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(Redirected from Aeronautical engineering) Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering behind the design, construction and science of aircraft and spacecraft. It is broken into two major and overlapping branches: aeronautical engineering and astronautical engineering. The former deals with craft that stay within Earth's atmosphere, and the latter deals with craft that operate outside of Earth's atmosphere. Aerospace engineering deals with the design, construction, and science behind the forces and physical properties of aircraft, rockets, flying craft, and spacecraft. The field also covers their aerodynamic characteristics and behaviors, airfoil, control surfaces, lift, drag, and other properties. Aerospace engineering is not to be confused with the various other fields of engineering that go into designing these complex craft. For example, the design of aircraft avionics, while certainly part of the system as a whole, would rather be considered electrical engineering, or perhaps computer engineering. The landing gear system on an aircraft may fall into the field of mechanical engineering, and so forth. It is typically a large combination of many disciplines that makes up aeronautical engineering. While aeronautical engineering was the original term, the broader "aerospace" has superseded it in usage, as flight technology advanced to include craft operating in outer space. Aerospace engineering, particularly the astronautics branch, is often informally called "rocket science".
NASA engineers, like the ones depicted in Apollo 13, worked diligently to protect the lives of the astronauts on the mission. Occupation Names Type Activity sectors engineer aerospace engineer profession aeronautics, astronautics, science Description Competencies technical knowledge, management skills Education required see professional requirements Fields of employment technology, science, exploration, military
1 Overview 2 History 3 Elements 4 Aerospace engineering degrees 5 Popular culture 6 See also 7 References 8 External links
Flight vehicles undergo severe conditions such as differences in atmospheric pressure, and temperature, with
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 Early knowledge of aeronautical Orville and Wilbur Wright flew the engineering was largely empirical with some concepts and skills Wright Flyer I. The first definition of aerospace engineering appeared in February 1958. who. History See also: Aviation history Alberto Santos-Dumont. propulsion. The development and manufacturing of a modern flight vehicle is an extremely complex process and demands careful balance and compromise between abilities. United States aerospace engineers launched the first American satellite on January 31. Consequently. available technology and costs. and space exploration. Scientists understood December 17. 1958 in response to the USSR launching Sputnik on October 4. 1903 at Kitty Hawk. 1957. materials science. the 18th century.Aerospace engineering . These technologies are collectively known as aerospace engineering. they are usually the products of various technological and engineering disciplines including aerodynamics. design. avionics. although he did not build any successful models. test. and missiles. Aerospace engineers design. which are in effect on any flight vehicle. in North Carolina. Cayley was a pioneer in aeronautical engineering and is credited as the first person to separate the forces of lift and drag. thereby encompassing both aircraft (aero) and spacecraft (space) under a newly coined word aerospace. on imported from other branches of engineering. did develop many sketches and ideas for "flying machines". Aerospace engineers develop new technologies for use in aviation. the free encyclopedia http://en. like fluid dynamics. One of the most important people in the history of aeronautics. Some of the first ideas for powered flight may have come from Leonardo da Vinci. structural analysis and manufacturing. Elements 2 of 7 4/24/2011 8:59 PM . Because of the complexity of the field. the first airplane. the 1910s saw the development of aeronautical engineering through the design of World War I military aircraft. a pioneer who built the first machines able to fly. Several years later after the successful flights by the Wright brothers. The origin of aerospace engineering can be traced back to the aviation pioneers around the late 19th century to early 20th centuries. played an important role in the development of aviation. some key elements of aerospace engineering . defense systems.org/wiki/Aeronautical_engineering structural loads applied upon vehicle components. The definition considered the Earth's atmosphere and the outer space as a single realm.Wikipedia. each specializing in their own branches of science. aerospace engineering is conducted by a team of engineers.wikipedia. although the work of Sir George Cayley has recently been dated as being from the last decade of the 18th to mid 19th century. and supervise the manufacture of aircraft. spacecraft. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration was founded in 1958 as a response to the Cold War.
