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An ISO 9001 Company
FOOD TECHNOLOGY FOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING
FOOD TECHNOLOGY FOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING
Food Technology deals with the preservation, processing and packaging of food stuffs. For over 25 years Armfield has been the world leader in the design and manufacture of miniature scale processing equipment for the Food Technology industry. We have equipped laboratories and research facilities around the globe and number some of the world’s leading food manufacturers among our customers. Armfield is also a market leader in the design and supply of technical training equipment for engineers and scientists in colleges and universities worldwide. Using this unique experience, in both industry and education, we have developed a range of equipment for introducing Food Technology into the educational and research environments. This document explains the principles of various processes in Food Technology; concentrating on Dairy products and Edible Oils processing, and how they can be introduced into a training environment using Armfield equipment. Armfield can provide a complete solution to your Food Technology requirements, offering not just the equipment but also advice, planning, installation, commissioning and training. All this is supported by Armfield’s unrivalled commitment to quality and an extended warranty on all products. We hope you will find this brochure of interest. If you require further information please visit our website at www.armfield.co.uk where detailed individual data sheets, describing each piece of equipment, are available for download. Alternatively you can contact us directly by e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org or telephone: +44 1425 478781 or fax: +44 1425 470916. The BenefiTs of using Armfield miniATure scAle food Processing equiPmenT Minimise Costs:
- reduced space requirements. Many of the products are portable so that a meaningful process line can be installed in even compact laboratories - no special services or facilities are required which reduces the demands on technician time - smaller capacities introduce lower running costs in terms of raw materials, energy, storage and disposal of waste - quality and reliability, backed up by our technical support team, ensure that the cost of owning and operating Armfield equipment over many years is kept to a minimum
- smaller scale processing ensures complete test runs can be performed within the average 1-3 hour laboratory practical period - automatic control and data logging wherever appropriate ensure meaningful information is obtained in the optimum time scale - a high degree of flexibility, plus self contained designs, mean different processes can be configured with the minimum delay - equipment is readily dismantled for inspection, cleaning and maintenance as described in the comprehensive manuals - Clean in Place (CIP) facilities built in wherever appropriate
- fully illustrated instruction manuals describe system operation and experimental procedures as well as installation and commissioning - after sales service, technical support and Armfield’s unrivalled extended warranty
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ON AL L ARMFIE
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Processing oTher foods And ProducTs Many of the processes described in this document can be applied to other foods such as Fruit Juices, Herbal products, Wines and some Pharmaceutical products. Fruit and Vegetables often require pre-processing such as peeling, chopping or mashing. Being living organisms, the quality of fruits and vegetables can deteriorate rapidly once they are picked. Various processes are employed to improve the usable life, and often to make them easier to transport, such as Pasteurisation as described previously, Dehydration (Drying) using one of a range of products such as the fT30mKiii spray drier, the fT31 laboratory fluidised Bed drier, the fT80 Tall form spray drier or the uoP8 Tray drier or Freezing using the fT33 Vacuum freeze drier, the fT34mKii contact Plate freezer or the fT36 Blast and fluid Bed freezer. Flavours can be concentrated and enhanced using the fT18 reverse osmosis/ultrafiltration unit or the fT22 rising film evaporator. The fT110 Benchtop extractor or the larger fT111 lab scale extractor are used to separate the active ingredients as can the fT14 Plate and frame filter Press. Within the Beverage industry ‘fizzy’ drinks can be made with the fT102X carbonation/filler which carbonates juices and then fills and caps bottles. The fT40 multi-purpose Processing Vessel can be employed in the manufacture of products such as Jams and Marmalades Comprehensive proposals are available from Armfield, giving detailed specifications of all products. We would be pleased to supply recommendations for the introduction of individual processes or complete Food Processing Lines depending. We can work within your budget and space availability and can provide efficient laboratory layouts, commissioning, installation and training. Please contact us for further information.
FOOD TECHNOLOGY FOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING
food Processing lines - P1 dAiry Processing - P2 ediBle oils Processing - P5 Processing oTher foods And ProducTs - P8
food Processing lines
Armfield produces a shortform catalogue describing all the products within their Food Technology range. Data sheets, which provide both comprehensive descriptions and detailed specifications, are available for each individual product. This brochure is designed to be used in conjunction with this literature and illustrates how individual products can be used together to produce specific Food Processing Lines, similar to those used in Industry, within an Educational or Research environment. All processes are industrially relevant and can be scaled to pilot and production quantities.
dAiry Processing Liquid milk is an ideal food but is highly perishable and in its ‘raw’ form can be the source of serious health problems. It therefore needs to be processed to extend its usable life to avoid deterioration in its flavour and most importantly to kill any harmful bacteria. Additional processes can be used to change the form of the milk to make it more palatable, to enhance its usefulness or to make it easier or cheaper to transport. Typical processes that are found within a Dairy Processing Line, all of which can be demonstrated using Armfield equipment, might be: A process developed by Louis Pasteur to kill off bacteria and other spoilage organisms by heat treatment to increase shelf life of the product. homogenisation - Which can be used to prevent the separation of the cream layer from milk and is sometimes used to reduce the fat content of milk. sterilisation A process which is used to destroy all micro-organisms and most of their spores both within the product and its packaging. evaporation A process developed to produce concentrated products. separation A process developed to separate bi-products such as cream and whey. drying To produce powdered milk from concentrated liquid milk most commonly associated with baby food and additives.
Diagram 1 shows typical stages in Dairy processing and a range of the more common products that can be produced from a raw milk base. Each of these processing stages can be demonstrated in an Educational laboratory using the appropriate Armfield equipment.
TyPicAl dAiry line Processes ThAT cAn Be demonsTrATed using Armfield equiPmenT
Continuous HTST Pasteurisation/UHT Station with in-line Homogenisation and Cooling
Pasteurised or UHT milk Aseptic filling
Pasteurised milk UHT milk
Flavours, Additives, etc.
Batch Processing: Mixing Pasteurisation Homogenisation Cooling
Spray drying Cheese/Yoghurt making Ice cream making
Powdered milk Cheese Yoghurt Ice-cream Skimmed milk Cream
Cream separation Butter making
dAiry Processing heat Treatment The most important activity in Dairy processing is the heat treatment process to kill pathogenic bacteria. Processes can be broadly divided into two types: Batch and Continuous. Both batch and continuous Pasteurisation processes can be demonstrated using Armfield equipment. Heat treatment is often implemented in an HTST (High Temperature Short Time) process on a continuous basis for Pasteurisation when the milk is typically held at 72°C for 15 seconds. Alternatively in a UHT (Ultra High Temperature) process the milk is typically held at 142°C for 2 seconds. Pasteurisation kills many bacteria and renders the milk safe to drink, with a shelf life of a few days if kept refrigerated. UHT also kills the bacteria which cause spoilage, and the product can then typically be kept for over one year if suitably aseptically packaged. hTsT Pasteurisation Continuous HTST Pasteurisation can be performed using the fT43A laboratory Pasteuriser or the fT75 laboratory Pasteurising system which is designed specifically for teaching purposes. hTsT Pasteurisation and uhT A number of products are available for continuous HTST and UHT processes; the fT74X hTsT/uhT system range with throughputs of 10-30 litres/hour and the fT94X hTsT/uhT mini Pilot system range with throughputs of 50-100 litres/hour. For Educational use we would normally recommend the fT74 range as this demonstrates all the principles involved, has the full flexibility required, but does not necessitate the use (and storage) of larger quantities of ingredients to demonstrate these principles. The fT74 System can be fitted with Plate Heat Exchangers (for low viscosity products) or Tubular Heat Exchangers (for more viscous products) and there are various options including Mixing, Cooling, Chilling, Homogenisation, variable Holding Tubes and Data logging. Some milk products, such as those with a high protein content, can benefit from processing extremely quickly by directly injecting steam into them, and then evaporating off the steam in a vacuum chamber which cools the product very quickly. The fT74di direct injection uhT system employs this technique. Batch Processing Batch processing stations are primarily used for preparation of materials prior to other processes. The batch processing station allows for mixing of ingredients, heating, cooling, emulsification and homogenisation. As an alternative to continuous HTST processing Pasteurisation can be performed as a batch process. The fT40 multipurpose Processing Vessel and fT9 Pressure homogeniser can be used to show batch processing. The fT19 Autoclave is used for batch Sterilisation. Aseptic filling station After UHT processing a product will deteriorate as soon as it is exposed to a non sterile environment. To achieve the long shelf life the product is capable of it must be packaged into sterile containers in a sterile environment. Facilities must exist to sterilise the complete process including all the interconnecting pipe work and to prevent any contamination after sterilisation. The fT83 sterile filling system is an open fronted laminar flow cabinet with a sterile air environment, and a sterile filling system, capable of producing aseptically packaged products using pre-sterilised containers within a continuous system.
