PHP Introduction

Before you continue you should have a basic understanding of the following:

• •

HTML/XHTML JavaScript

If you want to study these subjects first, find the tutorials on our Home page.

What is PHP?
• • • • • •
PHP stands for PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor PHP is a server-side scripting language, like ASP PHP scripts are executed on the server PHP supports many databases (MySQL, Informix, Oracle, Sybase, Solid, PostgreSQL, Generic ODBC, etc.) PHP is an open source software PHP is free to download and use

What is a PHP File?
• • •
PHP files can contain text, HTML tags and scripts PHP files are returned to the browser as plain HTML PHP files have a file extension of ".php", ".php3", or ".phtml"

What is MySQL?
• • • • •
MySQL MySQL MySQL MySQL MySQL is a database server is ideal for both small and large applications supports standard SQL compiles on a number of platforms is free to download and use

PHP + MySQL

PHP combined with MySQL are cross-platform (you can develop in Windows and serve on a Unix platform)

Why PHP?
• • • •
PHP PHP PHP PHP runs on different platforms (Windows, Linux, Unix, etc.) is compatible with almost all servers used today (Apache, IIS, etc.) is FREE to download from the official PHP resource: www.php.net is easy to learn and runs efficiently on the server side

Where to Start?
To get access to a web server with PHP support, you can:

• •

Install Apache (or IIS) on your own server, install PHP, and MySQL Or find a web hosting plan with PHP and MySQL support

PHP Installation
If your server supports PHP you don't need to do anything. Just create some .php files in your web directory, and the server will parse them for you. Because it is free, most web hosts offer PHP support. However, if your server does not support PHP, you must install PHP. Here is a link to a good tutorial from PHP.net on how to install PHP5: http://www.php.net/manual/en/install.php

Download PHP
Download PHP for free here: http://www.php.net/downloads.php

Download MySQL Database
Download MySQL for free here: http://www.mysql.com/downloads/

Download Apache Server
Download Apache for free here: http://httpd.apache.org/download.cgi

PHP Syntax
PHP code is executed on the server, and the plain HTML result is sent to the browser.

Basic PHP Syntax
A PHP scripting block always starts with <?php and ends with ?>. A PHP scripting block can be placed anywhere in the document. On servers with shorthand support enabled you can start a scripting block with <? and end with ?>. For maximum compatibility, we recommend that you use the standard form (<?php) rather than the shorthand form. <?php ?> A PHP file normally contains HTML tags, just like an HTML file, and some PHP scripting code. Below, we have an example of a simple PHP script which sends the text "Hello World" to the browser: <html> <body> <?php echo "Hello World"; ?> </body> </html> Each code line in PHP must end with a semicolon. The semicolon is a separator and is used to distinguish one set of instructions from another. There are two basic statements to output text with PHP: echo and print. In the example above we have used the echo statement to output the text "Hello World". Note: The file must have a .php extension. If the file has a .html extension, the PHP code will not be executed.

In that case it will not work. Let's try creating a variable containing a string.Comments in PHP In PHP. numbers or arrays. ?> PHP is a Loosely Typed Language . we use // to make a single-line comment or /* and */ to make a large comment block. When a variable is declared. All variables in PHP start with a $ sign symbol. like text strings. and a variable containing a number: <?php $txt="Hello World!". it can be used over and over again in your script. $x=16. New PHP programmers often forget the $ sign at the beginning of the variable. <html> <body> <?php //This is a comment /* This is a comment block */ ?> </body> </html> PHP Variables A variable is used to store information. The correct way of declaring a variable in PHP: $var_name = value. Variables in PHP Variables are used for storing values.

and _ ) A variable name should not contain spaces. a variable does not need to be declared before adding a value to it.In PHP. A-Z. depending on its value. After we create a string we can manipulate it. A string can be used directly in a function or it can be stored in a variable. String Variables in PHP String variables are used for values that contain characters. echo $txt. the PHP script assigns the text "Hello World" to a string variable called $txt: <?php $txt="Hello World". you see that you do not have to tell PHP which data type the variable is. ?> The output of the code above will be: Hello World Now. Below. In this chapter we are going to look at the most common functions and operators used to manipulate strings in PHP. If a variable name is more than one word. or with capitalization ($myString) PHP String Variables A string variable is used to store and manipulate text. 0-9. In PHP. the variable is declared automatically when you use it. In a strongly typed programming language. you have to declare (define) the type and name of the variable before using it. . lets try to use some different functions and operators to manipulate the string. In the example above. Naming Rules for Variables • • • A variable name must start with a letter or an underscore "_" A variable name can only contain alpha-numeric characters and underscores (a-z. PHP automatically converts the variable to the correct data type. it should be separated with an underscore ($my_string).

we would want to stop the loop after the last character in the string).e. The concatenation operator (. use the concatenation operator: <?php $txt1="Hello World!". If no match is found.) is used to put two string values together. in a loop.The Concatenation Operator There is only one string operator in PHP. To concatenate two string variables together. Let's find the length of a string: <?php echo strlen("Hello world!"). this function will return the position of the first match. to separate the two strings. " " . If a match is found. $txt2. This is because we had to insert a third string (a space character). it will return FALSE. echo $txt1 . Let's see if we can find the string "world" in our string: <?php . (i. $txt2="What a nice day!". when it is important to know when the string ends. The strpos() function The strpos() function is used to search for character within a string. ?> The output of the code above will be: 12 The length of a string is often used in loops or other functions. ?> The output of the code above will be: Hello World! What a nice day! If we look at the code above you see that we used the concatenation operator two times. The strlen() function The strlen() function is used to return the length of a string.

The reason that it is 6 (and not 7). PHP Operators This section lists the different operators used in PHP.=y x%=y Is The Same As x=y x=x+y x=x-y x=x*y x=x/y x=x. Arithmetic Operators Operator + * / % Description Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division Modulus (division remainder) Example x=2 x+2 x=2 5-x x=4 x*5 15/5 5/2 5%2 10%8 10%2 x=5 x++ x=5 x-Result 4 3 20 3 2.y x=x%y .5 1 2 0 x=6 x=4 ++ -- Increment Decrement Assignment Operators Operator = += -= *= /= .echo strpos("Hello world!". and not 1.= %= Example x=y x+=y x-=y x*=y x/=y x. ?> The output of the code above will be: 6 The position of the string "world" in our string is position 6."world"). is that the first position in the string is 0.

Else Statements Conditional statements are used to perform different actions based on different conditions.Comparison Operators Operator == != <> > < >= <= Description is equal to is not equal is not equal is greater than is less than is greater than or equal to is less than or equal to Example 5==8 returns false 5!=8 returns true 5<>8 returns true 5>8 returns false 5<8 returns true 5>=8 returns false 5<=8 returns true Logical Operators Operator && Description And Example x=6 y=3 (x < 10 && y > 1) returns true || Or x=6 y=3 (x==5 || y==5) returns false ! Not x=6 y=3 !(x==y) returns true PHP If. you want to perform different actions for different decisions. ... Conditional Statements Very often when you write code.

Syntax if (condition) code to be executed if condition is true..You can use conditional statements in your code to do this.. The code is executed only if the specified condition is true. The following example will output "Have a nice weekend!" if the current day is Friday: <html> <body> <?php $d=date("D")..use this statement to select one of several blocks of code to be executed switch statement ..elseif. ?> </body> </html> Notice that there is no .else statement .....use this statement to select one of many blocks of code to be executed The if Statement Use the if statement to execute some code only if a specified condition is true.. Example The following example will output "Have a nice weekend!" if the current day is Friday.else..else statement to execute some code if a condition is true and another code if a condition is false. The if. Syntax if (condition) code to be executed if condition is true. else code to be executed if condition is false.use this statement to execute some code only if a specified condition is true if.. if ($d=="Fri") echo "Have a nice weekend!".else statement . otherwise it will output "Have a nice day!": .. in this syntax..use this statement to execute some code if a condition is true and another code if the condition is false if. In PHP we have the following conditional statements: • • • • if statement .else Statement Use the if..

. the lines should be enclosed within curly braces: <html> <body> <?php $d=date("D").. if ($d=="Fri") echo "Have a nice weekend!". else code to be executed if condition is false... Example The following example will output "Have a nice weekend!" if the current day is Friday. if ($d=="Fri") { echo "Hello!<br />"... Syntax if (condition) code to be executed if condition is true. else echo "Have a nice day!".elseif. ?> </body> </html> If more than one line should be executed if a condition is true/false.. echo "See you on Monday!". elseif (condition) code to be executed if condition is true. } ?> </body> </html> The if..else statement to select one of several blocks of code to be executed. echo "Have a nice weekend!". and "Have a nice Sunday!" if the current day is Sunday.<html> <body> <?php $d=date("D").else Statement Use the if.elseif... Otherwise it will output "Have a nice day!": <html> <body> <?php .

default: code to be executed if n is different from both label1 and label2.$d=date("D"). break. Use break to prevent the code from running into the next case automatically. elseif ($d=="Sun") echo "Have a nice Sunday!". ?> </body> </html> PHP Switch Statement Conditional statements are used to perform different actions based on different conditions. if ($d=="Fri") echo "Have a nice weekend!". If there is a match. Syntax switch (n) { case label1: code to be executed if n=label1. case label2: code to be executed if n=label2. break. . the block of code associated with that case is executed. else echo "Have a nice day!". The default statement is used if no match is found. } This is how it works: First we have a single expression n (most often a variable). The value of the expression is then compared with the values for each case in the structure. that is evaluated once. break. Example <html> <body> <?php switch ($x) { case 1: echo "Number 1". The PHP Switch Statement Use the switch statement to select one of many blocks of code to be executed.

storing the cars in single variables could look like this: $cars1="Saab". If you have a list of items (a list of car names. What is an Array? A variable is a storage area holding a number or text. case 3: echo "Number 3". An array is a special variable. a variable will hold only one value. However. default: echo "No number between 1 and 3".An array with a numeric index Associative array . And you can access the values by referring to the array name. which can store multiple values in one single variable. break. Each element in the array has its own index so that it can be easily accessed. In PHP.case 2: echo "Number 2". for example). } ?> </body> </html> PHP Arrays An array stores multiple values in one single variable.An array containing one or more arrays . there are three kind of arrays: • • • Numeric array . $cars3="BMW". what if you want to loop through the cars and find a specific one? And what if you had not 3 cars. The problem is. $cars2="Volvo". break.An array where each ID key is associated with a value Multidimensional array . but 300? The best solution here is to use an array! An array can hold all your variable values under a single name.

Numeric Arrays A numeric array stores each array element with a numeric index. With associative arrays we can use the values as keys and assign values to them. . $cars[1]="Volvo". $cars[2]="BMW". In the following example the index are automatically assigned (the index starts at 0): $cars=array("Saab"."Volvo".". "Quagmire"=>30. When storing data about specific named values. "Joe"=>34)."Toyota"). " and " . a numerical array is not always the best way to do it. There are two methods to create a numeric array. echo $cars[0] . ?> The code above will output: Saab and Volvo are Swedish cars. Example 1 In this example we use an array to assign ages to the different persons: $ages = array("Peter"=>32. 1. Associative Arrays An associative array."BMW". $cars[1]="Volvo". $cars[3]="Toyota". $cars[3]="Toyota". each ID key is associated with a value. $cars[1] . 2. " are Swedish cars. In the following example we assign the index manually: $cars[0]="Saab". Example In the following example you access the variable values by referring to the array name and index: <?php $cars[0]="Saab". $cars[2]="BMW".

Multidimensional Arrays In a multidimensional array. "Loretta".Example 2 This example is the same as example 1. each element in the main array can also be an array. $ages['Joe'] = "34". "Megan" ). Example In this example we create a multidimensional array. "Brown"=>array ( "Cleveland". and so on.". with automatically assigned ID keys: $families = array ( "Griffin"=>array ( "Peter". echo "Peter is " . And each element in the sub-array can be an array. $ages['Peter'] . $ages['Quagmire'] = "30". ?> The code above will output: Peter is 32 years old. " years old. $ages['Joe'] = "34". "Lois". but shows a different way of creating the array: $ages['Peter'] = "32". The ID keys can be used in a script: <?php $ages['Peter'] = "32". "Junior" ) ). "Quagmire"=>array ( "Glenn" ). $ages['Quagmire'] = "30". The array above would look like this if written to the output: Array .

. Instead of adding several almost equal lines in a script we can use loops to perform a task like this. you want the same block of code to run over and over again in a row. we have the following looping statements: • • while .loops through a block of code while a specified condition is true do.. The code above will output: Is Megan a part of the Griffin family? PHP Looping . " a part of the Griffin family?".( [Griffin] => Array ( [0] => Peter [1] => Lois [2] => Megan ) [Quagmire] => Array ( [0] => Glenn ) [Brown] => Array ( [0] => Cleveland [1] => Loretta [2] => Junior ) ) Example 2 Lets try displaying a single value from the array above: echo "Is " . In PHP. PHP Loops Often when you write code. $families['Griffin'][2] .While Loops Loops execute a block of code a specified number of times. and then repeats the loop as long as a specified condition is true .while .loops through a block of code once. or while a specified condition is true.

"<br />".. it will then check the condition. } ?> </body> </html> Output: The The The The The number number number number number is is is is is 1 2 3 4 5 The do.while Statement The do... .while statement will always execute the block of code once. or equal to 5.loops through a block of code for each element in an array The while Loop The while loop executes a block of code while a condition is true. The loop will continue to run as long as i is less than. } while (condition).loops through a block of code a specified number of times foreach . $i++. } Example The example below defines a loop that starts with i=1. $i . and repeat the loop while the condition is true. i will increase by 1 each time the loop runs: <html> <body> <?php $i=1.• • for .. Syntax while (condition) { code to be executed. Syntax do { code to be executed. while($i<=5) { echo "The number is " .

The for Loop The for loop is used when you know in advance how many times the script should run. $i . "<br />". condition. } while ($i<=5). or equal to 5: <html> <body> <?php $i=1. PHP Looping . Syntax for (init. and the loop will continue to run as long as i is less than. } Parameters: • init: Mostly used to set a counter (but can be any code to be executed once at the beginning of the loop) . It will then increment i with 1. and write some output. do { $i++.Example The example below defines a loop that starts with i=1. or while a specified condition is true. ?> </body> </html> Output: The The The The The number number number number number is is is is is 2 3 4 5 6 The for loop and the foreach loop will be explained in the next chapter. increment) { code to be executed. echo "The number is " . Then the condition is checked.For Loops Loops execute a block of code a specified number of times.

Syntax foreach ($array as $value) { code to be executed. increment: Mostly used to increment a counter (but can be any code to be executed at the end of the loop) Note: Each of the parameters above can be empty. $i<=5. Example The following example demonstrates a loop that will print the values of the given array: <html> . } For every loop iteration. or have multiple expressions (separated by commas).• • condition: Evaluated for each loop iteration. you'll be looking at the next array value. the value of the current array element is assigned to $value (and the array pointer is moved by one) . $i . If it evaluates to TRUE. Example The example below defines a loop that starts with i=1. i will increase by 1 each time the loop runs: <html> <body> <?php for ($i=1. } ?> </body> </html> Output: The The The The The number number number number number is is is is is 1 2 3 4 5 The foreach Loop The foreach loop is used to loop through arrays. The loop will continue to run as long as i is less than. or equal to 5. the loop ends. "<br />".so on the next loop iteration. If it evaluates to FALSE. the loop continues. $i++) { echo "The number is " .

there are more than 700 built-in functions. please visit our PHP Reference. PHP Built-in Functions For a complete reference and examples of the built-in functions. A function will be executed by a call to the function. PHP Functions In this chapter we will show you how to create your own functions.<body> <?php $x=array("one". To keep the script from being executed when the page loads. "<br />". you can put it into a function."three")."two". . foreach ($x as $value) { echo $value . In PHP. } ?> </body> </html> Output: one two three PHP Functions The real power of PHP comes from its functions. You may call a function from anywhere within a page.

Create a PHP Function A function will be executed by a call to the function. } PHP function guidelines: • • Give the function a name that reflects what the function does The function name can start with a letter or underscore (not a number) Example A simple function that writes my name when it is called: <html> <body> <?php function writeName() { echo "Kai Jim Refsnes". Syntax function functionName() { code to be executed. A parameter is just like a variable. ?> </body> </html> Output: My name is Kai Jim Refsnes PHP Functions . inside the parentheses.Adding parameters To add more functionality to a function. but equal last name: <html> . } echo "My name is ". Example 1 The following example will write different first names. writeName(). we can add parameters. Parameters are specified after the function name.

<body> <?php function writeName($fname) { echo $fname . " Refsnes.<br />"; } echo "My name is "; writeName("Kai Jim"); echo "My sister's name is "; writeName("Hege"); echo "My brother's name is "; writeName("Stale"); ?> </body> </html> Output: My name is Kai Jim Refsnes. My sister's name is Hege Refsnes. My brother's name is Stale Refsnes.

Example 2
The following function has two parameters: <html> <body> <?php function writeName($fname,$punctuation) { echo $fname . " Refsnes" . $punctuation . "<br />"; } echo "My name is "; writeName("Kai Jim","."); echo "My sister's name is "; writeName("Hege","!"); echo "My brother's name is "; writeName("Ståle","?"); ?> </body> </html> Output: My name is Kai Jim Refsnes. My sister's name is Hege Refsnes! My brother's name is Ståle Refsnes?

PHP Functions - Return values
To let a function return a value, use the return statement.

Example
<html> <body> <?php function add($x,$y) { $total=$x+$y; return $total; } echo "1 + 16 = " . add(1,16); ?> </body> </html> Output: 1 + 16 = 17

PHP Forms and User Input
The PHP $_GET and $_POST variables are used to retrieve information from forms, like user input.

PHP Form Handling
The most important thing to notice when dealing with HTML forms and PHP is that any form element in an HTML page will automatically be available to your PHP scripts.

Example
The example below contains an HTML form with two input fields and a submit button: <html> <body> <form action="welcome.php" method="post"> Name: <input type="text" name="fname" /> Age: <input type="text" name="age" /> <input type="submit" /> </form> </body> </html>

When a user fills out the form above and click on the submit button, the form data is sent to a PHP file, called "welcome.php": "welcome.php" looks like this: <html> <body> Welcome <?php echo $_POST["fname"]; ?>!<br /> You are <?php echo $_POST["age"]; ?> years old. </body> </html> Output could be something like this: Welcome John! You are 28 years old. The PHP $_GET and $_POST functions will be explained in the next chapters.

Form Validation
User input should be validated on the browser whenever possible (by client scripts). Browser validation is faster and reduces the server load. You should consider server validation if the user input will be inserted into a database. A good way to validate a form on the server is to post the form to itself, instead of jumping to a different page. The user will then get the error messages on the same page as the form. This makes it easier to discover the error.

PHP $_GET Function
The built-in $_GET function is used to collect values in a form with method="get".

The $_GET Function
The built-in $_GET function is used to collect values from a form sent with method="get". Information sent from a form with the GET method is visible to everyone (it will be displayed in the browser's address bar) and has limits on the amount of information to send.

