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of recent developments

Ervin Sejdic´

a,Ã

, Igor Djurovic´

b

, LJubiˇ sa Stankovic´

b

a

Division of Gerontology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA

b

Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Montenegro, Podgorica, Montenegro

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 27 February 2010

Received in revised form

20 August 2010

Accepted 19 October 2010

Available online 27 October 2010

Keywords:

Fractional Fourier transform

Time–frequency

Discrete realizations

Applications

a b s t r a c t

Fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) is a generalization of the Fourier transform,

rediscovered many times over the past 100 years. In this paper, we provide an overview

of recent contributions pertaining to the FRFT. Speciﬁcally, the paper is geared toward

signal processing practitioners by emphasizing the practical digital realizations and

applications of the FRFT. It discusses three major topics. First, the manuscripts relates the

FRFT to other mathematical transforms. Second, it discusses various approaches for

practical realizations of the FRFT. Third, we overview the practical applications of the

FRFT. Fromthese discussions, we can clearly state that the FRFT is closely related to other

mathematical transforms, such as time–frequency and linear canonical transforms.

Nevertheless, we still feel that major contributions are expected in the ﬁeld of the digital

realizations andits applications, especially, since many digital realizations of the FRFTstill

lack properties of the continuous FRFT. Overall, the FRFT is a valuable signal processing

tool. Its practical applications are expected to grow signiﬁcantly in years to come, given

that the FRFT offers many advantages over the traditional Fourier analysis.

& 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

In very simple terms, the fractional Fourier transform

(FRFT) is a generalization of the ordinary Fourier transform

[1]. Speciﬁcally, the FRFT implements the so-called order

parameter a which acts on the ordinary Fourier transform

operator. In other words, the a-th order fractional Fourier

transform represents the a-th power of the ordinary

Fourier transform operator. When a ¼p=2, we obtain the

Fourier transform, while for a ¼0, we obtain the signal

itself. Any intermediate value of a ð0oaop=2Þ produces a

signal representation that can be considered as a rotated

time–frequency representation of the signal [2,3].

Interestingly enough, the idea of the fractional powers of

the Fourier operator has been ‘‘discovered’’ several times in

the literature. Initially, the idea appearedinthe mathematical

literature between the two world wars (e.g., [4,5]). More

publications relating to this idea appeared after the second

world war, however they were sporadic (e.g. [6]). The idea of

fractional Fourier operator re-gains a momentum in 1980s

with publications by Namias (e.g. [7]). Following Namias’

contributions, a large number of papers appeared in the

literature during 1990s tying the concept of the fractional

Fourier operators to many other ﬁelds (e.g., time–frequency

analysis as described in [2]). We have also witnessed a

number of recent contributions attempting to understand

the practical applications of the FRFT beyond optics.

The main goal of this publication is to provide an

overview of recent developments regarding the FRFT and

its applications. Althougha number of publications review-

ing the FRFT has also appeared in recent years (e.g., [1,8,9]),

some of these publications are geared toward explaining

the mathematical eloquence behind the FRFT. Our goal is to

simplify the theory behind the FRFT and provide an over-

view suitable for a signal processing practitioner. In

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/sigpro

Signal Processing

0165-1684/$ - see front matter & 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.sigpro.2010.10.008

Ã

Corresponding author.

E-mail addresses: esejdic@ieee.org (E. Sejdic´ ),

igordj@ac.me (I. Djurovic´ ), ljubisa@ac.me (LJ. Stankovic´ ).

Signal Processing 91 (2011) 1351–1369

particular, we emphasize the practicality of the FRFT by

devoting a signiﬁcant part of this manuscript to its discrete

realizations and applications. By attracting more practi-

tioners to this eloquent mathematical concept, we hope to

foster more applications since the FRFT offers many valu-

able properties, which otherwise were not available with

traditional tools (e.g., the Fourier transform).

The paper is organized as follows: Section 2 introduces

the concept of FRFT and relates the transform to other

mathematical representations. In Section 3, we discuss

various implementation approaches for discrete signals.

Section 4 provides an overview of some FRFT applications,

while in Section 5, we provide concluding remarks along

with an outline of possible future directions.

2. The fractional Fourier transform

The fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) is a linear

operator deﬁned as [10–13]

X

a

ðuÞ ¼F

a

ðxðtÞÞ ¼

þ1

À1

xðtÞK

a

ðt,uÞ dt ð1Þ

with K

a

ðt,uÞ representing the kernel function deﬁned as

K

a

ðt,uÞ ¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

1Àjcota

2p

if a is not multiple of p

Âe

jðu

2

=2Þcota

e

jðt

2

=2ÞcotaÀjutcsca

dðtÀuÞ if a is a multiple of 2p

dðt þuÞ if aþp is a multiple of 2p

ð2Þ

anddðtÞ representingtheDiracfunction. Throughout thepaper

we use F

a

to denote the operator associated with

the FRFT. It should be noted that we adopted notation for

the FRFTfoundinsignal processing literature. Inparticular, we

denotetherotationanglebya. Mathematicians usuallydenote

the rotation angle by a, where a ¼2a=p. It is important to

point out that various a values provide transformations with

distinctive properties. Hence, a can be adjusted in many

applications to provide enhanced results in comparison to

other existing methods. Additional computational complexity

associated with such optimization efforts is often acceptable.

Given the properties of the kernel, Eq. (1) is equal to x(t)

when a is a multiple of 2p, and is equal to x(Àt) when aþp

is a multiple of 2p. Some properties associated with the

FRFT are summarized as follows [1,14]:

1. The standard Fourier transform is a special case of the

FRFT with a rotation angle a ¼p=2.

2. F

0

is the identity operator, i.e., F

0

ðxðtÞÞ ¼xðtÞ. The same

can be stated for F

2p

.

3. The FRFT is a linear operator, i.e., F

a

ð

¸

k

c

k

x

k

ðtÞÞ ¼

¸

k

c

k

F

a

ðx

k

ðtÞÞ.

4. The FRFT adheres to commutativity (i.e., F

a

1

F

a

2

¼F

a

2

F

a

1

) and associativity (i.e., ðF

a

3

F

a

2

ÞF

a

1

¼F

a

3

ðF

a

2

F

a

1

ÞÞ.

5. Successive applications of the FRFT of various orders is

equal to a single application of the FRFT whose order is

equal to the sum of individual orders (e.g., F

a

1

F

a

2

¼

F

a

1

þa

2

Þ.

6. Inverse FRFT is obtained by applying F

Àa

to the

transformed signal (i.e., F

a

F

Àa

¼F

0

Þ.

7. FRFT satisﬁes the Parseval theorem: /xðtÞ,yðtÞS¼

/X

a

ðuÞ,Y

a

ðuÞS.

Additional properties of the FRFT and some transform

pairs are listed in Tables 1 and 2. These properties clearly

indicate that the FRFT is an extension of the ordinary

Fourier transform. More extensive descriptions and proofs

of these properties, along with additional transform pairs,

can be found in other references (e.g., [1,10–12]). The FRFTs

of a few sample signals are shown in Fig. 1.

A particularly interesting case of the above listed

properties is the fact that it can be shown that the FRFT

of a product of two signals, y(t) = x(t) w(t), can be shown to

be equal to [15]:

Y

a

ðuÞ ¼

jcscaj

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2p

p exp

ju

2

cota

2

þ1

À1

X

a

ðuÞWððuÀuÞcscaÞ

Âexp À

ju

2

cota

2

du ð3Þ

where WðuÞ is the Fourier transformof w(t). In other words,

the resultant FRFT is equal to convolution of the FRFT of x(t)

with the Fourier transform of w(t) multiplied by a chirp

function. A similar expression can be derived for convolu-

tion of two signals ðyðtÞ ¼xðtÞ Ã wðtÞÞ. In particular, con-

volution of two signals in time domain equals to [15]:

Y

a

ðuÞ ¼ jsecajexp À

ju

2

tana

2

þ1

À1

X

a

ðuÞwððuÀuÞsecaÞ

Âexp

ju

2

tana

2

du ð4Þ

Table 1

Properties of the FRFT.

Signal FRFT

xðtÀtÞ expðjðt

2

=2ÞsinacosaÀjutsinaÞX

a

ðuÀtcosaÞ

xðtÞexpðjutÞ expðÀju

2

ðsinacosaÞ=2þjucosaÞX

a

ðuÀusinaÞ

x(t)t ucosaX

a

ðuÞ þjsinaX

a

uðuÞ

x(t)/t

Àjsecaexpðjðu

2

=2ÞcotaÞ

u

À1

xðzÞexpðÀjðz

2

=2ÞcotaÞ dz

x(ct)

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

1Àjcota

c

2

Àjcota

expðjðu

2

=2Þcotað1Àðcos

2

b=cos

2

aÞÞÞX

b

usinb

csina

where cotb ¼cota=c

2

xuðtÞ X

a

uðuÞcosaþjusinaX

a

ðuÞ

t

b

xðtuÞ dtu secaexpðÀjðu

2

=2ÞtanaÞ

u

b

X

a

ðzÞexpðjðz

2

=2ÞtanaÞ dz if

aÀp=2 is not a multiple of p

Table 2

FRFT of some basic functions.

Signal FRFT

1

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

1þjtana

expðÀjðu

2

=2ÞtanaÞ

dðtÀtÞ

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

1Àjcota

2p

expðjððt

2

þu

2

Þ=2ÞcotaÀjut csc aÞ

expðÀt

2

=2Þ expðÀu

2

=2Þ

expðjZtÞ

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

1þjtana

expðjððZ

2

þu

2

Þ=2ÞtanaÀjuZsecaÞ

expðcðÀt

2

=2ÞÞ

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

1Àjcota

cÀjcota

expðjðu

2

=2Þðc

2

À1Þcota=ðc

2

þcot

2

aÞÞ

expðÀcðu

2

=2Þcsc

2

a=ðc

2

þcot

2

aÞÞ

E. Sejdic ´ et al. / Signal Processing 91 (2011) 1351–1369 1352

which shows that the FRFT of a convolution can therefore

be obtained by taking the FRFT of one of the signals,

multiplying by a chirp, convolving with a scaled version

of the other signal, and multiplying again by a chirp and by

a scale factor. These two rules are of particular interests

when developing a time–frequency representation based

on the FRFT.

Our next task is to understand the relationship between

the FRFT and other mathematical representations. First, we

begin by establishing the relationships with the ordinary

Fourier transform. Then, we establish relationships with

various time–frequency representations and linear cano-

nical analysis.