dAiry Processing evaporation Evaporation, which is used to concentrate milk for a variety of reasons; taste, storage, ease of transport, or ease of later processing such as Spray Drying, is implemented using the fT22 rising film evaporator. separation Separation can be used to utilise otherwise wasted bi-products such as Whey, thereby increasing the value of the dairy products. The fT18 reverse osmosis/ultrafiltration unit can be used to demonstrate Separation as well as Fractionation and Clarification. This is another process which can be used to concentrate products. spray drying Milk is often turned into dried granules or powder for ease of storage and transport, for use in subsequent food manufacturing processes, or to extend its life. Dried milk is manufactured using the fT30 mKiii spray drier or the fT80 Tall form spray drier. The fT80-60 fluid Bed cooler is a recommended accessory when processing full fat milk. cheese making Cheese has been made for many hundreds of years from many different varieties of milk. There are many different varieties of cheese with different textures and flavours. The production of many types of cheese can be shown using the fT20 cheese Vat with the fT20A cheese making Accessories. A lower cost system with a smaller capacity is the fT20-mKii. fermented milks (yoghurts) There are 2 main types of Yoghurt – set and stirred. Both are made by adding a starter culture to milk and letting it ferment over a period of hours or days. The fT20 or fT40 range can be used to produce different types of Yoghurt. ice cream making Ice cream is made by a crystallisation process using a scraped surface heat exchanger such as the fT25 scraped surface heat exchanger which can be supplied in a number of configurations. The raw ingredients for the ice cream are usually prepared in a batch processing station such as the fT40 described above. cream separation Cream can be separated from full fat milk using a centrifuge such as the fT15 disc Bowl centrifuge. Butter making Cream is churned in batches to produce butter. The fT21 Butter churn and fT21A Butter making Accessories can be used to produce butter. (Margarine is typically manufactured using vegetable oils and is described later.)
FT74X with tubular heat exchanger FT74X with plate heat exchanger
ediBle oils Processing Oil is extracted from a number of fruits, nuts and seeds for use in cooking or as an ingredient for other goods such as foods and soap.
Diagram 2 shows the typical stages in the processing of Edible Oils and a range of the more common products that can be produced.
TyPicAl ediBle oils line Processes demonsTrATed By Armfield equiPmenT
Hydrogenation MOdIFIC aTIOn
Refined Oils Flavours, Additives, Ingredients, etc.
Soft spread making
Preparation and extraction Processes Oil is usually extracted from seeds, fruit or nuts using either a pressure or solvent method or sometimes a combination of the two. Edible Oils are often defined as unrefined or refined. Unrefined oils tend to maintain the identity of their origin and are usually obtained by cold pressing the raw material. Refined oils are usually extracted using chemical solvents and are then passed through various refining processes. Refined oils are often quite bland but are useful for many purposes including cooking at high temperatures. Pressure extraction Oil extraction from seeds is often more efficient if the seeds are small. Large seeds such as palm kernels can be processed in the fT2 hammer/Beater mill before the oil is extracted mechanically using the fT28 oil extraction screw Press. After pressing, and prior to refining, the oil can be filtered, to remove any fine meal, using the fT14 Plate and frame filter Press which is supplied with a selection of grades of filter.
ediBle oils Processing solvent extraction Edible oil is leached from oil bearing seeds, or from the presscake remaining after pressure extraction, by a solvent using a solid/liquid extraction process. The solvent then needs to be removed from the extracted oils and recovered from the solids. The fT29 Batch solvent extraction and desolventising unit is a versatile product that first washes the presscake in hexane, which absorbs the oil, and forms a miscella. The remaining processes use a combination of heat, vacuum and direct steam to separate the solvent from the oil in the miscella. These processes allow different oils to be extracted from many kinds of materials. An external steam supply can be provided by the uoP10 laboratory steam generator. refining The refining of crude edible oil incorporates three stages: certain natural acids must be removed, the colour of the oil must be lightened and the taste and smell are improved. In the first stage, or pre-refining process, crude edible oil undergoes neutralisation using a strong base such as caustic soda to remove free fatty acids. With some oils de-gumming, by mixing the oil with water, is required. The oil is then washed to remove phosphatides and bleached with adsorbant to remove colour before finally being filtered. These refining processes are all demonstrated by the fT66 neutraliser/Washer/Bleacher. finishing In order to ‘finish’ the refining process, to make an oil which can be consumed or used in the manufacture of other products, it is necessary to de-odorise and ‘polish’ the oil. Deodorising is performed at high temperature and under high vacuum. It removes the remaining free fatty acids and other compounds which impart an unpleasant odour to the oils. Cooling is performed under vacuum to prevent oxidisation and Polishing removes any remaining contaminants by fine filtering, giving a bright oil as the product. The fT68 deodorising unit is used to perform these processes.
ediBle oils Processing hydrogenation station Hydrogenation is a process used to modify the refined oil in order to increase the ‘hardness’ and to give various degrees of saturation of the product and adjust its melting point. Hydrogenated oils can solidify, or partially solidify at ambient temperature and so are often used for subsequent processing such as making soft spreads, margarines and ghee etc. The fT67 hydrogenation unit is based on the flat blade turbine converter industrial design and incorporates a leaf filter to remove any traces of catalyst that might be present. Batch Processing Batch processing stations are used for preparation of materials prior to other processes. The fT40 multi-purpose Processing Vessel is a versatile batch preparation vat used for the mixing of ingredients plus heating, cooling and emulsification. It can be used as a service unit for the scraped surface heat exchangers in the manufacture of soft spreads. homogenisation Homogenisation is a process where oil particles in an emulsion can be broken down to microscopic size to provide greater permanence demonstrated by the fT9 Pressure homogeniser. soft spread Processing Soft spreads and margarines are manufactured by cooling down the ingredients using scraped surface heat exchangers and then working the crystallising product into a smooth consistency using a pinworker. The fT25 scraped surface heat exchanger can be used for this purpose.
11000 x E E W E W
A TyPicAl lAyouT for A food Technology lABorATory
FT9 FT91 FT15 CUPBOARD STORAGE BENEATH BENCH FT74X E FT63 FT19
WORK BENCH WITH STORAGE
E 6000 FT18 x E DISINFECTED WATER UNIT FT80 HOSE REEL FT30
WEIGHSCALE WORK BENCH WITH STORAGE FT25B
WALK IN COLD STORE
FT40 UOP10 FT22
STAINLESS STEEL CONTAINER
STORAGE OF RAW MATERIALS o & PRODUCTS @ 3 C x E E
RAW MILK STORAGE CHURN
x E E
ELECTRICAL SUPPLY THREE PHASE
ELECTRIAL SUPPLY SINGLE PHASE
PORTABLE WATER SUPPLY
FOOD TECHNOLOGY FOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING
THIS DRAWING IS THE PROPERTY OF ARMFIELD LTD. IT MUST NOT BE COPIED OR PASSED ON TO ANY THIRD PARTY WITHOUT PRIOR PERMISSION AND MUST BE RETURNED ON REQUEST TOGETHER WITH ANY COPIES MADE TO ARMFIELD LTD.
Armfield produces a shortform catalogue describing all the products within their Food Technology range. A set of data sheets, which provide both comprehensive descriptions and detailed specifications, are available for each individual product. This brochure is designed to be used in conjunction with this literature and illustrates how these individual products can be used together to produce specific Food Processing Lines, similar to those used in Industry, within an Educational or Research environment. The capacity of the equipment might be small but the processes are all industrially relevant and can be scaled to pilot and production quantities. To learn more please contact: email@example.com
An ISO 9001 Company
ON AL L ARMFIE
Innovators in Engineering Teaching & Research Equipment
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© 2009 Armfield Ltd. All Rights Reserved
Head Office: Armfield Limited Bridge House, West Street, Ringwood, Hampshire. BH24 1DY England Telephone: +44 1425 478781 Fax: +44 1425 470916 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
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