Example
<form action="welcome.php" method="get">

?>. The $_POST Function The built-in $_POST function is used to collect values from a form sent with method="post".ini file). all variable names and values are displayed in the URL.Name: <input type="text" name="fname" /> Age: <input type="text" name="age" /> <input type="submit" /> </form> When the user clicks the "Submit" button.w3schools. Note: This method should not be used when sending passwords or other sensitive information! However. the URL sent to the server could look something like this: http://www.com/welcome. there is an 8 Mb max size for the POST method. Example <form action="welcome.php?fname=Peter&age=37 The "welcome. it is possible to bookmark the page. by default (can be changed by setting the post_max_size in the php. Note: However.<br /> You are <?php echo $_GET["age"]. It should not be used with values exceeding 2000 characters. Note: The get method is not suitable for very large variable values. Information sent from a form with the POST method is invisible to others and has no limits on the amount of information to send. PHP $_POST Function The built-in $_POST function is used to collect values in a form with method="post". ?> years old! When to use method="get"? When using method="get" in HTML forms.php" method="post"> . This can be useful in some cases.php" file can now use the $_GET function to collect form data (the names of the form fields will automatically be the keys in the $_GET array): Welcome <?php echo $_GET["fname"]. because the variables are displayed in the URL.

.php The "welcome. ?> years old. the URL will look like this: http://www. ?>!<br /> You are <?php echo $_POST["age"]. and $_COOKIE. The $_REQUEST function can be used to collect form data sent with both the GET and POST methods. The PHP $_REQUEST Function The PHP built-in $_REQUEST function contains the contents of both $_GET.w3schools. ?>!<br /> You are <?php echo $_REQUEST["age"].php" file can now use the $_POST function to collect form data (the names of the form fields will automatically be the keys in the $_POST array): Welcome <?php echo $_POST["fname"]. because the variables are not displayed in the URL. Example Welcome <?php echo $_REQUEST["fname"]. it is not possible to bookmark the page. $_POST. When to use method="post"? Information sent from a form with the POST method is invisible to others and has no limits on the amount of information to send.com/welcome. ?> years old.Name: <input type="text" name="fname" /> Age: <input type="text" name="age" /> <input type="submit" /> </form> When the user clicks the "Submit" button. However.

Specifies a timestamp.Format the Date The required format parameter in the date() function specifies how to format the date/time. Specifies the format of the timestamp Optional.PHP Advanced PHP Date() Function The PHP date() function is used to format a time and/or date. A timestamp is a sequence of characters. denoting the date and/or time at which a certain event occurred. The PHP Date() Function The PHP date() function formats a timestamp to a more readable date and time.timestamp) Parameter format timestamp Description Required. Syntax date(format. Default is the current date and time PHP Date() . Here are some characters that can be used: .

year.Represents a year (in four digits) A list of all the characters that can be used in the format parameter.minute. Syntax for mktime() mktime(hour. can be found in our PHP Date reference.day. the current date and time will be used. "<br />".second.11 2009-05-11 PHP Date() .• • • d .05.date("Y/m/d". echo "Tomorrow is ".Adding a Timestamp The optional timestamp parameter in the date() function specifies a timestamp.0.Represents the day of the month (01 to 31) m . "<br />". If you do not specify a timestamp. The Unix timestamp contains the number of seconds between the Unix Epoch (January 1 1970 00:00:00 GMT) and the time specified. ?> The output of the code above could be something like this: Tomorrow is 2009/05/12 PHP Include File Server Side Includes (SSI) .m.is_dst) To go one day in the future we simply add one to the day argument of mktime(): <?php $tomorrow = mktime(0.".Represents a month (01 to 12) Y .date("Y")). ". like"/".month. $tomorrow). The mktime() function returns the Unix timestamp for a date.date("m"). or "-" can also be inserted between the letters to add additional formatting: <?php echo date("Y/m/d") .d") .date("d")+1. Other characters. echo date("Y. echo date("Y-m-d") ?> The output of the code above could be something like this: 2009/05/11 2009.0.

Server side includes saves a lot of work. When the header needs to be updated. ?> <h1>Welcome to my home page!</h1> <p>Some text. To include the header file in a page.php". or elements that will be reused on multiple pages.php">Home</a> href="/tutorials. called "menu. but the script will continue execution.php">Examples</a> href="/about. you can only update the include file.You can insert the content of one PHP file into another PHP file before the server executes it. or when you add a new page to your site. use the include() function: <html> <body> <?php include("header.php". This means that you can create a standard header. footers.php">About Us</a> href="/contact. Example 1 Assume that you have a standard header file. the include() function generates a warning. The two functions are identical in every way. and the script will stop These two functions are used to create functions. footer. you can simply change the menu file (instead of updating the links on all your web pages).php">Tutorials</a> href="/references.php"). called "header. Here is how it can be done: <html> <body> . but the script will continue execution require() generates a fatal error.</p> </body> </html> Example 2 Assume we have a standard menu file. except how they handle errors: • • include() generates a warning. headers. If an error occurs. that should be used on all pages: <a <a <a <a <a <a href="/default.php">Contact Us</a> All pages in the Web site should include this menu file. PHP include() Function The include() function takes all the content in a specified file and includes it in the current file. or menu file for all your web pages. with the include() or require() function.php">References</a> href="/examples.

php">Examples</a> <a href="/about.</p> </body> </html> PHP require() Function The require() function is identical to include(). and the script will stop.php) [function.php">Tutorials</a> <a href="/references. it will look like this: <html> <body> <div class="leftmenu"> <a href="/default.php"). echo "Hello World!". but the script will continue execution. If an error occurs.<div class="leftmenu"> <?php include("menu.php">About Us</a> <a href="/contact.include]: failed to open stream: No such file or directory in C:\home\website\test. Error Example include() Function <html> <body> <?php include("wrongFile.php on line 5 . ?> </div> <h1>Welcome to my home page. The require() generates a fatal error.php"). ?> </body> </html> Error message: Warning: include(wrongFile.php">Contact Us</a> </div> <h1>Welcome to my home page!</h1> <p>Some text.php">References</a> <a href="/examples.php">Home</a> <a href="/tutorials.</h1> <p>Some text. the include() function generates a warning. except that it handles errors differently.</p> </body> </html> If you look at the source code of the page above (in a browser).

Error Example require() Function Now.php) [function. because the script execution stopped after the fatal error.php on line 5 The echo statement is not executed.php on line 5 Hello World! Notice that the echo statement is executed! This is because a Warning does not stop the script execution.C:\php5\pear') in C:\home\website\test. It is recommended to use the require() function instead of include().Warning: include() [function. echo "Hello World!". PHP File Handling Opening a File The fopen() function is used to open files in PHP.php").require]: failed to open stream: No such file or directory in C:\home\website\test.include]: Failed opening 'wrongFile.C:\php5\pear') in C:\home\website\test... ?> </body> </html> Error message: Warning: require(wrongFile. <html> <body> <?php require("wrongFile.php' for inclusion (include_path='.php' (include_path='.require]: Failed opening required 'wrongFile.php on line 5 Fatal error: require() [function. let's run the same example with the require() function. The first parameter of this function contains the name of the file to be opened and the second parameter specifies in which mode the file should be opened: . because scripts should not continue after an error.

"r") or exit("Unable to open file!"). . it returns 0 (false). Starts at the beginning of the file Write only.txt". Creates a new file. Example The following example generates a message if the fopen() function is unable to open the specified file: <html> <body> <?php $file=fopen("welcome. or creates a new file if it doesn't exist Read/Write. or creates a new file if it doesn't exist Append. Creates a new file. Opens and clears the contents of file."r"). ?> </body> </html> Closing a File The fclose() function is used to close an open file: <?php $file = fopen("test."r"). ?> </body> </html> The file may be opened in one of the following modes: Modes r r+ w w+ a a+ x x+ Description Read only. Starts at the beginning of the file Read/Write.<html> <body> <?php $file=fopen("welcome. Returns FALSE and an error if file already exists Note: If the fopen() function is unable to open the specified file.txt". Preserves file content by writing to the end of the file Write only. Opens and clears the contents of file. Returns FALSE and an error if file already exists Read/Write.txt". Opens and writes to the end of the file or creates a new file if it doesn't exist Read/Append.

Note: You cannot read from files opened in w. Reading a File Line by Line The fgets() function is used to read a single line from a file.txt".//some code to be executed fclose($file). Example The example below reads a file character by character. "r") or exit("Unable to open file!").txt". ?> Check End-of-file The feof() function checks if the "end-of-file" (EOF) has been reached. } fclose($file). until the end of file is reached: <?php $file=fopen("welcome. Example The example below reads a file line by line. //Output a line of the file until the end is reached while(!feof($file)) { echo fgets($file). and x mode! if (feof($file)) echo "End of file". while (!feof($file)) { echo fgetc($file). Note: After a call to this function the file pointer has moved to the next line. a. "<br />". ?> Reading a File Character by Character The fgetc() function is used to read a single character from a file."r") or exit("Unable to open file!"). } . until the end of file is reached: <?php $file = fopen("welcome. Note: After a call to this function the file pointer moves to the next character. The feof() function is useful for looping through data of unknown length.

fclose($file). Create The Upload Script The "upload_file. like the contents of a file. there will be a browsebutton next to the input field Note: Allowing users to upload files is a big security risk. Create an Upload-File Form To allow users to upload files from a form can be very useful. "multipart/form-data" is used when a form requires binary data. Look at the following HTML form for uploading files: <html> <body> <form action="upload_file. to be uploaded The type="file" attribute of the <input> tag specifies that the input should be processed as a file.php" file contains the code for uploading a file: <?php if ($_FILES["file"]["error"] > 0) { .php" method="post" enctype="multipart/form-data"> <label for="file">Filename:</label> <input type="file" name="file" id="file" /> <br /> <input type="submit" name="submit" value="Submit" /> </form> </body> </html> Notice the following about the HTML form above: • • The enctype attribute of the <form> tag specifies which content-type to use when submitting the form. it is possible to upload files to the server. For example. ?> PHP File Upload With PHP. Only permit trusted users to perform file uploads. when viewed in a browser.

echo "Size: " . The first parameter is the form's input name and the second index can be either "name".the type of the uploaded file $_FILES["file"]["size"] . $_FILES["file"]["type"] . } ?> .the name of the temporary copy of the file stored on the server $_FILES["file"]["error"] . "type". echo "Type: " . $_FILES["file"]["name"] . "<br />". "<br />". ($_FILES["file"]["size"] / 1024) . " Kb<br />". $_FILES["file"]["type"] .echo } else { echo echo echo echo } ?> "Error: " . "Type: " . "tmp_name" or "error". $_FILES["file"]["name"] . "<br />". "Size: " . Restrictions on Upload In this script we add some restrictions to the file upload. echo "Stored in: " .jpeg files and the file size must be under 20 kb: <?php if ((($_FILES["file"]["type"] == "image/gif") || ($_FILES["file"]["type"] == "image/jpeg") || ($_FILES["file"]["type"] == "image/pjpeg")) && ($_FILES["file"]["size"] < 20000)) { if ($_FILES["file"]["error"] > 0) { echo "Error: " . "<br />". } else { echo "Upload: " .gif or . $_FILES["file"]["error"] . "size". "<br />". $_FILES["file"]["error"] . $_FILES["file"]["tmp_name"]. } } else { echo "Invalid file". For security reasons. "<br />". $_FILES["file"]["tmp_name"]. ($_FILES["file"]["size"] / 1024) . "Stored in: " .the error code resulting from the file upload This is a very simple way of uploading files.the name of the uploaded file $_FILES["file"]["type"] . The user may only upload . By using the global PHP $_FILES array you can upload files from a client computer to the remote server. "Upload: " . you should add restrictions on what the user is allowed to upload. " Kb<br />". Like this: • • • • • $_FILES["file"]["name"] .the size in bytes of the uploaded file $_FILES["file"]["tmp_name"] .

echo "Stored in: " . . $_FILES["file"]["tmp_name"] . "<br />". "<br />". it copies the file to the specified folder. $_FILES["file"]["name"])) { echo $_FILES["file"]["name"] . for FireFox it must be jpeg. echo "Temp file: " . } } } else { echo "Invalid file". The temporary copied files disappears when the script ends. if (file_exists("upload/" . } ?> The script above checks if the file already exists. $_FILES["file"]["name"]. $_FILES["file"]["error"] . To store the uploaded file we need to copy it to a different location: <?php if ((($_FILES["file"]["type"] == "image/gif") || ($_FILES["file"]["type"] == "image/jpeg") || ($_FILES["file"]["type"] == "image/pjpeg")) && ($_FILES["file"]["size"] < 20000)) { if ($_FILES["file"]["error"] > 0) { echo "Return Code: " . "upload/" . if it does not. " already exists. "<br />". Saving the Uploaded File The examples above create a temporary copy of the uploaded files in the PHP temp folder on the server. ". $_FILES["file"]["type"] . $_FILES["file"]["name"]). } else { move_uploaded_file($_FILES["file"]["tmp_name"]. echo "Size: " . " Kb<br />".Note: For IE to recognize jpg files the type must be pjpeg. "<br />". "upload/" . ($_FILES["file"]["size"] / 1024) . $_FILES["file"]["name"] . echo "Type: " . } else { echo "Upload: " .

. How to Create a Cookie? The setcookie() function is used to set a cookie. Example 1 In the example below. you can both create and retrieve cookie values. What is a Cookie? A cookie is often used to identify a user. We also specify that the cookie should expire after one hour: <?php setcookie("user". "Alex Porter". path.. time()+3600). ?> <html> . . Note: The value of the cookie is automatically URLencoded when sending the cookie. $expire). ?> <html> . A cookie is a small file that the server embeds on the user's computer.. Each time the same computer requests a page with a browser... value. Note: The setcookie() function must appear BEFORE the <html> tag.. setcookie("user". Syntax setcookie(name. expire. and automatically decoded when received (to prevent URLencoding. it will send the cookie too.PHP Cookies A cookie is often used to identify a user... domain). In the example above the expiration time is set to a month (60 sec * 60 min * 24 hours * 30 days). It may be easier than using seconds. use setrawcookie() instead). With PHP. <?php $expire=time()+60*60*24*30. Example 2 You can also set the expiration time of the cookie in another way. we will create a cookie named "user" and assign the value "Alex Porter" to it. "Alex Porter".

How to Retrieve a Cookie Value?
The PHP $_COOKIE variable is used to retrieve a cookie value. In the example below, we retrieve the value of the cookie named "user" and display it on a page: <?php // Print a cookie echo $_COOKIE["user"]; // A way to view all cookies print_r($_COOKIE); ?> In the following example we use the isset() function to find out if a cookie has been set: <html> <body> <?php if (isset($_COOKIE["user"])) echo "Welcome " . $_COOKIE["user"] . "!<br />"; else echo "Welcome guest!<br />"; ?> </body> </html>

How to Delete a Cookie?
When deleting a cookie you should assure that the expiration date is in the past. Delete example: <?php // set the expiration date to one hour ago setcookie("user", "", time()-3600); ?>

What if a Browser Does NOT Support Cookies?
If your application deals with browsers that do not support cookies, you will have to use other methods to pass information from one page to another in your application. One method is to pass the data through forms (forms and user input are described earlier in this tutorial). The form below passes the user input to "welcome.php" when the user clicks on the "Submit" button: <html> <body>

<form action="welcome.php" method="post"> Name: <input type="text" name="name" /> Age: <input type="text" name="age" /> <input type="submit" /> </form> </body> </html> Retrieve the values in the "welcome.php" file like this: <html> <body> Welcome <?php echo $_POST["name"]; ?>.<br /> You are <?php echo $_POST["age"]; ?> years old. </body> </html>

PHP Sessions
A PHP session variable is used to store information about, or change settings for a user session. Session variables hold information about one single user, and are available to all pages in one application.

PHP Session Variables
When you are working with an application, you open it, do some changes and then you close it. This is much like a Session. The computer knows who you are. It knows when you start the application and when you end. But on the internet there is one problem: the web server does not know who you are and what you do because the HTTP address doesn't maintain state. A PHP session solves this problem by allowing you to store user information on the server for later use (i.e. username, shopping items, etc). However, session information is temporary and will be deleted after the user has left the website. If you need a permanent storage you may want to store the data in a database. Sessions work by creating a unique id (UID) for each visitor and store variables based on this UID. The UID is either stored in a cookie or is propagated in the URL.

Starting a PHP Session
Before you can store user information in your PHP session, you must first start up the session. Note: The session_start() function must appear BEFORE the <html> tag:

<?php session_start(); ?> <html> <body> </body> </html> The code above will register the user's session with the server, allow you to start saving user information, and assign a UID for that user's session.

Storing a Session Variable
The correct way to store and retrieve session variables is to use the PHP $_SESSION variable: <?php session_start(); // store session data $_SESSION['views']=1; ?> <html> <body> <?php //retrieve session data echo "Pageviews=". $_SESSION['views']; ?> </body> </html> Output: Pageviews=1 In the example below, we create a simple page-views counter. The isset() function checks if the "views" variable has already been set. If "views" has been set, we can increment our counter. If "views" doesn't exist, we create a "views" variable, and set it to 1: <?php session_start(); if(isset($_SESSION['views'])) $_SESSION['views']=$_SESSION['views']+1; else $_SESSION['views']=1; echo "Views=". $_SESSION['views']; ?>

Destroying a Session

headers. PHP requires an installed and working email system.parameters) Parameter to subject message headers parameters Description Required. Defines the message to be sent. The program to be used is defined by the configuration settings in the php.ini file. ?> You can also completely destroy the session by calling the session_destroy() function: <?php session_destroy(). Specifies the subject of the email. Specifies additional headers. like From. Each line should be separated with a LF (\n).message. Lines should not exceed 70 characters Optional.subject. The unset() function is used to free the specified session variable: <?php unset($_SESSION['views']). The additional headers should be separated with a CRLF (\r\n) Optional. Cc. Read more in our PHP Mail reference. and Bcc. Syntax mail(to.If you wish to delete some session data. Note: This parameter cannot contain any newline characters Required. ?> Note: session_destroy() will reset your session and you will lose all your stored session data. The PHP mail() Function The PHP mail() function is used to send emails from inside a script. you can use the unset() or the session_destroy() function. Specifies an additional parameter to the sendmail program Note: For the mail functions to be available. PHP Simple E-Mail . PHP Sending E-mails PHP allows you to send e-mails directly from a script. Specifies the receiver / receivers of the email Required.

$subject = $_REQUEST['subject'] .". $message. $subject = "Test mail". $from = "someonelse@example. "$subject". The example below sends a text message to a specified e-mail address: <html> <body> <?php if (isset($_REQUEST['email'])) //if "email" is filled out. output the HTML form . } ?> </body> </html> This is how the example above works: • • First. $message = $_REQUEST['message'] .$message. In the example below we first declare the variables ($to.$subject. echo "Mail Sent. then we use the variables in the mail() function to send an e-mail: <?php $to = "someone@example. $subject. $headers = "From:" . $from. you can create a feedback-form on your website.com".com".The simplest way to send an email with PHP is to send a text email. echo "Thank you for using our mail form". send email { //send email $email = $_REQUEST['email'] . } else //if "email" is not filled out. display the form { echo "<form method='post' action='mailform. $from.$headers). ?> PHP Mail Form With PHP. $message. check if the email input field is filled out If it is not set (like when the page is first visited). $email). mail($to. $headers). $message = "Hello! This is a simple email message.".php'> Email: <input name='email' type='text' /><br /> Subject: <input name='subject' type='text' /><br /> Message:<br /> <textarea name='message' rows='15' cols='40'> </textarea><br /> <input type='submit' /> </form>".com". "From:" . mail("someone@example.

$message. mail("someone@example. display the form { echo "<form method='post' action='mailform.• • If it is set (after the form is filled out). send email { //send email $email = $_REQUEST['email'] . PHP Secure E-mails There is a weakness in the PHP e-mail script in the previous chapter. sees that the email input is set. and how to validate user input to make it more secure. } ?> </body> </html> The problem with the code above is that unauthorized users can insert data into the mail headers via the input form. echo "Thank you for using our mail form".php'> Email: <input name='email' type='text' /><br /> Subject: <input name='subject' type='text' /><br /> Message:<br /> <textarea name='message' rows='15' cols='40'> </textarea><br /> <input type='submit' /> </form>". PHP E-mail Injections First. In the next chapter of this tutorial you can read more about vulnerabilities in e-mail scripts. } else //if "email" is not filled out.com". but it is not secure. and sends the email Note: This is the simplest way to send e-mail. the page reloads. look at the PHP code from the previous chapter: <html> <body> <?php if (isset($_REQUEST['email'])) //if "email" is filled out. $message = $_REQUEST['message'] . "Subject: $subject". . send the email from the form When submit is pressed after the form is filled out. "From: $email" ). $subject = $_REQUEST['subject'] .

the e-mail will be sent to all of the addresses above! PHP Stopping E-mail Injections The best way to stop e-mail injections is to validate the input. $message = $_REQUEST['message'] .com %0ABTo:person6@example. mail("someone@example. $subject = $_REQUEST['subject'] . The code below is the same as in the previous chapter. echo "Thank you for using our mail form". } else {//send email $email = $_REQUEST['email'] .What happens if the user adds the following text to the email input field in the form? someone@example.com".com. but now we have added an input validator that checks the email field in the form: <html> <body> <?php function spamcheck($field) { //filter_var() sanitizes the e-mail //address using FILTER_SANITIZE_EMAIL $field=filter_var($field. When the user clicks the submit button.person5@example. //filter_var() validates the e-mail //address using FILTER_VALIDATE_EMAIL if(filter_var($field.com. and now the header has an extra Cc:.com%0ACc:person2@example. } } if (isset($_REQUEST['email'])) {//if "email" is filled out. $message. FILTER_VALIDATE_EMAIL)) { return TRUE.com %0ABcc:person3@example. proceed //check if the email address is invalid $mailcheck = spamcheck($_REQUEST['email']). FILTER_SANITIZE_EMAIL). . and To: field. } else { return FALSE. "Subject: $subject".com.person3@example. anotherperson4@example.com The mail() function puts the text above into the mail headers as usual. if ($mailcheck==FALSE) { echo "Invalid input". Bcc:. "From: $email" ).

This tutorial contains some of the most common error checking methods in PHP. If your code lacks error checking code. line number and a message describing the error is sent to the browser. An error message with filename. We will show different error handling methods: • • • Simple "die()" statements Custom errors and error triggers Error reporting Basic Error Handling: Using the die() function The first example shows a simple script that opens a text file: . display the form echo "<form method='post' action='mailform. } ?> </body> </html> In the code above we use PHP filters to validate input: • • The FILTER_SANITIZE_EMAIL filter removes all illegal e-mail characters from a string The FILTER_VALIDATE_EMAIL filter validates value as an e-mail address PHP Error Handling The default error handling in PHP is very simple. your program may look very unprofessional and you may be open to security risks. PHP Error Handling When creating scripts and web applications.php'> Email: <input name='email' type='text' /><br /> Subject: <input name='subject' type='text' /><br /> Message:<br /> <textarea name='message' rows='15' cols='40'> </textarea><br /> <input type='submit' /> </form>". error handling is an important part.} } else {//if "email" is not filled out.

"r").fopen]: failed to open stream: No such file or directory in C:\webfolder\test.txt". Must be a value number. line-number.<?php $file=fopen("welcome. because it uses a simple error handling mechanism to stop the script after the error.txt")) { die("File not found"). Specifies the error report level for the user-defined error.error_context) Parameter error_level error_message error_file Description Required. } else { $file=fopen("welcome. Specifies the error message for the user-defined error Optional. error_file.txt) [function.error_line. This function must be able to handle a minimum of two parameters (error level and error message) but can accept up to five parameters (optionally: file."r"). } ?> Now if the file does not exist you get an error like this: File not found The code above is more efficient than the earlier code. Creating a Custom Error Handler Creating a custom error handler is quite simple. simply stopping the script is not always the right way to go.php on line 2 To avoid that the user gets an error message like the one above. However.error_message. we test if the file exist before we try to access it: <?php if(!file_exists("welcome. See table below for possible error report levels Required.txt". We simply create a special function that can be called when an error occurs in PHP. Let's take a look at alternative PHP functions for handling errors. Specifies the filename in which the error occurred . and the error context): Syntax error_function(error_level. ?> If the file does not exist you might get an error like this: Warning: fopen(welcome.

It then outputs the error level and message and terminates the script. echo "Ending Script". . and their values. This is like an E_WARNING set by the programmer using the PHP function trigger_error() User-generated notice. We are going to make the function above the default error handler for the duration of the script. The script found something that might be an error. Specifies an array containing every variable. } The code above is a simple error handling function. Execution of the script is not halted Run-time notices. Specifies the line number in which the error occurred Optional. This is like an E_ERROR but can be caught by a user defined handle (see also set_error_handler()) All errors and warnings. it gets the error level and an error message.error_line error_context Optional. This is like an E_ERROR set by the programmer using the PHP function trigger_error() Non-fatal user-generated warning. This is like an E_NOTICE set by the programmer using the PHP function trigger_error() Catchable fatal error. Now that we have created an error handling function we need to decide when it should be triggered. When it is triggered. Set Error Handler The default error handler for PHP is the built in error handler. except level E_STRICT (E_STRICT will be part of E_ALL as of PHP 6. $errstr) { echo "<b>Error:</b> [$errno] $errstr<br />".0) 256 512 E_USER_ERROR E_USER_WARNING 1024 E_USER_NOTICE 4096 E_RECOVERABLE_ERROR 8191 E_ALL Now lets create a function to handle errors: function customError($errno. but could also happen when running a script normally Fatal user-generated error. in use when the error occurred Error Report levels These error report levels are the different types of error the user-defined error handler can be used for: Value Constant 2 8 E_WARNING E_NOTICE Description Non-fatal run-time errors. die().

a second parameter could be added to specify an error level. Example In this example an error occurs if the "test" variable is bigger than "1": <?php $test=2. that way the script can handle different errors in different ways. However. //trigger error echo($test). ?> The output of the code above should be something like this: Error: [8] Undefined variable: test Trigger an Error In a script where users can input data it is useful to trigger errors when an illegal input occurs. in this example we are going to use our custom error handler for all errors: set_error_handler("customError"). $errstr) { echo "<b>Error:</b> [$errno] $errstr".php on line 6 . this is done by the trigger_error() function.It is possible to change the error handler to apply for only some errors. the set_error_handler() only needed one parameter. In PHP. } ?> The output of the code above should be something like this: Notice: Value must be 1 or below in C:\webfolder\test. } //set error handler set_error_handler("customError"). if ($test>1) { trigger_error("Value must be 1 or below"). Since we want our custom function to handle all errors. Example Testing the error handler by trying to output variable that does not exist: <?php //error handler function function customError($errno.

User-generated run-time notice. The script found something that might be an error. lets take a look at error logging. . By using the error_log() function you can send error logs to a specified file or a remote destination. $errstr) { echo "<b>Error:</b> [$errno] $errstr<br />". Possible error types: • • • E_USER_ERROR . Execution of the script is not halted E_USER_NOTICE .E_USER_WARNING). if ($test>1) { trigger_error("Value must be 1 or below". and by adding a second parameter. } //set error handler set_error_handler("customError".ini file. but could also happen when running a script normally Example In this example an E_USER_WARNING occurs if the "test" variable is bigger than "1". you can specify what error level is triggered. //trigger error $test=2.Fatal user-generated run-time error.An error can be triggered anywhere you wish in a script. Error Logging By default. echo "Ending Script". die(). If an E_USER_WARNING occurs we will use our custom error handler and end the script: <?php //error handler function function customError($errno. PHP sends an error log to the servers logging system or a file. Errors that can not be recovered from.E_USER_WARNING). } ?> The output of the code above should be something like this: Error: [512] Value must be 1 or below Ending Script Now that we have learned to create our own errors and how to trigger them. Execution of the script is halted E_USER_WARNING .Default. depending on how the error_log configuration is set in the php.Non-fatal user-generated run-time warning.

echo "Webmaster has been notified".Sending errors messages to yourself by e-mail can be a good way of getting notified of specific errors.com".E_USER_WARNING). This condition is called an exception. PHP Exception Handling Exceptions are used to change the normal flow of a script if a specified error occurs What is an Exception With PHP 5 came a new object oriented way of dealing with errors.com"). if a specific error occurs: <?php //error handler function function customError($errno. //trigger error $test=2.E_USER_WARNING). Send an Error Message by E-Mail In the example below we will send an e-mail with an error message and end the script. error_log("Error: [$errno] $errstr". "someone@example. if ($test>1) { trigger_error("Value must be 1 or below". } ?> The output of the code above should be something like this: Error: [512] Value must be 1 or below Webmaster has been notified And the mail received from the code above looks like this: Error: [512] Value must be 1 or below This should not be used with all errors.1. $errstr) { echo "<b>Error:</b> [$errno] $errstr<br />". } //set error handler set_error_handler("customError". Exception handling is used to change the normal flow of the code execution if a specified error (exceptional) condition occurs. Regular errors should be logged on the server using the default PHP logging system."From: webmaster@example. .

php:6 Stack trace: #0 C:\webfolder\test. and PHP will try to find the matching "catch" block. ?> The code above will get an error like this: Fatal error: Uncaught exception 'Exception' with message 'Value must be 1 or below' in C:\webfolder\test.This is what normally happens when an exception is triggered: • • • The current code state is saved The code execution will switch to a predefined (custom) exception handler function Depending on the situation. throw and catch .php on line 6 Try. terminate the script execution or continue the script from a different location in the code We will show different error handling methods: • • • • • Basic use of Exceptions Creating a custom exception handler Multiple exceptions Re-throwing an exception Setting a top level exception handler Note: Exceptions should only be used with error conditions. } return true. Lets try to throw an exception without catching it: <?php //create function with an exception function checkNum($number) { if($number>1) { throw new Exception("Value must be 1 or below"). Basic Use of Exceptions When an exception is thrown. the code following it will not be executed. If an exception is not caught. the handler may then resume the execution from the saved code state. } //trigger exception checkNum(2).php(12): checkNum(28) #1 {main} thrown in C:\webfolder\test. a fatal error will be issued with an "Uncaught Exception" message. and should not be used to jump to another place in the code at a specified point.

3. Proper exception code should include: 1. 2.This is how you trigger an exception. } ?> The code above will get an error like this: Message: Value must be 1 or below Example explained: The code above throws an exception and catches it: 1. If the exception does not trigger. the number is 1 or below'. we need to create the proper code to handle an exception. The checkNum() function is created.To avoid the error from the example above.A function using an exception should be in a "try" block. //If the exception is thrown. It checks if a number is greater than 1.$e->getMessage(). } //catch exception catch(Exception $e) { echo 'Message: ' . an exception is thrown The checkNum() function is called in a "try" block The exception within the checkNum() function is thrown The "catch" block retrives the exception and creates an object ($e) containing the exception information . Each "throw" must have at least one "catch" Catch . this text will not be shown echo 'If you see this. 3. the code will continue as normal. 4. Try . } //trigger exception in a "try" block try { checkNum(2). If it is. an exception is "thrown" Throw . 2.A "catch" block retrieves an exception and creates an object containing the exception information Lets try to trigger an exception with valid code: <?php //create function with an exception function checkNum($number) { if($number>1) { throw new Exception("Value must be 1 or below"). However if the exception triggers. } return true.

} } $email = "someone@example. } ?> The new class is a copy of the old exception class with an addition of the errorMessage() function.$this->getFile() . The class must be an extension of the exception class. one way to get around the "every throw must have a catch" rule is to set a top level exception handler to handle errors that slip through. FILTER_VALIDATE_EMAIL) === FALSE) { //throw exception if email is not valid throw new customException($email).$this->getLine(). } } catch (customException $e) { //display custom message echo $e->errorMessage(). and it inherits the properties and methods from the old class.' in '.5. Lets create an exception class: <?php class customException extends Exception { public function errorMessage() { //error message $errorMsg = 'Error on line '..$this->getMessage(). we can use the exception class methods like getLine() and getFile() and getMessage()..com". Example explained: . Creating a Custom Exception Class Creating a custom exception handler is quite simple.': <b>'. try { //check if if(filter_var($email. The error message from the exception is echoed by calling $e->getMessage() from the exception object However. We simply create a special class with functions that can be called when an exception occurs in PHP.'</b> is not a valid E-Mail address'. return $errorMsg. Since it is a copy of the old class. The custom exception class inherits the properties from PHP's exception class and you can add custom functions to it.

': <b>'.com". try { //check if if(filter_var($email.$this->getMessage().else blocks. 3. or nest multiple exceptions.$this->getLine().' in '. "example") !== FALSE) { throw new Exception("$email is an example e-mail").$this->getFile() . 2. 4. It is possible to use several if. } . 5. These exceptions can use different exception classes and return different error messages: <?php class customException extends Exception { public function errorMessage() { //error message $errorMsg = 'Error on line '. } //check for "example" in mail address if(strpos($email.The code above throws an exception and catches it with a custom exception class: 1. FILTER_VALIDATE_EMAIL) === FALSE) { //throw exception if email is not valid throw new customException($email). This way it inherits all methods and properties from the old exception class The errorMessage() function is created. The customException() class is created as an extension of the old exception class. } } $email = "someone@example. a switch. This function returns an error message if an email address is invalid The $email variable is set to a string that is not a valid e-mail address The "try" block is executed and an exception is thrown since the e-mail address is invalid The "catch" block catches the exception and displays the error message Multiple Exceptions It is possible for a script to use multiple exceptions to check for multiple conditions.'</b> is not a valid E-Mail address'. } } catch (customException $e) { echo $e->errorMessage(). return $errorMsg.. } catch(Exception $e) { echo $e->getMessage().

but contains the string "example" The "try" block is executed and an exception is not thrown on the first condition The second condition triggers an exception since the e-mail contains the string "example" The "catch" block catches the exception and displays the correct error message If there was no customException catch.'. only the base exception catch. A script should hide system errors from users. 5. but is of no interest to the user. when an exception is thrown.?> Example explained: The code above tests two conditions and throws an exception if any of the conditions are not met: 1. "example") !== FALSE) { //throw exception if email is not valid throw new Exception($email). the exception would be handled there Re-throwing Exceptions Sometimes.com". This function returns an error message if an email address is invalid The $email variable is set to a string that is a valid e-mail address. 2. try { try { //check for "example" in mail address if(strpos($email. } } $email = "someone@example. This way it inherits all methods and properties from the old exception class The errorMessage() function is created. you may wish to handle it differently than the standard way. 4. System errors may be important for the coder. The customException() class is created as an extension of the old exception class.' is not a valid E-Mail address. 6. 3. } } catch(Exception $e) . It is possible to throw an exception a second time within a "catch" block. return $errorMsg. To make things easier for the user you can re-throw the exception with a user friendly message: <?php class customException extends Exception { public function errorMessage() { //error message $errorMsg = $this->getMessage().

3. throw new Exception('Uncaught Exception occurred'). the top level exception handler triggered.{ //re-throw exception throw new customException($email). Instead. if it does. This function should be used to catch uncaught exceptions. } ?> Example explained: The code above tests if the email-address contains the string "example" in it. it will search for a catch block on "higher levels". This function returns an error message if an email address is invalid The $email variable is set to a string that is a valid e-mail address. 7. The customException() class is created as an extension of the old exception class. 6. } } catch (customException $e) { //display custom message echo $e->errorMessage(). . but contains the string "example" The "try" block contains another "try" block to make it possible to re-throw the exception The exception is triggered since the e-mail contains the string "example" The "catch" block catches the exception and re-throws a "customException" The "customException" is caught and displays an error message If the exception is not caught in its current "try" block. } set_exception_handler('myException'). $exception->getMessage(). 5. 2. Set a Top Level Exception Handler The set_exception_handler() function sets a user-defined function to handle all uncaught exceptions. 4. This way it inherits all methods and properties from the old exception class The errorMessage() function is created. the exception is re-thrown: 1. ?> The output of the code above should be something like this: Exception: Uncaught Exception occurred In the code above there was no "catch" block. <?php function myException($exception) { echo "<b>Exception:</b> " .

What is a PHP Filter? A PHP filter is used to validate and filter data coming from insecure sources. Why use a Filter? Almost all web applications depend on external input. like user input. To test. What is external data? • • • • • Input data from a form Cookies Web services data Server variables Database query results Functions and Filters . By using filters you can be sure your application gets the correct input type. The PHP filter extension is designed to make data filtering easier and quicker.Rules for exceptions • • • • Code may be surrounded in a try block. PHP Filter PHP filters are used to validate and filter data coming from insecure sources. you have to catch it. You should always filter all external data! Input filtering is one of the most important application security issues. validate and filter user input or custom data is an important part of any web application. Usually this comes from a user or another application (like a web service). to help catch potential exceptions Each try block or "throw" must have at least one corresponding catch block Multiple catch blocks can be used to catch different classes of exceptions Exceptions can be thrown (or re-thrown) in a catch block within a try block A simple rule: If you throw something.

visit our PHP Filter Reference. FILTER_VALIDATE_INT)) { echo("Integer is not valid"). If we try with a variable that is not an integer (like "123abc").Filter several variables with the same or different filters filter_input .To filter a variable. . Validating and Sanitizing There are two kinds of filters: Validating filters: • • • Are used to validate user input Strict format rules (like URL or E-Mail validating) Returns the expected type on success or FALSE on failure Sanitizing filters: • • • Are used to allow or disallow specified characters in a string No data format rules Always return the string Options and Flags Options and flags are used to add additional filtering options to the specified filters. the output will be: "Integer is not valid". we validate an integer using the filter_var() function: <?php $int = 123. For a complete list of functions and filters. } ?> The code above uses the "FILTER_VALIDATE_INT" filter to filter the variable.Get one input variable and filter it filter_input_array . the output of the code above will be: "Integer is valid". use one of the following filter functions: • • • • filter_var() . if(!filter_var($int. } else { echo("Integer is valid").Get several input variables and filter them with the same or different filters In the example below. Since the integer is valid.Filters a single variable with a specified filter filter_var_array() .

the input variable "email" is sent to the PHP page: <?php if(!filter_has_var(INPUT_GET.Different filters have different options and flags. options must be put in an associative array with the name "options". } ?> Like the code above. FILTER_VALIDATE_INT. In the example below. $int_options)) { echo("Integer is not valid"). Validate Input Let's try validating input from a form. FILTER_VALIDATE_EMAIL)) { . The first thing we need to do is to confirm that the input data we are looking for exists. } else { if (!filter_input(INPUT_GET. if(!filter_var($var. Check each filter to see what options and flags are available. Then we filter the input data using the filter_input() function. and the output of the code above will be: "Integer is not valid". If a flag is used it does not need to be in an array. visit our PHP Filter Reference. "email". "email")) { echo("Input type does not exist"). we validate an integer using the filter_var() and the "min_range" and "max_range" options: <?php $var=300. "max_range"=>256 ) ). Since the integer is "300" it is not in the specified range. In the example below. $int_options = array( "options"=>array ( "min_range"=>0. For a complete list of functions and filters. } else { echo("Integer is valid").

the $url variable after the sanitizing will look like this: http://www.com/ Filter Multiple Inputs . the input variable "url" is sent to the PHP page: <?php if(!filter_has_var(INPUT_POST.com/". } ?> Example Explained The example above has an input (url) sent to it using the "POST" method: 1. check if it is a valid e-mail address Sanitize Input Let's try cleaning up an URL sent from a form. 2. } else { echo "E-Mail is valid". "url")) { echo("Input type does not exist"). "url". First we confirm that the input data we are looking for exists. Then we sanitize the input data using the filter_input() function. Check if an "email" input variable of the "GET" type exist If the input variable exists. } } ?> Example Explained The example above has an input (email) sent to it using the "GET" method: 1. sanitize (take away invalid characters) and store it in the $url variable If the input variable is a string like this "http://www. 2. In the example below.echo "E-Mail is not valid". Check if the "url" input of the "POST" type exists If the input variable exists.W3ååSchøøools. } else { $url = filter_input(INPUT_POST.W3Schools. FILTER_SANITIZE_URL).

The received GET variables is a name. (If any of the input variables are invalid. an age and an e-mail address: <?php $filters = array ( "name" => array ( "filter"=>FILTER_SANITIZE_STRING ). Set an array containing the name of input variables and the filters used on the specified input variables Call the filter_input_array() function with the GET input variables and the array we just set Check the "age" and "email" variables in the $result variable for invalid inputs. } elseif(!$result["email"]) { echo("E-Mail is not valid. "age" => array ( "filter"=>FILTER_VALIDATE_INT. "max_range"=>120 ) ). ). "email"=> FILTER_VALIDATE_EMAIL. 2. that input variable will be FALSE after the filter_input_array() function) The second parameter of the filter_input_array() function can be an array or a single filter ID. we can use the filter_var_array or the filter_input_array functions. To avoid calling the filter_var or filter_input functions over and over. "options"=>array ( "min_range"=>1. In this example we use the filter_input_array() function to filter three GET variables. $filters). 3. $result = filter_input_array(INPUT_GET. . age and email) sent to it using the "GET" method: 1. if (!$result["age"]) { echo("Age must be a number between 1 and 120.<br />"). } ?> Example Explained The example above has three inputs (name.<br />"). } else { echo("User input is valid").A form almost always consist of more than one input field.

?> The result from the code above should look like this: Peter is a great guy! Example Explained The example above converts all "_" to whitespaces: 1. If the parameter is an array it must follow these rules: • • Must be an associative array containing an input variable as an array key (like the "age" input variable) The array value must be a filter ID or an array specifying the filter. we use a user created function to convert all "_" to whitespaces: <?php function convertSpace($string) { return str_replace("_". Create a function to replace "_" to whitespaces Call the filter_var() function with the FILTER_CALLBACK filter and an array containing our function . $string). In an associative array with the name "options" In the example below. " ". } $string = "Peter_is_a_great_guy!". array("options"=>"convertSpace")). This way. flags and options Using Filter Callback It is possible to call a user defined function and use it as a filter using the FILTER_CALLBACK filter.If the parameter is a single filter ID all values in the input array are filtered by the specified filter. we have full control of the data filtering. 2. echo filter_var($string. You can create your own user defined function or use an existing PHP function The function you wish to use to filter is specified the same way as an option is specified. FILTER_CALLBACK.

. A table is a collection of related data entries and it consists of columns and rows. The data in MySQL is stored in database objects called tables. What is MySQL? MySQL is a database.PHP Database PHP MySQL Introduction MySQL is the most popular open-source database system.

With MySQL.mysql. Look at the following query: SELECT LastName FROM Persons The query above selects all the data in the "LastName" column from the "Persons" table. "Products". and will return a recordset like this: LastName Hansen Svendson Pettersen Download MySQL Database If you don't have a PHP server with a MySQL Database. A company may have a database with the following tables: "Employees". we can query a database for specific information and have a recordset returned. FirstName. Each table is identified by a name (e. Database Tables A database most often contains one or more tables.com/downloads/index. "Customers" and "Orders".html Facts About MySQL Database . Address. and City). Below is an example of a table called "Persons": LastName Hansen Svendson Pettersen FirstName Ola Tove Kari Address Timoteivn 10 Borgvn 23 Storgt 20 City Sandnes Sandnes Stavanger The table above contains three records (one for each person) and four columns (LastName.g. you can download MySQL for free here: http://www. Tables contain records (rows) with data. Queries A query is a question or a request.Databases are useful when storing information categorically. "Customers" or "Orders").

Google). PHP MySQL Connect to a Database The free MySQL database is very often used with PHP. Example In the following example we store the connection in a variable ($con) for later use in the script. Create a Connection to a MySQL Database Before you can access data in a database. Default value is the name of the user that owns the server process Optional. } // some code ?> Closing a Connection . Visit our full PHP MySQL Reference for more details. Syntax mysql_connect(servername. Yahoo.username.One great thing about MySQL is that it can be scaled down to support embedded database applications. The "die" part will be executed if the connection fails: <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost". Default value is "localhost:3306" Optional. The truth is that MySQL is the de-facto standard database for web sites that support huge volumes of both data and end users (like Friendster."peter".password)."abc123"). Perhaps it is because of this reputation that many people believe that MySQL can only handle small to medium-sized systems. but the ones listed above are the most important. Specifies the password to log in with. Default is "" Note: There are more available parameters. you must create a connection to the database. mysql_error()). Parameter servername username password Description Optional. if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . Specifies the server to connect to. In PHP. Specifies the username to log in with. this is done with the mysql_connect() function.

use the mysql_close() function: <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost". ?> PHP MySQL Create Database and Tables A database holds one or multiple tables. if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . please visit our SQL tutorial. . if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' ."abc123"). This function is used to send a query or command to a MySQL connection."peter". } // some code mysql_close($con). Example The following example creates a database called "my_db": <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost". Create a Database The CREATE DATABASE statement is used to create a database in MySQL. Syntax CREATE DATABASE database_name To learn more about SQL."peter". To get PHP to execute the statement above we must use the mysql_query() function.The connection will be closed automatically when the script ends."abc123"). mysql_error()). mysql_error()). To close the connection before.

mysql_error().. ) To learn more about SQL. We must add the CREATE TABLE statement to the mysql_query() function to execute the command. } // Create table . "LastName" and "Age": <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost". } else { echo "Error creating database: " . Example The following example creates a table named "Persons"..$con)) { echo "Database created". mysql_error(). please visit our SQL tutorial. } else { echo "Error creating database: " . mysql_error()). The column names will be "FirstName". } mysql_close($con)."abc123"). } // Create database if (mysql_query("CREATE DATABASE my_db". ?> Create a Table The CREATE TABLE statement is used to create a table in MySQL."peter".} if (mysql_query("CREATE DATABASE my_db". . column_name2 data_type. Syntax CREATE TABLE table_name ( column_name1 data_type.$con)) { echo "Database created". with three columns. column_name3 data_type.. if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' .

The database is selected with the mysql_select_db() function. Age int )".g. To ensure that the primary key field cannot be null. FirstName varchar(15). go to our complete Data Types reference.$con). LastName varchar(15). and is often used with the AUTO_INCREMENT setting. PHP MySQL Insert Into . you must specify the maximum length of the field. PRIMARY KEY(personID). The following example sets the personID field as the primary key field. $sql = "CREATE TABLE Persons ( FirstName varchar(15). $con). The primary key field is often an ID number. LastName varchar(15). Each primary key value must be unique within the table.mysql_select_db("my_db". Age int )". we must add the NOT NULL setting to the field. A primary key is used to uniquely identify the rows in a table. Example $sql = "CREATE TABLE Persons ( personID int NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT. mysql_query($sql.$con). Primary Keys and Auto Increment Fields Each table should have a primary key field. AUTO_INCREMENT automatically increases the value of the field by 1 each time a new record is added. mysql_close($con). ?> Important: A database must be selected before a table can be created. varchar(15). // Execute query mysql_query($sql. e. the primary key field cannot be null because the database engine requires a value to locate the record. Note: When you create a database field of type varchar. Furthermore. The data type specifies what type of data the column can hold. For a complete reference of all the data types available in MySQL.

. Age) VALUES ('Glenn'. ?> Insert Data From a Form Into a Database . mysql_query("INSERT INTO Persons (FirstName."abc123").. 'Griffin'.) To learn more about SQL. mysql_error()). value3. Syntax It is possible to write the INSERT INTO statement in two forms... value3. mysql_query("INSERT INTO Persons (FirstName...) VALUES (value1. Age) VALUES ('Peter'."peter". Insert Data Into a Database Table The INSERT INTO statement is used to add new records to a database table. 'Quagmire'. column3. $con). please visit our SQL tutorial. This function is used to send a query or command to a MySQL connection.. if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . mysql_close($con).) The second form specifies both the column names and the values to be inserted: INSERT INTO table_name (column1. value2.The INSERT INTO statement is used to insert new records in a table. value2. with three columns. We will use the same table in this example. LastName. LastName. Example In the previous chapter we created a table named "Persons". '33')").. column2. only their values: INSERT INTO table_name VALUES (value1.. "Lastname" and "Age". '35')"). } mysql_select_db("my_db". The following example adds two new records to the "Persons" table: <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost". The first form doesn't specify the column names where the data will be inserted. To get PHP to execute the statements above we must use the mysql_query() function. "Firstname".

"peter".Now we will create an HTML form that can be used to add new records to the "Persons" table.php" page: <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost".php" file connects to a database. and retrieves the values from the form with the PHP $_POST variables. The "insert. mysql_close($con) ?> PHP MySQL Select .$con)) { die('Error: ' . $con)."abc123"). LastName. Then. the form data is sent to "insert.php". } echo "1 record added". Here is the "insert. the mysql_query() function executes the INSERT INTO statement. Here is the HTML form: <html> <body> <form action="insert.'$_POST[lastname]'.'$_POST[age]')". $sql="INSERT INTO Persons (FirstName. Age) VALUES ('$_POST[firstname]'. and a new record will be added to the "Persons" table.php" method="post"> Firstname: <input type="text" name="firstname" /> Lastname: <input type="text" name="lastname" /> Age: <input type="text" name="age" /> <input type="submit" /> </form> </body> </html> When a user clicks the submit button in the HTML form in the example above. if (!mysql_query($sql. mysql_error()). if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . } mysql_select_db("my_db". mysql_error()).

Next. To print the value of each row. The output of the code above will be: Peter Griffin Glenn Quagmire . The while loop loops through all the records in the recordset. Example The following example selects all the data stored in the "Persons" table (The * character selects all the data in the table): <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost". mysql_error()). } mysql_select_db("my_db". please visit our SQL tutorial. while($row = mysql_fetch_array($result)) { echo $row['FirstName'] .The SELECT statement is used to select data from a database. $row['LastName']. $result = mysql_query("SELECT * FROM Persons"). " " . we use the mysql_fetch_array() function to return the first row from the recordset as an array. echo "<br />". } mysql_close($con). we use the PHP $row variable ($row['FirstName'] and $row['LastName'])."abc123"). Select Data From a Database Table The SELECT statement is used to select data from a database. This function is used to send a query or command to a MySQL connection. $con). To get PHP to execute the statement above we must use the mysql_query() function. Syntax SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name To learn more about SQL. if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . Each call to mysql_fetch_array() returns the next row in the recordset."peter". ?> The example above stores the data returned by the mysql_query() function in the $result variable.

if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . "</td>". echo "</tr>". $row['FirstName'] . echo "<td>" ."abc123"). ?> The output of the code above will be: Firstname Lastname Glenn Peter Quagmire Griffin PHP MySQL The Where Clause The WHERE clause is used to filter records. but will display the data in an HTML table: <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost". $result = mysql_query("SELECT * FROM Persons").Display the Result in an HTML Table The following example selects the same data as the example above. . } echo "</table>". mysql_error()). } mysql_select_db("my_db". $con). while($row = mysql_fetch_array($result)) { echo "<tr>". The WHERE clause The WHERE clause is used to extract only those records that fulfill a specified criterion. echo "<td>" . mysql_close($con)."peter". echo "<table border='1'> <tr> <th>Firstname</th> <th>Lastname</th> </tr>". $row['LastName'] . "</td>".

echo "<br />". The ORDER BY Keyword The ORDER BY keyword is used to sort the data in a recordset. " " . mysql_error()).Syntax SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name WHERE column_name operator value To learn more about SQL. $result = mysql_query("SELECT * FROM Persons WHERE FirstName='Peter'"). } ?> The output of the code above will be: Peter Griffin PHP MySQL Order By Keyword The ORDER BY keyword is used to sort the data in a recordset. If you want to sort the records in a descending order. ."peter". To get PHP to execute the statement above we must use the mysql_query() function. Example The following example selects all rows from the "Persons" table where "FirstName='Peter': <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost". please visit our SQL tutorial. while($row = mysql_fetch_array($result)) { echo $row['FirstName'] . This function is used to send a query or command to a MySQL connection. you can use the DESC keyword. $row['LastName']. $con)."abc123"). } mysql_select_db("my_db". The ORDER BY keyword sort the records in ascending order by default. if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' .

mysql_error()). } mysql_close($con). } mysql_select_db("my_db"."abc123"). and sorts the result by the "Age" column: <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost". if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . $result = mysql_query("SELECT * FROM Persons ORDER BY age"). When ordering by more than one column. column2 . $row['LastName']. please visit our SQL tutorial. echo " " .Syntax SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name ORDER BY column_name(s) ASC|DESC To learn more about SQL. echo "<br />"."peter". Example The following example selects all the data stored in the "Persons" table. $con). $row['Age']. while($row = mysql_fetch_array($result)) { echo $row['FirstName']. echo " " . ?> The output of the code above will be: Glenn Quagmire 33 Peter Griffin 35 Order by Two Columns It is also possible to order by more than one column. the second column is only used if the values in the first column are equal: SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name ORDER BY column1.

Update Data In a Database The UPDATE statement is used to update existing records in a table. all records will be updated! To learn more about SQL.. To get PHP to execute the statement above we must use the mysql_query() function. column2=value2. Example Earlier in the tutorial we created a table named "Persons". WHERE some_column=some_value Note: Notice the WHERE clause in the UPDATE syntax. The WHERE clause specifies which record or records that should be updated.. Here is how it looks: FirstName Peter Glenn LastName Griffin Quagmire Age 35 33 The following example updates some data in the "Persons" table: <?php . Syntax UPDATE table_name SET column1=value.PHP MySQL Update The UPDATE statement is used to modify data in a table.. If you omit the WHERE clause. please visit our SQL tutorial. This function is used to send a query or command to a MySQL connection.

Delete Data In a Database The DELETE FROM statement is used to delete records from a database table. the "Persons" table will look like this: FirstName Peter Glenn LastName Griffin Quagmire Age 36 33 PHP MySQL Delete The DELETE statement is used to delete records in a table. mysql_query("UPDATE Persons SET Age = '36' WHERE FirstName = 'Peter' AND LastName = 'Griffin'"). If you omit the WHERE clause. Syntax DELETE FROM table_name WHERE some_column = some_value Note: Notice the WHERE clause in the DELETE syntax. The WHERE clause specifies which record or records that should be deleted. all records will be deleted! To learn more about SQL.$con = mysql_connect("localhost"."abc123"). } mysql_select_db("my_db". please visit our SQL tutorial."peter". This function is used to send a query or command to a MySQL connection. mysql_close($con). To get PHP to execute the statement above we must use the mysql_query() function. ?> After the update. mysql_error()). $con). if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . Example Look at the following "Persons" table: .

2. on any computer in your network. mysql_error()). Double-click on the Data Sources (ODBC) icon inside. 3."abc123").g. 6.FirstName Peter Glenn LastName Griffin Quagmire Age 35 33 The following example deletes all the records in the "Persons" table where LastName='Griffin': <?php $con = mysql_connect("localhost". $con). as long as an ODBC connection is available. mysql_query("DELETE FROM Persons WHERE LastName='Griffin'"). Here is how to create an ODBC connection to a MS Access Database: 1. Create an ODBC Connection With an ODBC connection. 8. Select the Microsoft Access Driver. an MS Access database). Give the database a Data Source Name (DSN). ?> After the deletion. click Select to locate the database. mysql_close($con). . if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . Open the Administrative Tools icon in your Control Panel. the table will look like this: FirstName Glenn LastName Quagmire Age 33 PHP Database ODBC ODBC is an Application Programming Interface (API) that allows you to connect to a data source (e. Click Finish. Click on Add in the System DSN tab."peter". In the next screen. 7. Click OK. you can connect to any database. Choose the System DSN tab. 5. 4. } mysql_select_db("my_db".

The code line below returns the value of the first field from the record: $compname=odbc_result($rs. username. odbc_close($conn). This function returns true if it is able to return rows. The code line below returns the value of a field called "CompanyName": $compname=odbc_result($rs. Connecting to an ODBC The odbc_connect() function is used to connect to an ODBC data source. $rs=odbc_exec($conn. . It then creates an SQL and executes it: $conn=odbc_connect('northwind'.'').$sql).1). but if your web site is located on a remote server.''. Example The following example creates a connection to a DSN called northwind. Closing an ODBC Connection The odbc_close() function is used to close an ODBC connection.Note that this configuration has to be done on the computer where your web site is located. with no username and no password. If you are running Internet Information Server (IIS) on your own computer. you have to have physical access to that server. and an optional cursor type. The function takes four parameters: the data source name. The odbc_exec() function is used to execute an SQL statement. Retrieving Records The odbc_fetch_row() function is used to return records from the result-set. The function takes two parameters: the ODBC result identifier and an optional row number: odbc_fetch_row($rs) Retrieving Fields from a Record The odbc_result() function is used to read fields from a record. or ask your web host to to set up a DSN for you to use. password. $sql="SELECT * FROM customers". otherwise false."CompanyName"). This function takes two parameters: the ODBC result identifier and a field number or name. the instructions above will work.

} $sql="SELECT * FROM customers". } odbc_close($conn). and then display the data in an HTML table. echo "<th>Contactname</th></tr>". ?> </body> </html> ."ContactName"). $conn). <html> <body> <?php $conn=odbc_connect('northwind'.$sql). then a result-set. $conname=odbc_result($rs.} echo "<table><tr>". echo "<th>Companyname</th>". echo "<tr><td>$compname</td>".An ODBC Example The following example shows how to first create a database connection."CompanyName"). $rs=odbc_exec($conn. while (odbc_fetch_row($rs)) { $compname=odbc_result($rs. echo "</table>".'').''. if (!$rs) {exit("Error in SQL"). echo "<td>$conname</td></tr>". if (!$conn) {exit("Connection Failed: " .

you will need an XML parser. Look at the following XML fraction: . Because of this. There are two basic types of XML parsers: • • Tree-based parser: This parser transforms an XML document into a tree structure.an XML document.create and manipulate .g. You must define your own tags. If you want to learn more about XML. event-based parsers can access data faster than tree-based parsers. the Document Object Model (DOM) Event-based parser: Views an XML document as a series of events. When a specific event occurs. no tags are predefined. It analyzes the whole document. An XML file describes the structure of the data. What is Expat? To read and update . it calls a function to handle it The Expat parser is an event-based parser. Event-based parsers focus on the content of the XML documents. e. What is XML? XML is used to describe data and to focus on what data is. not their structure.PHP XML PHP XML Expat Parser The built-in Expat parser makes it possible to process XML documents in PHP. and provides access to the tree elements. In XML. please visit our XML tutorial.

As an event-based. value: Jani Close element: from The XML example above contains well-formed XML. Installation The XML Expat parser functions are part of the PHP core. Expat is fast and small.$element_name.$element_attrs) { switch($element_name) . An XML File The XML file below will be used in our example: <?xml version="1. //Function to use at the start of an element function start($parser. this makes no difference when using the Expat parser. However.<from>Jani</from> An event-based parser reports the XML above as a series of three events: • • • Start element: from Start CDATA section. Example <?php //Initialize the XML parser $parser=xml_parser_create(). and a perfect match for PHP web applications. and then parse the XML file. non-validating XML parser. Note: XML documents must be well-formed or Expat will generate an error. However. There is no installation needed to use these functions. Expat is a non-validating parser. because there is no Document Type Definition (DTD) associated with it. and ignores any DTDs. the example is not valid XML. define some handlers for different XML events.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?> <note> <to>Tove</to> <from>Jani</from> <heading>Reminder</heading> <body>Don't forget me this weekend!</body> </note> Initializing the XML Parser We want to initialize the XML parser in PHP.

Note --<br />"."r"). break.$data) { echo $data."char"). break. case "BODY": echo "Message: ". } //Function to use when finding character data function char($parser. //Open XML file $fp=fopen("test. //Read data while ($data=fread($fp.Note -To: Tove From: Jani Heading: Reminder .{ case "NOTE": echo "-. xml_error_string(xml_get_error_code($parser)). } } //Function to use at the end of an element function stop($parser. ?> The output of the code above will be: -. case "FROM": echo "From: ".$data.xml".$element_name) { echo "<br />". //Specify data handler xml_set_character_data_handler($parser."start". } //Free the XML parser xml_parser_free($parser)."stop"). break. case "HEADING": echo "Heading: ".4096)) { xml_parse($parser. break.feof($fp)) or die (sprintf("XML Error: %s at line %d". case "TO": echo "To: ". } //Specify element handler xml_set_element_handler($parser. xml_get_current_line_number($parser))).

Message: Don't forget me this weekend! How it works: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Initialize the XML parser with the xml_parser_create() function Create functions to use with the different event handlers Add the xml_set_element_handler() function to specify which function will be executed when the parser encounters the opening and closing tags Add the xml_set_character_data_handler() function to specify which function will execute when the parser encounters character data Parse the file "test.xml" with the xml_parse() function In case of an error, add xml_error_string() function to convert an XML error to a textual description Call the xml_parser_free() function to release the memory allocated with the xml_parser_create() function

PHP XML DOM
The built-in DOM parser makes it possible to process XML documents in PHP.

What is DOM?
The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents, and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core, XML, and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): * Core DOM - defines a standard set of objects for any structured document * XML DOM - defines a standard set of objects for XML documents * HTML DOM - defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents If you want to learn more about the XML DOM, please visit our XML DOM tutorial.

XML Parsing
To read and update - create and manipulate - an XML document, you will need an XML parser. There are two basic types of XML parsers:

• •

Tree-based parser: This parser transforms an XML document into a tree structure. It analyzes the whole document, and provides access to the tree elements Event-based parser: Views an XML document as a series of events. When a specific event occurs, it calls a function to handle it

The DOM parser is an tree-based parser. Look at the following XML document fraction:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?> <from>Jani</from> The XML DOM sees the XML above as a tree structure:

• • •

Level 1: XML Document Level 2: Root element: <from> Level 3: Text element: "Jani"

Installation
The DOM XML parser functions are part of the PHP core. There is no installation needed to use these functions.

An XML File
The XML file below will be used in our example: <?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?> <note> <to>Tove</to> <from>Jani</from> <heading>Reminder</heading> <body>Don't forget me this weekend!</body> </note>

Load and Output XML
We want to initialize the XML parser, load the xml, and output it:

Example
<?php $xmlDoc = new DOMDocument(); $xmlDoc->load("note.xml"); print $xmlDoc->saveXML(); ?> The output of the code above will be: Tove Jani Reminder Don't forget me this weekend! If you select "View source" in the browser window, you will see the following HTML: <?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?> <note> <to>Tove</to> <from>Jani</from> <heading>Reminder</heading> <body>Don't forget me this weekend!</body>

</note> The example above creates a DOMDocument-Object and loads the XML from "note.xml" into it. Then the saveXML() function puts the internal XML document into a string, so we can output it.

Looping through XML
We want to initialize the XML parser, load the XML, and loop through all elements of the <note> element:

Example
<?php $xmlDoc = new DOMDocument(); $xmlDoc->load("note.xml"); $x = $xmlDoc->documentElement; foreach ($x->childNodes AS $item) { print $item->nodeName . " = " . $item->nodeValue . "<br />"; } ?> The output of the code above will be: #text = to = Tove #text = from = Jani #text = heading = Reminder #text = body = Don't forget me this weekend! #text = In the example above you see that there are empty text nodes between each element. When XML generates, it often contains white-spaces between the nodes. The XML DOM parser treats these as ordinary elements, and if you are not aware of them, they sometimes cause problems.

0.PHP SimpleXML SimpleXML handles the most common XML tasks and leaves the rest for other extensions. the SimpleXML functions are part of the PHP core. like namespaces. where an index corresponds to the attribute name Element Data . Compared to DOM or the Expat parser.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?> <note> <to>Tove</to> <from>Jani</from> <heading>Reminder</heading> <body>Don't forget me this weekend!</body> </note> We want to output the element names and data from the XML file above. It is an easy way of getting an element's attributes and text. they will be arranged in the order they are found SimpleXML is fast and easy to use when performing basic tasks like: • • • Reading XML files Extracting data from XML strings Editing text nodes or attributes However. When there's more than one element on one level. What is SimpleXML? SimpleXML is new in PHP 5. like this: • • • Elements .Text data from elements are converted to strings.Are accessed using associative arrays. Using SimpleXML Below is an XML file: <?xml version="1. SimpleXML just takes a few lines of code to read text data from an element. they're placed inside an array Attributes . Installation As of PHP 5. There is no installation needed to use these functions.Are converted to single attributes of the SimpleXMLElement object. when dealing with advanced XML. . if you know the XML document's layout. you are better off using the Expat parser or the XML DOM. SimpleXML converts the XML document into an object. If an element has more than one text node.

foreach($xml->children() as $child) { echo $child->getName() . 3. 4. ": " . "<br />". "<br />". echo $xml->getName() . $child . Load the XML file Get the name of the first element Create a loop that will trigger on each child node.xml"). using the children() function Output the element name and data for each child node Example <?php $xml = simplexml_load_file("test.Here's what to do: 1. 2. } ?> The output of the code above will be: note to: Tove from: Jani heading: Reminder body: Don't forget me this weekend! PHP and AJAX .

This means that it is possible to update parts of a web page. Examples of applications using AJAX: Google Maps. Youtube. Classic web pages. What is AJAX? AJAX = Asynchronous JavaScript and XML. How AJAX Works . Gmail. without reloading the whole page.AJAX Introduction AJAX is about updating parts of a web page. and Facebook tabs. (which do not use AJAX) must reload the entire page if the content should change. AJAX allows web pages to be updated asynchronously by exchanging small amounts of data with the server behind the scenes. without reloading the whole page. AJAX is a technique for creating fast and dynamic web pages.

The HTML Page .and platform-independent! PHP .AJAX and PHP AJAX is used to create more interactive applications. and uses a combination of: • • • • XMLHttpRequest object (to exchange data asynchronously with a server) JavaScript/DOM (to display/interact with the information) CSS (to style the data) XML (often used as the format for transferring data) AJAX applications are browser.AJAX is Based on Internet Standards AJAX is based on internet standards. AJAX PHP Example The following example will demonstrate how a web page can communicate with a web server while a user type characters in an input field: Example Start typing a name in the input field below: þÿ First name: Suggestions: Example Explained .

The function is triggered by the "onkeyup" event: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function showHint(str) { if (str. Safari xmlhttp=new XMLHttpRequest(). } else {// code for IE6.When a user types a character in the input field above.php?q="+str.status==200) { document. Chrome.getElementById("txtHint").length==0).length==0) { document. the showHint() function executes the following: • • • • Create an XMLHttpRequest object Create the function to be executed when the server response is ready Send the request off to a file on the server Notice that a parameter (q) is added to the URL (with the content of the input field) . } xmlhttp. } if (window.send().value)" size="20" /> </form> <p>Suggestions: <span id="txtHint"></span></p> </body> </html> Source code explanation: If the input field is empty (str. Opera. IE5 xmlhttp=new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.readyState==4 && xmlhttp.XMLHTTP"). the function "showHint()" is executed.true). } } xmlhttp. return."gethint. the function clears the content of the txtHint placeholder and exits the function.getElementById("txtHint"). xmlhttp. Firefox.innerHTML=xmlhttp.open("GET". } </script> </head <body> <p><b>Start typing a name in the input field below:</b></p> <form> First name: <input type="text" onkeyup="showHint(this.responseText. If the input field is not empty.XMLHttpRequest) {// code for IE7+.innerHTML="".onreadystatechange=function() { if (xmlhttp.

$a[]="Violet". $a[]="Johanna". } else { . $a[]="Ellen". $a[]="Nina". $i<count($a). $a[]="Petunia". $a[]="Gunda". $a[]="Ophelia". $a[]="Fiona". $i++) { if (strtolower($q)==strtolower(substr($a[$i]. $a[]="Liza". $a[]="Kitty". //lookup all hints from array if length of q>0 if (strlen($q) > 0) { $hint="".php".php" checks an array of names. $a[]="Raquel". The source code in "gethint. $a[]="Sunniva". $a[]="Amanda". $a[]="Diana". $a[]="Eve". $a[]="Brittany". $a[]="Vicky". $a[]="Evita". $a[]="Unni". $a[]="Doris".The PHP File The page on the server called by the JavaScript above is a PHP file called "gethint.0. $a[]="Tove". $a[]="Cindy".strlen($q)))) { if ($hint=="") { $hint=$a[$i]. $a[]="Inga". $a[]="Eva". for($i=0. $a[]="Linda". $a[]="Elizabeth". //get the q parameter from URL $q=$_GET["q"]. $a[]="Hege". and returns the corresponding name(s) to the browser: <?php // Fill up array with names $a[]="Anna". $a[]="Cinderella". $a[]="Wenche".

AJAX Database Example The following example will demonstrate how a web page can fetch information from a database with AJAX: Example þÿ Person info will be listed here.AJAX and MySQL AJAX can be used for interactive communication with a database.$hint=$hint. } else { $response=$hint. Find a name matching the characters sent from the JavaScript If no match were found. Example Explained ." . set the response string to "no suggestion" If one or more matching names were found. the following happens: 1. } } } // Set output to "no suggestion" if no hint were found // or to the correct values if ($hint == "") { $response="no suggestion". ".The MySQL Database The database table we use in the example above looks like this: id FirstName LastName Age Hometown Job . } //output the response echo $response. 2.$a[$i]. ?> Explanation: If there is any text sent from the JavaScript (strlen($q) > 0). 4.. set the response string to all these names The response is sent to the "txtHint" placeholder } PHP .. 3.

1 2 3 4 Peter Lois Joseph Glenn Griffin Griffin Swanson Quagmire 41 40 39 41 Quahog Newport Quahog Quahog Brewery Piano Teacher Police Officer Pilot Example Explained .getElementById("txtHint"). a function called "showUser()" is executed.open("GET".</b></div> </body> </html> . Opera.responseText. xmlhttp. } </script> </head> <body> <form> <select name="users" onchange="showUser(this.getElementById("txtHint"). } } xmlhttp.send().innerHTML="".value)"> <option value="">Select a person:</option> <option value="1">Peter Griffin</option> <option value="2">Lois Griffin</option> <option value="3">Glenn Quagmire</option> <option value="4">Joseph Swanson</option> </select> </form> <br /> <div id="txtHint"><b>Person info will be listed here. } else {// code for IE6.status==200) { document. The function is triggered by the "onchange" event: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function showUser(str) { if (str=="") { document."getuser.readyState==4 && xmlhttp.XMLHTTP"). Chrome.XMLHttpRequest) {// code for IE7+. IE5 xmlhttp=new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.php?q="+str. } if (window.innerHTML=xmlhttp.The HTML Page When a user selects a user in the dropdown list above. return.true). Safari xmlhttp=new XMLHttpRequest().onreadystatechange=function() { if (xmlhttp. } xmlhttp. Firefox.

echo "</tr>". $row['FirstName'] . echo "<td>" . $row['Job'] . "</td>". $result = mysql_query($sql). $con = mysql_connect('localhost'. ?> . echo "<td>" . 'peter'. "</td>".php" runs a query against a MySQL database. mysql_error()). "</td>". echo "<td>" . } echo "</table>". echo "<td>" . mysql_close($con)."'". echo "<table border='1'> <tr> <th>Firstname</th> <th>Lastname</th> <th>Age</th> <th>Hometown</th> <th>Job</th> </tr>". } mysql_select_db("ajax_demo".php".The showUser() function does the following: • • • • • Check if a person is selected Create an XMLHttpRequest object Create the function to be executed when the server response is ready Send the request off to a file on the server Notice that a parameter (q) is added to the URL (with the content of the dropdown list) The PHP File The page on the server called by the JavaScript above is a PHP file called "getuser. $row['Hometown'] . while($row = mysql_fetch_array($result)) { echo "<tr>". $row['Age'] . "</td>". echo "<td>" . $sql="SELECT * FROM user WHERE id = '". if (!$con) { die('Could not connect: ' . The source code in "getuser. 'abc123'). $con). $row['LastName'] . and returns the result in an HTML table: <?php $q=$_GET["q"].$q. "</td>".

The HTML Page When a user selects a CD in the dropdown list above. a function called "showCD()" is executed.. and sent back to the "txtHint" placeholder PHP Example . Example Explained . PHP opens a connection to a MySQL server The correct person is found An HTML table is created. the following happens: 1. AJAX XML Example The following example will demonstrate how a web page can fetch information from an XML file with AJAX: Example þÿ CD info will be listed here. filled with data. 2.. The function is triggered by the "onchange" event: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function showCD(str) { if (str=="") .Explanation: When the query is sent from the JavaScript to the PHP file. 3.AJAX and XML AJAX can be used for interactive communication with an XML file.

IE5 xmlhttp=new ActiveXObject("Microsoft. Safari xmlhttp=new XMLHttpRequest(). } </script> </head> <body> <form> Select a CD: <select name="cds" onchange="showCD(this.php?q="+str.getElementById("txtHint").php". Opera. The PHP script loads an XML document.XMLHTTP"). Firefox.open("GET"."getcd..xml". xmlhttp. } } xmlhttp. } if (window.XMLHttpRequest) {// code for IE7+. runs a query against the XML file.value)"> <option value="">Select a CD:</option> <option value="Bob Dylan">Bob Dylan</option> <option value="Bonnie Tyler">Bonnie Tyler</option> <option value="Dolly Parton">Dolly Parton</option> </select> </form> <div id="txtHint"><b>CD info will be listed here.innerHTML=xmlhttp. } xmlhttp.readyState==4 && xmlhttp. } else {// code for IE6.responseText. return.</b></div> </body> </html> The showCD() function does the following: • • • • • Check if a CD is selected Create an XMLHttpRequest object Create the function to be executed when the server response is ready Send the request off to a file on the server Notice that a parameter (q) is added to the URL (with the content of the dropdown list) The PHP File The page on the server called by the JavaScript above is a PHP file called "getcd. and returns the result as HTML: .getElementById("txtHint").status==200) { document..onreadystatechange=function() { if (xmlhttp.{ document. "cd_catalog.true).send(). Chrome.innerHTML="".

AJAX Live Search AJAX can be used to create more user-friendly and interactive searches. $xmlDoc = new DOMDocument(). the following happens: 1. $x=$xmlDoc->getElementsByTagName('ARTIST'). } } ?> When the CD query is sent from the JavaScript to the PHP page. $i++) { //Process only element nodes if ($x->item($i)->nodeType==1) { if ($x->item($i)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue == $q) { $y=($x->item($i)->parentNode). Live search has many benefits compared to traditional searching: . AJAX Live Search The following example will demonstrate a live search. echo($cd->item($i)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue). for ($i=0.xml").$i++) { //Process only element nodes if ($cd->item($i)->nodeType==1) { echo("<b>" . 2. $cd->item($i)->nodeName . } } } $cd=($y->childNodes).$i<$cd->length.<?php $q=$_GET["q"]. for ($i=0. $xmlDoc->load("cd_catalog. 3. ":</b> "). $i<=$x->length-1. echo("<br />"). where you get search results while you type. PHP creates an XML DOM object Find all <artist> elements that matches the name sent from the JavaScript Output the album information (send to the "txtHint" placeholder) PHP Example .

border="1px solid #A5ACB2".getElementById("livesearch").innerHTML=xmlhttp.innerHTML="". document.length==0) { document. the function "showResult()" is executed.The HTML Page When a user types a character in the input field above. } else {// code for IE6.status==200) { document. } if (window.border="0px".style. Example Explained .XMLHttpRequest) {// code for IE7+."livesearch. Safari xmlhttp=new XMLHttpRequest(). The function is triggered by the "onkeyup" event: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function showResult(str) { if (str.• • • Results are shown as you type Results narrow as you continue typing If results become too narrow.XMLHTTP"). return. } xmlhttp.open("GET".readyState==4 && xmlhttp.value)" /> <div id="livesearch"></div> </form> . Opera. xmlhttp. } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="text" size="30" onkeyup="showResult(this. Firefox.responseText.send(). IE5 xmlhttp=new ActiveXObject("Microsoft. Chrome.style. } } xmlhttp. To make this example small and simple.php?q="+str.getElementById("livesearch").getElementById("livesearch").true).getElementById("livesearch").xml).onreadystatechange=function() { if (xmlhttp. remove characters to see a broader result Search for a W3Schools page in the input field below: þÿ The results in the example above are found in an XML file (links. only eight results are available. document.

If the input field is not empty.php" searches an XML file for titles matching the search string and returns the result: <?php $xmlDoc=new DOMDocument(). The source code in "livesearch. $x=$xmlDoc->getElementsByTagName('link').length==0). "' target='_blank'>" . if ($y->item(0)->nodeType==1) { //find a link matching the search text if (stristr($y->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue. "</a>". $i++) { $y=$x->item($i)->getElementsByTagName('title'). $z=$x->item($i)->getElementsByTagName('url'). } else .php". the showResult() function executes the following: • • • • Create an XMLHttpRequest object Create the function to be executed when the server response is ready Send the request off to a file on the server Notice that a parameter (q) is added to the URL (with the content of the input field) The PHP File The page on the server called by the JavaScript above is a PHP file called "livesearch. $y->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue . for($i=0. //get the q parameter from URL $q=$_GET["q"]. $xmlDoc->load("links.</body> </html> Source code explanation: If the input field is empty (str.$q)) { if ($hint=="") { $hint="<a href='" . the function clears the content of the livesearch placeholder and exits the function. $z->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue . $i<($x->length).xml"). //lookup all links from the xml file if length of q>0 if (strlen($q)>0) { $hint="".

If more than one match is found. all matches are added to the variable If no matches are found. $z->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue . ?> If there is any text sent from the JavaScript (strlen($q) > 0). } //output the response echo $response. $y->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue . } else { $response=$hint. the following happens: • • • • Load an XML file into a new XML DOM object Loop through all <title> elements to find matches from the text sent from the JavaScript Sets the correct url and title in the "$response" variable. } } } } } // Set output to "no suggestion" if no hint were found // or to the correct values if ($hint=="") { $response="no suggestion".AJAX RSS Reader An RSS Reader is used to read RSS Feeds.. the $response variable is set to "no suggestion" PHP Example . "' target='_blank'>" .The HTML Page .{ $hint=$hint . AJAX RSS Reader The following example will demonstrate an RSS reader.. "</a>". Example Explained . "<br /><a href='" . where the RSS-feed is loaded into a webpage without reloading: þÿ RSS-feed will be listed here.

innerHTML="".responseText. } else {// code for IE6. } xmlhttp.. Opera. } } xmlhttp..getElementById("rssOutput"). } if (window.XMLHttpRequest) {// code for IE7+. } </script> </head> <body> <form> <select onchange="showRSS(this.XMLHTTP"). xmlhttp.readyState==4 && xmlhttp. return.</div> </body> </html> The showResult() function does the following: • • • • • Check if an RSS-feed is selected Create an XMLHttpRequest object Create the function to be executed when the server response is ready Send the request off to a file on the server Notice that a parameter (q) is added to the URL (with the content of the dropdown list) .true). Firefox. a function called "showResult()" is executed.innerHTML=xmlhttp.send().open("GET". Chrome.onreadystatechange=function() { if (xmlhttp."getrss.length==0) { document.status==200) { document. Safari xmlhttp=new XMLHttpRequest(). The function is triggered by the "onchange" event: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function showRSS(str) { if (str.php?q="+str.When a user selects an RSS-feed in the dropdown list above.getElementById("rssOutput").value)"> <option value="">Select an RSS-feed:</option> <option value="Google">Google News</option> <option value="MSNBC">MSNBC News</option> </select> </form> <br /> <div id="rssOutput">RSS-feed will be listed here. IE5 xmlhttp=new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.

} $xmlDoc = new DOMDocument(). $i<=2. //get and output "<item>" elements $x=$xmlDoc->getElementsByTagName('item'). } elseif($q=="MSNBC") { $xml=("http://rss. $i++) { $item_title=$x->item($i)->getElementsByTagName('title') ->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue. "'>" . for ($i=0. echo ($item_desc . $channel_link = $channel->getElementsByTagName('link') ->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue. } ?> When an RSS-feed is sent from the JavaScript. $item_link .com/id/3032091/device/rss/rss. $item_link=$x->item($i)->getElementsByTagName('link') ->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue. echo ("<p><a href='" . echo($channel_desc .google. $item_desc=$x->item($i)->getElementsByTagName('description') ->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue. $channel_desc = $channel->getElementsByTagName('description') ->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue.msnbc. $xmlDoc->load($xml). "'>" .com/news?ned=us&topic=h&output=rss"). $item_title . the following happens: • Check which feed was selected . //find out which feed was selected if($q=="Google") { $xml=("http://news.xml"). "</p>"). $channel_title . "</p>"). //get elements from "<channel>" $channel=$xmlDoc->getElementsByTagName('channel')->item(0). //output elements from "<channel>" echo("<p><a href='" . $channel_link . echo("<br />"). $channel_title = $channel->getElementsByTagName('title') ->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue.The PHP File The page on the server called by the JavaScript above is a PHP file called "getrss. echo ("<br />").msn. "</a>"). "</a>").php": <?php //get the q parameter from URL $q=$_GET["q"].

readyState==4 && xmlhttp."poll_vote.AJAX Poll AJAX Poll The following example will demonstrate a poll where the result is shown without reloading.send().XMLHttpRequest) {// code for IE7+. Firefox. Chrome. xmlhttp. Do you like PHP and AJAX so far? Yes: No: Example Explained .true).getElementById("poll"). Opera. IE5 xmlhttp=new ActiveXObject("Microsoft. } } xmlhttp.innerHTML=xmlhttp. } else {// code for IE6.responseText. Safari xmlhttp=new XMLHttpRequest(). . The function is triggered by the "onclick" event: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function getVote(int) { if (window.• • • • Create a new XML DOM object Load the RSS document in the xml variable Extract and output elements from the channel element Extract and output elements from the item element PHP Example .XMLHTTP").The HTML Page When a user choose an option above.open("GET".php?vote="+int. a function called "getVote()" is executed.status==200) { document. } xmlhttp.onreadystatechange=function() { if (xmlhttp.

"||". $yes = $array[0]. .} </script> </head> <body> <div id="poll"> <h3>Do you like PHP and AJAX so far?</h3> <form> Yes: <input type="radio" name="vote" value="0" onclick="getVote(this. $content[0]).php": <?php $vote = $_REQUEST['vote']. //get content of textfile $filename = "poll_result. if ($vote == 0) { $yes = $yes + 1. //put content in array $array = explode("||". $content = file($filename).$insertvote).value)" /> </form> </div> </body> </html> The getVote() function does the following: • • • • Create an XMLHttpRequest object Create the function to be executed when the server response is ready Send the request off to a file on the server Notice that a parameter (vote) is added to the URL (with the value of the yes or no option) The PHP File The page on the server called by the JavaScript above is a PHP file called "poll_vote.txt"."w"). $no = $array[1]. fputs($fp.value)" /> <br />No: <input type="radio" name="vote" value="1" onclick="getVote(this. } //insert votes to txt file $insertvote = $yes. $fp = fopen($filename. } if ($vote == 1) { $no = $no + 1.$no.

fclose($fp). Note: Remember to allow your web server to edit the text file. 3. ?>% </td> </tr> </table> The value is sent from the JavaScript.gif" width='<?php echo(100*round($no/($no+$yes). ?>' height='20'> <?php echo(100*round($yes/($no+$yes). 4.2)).txt" file Output a graphical representation of the poll result The Text File The text file (poll_result. ?>% </td> </tr> <tr> <td>No:</td> <td> <img src="poll.txt" file Put the content of the file in variables and add one to the selected variable Write the result to the "poll_result.txt) is where we store the data from the poll. ?>' height='20'> <?php echo(100*round($no/($no+$yes). ?> <h2>Result:</h2> <table> <tr> <td>Yes:</td> <td> <img src="poll. It is stored like this: 0||0 The first number represents the "Yes" votes. and the following happens: 1. Get the content of the "poll_result. Do NOT give everyone access. .2)). 2. just the web server (PHP). the second number represents the "No" votes.2)).2)).gif" width='<?php echo(100*round($yes/($no+$yes).

PHP supports both simple and multi-dimensional arrays. Installation The array functions are part of the PHP core. There is no installation needed to use these functions. PHP Array Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function.PHP Reference PHP Array Introduction The array functions allow you to manipulate arrays. Function array() array_change_key_case() array_chunk() array_combine() array_count_values() array_diff() array_diff_assoc() array_diff_key() Description Creates an array Splits an array into chunks of arrays Creates an array by using one array for keys and another for its values Returns an array with the number of occurrences for each value Compares array values. There are also specific functions for populating arrays from database queries. and returns the differences Compares array keys. and returns the differences PHP 3 4 5 4 4 4 5 Returns an array with all keys in lowercase or uppercase 4 . and returns the differences Compares array keys and values.

and returns an array 5 5 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 Filters elements of an array using a user-made function 4 Searches an array for a given value and returns the key 4 . with an additional user-made function check. with a specified value. with an additional user-made function check. and compares array values in a user-made function. and returns the differences Fills an array with values Exchanges all keys with their associated values in an array Compares array values. and returns the matches Compares array keys. with an additional user-made function check.array_diff_uassoc() array_diff_ukey() array_fill() array_filter() array_flip() array_intersect() array_intersect_assoc() array_intersect_key() array_intersect_uassoc() array_intersect_ukey() array_key_exists() array_keys() array_map() array_merge() array_merge_recursive() array_multisort() array_pad() array_pop() array_product() array_push() array_rand() array_reduce() array_reverse() array_search() array_shift() array_slice() array_splice() array_sum() array_udiff() array_udiff_assoc() array_udiff_uassoc() Compares array keys and values. and returns the value of the removed element Returns selected parts of an array Removes and replaces specified elements of an array Returns the sum of the values in an array Compares array values in a user-made function and returns an array Compares array keys. and returns the matches Checks if the specified key exists in the array Returns all the keys of an array Sends each value of an array to a user-made function. and returns the differences Compares array keys. which returns new values Merges one or more arrays into one array Merges one or more arrays into one array Sorts multiple or multi-dimensional arrays Inserts a specified number of items. to an array Deletes the last element of an array Calculates the product of the values in an array Inserts one or more elements to the end of an array Returns one or more random keys from an array Returns an array as a string. and returns an array Compares array keys and array values in user-made functions. with an additional user-made function check. and returns the matches Compares array keys and values. using a user-defined function Returns an array in the reverse order Removes the first element from an array. and returns the matches Compares array keys. and returns the matches Compares array keys and values.

and compares array values in a user-made function. or properties in an object Returns the current element in an array Returns the current key and value pair from an array Sets the internal pointer of an array to its last element 5 5 5 4 4 3 5 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array 4 Imports variables into the current symbol table from an 3 array Checks if a specified value exists in an array Fetches a key from an array Sorts an array by key in reverse order Sorts an array by key Assigns variables as if they were an array Sorts an array using a case insensitive "natural order" algorithm Sorts an array using a "natural order" algorithm Advance the internal array pointer of an array Alias of current() Rewinds the internal array pointer Creates an array containing a range of elements Sets the internal pointer of an array to its first element Sorts an array in reverse order Shuffles an array Alias of count() Sorts an array 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Sorts an array with a user-defined function and maintain 3 index association Sorts an array by keys using a user-defined function Sorts an array by values using a user-defined function 3 3 .array_uintersect() array_uintersect_assoc() array_uintersect_uassoc() array_unique() array_unshift() array_values() array_walk() array_walk_recursive() arsort() asort() compact() count() current() each() end() extract() in_array() key() krsort() ksort() list() natcasesort() natsort() next() pos() prev() range() reset() rsort() shuffle() sizeof() sort() uasort() uksort() usort() Compares array values in a user-made function and returns an array Compares array keys. and returns an array Removes duplicate values from an array Returns all the values of an array Applies a user function to every member of an array Applies a user function recursively to every member of an array Sorts an array in reverse order and maintain index association Sorts an array and maintain index association Create array containing variables and their values Counts elements in an array. and returns an array Compares array keys and array values in user-made functions.

The standard it is based on is the Julian day count (Julian day count is a count of days starting from January 1. based on the current 4 locale PHP PHP Calendar Functions PHP Calendar Introduction The calendar functions are useful when working with different calendar formats. Constant CASE_LOWER CASE_UPPER SORT_ASC SORT_DESC SORT_REGULAR SORT_NUMERIC SORT_STRING SORT_LOCALE_STRING COUNT_NORMAL COUNT_RECURSIVE EXTR_OVERWRITE EXTR_SKIP EXTR_PREFIX_SAME EXTR_PREFIX_ALL EXTR_PREFIX_INVALID EXTR_PREFIX_IF_EXISTS EXTR_IF_EXISTS EXTR_REFS Description Used with array_change_key_case() to convert array keys to lower case Used with array_change_key_case() to convert array keys to upper case Used with array_multisort() to sort in ascending order Used with array_multisort() to sort in descending order Used to compare items normally Used to compare items numerically Used to compare items as strings Used to compare items as strings. 4713 B. Note that the Julian day count is not the same as the Julian calendar! Note: To convert between calendar formats. Installation .C. you must first convert to Julian day count.). then to the calendar format.PHP Array Constants PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the constant.

The windows version of PHP has built-in support for the calendar extension. if you are running the Linux version of PHP. Function cal_days_in_month() cal_from_jd() cal_info() cal_to_jd() easter_date() easter_days() FrenchToJD() GregorianToJD() JDDayOfWeek() JDMonthName() JDToFrench() JDToGregorian() jdtojewish() JDToJulian() jdtounix() JewishToJD() JulianToJD() unixtojd() Description Returns the number of days in a month for a specified year and calendar Converts a Julian day count into a date of a specified calendar Returns information about a given calendar Converts a date to Julian day count Returns the Unix timestamp for midnight on Easter of a specified year PHP 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the number of days after March 21. However. PHP Calendar Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. on which Easter 3 falls for a specified year Converts a French Republican date to a Julian day count Converts a Gregorian date to a Julian day count Returns the day of a week Returns a month name Converts a Julian day count to a French Republican date Converts a Julian day count to a Gregorian date Converts a Julian day count to a Jewish date Converts a Julian day count to a Julian date Converts a Julian day count to a Unix timestamp Converts a Jewish date to a Julian day count Converts a Julian date to a Julian day count Converts a Unix timestamp to a Julian day count 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 4 PHP Calendar Constants PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the constant. the calendar functions will work automatically. So. you will have to compile PHP with --enable-calendar to get the calendar functions to work. Constant CAL_GREGORIAN CAL_JULIAN CAL_JEWISH CAL_FRENCH Description Gregorian calendar Julian calendar Jewish calendar French Republican calendar PHP 3 3 3 3 .

CAL_NUM_CALS CAL_DOW_DAYNO CAL_DOW_SHORT CAL_DOW_LONG CAL_MONTH_GREGORIAN_SHORT CAL_MONTH_GREGORIAN_LONG CAL_MONTH_JULIAN_SHORT CAL_MONTH_JULIAN_LONG CAL_MONTH_JEWISH CAL_MONTH_FRENCH CAL_EASTER_DEFAULT CAL_EASTER_ROMAN CAL_EASTER_ALWAYS_GREGORIAN CAL_EASTER_ALWAYS_JULIAN CAL_JEWISH_ADD_ALAFIM_GERESH CAL_JEWISH_ADD_ALAFIM CAL_JEWISH_ADD_GERESHAYIM 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 PHP Date / Time Functions PHP Date / Time Introduction The date/time functions allow you to extract and format the date and time on the server.default_latitude Default "31. This option is date.ini. Note: These functions depend on the locale settings of the server! Installation The date/time functions are part of the PHP core.2333" .default_longitude "35. There is no installation needed to use these functions. This option is used by date_sunrise() and date_sunset() Specifies the default longitude PHP_INI_ALL (available since PHP 5). Date/Time configuration options: Name date.7667" Description Changeable Specifies the default latitude (available PHP_INI_ALL since PHP 5). Runtime Configuration The behavior of the date/time functions is affected by settings in php.

1) PHP_INI_ALL date.83" date.sunset_zenith "90.sunrise_zenith "90.used by date_sunrise() and date_sunset() date.83" Specifies the default sunrise zenith PHP_INI_ALL (available since PHP 5). This option is used by date_sunrise() and date_sunset() Specifies the default sunset zenith PHP_INI_ALL (available since PHP 5). This option is used by date_sunrise() and date_sunset() Specifies the default timezone (available since PHP 5.timezone "" PHP Date / Time Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. Function checkdate() date_default_timezone_get() date_default_timezone_set() date_sunrise() date_sunset() date() getdate() gettimeofday() gmdate() gmmktime() gmstrftime() idate() localtime() microtime() mktime() strftime() strptime() strtotime() time() Description Validates a Gregorian date Returns the default time zone Sets the default time zone Returns the time of sunset for a given day / location Formats a local time/date Returns an array that contains date and time information for a Unix timestamp Returns an array that contains current time information Formats a GMT/UTC date/time Returns the Unix timestamp for a GMT date Formats a GMT/UTC time/date according to locale settings Formats a local time/date as integer Returns an array that contains the time components of a Unix timestamp Returns the microseconds for the current time Returns the Unix timestamp for a date Parses a time/date generated with strftime() Parses an English textual date or time into a Unix timestamp Returns the current time as a Unix timestamp PHP 3 5 5 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 4 3 3 5 3 3 Returns the time of sunrise for a given day / location 5 Formats a local time/date according to locale settings 3 PHP Date / Time Constants .

14 Aug 2005 16:13:03 +0000) RSS (Sun.PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the constant. 14 Aug 2005 16:13:03 UTC) RFC 850 (example: Sunday. 14 Aug 2005 16:13:03 UTC) ISO-8601 (example: 2005-08-14T16:13:03+0000) RFC 822 (example: Sun. 14-Aug-05 16:13:03 UTC) RFC 1123 (example: Sun. 14 Aug 2005 16:13:03 UTC) World Wide Web Consortium (example: 2005-0814T16:13:03+0000) PHP PHP Directory Functions PHP Directory Introduction . 14-Aug-05 16:13:03 UTC) RFC 1036 (example: Sunday. Constant DATE_ATOM DATE_COOKIE DATE_ISO8601 DATE_RFC822 DATE_RFC850 DATE_RFC1036 DATE_RFC1123 DATE_RFC2822 DATE_RSS DATE_W3C Description Atom (example: 2005-08-15T16:13:03+0000) HTTP Cookies (example: Sun. 14 Aug 2005 16:13:03 UTC) RFC 2822 (Sun.

Installation . Function chdir() chroot() dir() closedir() getcwd() opendir() readdir() rewinddir() scandir() Description Changes the current directory Changes the root directory of the current process Opens a directory handle and returns an object Closes a directory handle Returns the current directory Opens a directory handle Returns an entry from a directory handle Resets a directory handle Lists files and directories inside a specified path PHP 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 5 PHP Directory Constants PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the constant. and modify the way the errors can be logged.The directory functions allow you to retrieve information about directories and their contents. system logs or other machines. PHP Directory Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. Constant DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR PATH_SEPARATOR Description PHP 3 4 PHP Error and Logging Functions PHP Error and Logging Introduction The error and logging functions allows error handling and logging. The error functions allow users to define error handling rules. There is no installation needed to use these functions. Installation The directory functions are part of the PHP core. The logging functions allow users to log applications and send log messages to email.

This is like an E_ERROR 4 generated by the Zend Scripting Engine Non-fatal compile-time errors. Errors that cannot be recovered from. Parse errors should only be generated by the parser Run-time notices. Value Constant 1 2 4 8 E_ERROR E_WARNING E_PARSE E_NOTICE Description Fatal run-time errors. The script found something that might be an error. There is no installation needed to use these functions. This is like an E_ERROR in the PHP core Non-fatal errors at PHP startup. to a file or to 4 a remote destination Specifies which errors are reported Restores the previous error handler Restores the previous exception handler Sets a user-defined function to handle errors Sets a user-defined function to handle exceptions Creates a user-defined error message Alias of trigger_error() 4 4 5 4 5 4 4 PHP Error and Logging Constants PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the constant. PHP Error and Logging Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function.The error and logging functions are part of the PHP core. Execution of the script is not halted Compile-time parse errors. Function debug_backtrace() debug_print_backtrace() error_get_last() error_log() error_reporting() restore_error_handler() restore_exception_handler() set_error_handler() set_exception_handler() trigger_error() user_error() Description Generates a backtrace Prints a backtrace Gets the last error occurred PHP 4 5 5 Sends an error to the server error-log. but could also happen when running a script normally Fatal errors at PHP startup. This is like an E_WARNING in the PHP core 4 4 PHP 16 32 64 128 E_CORE_ERROR E_CORE_WARNING E_COMPILE_ERROR E_COMPILE_WARNING Fatal compile-time errors. This is like an E_WARNING generated by the Zend Scripting Engine 4 . Execution of the script is halted Non-fatal run-time errors.

This is like an E_ERROR but 5 can be caught by a user defined handle (see also set_error_handler()) All errors and warnings. except of level E_STRICT 5 6143 E_ALL PHP Filesystem Functions PHP Filesystem Introduction The filesystem functions allow you to access and manipulate the filesystem. This is like an E_ERROR set by the programmer using the PHP function trigger_error() 4 512 E_USER_WARNING Non-fatal user-generated warning.256 E_USER_ERROR Fatal user-generated error. This is like an 4 E_WARNING set by the programmer using the PHP function trigger_error() User-generated notice. This is like an E_NOTICE set by the programmer using the PHP function trigger_error() Run-time notices. Installation The filesystem functions are part of the PHP core. . PHP suggest changes to your code to help interoperability and compatibility of the code 4 1024 E_USER_NOTICE 2048 E_STRICT 5 4096 E_RECOVERABLE_ERROR Catchable fatal error. There is no installation needed to use these functions.

PHP will examine PHP_INI_ALL the data read by fgets() and file() to see if it is using Unix.0. on Windows platforms. Filesystem configuration options: Name allow_url_fopen user_agent default_socket_timeout Default "1" NULL "60" Description Changeable Allows fopen()-type functions to work PHP_INI_SYSTEM with URLs (available since PHP 4. PHP_INI_ALL for socket based streams (available since PHP 4. PHP Filesystem Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. both forward slash (/) and backslash (\) can be used.3) PHP_INI_ALL Sets the default timeout. MS-Dos or Mac line-ending characters (available since PHP 4. in seconds.Runtime Configuration The behavior of the filesystem functions is affected by settings in php.ini. the forward slash (/) is used as directory separator.3) from "" auto_detect_line_endings "0" Unix / Windows Compatibility When specifying a path on Unix platforms.3) Defines the anonymous FTP passwordPHP_INI_ALL (your email address) When set to "1". Function basename() chgrp() chmod() chown() clearstatcache() copy() delete() dirname() disk_free_space() disk_total_space() diskfreespace() fclose() Description Returns the filename component of a path Changes the file group Changes the file mode Changes the file owner Clears the file status cache Copies a file See unlink() or unset() Returns the directory name component of a path Returns the free space of a directory Returns the total size of a directory Alias of disk_free_space() Closes an open file 3 4 4 3 3 PHP 3 3 3 3 3 3 .4) Defines the user agent for PHP to send (available since PHP 4. However.

feof() fflush() fgetc() fgetcsv() fgets() fgetss() file() file_exists() file_get_contents() file_put_contents fileatime() filectime() filegroup() fileinode() filemtime() fileowner() fileperms() filesize() filetype() flock() fnmatch() fopen() fpassthru() fputcsv() fputs() fread() fscanf() fseek() fstat() ftell() ftruncate() fwrite() glob() is_dir() is_executable() is_file() is_link() is_readable() Tests for end-of-file on an open file Flushes buffered output to an open file Returns a character from an open file Parses a line from an open file. from an open file Reads a file into an array Checks whether or not a file or directory exists Reads a file into a string Writes a string to a file Returns the last access time of a file Returns the last change time of a file Returns the group ID of a file Returns the inode number of a file Returns the last modification time of a file Returns the user ID (owner) of a file Returns the permissions of a file Returns the file size Returns the file type Locks or releases a file Matches a filename or string against a specified pattern Opens a file or URL Reads from an open file. checking for CSV fields Returns a line from an open file Returns a line. until EOF. and writes the result to the output buffer Formats a line as CSV and writes it to an open file Alias of fwrite() Reads from an open file Seeks in an open file Returns information about an open file Returns the current position in an open file Truncates an open file to a specified length Writes to an open file Returns an array of filenames / directories matching a specified pattern Checks whether a file is a directory Checks whether a file is executable Checks whether a file is a regular file Checks whether a file is a link Checks whether a file is readable 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 5 3 3 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 Parses input from an open file according to a specified format 4 . with HTML and PHP tags removed.

is_uploaded_file() is_writable() is_writeable() link() linkinfo() lstat() mkdir() move_uploaded_file() parse_ini_file() pathinfo() pclose() popen() readfile() readlink() realpath() rename() rewind() rmdir() set_file_buffer() stat() symlink() tempnam() tmpfile() touch() umask() unlink() Checks whether a file was uploaded via HTTP POST Checks whether a file is writeable Alias of is_writable() Creates a hard link Returns information about a hard link Returns information about a file or symbolic link Creates a directory Moves an uploaded file to a new location Parses a configuration file Returns information about a file path Closes a pipe opened by popen() Opens a pipe Reads a file and writes it to the output buffer Returns the target of a symbolic link Returns the absolute pathname Renames a file or directory Rewinds a file pointer Removes an empty directory Sets the buffer size of an open file Returns information about a file Creates a symbolic link Creates a unique temporary file Creates a unique temporary file Sets access and modification time of a file Changes file permissions for files Deletes a file 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 PHP Filesystem Constants PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the constant. Constant GLOB_BRACE GLOB_ONLYDIR GLOB_MARK GLOB_NOSORT GLOB_NOCHECK GLOB_NOESCAPE PATHINFO_DIRNAME PATHINFO_BASENAME Description PHP .

Function Description PHP . Installation The filter functions are part of the PHP core. There is no installation needed to use these functions. like user input.PATHINFO_EXTENSION FILE_USE_INCLUDE_PATH FILE_APPEND FILE_IGNORE_NEW_LINES FILE_SKIP_EMPTY_LINES PHP Filter Functions PHP Filter Introduction This PHP filters is used to validate and filter data coming from insecure sources. PHP Filter Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function.

"false". "no". FALSE for "0"./?:@&= Remove all characters. optionally strip or encode special characters Alias of "string" filter URL-encode string.. digits and !#$%&'*+-/=?^_`{|}~@.and optionally . optionally strip or encode special characters HTML-escape '"<>& and characters with ASCII value less than 32 Remove all characters. optionally from the specified range Return TRUE for "1". digits and $-_.{}|\\^~[]`<>#%". and "". except digits and +Remove all characters. a Perlcompatible regular expression Validate value as URL. optionally strip or encode special characters Validate value as integer. optionally only IPv4 or IPv6 or not from private or reserved ranges FILTER_VALIDATE_FLOAT FILTER_VALIDATE_REGEXP FILTER_VALIDATE_URL FILTER_VALIDATE_EMAIL FILTER_VALIDATE_IP . except letters. except letters.+!*'(). NULL otherwise Validate value as float Validate value against regexp.[] Remove all characters.filter_has_var() filter_id() filter_input() filter_input_array() filter_list() filter_var_array() filter_var() Checks if a variable of a specified input type exist Returns the ID number of a specified filter Get input from outside the script and filter it Get multiple inputs from outside the script and filters them Returns an array of all supported filters Get multiple variables and filter them Get a variable and filter it 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 PHP Filters ID Name FILTER_CALLBACK FILTER_SANITIZE_STRING FILTER_SANITIZE_STRIPPED FILTER_SANITIZE_ENCODED FILTER_SANITIZE_SPECIAL_CHARS FILTER_SANITIZE_EMAIL FILTER_SANITIZE_URL FILTER_SANITIZE_NUMBER_INT FILTER_SANITIZE_NUMBER_FLOAT FILTER_SANITIZE_MAGIC_QUOTES FILTER_UNSAFE_RAW FILTER_VALIDATE_INT FILTER_VALIDATE_BOOLEAN Description Call a user-defined function to filter data Strip tags.eE Apply addslashes() Do nothing. "true". optionally with required components Validate value as e-mail Validate value as IP address. "off". "on" and "yes". except digits. +.

you will have to compile PHP with --enable-ftp (PHP 4+) or --with-ftp (PHP 3) to get the FTP functions to work. If you only wish to read from or write to a file on an FTP server. the FTP functions will work automatically. So. login and close connections. The FTP functions became available with PHP 3. These functions are meant for detailed access to an FTP server. rename. if you are running the Linux version of PHP. Installation The windows version of PHP has built-in support for the FTP extension. and get information on files from file servers.PHP FTP Functions PHP FTP Introduction The FTP functions give client access to file servers through the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). consider using the ftp:// wrapper with the Filesystem functions. The FTP functions are used to open. However. delete. Function ftp_alloc() ftp_cdup() ftp_chdir() ftp_chmod() ftp_close() ftp_connect() ftp_delete() ftp_exec() ftp_fget() ftp_fput() ftp_get_option() ftp_get() ftp_login() Description Allocates space for a file to be uploaded to the FTP server PHP 5 Changes the current directory to the parent directory on the 3 FTP server Changes the current directory on the FTP server Sets permissions on a file via FTP Closes an FTP connection Opens an FTP connection Deletes a file on the FTP server Executes a program/command on the FTP server 3 5 4 3 3 4 Downloads a file from the FTP server and saves it to an open 3 file Uploads from an open file and saves it to a file on the FTP server Returns runtime behaviors of the FTP connection Downloads a file from the FTP server Logs on to an FTP connection 3 4 3 3 . as well as upload. Not all of the FTP functions will work with every server or return the same results. download. PHP FTP Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function.

ftp_mdtm() ftp_mkdir() ftp_nb_continue() ftp_nb_fget() ftp_nb_fput() ftp_nb_get() ftp_nb_put() ftp_nlist() ftp_pasv() ftp_put() ftp_pwd() ftp_quit() ftp_raw() ftp_rawlist() ftp_rename() ftp_rmdir() ftp_set_option() ftp_site() ftp_size() ftp_ssl_connect() ftp_systype() Returns the last modified time of a specified file Creates a new directory on the FTP server Continues retrieving/sending a file (non-blocking) 3 3 4 Downloads a file from the FTP server and saves it to an open 4 file (non-blocking) Uploads from an open file and saves it to a file on the FTP server (non-blocking) Downloads a file from the FTP server (non-blocking) Uploads a file to the FTP server (non-blocking) Lists the files in a specified directory on the FTP server Turns passive mode on or off Uploads a file to the FTP server Returns the current directory name Alias of ftp_close() Sends a raw command to the FTP server Returns a detailed list of files in the specified directory Renames a file or directory on the FTP server Removes a directory on the FTP server Sets runtime options for the FTP connection Sends a SITE command to the server Returns the size of the specified file Opens a secure SSL-FTP connection Returns the system type identifier of the FTP server 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 5 3 3 3 4 3 3 4 3 PHP FTP Constants PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the constant. Constant FTP_ASCII FTP_TEXT FTP_BINARY FTP_IMAGE FTP_TIMEOUT_SEC FTP_AUTOSEEK FTP_AUTORESUME FTP_FAILED FTP_FINISHED FTP_MOREDATA Description PHP 3 3 3 3 3 4 Determine resume position and start position for get and put 4 requests automatically Asynchronous transfer has failed Asynchronous transfer has finished Asynchronous transfer is still active 4 4 4 .

There is no installation needed to use these functions. before any other output has been sent. Installation The directory functions are part of the PHP core. Function header() headers_list() headers_sent() setcookie() setrawcookie() Description Sends a raw HTTP header to a client Returns a list of response headers sent (or ready to send) Checks if / where the HTTP headers have been sent Sends an HTTP cookie to a client Sends an HTTP cookie without URL encoding the PHP 3 5 3 3 5 .PHP HTTP Functions PHP HTTP Introduction The HTTP functions let you manipulate information sent to the browser by the Web server. PHP HTTP Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function.

Download at xmlsoft. Installation These functions require the libxml package. Function libxml_clear_errors() libxml_get_errors() libxml_get_last_error() libxml_set_streams_context() libxml_use_internal_errors() Description Clear libxml error buffer Retrieve array of errors Retrieve last error from libxml PHP 5 5 5 Set the streams context for the next libxml document 5 load or write Disable libxml errors and allow user to fetch error information as needed 5 .cookie value PHP libxml Functions PHP libxml Introduction The libxml functions and constants are used together with SimpleXML.org PHP libxml Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. XSLT and DOM functions.

<br/> to <br></br>).g.17) 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 LIBXML_NOENT LIBXML_NOERROR LIBXML_NONET LIBXML_NOWARNING LIBXML_NOXMLDECL LIBXML_NSCLEAN LIBXML_XINCLUDE LIBXML_ERR_ERROR LIBXML_ERR_FATAL LIBXML_ERR_NONE LIBXML_ERR_WARNING LIBXML_VERSION LIBXML_DOTTED_VERSION PHP Mail Functions PHP Mail Introduction The mail() function allows you to send emails directly from a script. 2. Requirements For the mail functions to be available. only 5 available in the DOMDocument->save() and DOMDocument->saveXML() functions Substitute entities Do not show error reports Stop network access while loading documents Do not show warning reports Drop the XML declaration when saving a document Remove excess namespace declarations Use XInclude substitution Get recoverable errors Get fatal errors Get no errors Get simple warnings Get libxml version (e.6. 20605 or 20617) Get dotted libxml version (e.5 or 2.g. PHP requires an installed and working email system. Installation . This may improve the application performance Set default DTD attributes Load external subset Validate with the DTD Remove blank nodes Set CDATA as text nodes PHP 5 5 5 5 5 5 Change empty tags (e.6.g. The program to be used is defined by the configuration settings in the php.ini file.PHP libxml Constants Function LIBXML_COMPACT LIBXML_DTDATTR LIBXML_DTDLOAD LIBXML_DTDVALID LIBXML_NOBLANKS LIBXML_NOCDATA LIBXML_NOEMPTYTAG Description Set small nodes allocation optimization.

There is no installation needed to use these functions. Installation The math functions are part of the PHP core. There is no installation needed to use these functions. Function ezmlm_hash() mail() Description Calculates the hash value needed by the EZMLM mailing list system Allows you to send emails directly from a script PHP 3 3 PHP Math Functions PHP Math Introduction The math functions can handle values within the range of integer and float types. .3 Windows only: Specifies the "from" address to be used in email sent from PHP PHP_INI_ALL sendmail_path NULL Unix systems only: Specifies where the PHP_INI_SYSTEM sendmail program can be found (usually /usr/sbin/sendmail or /usr/lib/sendmail) PHP Mail Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. Runtime Configuration The behavior of the mail functions is affected by settings in the php. Mail configuration options: Name SMTP smtp_port sendmail_from Default "localhost" "25" NULL Description Windows only: The DNS name or IP address of the SMTP server Changeable PHP_INI_ALL Windows only: The SMTP port number.The mail functions are part of the PHP core. PHP_INI_ALL Available since PHP 4.ini file.

y) point as a numeric value 3 between -PI and PI radians Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number Converts a number from one base to another Converts a binary number to a decimal number Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number Converts a decimal number to a binary number Converts a decimal number to a hexadecimal number Converts a decimal number to an octal number Converts a degree to a radian number Returns the value of E x x 4 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 4 Returns the value of E .1) Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the base-10 logarithm of a number Returns log(1+number) 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 Returns the length of the hypotenuse of a right-angle triangle 4 .PHP Math Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function.1 Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the remainder (modulo) of the division of the arguments Returns the maximum random number that can be returned 3 by a call to the rand() function Converts a hexadecimal number to a decimal number Returns true if a value is a finite number Returns true if a value is an infinite number Returns true if a value is not a number Returns a pseudo random number in the range of (0. Function abs() acos() acosh() asin() asinh() atan() atan2() atanh() base_convert() bindec() ceil() cos() cosh() decbin() dechex() decoct() deg2rad() exp() expm1() floor() fmod() getrandmax() hexdec() hypot() is_finite() is_infinite() is_nan() lcg_value() log() log10() log1p() Description Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number Returns the arctangent of a number as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians PHP 3 3 4 3 4 3 Returns the angle theta of an (x.

577) Returns the natural logarithm of PI (approx.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx. 1.718) Returns Euler's constant (approx. 1. 0. 0. 0.707) PHP 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 .693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx.144) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx. 1.570) Returns PI/4 (approx. 3. 0. 2.128) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx.772) Returns 2/square root of PI (approx.434) Returns PI (approx. Constant M_E M_EULER M_LNPI M_LN2 M_LN10 M_LOG2E M_LOG10E M_PI M_PI_2 M_PI_4 M_1_PI M_2_PI M_SQRTPI M_2_SQRTPI M_SQRT1_2 Description Returns e (approx. 1. 1. 0. 0.636) Returns the square root of PI (approx.max() min() mt_getrandmax() mt_rand() mt_srand() octdec() pi() pow() rad2deg() rand() round() sin() sinh() sqrt() srand() tan() tanh() Returns the number with the highest value of two specified numbers Returns the number with the lowest value of two specified numbers Returns the largest possible value that can be returned by mt_rand() Returns a random integer using Mersenne Twister algorithm Seeds the Mersenne Twister random number generator Converts an octal number to a decimal number Returns the value of PI Returns the value of x to the power of y Converts a radian number to a degree Returns a random integer Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Seeds the random number generator Returns the tangent of an angle Returns the hyperbolic tangent of an angle 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 4 PHP Math Constants PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the constant.318) Returns 2/PI (approx. 0.14159) Returns PI/2 (approx.785) Returns 1/PI (approx. 2.

Runtime Configuration The behavior of the misc functions is affected by settings in the php. 1. Functions PHP Miscellaneous Introduction The misc.ini) Changeable PHP_INI_ALL ignore_user_abort "0" highlight. 1.keyword "#007700" highlight. configuration options: Name Default Description FALSE indicates that scripts will be terminated as soon as they try to output something after a client has aborted their connection Color for highlighting a string in PHP syntax Color for highlighting PHP comments Color for syntax highlighting PHP keywords (e. browscap.414) Returns the square root of 3 (approx.comment "#FF8000" highlight.M_SQRT2 M_SQRT3 Returns the square root of 2 (approx. Installation The misc functions are part of the PHP core. parenthesis and semicolon) Color for background Default color for PHP syntax Color for HTML code Name and location of browsercapabilities file (e. Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. There is no installation needed to use these functions.default highlight.bg highlight.ini file.string "#DD0000" PHP_INI_ALL PHP_INI_ALL PHP_INI_ALL highlight.html browscap "#FFFFFF" "#0000BB" "#000000" NULL PHP_INI_ALL PHP_INI_ALL PHP_INI_ALL PHP_INI_SYSTEM PHP Misc.g. Misc.5 PHP 3 3 3 .g. Function connection_aborted() connection_status() connection_timeout() Description Checks whether the client has disconnected Returns the current connection status Deprecated in PHP 4.0. functions were only placed here because none of the other categories seemed to fit.732) 4 4 PHP Misc.

Constants PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the constant. Constant CONNECTION_ABORTED CONNECTION_NORMAL CONNECTION_TIMEOUT __COMPILER_HALT_OFFSET_ _ 5 Description PHP .constant() define() defined() die() eval() exit() get_browser() highlight_file() highlight_string() ignore_user_abort() pack() php_check_syntax() php_strip_whitespace() show_source() sleep() time_nanosleep() time_sleep_until() uniqid() unpack() usleep() Returns the value of a constant Defines a constant Checks whether a constant exists Prints a message and exits the current script Evaluates a string as PHP code Prints a message and exits the current script Returns the capabilities of the user's browser Outputs a file with the PHP syntax highlighted Outputs a string with the PHP syntax highlighted Packs data into a binary string Deprecated in PHP 5.5 Returns the source code of a file with PHP comments and whitespace removed Alias of highlight_file() Delays code execution for a number of seconds Delays code execution for a number of seconds and nanoseconds Delays code execution until a specified time Generates a unique ID Unpacks data from a binary string Delays code execution for a number of microseconds 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 5 5 4 3 5 5 3 3 3 Sets whether a remote client can abort the running of a script3 PHP Misc.0.

dll or libmysql. Installation on Windows Systems PHP 5+: MySQL is not enabled by default. MySQL configuration options: . use --with-mysql=DIR (the optional DIR points to the MySQL directory).dll'".1. A file named libmysql. Runtime Configuration The behavior of the MySQL functions is affected by settings in the php./php_mysql. Note: If you get the following error when starting the web server: "Unable to load dynamic library '.ini. you must compile PHP with MySQL support. use the MySQLi extension instead.ini file. and in order for PHP to talk to MySQL this file needs to be available to the Windows systems PATH. An example extension_dir value is c:\php\ext.ini file) should be set to the directory where the PHP extensions are located. Also.com.PHP MySQL Functions PHP MySQL Introduction The MySQL functions allows you to access MySQL database servers.mysql. this is because php_mysql. Use the --with-mysql=DIR configure option to include MySQL support and download headers and libraries from www. PHP needs access to the MySQL client library. If you would like to install both the mysql extension and the mysqli extension you should use the same client library to avoid any conflicts.dll must be enabled inside of php..dll cannot be found by the system. Installation on Linux Systems PHP 5+: MySQL and the MySQL library is not enabled by default. Note: For full functionality of MySQL versions greater than 4. For compiling.dll is included in the Windows PHP distribution. so the php_mysql. Installation For the MySQL functions to be available. the PHP extension_dir setting (in the php. To enable any PHP extension.

The first one is the link_identifier for a database connection. Function mysql_affected_rows() mysql_change_user() mysql_client_encoding() mysql_close() mysql_connect() mysql_create_db() mysql_data_seek() Description Returns the number of affected rows in the previous MySQL operation Deprecated.max_links "-1" "-1" The maximum number of connections PHP_INI_SYSTEM per process (persistent connections included) Trace mode. Available since PHP 4. the last opened connection is used.max_persistent mysql. Available since PHP 4. When set to "1".0.allow_persistent "1" mysql. Creates a new MySQL database.3 The default TCP port number to use The default socket name to use.default_host mysql.1 The default server host to use (doesn't apply in SQL safe mode) PHP_INI_ALL mysql.Name Default Description Whether or not to allow persistent connections The maximum number of persistent connections per process Changeable PHP_INI_SYSTEM PHP_INI_SYSTEM mysql. the second is a resource which holds the result of a query. Note: Most MySQL functions accept link_identifier as the last optional parameter. warnings and SQL-errors will be displayed.default_socket mysql.default_password NULL mysql. Use mysql_query() instead Moves the record pointer PHP 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 . If it is not provided.default_port mysql.default_user NULL NULL NULL NULL PHP_INI_ALL PHP_INI_ALL PHP_INI_ALL The default user name to use (doesn't PHP_INI_ALL apply in SQL safe mode) The default password to use (doesn't PHP_INI_ALL apply in SQL safe mode) Connection timeout in seconds PHP_INI_ALL mysql. Changes the user of the current MySQL connection Returns the name of the character set for the current connection Closes a non-persistent MySQL connection Opens a non-persistent MySQL connection Deprecated.connect_timeout "60" Resource Types There are two resource types used in the MySQL extension.trace_mode "0" mysql. PHP MySQL Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function.

Use mysql_query() instead Returns the number of fields in a recordset Returns the number of rows in a recordset Opens a persistent MySQL connection Pings a server connection or reconnects if there is no connection Executes a query on a MySQL database 4 3 3 3 3 4 3 .mysql_db_name() mysql_db_query() mysql_drop_db() mysql_errno() mysql_error() mysql_escape_string() mysql_fetch_array() mysql_fetch_assoc() mysql_fetch_field() mysql_fetch_lengths() mysql_fetch_object() mysql_fetch_row() mysql_field_flags() mysql_field_len() mysql_field_name() mysql_field_seek() mysql_field_table() mysql_field_type() mysql_free_result() mysql_get_client_info() mysql_get_host_info() mysql_get_proto_info() mysql_get_server_info() mysql_info() mysql_insert_id() mysql_list_dbs() mysql_list_fields() mysql_list_processes() mysql_list_tables() mysql_num_fields() mysql_num_rows() mysql_pconnect() mysql_ping() mysql_query() Returns a database name from a call to mysql_list_dbs() 3 Deprecated. Use mysql_real_escape_string() instead Returns a row from a recordset as an associative array and/or a numeric array Returns a row from a recordset as an associative array Returns column info from a recordset as an object Returns the length of the contents of each field in a result row Returns a row from a recordset as an object Returns a row from a recordset as a numeric array Returns the flags associated with a field in a recordset Returns the maximum length of a field in a recordset Returns the name of a field in a recordset Moves the result pointer to a specified field Returns the name of the table the specified field is in Returns the type of a field in a recordset Free result memory Returns MySQL client info Returns MySQL host info Returns MySQL protocol info Returns MySQL server info Returns information about the last query Returns the AUTO_INCREMENT ID generated from the previous INSERT operation Lists available databases on a MySQL server 3 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 Returns the error description of the last MySQL operation3 Deprecated. Deletes a MySQL database. Sends a MySQL query. Lists tables in a MySQL database. Lists MySQL table fields. Escapes a string for use in a mysql_query. Use mysql_select_db() and mysql_query() instead Deprecated. Use mysql_query() instead Returns the error number of the last MySQL operation Deprecated. Use mysql_query() 3 instead Lists MySQL processes Deprecated.

Constant MYSQL_CLIENT_COMPRESS MYSQL_CLIENT_IGNORE_SPACE MYSQL_CLIENT_INTERACTIVE MYSQL_CLIENT_SSL Description Use compression protocol Allow space after function names PHP 4. Some of these functions requires the newest PHP build. with normal property selectors and array iterators.3 4. like any other object.mysql_real_escape_string() mysql_result() mysql_select_db() mysql_stat() mysql_tablename() mysql_thread_id() mysql_unbuffered_query() Escapes a string for use in SQL statements Returns the value of a field in a recordset Sets the active MySQL database Returns the current system status of the MySQL server Deprecated. This object can be processed. Use mysql_query() instead Returns the current thread ID 4 3 3 4 3 4 Executes a query on a MySQL database (without fetching 4 / buffering the result) PHP MySQL Constants Since PHP 4.3 before closing the connection Use SSL encryption (only available with version 4.3 it has been possible to specify additional flags for the mysql_connect() and mysql_pconnect() functions: PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the constant.3 4+ of the MySQL client library) The mysql_fetch_array() function uses a constant for the different types of result arrays. The following constants are defined: Constant MYSQL_ASSOC MYSQL_BOTH MYSQL_NUM Description Columns are returned into the array with the fieldname as the array index Columns are returned into the array having both a numerical index and the fieldname as the array index Columns are returned into the array having a numerical index (index starts at 0) PHP PHP SimpleXML Functions PHP SimpleXML Introduction The SimpleXML functions lets you convert XML to an object. . Returns the table name of field.3 Allow interactive timeout seconds of inactivity 4.

Installation The SimpleXML functions are part of the PHP core. There is no installation needed to use these functions. PHP SimpleXML Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. Function __construct() addAttribute() addChild() asXML() attributes() children() getDocNamespaces() getName() getNamespace() registerXPathNamespace() simplexml_import_dom() simplexml_load_file() simplexml_load_string() xpath() Description Creates a new SimpleXMLElement object Adds an attribute to the SimpleXML element Adds a child element the SimpleXML element Gets an XML string from a SimpleXML element Gets a SimpleXML element's attributes Gets the children of a specified node Gets the namespaces of an XML document Gets the name of a SimpleXML element Gets the namespaces from XML data Creates a namespace context for the next XPath query Gets a SimpleXMLElement object from a DOM node Gets a SimpleXMLElement object from an XML string Runs an XPath query on XML data PHP 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Gets a SimpleXMLElement object from an XML document 5 PHP String Functions .

PHP String Introduction The string functions allow you to manipulate strings. There is no installation needed to use these functions. Installation The string functions are part of the PHP core. PHP String Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. Function addcslashes() addslashes() bin2hex() chop() chr() chunk_split() convert_cyr_string() convert_uudecode() convert_uuencode() count_chars() crc32() crypt() echo() explode() fprintf() get_html_translation_table() hebrev() hebrevc() html_entity_decode() htmlentities() htmlspecialchars_decode() htmlspecialchars() Description Returns a string with backslashes in front of the specified characters Returns a string with backslashes in front of predefined characters PHP 4 3 Converts a string of ASCII characters to hexadecimal 3 values Alias of rtrim() Returns a character from a specified ASCII value Splits a string into a series of smaller parts Converts a string from one Cyrillic character-set to another Decodes a uuencoded string Encodes a string using the uuencode algorithm Returns how many times an ASCII character occurs within a string and returns the information Calculates a 32-bit CRC for a string One-way string encryption (hashing) Outputs strings Breaks a string into an array Returns the translation table used by htmlspecialchars() and htmlentities() Converts Hebrew text to visual text Converts Hebrew text to visual text and new lines (\n) into <br /> Converts HTML entities to characters Converts characters to HTML entities 3 3 3 3 5 5 4 4 3 3 3 4 3 3 4 3 Writes a formatted string to a specified output stream 5 Converts some predefined HTML entities to characters 5 Converts some predefined characters to HTML entities 3 .

implode() join() levenshtein() localeconv() ltrim() md5() md5_file() metaphone() money_format() nl_langinfo() nl2br() number_format() ord() parse_str() print() printf() quoted_printable_decode() quotemeta() rtrim() setlocale() sha1() sha1_file() similar_text() soundex() sprintf() sscanf() str_ireplace() str_pad() str_repeat() str_replace() str_rot13() str_shuffle() str_split() str_word_count() strcasecmp() strchr() strcmp() Returns a string from the elements of an array Alias of implode() Returns locale numeric and monetary formatting information Strips whitespace from the left side of a string Calculates the MD5 hash of a string Calculates the MD5 hash of a file Calculates the metaphone key of a string Returns a string formatted as a currency string Returns specific local information 3 3 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 Returns the Levenshtein distance between two strings 3 Inserts HTML line breaks in front of each newline in a 3 string Formats a number with grouped thousands Returns the ASCII value of the first character of a string Parses a query string into variables Outputs a string Outputs a formatted string Decodes a quoted-printable string Quotes meta characters Strips whitespace from the right side of a string Sets locale information Calculates the SHA-1 hash of a string Calculates the SHA-1 hash of a file Calculates the similarity between two strings Calculates the soundex key of a string Writes a formatted string to a variable Parses input from a string according to a format Replaces some characters in a string (caseinsensitive) Pads a string to a new length Repeats a string a specified number of times Performs the ROT13 encoding on a string Randomly shuffles all characters in a string Splits a string into an array Count the number of words in a string Compares two strings (case-insensitive) Finds the first occurrence of a string inside another string (alias of strstr()) Compares two strings (case-sensitive) 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 5 4 4 4 4 5 4 3 3 3 Replaces some characters in a string (case-sensitive) 3 .

strcoll() strcspn() Locale based string comparison Returns the number of characters found in a string before any part of some specified characters are found Strips HTML and PHP tags from a string Unquotes a string quoted with addcslashes() Unquotes a string quoted with addslashes() 4 3 strip_tags() stripcslashes() stripslashes() stripos() stristr() strlen() strnatcasecmp() strnatcmp() strncasecmp() strncmp() strpbrk() strpos() strrchr() strrev() strripos() strrpos() strspn() strstr() strtok() strtolower() strtoupper() strtr() substr() substr_compare() substr_count() substr_replace() trim() 3 4 3 Returns the position of the first occurrence of a string 5 inside another string (case-insensitive) Finds the first occurrence of a string inside another string (case-insensitive) Returns the length of a string Compares two strings using a "natural order" algorithm (case-insensitive) Compares two strings using a "natural order" algorithm (case-sensitive) String comparison of the first n characters (caseinsensitive) String comparison of the first n characters (casesensitive) Searches a string for any of a set of characters 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 Returns the position of the first occurrence of a string 3 inside another string (case-sensitive) Finds the last occurrence of a string inside another string Reverses a string Finds the position of the last occurrence of a string inside another string (case-insensitive) Finds the position of the last occurrence of a string inside another string (case-sensitive) 3 3 5 3 Returns the number of characters found in a string 3 that contains only characters from a specified charlist Finds the first occurrence of a string inside another string (case-sensitive) Splits a string into smaller strings Converts a string to lowercase letters Converts a string to uppercase letters Translates certain characters in a string Returns a part of a string Compares two strings from a specified start position (binary safe and optionally case-sensitive) Counts the number of times a substring occurs in a string Replaces a part of a string with another string Strips whitespace from both sides of a string 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 4 4 3 .

ucfirst() ucwords() vfprintf() vprintf() vsprintf() wordwrap() Converts the first character of a string to uppercase Converts the first character of each word in a string to uppercase Outputs a formatted string Writes a formatted string to a variable Wraps a string to a given number of characters 3 3 Writes a formatted string to a specified output stream 5 4 4 4 PHP String Constants PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the constant. 0 otherwise Set to 1 if the extended DES-based encryption with a 9 character salt is supported. the length is 2 Set to 1 if the standard DES-based encryption with a 2 character salt is supported. Constant CRYPT_SALT_LENGTH Description Contains the length of the default encryption method for the system. 0 otherwise Set to 1 if the Blowfish encryption with a 16 character salt starting with $2$ or $2a$ is supported. 0 otherwise0 PHP CRYPT_STD_DES CRYPT_EXT_DES CRYPT_MD5 CRYPT_BLOWFISH HTML_SPECIALCHARS HTML_ENTITIES ENT_COMPAT ENT_QUOTES ENT_NOQUOTES CHAR_MAX LC_CTYPE LC_NUMERIC LC_TIME LC_COLLATE LC_MONETARY LC_ALL LC_MESSAGES STR_PAD_LEFT STR_PAD_RIGHT STR_PAD_BOTH . 0 otherwise Set to 1 if the MD5 encryption with a 12 character salt starting with $1$ is supported. For standard DES encryption.

it views an XML document as a series of events. and ignores any DTDs linked to a document. it calls a specified function to handle it. XML is a data format for standardized structured document exchange. Expat is a non-validating parser. Function utf8_decode() utf8_encode() xml_error_string() xml_get_current_byte_index() xml_get_current_column_number() xml_get_current_line_number() Description PHP Decodes an UTF-8 string to ISO-8859-1 3 Encodes an ISO-8859-1 string to UTF-8 3 Gets an error string from the XML parser Gets the current byte index from the XML parser Gets the current column number from the XML parser Gets the current line number from the XML parser 3 3 3 3 . if the document is not well formed it will end with an error message. More information on XML can be found in our XML Tutorial. PHP XML Parser Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. However. Installation The XML functions are part of the PHP core. XML documents. When an event occurs. Expat is an event-based parser. The XML parser functions lets you create XML parsers and define handlers for XML events. non validating parser. This extension uses the Expat XML parser.PHP XML Parser Functions PHP XML Parser Introduction The XML functions lets you parse. Because it is an event-based. Expat is fast and well suited for web applications. but not validate. There is no installation needed to use these functions.

xml_get_error_code() xml_parse() xml_parse_into_struct() xml_parser_create_ns() xml_parser_create() xml_parser_free() xml_parser_get_option() xml_parser_set_option() xml_set_character_data_handler() xml_set_default_handler() xml_set_element_handler() xml_set_end_namespace_decl_handler() xml_set_external_entity_ref_handler() xml_set_notation_decl_handler() xml_set_object() xml_set_processing_instruction_handler() xml_set_start_namespace_decl_handler() xml_set_unparsed_entity_decl_handler() Gets an error code from the XML parser 3 Parses an XML document Parse XML data into an array Create an XML parser with namespace support Create an XML parser Free an XML parser Get options from an XML parser Set options in an XML parser Set default handler function Set handler function for start and end element of elements Set handler function for the end of namespace declarations Set handler function for external entities Set handler function for notation declarations Use XML Parser within an object Set handler function for processing instruction Set handler function for the start of namespace declarations 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 4 3 4 Set handler function for character data 3 Set handler function for unparsed entity 3 declarations PHP XML Parser Constants Constant XML_ERROR_NONE (integer) XML_ERROR_NO_MEMORY (integer) XML_ERROR_SYNTAX (integer) XML_ERROR_NO_ELEMENTS (integer) XML_ERROR_INVALID_TOKEN (integer) XML_ERROR_UNCLOSED_TOKEN (integer) XML_ERROR_PARTIAL_CHAR (integer) XML_ERROR_TAG_MISMATCH (integer) XML_ERROR_DUPLICATE_ATTRIBUTE (integer) XML_ERROR_JUNK_AFTER_DOC_ELEMENT (integer) XML_ERROR_PARAM_ENTITY_REF (integer) XML_ERROR_UNDEFINED_ENTITY (integer) XML_ERROR_RECURSIVE_ENTITY_REF (integer) .

Installation For the Zip file functions to work on your server.XML_ERROR_ASYNC_ENTITY (integer) XML_ERROR_BAD_CHAR_REF (integer) XML_ERROR_BINARY_ENTITY_REF (integer) XML_ERROR_ATTRIBUTE_EXTERNAL_ENTITY_REF (integer) XML_ERROR_MISPLACED_XML_PI (integer) XML_ERROR_UNKNOWN_ENCODING (integer) XML_ERROR_INCORRECT_ENCODING (integer) XML_ERROR_UNCLOSED_CDATA_SECTION (integer) XML_ERROR_EXTERNAL_ENTITY_HANDLING (integer) XML_OPTION_CASE_FOLDING (integer) XML_OPTION_TARGET_ENCODING (integer) XML_OPTION_SKIP_TAGSTART (integer) XML_OPTION_SKIP_WHITE (integer) PHP Zip File Functions PHP Zip File Introduction The Zip files functions allows you to read ZIP files. these libraries must be installed: • • The ZZIPlib library by Guido Draheim: Download the ZZIPlib library The Zip PELC extension: Download the Zip PELC extension Installation on Linux Systems .

dll and the ZZIPlib library must be downloaded from the link above. Function zip_close() zip_entry_close() zip_entry_compressedsize() zip_entry_compressionmethod() zip_entry_filesize() zip_entry_name() zip_entry_open() zip_entry_read() zip_open() zip_read() Description Closes a ZIP file Closes an entry in the ZIP file PHP 4 4 Returns the compressed size of an entry in the ZIP 4 file Returns the compression method of an entry in the 4 ZIP file Returns the actual file size of an entry in the ZIP file 4 Returns the name of an entry in the ZIP file Opens an entry in the ZIP file for reading Reads from an open entry in the ZIP file Opens a ZIP file Reads the next entry in a ZIP file 4 4 4 4 4 PHP Zip File Constants NONE .ini file) should be set to the directory where the PHP extensions are located.PHP 5+: Zip functions and the Zip library is not enabled by default and must be downloaded from the links above. Use the --with-zip=DIR configure option to include Zip support. PHP Zip File Functions PHP: indicates the earliest version of PHP that supports the function. Installation on Windows Systems PHP 5+: Zip functions is not enabled by default.ini. php_zip. To enable any PHP extension. the PHP extension_dir setting (in the php. so the php_zip.dll must be enabled inside of php. An example extension_dir value is c:\php\ext.

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