2.1. FRFT as fractional powers of Fourier transform

Namias provided an elegant generalization of the Four-

ier transformto the FRFT [7], by deriving the FRFT fromthe

eigenfunctions of the Fourier transform. In fact, Namias

used the fact that the Hermite–Gaussian functions ðf

k

ðtÞÞ

are eigenfunctions of the Fourier transform and showed

that the a-th order FRFT shares the eigenfunctions of the

Fourier transform. More speciﬁcally, the eigenvalues of the

FRFT are the a-th root of the eigenvalues of the Fourier

transform [7]:

F

a

ðf

k

ðtÞÞ ¼expðÀjakÞf

k

ðtÞ ð5Þ

Therefore, if we expand a signal in terms of these eigen-

functions, we obtained

xðtÞ ¼

¸

1

k ¼ 0

c

k

f

k

ðtÞ ð6Þ

where

c

k

¼

þ1

À1

f

k

ðtÞxðtÞ dt ð7Þ

By applying the fractional operator ðF

a

ðÁÞÞ to both sides

of (6), we get

F

a

ðxðtÞÞ ¼

¸

1

k ¼ 0

c

k

F

a

ðf

k

ðtÞÞ

¼

¸

1

k ¼ 0

c

k

expðÀjakÞf

k

ðuÞ

¼

¸

1

k ¼ 0

expðÀjakÞf

k

ðuÞf

k

ðtÞxðtÞ dt ð8Þ

Fromthe above equation, it is clear that the kernel function

can be deﬁned as

K

a

ðt,uÞ ¼

¸

1

k ¼ 0

expðÀjakÞf

k

ðuÞf

k

ðtÞ ð9Þ

The above equation can be considered as the spectral

decomposition of the kernel function of FRFT [1]. Using

−1 0 1 2 3 4 5

0

0.5

1

t

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

−1 0 1 2 3 4 5

−0.5

0

0.5

u

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

−1 0 1 2 3 4 5

0

0.5

1

t

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

−1 0 1 2 3 4 5

−1

0

1

u

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

−5 0 5

0

0.5

1

t

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

−5 0 5

0

0.5

1

u

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

Fig. 1. Sample signals and their theoretical FRFTs ða ¼p=4Þ: (a) time domain representation of the Dirac function; (b) FRFT of the Dirac function; (c) time

domain representation of the unit function; (d) FRFT of the unit function; (e) time domain representation of the exponential function and (f) FRFT of the

exponential function. Solid lines represent real parts, while dashed lines represent imaginary parts.

E. Sejdic ´ et al. / Signal Processing 91 (2011) 1351–1369 1353

the Mehler formula, Namias in fact shows that we obtain

the FRFT from (8) [7].

2.2. Relations to time–frequency representations

To understand the relationship between the FRFT and

various time–frequency analyses, we consider the relation-

ship between the ambiguity function and the FRFT. The

ambiguity function (AF) of a signal, x(t), is

AF

x

ðt,f Þ ¼

þ1

À1

x tþ

t

2

x

Ã

tÀ

t

2

expðÀj2ptf Þ dt ð10Þ

By introducing rotation of the AF by using the following

transformation:

t ¼Rcosa ð11Þ

f ¼Rsina ð12Þ

with R 2 ðÀ1,1Þ and a 2 ½0,pÞ, and redeﬁning the AF as

FRAF

x

ðR,aÞ ¼AF

x

ðRcosa,RsinaÞ, it becomes obvious that the

FRFT corresponds to a rotation of the AF [16]. In particular,

it is easy to prove that the fractional power spectra is the

Fourier transform of the AF:

FRAF

x

R,aÀ

p

2

¼

þ1

À1

jX

a

ðuÞjexpðj2pRuÞ du ð13Þ

Using this relationship, the connection between the local

fractional FT moments and the angle derivative of the

fractional power spectra has been established in [17].

Furthermore, it can be easily generalized that the FRFT

corresponds to rotation of a class of time–frequency

representations (TFRs) as along as Cðt,f Þ ¼F

À1

y-t,t-f

ffðy,tÞg is rotational symmetric [18–21], where fðy,tÞ is

a two-dimensional kernel function. For example, the FRFT

corresponds to the rotation of the Wigner distribution

(WD) in the time–frequency plane [20,22–25]:

WD

FaðxðtÞÞ

ðt,f Þ ¼WD

x

ðtcosaÀf sina,usinaþf cosaÞ ð14Þ

The relationship between FRFT and Radon–Wigner dis-

tribution (RWD) (e.g., [26]) is studied in [23,27], and it was

shown that the RWD is the squared modulus of the FRFT:

RWD½xðtÞ ¼jF

a

½xðtÞj

2

ð15Þ

Additionally, we should point out that the FRFT could be

potentially useful for obtaining time–frequency distributions

without cross-terms. For example, WDandAFexhibit different

behaviors when considering signals with multiple compo-

nents. Namely, the WD has signal components (i.e., auto-

terms) concentrated around their instantaneous frequencies

andgroupdelays, whileinterferences(cross-terms) arelocated

between these components. On the other hand, the AF has the

auto-terms concentrated around the origin while the inter-

ferences are dislocated from the origin. The connection

between these two time–frequency representations is the

2D Fourier transform:

WD

x

ðt,oÞ ¼FT

t-o,y-t

fAF

x

ðy,tÞg ð16Þ

However, interesting results are obtainedwhenwe use the 2D

FRFT insteadof the 2DFourier transformin(16). Speciﬁcally, it

is possible to separate all auto- and cross-terms in the time–

frequency plane for some classes of signals. To illustrate this

behavior, let us considered a signal with four components

concentrated in the TF plane around (t,f)=(70.5,76), and the

signal is deﬁned as

xðtÞ ¼½expðÀ60ðtÀ0:5Þ

2

ÞþexpðÀ60ðt þ0:5Þ

2

Þ

Â½expðj12ptÞþexpðÀj12ptÞ ð17Þ

with t 2 ½À1,1. The AF of this signal is depicted in Fig. 2(a). All

four auto-terms are located inthe middle of the graph (i.e., the

origin of the ambiguity plane). Each of four horizontal and

vertical objects withrespect totheoriginrepresents twocross-

terms, whilethecorner objects represent singlecross-terms. In

the case of the WD (Fig. 2(b)), the corner objects are auto-

terms, whilethecentral object represents thefour cross-terms.

The remainingobjects containtwocross terms each. However,

all 16 components (4 auto terms and 12 cross-terms) are

clearly separated as shown in Fig. 2(c) when we used the FRFT

operator with a ¼0:5 in (16).

2.2.1. Local polynomial Fourier transform

It is also of our interest to establish the relationship

between the FRFT and the local polynomial Fourier trans-

form (LPFT) [28,29]. First, we rewrite the FRFT as

F

a

ðxðtÞÞ ¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

1Àjcota

2p

e

jðu

2

=2Þcota

þ1

À1

x

w

ðtÞe

jðt

2

=2ÞcotaÀjutcsca

dt

ð18Þ

Fig. 2. Time–frequency representation of the four-component signal: (a) the AF; (b) the WD and (c) the FRFT of the AF.

E. Sejdic ´ et al. / Signal Processing 91 (2011) 1351–1369 1354

where x

w

ðtÞ ¼xðt þtÞwðtÞ. If the LPFT is given by [28,29]

LPFT

x

ðt,f Þ ¼

þ1

À1

xðt þtÞwðtÞexpðÀj2pf

1

tÀj2pf

2

t

2

=2

ÀÁ Á Á Àj2pf

M

t

M

=MÞ dt ð19Þ

where f ¼ ðf

1

,f

2

, . . . ,f

M

Þ, we set M=2, 2pf

1

¼ucsca, and

2pf

2

¼cota, then (18) can be expressed in terms of the

LPFT as

F

a

ðxðtÞÞ ¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

1Àjcota

2p

e

jðu

2

=2Þcota

LPFT

x

ðt,f

1

,f

2

Þ ð20Þ

From these equations it can be clearly seen that the LPFT

provides a broad generalization of the FRFT. Similar

observations have been made in [30]. Additionally, we

can relate the FRFT to the local polynomial periodogram

(LPP), which is deﬁned as the squared magnitude of

the LPFT:

LPP

x

ðt,f Þ ¼jLPFT

x

ðt,f Þj

2

ð21Þ

To understand the relationship between the FRFT and the

LPP, let us consider the LPP in more detail. The LPP is a

distribution belonging to the Cohen class of distributions

[28,29]. Its kernel is deﬁned as the AF of w

g

ðtÞ ¼wðtÞ

expðÀj2pf

2

t

2

=2ÀÁ Á Á Àj2pf

M

t

M

=M!Þ, which is a generaliza-

tionof the kernel usedfor the spectrogram(i.e., the squared

magnitude of the short-time Fourier transform), where the

kernel function is deﬁned as the AF of w(t). This general-

ization stems from the fact that the short-time Fourier

transform is equal to the LPFT for M=1. Hence, to relate

the LPP to (20), let us consider the second order case

(i.e., M = 2):

AF

wg

ðt,f Þ ¼

þ1

À1

w tþ

t

2

w

Ã

tÀ

t

2

expðÀj2pf

2

ðtþt=2Þ

2

þj2pf

2

ðtÀt=2Þ

2

Àj2pf tÞ dt

¼

þ1

À1

w tþ

t

2

w

Ã

tÀ

t

2

expðÀj4pf

2

ttÀj2pf tÞ dt

¼AF

w

ðt,f þ2pf

2

tÞ ð22Þ

where AF

w

(t,f) is the ambiguity function of the used

window. Hence, the LPP rotates AF

w

(t,f) in the ambiguity

plane and can adjust the resulting time–frequency repre-

sentation according to the signal of interest. Similarly can

be stated for any localized form of the FRFT with a

proper selection of the a (angle) parameter.

Eqs. (13)–(22) demonstrate that various coordinate

transformations have been implemented to relate the

FRFT to different transformations. This implies that any

coordinate transformation can be used, which is demon-

strated in the next section, where we relate the FRFT with

the linear canonical transform.

2.2.2. Other time–frequency representations and properties

A formal relationship between the wavelet transform

and the FRFT has also been established [31,32]. Speciﬁcally,

the FRFT kernels corresponding to different values of

a are closely related to the wavelet transform, which

can be obtained from the quadratic phase function in (2)

by scaling the coordinates and the amplitude [31,32].

Furthermore, fractional-Fourier-domain realizations of

several other time–frequency representations were also

introduced. These include realizations of the short-time

Fourier transform [33], the weighted WD (i.e., S-method)

[21,34], the Gabor expansion [35–38], and the tomography

time–frequency transform deﬁned as the inverse Radon

transform of the FRFT [39].

Some of the properties associated with the time–

frequency analysis have been extended to the FRFT. For

example, marginals associated withtime–frequency repre-

sentations based on the fractional Fourier transform were

examined [40] in analogy to marginals associated with

TFRs based on the standard Fourier transform. However, it

is not very clear what is a precise meaning of those

generalized marginals in comparison to the traditional

time and frequency marginals, which have a speciﬁc

meaning relating those quantities to the signal under

analysis. Several publications also investigated the uncer-

tainty principle in the fractional domain [41–44].

2.3. FRFT and linear canonical transform

The linear canonical transform (LCT) is a multipara-

meter integral transformand it represents a generalization

of many mathematical transformations (e.g., the Fourier

transform, FRFT, Fresnel transform) [1,45]. It should be

mentioned that the LCT is also called the afﬁne Fourier

transform, the generalized Fresnel transform, the Collins

formula, the ABCD transform, or the almost Fourier and

almost Fresnel transformation[1,45]. The transformationis

useful in many practical applications such as optics, radar

system analysis, ﬁlter design, phase retrieval, and pattern

recognition [45].

The LCT is deﬁned by [1,45,46]

LCT

L

ðxðtÞÞ ¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

1

j2pb

expðj du

2

=ð2bÞÞ

þ1

À1

expðÀjut=bÞ

Âexpðjat

2

=ð2bÞÞxðtÞ dt, ba0

ﬃﬃﬃ

d

p

expðjc du

2

=2ÞxðduÞ, b ¼0

ð23Þ

where adÀbc=1, L¼fa,b,c,dg. Using the above equation, it

is straightforward to show that the FRFT is the special case

of LCT where fa,b,c,dg ¼ fcosa,sina,Àsina,cosag with some

phase correction [1,45,46]. In other words,

F

a

ðxðtÞÞ ¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

expðjaÞ

LCT

fcosa,sina,Àsina,cosag

ðxðtÞÞ ð24Þ

Additionally, other existing forms of the LCT can be related

to FRFT. For example, the simple coordinate transform

proposed in [16] when considered with parameters

f1,a,0,1g represents the form of the second order poly-

nomial Fourier transform with 2pf

2

¼a. Furthermore, de

Bruijn proposed a form of the LCT in 1973 [6]. The

parameters of this distribution are fcosha,sinha,sinha,

coshag and its kernel function is deﬁned as

K

a

ðt,uÞ ¼

1

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

sinha

p e

Àjpðu

2

=2Þcotha

e

Àjpðt

2

=2Þcothaþjput=sinha

ð25Þ

which is quite similar to the FRFT. This transform shares

numerous properties of FRFT and it will be interesting to

E. Sejdic ´ et al. / Signal Processing 91 (2011) 1351–1369 1355

investigate a range of possible application of this coordi-

nate transform given recent advances in signal processing.

2.3.1. Coordinate transformation of other higher-order time–

frequency representations

The FRFT and LCT framework can be generalized for

some higher order time–frequency representations. Here,

we discuss the case of the L-Wigner distribution (L-WD)

introduced in [47] for achieving high concentration of the

time–frequency representations by eliminating the so-

called inner interferences. The L-WD can be deﬁned as

LWDðt,f Þ ¼

1

À1

x

L

ðt þ0:5t=LÞx

ÃL

ðtÀ0:5t=LÞexpðÀj2pfttÞ dt

ð26Þ

Signal x

L

ðtÞ, producing the coordinate transform of the

L-WD LWD(at+bf,ct+df), can be deﬁned for ba0 as

x

L

ðtÞ ¼ ð1=2pjbjÞ

1=2L

þ1

À1

x

L

ðtÞe

jðL=2Þðð1ÀaÞ=bÞu

2

ÀjðLðtÀuÞ

2

Þ=2b

du

¸

¸

Âe

jðð1ÀdÞ=bÞt

2

=2

ð27Þ

For rotationa ¼d ¼cosa and c ¼Àb ¼sina, the generalized

(L) form of the FRFT can be written as

X

L,a

ðuÞ ¼

Lð1ÀjcotaÞ

2p

1=2L

þ1

À1

x

L

ðtÞe

jðL=2Þcotaðu

2

þt

2

ÞÀjLutcsca

dt

¸

¸

1=L

ð28Þ

The L-FRFT form can be evaluated using the FRFT as

X

L,a

ðuÞ ¼L

1=2L

1þjcota

2p

ðLÀ1Þ=2L

þ1

À1

þ1

À1

. . .

þ1

À1

¸

L

i ¼ 1

X

a

ðu

i

Þ du

i

¸

Âe

Àjðcota=2Þ

¸

L

i ¼ 1

u

2

i

Àu

2

d LuÀ

¸

L

i ¼ 1

u

2

i

ð29Þ

For L=2, this relationship can be written as

X

2,a

ðuÞ ¼

1þjcota

p

1=4

þ1

À1

X

a

ðuþtÞX

Ã

a

ðuÀtÞe

Àjcotat

2

dt

¸

¸

1=2

ð30Þ

In general the L-FRFT of the k+m-th order can always be

expressed using the L-FRFT of k-th and m-th orders:

X

kþm,a

ðuÞ ¼

ðkþmÞð1þjcotaÞ

2pkm

1=2ðkþmÞ

Â

þ1

À1

X

k

k,a

ðuþt=kÞX

m

m,a

ðuÀt=mÞe

Àj ðkþmÞ=km ð Þ=2

dt

¸

¸

1=ðkþmÞ

ð31Þ

Similar coordinate transform can be determined for all

time–frequency representations depending on powers of

the signal local-autocorrelation xðt þt=2Þx

Ã

ðtÀt=2Þ. How-

ever, as far as we know there are no reported results for

other higher-order time–frequency representations such

as the polynomial WD (e.g., [48]) with the usage of several

auto-correlations.

2.3.2. Multiparameter coordinate transformations

Further generalizations of these transforms can be

achieved by introducing additional parameters. Mathema-

tically, such generalization would be given as

tu

f u

¸ ¸

¼

a b

c d

¸

t

f

¸ ¸

þ

b g

y f

¸ ¸

t

f

¸ ¸

½t f

1

1

¸

ð32Þ

where tu and f u represent the transformed coordinates.

These transformations correspond to more complex dis-

tortions in the time–frequency plane in comparison to the

FRFT and LPFT. The generalization, as shown in (32), could

be used to describe many existing transforms as well. For

example, when da0, fa0 and all other parameters are

equal to zero, we obtain the LPFT for M=3, as shown in (19).

3. Practical realizations of FRFT

In order to practically realize the FRFT based operators,

ﬁlters, correlators, and other optical systems, we are

required to numerically calculate the FRFT [49]. As

depicted in the previous section, the FRFT is a subclass of

integral transformations characterized by quadratic com-

plex exponential kernels. These complex exponential

kernels often introduce very fast oscillations as shown in

Fig. 3. Hence, it is not possible to evaluate these transfor-

mations by direct numerical integration since these fast

oscillations require excessively large sampling rates.

A possible approach is to decompose these integral trans-

formations into sub-operations. However, we still require

signiﬁcantly higher sampling rates than the Nyquist rate,

depending on the order and particular decomposition

employed. This results in greater time of computation,

larger numerical inaccuracies, and the need for more

memory. Therefore, the goal of this section is to provide

an overview of various practical implementations pro-

posed over the years. Given that we are concerned with

practical implementations using discrete signals, we only

consider approaches for the implementation of the so-

called discrete fractional Fourier transform (DFRFT). In

other words, for a discrete signal, x(n), of length N we

can deﬁne the DFRFT as follows:

X

a

ðnÞ ¼F

a

xðnÞ ð33Þ

where F

a

is deﬁned as the discrete fractional Fourier

transform matrix, x(n) is a vector representing the signal,

and X

a

ðnÞ is a vector representing the DFRFT of the signal.

Therefore, the optical based implantations (e.g., [49]) are

beyond the scope of this paper. A summary of various

approaches is shown in Table 3.

3.1. DFRFT through sampling of FRFT

A straightforward approach for obtaining the DFRFT is

to sample the FRFT, since the sampling theorems for the

FRFT of bandlimited and time-limited signals follow from

those of the Shannon sampling theorem [14,50–55]. How-

ever, the resultant discrete transform may lose many

important properties (i.e., unitarity and reversibility). In

addition, the DFRFTobtainedbydirect sampling of the FRFT

lacks closed-form properties and is not additive, meaning

E. Sejdic ´ et al. / Signal Processing 91 (2011) 1351–1369 1356

that its applications are very limited [56]. In order to

maintain some of the FRFT properties, a type of DFRFT,

derived as a special case of the continuous FRFT, was

proposedin[57]. Speciﬁcally, it was assumedthat the input

function is a periodic, equally spaced impulse train. Since

this type of DFRFT is a special case of continuous FRFT,

many properties of the FRFT also exist and have the fast

algorithm. However, this type of DFRFT cannot be deﬁned

for all values of a due to various imposed constraints.

At the same time, Ozaktas et al. proposed two innovative

approaches for obtaining the DFRFT through sampling

of the FRFT [58]. Both of the methods are based on the

idea that we can manipulate the expression for the FRFT,

such that the form can be appropriately sampled. In

particular, the ﬁrst methodbegins to simply by multiplying

the signal, x(t), with a chirp function:

gðtÞ ¼exp½Àjpt

2

tanða=2ÞxðtÞ ð34Þ

followed by a chirp convolution

hðtÞ ¼A

a

þ1

À1

exp½jpcscðaÞðtÀtÞgðtÞ dt ð35Þ

and the last chirp multiplication

F

a

ðxðtÞÞ ¼exp½Àjpt

2

tanða=2ÞhðtÞ ð36Þ

The convolution operation in the above equation can be

achieved by sampling g(t), and then performing the con-

volution using the fast Fourier transform (FFT). Hence,

using the FFT for convolution, provides us with samples of

−5 0 5

−2

−1

0

1

2

u

a

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

−5 0 5

−2

−1

0

1

2

u

b

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

−5 0 5

−2

−1

0

1

2

u

c

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

−5 0 5

−2

−1

0

1

2

u

d

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

Fig. 3. The FRFT kernel function for various a values with the solid line representing the real part and the dashed line representing the imaginary part (t=1):

(a) a ¼p=8; (b) a ¼p=4; (c) a ¼3p=8 and (d) a ¼p=2.

Table 3

A summary of properties for main directions for obtaining the DFRFT.

Approach Advantages Disadvantages

Sampling of FRFT Mostly straightforward application of the Shannon

sampling theorem

May loose many important properties

Linear combination Simple implementation of Fourier operators The transform results do not match the result of the continuous

FRFT

Eigenvalue

decomposition

Maintains some important properties of the FRFT Could lack the fast computation algorithm. Cannot be written in a

closed form

E. Sejdic ´ et al. / Signal Processing 91 (2011) 1351–1369 1357

F

a

ðxðtÞÞ. However, one has to keep in mind that the

bandwidth and time-bandwidth product of g(t) can be as

large as twice that of x(t). Thus, we need to sample g(t) at

the rate twice the original samplingrate usedfor x(t), which

means that the samples of x(t) need to be interpolated.

Speciﬁcally, assuming that x and X

a

denote column vectors

with N elements containing the samples of x(t) and its

DFRFT, respectively, then, in a matrix notation, the above

procedure can be given as

X

a

¼F

a

x ¼DKHKJx ð37Þ

where D and J are matrices representing the decimation

and interpolation operation, K is a diagonal matrix

that corresponds to chirp multiplication, and H corre-

sponds to the convolution operation. Eq. (37) provides

the samples of the a-thtransforminterms of the samples of

the original signal. This is a desirable property for a

deﬁnition of the DFRFT matrix [58]. Very similar results

were obtained in [52] as well. Sample computed FRFTs

for impulse and step functions are shown in Fig. 4. The

second approach, proposed in [58], implements a very

similar principle. However, the authors rewrote the FRFT

into the form:

X

a

¼A

a

expðjpcotðaÞu

2

Þ

þ1

À1

expðÀj2pcscðaÞutÞ½expðjpcotðaÞtÞxðtÞ dt

ð38Þ

Then, the modulated function ½expðjpcotðaÞtÞxðtÞ is repre-

sented by Shannon’s interpolation formula:

½expðjpcotðaÞtÞxðtÞ ¼

¸

N

n ¼ ÀN

exp jpcotðaÞ

n

2Dt

x

n

2Dt

Âsinc 2Dt tÀ

n

2Dt

ð39Þ

allowing us to obtain the samples of the fractional trans-

form in terms of the samples of the original signal as

X

a

ðmÞ ¼

A

a

2Dt

¸

N

n ¼ ÀN

exp jp cotðaÞ

m

2Dt

2

À2cscðaÞ

mn

ð2DtÞ

2

þcotðaÞ

n

2Dt

2

x

n

2Dt

ð40Þ

whichis a ﬁnite summationandDt represents the sampling

interval. In a matrix form, the overall procedure can be

represented as

X

a

¼F

a

x ¼DKJx ð41Þ

where

Kðm,nÞ ¼

A

a

2Dt

exp jp cotðaÞ

m

2Dt

2

À2cscðaÞ

mn

ð2DtÞ

2

þcotðaÞ

n

2Dt

2

ð42Þ

for jnj and jmj rN and where A

a

is a constant.

−1 0 1 2 3 4 5

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

u

M

a

g

n

i

t

u

d

e

−1 0 1 2 3 4 5

0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

u

M

a

g

n

i

t

u

d

e

−1 0 1 2 3 4 5

0

0.5

1

1.5

u

M

a

g

n

i

t

u

d

e

−1 0 1 2 3 4 5

0

0.5

1

1.5

u

M

a

g

n

i

t

u

d

e

Fig. 4. Theoretical and computed FRFTs of impulse and step functions ða ¼p=4Þ: (a) the magnitude of theoretical FRFT of the impulse function; (b) the

magnitude of computed FRFT of the impulse function; (c) the magnitude of theoretical FRFT of the unit function and (d) the magnitude of computed FRFT of

the unit function.

E. Sejdic ´ et al. / Signal Processing 91 (2011) 1351–1369 1358

However, both presented cases assumed that the WD of

x(t) is zero outside an origin-centered circle of diameter

equal to the sampling period [58]. Therefore, there might be

several DFRFT matrices providing the same result within

the accuracy of this approximation. Nevertheless, if the

signal energy contained within this circle is approaching to

the total signal energy, we know that all of these matrices

provide more accurate results. In other words, signals can

be recovered from their transforms only within some

approximation errors [59,60].

In order to alleviate some of the problems associated

with the DFRFT proposed in [58], a new type of DFRFT,

which is unitary, reversible, and ﬂexible, was proposed in

[56]. In addition, the closed-form analytic expression of

this DFRFT can be obtained. Its performance is similar

to the FRFT and can be efﬁciently calculated by FFT.

Assuming that the samples of the input function, x(t),

and the output function X

a

ðuÞ of the FRFT are obtained by

the interval Dt, Du as

yðnÞ ¼xðnDtÞ, Y

a

ðmÞ ¼X

a

ðmDuÞ ð43Þ

where n= ÀN, ÀN+1,y,N and m= ÀM, ÀM+1,y,M, then,

the following two formulas of the DFRFT are in order:

Y

a

ðmÞ ¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

sinaÀjcosa

2Mþ1

exp

j

2

cotam

2

Du

2

Â

¸

N

n ¼ ÀN

exp Àj

2pnm

2Mþ1

exp

j

2

cotan

2

Dt

2

yðnÞ

ð44Þ

when sina40 ða 2 2Dpþð0,pÞ,D 2 ZÞ, and

Y

a

ðmÞ ¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

ÀsinaÀjcosa

2Mþ1

exp

j

2

cotam

2

Du

2

Â

¸

N

n ¼ ÀN

exp j

2pnm

2Mþ1

exp

j

2

cotan

2

Dt

2

yðnÞ

ð45Þ

when sinao0 ða 2 2DpþðÀp,0Þ,D 2 ZÞ. Additionally, the

constraints that MZN (2N+1, 2M+1 are, respectively, the

number of points in the time and frequency domains) and

DuDt ¼2pjsinaj=ð2Mþ1Þ ð46Þ

must also be satisﬁed. We note that when M=N and

a ¼p=2ðÀp=2Þ, Eqs. (44) and (45) become the DFT or

IDFT. We also note that when a ¼Dp ðD 2 ZÞ, there is no

proper choice for Du and Dt that satisﬁes the inverse

formula, and thus, we cannot use the above as the deﬁni-

tion of the DFRFT. In fact, in these cases, we can just use the

following deﬁnitions:

Y

a

ðmÞ ¼yðmÞ when a ¼2Dp ð47Þ

Y

a

ðmÞ ¼yðÀmÞ when a ¼ð2Dþ1Þp ð48Þ

The inverse DFRFT is simply a Hermitian forward DFRFT

with Àa. This DFRFT is efﬁcient to calculate and implement.

Because there are two chirp multiplications and one FFT, the

total number of the multiplication operations required is

2PþðP=2Þlog

2

P, where P=2M+1 is the length of the output.

The authors also claimed that this DFRFT also has the lowest

complexity among all types of DFRFT that still work similarly

to the continuous FRFT [56]. However, it does not match the

continuous FRFT and lacks many of the characteristics of the

continuous FRFT. For example, it is difﬁcult to ﬁlter out the

chirp noise with this type of DFRFT [56].

3.2. Linear combination-type DFRFT

One of the ﬁrst approaches for the DFRFT was proposed

by Dickinson and Steiglitz [61]. In their paper, the DFRFT

was derived by using the linear combination of identity

operation (F

0

), discrete Fourier transform ðF

p=2

Þ, time

inverse operation ðF

p

Þ, and the inverse discrete Fourier

transform ðF

3p=2

Þ. In other words, the fractional matrix

operator, F

a

, for 0rarp=2 was given as [61]

F

a

¼

¸

3

k ¼ 0

b

k

F

kp=2

ð49Þ

where

b

k

¼

1

4

¸

4

l ¼ 1

exp jpl

2a

p

Àk

=2

¸

ð50Þ

for 0rkr3. In particular, it has been shown that the

operator deﬁned by (49) is unitary [62]. In other words,

F

H

a

¼F

À1

a

¼F

Àa

ð51Þ

F

a

F

Àa

¼I ð52Þ

Furthermore, the operator satisﬁes the angle additivity

property [62]:

F

a

1

F

a

2

¼F

a

1

þa

2

ð53Þ

and angle multiciplity property [62]:

F

m

a

¼F

ma

ð54Þ

It has also been noticed that the operator is periodic in the

parameter a with a fundamental period 2p [62].

This type of the DFRFT corresponds to a completely

distinct deﬁnition of the fractional Fourier transform.

However, the main problem is that the transform results

will not match to the continuous FRFT [60]. In other words,

it is not the discrete version of the continuous transform

[63].

3.3. DFRFT based on eigenvectors

A possible approach for the DFRFT is based on searching

the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the DFT matrix and

then computing the fractional power of the DFT matrix

(e.g., [59,60,63,64]). This type of the DFRFT was proposedto

combat the issues associated with previous implementa-

tions such as a lack of unitarity and index additivity

(e.g., [57,58]) and the fact that most of these provide a

satisfactory approximation to the continuous transform. In

particular, the DFRFT is based on the eigendecomposition

of the DFT kernel matrix [60]. The transform kernel of the

DFRFT can be deﬁned as

F

2a=p

¼UD

2a=p

U ð55Þ

E. Sejdic ´ et al. / Signal Processing 91 (2011) 1351–1369 1359

F

2a=p

¼

¸

NÀ1

k ¼ 0

expðÀjkaÞu

k

u

T

k

for N odd

¸

NÀ2

k ¼ 0

expðÀjkaÞu

k

u

T

k

for N even

þexpðÀjNaÞu

N

u

T

N

ð56Þ

where U=[u

0

u

1

yu

NÀ1

], when N is odd, and U=[u

0

u

1

yu

NÀ2

u

N

] when N is even. u

k

is the normalized eigen-

vector corresponding to the k-th order Hermite function

and D

2a=p

is deﬁned as the following diagonal matrix:

D

2a=p

¼diagðexpðÀj0Þ,expðÀjaÞ, . . . ,expðÀjaðNÀ2ÞÞ,

expðÀjaðNÀ1ÞÞÞ ð57Þ

for N odd and

D

2a=p

¼diagðexpðÀj0Þ,expðÀjaÞ, . . . ,expðÀjaðNÀ2ÞÞ,expðÀjaNÞÞ

ð58Þ

for N even. In order to ensure orthogonality of the DFT

Hermite eigenvectors (u

k

), the Gram–Schmidt algorithm

(GSA) or the orthogonal procrustes algorithm(OPA) can be

used [60]. The GSA minimizes the errors between the

samples of the Hermite functions and the orthogonal DFT

Hermite eigenvectors. On the other hand, the OPA mini-

mizes the total errors between those samples. It should be

also pointed out that the main difference between the

approach proposed in [60] and similar approaches pro-

posed (e.g., [59,63,64]) is found in the obtained eigenvec-

tors in previous contributions, in that they were just

discrete Mathieu functions [60]. Although the Mathieu

functions can converge to Hermite functions, the conver-

gence for the eigenvectors obtainedinprevious approaches

are not so fast for the high-order Hermite functions by the

linear mean square error criterion [60]. Additionally, the

authors investigated the relationship between the FRFT

and the DFRFT and found that for a sampling period equal

to

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2p=N

**, the DFRFT performs a circular rotation of the
**

signal in the time–frequency plane [60]. However, the

DFRFT becomes an elliptical rotation in the continuous

time–frequency plane for sampling periods different from

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2p=N

**[60]. Therefore, for these elliptical rotations an
**

angle modiﬁcation and a post-phase compensation in the

DFRFT are required to obtain results similar to the con-

tinuous FRFT [60]. This approach has been extended to the

so-called multiple-parameter discrete fractional Fourier

transform (MPDFRFT) [65,66]. In fact, the MPDFRFT main-

tains all of the desired properties and reduces to the DFRFT

when all of its order parameters are the same.

A similar approach to [60] has been proposed in [67].

However, authors in [67] believe that the discrete time

counterparts of the continuous time Hermite–Gaussians

maintained the same properties, since these discrete time

counterparts exhibited better approximations than the

other proposed approaches [68]. In order to resolve this

issue about the approximation of Hermite–Gaussian func-

tions, a nearlytri-diagonal commuting matrixof the DFTand

a corresponding version of the DFRFT was proposed in [69].

Most of the eigenvectors of this proposednearlytri-diagonal

matrix result in a good approximation of the continuous

Hermite–Gaussian functions by providing a smaller approx-

imation error in comparison to the previous approaches.

Using the ﬁndings presented in [60,67], methods for

parallel and cascade computations of DFRFT are proposed

in [70]. By this new method, the DFRFT of any angle can be

computed by a linear combination of the DFRFTs with

special angles [70]. The parallel method is suitable for the

signal whose DFRFT in special angles are already known.

The chirp signal detection is a common one, and the

cascade method has a regular structure; therefore, it is

very suitable for VLSI implementation.

However, it should be noted that these types of DFRFTs

lack the fast computation algorithm and the eigenvectors

cannot be written in a closed form.

3.4. Other approaches

The FRFT can also be realized by the quadratic phase

transform (QPT) [71,72], which is deﬁned as

QPðm,nÞ ¼

þ1

À1

xðtÞe

ÀjmtÀjnt

2

dt ð59Þ

Compared with (1), the FRFT can be computed by mapping

variables m and n of the QPT onto a and u of the FRFT. With

this equivalence of implementation, a number of fast

algorithms for the QPT can be used to compute the FRFT

[71,73–75]. Speciﬁcally, the fast algorithms proposed in

[71] make use of the concept of decimation-in-time

decomposition along the m and n domain. These algorithms

can reduce the numbers of both complex multiplications

and additions by a factor 2log

2

N, where N is the number of

samples in the time domain. By further exploiting the

periodic and symmetric properties of the QPT and with the

radix-2decimation-in-frequency principle, a computation-

ally more efﬁcient algorithm was proposed in [73].

Recently, the above fast algorithms are also extended to

real value sequences [75], which are useful in voice, audio,

and image signal analysis.

Several other approaches for obtaining the DFRFT were

proposed in the literature. Here, we only provide a brief

overview of these techniques. For complete details, a reader

should refer to these contributions. Using the group theory,

authors in[76] proposedthat the DFRFTcanbe obtainedas the

multiplication of DFT and the periodic chirps. This DFRFT

satisﬁes the rotation property on the WD, and the additivity

and reversible property. However, this type of DFRFT can be

derived only when the fractional order of the DFRFT equals

some speciﬁed angles. As well, when the number of points is

not prime, it will be very complicated to derive. Using Chirp-Z

transforms, a fast numerical algorithm for the DRFT was

proposedin[77]. This methodallows free choice of resolutions

inbothfractional Fourier spaces, simultaneous data-peepingin

any region, and easy implementation. Furthermore, the

authors argued that their method is easier to implement in

comparison with the method proposed in [61], while main-

taining the same computational efﬁciency.

4. Applications

In this section, we review the practical applications of

the FRFT and its discrete counterpart as a signal processing

tool. Nevertheless, our literature review showed that

applications are very scarce beyond optics. We anticipate

additional publications regarding practical applications of

E. Sejdic ´ et al. / Signal Processing 91 (2011) 1351–1369 1360

the FRFT are bound to appear. For example, we foresee an

increased number of applications of the FRFT based time–

frequency representations in speech and music processing,

biomedical signal processing, and mechanical vibrations

analysis. Some problems stemming fromsuch applications

demand such advanced time–frequency representations

(e.g., spectrogram, WD), since these classical time–fre-

quency tools do not provide a framework sufﬁcient for a

comprehensive analysis [2].

It should be also mentioned that in this paper we devote

more space to newer applications of the FRFT such as

watermarking and communications. Other contributions

(e.g., [1,9]) described either more traditional applications

such as ﬁltering and signal recovery or only brieﬂy covered

different applications. Our goal is to emphasize that the

FRFT is a valuable tool in many various applications.

4.1. Filtering

The idea of using the FRFT for fundamental signal

processing procedures such ﬁltering, estimation and

restoration is particularly interesting for applications

involving optical information processing [78,79]. In several

publications the concepts of ﬁltering, estimation and

restorationof signals infractional domains were developed

for these applications, revealing that under certain condi-

tions one can improve upon the special cases of these

operations in the conventional space and frequency

domain. Furthermore, the FRFT can be applied to the

problem of time-varying ﬁltering of non-stationary, ﬁnite

energy processes both in continuous-time and discrete-

time frameworks [80]. Filtering in fractional Fourier

domains may enable signiﬁcant reduction of the mean

square error in comparison with ordinary Fourier domain

ﬁltering. In particular, the optimum multiplicative ﬁlter

function that minimizes the mean square error in the a-th

fractional Fourier domain was derived in [80]. Similarly, a

novel fractional adaptive ﬁltering scheme was introduced

[81], and simulation results showed that adaptive ﬁltering

in the fractional domain is superior in comparison to its

time domain counterparts.

4.2. Watermarking

The FRFT and its counterparts have not be fully

exploited in the ﬁeld of the multimedia due to several

plausible reasons. Firstly, several well-established trans-

forms are already used in the multimedia applications (e.g.,

DCT, DST, Walsh, DWT, DFT). Secondly, multimedia appli-

cations are commonly subject to some sort of standardiza-

tion. Also, a relatively short history of the fast algorithms

for the FRFT realization and a short period for the detailed

study of the FRFT properties limit its wider usage in this

area. The third reason is that this transform with a

relatively long history inthe other signal processing related

disciplines, is still relatively unknown in the multimedia

systems. However, this situation is gradually changing

with more papers focusing on this transform. Here, it is

worthwhile mentioning the application in the digital

watermarking (e.g., [82–84]). The digital watermarking is

a technique used for the copyright protection of digital

multimedia data [85]. Adesiredability for these techniques

is a creation of a large number of watermarks that can be

embedded in multimedia data without perceptible degra-

dation of host data. Then, the FRFT domains offer more

ﬂexibility since it has been shown that the FRFT water-

marks with various angles have small correlation. Usage of

two angles in the 2D FRFT offers signiﬁcant possibility to

hide more different watermarks in images than the stan-

dard DFT or DCT-based domains.

This is illustrated with Figs. 5 and 6 taken from [82]. In

this ﬁgure the original Lena image used as a common test

example is given in Fig. 5(a) while the watermarked image

is given in Fig. 5(b). Watermark is embedded for angles

a

1

¼a

2

¼0:375p. Detection of watermarks for 1000 water-

mark keys is demonstrated in Fig. 6(a) where upper line

corresponds to detection in the watermarked image while

lower line corresponds to detection in non-watermarked

image. From spread between these two lines we can

conclude that watermark detection is reliable. Fig. 6(b)

demonstrates a situation when a search with the proper

watermark key is performed around proper angles. It can

be seen that the watermark can be detected only if the

angle under which the watermark is embedded is known.

This is a quite important fact and it helps in increasing the

Fig. 5. Watermarking using the FRFT: (a) original image and (b) watermarked image.

E. Sejdic ´ et al. / Signal Processing 91 (2011) 1351–1369 1361

number of watermarks that can be embedded within

multimedia data. A practically useful scheme for the

FRFT based watermarking is recently proposed in [86]. In

particular, the impact of the noise and other errors is

severely reduced on the FRFT coefﬁcients by pre-ﬁltering

these coefﬁcients yielding a scheme that is more robust to

various attacks.

Similarly, a watermarking scheme in the space/spatial-

frequency domain has been proposed in [87]. This

watermarking technique uses 2D chirp signals that are

well concentrated in the joint space/spatial-frequency

domain, but not in the space or spatial-frequency domain

only. Therefore, this concept of watermarking provides

results robust to the standard ﬁltering, since watermarks

are concentrated in the joint space/spatial-frequency

domain [87].

Both of these techniques are closely monitored and

followed by numerous researchers [88–97]. The main

obstacle in further applications of these techniques is the

complexity that can be reduced with various previously

described fast realization strategies. In addition, the avail-

ability of the FRFT fast realizations will lead to numerous

implementations of the FRFT and related transforms in

multimedia.

4.3. Radar applications

A couple of techniques related to the FRFT have been

recently used for focusing SAR/ISAR images (e.g., [98,99]).

This technique is commonly referred to as the LPFT in the

related literature. Two forms of the adaptive LPFT-based

technique for focusing ISAR images are proposed in [100].

The focusing is performed without assuming any particular

model of a target’s motion. Therefore, these versions of the

LPFT can be applied for any realistic motion. The ﬁrst

technique is based on knowing that, for monocomponent

and multicomponent signals with similar chirp-rates, a

single chirp-rate parameter can be estimated for all

components. The ISAR image is then focused by using

the estimated value of signal parameters obtained through

the LPFT calculation. For multicomponent signals with

different chirp-rates, a sum of the weighted LPFT is used.

If the signal’s components have signiﬁcantly different

chirp-rates, the estimation of these parameters should be

performed separately for each component. Moreover, the

obtained estimate is additionally reﬁned by combining

estimations obtained for close reﬂectors. For targets with

very complex motion patterns, segmentation of the radar

image in regions-of-interests is performed. The adaptive

LPFT is calculated for each region in order to form focused

ISAR image. Adaptive parameters are obtained by using a

simple concentration measure. Here, we demonstrate test

image of the B727 plane given in Fig. 7(a) (the ﬁgure is

takenfrom[100]). Focusing of the radar image is performed

for each cross-range parameter and the focused image is

given in Fig. 7(b). Estimated chirp-rate parameters (angles

in the FRFT terminology) are depicted with dashed lines in

Fig. 7(c). Additional improvements have been achieved

when these chirp-rates are ﬁltered with median ﬁlter

(thick line). Then, the radar images focused with the

ﬁltered chirp-rate as depicted in Fig. 7(d).

A similar approach is proposed in [101], but the chirp-

rate is estimated by using contrast of the LPFT-based ISAR

image. Moreover, a modulus of the target effective rotation

vector is calculated from the obtained estimation. A

quantitative analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)

for the LPFT applied in the ISAR imaging is presented in

[102]. It has been shown that the LPFT-based methods for

focusing ISAR images can achieve a signiﬁcantly higher

output SNR than those based on the STFT.

Focusing of the SAR images is usually performed by

estimating parameters of a received signal. A technique for

applying the product higher-order ambiguity function

(PHAF) for estimating parameters of the radar signal and

focusing SAR images is proposed in [103]. Moving target

focusing can be performed by this technique for some

speciﬁc scenarios. More precisely, the obtained SAR image

will be focused only when one target exists in a range bin,

or when all targets in one range bin have similar motion

parameters. Otherwise, this technique fails to achieve high

concentration of each target simultaneously. In order to

overcome this drawback, analgorithmfor separating signal

Fig. 6. Analysis of the detector: (a) statistical analysis of detecting watermark signal in watermarked and non-watermarked image and (b) detection of

watermark signal using different transformation angles.

E. Sejdic ´ et al. / Signal Processing 91 (2011) 1351–1369 1362

components corresponding to targets with different

motion parameters is applied in [104] where the LPFT-

based technique is used for focusing each component. The

drawback of the LPFT-based technique, applied in this

manner, is high computational complexity needed for

selection of chirp-rate that produces the best concentra-

tion. Therefore, an algorithmfor the automated selectionof

phase parameters used for the LPFT calculation is proposed

in [105]. In this algorithm, an adaptive set of chirp-rates is

formed for each unfocused target. When one or more

unfocused targets are detected in a range, the PHAF is

evaluated and the position of its maximum is used for the

coarse estimation of chirp-rate. Further improvement of

the obtainedestimate is performedby using a ﬁne searchin

the region around the chirp-rate obtained from the coarse

search. The number of chirp-rates in the ﬁne search stage is

rather small (usually not larger than several tens) which

yields a signiﬁcant decrease inthe computational complex-

ity with respect to the technique proposed in [104] (which

requires hundreds or thousands). In addition, a procedure

for the third-order phase compensation is applied in the

proposed algorithm without a signiﬁcant increase of the

calculationburden. In[104–106] it has beenshownthat the

LPFT-based methods for focusing SAR images are more

robust to the additive noise inﬂuence than the STFT radar

imaging techniques.

Here, we have borrowed ﬁgure from [105] where the

SAR image of several moving and stationary targets is

shown (Fig. 8(a)). It can be seen that the moving targets

have seriously spread components. Alternative tools such

as a technique called the S-method [107] are unable to

separate overlapping targets (Fig. 8(b)). The LPFT technique

with predeﬁned set of the chirp-rates gives signiﬁcantly

improved results as shown in Fig. 8(c). However, the

procedure proposed in [105] based on the LPFT with

automatic selection of the chirp-rate parameters, produces

highly focusing of all considered targets (Fig. 8(d)).

4.4. Communications

Traditional multicarrier (MC) systems are designed

with the DFT based schemes. The main representative of

these techniques is the orthogonal frequency-division

multiplexing (OFDM). However, for doubly selective chan-

nels (channels with selectivity in both time and frequency)

this technique produces non-satisfactory results. Martone

Fig. 7. B727 radar image: (a) results obtainedby the FT-basedmethod; (b) adaptive LPFT method; (c) adaptive chirprate (dotted line), ﬁlteredadaptive chirp

rate (light solidline), linear interpolationof ﬁltereddata (boldsolidline) and(d) adaptive LPFTwithinterpolateddata. o

t

ando

m

represent the range andthe

cross-range, respectively.

E. Sejdic ´ et al. / Signal Processing 91 (2011) 1351–1369 1363

published a corner-stone paper where the discrete FRFT is

used instead of the DFT in multicarrier systems [108]. For

channels with fast variations with available the line-of-

sight component (usually associated with mobile stations

mounted on high speed carriers and/or non-urban envir-

onments) this scheme signiﬁcantlyoutperforms DFT-based

counterparts. Performance of this technique is signiﬁcantly

improved since the time–frequency plane can be adjusted

(rotated) in a way to compensate undesired modulation of

the signals introduced by high velocity of participants and/

or by multipath component shifted from the line-of-sight

components. This technique is generalized for general

linear canonical form of the transform (afﬁne Fourier

transform—AFT) in [109]. This form has shown an

improved ﬂexibility with respect to the FRFT-based

scheme. These chirp based modulations and associated

AFT schemes have been identiﬁed as a suitable basis for

multicarrier communications such as aeronautical and

satellite [110]. Table 4 provides a comparison between

the AFT-MC technique and the standard OFDM for four

typical scenaria that can be observed in the case of the

aeronautical channels. The best results for the AFT-MC

techniques are observed for en-route scenario while in the

worst case for the parking scenario, the AFT-based tech-

nique behaves the same as the OFDM. Then, in our opinion

the AFT technique are important candidates for novel

digital standards for the aeronautical communications

with solved problem of the fast realizations of the AFT

(FRFT).

Similarly, other contributions discussed the application

of the FRFT in communication systems. In a very recent

publication (e.g., [111]), a minimum mean squared error

receiver based on the FRFT for MIMO systems with space

time processing over Rayleigh faded channels was pre-

sented. The numerical analysis of the proposed receiver

showed improved performance; outperforming the simple

minimum mean squared error receiver in Rayleigh faded

channel. Furthermore, chirp modulation spread spectrum

based on the FRFT was recently proposed for demodulation

of multiple access systems [112]. The numerical analysis

showed that the FRFT based receiver is more ﬂexible and

efﬁcient system for multiple access by reducing the

designing complexity of the system. The authors also

argued that receivers based on the FRFT are more sensitive

than earlier coherent receivers for chirp signals.

4.5. Compression

An interesting application of the FRFT to compression

can be found in [113]. In particular, the contribution dealt

with image compression and found that even though the

presented method yielded inferior results in comparison to

commonly available compressionalgorithms, there is still a

room for improvement. The authors argued that their

method is very basic and further improvements can be

Proposed LPFT

x[m]

y[m]

−100 −50 0 50 100

−150

−100

−50

0

50

100

150

Adaptive 1D SM

x[m]

y[m]

−100 −50 0 50 100

−150

−100

−50

0

50

100

150

2D FT

x[m]

y[m]

−100 −50 0 50 100

−150

−100

−50

0

50

100

150

LPFT

x[m]

y[m]

−100 −50 0 50 100

−150

−100

−50

0

50

100

150

Fig. 8. Simulated SAR image of seven target points obtained by using: (a) 2D FT; (b) adaptive S-method; (c) LPFT with predeﬁned set of chirp rates and

(d) proposed LPFT.

Table 4

A comparison of two techniques.

Scenario En-route Arrival/

takeoff

Taxi Parking

AFT-MC vs.

OFDM

Signiﬁcantly

better

Slightly

better

Slightly

better

Equal

E. Sejdic ´ et al. / Signal Processing 91 (2011) 1351–1369 1364

achieved by combining with other techniques. The concept

of compressionusing the FRFT has beenfurther extendedin

[114], where authors proposed a scheme for signal com-

pression based on the combination of DFRFT and set

partitioning in hierarchical tree (SPIHT). The application

of the scheme to different types of signals demonstrated a

signiﬁcant reduction in bits leading to high signal com-

pression ratio. The results were further compared with

those obtained with the discrete cosine transform. Hence,

the DFRFT is shown to be more suitable for compression

than the DCT, especially in terms of quality of recon-

structed signal and the percentage root-mean-square

difference. There is no need to encode the error signal

and send along with the encoded DFRFT coefﬁcients, as the

dynamic range of error signal is too small.

4.6. Pattern recognition

Given that the FRFT provides an extra parameter (e.g.,

the rotationangle) incomparisonwiththe ordinary Fourier

transform, the FRFT also provides additional degrees of

freedom in pattern recognition systems. For example, the

FRFT was used as a pre-processor for a neural network

[115]. The use of fractional based pre-processing resulted

in an improved performance comparing to both no pre-

processing and ordinary Fourier transform pre-processing.

Also, the fractional based pre-processing resulted in a

substantial reduction of classiﬁcation and localization

error. While use of the fractional Fourier transform

increases the cost of the training procedure, the improve-

ments achieved with its use come at no additional routine

operating cost.

Furthermore, it has been also shown that pattern

recognition methods based on matched ﬁltering can be

generalized by replacing the standard Fourier operations

by fractional Fourier operations [116]. However, these

systems become time (or space) varying systems.

4.7. Cryptography

The FRFT can also be used in the ﬁeld of cryptography

[117–121]. For example, a 2004 US patent invented a

cryptographic approach [117]. At the encryption side, a

user ﬁrst selects at least four parameters including an angle

of rotation, a time exponent, a phase, anda sampling rate as

the encryption key. Then, more than one modiﬁed FRFT

kernels corresponding to the encryption key are selected

and multiplied with the input signal. On the other hand, a

reverse procedure with respect to the encryption process is

used for decryption.

The modiﬁed FRFT (e.g., [118]) along with the double

random phase encoding technique has been successfully

applied for encrypting digital data. Speciﬁcally, using the

double random phase encoding in the multiple-parameter

FRFT domain, this encryption method enhances data

security because the order parameters of the modiﬁed

FRFT can be exploited as extra keys for decryption. How-

ever, this encryption scheme has shown to be linear [119].

Hence, it is insecure because a known plaintext attack can

break this scheme, which is equivalent to solving a set of

linear equations [119]. It is also shown that the current

standard algorithms such as AES [122] outperform the

above system in terms of both encryption speed, band-

width, and storage requirements.

Recently, a random discrete FRFT, proposed in [123],

exhibits an important feature that the magnitude and

phase of its transform output are both random. This

random discrete FRFT is also ﬁrst applied to the image

encryption to show its potentials.

4.8. Fractal signal processing

The FRFT also found its application in processing of

fractal signals. For example, the FRFT was used for the

determination of the main parameters of fractals in [124].

In [125], a FRFT based estimation method was introduced

to analyze the long range dependence in time series. In

particular, the FRFT was used for estimation of the Hurst

exponent. The results have shown that the FRFT estimator

can achieve a reliable estimation of the Hurst exponent

when compared to some other existing estimation meth-

ods, such as wavelet-based method and a global estimator

based on dispersional analysis.

4.9. Other applications

The FRFT can be useful in terms of differential equations

[7,126], especiallyfor solving these equations. For example,

the FRFT of a function x(t) can be considered as a solution of

a differential equation, where x(t) can be considered as the

initial condition of the equation. In particular, Namias

solved several Shrodinger equations using this assumption

[7]. Further examples can be found in [1,7,126]. The FRFT

can be also shown to be a particular case of the evolution

operators [127]. Further details about the applicationof the

FRFT to differential equations can be found in [128].

Anapplicationof the FRFT to computer tomography was

also recently discussed [129]. In particular, a two-dimen-

sional FRFT has been used to characterize the effect of

scattering [129].

The FRFT has also been applied to transient motor

current signature analysis (TMCSA) [130], due to the

shortcomings of Fourier transform for such an analysis.

This paper also proposed the optimization of the FRFT to

generate a spectrum where the frequency-varying fault

harmonics appear as single spectral lines and, therefore,

facilitate the diagnostic process.

5. Conclusion

The FRFT is a powerful mathematical transform that

generalizes the ordinary Fourier transform through the

order parameter a. As such, it has been rediscovered in the

literature several times. In this paper, we provided an

overview of the FRFT from the signal processing point of

view. In particular, our goal was to attract signal processing

practitioners to this mathematically eloquent concept and

depict its advantages. In order to do so, the paper is

thematically divided into three topics. In the ﬁrst part,

we presented the deﬁnition of the FRFT and tied it to other

mathematical representations. The second part of the

paper covered various practical realizations of the FRFT,

E. Sejdic ´ et al. / Signal Processing 91 (2011) 1351–1369 1365

while the practical applications of the FRFT were discussed

in the third part of the paper. The conclusions stemming

from each part were as follows:

Besides its ties to the ordinary Fourier transform, the

FRFT can be further related to various time–frequency

transforms. Inparticular, we showedthe direct relation-

ship between the AF, the WD and the FRFT. This

relationship enables us to relate the FRFT to a wide

class of time–frequency transforms. Furthermore, we

showedthat the FRFT canbe consideredas a special case

of the second-order LPFT and LPP. Also, the FRFT can be

considered as the special case of the LCT. Such a

relationship provides a direct generalization link

between the FRFT and many higher-order/afﬁne math-

ematical transformations. In particular, we outlined the

connection between the FRFT and L-WD for the ﬁrst

time inthe literature. Future contributions inthis theme

will include a further understanding of the FRFT and its

ties to other mathematical transforms.

The digital realizations of the FRFT can be divided into

three major streams. One streamis represented through

direct sampling of the FRFT. It is the least complicated

approach, but these discrete realizations could lose

many important properties of the FRFT. Furthermore,

the kernel associated with the FRFT can introduce very

fast oscillations that require excessively large sampling

rates. A second stream relies on a linear combination of

ordinary Fourier operators raised to different powers.

Nevertheless, these realizations often produce an out-

put that does not match the output of the continuous

FRFT. The third stream approaches the discrete realiza-

tions based on the idea of an eigenvalue decomposition.

The realizations obtained through this stream tend to

closely resemble the representations obtained by the

continuous FRFT. However, we should point out that the

major drawbacks of this approach are that they cannot

be written in a closed form and might have computa-

tional costs. Lastly, we also outlined other approaches

that appeared in the literature. We speciﬁcally sug-

gested that potential realizations of the FRFT could be

achieved with the so-called quadratic phase transform.

Anticipated contributions in this ﬁeld need to deal with

issues associated with the current schemes.

The number of publications discussing practical appli-

cations of the FRFThas beensteadilyrising. Inparticular,

we have witnessed a strong expansion of the FRFT in

several ﬁelds, including watermarking, radar applica-

tions, and wireless communications. Furthermore, we

also have the FRFT present in other ﬁelds as well (e.g.,

fractal signal processing, pattern recognition, ﬁltering).

The main advantage is that the FRFT-based schemes

increase processing accuracy. For example, a group of

authors described an adaptive ﬁltering scheme in a

recent contribution. The presented results showed a

superior performance in comparison to its time domain

counterparts. Similar trends have been observed in

multimedia signal processing, where the FRFT has

been used for watermarking. In particular, the water-

mark could be detected only if the angle under which

the watermark was embeddedwas known. This enabled

us to increase the number of watermarks embedded

within multimedia data. Fromthese past contributions,

we expect an expansion of FRFT-based methods in

different applications to dominate the future contribu-

tions. In particular, we expect to see increased applica-

tion of the FRFT based time–frequency representations

in speech and music processing, biomedical signal

processing and mechanical vibration analysis. Problems

stemming from such applications require the employ-

ment of such advanced time–frequency transforms.

Overall, the paper provided a compact summary of the

recent contributions regarding the FRFT (for convenience,

Table 5 contains reference sorted according to their topics).

The FRFT is a very powerful tool and has been applied to

many ﬁelds. Further research and applications of existing

schemes will increase in the near future.

Acknowledgments

The work of Igor Djurovic´ is supported in part by the

Ministry of Science and Education of Montenegro. The

authors would like to thank Vesna Popovic´ from the

University of Montenegro, Djuro Stojanovic´ from Crno-

gorski Telekom and Pu Wang from the Stevens Institute of

Technology for shaping up some sections of this manu-

script. Last, but not least, the authors would like to thank

the reviewers whose comments have helped them to

improve the technical quality and the presentation of the

manuscript.

References

[1] H.M. Ozaktas, Z. Zalevsky, M.A. Kutay, The Fractional Fourier

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using energy concentration: an overviewof recent advances, Digital

Signal Processing 19 (1) (2009) 153–183.

Table 5

References sorted according to their topics.

Topics Refs.

Theoretical contributions

Introductory and review contributions [1,4–15]

FRFT and time–frequency representations [2,3,16–44]

FRFT and linear canonical transform [1,6,45,46]

DFRFT through sampling of FRFT [14,50–58]

Linear combination-type DFRFT [61,62]

DFRFT based on eigen- vectors [59,60,63–70]

Other approaches for DFRFT [71–77]

Applications

Filtering [78–81]

Watermarking [82–84,86–97]

Radar applications [98–106]

Communications [108–112]

Compression [113,114]

Pattern recognition [115,116]

Cryptography [117–123]

Fractal signal processing [124,125]

Other application [7,126–130]

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E. Sejdic ´ et al. / Signal Processing 91 (2011) 1351–1369 1369

.e. A similar expression can be derived for convolution of two signals ðyðtÞ ¼ xðtÞ Ã wðtÞÞ. 2. F 0 is the identity operator. F 0 ðxðtÞÞ ¼ xðtÞ. The fractional Fourier transform The fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) is a linear operator deﬁned as [10–13] Xa ðuÞ ¼ F a ðxðtÞÞ ¼ þ1 Z À1 7. The FRFT is a linear operator. a can be adjusted in many applications to provide enhanced results in comparison to other existing methods. Given the properties of the kernel. It should be noted that we adopted notation for the FRFT found in signal processing literature. Some properties associated with the FRFT are summarized as follows [1.. we hope to foster more applications since the FRFT offers many valuable properties.. we emphasize the practicality of the FRFT by devoting a signiﬁcant part of this manuscript to its discrete realizations and applications. Additional properties of the FRFT and some transform pairs are listed in Tables 1 and 2. The FRFTs of a few sample signals are shown in Fig. The paper is organized as follows: Section 2 introduces the concept of FRFT and relates the transform to other mathematical representations. F a1 F a2 ¼ F a2 F a1 ) and associativity (i. The same can be stated for F 2p . we discuss various implementation approaches for discrete signals. and is equal to x( À t) when a þ p is a multiple of 2p.uÞ ¼ Âejðu =2Þcota ejðt =2ÞcotaÀjutcsca > > dðtÀuÞ > > > > : dðt þ uÞ if a is not multiple of p if a is a multiple of 2p if a þ p is a multiple of 2p ð2Þ and dðtÞ representing the Dirac function. Signal 1 FRFT pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1 þ jtanaexpðÀjðu2 =2ÞtanaÞ rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1Àjcota expðjððt2 þ u2 Þ=2ÞcotaÀjut csc aÞ 2p 2 expðÀu =2Þ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1 þ jtanaexpðjððZ2 þ u2 Þ=2ÞtanaÀjuZsecaÞ sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1Àjcota expðjðu2 =2Þðc2 À1Þcota=ðc2 þ cot2 aÞÞ cÀjcota expðÀcðu2 =2Þcsc2 a=ðc2 þ cot2 aÞÞ dðtÀtÞ expðÀt 2 =2Þ expðjZtÞ expðcðÀt 2 =2ÞÞ . we denote the rotation angle by a. 1. the resultant FRFT is equal to convolution of the FRFT of x(t) with the Fourier transform of w(t) multiplied by a chirp function. P 3..e. 6. Section 4 provides an overview of some FRFT applications. Successive applications of the FRFT of various orders is equal to a single application of the FRFT whose order is equal to the sum of individual orders (e.10–12]).. Sejdic et al. Mathematicians usually denote the rotation angle by a.e.Ya ðuÞS.g. A particularly interesting case of the above listed properties is the fact that it can be shown that the FRFT of a product of two signals. along with additional transform pairs. In particular.. 2. More extensive descriptions and proofs of these properties. y(t) = x(t) w(t). which otherwise were not available with traditional tools (e. where a ¼ 2a=p. [1. The FRFT adheres to commutativity (i. can be found in other references (e. 5. F a ð k ck xk ðtÞÞ ¼ P k ck F a ðxk ðtÞÞ.. In other words.14]: 1.e. (1) is equal to x(t) when a is a multiple of 2p. The standard Fourier transform is a special case of the FRFT with a rotation angle a ¼ p=2. 4..uÞ representing the kernel function deﬁned as 8 rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ > 1Àjcota > > > > 2p > < 2 2 Ka ðt.uÞ dt ð1Þ with Ka ðt. By attracting more practitioners to this eloquent mathematical concept. xuðtÞ Rt b xðtuÞ dtu Ru secaexpðÀjðu2 =2ÞtanaÞ b Xa ðzÞexpðjðz2 =2ÞtanaÞ dz if aÀp=2 is not a multiple of p Table 2 FRFT of some basic functions. the Fourier transform).e. In particular. In Section 3.yðtÞS ¼ /Xa ðuÞ. i. Additional computational complexity associated with such optimization efforts is often acceptable.g. F a F Àa ¼ F 0 Þ. FRFT satisﬁes the Parseval theorem: /xðtÞ.g. Hence.1352 ´ E. i. Inverse FRFT is obtained by applying F Àa to the transformed signal (i. These properties clearly indicate that the FRFT is an extension of the ordinary Fourier transform. ðF a3 F a2 ÞF a1 ¼ F a3 ðF a2 F a1 ÞÞ. Throughout the paper we use F a to denote the operator associated with the FRFT. F a1 F a2 ¼ F a1 þ a2 Þ. while in Section 5. can be shown to be equal to [15]: ! þ1 Z jcscaj ju2 cota Ya ðuÞ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ exp Xa ðuÞWððuÀuÞcscaÞ 2 2p À1 ju2 cota Âexp À du ð3Þ 2 where WðuÞ is the Fourier transform of w(t). Eq. It is important to point out that various a values provide transformations with distinctive properties. we provide concluding remarks along with an outline of possible future directions. / Signal Processing 91 (2011) 1351–1369 particular. convolution of two signals in time domain equals to [15]: ! þ1 Z ju2 tana Ya ðuÞ ¼ jsecajexp À Xa ðuÞwððuÀuÞsecaÞ 2 À1 2 ju tana du ð4Þ Âexp 2 Table 1 Properties of the FRFT. Signal xðtÀtÞ xðtÞexpðjutÞ x(t)t x(t)/t x(ct) FRFT expðjðt2 =2ÞsinacosaÀjutsinaÞXa ðuÀtcosaÞ expðÀju2 ðsinacosaÞ=2 þ jucosaÞXa ðuÀusinaÞ ucosaXa ðuÞ þ jsinaXa uðuÞ Ru Àjsecaexpðjðu2 =2ÞcotaÞ À1 xðzÞexpðÀjðz2 =2ÞcotaÞ dz sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1Àjcota usinb expðjðu2 =2Þcotað1Àðcos2 b=cos2 aÞÞÞXb 2 Àjcota csina c where cotb ¼ cota=c2 uðuÞcosa þ jusinaXa ðuÞ Xa xðtÞKa ðt.

´ E. we obtained xðtÞ ¼ where Z ck ¼ 1 X k¼0 ck fk ðtÞ ð6Þ þ1 fk ðtÞxðtÞ dt ð7Þ À1 By applying the fractional operator ðF a ðÁÞÞ to both sides of (6).5 0 0. First. FRFT as fractional powers of Fourier transform Therefore.5 0 −1 0 1 2 t 3 4 5 0 −0. Using . (c) time domain representation of the unit function. In fact. (d) FRFT of the unit function. Our next task is to understand the relationship between the FRFT and other mathematical representations. More speciﬁcally. Namias used the fact that the Hermite–Gaussian functions ðfk ðtÞÞ are eigenfunctions of the Fourier transform and showed that the a-th order FRFT shares the eigenfunctions of the Fourier transform. we begin by establishing the relationships with the ordinary Fourier transform. (b) FRFT of the Dirac function.uÞ ¼ 1 X k¼0 expðÀjakÞfk ðuÞfk ðtÞ ð9Þ The above equation can be considered as the spectral decomposition of the kernel function of FRFT [1].5 0 −5 0 u 5 Fig. if we expand a signal in terms of these eigenfunctions. it is clear that the kernel function can be deﬁned as Ka ðt. (e) time domain representation of the exponential function and (f) FRFT of the exponential function.5 0 1 0 −1 −1 0 1 2 u 1 3 4 5 Amplitude Amplitude −5 0 t 5 1 0. 2. the eigenvalues of the FRFT are the a-th root of the eigenvalues of the Fourier transform [7]: F a ðfk ðtÞÞ ¼ expðÀjakÞfk ðtÞ ð5Þ ¼ ck expðÀj k¼0 Z X 1 k¼0 1 X akÞfk ðuÞ ð8Þ expðÀjakÞfk ðuÞfk ðtÞxðtÞ dt From the above equation. which shows that the FRFT of a convolution can therefore be obtained by taking the FRFT of one of the signals. while dashed lines represent imaginary parts. Sejdic et al.5 −1 0 1 2 u 3 4 5 Amplitude Amplitude −1 0 1 2 t 3 4 5 1 0. / Signal Processing 91 (2011) 1351–1369 1353 0. These two rules are of particular interests when developing a time–frequency representation based on the FRFT.5 Amplitude Amplitude 1 0. by deriving the FRFT from the eigenfunctions of the Fourier transform. we establish relationships with various time–frequency representations and linear canonical analysis.1. and multiplying again by a chirp and by a scale factor. 1. Then. Solid lines represent real parts. we get F a ðxðtÞÞ ¼ ¼ 1 X k¼0 ck F a ðfk ðtÞÞ Namias provided an elegant generalization of the Fourier transform to the FRFT [7]. Sample signals and their theoretical FRFTs ða ¼ p=4Þ: (a) time domain representation of the Dirac function. multiplying by a chirp. convolving with a scaled version of the other signal.

and the signal is deﬁned as xðtÞ ¼ ½expðÀ60ðtÀ0:5Þ2 Þ þ expðÀ60ðt þ 0:5Þ2 Þ Â½expðj12ptÞ þ expðÀj12ptÞ ð17Þ ð13Þ Using this relationship.RsinaÞ. the AF has the auto-terms concentrated around the origin while the interferences are dislocated from the origin. However. we consider the relationship between the ambiguity function and the FRFT. Time–frequency representation of the four-component signal: (a) the AF.22–25]: WDFa ðxðtÞÞ ðt. let us considered a signal with four components concentrated in the TF plane around (t.2. it can be easily generalized that the FRFT corresponds to rotation of a class of time–frequency representations (TFRs) as along as Cðt. oÞ ¼ FT t-o. [26]) is studied in [23. To illustrate this behavior.2.e. while interferences (cross-terms) are located between these components.1.and cross-terms in the time– frequency plane for some classes of signals.. tÞ is a two-dimensional kernel function.g.f Þ ¼ þ1 Z À1 behaviors when considering signals with multiple components. we should point out that the FRFT could be potentially useful for obtaining time–frequency distributions without cross-terms. In particular. 2. aÞ ¼ AF x ðRcosa. while the corner objects represent single cross-terms. 2(c) when we used the FRFT operator with a ¼ 0:5 in (16). The AF of this signal is depicted in Fig. and redeﬁning the AF as FRAF x ðR.76). we rewrite the FRFT as rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ þ1 Z 2 1Àjcota jðu2 =2Þcota e xw ðtÞejðt =2ÞcotaÀjutcsca dt 2p À1 Additionally. autoterms) concentrated around their instantaneous frequencies and group delays. All four auto-terms are located in the middle of the graph (i. First. the origin of the ambiguity plane). Sejdic et al. Each of four horizontal and vertical objects with respect to the origin represents two crossterms. 2(a). y-t fAF x ðy. / Signal Processing 91 (2011) 1351–1369 the Mehler formula. x(t). it is possible to separate all auto. For example.f Þ ¼ WDx ðtcosaÀf sina. Speciﬁcally.1Þ and a 2 ½0. all 16 components (4 auto terms and 12 cross-terms) are clearly separated as shown in Fig.f)=(70. aÀ ¼ jXa ðuÞjexpðj2pRuÞ du 2 À1 However.27].. the connection between the local fractional FT moments and the angle derivative of the fractional power spectra has been established in [17]. pÞ.29]. it is easy to prove that the fractional power spectra is the Fourier transform of the AF: þ1 Z p FRAF x R.e. Local polynomial Fourier transform It is also of our interest to establish the relationship between the FRFT and the local polynomial Fourier transform (LPFT) [28. The ambiguity function (AF) of a signal.usina þf cosaÞ ð14Þ with t 2 ½À1. . The relationship between FRFT and Radon–Wigner distribution (RWD) (e. tÞg is rotational symmetric [18–21]. In the case of the WD (Fig. Relations to time–frequency representations To understand the relationship between the FRFT and various time–frequency analyses. the FRFT corresponds to the rotation of the Wigner distribution (WD) in the time–frequency plane [20. the WD has signal components (i. 2(b)). On the other hand. while the central object represents the four cross-terms. 2. where fðy.1. For example. it becomes obvious that the FRFT corresponds to a rotation of the AF [16]. the corner objects are autoterms. and it was shown that the RWD is the squared modulus of the FRFT: RWD½xðtÞ ¼ jF a ½xðtÞj2 ð15Þ 2. ffðy. The remaining objects contain two cross terms each. is AF x ðt. interesting results are obtained when we use the 2D FRFT instead of the 2D Fourier transform in (16). WD and AF exhibit different F a ðxðtÞÞ ¼ ð18Þ Fig.f Þ ¼ F À1 t-f y-t. The connection between these two time–frequency representations is the 2D Fourier transform: WDx ðt. tÞg ð16Þ t Ã t x tÀ expðÀj2ptf Þ dt x tþ 2 2 ð10Þ By introducing rotation of the AF by using the following transformation: t ¼ Rcosa f ¼ Rsina ð11Þ ð12Þ with R 2 ðÀ1.5.1354 ´ E. Namely.. Furthermore. Namias in fact shows that we obtain the FRFT from (8) [7]. (b) the WD and (c) the FRFT of the AF.

29]. .e. Hence.e.32].f þ 2pf2 tÞ ð22Þ where AFw(t.b. the LPP rotates AFw(t. Speciﬁcally. which is a generalization of the kernel used for the spectrogram (i.f Þ ¼ þ1 Z À1 t t wÃ tÀ expðÀj2pf2 ðt þ t=2Þ2 w tþ 2 2 þ j2pf2 ðtÀt=2Þ2 Àj2pf tÞ dt þ1 Z t t wÃ tÀ expðÀj4pf2 ttÀj2pf tÞ dt ¼ w tþ 2 2 À1 ¼ AF w ðt. we set M =2. Fresnel transform) [1. For example. we can relate the FRFT to the local polynomial periodogram (LPP). Other time–frequency representations and properties A formal relationship between the wavelet transform and the FRFT has also been established [31. the generalized Fresnel transform. b¼0 ð23Þ where ad Àbc = 1. .45.2. fractional-Fourier-domain realizations of several other time–frequency representations were also introduced. where we relate the FRFT with the linear canonical transform. coshag and its kernel function is deﬁned as 1 2 2 Ka ðt. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ F a ðxðtÞÞ ¼ expðjaÞLCT fcosa.c. and the tomography time–frequency transform deﬁned as the inverse Radon transform of the FRFT [39]. These include realizations of the short-time Fourier transform [33].1g represents the form of the second order polynomial Fourier transform with 2pf2 ¼ a. phase retrieval.sinha..f1 .cosag with some phase correction [1. other existing forms of the LCT can be related to FRFT. The LPP is a distribution belonging to the Cohen class of distributions [28. the weighted WD (i. Hence.sina.32]. However. Several publications also investigated the uncertainty principle in the fractional domain [41–44]. then (18) can be expressed in terms of the LPFT as rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1Àjcota jðu2 =2Þcota LPFT x ðt. radar system analysis. FRFT. the Gabor expansion [35–38]. .. Similar observations have been made in [30].3.g.f) is the ambiguity function of the used window.f Þj2 ð21Þ Furthermore. de Bruijn proposed a form of the LCT in 1973 [6]. This generalization stems from the fact that the short-time Fourier transform is equal to the LPFT for M =1. The parameters of this distribution are fcosha. the simple coordinate transform proposed in [16] when considered with parameters f1. Furthermore.45]. which is demonstrated in the next section.f) in the ambiguity plane and can adjust the resulting time–frequency representation according to the signal of interest. / Signal Processing 91 (2011) 1351–1369 1355 where xw ðtÞ ¼ xðt þ tÞwðtÞ..f2 . . which is quite similar to the FRFT.dg. which have a speciﬁc meaning relating those quantities to the signal under analysis. Eqs. the squared magnitude of the short-time Fourier transform). let us consider the LPP in more detail. it is not very clear what is a precise meaning of those generalized marginals in comparison to the traditional time and frequency marginals.45.cosag ðxðtÞÞ ð24Þ Additionally. and pattern recognition [45].29] LPFT x ðt. or the almost Fourier and almost Fresnel transformation [1. Using the above equation.e.dg ¼ fcosa. it is straightforward to show that the FRFT is the special case of LCT where fa.sinha.34]. and 2pf2 ¼ cota. This transform shares numerous properties of FRFT and it will be interesting to . If the LPFT is given by [28. Sejdic et al..2.fM Þ.45].0.uÞ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ eÀjpðu =2Þcotha eÀjpðt =2Þcotha þ jput=sinha sinha ð25Þ To understand the relationship between the FRFT and the LPP.f Þ ¼ þ1 Z À1 xðt þ tÞwðtÞexpðÀj2pf1 tÀj2pf2 t2 =2 ð19Þ À Á Á Á Àj2pfM tM =MÞ dt where f ¼ ðf1 . 2pf1 ¼ ucsca. 2. Its kernel is deﬁned as the AF of wg ðtÞ ¼ wðtÞ expðÀj2pf2 t 2 =2À Á Á Á Àj2pfM t M =M!Þ.f2 Þ ð20Þ F a ðxðtÞÞ ¼ e 2p From these equations it can be clearly seen that the LPFT provides a broad generalization of the FRFT. Some of the properties associated with the time– frequency analysis have been extended to the FRFT.46] 8 sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ þ1 Z > > 1 2 > > expðÀjut=bÞ > > j2pbexpðj du =ð2bÞÞ < À1 LCT L ðxðtÞÞ ¼ > > Âexpðjat2 =ð2bÞÞxðtÞ dt. Additionally. This implies that any coordinate transformation can be used. a. where the kernel function is deﬁned as the AF of w(t).f Þ ¼ jLPFT x ðt.´ E. S-method) [21.c. For example.Àsina. the ABCD transform. the Fourier transform.46]. (13)–(22) demonstrate that various coordinate transformations have been implemented to relate the FRFT to different transformations. FRFT and linear canonical transform The linear canonical transform (LCT) is a multiparameter integral transform and it represents a generalization of many mathematical transformations (e. ﬁlter design. marginals associated with time–frequency representations based on the fractional Fourier transform were examined [40] in analogy to marginals associated with TFRs based on the standard Fourier transform. which is deﬁned as the squared magnitude of the LPFT: LPP x ðt.Àsina. Similarly can be stated for any localized form of the FRFT with a proper selection of the a (angle) parameter. The LCT is deﬁned by [1. In other words. to relate the LPP to (20). It should be mentioned that the LCT is also called the afