Services. page 359. page 327 – Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers. page 349 and Creating metrics from OLAP cube data with MDX and compound metric techniques. refer to the tech note TN5300-802-0755. refer to Chapter 5. For information on setting OLAP cube schema loading options for an OLAP cube source database instance. you can start working with the OLAP cube data in MicroStrategy. page 337 © 2007 MicroStrategy. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy Once you understand the relationships among the objects in an OLAP cube source and MicroStrategy and connect to your OLAP cube source. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 343 . where you can import OLAP cubes and remap the OLAP cubes before you create any OLAP cube reports. you can remap an OLAP cube to MicroStrategy objects and create metrics within an OLAP cube with the OLAP Cube Editor.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B For information on setting up authentication for Intelligence Server with Analysis Services. the OLAP Cube Catalog can be accessed from the Schema menu on Desktop. Inc. Like the Warehouse Catalog. see Mapping OLAP cubes. Note the following: • Once an OLAP cube is imported. see one of the following sections: • – Connecting to SAP BW servers. refer to the MicroStrategy online help.

Configuring and Connecting to Intelligence Server of the MicroStrategy Installation and Configuration Guide. For details on how to use the OLAP Cube Catalog. all the OLAP cubes are displayed. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help (search for “OLAP Cube Catalog”). Inc. For information on setting OLAP cube schema loading options for an OLAP cube source database instance. Using the plus (+) or minus (-) sign next to a catalog name. page 334 This section discusses how you can use the OLAP Cube Catalog to bring the OLAP cube data into a MicroStrategy project and what functions you can perform once the data is brought into MicroStrategy. You can choose to load the schema for imported OLAP cubes when Intelligence Server starts or during OLAP cube report execution. by default. . When you open the OLAP Cube Catalog. under their respective catalog names in the Available Cubes pane. you can expand or hide the cubes contained in this catalog. SAP BW is used as the OLAP cube source but the procedure is similar for Analysis Services and Essbase. refer to Chapter 5. 344 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. page 340 – Connecting to Essbase servers. as shown in the image below. Importing OLAP cubes OLAP cube importing is performed on the Cube Selection tab. OLAP cubes can be imported into a MicroStrategy project only by an architect with the “Import OLAP cube” privilege.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide – Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers.

If you create new cubes in Analysis Services and the cubes are not being displayed in the OLAP Cube Catalog. 2 From the Schema menu. For details on how to make Analysis Services cubes available for import in the OLAP Cube Catalog. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 345 . To import OLAP cubes 1 In Desktop. Inc. an InfoCube is marked with a cube icon in blue. and a query cube is marked with a cube icon in green. you may have to modify some permissions in Analysis Services. log in to a project that is connected to an OLAP cube source. see MicroStrategy Tech Note TN4100-802-1879. select OLAP Cube Catalog.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B A catalog is marked with an icon showing a folder containing a cube.

B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide • If you have a single OLAP cube source database instance created for the project. Select Find from the Edit menu or click the Find icon on the toolbar to open the Find dialog box to search for a specific OLAP cube that you want to import. click the double arrows (>>). 8 Click Save to save your progress. select the OLAP cube to import. 346 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. To import all OLAP cubes. you can build reports that access the imported OLAP cubes. You can also select All to display the OLAP cubes for all catalogs. You can edit. and the OLAP Cube Catalog opens. and select an OLAP cube source database instance to connect to. a Database Instance dialog box opens. using this dialog box. click the single arrow (>). the OLAP Cube Catalog opens. page 349. create. 6 Use one of the following methods to import the OLAP cubes: • • To import the selected OLAP cubes. 4 From the Catalog drop-down list. If you have multiple OLAP cube source database instances created for the project.) Once the data is mapped to MicroStrategy objects. • 3 Select the Cube Selection tab. 7 Once imported. Inc. . you can use the OLAP Cube Catalog to map the OLAP cube data to MicroStrategy objects (see Mapping OLAP cubes. After importing OLAP cubes. 5 Click the plus (+) sign to expand the catalog folder and display the OLAP cubes in the Available Cubes pane on the left. the imported OLAP cubes are displayed in the Selected Cubes pane on the right. click OK. Once you select a valid OLAP cube source database instance. The catalog contains all the OLAP cubes associated with it.

This option is available only after a database © 2007 MicroStrategy. Using the right-mouse click. Once the first OLAP cube for an OLAP cube source is imported into MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B To remove an OLAP cube. Importing OLAP cubes during report creation When you create an OLAP cube report. you choose OLAP cubes for your report from the Select Cube dialog box. you can right-click any OLAP cube in the Selected Cubes pane. you can also select the Update Structure option to synchronize with the updated definition of cube structures in the OLAP cube source. For example. You can find the Data Explorer in the Folder List of Desktop. Inc. under the associated MicroStrategy project. a Data Explorer for that OLAP cube source is added to the MicroStrategy project. and select Remove [cube name]. when a new characteristic or key figure has been added to the InfoCube in SAP BW you can use the Update Structure option to update the MicroStrategy OLAP cube to include these modifications. This dialog box can also be used by an architect with the “Import OLAP cubes” privilege to import cubes by using the Retrieve cubes option. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 347 .

You can click Find at the bottom of this dialog box to open the Find dialog box. see the related sections above on connecting to the different OLAP cube sources. In the Search for Objects dialog box. and then select the Display Managed Objects option so that managed objects are displayed in the 348 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. . managed objects (attributes.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide instance has been defined. where you can search for a specific cube for your report by the cube’s name. Managed objects When an OLAP cube is imported into a project. metrics. For details. tables. Inc. columns. However. and so on) are created to describe the OLAP cube. from the Tools menu select Options. For detailed information. one way to access managed objects is by using the Search for Objects function from the Tools menu on Desktop. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. A managed object is just like a normal object except that it is created by the system and is stored in a special system folder that is hidden from users.

right-click an OLAP cube in Desktop and select Edit. For example. When an OLAP cube is imported into MicroStrategy. you can perform the same mapping tasks available in the Cube Mapping tab of the OLAP Cube Catalog by editing the OLAP cube with the OLAP Cube Editor. Intelligence Server creates new attributes. need to add an OLAP cube to a project in MicroStrategy. A managed object can be removed once it is no longer referenced by another object in the project. see the Managing Your Applications chapter of the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. you can simply select a cube by using the OLAP Cube Catalog or Select Cube dialog box. page 344. For more information on removing a database instance and its related managed objects. Once the logical entities are identified. To do this. that exist in physical tables. a MicroStrategy OLAP cube is created that maps to the definition of the source cube in the OLAP cube source. metrics. as the architect. By default. such as SAP BW. Inc. an OLAP cube. The removal of unused managed objects is usually performed by an administrator. much of the process centers on identifying logical entities. the architect can then define a logical and physical model in the MicroStrategy metadata. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 349 . they © 2007 MicroStrategy. Mapping OLAP cubes When an architect defines a project. such as attributes and facts. In the context of OLAP cube sources. contains all the metadata information necessary to define a logical model and physical model. you can rename or edit any of them by right-clicking its name. referred to as managed objects. Although these objects. Once the managed objects are listed in the search result.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B search result. After you have imported an OLAP cube. an architect might identify that the key for the Customer attribute exists in the table LU_CUSTOMER. as described in Importing OLAP cubes. are new and are part of the project. instead of a single table. This model is referenced by the SQL Engine to generate SQL at run time. When you. and hierarchies that reflect the data and levels of the imported OLAP cube.

If you decide to discontinue the use of OLAP cube reports. Remapping OLAP cube data to existing attributes can also facilitate the use of MicroStrategy features such as security filters.) For example. For more information on the benefits of remapping OLAP cube data to project attributes. page 356. you can remap OLAP cube data to existing attributes in a MicroStrategy project rather than new managed objects. For steps on how to perform these schema cleanup tasks. it can be used to build reports and documents in MicroStrategy. Inc. This allows data to be joined across sources in Report Services documents. see Why do you need to remap OLAP cubes?. A new schema is created for each OLAP cube source database instance used in a MicroStrategy project. a new managed object named Year has no relation to the Year attribute in the Tutorial project connected to the data warehouse. . Once an OLAP cube is mapped. you can remove the OLAP cube source database instance and all of its associated managed objects. In addition. see the Managing Your Applications chapter of the MicroStrategy System Administration Guide. 350 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide are not related to the project’s schema and schema objects (see Managed objects above. which ensures that a consistent logical model is maintained. see the Reporting on External Data Sources: OLAP Cube Reports chapter of the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. For more information on managed objects in OLAP cube reports.

Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 351 .Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B Using the Cube Mapping feature in the OLAP Cube Catalog shown below. you can use the plus (+) sign next to the attribute levels to display the attribute forms. and attributes are represented by a green symbol with two side-by-side rectangles. © 2007 MicroStrategy. you can map attribute forms for each attribute contained in the imported cube. The Logical View in the right-hand column represents the equivalent structure in MicroStrategy. By default. Inc. For SAP BW. As shown in the image above: • The Physical View in the left-hand column represents the cube structure in the OLAP Cube Source. • In the Physical View column. hierarchy is below the dimension with a green stacked boxes symbol. only the ID and DESC forms are automatically mapped for each attribute. the characteristic (dimension) is located at the very top with a green chart and box symbol. with the same symbols for hierarchies and attributes as in standard reports.

. and Description in SAP BW. Map the characteristic or key figure to an existing attribute or metric in the MicroStrategy project. Use the Display All Columns icon on the toolbar to show additional attribute forms in the Physical View column and then map each one to an attribute form in the Logical View pane. Technical Name. refer to Supporting SAP BW variables. the columns are often returned as a string of characters. This is because variables in SAP BW are represented as prompts in MicroStrategy. you can view the information on its Name. For more information. you can perform the following manipulations by right-clicking the name in the Logical view column: • Edit the attribute or metric. Inc. MicroStrategy retrieves the column data type through MDX. page 308. only the ID and DESC forms are displayed. This can be the case even with ID columns of data that are of a 352 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. For MicroStrategy attributes and metrics. This option opens the Attribute Editor to edit attributes and the Metric Editor to edit metrics. Rename the attribute or metric so it has a different name in the MicroStrategy project from the name of the characteristic or key figure it is mapped to in SAP BW.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide By default. The Show Technical Names option applies to SAP BW OLAP cubes only. You can also use the Show Technical Names icon on the toolbar to display the SAP BW terms for each attribute and its attribute forms. However. note that when you select Edit. An ID form must be mapped for each attribute. you can also perform the above-mentioned manipulations. • • • For variables. Check the Properties of the characteristic or key figure. In the case of OLAP cube data that is mapped to attributes. the Prompt Generation Wizard is displayed. In the Properties dialog box. Manually setting column data types for OLAP cube data When OLAP cube data is mapped to MicroStrategy objects.

but the same steps apply for the OLAP Cube Editor. You can perform this task during the initial import and mapping procedure for an OLAP cube with the OLAP Cube Catalog.0 you can manually select the column data type that is applied to a column of OLAP cube data mapped to an attribute. You can access the OLAP Cube Editor by right-clicking an imported OLAP cube and selecting Edit. starting with the step to expand data in the Physical view column. To manually set column data types for OLAP cube data You manually set column data types for OLAP cube data when you are mapping OLAP cube data to MicroStrategy objects. you have OLAP cube data that is mapped to a Product attribute in MicroStrategy. you can then include the two OLAP cube reports as datasets of a Report Services document and group the two Product attributes. For example. but you know that its associated OLAP cube column is of type integer. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 353 . The ID attribute form for Product is returned as a string. OLAP cube data that is mapped to MicroStrategy metrics is automatically converted to a numeric data type and thus does not need its column data type to be manually set.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B numeric type such as integer.1. or as a later modification with the OLAP Cube Editor. Starting in MicroStrategy 8. By setting the Product ID attribute form to read the OLAP cube data as an integer. The following procedure uses the OLAP Cube Catalog. Returning data such as ID columns of attributes as strings can make it impossible to group attributes with common data as the same attribute in Report Services documents. This allows the OLAP cube data to be correctly represented in MicroStrategy and facilitates the grouping of related attributes as the same attribute in a Report Services document. © 2007 MicroStrategy. You can do this same mapping for another OLAP cube and create reports including the Product attribute. Inc.

page 337 Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers. 354 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. The Column Editor — Definition dialog box opens. The Cube Mapping tab opens. page 327 Connecting to Essbase servers. 8 Clear the Use default from source check box. Inc. select the OLAP cube source database instance you want to connect to and click OK. 5 From the Catalog\Cube drop-down list. From the Select the Database Instance drop-down list. The OLAP Cube Catalog: Cube Selection tab opens. select the OLAP cube you want to map to MicroStrategy objects. • • If the project connects to only one OLAP cube source. see one of the following sections depending on your OLAP cube source: • • • • Connecting to SAP BW servers. page 334 Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers. For information on connecting to an OLAP cube source. 7 Right-click the OLAP cube column data and select Data Type. 6 In the Physical view column.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide 1 Log in to a project that is connected to an OLAP cube source. expand the OLAP cube data until you find the OLAP cube column data for which to manually set the data type. . 4 Select the Cube Mapping tab. The OLAP cube data is displayed in the pane below. select OLAP Cube Catalog. 3 Move all OLAP cubes you want to import from the Available Cubes pane to the Selected Cubes pane by using the > button. If the project connects to more than one OLAP cube source the Database Instance dialog box opens. page 340 2 From the Schema menu. the OLAP Cube Catalog: Cube Selection tab opens.

Subcategory. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 355 . Unbalanced and ragged hierarchies include at least one branch that does not descend to the lowest level and one branch that includes a skipped level. • • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. Subcategory. For example. 11 Click OK to save your changes and return to the OLAP Cube Catalog. Inc. Unbalanced hierarchies have at least one branch that does not descend to the lowest level. in a Time hierarchy that includes Year. However. unbalanced. and Item are displayed on the report there is an empty cell for the Subcategory of Item number 22. 12 Click Save and Close to save your changes to the OLAP cube and exit the OLAP Cube Catalog. and Month one branch might only have data down to the Quarter level. For example. • Balanced hierarchies have an equal number of levels in each branch of the hierarchy. in a Product hierarchy that includes Category. all hierarchies of an OLAP cube are treated as balanced hierarchies. specify the byte length. Quarter. and scale for the data type. Subcategory. The terms balanced. and Item but Item number 22 does not have a Subcategory associated with it. select which data type to map the OLAP cube data as. 10 Depending on the data type selected. Ragged hierarchies have at least one branch that includes a member whose logical parent is not the level above that member. When Category. and ragged are used to describe the different set of characteristics of hierarchical sets of data. Unbalanced and ragged hierarchies By default. For example. and Item each branch would descend to a particular item. a Product hierarchy may contain the levels Category.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B 9 From the Data type drop-down list. precision. if you know that the structure of a hierarchy is unbalanced or ragged you must set the hierarchy’s properties to reflect its structure.

right-click the hierarchy name in the Physical View column and select Properties. For information on how to support these date forms and qualifications. This modification also allows you to perform date qualifications on the mapped MDX property data. refer to the MicroStrategy Desktop online help (search for the “Mapping OLAP cubes” topic). The Properties dialog box is displayed. The word “(Unbalanced)” will be displayed next to the name of the hierarchy in the Logical View column. For detailed steps on mapping and remapping objects from OLAP cube sources to MicroStrategy objects. 2 On the Hierarchies tab. Set a hierarchy as unbalanced or ragged 1 In the OLAP Cube Catalog. A hierarchy in the Physical View column is represented with a green stacked boxes symbol. Inc. select the check box This hierarchy is unbalanced or ragged and then click OK.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide The steps below are necessary for any unbalanced or ragged hierarchy to prevent inaccurate results when applying certain types of filters. and hierarchies you may want to remap OLAP cube data to existing attributes in the MicroStrategy project for the following reasons: 356 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. . Date form support for MDX properties You can support mapping MicroStrategy date forms to MDX property data of the date data type by performing a special modification of a VLDB property. please refer to MicroStrategy Tech Note TN1100-000-0636. Why do you need to remap OLAP cubes? Although you can use the automatically generated managed object attributes. metrics.

Administrators can search for dependents and manage access control lists (ACLs) for attributes that map both to the data warehouse and an OLAP cube source. if an OLAP cube report and a standard report both use the Year attribute. you can map an OLAP cube level to the Year attribute in your project. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 357 . metrics and hierarchies can only be remapped to other managed object metrics and hierarchies that are mapped to OLAP cube source data. they can be remapped to project attributes that participate in the ROLAP schema. However. For example. Inc. When should you remap cubes? Although you can remap the columns either when an OLAP cube is first imported or later on after you have created a project. In the case of attributes. but the nature of the cube is not changed.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B • Report designers can integrate the logical model of the project with the data in the imported OLAP cube. the security filter on Year is applied. thus creating a relation between the two sets of data. Remapping simply replaces the managed object attributes that are used to represent the OLAP cube’s structure with attributes in an existing MicroStrategy project. three OLAP cubes can share the same managed object metric named Revenue. For example. © 2007 MicroStrategy. MicroStrategy security filters can be applied to attributes in OLAP cube reports. For example. This also prevents maintenance issues because reports need to be modified if an OLAP cube is remapped after the report is created. If a user with a security filter on Year runs the OLAP cube report that contains Year. it is recommended that you do the remapping initially so that subsequent users can take advantage of the mapping. • • • You can remap the levels of an OLAP cube. Data can be joined across sources within a Report Services document. then Year can be used to group the data within a document.

shown in the diagram below. The difference between the two examples is that the OLAP cube has been partially remapped so that it shares the attributes Year. and Month information for both your 358 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. Quarter. The one on the left exists in a specific OLAP cube. The diagram below shows two logical models. The drawback with this setup is that you cannot create a relation between your OLAP cube data and your project data. Example 2. C u b e A ttr ib u te s C u s to m e r R e g io n P r o je c t A ttr ib u te s R e g io n Ye a r C u b e Ye a r Q u a r te r M onth of Ye a r C u s to m e r S ta te C u b e Q u a r te r C a ll C e n te r M onth C ube M o nth C u s to m e r C ity E m p lo ye e Da y Example 2: Partially mapped cube After an OLAP cube source has been included in MicroStrategy as an OLAP cube. you cannot join data from these different sources in a Report Services document and you cannot support project security filters in OLAP cube reports. Quarter. and Month. Inc. you can map the attributes within the OLAP cube to existing project attributes. none of the individual attributes are shared. you can create a Report Services document that contains Year. With this technique. Since this relation is not created. This feature allows you to quickly start creating reports for your OLAP cube data. also shows two logical models.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide Example 1: Unmapped cube You can map managed object attributes for your OLAP cubes instead of using project attributes. . and the one on the right exists in a MicroStrategy project. Although both models have a Time hierarchy.

In addition. Quarter. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 359 . Metrics created to map to your OLAP cube data are related only to their associated OLAP cube. In this case. Creating metrics from OLAP cube data with MDX and compound metric techniques When you map your OLAP cube data into MicroStrategy. these metrics cannot be directly integrated with data from a separate relational data source. For information on creating calculated expressions. Metrics created with MDX combine the robust set of MDX functions and expressions with MicroStrategy analytical tools such as prompts. you can take advantage of MDX (MultiDimensional eXpressions) to create advanced metrics. Therefore. and Month are applied to OLAP cube reports that include these mapped attributes. changes to the Time dimension apply to OLAP cubes in the project that contain this dimension. that change applies to all the OLAP cubes that share that dimension. Inc. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Cu b e A ttrib u te s C usto m e r R e gio n Proje c t A ttrib u te s R e gio n Ye a r Ye a r Q ua rte r M o nt h o f Ye a r C usto m e r S ta te Q ua rte r C a ll C e nte r M o nt h M o nt h C usto m e r C ity Em plo ye e Da y The dimensions of OLAP cubes are always shared.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B data warehouse and OLAP cube sources. You can also use basic arithmetic expressions to create these advanced metrics from OLAP cube data. except by using calculated expressions in Report Services documents. when a level is remapped. Therefore. any security filters for Year. see the Designing Documents chapter of the MicroStrategy Report Services Document Creation Guide.

To use MDX to create your calculated measures you must enclose MDX in double quotes (“”). The expression can be as simple as a metric multiplied by a constant value.*. For examples of smart metrics. page 366)./. Once you create metrics using these techniques you can include them in your MicroStrategy reports and report filters in the same ways that you can include any MicroStrategy metric. where Revenue and Total Expenses are both metrics.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide You can create metrics that map to OLAP cube data using either of the following techniques: • Compound metrics: A compound metric is any MicroStrategy metric with an expression that includes a MicroStrategy metric and an arithmetic expression. to build a Profit metric. and so on). see How to build analysis into metrics with custom MDX. This technique allows you to use MDX functions and flexibility to query and report on your OLAP cube data. such as Discount * 1. Inc. The metrics created in this way for an OLAP cube are stored in a Compound Metrics folder within the Metrics folder for the OLAP cube. If you do not make the metric a smart metric you can only use basic operators (+. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. page 363.5.Total Expenses. where Discount is a metric mapped to data in the OLAP cube. You can use MicroStrategy analytical and aggregation functions with metrics mapped to OLAP cube data only if the metric you create is defined as a smart metric. 360 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. • MDX customization: Rather than relying only on MicroStrategy to create MDX to return data from your OLAP cube source. You can also use prompts in these compound and custom MDX metrics (see Using prompts within OLAP cube metrics. see the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. you can create your own custom MDX to return data for a metric. For general information on smart metrics. You can reference one or more MicroStrategy metrics mapped to OLAP cube data using custom MDX just as you can with a standard arithmetic expression. The MDX you create is passed to your OLAP cube source to be executed and to return the data. . These metrics can also reference multiple MicroStrategy metrics within the OLAP cube with an expression such as Revenue .-. For tips and insights on how to build analysis with MDX in MicroStrategy.

3 Move all the OLAP cubes to import from the Available Cubes pane to the Selected Cubes pane by using the > button. select the OLAP cube source database instance to connect to and click OK. select OLAP Cube Catalog. The OLAP Cube Catalog: Cube Selection tab opens. 4 Select the Cube Mapping tab. If the project connects to more than one OLAP cube source the Database Instance dialog box opens. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 361 . • • If the project connects to only one OLAP cube source. starting with the step to access the Edit menu. page 327 Connecting to Essbase servers. page 337 Connecting to Analysis Services 2005 servers. For information on connecting to an OLAP cube source.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B You can create these metrics during the initial importing and mapping procedure of your OLAP cube data with the OLAP Cube Catalog. the OLAP Cube Catalog: Cube Selection tab opens. After right-clicking an OLAP cube and selecting Edit to access the OLAP Cube Editor. Inc. the steps below apply for the OLAP Cube Editor. depending on your OLAP cube source: • • • • Connecting to SAP BW servers. © 2007 MicroStrategy. see one of the following sections. From the Select the Database Instance drop-down list. page 334 Connecting to Analysis Services 2000 servers. page 340 2 From the Schema menu. These metrics can also be created as a later modification to an OLAP cube with the OLAP Cube Editor. The following procedure uses the OLAP Cube Catalog. To create a metric from OLAP cube data with MDX and compound metric techniques 1 Log in to a project that is connected to an OLAP cube source.

enter a name for your metric. You can use MicroStrategy analytical and aggregation functions with metrics mapped to OLAP cube data only if the metric you create is defined as a smart metric. For an example of creating a metric that includes a prompt. if you have Revenue and Cost metrics in your OLAP cube you can create the expression Revenue . Inc. select Add New Compound Metric. For example. 9 In the Object name text field. 7 Create the expression for your metric: • If you are creating a compound metric. The OLAP cube data is displayed in the pane below. For example. and MicroStrategy analytical and aggregation functions. it does not validate the syntax of the expression. The Save As dialog box opens. see Using prompts within OLAP cube metrics. you can enter the following: “[Measures]. enter your custom MDX in the Definition pane of the Metric Editor. Make sure to enclose the entire expression in double quotes. 8 Click Save and Close.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide 5 From the Catalog\Cube drop-down list. you can simply drag and drop metrics from the OLAP cube’s Metrics folder. 6 From the Edit menu.[Discount Amount] * 1. arithmetic operators. . The Metric Editor opens. • If you are creating a metric using custom MDX. while also including any required constants. select the OLAP cube to map to MicroStrategy objects. page 366. 362 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy.5” You cannot validate MDX in the Metric Editor as you can for a standard expression that is not enclosed by double quotes.Cost to create a Profit metric. Validating MDX verifies that the entire expression is enclosed in double quotes. 10 Click Save to save your metric.

Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B 11 Click Save and Close to save your changes to the OLAP cube.1. MDX syntax and functionality is not described in depth in this section.1. This allows you to further combine the analysis capabilities of MDX and MicroStrategy.1.1. For additional best practices and examples. To use MDX to create your metrics you must enclose MDX in double quotes (“”).x TN5200-81x-2344—How to write a custom metric formula in MDX to implement a transformation in MicroStrategy 8. “[Measures]. Inc.x TN5200-81x-2343—How to write a custom metric formula in MDX to filter on an attribute in MicroStrategy 8. How to build analysis into metrics with custom MDX You can build sophisticated analysis into your OLAP cube metrics by creating your own custom MDX. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 363 . For example. TN5200-81x-2342—How to write a custom metric formula in MDX to ignore grouping on a cube dimension in MicroStrategy 8.x. refer to the following MicroStrategy Tech Notes: • • TN5200-81x-2345—How to create customized metric expressions for OLAP cube sources in MicroStrategy 8.x Creating such analysis requires appropriate knowledge of both MDX and MicroStrategy.[Total Sales]” is valid syntax for a metric defined with MDX. Be aware that MicroStrategy does not validate any custom MDX created by users to build metrics for OLAP cubes. © 2007 MicroStrategy. This section provides some tips and best practices on how to build analysis into metrics with custom MDX. only basic principles of analysis with the use of MDX and MicroStrategy is provided. • • Basics Creating your own custom MDX allows you to draw further analysis from your OLAP cube source into MicroStrategy.

Conditional metrics Using MDX. you can also utilize MDX functions to create more advanced analysis.CurrentMember). You can also perform basic arithmetic in your MDX. along with viewing your total revenue on a report. you can also display revenue for a certain category such as electronics. the following expression applies a multiplier to the Total Sales data: “[Measures]. In 364 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. A conditional metric allows you to apply a filter to only one metric on a report while not affecting the other metrics. the function is passed to the OLAP cube source and processed as a pass-through function.[Profit])” This expression returns year-to-date values by quarter for profit data.06” Along with these simple expressions. Report designers can include these metrics on reports to view multiple perspectives of data on the same report. For example.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide The expression shown above is a simple expression that returns the Total Sales data from an OLAP cube. When you include an MDX function in your custom MDX. as shown below: “sum(YTD([Quarter]. For example. For example. . Inc.[Total Sales] * . you can create conditional metrics in MicroStrategy from your OLAP cube data. you can use the MDX year-to-date (YTD) function to create transformation-style analysis on your OLAP cube data. [Measures]. as shown in the report below.

The values that identify data depend on how you have defined data in your OLAP cube source. For example. You can include more than one condition for each metric.[Year]. [2006])” Prompts All of the MDX examples in the sections above are static expressions.[Category].[2])” In the example above. meaning they will produce the same MDX every time.[Category]. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 365 .Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B the example expression below. Inc. you can create the same metric to return electronics revenue for only the year 2006. 2 identifies the electronics category. Using the ApplySimple function. bold highlights the part of the expression (including the comma) that applies the condition to the revenue data: “([Measures]. The report shown below uses this metric to compare total revenue with electronics revenue.[2]. In the example expression below. you can include prompts in your MDX to provide dynamic analysis on your OLAP cube data. a second condition on the year is included by adding another comma and conditional expression: “([Measures]. The example below shows the basic structure of an ApplySimple statement to create metrics with custom MDX. Prompts are objects in MicroStrategy that provide users the ability to dynamically select what data is returned to their report to analyze.[Revenue]. © 2007 MicroStrategy.[Revenue].

You can also use this technique with the conditional metrics techniques described in Conditional metrics. For metrics created using MDX expressions. This adds flexibility to your queries. The syntax for including a prompt as an object to replace a placeholder is ?promptname. For example. For metrics created with compound metric techniques without any custom MDX.. ?elementlistprompt) For more information on and a procedure for creating metrics in OLAP cubes with prompts. you can simply include a prompt in the metric definition. Inc.?valueprompt) In the example syntax above.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide ApplySimple(“MDX expression with placeholders for objects”. . Using prompts within OLAP cube metrics If you are creating new metrics in your OLAP cube.object0. you can allow users to choose what category to view revenue for.#0)”. When the metrics are included on a report and the report is run. you can include an element list prompt on the Category attribute of the OLAP cube as shown below. the prompts are displayed to the user for completion. you must use the ApplySimple function to 366 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy.. page 364.object1. you can also include MicroStrategy prompts with the metrics. see the Using prompts within OLAP cube metrics section below. ApplySimple(“([Measures].[Total Sales] / #0)” ... allowing users to determine the data to see on the report. To provide this analysis to users.objectN) A simple application of this technique is to use a constant value prompt in your project as a multiplier of metric data as shown below. ApplySimple(“([Measures].[Revenue]. #0 is a placeholder in the MDX expression for the value prompt. rather than always returning the revenue data for electronics.

In this example it is assumed that constantprompt is the name of a value prompt in the project and Discount Amount is a metric within the OLAP cube.[Revenue]. ?CategoryElementPrompt) This expression creates a Revenue metric.#0)”. page 361) until the step to create an expression for the metric. you can enter expressions similar to the following: • ([Discount Amount] * ?constantprompt) This expression applies a special discount amount. 2 Enter your expression in the Definition pane of the Metric Editor. In this example it is assumed that CategoryElementPrompt is the name of an element list prompt in the project that references a Category attribute within the OLAP cube. The following types of prompts can be included with metrics built from custom expressions: • • • Element list prompts defined on an attribute of the associated OLAP cube Value prompts Object prompts defined on objects of the associated OLAP cube To use prompts within OLAP cube metrics 1 Follow the steps in the procedure above (To create a metric from OLAP cube data with MDX and compound metric techniques. Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy 367 . which is conditional on an element list prompt answered by the user running the report. Users can then choose to view revenue data for different categories such as Books or Music. © 2007 MicroStrategy. entered by the user running the report. • ApplySimple(“([Measures]. The Save As dialog box opens.Project Design Guide Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources B include prompts in the metric definition. 3 Click Save and Close. Inc. For example. Make sure to enclose the entire expression in double quotes.

Then you can remove the metric. . you create a Profit Margin metric that uses the Profit metric you just created. You then create a new compound metric named Profit within the OLAP cube by subtracting the OLAP cube’s cost data from its revenue data. Inc. 6 Click Save and Close to save your changes to the OLAP cube and exit the OLAP Cube Catalog. enter a name for your metric. you import an OLAP cube. To remove the Profit metric. you must first remove the Profit Margin metric. Once this metric is created in your OLAP cube. If you try to remove the Profit metric. a list of reports that depend on the metric is also returned. If the Profit metric is included on any reports. and the Profit Margin metric is returned. a list of metrics that are dependent on the metric you are removing is returned. and you can then remove the metric from the OLAP cube. This makes the Profit Margin metric dependent on the Profit metric. a search for dependent objects is automatically triggered. 5 Click Save to save your metric and return to the OLAP Cube Catalog. When you try to remove a metric with dependent metrics. You must remove all of the metrics and reports which depend on the metric you are trying to remove. You can remove the compound metric from the report rather than deleting the report. For example. If a compound metric of an OLAP cube has been added to any reports. 368 Integrating OLAP cubes into MicroStrategy © 2007 MicroStrategy. Removing compound metrics from OLAP cubes When you remove metrics based on multiple metrics of an OLAP cube. you need to also delete those reports or remove the Profit metric from the reports before you can remove the Profit metric from the OLAP cube. This removes the dependency between the metric and the report. and its data is automatically mapped to MicroStrategy metrics. dependencies may need to be resolved before you can remove the metric.B Connecting to OLAP Cube Sources Project Design Guide 4 In the Object name text field.

LOGICAL TABLES Introduction Logical tables represent tables in the data warehouse. Inc. table aliases. logical views are created using the Table Editor.C C. Different from the logical tables. © 2007 MicroStrategy. logical views are defined using SQL queries against the data warehouse. This chapter introduces you to the different types of logical tables. and logical views. 369 . with a focus on how you can use the logical view feature to take advantage of the enhanced schema support in MicroStrategy. which point to physical tables in the data warehouse. While logical tables are set up in a project by using the Warehouse Catalog. There are three types of logical tables in the MicroStrategy environment: logical tables.

In the MicroStrategy Tutorial. The logical view is also referenced in the SQL that is generated for the report. One physical table can have more than one table aliases. This type of logical table maps directly to physical tables in the data warehouse. using the Warehouse Catalog. A logical table is created for each physical table that is imported into a project. While physical tables in a data warehouse consist of columns. Table aliasing is used to create attribute roles (see Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles. the logical view can be used in the same way as the Type 1 logical table. Once created. These physical tables are referenced in the SQL that is generated for the report. page 175). There are three types of logical tables: 1 Logical table: is a logical representation of a table that the Engine uses to generate SQL. A table alias is created outside of the Warehouse Catalog. . Using the Logical Table Editor. based on which attributes. you can define your logical view using the SQL statement as well as view the content of all the logical tables and their associated warehouse tables.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide Logical tables Logical tables are MicroStrategy objects that form the foundation of a schema. logical tables and all the other schema objects are stored in the Schema Objects folder. 2 Table alias: is an additional logical table that points directly to an existing physical table. facts. the whole SQL query is displayed in the place of physical tables as for Type 1 logical tables. These attributes and facts are part of the report definition that the MicroStrategy Engine refers to when a report is executed. logical tables in the MicroStrategy schema consist of attributes and facts. Logical views are created using the Table Editor. and other schema objects can be defined. 370 Logical tables © 2007 MicroStrategy. A table alias can have a different name from the physical table. 3 Logical view: is a logical table that points to a SQL statement instead of directly to a physical table. Inc. It does not point directly to a physical table and is defined using a SQL query against the warehouse.

When an attribute plays more than one role. page 175. How should I use logical tables? 371 . © 2007 MicroStrategy. For step-by-step instructions. if the Customer table is used to represent both Ship to Customer and Bill to Customer. please refer to the MicroStrategy online help (search for “Step-by-step instructions to create a table alias”). please refer to Attributes that use the same lookup table: Attribute roles. Inc. you can create a table alias to resolve the double usage case. you need to create an attribute in the logical model for each of the roles. For detailed information on attribute roles. To create a table alias. Logical views are a little different from the above-mentioned logical tables and table aliases for the following reasons: • • • Logical views do not map directly to physical tables in the data warehouse. which is accessed from the Schema menu. For example. you can create MicroStrategy schema objects. First. Based on these tables. For more information on how to use the Warehouse Catalog. please refer to the MicroStrategy online help (search for “Warehouse Catalog”). Basically. you create multiple logical tables pointing to the same physical table and define those logical tables as the lookup tables for the attributes in different roles. Logical views are created from scratch. such as attributes and facts. create a table alias by copying an existing logical table and giving it a new or different name.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C How should I use logical tables? The most common logical tables are the ones that are imported into the project from the data warehouse using the Warehouse Catalog. then define the new attributes using the appropriate tables. right-click the logical table name and select Create Table Alias. instead of being imported from a data warehouse or duplicated from existing logical tables. Logical views are defined using SQL queries. One way to do this is to create explicit table aliases.

372 How should I use logical tables? © 2007 MicroStrategy. such as the following: • • • • Slowly-changing dimensions Attribute form expressions from multiple tables Consolidated dimension tables Recursive hierarchies For common usage examples. This means that you can use the logical views to build attributes and facts and that you can also create table aliases for the logical views. page 376. . The biggest benefit of using logical views is that you can model a MicroStrategy schema that cannot be supported with only the physical database structures in the warehouse. The Update Schema option can be accessed from the Schema menu. or logical views to the project. There are many common modeling scenarios that are easier to manage with the use of logical views. they can be used in the same way as the regular logical tables (brought into the project using the Warehouse Catalog). table aliases. you need to update the schema.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide However. once logical views are created. Whenever you create or add logical tables. please refer to Logical view examples. Inc.

The SQL statement panel is where you type in your SQL query. For detailed instructions. are created in MicroStrategy Desktop using the Table Editor. and table aliases are created by duplicating existing logical tables. on the other hand. Creating logical tables 373 . Inc. Logical views. One way to access the Table Editor is to select New from the File menu and choose Logical Table. © 2007 MicroStrategy.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C Creating logical tables Most logical tables are brought into the project by using the Warehouse Catalog. Any physical table in the project database instance can be used in the SELECT statement. Detailed instructions on how to create them are provided in the online help (search for “Tables”). Object Browser lists all tables and columns that have been imported into the project. Creating a Logical View involves a few simple steps that require you to provide your own SQL statement and map the columns in the statement to the correct data types (see the following information). please refer to the online help (search for “Creating logical views”). As illustrated in the following image. while the Mapping panel is where you map for the columns returned by the SQL query.

Although common table expressions (CTEs) are also supported for some databases. type in your SQL statement. 3 Click Add to map columns returned by the SQL statement. It is recommended that you use derived tables to define logical views because the logical view SQL syntax becomes nested inside SQL statements generated by the Engine. If you used an existing column in the mapping in Step 5. 4 Type in the column name under Column Object. The Table Editor is displayed with the Physical View tab selected by default. . 2 In the SQL Statement panel. This creates a new column. However. you map an existing column to the logical view. these expressions cannot be nested in the SQL because this would result in invalid SQL syntax. you inherited the data type of that column. Alternatively. select New and then Logical Table. you can also drag and drop columns from the Object Browser to the Column Object cell. the change will affect all the tables with that column. Please check your database for best usage. The names of the columns must match exactly the column aliases defined in the SQL statement. 5 Select a Data Type for the column by using the drop-down list. By doing this. Keep in mind that if you change the data type. Inc. the order of the columns does not have to match the order in which the column aliases appear in the SQL statement. 374 Creating logical tables © 2007 MicroStrategy. You can drag and drop columns from the Object Browser to insert into the statement).C Logical Tables Project Design Guide To create a logical table in the Table Editor 1 From the File menu.

Using SQL for logical views Since SQL queries are the key to creating logical views. Therefore. the logical view is logged instead. logical views are generated as either a derived table or a common table expression (CTE) depending on the type of database that you use. in which case table objects accessed would are not logged either. select Update Schema to ensure that the new logical table is loaded into the project. please check your database. 8 From the Schema menu. it inserts the name of the table into the FROM clause. you should also understand that the SQL query entered for logical views is not modified in any way by MicroStrategy. 7 Save and close the logical table. CTEs. The Engine generates derived table syntax to represent the logical view. make sure that your RDBMS is optimized to answer the query that you create. Inc. however. Because the MicroStrategy Engine does not parse through the SQL syntax. In the SQL generated for a report. Creating logical tables 375 . if applicable. In addition. For a logical view—which maps to a SQL statement—the Engine inserts the SQL syntax in the FROM clause. Derived tables are advantageous because they are nested in the SQL generated by the Engine. The same holds true if you use a view in the database. When the Engine needs to use a logical table that maps directly to a physical database table.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C 6 Modify the Precision and Scale of the column. are not nested in the SQL because this would result in invalid SQL syntax. It is your responsibility to ensure the accuracy and validity of your SQL statements. you should be experienced with using SQL before you use the logical view feature. the statistics log does not contain any information about the actual physical tables accessed. although CTEs are also supported by some databases. © 2007 MicroStrategy. For best usage. It is recommended that you use derived tables to define logical views.

the MicroStrategy Engine joins the fact table with one lookup table and does the aggregation. Lookup_store Store_ID Store_Name Market_ID Market_Name Region_ID Region_Name Level 376 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. you may double count if you have to join to a table where that attribute is part of the key. The following is an example lookup table for Store. Logical view examples The following business cases are intended to help you understand how you can use the logical view feature in your applications. in one-SQL-pass reports. often two problems arise: • The model cannot support fact tables at the level of attributes that are not keys. If there is no distinct list of attribute elements. Usually. Market. the logical view simply appears as additional syntax in the report SQL generated by MicroStrategy. when populating pick lists for prompts.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide The results of logical views are not cached. Business case 1: Distinct attribute lookup table Many star schemas feature a single lookup table that is shared by all the attributes in one dimension (see the following example). . and Region. While it is possible to model a schema with such a dimension table. for example. Inc. • Too many rows in the dimension table may slow down the SELECT DISTINCT query. This restriction applies to summary tables as well as to intermediate results that may be generated by the SQL Engine. thus affecting element browsing requests that display a list of attribute elements.

For example.Market_Desc. Market_Sales a12 Where a11.Market_ID = a12. SUM(a12. Inc. you want to define an attribute based on the Date difference between two Date columns (Ship_Date and Order_Date) in two different tables as follows. Market_Name. Market and Region are not the keys.Region_ID From Lookup_store Where level=1 Then use this table as the lookup table for Market. When it is joined with a Market-level fact table (Market_Sales).Market_ID. a11. the following report SQL is generated: Select a11. To avoid that.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C In this table. Logical view examples 377 . the case is on Date columns. Therefore.Market_ID Group by a11.Region_ID from Lookup_Store where level=1) a11.a11. F_Table1 Ship_Date Order_ID Fact1 © 2007 MicroStrategy. if the requested fact table is at the Market or Region level.Sales) From (select Market_ID.Market_Name Business case 2: Attribute form expression across multiple tables Customers often request the ability to generate an attribute form expression across multiple tables. a direct join between the fact table and the above lookup table may result in double-counting. Market_Name. Usually.Market_ID. you can use the Logical View feature to define another logical table Lookup_Market as follows: Select Market_ID.

Inc.Fact2 From F_table1. Ralph Kimball has been particularly influential in describing dimensional modeling techniques for SCDs (see The Data Warehouse Toolkit. SCDs are well documented in the data warehousing literature. F_table1.Order_ID The new logical table (logical view) looks like the following table. Logical view Cycle_Time Order_ID Fact1 Fact2 Business case 3: Slowly changing dimensions Slowly changing dimensions (SCDs) are a common characteristic in many business intelligence environments. for instance). a company may annually reorganize their sales organization or recast their product hierarchy for each retail season. dimensional hierarchies are presented as independent of time. For example. Fact1.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide F_Table2 Order_Date Order_ID Fact2 Using the Logical View feature. “Slowly” typically means after several months or even years. Usually. and a new attribute can be defined on the Cycle_Time column. Indeed. it may be better to model separate dimensions.Order_ID. if dimensional relationships change more frequently. . you can use the following SQL query to create a logical table to calculate the Date difference and then define the attribute on that new column: Select Ship_Date-Order_Date Cycle_time. F_table2 Where F_table1. a Type I SCD 378 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. Kimball has further coined different distinctions among ways to handle SCDs in a dimensional model. For example.Order_ID=F_table2.

and so forth. • The techniques described here provide the flexibility to perform either type of analysis. For example. They also provide you an easy way to specify which type of analysis you would like to perform. In the example below. Inc. please refer to Lookup tables: Attribute storage.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C presents only the current view of a dimensional relationship. The discussion below is based on an example sales organization that changes slowly in time as the territories are reorganized. and Kelly moved from District 38 to 39 on 7/1/2004. a Type II SCD preserves the history of a dimensional relationship. Example 1: Compound key with Effective Date and End Date One way to physically store an SCD is to employ Effective Date and End Date columns that capture the period of time during which each element relationship existed. page 43. for example. © 2007 MicroStrategy. show me sales by District according to the way Districts are organized today. sales representatives switch districts in time. “As-was” analysis presents a historical view of the slowly changing relationships. For information on compound keys. show me sales by District according to the way Districts were organized at the time the sales transactions occurred. Sales Rep Jones moved from District 37 to District 39 on 1/1/2004. as-was analysis One of the capabilities available with slowly changing dimensions is the ability to perform either “as-is” analysis or “as-was” analysis: • “As-is” analysis presents a current view of the slowly changing relationships. As-is vs. Logical view examples 379 . For example.

Inc. . the fact table must include a date field. such as a transaction date. FACT_TABLE Sales_Rep_ID 1 2 3 1 2 3 2 3 4 Trans_Dt 9/1/2003 9/10/2003 9/15/2003 3/1/2004 3/10/2004 3/15/2004 9/5/2004 9/15/2004 9/20/2004 Sales 100 200 150 200 250 300 125 275 150 To specify the MicroStrategy schema 1 Create a logical view to represent just the current District-Sales Rep relationships. LVW_CURRENT_ORG 380 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide LU_SALES_REP Sales_Rep_ID 1 2 3 4 1 3 Sales_Rep_Name Jones Smith Kelly Madison Jones Kelly District_ID 37 37 38 38 39 39 Eff_Dt 1/1/1900 1/1/1900 1/1/1900 1/1/1900 1/1/2004 7/1/2004 End_Dt 12/31/2003 12/31/2099 6/30/2004 12/31/2099 12/31/2099 12/31/2099 When using this type of dimensional lookup table.

4 Define the following attributes: • Sales Rep: – @ID = sales_rep_id. Trans_Dt 3 Create a table alias LU_CURRENT_DISTRICT for LU_DISTRICT.Eff_Dt and L. LVW_HIST_DISTRICT_SALES select District_ID. which captures the Sales Rep-District relationships that existed at the time the transactions occurred.End_Dt group by District_ID. LVW_CURRENT_ORG – Child: Sales Rep • Historical District: – @ID = district_id. @Desc = district_name – Tables: LU_CURRENT_DISTRICT (lookup).Trans_Dt between L.Sales_Rep_ID) where F.Sales_Rep_ID = F. Trans_Dt. @Desc = sales_rep_name – Tables: LU_SALES_REP (lookup). Inc. FACT_TABLE • Current District: – @ID = district_id. The resulting view is an “as-was” or historical view. @Desc = district_name © 2007 MicroStrategy. sum(sales) sales from LU_SALES_REP L join FACT_TABLE F on(L. resulting in a fact view at the District level. Logical view examples 381 . District_ID from LU_SALES_REP where End_Dt = '12/31/2099' 2 Create another logical view that performs the “as-was” join between the lookup table and fact table. LVW_CURRENT_ORG.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C select Sales_Rep_ID.

trans_dt – Tables: LU_TIME (lookup) . LVW_HIST_DISTRICT_SALES 6 Define the metric as required: • Sales: SUM(sales) The result of this is a logical schema that looks like the following: LU_CURRENT_DISTRICT LU_CURRENT_ORG LU_SALES_REP FACT_TABLE Current District Sales Rep Current District Sales Rep Historical District Sales Rep Date Sales LU_TIME Date LVW_HISTORICAL_ DISTRICT_SALES Month Historical District Date Sales 382 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. . Inc. LU_SALES_REP.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide – Tables: LU_DISTRICT (lookup). LVW_HIST_DISTRICT_SALES – Child: Sales Rep • Date: – @ID = date_id. FACT_TABLE. LVW_HIST_DISTRICT_SALES • Month: – @ID = MONTH_ID – Tables: LU_TIME (lookup) 5 Define the Sales fact: • • Expression: sales Tables: FACT_TABLE.

Sales Resulting SQL Logical view examples 383 .District_Name) District_Name.trans_dt between L. Month. a12.Month_ID • Report results As-is analysis Specify the “as-is” analysis by using the Current District attribute on reports: • • © 2007 MicroStrategy.Trans_dt = a12.Sales_rep_ID) where F. Trans_dt. max(a13.sum(sales) sales from LU_SALES_REP L join FACT_TABLE F on (L.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C As-was analysis Specify the “as-was” analysis by using the Historical District attribute on reports: • • Report definition: Historical District. Sales Resulting SQL Select a11. Trans_dt) a11 join LU_TIME a12 on (a11.District_ID =a13.END_DT group by District_ID.District_ID) group by a11.Date_ID) join LU_DISTRICT a13 on (a11. Report definition: Current District.Sales_rep_ID = F.Month_ID Month_ID.District_ID District_ID.EFF_DT and L. sum(a11. a12. Month. Inc.SALES) WJXBFS1 From (select District_ID.Distrcit_ID.

.Date_ID) join LU_DISTRICT a14 on (a12.District_ID.District_ID) group by a12.Sales_Rep_ID) join LU_TIME a13 on (a11.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide select a12.Month_ID Month_ID. District_ID from LU_SALES_REP where END_DT = '12/31/2099')a12 on (a11. max (a14.District_ID = a14. sum(a11. Inc.Sales_Rep_ID = a12. Another common characteristic is to include an indicator field that identifies the current relationship records.District_ID District_ID. An example set of records is shown below.Month_ID • Report result Example 2: New surrogate key for each changing element A more flexible way to physically store a SCD is to employ surrogate keys and introduce new rows in the dimension table whenever a dimensional relationship changes. a13. a13.Trans_dt = a13. LU_SALES_REP Sales_Rep_CD 1 2 3 Sales_Rep_ID 1 2 3 Sales_Rep_Name Jones Smith Kelly District_ID 37 37 38 Current_Flag 0 1 0 384 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy.SALES) WJXBFS1 from FACT_TABLE a11 join (select Sales_rep_ID.District_Name) District_Name.

District_ID from LU_SALES_REP where Current_flag = 1 2 Create a table alias LU_CURRENT_DISTRICT for LU_DISTRICT. FACT_TABLE Sale-Rep_CD 1 2 3 5 2 3 2 6 4 Sale 100 200 150 200 250 300 125 275 150 Specifying the MicroStrategy schema 1 Create a logical view to represent just the current District-Sales Rep relationship. Logical view examples 385 .Project Design Guide Logical Tables C Sales_Rep_CD 4 5 6 Sales_Rep_ID 4 1 3 Sales_Rep_Name Madison Jones Kelly District_ID 38 39 39 Current_Flag 1 1 1 When using this type of dimensional lookup table. © 2007 MicroStrategy. the fact table must also include the surrogate key. A transaction date field may or may not exist. LVW_CURRENT_ORG select Sales_rep_ID. Inc.

Inc. LU_SALES_REP – Child: Sales Rep • Date: – @ID = date_id. LVW_CURRENT_ORG – Child: Sales Rep • Historical District: – @ID = district_id. LVW_CURRENT_ORG – Child: Sales Rep Surrogate • Current District: – @ID = district_id. @Desc = district_name – Tables: LU_DISTRICT (lookup). trans_dt – Tables: LU_TIME (lookup). FACT_TABLE • Sales Rep: – @ID = sales_rep_id.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide 3 Define the following attributes: • Sales Rep Surrogate: – @ID = sales_rep_cd – Tables: LU_SALES_REP (lookup). @Desc = district_name – Tables: LU_CURRENT_DISTRICT (lookup). FACT_TABLE • Month: – @ID = MONTH_ID – Tables: LU_TIME (lookup) – Child: Date 4 Define the Sales fact: • Expression: sales 386 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. . @Desc = sales_rep_name – Tables: LU_SALES_REP (lookup).

Distrcit_Name) Distrcit_Name.SALES) WJXBFS1 from FACT_TABLE a11 join LU_SALES_REP a12 on (a11. Month.Date_ID) join LU_DISTRICT a14 on (a12.District_ID District_ID. Inc.Sales_Rep_CD = a12.District_ID = © 2007 MicroStrategy. Sales Resulting SQL select a12. a13. sum(a11. LVW_HIST_DISTRICT_SALES 5 Define the metric as required: • Sales: SUM(sales) The result is a logical schema as follows: LU_CURRENT_DISTRICT LU_CURRENT_ORG LU_SALES_REP FACT_TABLE LU_TIME Current District Sales Rep Current District Sales Rep Surrogate Sale rep Historical District Sales Rep Surrogate Date Sales Date Month LVW_HISTORICAL_ DISTRICT_SALES Historical District As-was analysis Specify the “as-was” analysis by using the Historical District attribute on reports: • • Report definition: Historical District. max(a14.Month_ID Month_ID.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C • Tables: FACT_TABLE.Sales_Rep_CD) join LU_TIME a13 on (a11.Trans_dt = a13. Logical view examples 387 .

District_ID.District_ID = a15.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide a14.Sales_Rep_CD = a12. max(a15.SALES) WJXBFS1 from FACT_TABLE a11 join LU_SALES_REP a12 on (a11.Date_ID) join LU_DISTRICT a15 on (a13. . sum(a11.Trans_dt = a14.District_ID) group by a13. District_ID from LU_SALES_REP where current_flag = 1) a13 on (a12.Month_ID 388 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy.Sales_Rep_CD) join (select Sales_rep_ID. a13. Sales Resulting SQL: select a13.District_ID) group by a12. Month. a14.Distrcit_Name) District_Name.District_ID.District_ID District_ID. Inc.Month_ID Month_ID.Sales_Rep_ID = a13. a14.Sales_Rep_ID) join LU_TIME a14 on (a11.Month_ID • Report results As-is analysis Specify the “as-is” analysis by using the Current District attribute on reports: • • Report definition: Current District.

day_date) = YEAR(B.day_date)= MONTH(B. one-to-many transformations require tables in the database that map each date to all the previous dates that make up “month-to-date”.day_date mtd_date From lu_day A.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C • Report result Business case 4: One-to-many transformation tables In order to support time-series analysis. can be defined in terms of an expression. such as Last Month.day_date) © 2007 MicroStrategy.day_date And YEAR(A.day_date >= B. Logical view examples 389 . Although one-to-one transformations.day_date >= B. The SQL below can be used to define a logical MTD_DATE table. lu_day B Where A. you need to define transformations. If you do not already have such a table in the warehouse and your circumstances do not allow you to add additional tables to the database.day_date ytd_date From lu_day A. which contains the Day attribute. Select day_date day_date.day_date And MONTH(A. lu_day B Where A. B. Inc. then you can use the logical view approach to address this issue as long as you already have a lookup table for the Day attribute. The MTD transformation can then be defined using the MTD_DATE column. B.day_date day_date. such as month-to-date and year-to-date calculations.day_date) The same technique can be used to define a year-t0-date transformation. Select A.

.. you could model an attribute hierarchy as follows: • • • Business Unit -< Department -< Employee Hire Date -< Employee Emergency Contact -< Employee In addition. the relationship between Employees and Emergency Contacts is such that each employee may have up to one contact. no metrics). which means not all employees have contacts on record.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide Business case 5: Outer joins between attribute lookup tables A common request is the ability to generate an outer join between attribute lookup tables for a report that contains only attributes (that is. Abraham Walker. John Larkins.. Mary Walker. Dawson. 555-1212 555-3456 555-9876 .. For example.. George . Inc.. EMPLOYEE EMP_ID FIRST_NAME LAST_NAME HIRE_DATE DEPT_ID EMERGENCY CONTACT EMP_ID CONTACT_FIRST_NAME CONTACT_LAST_NAME CONTACT_PHONE_NUMBER DEPARTMENT DEPT_ID DEPT_NAME BUS_UNIT_ID Given this structure. Department Marketing Finance R&D Finance . Emergency Contact Phone Number NULLS are displayed for employees who do not have emergency contacts. Martha . One of the reports you probably would like to create may look like the following: Employee Gonzalez. James Dawson. Jane Taylor. consider the tables below. ... 390 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy.

In order to see all employees. if you model the attributes as described below. EMPLOYEE Child: Employee • Hire Date: @ID = HIRE_DATE Tables: EMPLOYEE (lookup) Child: Employee • Emergency Contact: @ID = CONTACT_PHONE_NUMBER. © 2007 MicroStrategy. and only those employees who have emergency contacts would appear in the final result. Inc. the SQL generated would join the EMPLOYEE table to the EMERGENCY_CONTACT table. @[Last Name] = LAST_NAME Tables: EMPLOYEE (lookup). @[First Name] = FIRST_NAME. described as follows. you would not get the desired output: • Employee: @ID = EMP_ID. @[First Name] = CONTACT_FIRST_NAME. EMERGENCY_CONTACT • Department: @ID = DEPT_ID Tables: DEPARTMENT (lookup). Logical view examples 391 .Project Design Guide Logical Tables C However. @[Last Name] = CONTACT_LAST_NAME Tables: EMERGENCY_CONTACT (lookup) Child: Employee Using the above model. you can perform an outer join using a logical view.

EMPLOYEE).EMP_ID. you can use the following SQL and the list of columns to map to the view: select E. C.CONTACT_LAST_NAME.DEPT_ID.EMP_ID = C. E. LVW_EMERGENCY_CONTACT 392 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. E.LAST_NAME. .EMP_ID) LVW_EMERGENCY_CONTACT EMP_ID FIRST_NAME LAST_NAME HIRE_DATE DEPT_ID CONTACT_FIRST_NAME CONTACT_LAST_NAME CONTACT_PHONE_NUMBER Make sure to include all columns from the original child table (for example. E. C.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide Using a logical view for an outer join To perform an outer join for the case described above. Inc. @[Last Name] = LAST_NAME Tables: EMPLOYEE (lookup). The new logical table LVW_EMERGENCY_CONTACT can then be used to define attributes as follows: • Employee: @ID = EMP_ID.CONTACT_FIRST_NAME. @[First Name] = FIRST_NAME.FIRST_NAME.HIRE_DATE. C. E.CONTACT_PHONE_NUMBER from EMPLOYEE E left outer join EMERGENCY_CONTACT C on (E.

@[First Name] = CONTACT_FIRST_NAME. Now if we run a report with Employee and Emergency Contact attributes. and NULLs will be returned for any employees who do not have emergency contacts. Logical view examples 393 . LVW_EMERGENCY_CONTACT Child: Employee • Emergency Contact: @ID = CONTACT_PHONE_NUMBER. it will be executed against the EMPLOYEE table. the EMPLOYEE table will be outer joined to the EMERGENCY_CONTACT table. LVW_EMERGENCY_CONTACT Child: Employee The Employee attribute is not represented in the original EMERGENCY_CONTACT table and all attributes represented in the EMPLOYEE table are also represented in the LVW_EMERGENCY_CONTACT table. @[Last Name] = CONTACT_LAST_NAME Tables: EMERGENCY_CONTACT (lookup). © 2007 MicroStrategy. This technique is applicable any time that the lookup tables should always be outer joined. LVW_EMERGENCY_CONTACT Child: Employee • Hire Date: @ID = HIRE_DATE Tables: EMPLOYEE (lookup). the EMERGENCY_CONTACT table will be joined only when necessary. Inc.Project Design Guide Logical Tables C • Department: @ID = DEPT_ID Tables: DEPARTMENT (lookup). The technique does not work when the lookup tables should sometimes be outer joined and sometimes be inner joined. Also note that if we run a report that includes only the Employee attribute. EMPLOYEE.

Inc.C Logical Tables Project Design Guide 394 Logical view examples © 2007 MicroStrategy. .

DATA TYPES Introduction To generate SQL or retrieve data from data sources. As each RDBMS supports a different set of data types.D D. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Mapping of external data types to MicroStrategy data types When you create a project and add tables from your data warehouse to the MicroStrategy Warehouse Catalog. MicroStrategy must be aware of the data types that exist in your database. MicroStrategy generalizes them into a set of MicroStrategy-specific data types. Mapping of external data types to MicroStrategy data types 395 . MicroStrategy automatically maps the columns within those tables to MicroStrategy-specific data types. Inc. Each column from your database becomes associated with a MicroStrategy data type.

for example. see the MicroStrategy Advanced Reporting Guide. and generating the correct syntax for literals.D Data Types Project Design Guide This external-to-internal mapping is necessary. Inc. For more information about data marts and custom groups. “INTEGER. in part. It is strongly recommended that you do not alter the mapping file (DTMAPPING. MicroStrategy must map every column brought into the project schema to an internal data type. Therefore. The data type is also used whenever multi-pass SQL is used. and data mart tables. . because each database names data types in different ways. Data types that may be conceptually the same can have different names. In your relational database. The MicroStrategy data type stores data values internally and in the metadata repository and is later used during SQL generation when defining intermediate tables. Suppose you add a table to the Warehouse Catalog.” MicroStrategy maps this column to a MicroStrategy-specific data type. For information about how your relational database’s data types are mapped to MicroStrategy data types and the specific mappings that pertain to your RDBMS. as with custom groups.” This allows MicroStrategy to maintain a consistent SQL generation process.pds) in any way. 396 Mapping of external data types to MicroStrategy data types © 2007 MicroStrategy. refer to MicroStrategy Technical Note TN5200-7X0-0166. a column within that table has a data type of “SMALLINT.

Similar to ANSI CLOB. Double 8-byte floating point numbers. Time Time of day. Similar to ANSI REAL. Similar to ANSI DATE. Similar to ANSI TIMESTAMP. MicroStrategy data types 397 . all columns in the database are automatically mapped to one of the following MicroStrategy data types. Similar to ANSI CHAR. Integer Signed integer values. Similar to ANSI BLOB. Data Type Big Decimal Binary Description High-precision fixed point numbers. Similar to ANSI BIT. Similar to ANSI DOUBLE PRECISION. Similar to ANSI INTEGER. Real 4-byte floating point numbers. Similar to ANSI FLOAT. Similar to ANSI TIME. Unsigned Unsigned integer values. Similar to ANSI NUMERIC.Project Design Guide Data Types D MicroStrategy data types When the data warehouse catalog is read from the Warehouse Catalog. Char Fixed-length character strings. Fixed-length bit strings. Numeric Fixed point numbers up to 15 digits of precision. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Similar to ANSI DECIMAL. Float 4-byte floating point numbers. LongVarChar Large strings of characters. Timestamp Combinations of calendar date and time of day. Date Calendar dates. LongVarBin Large strings of bits. Inc. Decimal Fixed point numbers up to 15 digits of precision.

D Data Types Project Design Guide Data Type Varbin Description Variable-length bit strings. You specify the format type of an attribute form in the Form Format: Type drop-down menu in the Attribute Editor. Information is stored and displayed both as date and time in the format specific to the data. Inc. it implies that the data type in the database has not mapped to one of the MicroStrategy data types. Information is stored and displayed in the form of an e-mail address. Information is stored and displayed as dates in a sequential form to perform calculations on the dates. Similar to ANSI VARCHAR. which represents high-precision fixed point numbers. page 400. For more information about Big Decimal. which specifies how attribute form values should be displayed on MicroStrategy interfaces. If the Warehouse Catalog displays a column with data type as Unknown. The date follows the MM/DD/YYYY format and time follows the HH:MM:SS format. Format types Attribute forms are also associated with a MicroStrategy format type. The attribute form format types are described in the following table. Similar to ANSI BIT VARYING. see Big Decimal. Date Datetime Email HTML Tag Number 398 Format types © 2007 MicroStrategy. Information is stored and displayed in a number format. Information is stored and displayed as an HTML tag. . Format Type Big Decimal Description Information is stored and displayed in the Big Decimal form. It represents dates in the MM/DD/YYYY format. Varchar Variable-length character strings.

doing so can still result in SQL generation issues. for example—you must also change the format type of the attribute.Project Design Guide Data Types D Format Type Picture Text Time Description stored and displayed the form of an image file. such as bitmap. you notice that the Year attribute is assigned an “Integer” data type. The data type of your column must be consistent with the format type you select because SQL generation issues can occur if the format type and data type are incompatible. you edit the ID form of the Year attribute in the Attribute Editor. Although you have the option to continue by clicking Yes. or GIF. a warning message appears notifying you of the incompatibility. Inc. Information is stored and displayed as either an absolute or a relative Universal Resource Locator. This displays only the time and not the date. For example. Information is stored and displayed in a text format. © 2007 MicroStrategy. You are warned in the Attribute Editor whenever you have selected a format type that is incompatible with the data type of your column. In the Column Alias tab. This format type must be compatible with the data type you assigned in the Column Alias tab. However. Data type and format type compatibility 399 . you must select an appropriate format type from the Form Format: Type drop-down menu. If you select a format type that is incompatible with the data type and click OK to exit the Attribute Editor. URL Data type and format type compatibility If you change the MicroStrategy data type of one of the columns in your project—using a column alias. JPG. you create a new column alias and assign it the “Date” data type. Information is stored and displayed as time in the HH:MM:SS format. When you return to the Definition pane in the Attribute Editor.

Inc. such as BIGINT and 400 Big Decimal © 2007 MicroStrategy. URL. Text depending on data Picture. E-mail. Data Type Big Decimal Binary Char Date Decimal Double Float Integer LongVarBin LongVarChar Numeric Real Time Timestamp Unsigned Varbin Varchar Compatible Format Types Big Decimal Number. Text Text. E-mail. some of the data type-format type combinations below may not work with your specific data. Different format types are compatible with different data types given the specific data in your column. Text. HTML Tag. HTML Tag Date. Datetime Number Number Number Number Picture. Picture Big Decimal Big Decimal is a MicroStrategy-specific data type that allows users to support high-precision attribute ID values that have more than 15 digits of precision.D Data Types Project Design Guide The following chart is intended to guide you in assigning format types that are compatible with the data type you have assigned to a column. Therefore. Text Number Number Time. Date or Time depending on data Number Picture. . URL. Datetime Datetime. Picture Text.

Project Design Guide Data Types D DECIMAL (precision. Using the Big Decimal data type With the Big Decimal data type. credit card numbers. and page-by. For more information about these operations. and page-by may not return results. • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. MicroStrategy preserves the precision of attribute ID values and attribute ID forms when displaying IDs and performing operations such as filtering. You can define attributes that are identified by numeric columns in the database. For example. Attribute ID: Follow the steps in the topic Defining attributes with high-precision ID forms in the MicroStrategy Desktop online help. Big Decimal 401 . When using the Big Decimal data type. because these data values have higher precision and cannot be stored in normal numeric data types. Examples of such attribute ID values are account numbers. even though 12345678 does not necessarily require the Big Decimal data type. Attribute form: If you change the column data type to Big Decimal on the Column Alias tab in the Attribute Editor. These numeric columns can have more than 15 digits of precision. you can define a filter as "Customer@ID exactly #12345678#". You must use the Big Decimal data type to handle these values. follow the rules listed below: • Constant: You can force a constant to be stored as a Big Decimal value by enclosing it in hash marks. The WHERE clause in the report SQL statement in drill reports may truncate numbers starting from the 16th digit. and long integers. such as account numbers and other long integers. drilling. Inc. see the MicroStrategy Basic Reporting Guide. you must also select Big Decimal as the form format type in the Form format: Type drop-down menu in the Definition tab. If you do not associate high-precision database fields with the Big Decimal data type. you may see numbers truncated starting with the 16th digit. scale) data types.

Some number formatting strings are not supported in MicroStrategy Desktop. When qualifying on a Big Decimal metric. 402 Big Decimal © 2007 MicroStrategy. or metric values are displayed in Graph view. This is because Big Decimal should only be used when the column is used as an attribute ID form. the metric is subtotaled. #1234567890123456#. Note that the Warehouse Catalog does not automatically map DECIMAL(p. Number formatting strings are not supported on the Web.D Data Types Project Design Guide • Metric: Although it is possible to define Big Decimal as the data type for metric values. Inc. consider the following drawbacks: Precision is lost when any Analytical Engine calculation is performed. you must explicitly identify high-precision constants by enclosing the value within hash (#) symbols. s) or NUMERIC(p. s) columns to the Big Decimal MicroStrategy data type even when the precision is greater than 15. the metric is used in a calculated field in a document. . For example.

and prompts are derived from schema objects. All of these objects can be built and manipulated in MicroStrategy Desktop. MicroStrategy supports two methods of application-level partitioning: metadata partition mapping and warehouse partition mapping. metrics. custom groups. © 2007 MicroStrategy. and AVG. See pre-aggregation. COUNT. Compare database-level partition. aggregate function 403 . the application rather than partition the database server manages the partition tables. Reports and documents can also be created and manipulated in MicroStrategy Web. MIN. The definition of application objects such as reports. Inc. application-level In application-level partitioning. aggregate table A fact table that stores data that has been aggregated along one or more dimensions. documents. application object An object used to provide analysis of and insight into relevant data. Examples include SUM. filters.GLOSSARY aggregate function A numeric function that acts on a column of data and produces a single result. templates. MAX.

attribute relationship See relationship. January. They provide a means for aggregating and filtering at a given level. 404 attribute © 2007 MicroStrategy. New York and Dallas are elements of the attribute City. and March are elements of the attribute Month. . Last Name. attribute role A database column that is used to define more than one attribute. and Abbreviation could be forms of the attribute Customer. Customer. Age. Billing City and Shipping City are two attributes that have the same table and columns defined as a lookup table. Order. City. For example. Every attribute supports its own collection of forms. Inc. and Year.Glossary Project Design Guide attribute A data level defined by the system architect and associated with one or more columns in a data warehouse lookup table. ID. defined by the attribute forms. See also: • • • • • • attribute element attribute form child attribute constant attribute derived attribute parent attribute attribute element A unique set of information for an attribute. For example. Long Description. attribute form A mapping to the columns in the warehouse that are used to expression represent a specific attribute form in SQL. Name. Item. attribute form One of several columns associated with an attribute that are different aspects of the same thing. Attributes include data classifications like Region. February.

whose execution is faster because they need not run against the database. when a user runs a report for the first time. if the results of that report are cached. Results from the data warehouse are stored separately and can be used by new job requests that require the same data. dimensions. © 2007 MicroStrategy. axis 405 . the job is submitted to the database for processing. Column. business intelligence A system that facilitates the analysis of volumes of complex (BI) system data by providing the ability to view data from multiple perspectives. Inc. There are three axes—Row. cardinality The number of unique elements for an attribute. In the MicroStrategy environment. and custom groups—along each axis. browse attribute An attribute a user can directly browse to from a given attribute in a user hierarchy.Project Design Guide Glossary axis A vector along which data is displayed. and Page. See also: • • column row base fact column A fact column represented by a single column in a fact table. This is normally done for frequently requested reports. metrics. When a user defines a template for a report. However. he places template units—attributes. consolidations. cache A special data store holding recently accessed information for quick future access. the results can be returned immediately without having to wait for the database to process the job the next time the report is run.

See also: • • parent attribute relationship column 1) A one-dimensional vertical array of values in a table. compound key In a relational database. For example. the specific name of the column to be used in temporary tables and SQL statements. Column aliases also include the data type to be used for the fact and allow you to modify the names of existing metrics for use in data mart reports without affecting the original metric. This is used to determine where aggregate tables would have the greatest impact. See also: • • axis row column alias In a fact definition. compression ratio The average number of child records combined to calculate one parent record. 406 child attribute © 2007 MicroStrategy. . a primary key consisting of more than one database column. Inc. The larger the compression ratio between two attributes. the compression of ratio between monthly data and yearly data is 12:1. compound attribute An attribute that has more than one key (ID) form. the more you stand to gain by creating an aggregate table that pre-calculates the higher-level data. 2) The set of fields of a given name and data type in all the rows of a given table. 3) MicroStrategy object in the schema layer that can represent one or more physical table columns or no columns.Glossary Project Design Guide child attribute The lower-level attribute in an attribute relationship.

schedules. reporting. and analysis. © 2007 MicroStrategy. and analysis. Excel files. Microsoft Analysis Services 2000 and 2005. 2) A copy of transaction data specifically structured for query. and OLAP cube sources such as SAP BW. Inc. Used for decision support or business intelligence. Data Explorer A portion of the interface used to browse through data contained in the warehouse. database login IDs.Project Design Guide Glossary conditionality Conditionality of a metric enables you to associate an existing filter object with the metric so that only data that meets the filter conditions is included in the calculation. or storage location which stores data that is to be used in MicroStrategy for query. Users can navigate through hierarchies of attributes that are defined by the administrator to find the data they need. See also data source. reporting. containing the historical data of an enterprise. typically very large. configuration object A MicroStrategy object appearing in the system layer and usable across multiple projects. data source A data source is any file. and Hyperion Essbase. constant attribute See implicit attribute. Configuration objects include these object types: users. it organizes data and allows coordinated updates and loads. conditionality 407 . A data warehouse can be thought of as one type of data source. which refers more specifically to using a database as your data source. database instances. system. Other data sources include text files. See also: • • data warehouse OLAP cube source data warehouse 1) A database.

Age might be calculated from this expression: Current Date–Birth Date Compare implicit attribute. calculations on other metrics. Compare allocation. A MicroStrategy object created in MicroStrategy Desktop that represents a connection to the warehouse. Login ID and password. It is calculated by Intelligence Server. For example. 2. that is. Database server software running on a particular machine. on report data after it has been returned from the database. description column Optional columns that contain text descriptions of attribute elements. and other data warehouse specific information. 408 database instance © 2007 MicroStrategy. Use a derived metric to perform column math. there is usually only one instance per machine. . derived fact column A fact column created through a mathematical combination of other existing fact columns. Although it is technically possible to have more than one instance running on a machine. degradation A type of fact extension in which values at one level of aggregation are reported at a second. A database instance specifies warehouse connection information.Glossary Project Design Guide database instance 1. not in the database. such as the data warehouse DSN. derived attribute An attribute calculated from a mathematical operation on columns in a warehouse table. Inc. derived metric A metric based on data already available in a report. lower attribute level.

or discontinuation of items or services. a shortcut to an attribute in the Data Explorer which is helpful in allowing users to more easily access frequently-used attributes in the Data Explorer. entry point In a user hierarchy. or the addition. The new data is retrieved by re-querying the Intelligent Cube or database at a different attribute or fact level. drill 409 . geographical realignment. These changes often occur because of organizational restructuring. For example. a store may decide to reclassify the department to which items belong.Project Design Guide Glossary drill A method of obtaining supplementary information after a report has been executed. For example. which lets you easily recognize tables and columns and the data stored in those columns. reclassification. Inc. © 2007 MicroStrategy. viewing the list of months in a year. See also: • • • • • page-by pivot sort subtotal surf dynamic relationship When the relationship between elements of parent and child attributes changes. element browsing Navigating through hierarchies of attribute elements. entry level The lowest level set of attributes at which a fact is available for analysis. entity relationship A diagram that provides a graphical representation of the diagram (ERD) physical structure of the data in the source system.

2) A schema object representing a column in a data warehouse table and containing basic or aggregated numbers—usually prices. . and loading (ETL) © 2007 MicroStrategy. Fact expressions can be as simple as a fact column name from the warehouse or as sophisticated as a formula containing fact columns and numeric constants. stored in a data warehouse. Multiple qualifications in a single filter are combined using logical operators. fact column A column in a database table that contains fact data.Glossary Project Design Guide extraction. A filter is normally implemented in the SQL WHERE clause. Facts can have multiple fact expressions. Using a filter on a report narrows the data to consider only the information that is relevant to answer your business question. fact table A database table containing numeric data that can be aggregated along one or more dimensions. transformation. or inventory quantities in counts. and disparate existing database systems. 1) The process used to populate a data warehouse from transformation. Fact tables can contain atomic or summarized data. filter A MicroStrategy object that specifies the conditions that the data must meet to be included in the report results. Examples include "Region = Northeast" or "Revenue > $1 million". A filter is composed of at least one qualification. See also metric. or sales in dollars. which is the actual condition that must be met for the data to be included on a report. since a report queries the database against all the data stored in the data warehouse. fact expression A mapping of facts to physical columns in the warehouse. loading (ETL) 2) Third-party software used to facilitate such a process. often numeric and typically aggregatable. 410 extraction. fact 1) A measurement value. Inc.

Such an attribute has its expression defined as a constant value. highly denormalized Schema type where not only are higher-level attribute ID schema columns present within all related tables. See also compound key. . A form group must be created to create a compound key. both containing customer names. implicit attribute An attribute that does not physically exist in the database because it is created at the application level. heterogeneous column Columns in different tables in a database that store the same naming data but have different names. For example. homogeneous column Columns in different tables of a database that contain the naming same data and have the same column name. you may wish to create columns in the database with a value of 1 for every row to get around COUNT limitations. one column named Customer in one table and one named Customer Name in a different table. which identifies that an attribute form requires more than one ID column to uniquely identify its elements. form group 411 © 2007 MicroStrategy. because in the Attribute Editor. but the description columns are present as well. For example. highly normalized Schema type where lookup tables contain unique schema developer-designed attribute keys. hierarchy A set of attributes defining a meaningful path for element browsing or drilling. though nothing is saved in a column. Inc.Project Design Guide Glossary form group A grouping of attribute forms that are related in a way that justifies combining the forms into a single form. The order of the attributes is typically—though not always—defined such that a higher attribute has a one-to-many relationship with its child attributes. All attributes must have an ID column. though. You do not have to actually create the column. ID column A column that contains attribute element identification codes.

You can use constant attributes when building metrics. locked hierarchy A hierarchy that has at least one attribute that may not be browsed by end users. as opposed to the physical data model or warehouse schema. In this case. When analyzing data. item. 412 joint children © 2007 MicroStrategy. Hierarchies are usually locked if there are so many attribute elements that element browsing is not usable. promotion has a many-to-many relationship to both item and quarter. These relationships can be modeled and conceptualized like traditional attributes.Glossary Project Design Guide you can just enter a “1” in the expression to create a count. where you can sum the column holding the constant to create a COUNT. and quarter. joint children Joint child relationships are another type of many-to-many relationship where one attribute has a many-to-many relationship to two otherwise unrelated attributes. lookup table A database table used to uniquely identify attribute elements. . consider the relationship between three attributes: promotion. but like facts. you can use constant attributes to create a COUNT to keep track of the number of rows returned. logical data model A graphical representation of data that is arranged logically for the general user. Inc. Implicit attributes are useful in analyzing and retrieving information. they exist at the intersection of multiple attribute levels. Compare derived attribute. A business might run this promotion around Valentine's Day (Q1) and again at Christmas time (Q4). They typically consist of descriptions of dimensions. Any constant is acceptable. An example of a promotion might be a “Red Sale” where all red items are on sale.For example. which arranges data for efficient database use. Lookup tables are usually joined to fact tables to group the numeric facts in the fact table by dimensional attributes in the lookup tables.

terms. Inc. Query Builder. metrics. hierarchies and other schema objects for Freeform SQL. and needs to the underlying database structure. See also: • • • • one-to-one one-to-many many-to-one relationship many-to-one An attribute relationship in which (1) multiple elements of a parent attribute relate to only one element of a child attribute. See also metadata shell. many-to-many An attribute relationship in which multiple elements of a parent attribute can relate to multiple elements of a child attribute. and vice versa. Managed objects are used to map data to attributes. which is created by the system and stored in a separate system folder. Metadata can reside on the same server as the data warehouse or on a different database server. © 2007 MicroStrategy. managed object 413 . and (2) every element of the child attribute can relate to multiple elements of the parent. See also: • • • • one-to-one one-to-many many-to-many relationship metadata A repository whose data associates the tables and columns of a data warehouse with user-defined attributes and facts to enable the mapping of the business view.Project Design Guide Glossary managed object A schema object unrelated to the project schema. It can even be held in a different RDBMS. and OLAP cube reports.

MOLAP Multidimensional online analytical processing. Inc. file services. See also metadata.[Cost] 2) The MicroStrategy object that contains the metric definition. including folders. When the primary thread terminates. For example: sum(dollar_sales) or [Sales] . SMS. but here the higher-level attribute ID columns are present within all related tables. In MicroStrategy. Narrowcast Server is a proactive information delivery server that allows for this distribution of information through e-mail. narrowcast application In a business intelligence environment.Glossary Project Design Guide metadata shell A set of blank tables that are created when you initially implement a MicroStrategy business intelligence environment. or other metrics. an application that allows for the distribution of personalized business information to subscribed users. an object is any item that can be selected and manipulated. reports. The startup code initiates the primary thread of a process by passing the main function address to the operating system. 414 metadata shell © 2007 MicroStrategy. facts. facts. See also fact. the process terminates. multithreaded Characteristic of a process that supports the simultaneous execution of multiple threads. metric 1) A business calculation defined by an expression built with functions. object Conceptually. metrics. moderately normalized Schema type having the same basic structure as the highly schema normalized schema. and so on. an object is the highest grouping level of information about one concept. used by the user to achieve the goal of specified data analysis. . attributes. More concretely. printers. and mobile devices.

OLAP cube source When integrated with MicroStrategy. report on. Inc. while every element of the child attribute relates to only one element of the parent. reporting. which is imported into MicroStrategy and mapped to various objects to allow query. OLAP cube 415 . Microsoft Analysis Services.Project Design Guide Glossary OLAP cube An OLAP cube is a collection or set of data retrieved from an OLAP cube source. The one-to-many attribute relationship is the most common in data models. MicroStrategy can integrate with OLAP cube source data as well as access data from a relational database concurrently. You can import and map data from these different OLAP cube sources in MicroStrategy to query. and analyze data with MicroStrategy. See also: • • • • one-to-one many-to-many many-to-one relationship © 2007 MicroStrategy. and Hyperion Essbase are referred to as OLAP cube sources. the third-party tools SAP BW. See also: • • OLAP cube data source one-to-many An attribute relationship in which every element of a parent attribute can relate to multiple elements of a child attribute. See also OLAP cube source. and analysis on the data.

Inc.Glossary Project Design Guide one-to-one An attribute relationship in which every element of the parent attribute relates to exactly one element of the child attribute. online transaction Typically. page-by Segmenting data in a grid report by placing available attributes. growth patterns. Since a grid is two-dimensional. . and metrics on a third axis called the Page axis. databases or mainframes that store transactional processing (OTLP) data. The slice is characterized by the choice of elements on the Page axis. and profit analysis. withdrawals. trend reporting. See also: • • • • one-to-many many-to-one many-to-many relationship online analytical A system with analytical processing that involves activities processing (OLAP) such as manipulating transaction records to calculate sales trends. inventory. only a slice of the cube can be seen at any one time. Transactional processing involves the simple recording of transactions such as sales. consolidations. the user can page through the cube. See also: • • • • • drill pivot sort subtotal surf 416 one-to-one © 2007 MicroStrategy. or deposits. By varying the selection of elements. percent to total contributions. and vice versa.

Partitions minimize the number of tables and records within a table that must be read to satisfy queries issued against the warehouse. See also: • • • • relationship one-to-many many-to-one many-to-many partition base table A warehouse table that contains one part of a larger set of data. Inc. See also partition mapping. while the opposite is not necessarily true. © 2007 MicroStrategy. Partition tables are usually divided along logical lines.Project Design Guide Glossary parent attribute The higher-level attribute in an attribute relationship with one or more children. such as month or department. partitions improve the speed and efficiency of database queries. partition mapping The division of large logical tables into smaller physical tables based on a definable data level. parent attribute 417 . such as time or geography. By distributing usage across multiple tables. See also: • • child attribute relationship partial relationship An attribute relationship in which elements of one attribute relate to elements of a second attribute. Also referred to as a PBT.

to reconfigure a grid report by interchanging row and column headers. Narrowcast Server. It organizes the logical data model in a method that make sense from a database perspective. when the Intelligence Server machine receives a network call from a client (Desktop. Command Manager. See also schema. See also: • • • • • drill page-by sort subtotal surf port number The port number is how a server process identifies itself on the machine on which it is running. pivot To reconfigure data on a grid report by placing report objects (attributes. consolidations) on different axes. For example. Also. and so on). Inc. Subset of cross-tab. and hence the associated data. . Also referred to as a PMT. Web. 418 partition mapping table © 2007 MicroStrategy. metrics. it knows to forward those calls to the Intelligence Server port number that is specified in the call.Glossary Project Design Guide partition mapping table A warehouse table that contains information used to identify the partitioned base tables as part of a logical whole. See also: • • partition base table partition mapping physical warehouse A detailed graphic representation of your business data as it schema is stored in the data warehouse.

and user community. the Catalog Server uses it to obtain table sample values and row counts. containing reports. metrics. filters. 2) An object containing the definition of a project. Also. Prefixes can be defined and modified from the Warehouse Catalog interface. A server project source is a 3-tier connection to a MicroStrategy Intelligence Server. See also table name space. and synchronization objects.Project Design Guide Glossary pre-aggregation Aggregation. metadata repository. and functions. it should match the name space field since it is used to qualify on a specific table belonging to a certain owner or name space. project 1) The highest-level intersection of a data warehouse. See also: • • aggregate table aggregation prefix A prefix is stored in the project metadata associated with a table or tables and is used by the Engine to generate SQL. as defined in (1). Inc. One project source can contain many projects and the administration tools found at the project source level are used to monitor and administer all projects in the project source. project source Defines a connection to the metadata repository and is used by various MicroStrategy products to access projects. Processes use temporary private address spaces and control operating system resources such as files. pre-aggregation 419 . with the results stored in an aggregate table. The project object is specified when requesting the establishment of a session. dynamic memory allocations. A direct project source is a two-tier connection directly to a metadata repository. In most cases. that is completed before reports are run. process An executing application comprising one or more threads. or the calculation of numeric data at a specific attribute level. © 2007 MicroStrategy. pipes.

IBM DB2 and Microsoft SQL Server. AND NOT. and administer a relational database. amount. a window requesting user input. or size between the cardinalities of related attributes. thus defining associations between them.” qualification The actual condition that must be met for data to be included on a report. OR. Qualifications are used in filters and custom groups. The leading RDBMS products are Oracle. and then set how to combine the qualifications using the logical operators AND. You can create multiple qualifications for a single filter or custom group. ratio The relationship in quantity. relate table A table containing the ID columns of two or more attributes. 420 prompt © 2007 MicroStrategy. update. as in “type login ID and password at the prompt. relational database A relational database management system (RDBMS) is a management system program that lets you create. . The parent attribute is referred to as a “quality” because its definition is complete only with the intersection of its joint children.Glossary Project Design Guide prompt 1) MicroStrategy object in the report definition that is incomplete by design. A typical example with a filter is choosing a specific attribute on which to qualify. quality relationship The relationship between a parent attribute and two or more “joint child” attributes. A relational database is a collection of data items organized as a set of formally-described tables from which data can be accessed or reassembled in many different ways without having to reorganize the database tables. Examples include "Region = Northeast" or "Revenue > $1 million". 2) In general. The user is asked during the resolution phase of report execution to provide an answer that completes the information. and OR NOT. Inc. See also cardinality.

report design The process of building reports from basic report components using the Report Editor in MicroStrategy Desktop or MicroStrategy Web. City is a child attribute of State. See also: • • filter template report creation The process of building reports from existing. relationship 421 . Inc. analyze that data. © 2007 MicroStrategy. See also: • • • • • • • • parent attribute child attribute partial relationship quality relationship one-to-one one-to-many many-to-one many-to-many report The central focus of any decision support investigation. For example. predesigned reports in MicroStrategy Desktop or in MicroStrategy Web. a report allows users to query for data.Project Design Guide Glossary relationship An association specifying the nature of the connection between one attribute (the parent) and one or more other attributes (the children). and then present it in a visually pleasing manner.

facts. and the relationships between fields and tables. operators. hierarchies. Inc. 2) The layout or structure of a database system. tables. filter. which can be accessed from MicroStrategy Desktop. These objects are developed in MicroStrategy Architect. The attribute and fact columns in those tables are considered part of the schema itself. shortcut object A MicroStrategy object that represents a link to any other MicroStrategy object such as report. . a primary key that requires only one column to uniquely identify a record within a table. In relational databases. server definition A MicroStrategy object stored in the metadata containing information about the configuration of an Intelligence Server. that relates the information in the logical data model and physical warehouse schema to the MicroStrategy environment. simple key In a relational database. usually by a project designer. and transformations. and so forth. schema object A MicroStrategy object created.Glossary Project Design Guide row The horizontal axis of a report. the fields in each table. partition mappings. functions. See also: • • axis column schema 1) The set of tables in a data warehouse associated with a logical data model. server instance The combination of an Intelligence Server running with a particular server definition. the schema defines the tables. 422 row © 2007 MicroStrategy. metric. Schema objects directly reflect the warehouse structure and include attributes.

Inc. statistics tables Tables that are used to record a variety of statistical information about the usage and performance of a MicroStrategy system. See also: • • • • • © 2007 MicroStrategy. Structured Query The query language standardized in 1986 by the American Language (SQL) National Standards Institute (ANSI) and used to request information from tables in a relational database and to manipulate the tables’ structure and data. numeric ascending.Project Design Guide Glossary sort Arranging data according to some characteristic of the data itself (alphabetical descending. drill page-by pivot sort surf sort 423 . See also: • • • • • drill page-by pivot subtotal surf source system Any system or file that captures or holds data of interest. and so forth). subtotal A totaling operation performed for a portion of a result set. star schema A highly denormalized physical warehouse schema in which lookup tables are consolidated so that every attribute ID and description column for a given hierarchy exists in one table.

and functions to existing analysis objects. Unlike a browse hierarchy. attribute elements. metrics. attributes. This is needed to uniquely identify each table saved in the project when comparing table information in the metadata to the real one in the warehouse. table size The estimated size of a database table in terms of number of rows. and so on) that defines the columns of data to be included in the result set. metrics. The layout and format of these objects are defined within the template's view definition. 424 surf © 2007 MicroStrategy. Compare user hierarchy. . Inc. custom groups.Glossary Project Design Guide surf To add filters. This field cannot be modified from the product since it is actually stored in the warehouse. See also: • • • • • drill page-by pivot sort subtotal system hierarchy The superset hierarchy containing all attributes in a project. table name space A field that is read from the warehouse catalog and used to organize databases. it is not explicitly created but is automatically deduced by the MicroStrategy platform from all information available to it. Each table object in the metadata stores the name space or owner from which it came. template The data definition portion of the template consists of the group of objects (attribute.

Inc. format that cell to have a blue background with bold type. if revenue is greater than $200. No physical cube is created or loaded. a transformation can also map different objects. 2) The result of mapping a logical data model to an OLE DB for OLAP multidimensional model after hierarchies and metrics have been selected from a project. transformation metric An otherwise simple metric that takes the properties of the transformation applied to it. but a definition of the virtual cube structure is stored in MicroStrategy metadata. Although the vast majority are based on time. For example. © 2007 MicroStrategy. user hierarchy A named set of attributes and their relationships. multidimensional representation of data. Unlike a physical cube. such as this year versus last year or current date versus month-to-date. a metric calculates total sales. A virtual cube maps MicroStrategy objects such as hierarchies and metrics to OLE DB for OLAP objects. transformation 425 . a conceptual. threshold Used to create conditional formatting for metric values. a virtual cube does not perform data retrieval and consequently lacks the performance problems and size limitations associated with a physical cube. They are user-defined and are used to define the browse and drill relationships between attributes. virtual cube 1) In an OLAP data model. Time transformations are used in metrics to compare values at different times. For example. such as defunct product codes to new ones. applying an offset value. Add a transformation for last year and the metric now calculates last year’s total sales. such as current month minus one month. arranged in specific sequences for a logical business organization.Project Design Guide Glossary transformation A schema object that maps a specified time period to another time period.

Glossary Project Design Guide 426 virtual cube © 2007 MicroStrategy. Inc. .

Inc. 320 level 321 member property 321 relating objects 317 Analysis Services 2005 catalog 342 connecting to 340 DSI 342 hierarchy 326 relating objects to MicroStrategy 322 URL 342 427 . 212 aggregate function defined on 247 aggregate table defined on 241 advantages 242 base table 244 compression ratio 248 effectiveness 248 integrate into project 249 logical table size 249 parent-child relationship 246 pre-aggregation 243 query frequency 246 aggregate-aware 249 aggregation defined on 243 degree of 244 dense 244 dynamic 243 sparse 244 alias attribute column 156 © 2007 MicroStrategy. fact column 96.INDEX A accessing Project Creation Assistant 78 Warehouse Catalog 219 adding tables to a project 79 aerial perspective of hierarchy 200. 105 table 178. 180 allocation expression 121 Analysis Services 2000 catalog 339 connecting to 337 DSI 339 metadata models 317 relating objects to MicroStrategy 317 URL 339 Analysis Services 2000 to MicroStrategy cube 319 database 318 database instance 338 dimension 319.

164 MicroStrategy to Analysis Services 2000 321 MicroStrategy to Analysis Services 2005 326 MicroStrategy to Essbase 315 MicroStrategy to SAP BW 307 multiple counting in relationship 166 nonrelated 161 one-to-many relationship 160 one-to-one relationship 160 overview 22 parent 24 properties 127. simple expression 148 system hierarchy 159 attribute component.Index Project Design Guide Analysis Services 2005 to MicroStrategy cube 322 database 323 database instance 341 dimension 325 level 326 member 326 member property 327 perspective 324 relating objects 322 analysis. derived attribute 150 derived expression 150 display 189 element. Inc. Attribute Creation Wizard about 129 using 130 Attribute Editor about 135 creating attribute forms 146 creating attributes 136 updating hierarchies 197 attribute element defined on 23 about 140 © 2007 MicroStrategy. time-series 257 application for Essbase 313 application-level partition defined on 251 architecture. expression 127 filtering in a hierarchy 203 form. attribute constant 155 in hierarchy 25 joint child relationship 171 many-to-many relationship 160. See joint-child relationship. See report display form and browse form. See attribute role. report display form 190 role. 128 qualification 253 ratio 35 relationship. heterogeneous mapping 153 identifying 30 implicit. MicroStrategy 294 atomic defined on 244 attribute defined on 10 Attribute Creation Wizard 129 Attribute Editor 135 browse form 190 cardinality 35 child 24 column alias 156 component. See report display form and browse form. See attribute form. compound 183 compound key 184 creating in Project Creation Assistant 130 creating using Attribute Editor 136 cross-dimensional. 428 . See attribute element. See attribute relationship.

See column data type. . derived fact 47 description 41 fact 41 heterogeneous naming 49 homogeneous naming 50 ID 41 physical warehouse schema 40. characteristic attribute vs. Inc. 223 base fact column 47 data type. See hierarchy. SAP BW 300 child attribute 24 class.Project Design Guide Index for Analysis Services 2000 321 for Analysis Services 2005 326 for Essbase 316 for SAP BW 307 overview 23 attribute form defined on 37 creating using Attribute Editor 146 display 189 expression 147 for Analysis Services 2000 321 for Analysis Services 2005 327 for Essbase 316 for SAP BW 307 group 186 qualification 253 attribute relationship defined on 24 about 159 as property of attribute 127 identifying 31 in lookup table 44 overview 24 attribute role defined on 175 automatic recognition 179 automatic recognition of 177 explicit table alias 178. column defined on 41. attribute form 307 characteristic value 307 characteristics. 180 authenticating OLAP cube reports 297 automatic attribute role recognition 177 about 207 enabling in a hierarchy 209 building a logical data model 26 business intelligence (BI) system defined on 1 C calculating growth percentage 257 variance 257 calculating logical table sizes 231 cardinality for an attribute 35 Cartesian join 159 catalog for Analysis Services 2000 318 for Analysis Services 2005 323 for Essbase 313 for SAP BW 304 SQL 234 category. See hierarchy. 41 column alias attribute 156 429 B base fact column 47 base table defined on 244 pre-aggregation 243 BI architecture 2 browse attribute 207 form 190 browsing © 2007 MicroStrategy.

See project source. Inc. . data provider. 105 column data type changed 240 manually setting for OLAP cube 352 compound attribute defined on 183 creating 184 compound key defined on 42 and compound attributes 184 compound metric. cube 319 for Analysis Services 2000 319 for Analysis Services 2005 324 for Essbase 314 for SAP BW 304 mapping 349 customizing catalog SQL 233 D Data Explorer defined on 209 about 209 enabling hierarchy browsing 196. read operations 227 secondary 225 database instance defined on 67 for Analysis Services 2000 338 for Analysis Services 2005 341 for Essbase 335 for SAP BW 329 for SAP BW (UNIX/Linux) 333 database management system 233 degradation defined on 118 dense aggregation 244 derived 430 © 2007 MicroStrategy. creating for OLAP cube 359 compression ratio defined on 248 Configuration Wizard 71 connecting to a database 227 to Analysis Services 2000 337 to Analysis Services 2005 340 to Essbase 334 to SAP BW 327 consolidating lookup tables 58 constant attribute 155 creating attributes 136 compound attributes 184 compound metric for OLAP cube 359 facts 87 logical data model 26 project 75 creating hierarchies 194 cross product join 116 cross-dimensional attribute. 209 data model.Index Project Design Guide fact 96. See database instance. See logical data model. data slice 253 data source defined on 6 data type and mapping 395 Big Decimal 400 changed in column 240 high-precision 400 warehouse catalog 397 data warehouse defined on 5 and physical schema 39 connecting to 72 schema type 51 structure 51 Warehouse Catalog 218 database 323 connection operations 227 custom login 227 gateway support 225 instance. See joint child relationship.

transformation. level 107 extraction. fact 98 expression-based transformation 259 creating 261 member expressions 264 member tables 263 extension. 97 Fact Editor 88. example data model sample 26 physical schema 289 project 267 table data sample 225 explicit table alias 178. 180 expression map 98 expression. 320 for Analysis Services 2005 325 for Essbase 314. direct access approach 292 disallowing fact entry level 122 drilling using hierarchies 209 dynamic aggregation 243 dynamic relationship defined on 247 E element. Inc. dimension for Analysis Services 2000 319. entry level defined on 87 entry point 205 ERD.Project Design Guide Index attribute 150 fact 99 fact column 47 description column defined on 41 Desktop. Essbase catalog 337 connecting to 334 database instance 335 DSI (DataSourceInfo) 336 metadata models 311 relating objects to MicroStrategy 311 URL 336 Essbase to MicroStrategy application 313 database 313 dimension 314. See MicroStrategy Desktop. attribute 140 entity relationship diagram (ERD) defined on 29 entity. 105 creating 87 cross product join 116 degradation defined on 118 derived 99 derived fact column 47 disallowing 122 expression 98 extension 107 Fact Creation Wizard 88 fact definition 96. and loading (ETL) process defined on 4. and loading. 92 fact entry level 87 431 . 315 level 315 © 2007 MicroStrategy. transformation. member 316 relating objects 311 ETL. See extraction. See entity relationship diagram. 6 F fact defined on 85 allocation expression 121 base fact column 47 column defined on 41 column alias 96. 315 for SAP BW 306 See also hierarchy. See hierarchy.

210 Hierarchy Viewer 200 in a logical data model 25 in SAP BW 300 limited 202 locked 201 organization 198 Project Creation Assistant 197 ragged 355 See also dimension. 107 overview 21 table 46 table relation 110 table. structure 199 system hierarchy 197 unbalanced 355 user hierarchy 197 Hierarchy Editor 198. 209 Attribute Editor 197 attribute filter 203 attributes in 25 browse attribute 207 browsing 207 browsing. 93 fact expression 98 fact table defined on 86 column naming 51 in a warehouse 46 level 48 overview 21 filtered hierarchy 203 flag 172 form attribute form 143 expression 147 group 186 G gateway support for database 225 growth percentage calculation 257 H heterogeneous attribute mapping 153 column naming defined on 49 432 fact column 102 partition mapping 252 hierarchy defined on 193 aerial perspective 212 and the Data Explorer 196. 200. . enabling 209 creating 194 defining 32 displaying 201 drilling 209 entry point 205 facts in 25 filtering attributes in 203 for Analysis Services 2000 320 for Analysis Services 2005 326 for Essbase 315 for SAP BW 306 Hierarchy Editor 198. 200. See fact table. Inc. fact column defined on 41 base 47 derived 47 heterogeneous 102 Fact Creation Wizard 88 Fact Editor 88. 210 Hierarchy Viewer 200 © 2007 MicroStrategy.Index Project Design Guide fact relation 114 heterogeneous fact column 102 identifying 29 implicit 99 in hierarchy 25 level extension 96.

Project Design Guide Index highly denormalized schema 57 higher level lookup tables 58 highly normalized schema 52 homogeneous column naming 50 partition mapping 252. I implicit attribute 155 fact 99 importing OLAP cubes 343. Inc. 330 join. 304 InfoObjects 299 InfoProviders 299 international technical support xxiii J Java Connector 328. cross product 116 joint child attribute transformation metrics 265 joint child relationship 171 joint children defined on 171 for Analysis Services 2005 326 for Essbase 315 virtual 306 limited hierarchy 202 locating OLAP cubes 348 locked hierarchy defined on 201 logical data model defined on 17 attributes in 24 building 26 cardinality 35 conventions 33 design factors 59 for MicroStrategy Tutorial 271. See Essbase. 254 Hyperion Essbase. custom 227 lookup table defined on 43 attribute relationships and 44 consolidating 58 many-to-many relationship 44 one-to-one relationship 44 K key compound 42 figures 300 simple 42 M managed object 349 managed objects OLAP cubes 348 many-to-many relationship defined on 160 design considerations 164 example 32 lookup table 44 relate table 45 many-to-many transformation 433 L level extension 107 for Analysis Services 2000 321 © 2007 MicroStrategy. . 344 InfoCube 303. 280 ratio 35 sample 26 schema type 51 source of structure 29 unique identifier 34 Logical Table Editor 250 logical table size 249 login.

tables 263 member property for Analysis Services 2000 321 for Analysis Services 2005 327 metadata defined on 8 connecting to 72 shell 65 table 71 metadata model Analysis Services 2000 317 Essbase 311 SAP BW 302 metadata partition mapping attribute qualification 253 data slice 253 overview 251 versus warehouse partition mapping 255 metadata shell defined on 65 metric creating compound metrics for OLAP cube data 359 creating with custom MDX 359 prompts within custom MDX 366 removing compound metrics from OLAP cubes 368 transformations 258 Microsoft Analysis Services 2000. MicroStrategy to Analysis Services 2000 317 attribute 321 attribute element 321 attribute form 321 catalog 318 cube 319 dimension 320 hierarchy 320 MicroStrategy to Analysis Services 2005 322 attribute 326 attribute element 326 attribute form 327 catalog 323 cube 324 dimension 325 hierarchy 326 MicroStrategy to Essbase 311 434 © 2007 MicroStrategy.Index Project Design Guide and table-based transformations 259 double-counting 264 mapping OLAP cubes 343 OLAP cubes examples 358 schema objects in Warehouse Catalog 231 mapping type about 264 many-to-many 264 one-to-one 264 MDX. See Analysis Services 2005. . See metadata. See MultiDimensional Expressions. MicroStrategy Project Builder. MicroStrategy architecture 294 object model 7i 295 object model 8 296 MicroStrategy Desktop 11 MicroStrategy metadata. See Analysis Services 2000. Microsoft Analysis Services 2005. See member property. member attributes 263 expressions 263 for Analysis Services 2000 321 for Analysis Services 2005 326 for Essbase 316 property. See Project Builder. Inc.

OLAP cube defined on 343 creating compound metrics 359 creating metrics with custom MDX 359 importing 344 integration 292 manually setting column data type 352 mapping 349 prompts within custom MDX metrics 366 remapping 356 removing 347 removing compound metrics 368 searching for 348 source 291 unbalanced and ragged hierarchies 355 OLAP Cube Catalog 309.Project Design Guide Index attribute 315 attribute element 316 attribute form 316 catalog 313 cube 314 dimension 314 hierarchy 315 MicroStrategy to SAP BW 302 attribute 307 attribute element 307 attribute form 307 catalog 304 cube 304 dimension 306 hierarchy 306 MicroStrategy Tutorial 267 data model. See OLAP cube. 55 © 2007 MicroStrategy. See logical data model. user 10 ODS object 299 OLAP BAPI certification 293 Cube Catalog 309 Cube Editor 349 cube. 280 physical warehouse schema 281 schema. general 280 view physical schema 289 MicroStrategy Web Universal 13 migrating tables 232 moderately normalized schema 54 MOLAP defined on 242 multidimensional data model. 343 OLAP Cube Editor 349 OLAP cube reports authentication 297 managed objects 348 OLTP 3 one-to-many relationship defined on 160 example 31 relate table 45 N nonrelated attributes 161 normalized schema 53. 435 . viewing 279 logical data model 271. MultiDimensional Expressions about 291 remapping objects 356 multiple counting 164 MultiProviders 299 O object models in MicroStrategy 7i 295 in MicroStrategy 8 296 using SAP direct access 296 object. Inc.

255 PBT. Inc. in metrics with custom MDX 366 properties for SAP BW 311 Q qualification for an attribute form 253 quality. defined on 255 types 251 warehouse 254. See OLAP.Index Project Design Guide one-to-one relationship defined on 160 lookup table 44 online analytical processing. See project source tables. 80 removing tables from 80 sample project 267 schema 216 source. 255 partition mapping defined on 250 application-level 251 attribute qualification 253 data slice 253 heterogeneous 252 homogeneous 252. P parent attribute 24 parent-child relationship 246 dynamic 247 overview 25 static 247 partition base table defined on 251. 80 aggregate table. managing 220 Warehouse Catalog 79 warehouse tables in 79 Project Builder 74 Project Creation Assistant 77. 255 partition base table 255 server-level 251 table 222. online transaction processing. See partition base table. opening Project Creation Assistant 78 Warehouse Catalog 219 Operational Data Store object. See OLTP. . 254 metadata 251. © 2007 MicroStrategy.See ODS object. See joint child relationship. perspective 324 physical warehouse schema defined on 39 design factors 59 for MicroStrategy Tutorial 281 sample 289 planning a project 76 PMT. 436 pre-aggregation defined on 243 aggregate table 241 base table 244 compression ratio 248 integrate aggregate table 249 logical table size 249 parent-child relationship 246 query frequency 246 prefix 230 project defined on 14 adding tables to 79. See partition mapping table. 197 project source defined on 65 connecting to 72 creating 77 prompt. integrating 248 creating 75 data warehouse 79 integrating aggregate tables 248 managing tables for 220 planning 76 Project Builder 74 Project Creation Assistant 78.

308 SAP BW to MicroStrategy characteristic attribute 307 characteristic value 307 characteristics 305 hierarchy 306 InfoCube 303. Inc. configuring 331 schema for project 216 highly denormalized 57 highly normalized 53 MicroStrategy Tutorial project 280 moderately normalized 55 object 14 physical warehouse defined on 39 star 58 © 2007 MicroStrategy. relating objects to MicroStrategy from Analysis Services 2000 317 from Analysis Services 2005 322 from Essbase 311 from SAP BW 302 relation.sh. 304 relating objects 302 virtual level 306 SAP. 437 . relationship dynamic 247 many-to-many 164 parent-child 246 relate table 45 static 247 remapping OLAP cubes 356 removing compound metric from OLAP cube 368 OLAP cube 347 table from project 80 report display form 190 row count for table 230 S SAP BW characteristics 300 connecting to 327 on UNIX/Linux 330 on Windows 328 database instance 329.sh 331 structures 311 terminology 298 variable properties 309 variables 300. See RDBMS. 333 hierarchies 300 InfoObjects 299 InfoProviders 299 Java Connector 328. 343 query cubes 299 relating objects to MicroStrategy 302 SAP. fact 114 relational database management system. See attribute relationship. 330 key figures 300 mapping cubes 349 metadata models 302 OLAP Cube Catalog 309.Project Design Guide Index query cubes 299 query frequency 246 R ragged hierarchy 355 ratio for an attribute 35 RDBMS defined on 5 server-level partitioning 251 read operations for database 227 relate table 45 related attributes.

See joint child relationship. See technical support. Inc. summary table 241 support. 44 managing for a project 221 migrating 232 name space 222. See SQL. 5. 86 key 42 Logical Table Editor 250 lookup 43. 180 calculating logical sizes 231 calculating size 231 compound key 42 fact table defined on 46. defined on 197 T table adding to a project 79 aggregate 241 alias 178. 28 sparse aggregation 244 SQL defined on 5 attributes and columns in 22 catalog 233 default catalog SQL 239 facts and columns in 21 star schema 58 static relationship defined on 247 structure in SAP BW query cube 311 of hierarchy 199 of table 222 Structured Query Language. 228 name spaces 230 physical warehouse schema 40 prefixes 230 primary key 42 relation 110 row counts 230 sample data 225 simple key 42 size defined on 249 summary 241 transformation 259 updating structure 223 viewing structure 222 warehouse tables in Project Creation Assistant 79 table-based member expressions 264 transformations 259 creating 260 member tables 263 technical support xxv international xxiii text fact. time-series analysis 257 transformation defined on 258 components 263 double-counting 264 expression-based 259. See schema type. updating 217 schema type 51 comparison 60 searching for OLAP cubes 348 server-level partitioning 251 simple expression 148 key 42 source system defined on 3.Index Project Design Guide type. . system hierarchy 159. 261 many-to-many 259 mapping types 264 member attributes 263 member expressions 263 member tables 263 438 © 2007 MicroStrategy.

See transformation metric. setting 311 supporting 308 variance calculation 257 viewing sample data model 279 sample table data 225 sample warehouse schema 289 table structure 222 virtual level 306 U unbalanced and ragged hierarchy 355 unique identifier 34 UNIX/Linux. W Warehouse Catalog accessing 219 column missing 241 connection operations 227 data types 240 database gateway support 225 default catalog SQL 239 displaying information 230 managing 221 mapping schema objects 231 read operations 227 troubleshooting 239 updating table structure 223 usage and settings 218 viewing table structure 222 warehouse partition mapping overview 254 partition base table 255 partition mapping table 255 versus metadata partition mapping 255 warehouse table in Project Creation Assistant 79 439 . metrics 258 one-to-one mapping types 264 table-based 259. 260 transformation metric defined on 258 joint child attributes 265 troubleshooting column data type changed 240 column missing 241 data warehouse connection 239 tables missing 240 V variables overview 300 properties. Inc. connecting to SAP BW 330 updating project schema 217 updating table structure 223 URL for Analysis Services 2000 339 for Analysis Services 2005 342 for Essbase 336 user defined object.Project Design Guide Index metric. enabling 209 creating 194 displaying 201 drilling 209 entry point 205 filtering attributes in 203 limited 202 locked 201 structure 199 user object 10 using attribute form vs characteristic attribute 158 © 2007 MicroStrategy. See fact expression. user hierarchy defined on 197 browse attribute 207 browsing 207 browsing.

Index Project Design Guide warehouse. physical schema defined on 39. 281 Windows. . Inc. connecting to SAP BW 327 X XMLA 293 Analysis Services 2000 317 Analysis Services 2005 322 Essbase 312 provider for Analysis Services 2000 338 provider for Analysis Services 2005 341 provider for Essbase 335 440 © 2007 MicroStrategy.

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