without large excursions. etc. Noise control – the study of the mechanics of sound transfer.Wikipedia. Avionics – the design and programming of computer systems on board an aircraft or spacecraft and the simulation of systems. test. and subsystems that exist on noise and allows exhaust to escape.wikipedia. jet engines and turbomachinery. error). or existing ones are modified to improve their performance. New materials with very specific properties are invented. the US Space and Rocket Center Electrotechnology – the study of electronics within engineering. Aircraft structures – design of the physical configuration of the craft to withstand the forces encountered during flight. Control engineering – the study of mathematical modeling of the dynamic behavior of systems and designing them. engines of the Saturn V first stage at and linear algebra. Astrodynamics – the study of orbital mechanics including prediction of orbital elements when given a select few variables. including flight software. Software – the specification. differential equations. so that their dynamic behavior is desirable (stable. Propulsion – the energy to move a vehicle through the air (or in outer space) is provided by internal combustion engines. Flight test – designing and executing flight test programs in order to gather and analyze performance and handling qualities data in order to determine if an aircraft meets its design and performance goals and certification requirements. test & evaluation software. and implementation of computer software for aerospace applications. or rockets (see also propeller and spacecraft propulsion). design. Risk and reliability – the study of risk and reliability assessment techniques and the mathematics involved in the quantitative methods. potentially causing flutter. propulsion systems. A more recent addition to this module is electric propulsion and ion propulsion. with the F-1 Mathematics – in particular. calculus. While few schools in the United States teach this at the undergraduate level. Wernher von Braun. the free encyclopedia http://en. aerospace vehicles. Specifically aerodynamics concerning the flow of air over bodies such as wings or through objects such as wind tunnels (see also lift and aeronautics). development. several have graduate programs covering this topic (usually in conjunction with the Physics department of said college or university). This applies to the dynamic behavior of aircraft.org/wiki/Aeronautical_engineering See also: List of aerospace engineering topics Some of the elements of aerospace engineering are: Fluid mechanics – the study of fluid flow around objects. with minimum A fighter jet engine undergoing testing. Statics and Dynamics (engineering mechanics) – the study of movement. Aerospace engineering aims to keep structures lightweight. Aeroelasticity – the interaction of aerodynamic forces and structural flexibility. Nowadays there are several Finite Element programs such as MSC Patran/Nastran which aid engineers in the analytical process. divergence. ground control software. aerospace engineering also studies the materials of which the aerospace structures are to be built. moments in mechanical systems. forces. Solid mechanics – Closely related to material science is solid mechanics which deals with stress and strain analysis of the components of the vehicle.Aerospace engineering . The tunnel behind the engine muffles spacecraft. 3 of 7 4/24/2011 8:59 PM . etc. usually using feedback signals. Materials science – related to structures.
University of Bristol. Georgia Institute of Technology. temperature.org/wiki/Aeronautical_engineering The basis of most of these elements lies in theoretical mathematics. an industry that uses aerospace technology. Queens University Belfast. and the University of Michigan as the top three best programs for doctorate granting universities in the United States. aerodynamics. The other programs in the top ten were Purdue University. and Virginia Tech in that order. communications. In Canada. Stanford University. U. levels in aerospace engineering departments at many universities. More recently. The Department of Aeronautics at Imperial College London is noted for providing engineers for the Formula One industry. reducing time and expense spent on wind-tunnel testing. bachelor's. either in wind tunnels or in the free atmosphere. M. MSc. while the programs of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Aerospace engineering Rutgers University are two such examples.D. The Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) in the Netherlands offers one of the top European aerospace educational and research platforms. aerospace bearings. Historically. University of Illinois. this empirical component was derived from testing of scale models and prototypes. etc. the free encyclopedia http://en. space robotics and mechatronics.D. thermal control. University of Bath. the University of Toronto has a quality aerospace engineering program. In the UK. A few departments offer degrees in space-focused astronautical engineering. and the United States Naval Academy as the premier aerospace engineering programs at universities that do not grant doctorate degrees. University of Maryland.. Aerospace engineering degrees See also: List of aerospace engineering schools Aerospace engineering may be studied at the advanced diploma. lifetime). and Ph. University of Southampton.S. life support. The aerospace program requires the students to go through a competitive program called engineering science. Imperial College London. radiation. and Ph.Eng.Aerospace engineering .Wikipedia. Additionally. At the graduate level U of T offers research-intensive programs leading to MASc and PhD degrees. and structural mechanics) and space systems engineering (spacecraft dynamics and control. velocity. pressure. University of Sheffield.) and its life cycle (design. propulsion. levels at a number of universities. computational fluid dynamics. The scope of U of T's research includes aeronautical engineering (aircraft flight systems. Loughborough University and University of Nottingham for 2010. aerospace engineering addresses the integration of all components that constitute an aerospace vehicle (subsystems including power.. California Institute of Technology. such as fluid dynamics for aerodynamics or the equations of motion for flight dynamics. and a professionallyoriented program leading to the MEng degree. News & World Report ranked the undergraduate aerospace engineering programs at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. advances in computing have enabled the use of computational fluid dynamics to simulate the behavior of fluid.wikipedia. In 2009. and microsatellite technology). The magazine also rates Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. There is also a large empirical component. 4 of 7 4/24/2011 8:59 PM . Wichita State University is renowned for its Aerospace Engineering program and also has the third highest research budget for Aerospace Engineering in the United States. Aerospace (or aeronautical) engineering can be studied for the B. and in mechanical engineering departments at others. The academic program in aerospace science and engineering at U of T includes undergraduate and graduate studies. University of Surrey. University of Texas at Austin. The top 10 universities are University of Cambridge. Carleton University and Ryerson University are other top aerospace and mechanical engineering universities in Canada which offer accredited graduate and undergraduate degrees.Eng. University of Kansas School of Engineering has earned more first and second place AIAA awards than any other academic institution in the world in the 42-year history of the competition. the United States Air Force Academy. master's. Newcastle University.
University of New South Wales. 3. Monash University. TU Berlin and TU Braunschweig in Germany. University of Sydney. European universities that are renowned for their teaching and expertise in aerospace engineering include TU Delft in the Netherlands. Czech Republic. the Warsaw University of Technology and Rzeszów University of Technology in Poland and Brno University of Technology in Brno.com/browse/rocket%20science) . October 2010. especially technical and mathematical ability. In Austria the FH Joanneum. the University of Padua and the Sapienza University of Rome. Encyclopedia Britannica. "Engineering". in Israel. while the other IITs also offer degrees in this discipline. RWTH Aachen. the Universidad Carlos III de Madrid.Sc. ISAE. While in China Nanjing Aeronautics and Astronautics University is a regional leader in the field of aerospace engineering education. Kaydon Al (1989). In Portugal the Instituto Superior Técnico. ^ a b Stanzione. the University of Stuttgart.wikipedia. From academic year 2010 onwards Bengal Engineering and Science University. Chicago. ^ Rocket science (http://dictionary. the Politecnico di Milano. China and Seoul National University. the free encyclopedia http://en.Dehradun also one of the leading institute. M.org/wiki/Aeronautical_engineering Aerospace can be studied at University of Limerick in Ireland.Aerospace engineering . The MS degree at IST is being offered in collaboration with Beihang University (BUAA).IPSA and ESTACA in France.University of Petroleum and Energy Studies. the RMIT University offers Aerospace (or aeronautical) engineering and has more than 60 years teaching experience in this profession. Popular culture The term "rocket scientist" is sometimes used to describe a person of great intelligence since "rocket science" is seen as a practice requiring great mental ability. In 2002. In Spain the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid.Sc. ENAC.Eng. M. Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya and University of Seville offer the degree. In Eastern Europe they are the University of Belgrade.). In Australia. 563–563. See also Advanced Aerospace Analysis American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Flight test List of aerospace engineering topics List of aerospace engineers List of Russian aerospace engineers Nonequilibrium Gas and Plasma Dynamics Group Sigma Gamma Tau (aerospace engineering honor society) References 1. ^ Encyclopedia of Aerospace Engineering.reference. the University of Pisa. SUPARCO established IST which is a federally chartered public sector institute of Pakistan offering under graduate and graduate degree in Aerospace Engineering. University of Queensland. Phd) is the Technion Israel Institute of Technology. Rocketry 5 of 7 4/24/2011 8:59 PM . at PAF Academy in Risalpur & at Air University which is Pakistan's only university that grants a Doctorate degree in Aerospace Engineering & Avionics Engineering. while in Italy there also several universities where aerospace engineering can be studied including the Politecnico di Torino. South Korea Another university that offers Aerospace Engineering degrees (B. Shibpur has started offering an undergraduate course Bachelor of Engineering in Aerospace Engineering.Wikipedia. In India IIT Kanpur possesses its own flight test aircraft and airfield for students in the discipline. TU München. pp. Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-75440-5 2. 18 (15 ed. In Pakistan Aerospace Engineering can be studied at National University of Sciences and Technology at (CAE). University of Adelaide and Queensland University of Technology also offers Aerospace Engineering.
http://open-site.ndtaerotech." 6.org/Science/Engineering/Aerospace/.news.princetonreview. "English pioneer of aerial navigation and aeronautical engineering and designer of the first successful glider to carry a human being aloft.asp?careerID=5) . http://www.aiaa.org/wiki/Aeronautical_engineering (http://dictionary.usnews. ^ a b Gruntman.htm) 11. "Due to the complexity of the final product.com/browse/rocketry?db=luna) . ^  (http://www. Retrieved 2009-07-26.asp?careerID=5. ^ America's Best Colleges 2009: Aerospace / Aeronautical / Astronautical (where doctorate not offered) (http://colleges. Open Site.cfm?lumeetingid=1808&viewcon=agenda&pageview=2& programSeeview=1&dateget=19-Sep-07&formatview=1) . severely curtailing any single engineer's ability to understand his role as it relates to the final project.com (http://www. AIAA SPACE 2007 Conference & Exposition (http://www.html) 5." 8.utl.Wikipedia.org/agenda.carleton.com/best-colleges/spec-doct-aero) .timesonline.waset.html.britannica.pt/cursos/meaer/descricao?locale=en_EN) External links International Journal of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering (http://www. http://www. "Sir George Cayley is sometimes called the 'Father of Aviation'. ^ Grandpix.wikipedia. USNews.princetonreview.rankingsandreviews.ku. ^ Kermit Van Every (1988).com: The Imperial College (http://www.html) . ^ "The Pioneers: Aviation and Airmodelling" (http://www.monash.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/100795/Sir-GeorgeCayley-6th-Baronet.com/careers/layouthtmls /crel_display_Cat10_Ser184_Par283.org/agenda. USNews.edu/2010/september/17/aiaa.org/cayl. "Sir George Cayley is one of the most important people in the history of aeronautics. "The Time for Academic Departments in Astronautical Engineering" (http://www.org/wiki/Aerospace_engineering" Categories: Aerospace engineering | Engineering disciplines This page was last modified on 21 April 2011 at 14:34.flyingmachines. he is credited with the first major breakthrough in heavierthan-air flight.php?AC_sub=Aeronautical+and+Manufacturing+Engineering&x=19&y=4&sub=1) 22.org/journals /ijame/) NDTAeroTech. an intricate and rigid organizational structure for production has to be maintained. The Princeton Review. "Aeronautical engineering".youtube. ^ University Rankings League Table 2009 (http://extras.ctie. Retrieved 2009-07-26. the free encyclopedia http://en. Dictionary. ^ A Brief History of NASA (http://www.com/cte/profiles/dayInLife. http://www. ^ http://www.aiaa.org/content.com/watch?v=crCVfOkQQ0s) 17.org/cayl. Mike (September 19. The Online Community for Aerospace NDT Professionals (http://www.ist.net/partners/campuses/CampusInfo.aiaa.monash.html.html) 23.grandprix.aspx 19. ^ http://www. ^ "Sir George Carley (British Inventor and Scientist)" (http://www. http://www.ca/site4.ca/aerospace/ 20.net (http://www.utoronto.salary. ^ Dream Jobs: Rocket Scientist (http://www.com/ft/ft00348.html) .uk/tol_gug /gooduniversityguide. ^ Mentornet.gov/office/pao/History/factsheet. AIAA.reference.Aerospace engineering . additional terms may 6 of 7 4/24/2011 8:59 PM .au/hargrave/cayley.mentornet.com/cte/profiles /dayInLife.edu.com) Retrieved from "http://en.co.cfm?pageid=230& lumeetingid=1808&viewcon=submit) . Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Retrieved 2009-07-26. Grolier Incorporated. 10.utias. and thrust – and their relationship and also the first to build a successful human carrying glider. ^ "Career: Aerospace Engineer" (http://www.org/Science/Engineering/Aerospace/) . ^ "Science: Engineering: Aerospace" (http://open-site.ryerson.shtml) 16. http://www. ^ Youtube. 2007). He was the first to identify the four aerodynamic forces of flight – weight.ca/mae/ 21.com/EBchecked/topic/100795 /Sir-George-Cayley-6th-Baronet) .nasa.com 15. lift.edu.au/hargrave/cayley.wikipedia.cfm?lumeetingid=1808& viewcon=agenda&pageview=2&programSeeview=1&dateget=19-Sep-07&formatview=1. drag.com 4. Career Profiles. Retrieved 2006-10-08. ^ "Sir George Carley" (http://www. ^ IST MSc in Aerospace Engineering (https://fenix.com 14." 9.com/best-colleges/spec-aero) .com. 1. ^ http://www2." 7. 12. ^ America's Best Colleges 2009: Aerospace / Aeronautical / Astronautical (where doctorate is highest degree) (http://colleges.aspx?CampusCode=9WICH) 18. Britannica.ctie. Encyclopedia Americana.flyingmachines.rankingsandreviews.hq.usnews. Retrieved 2006-10-08. A pioneer in the field. 13. AIAA SPACE 2007 Conference & Exposition Agenda. Many consider him the first true scientific aerial investigator and the first person to understand the underlying principles and forces of flight.
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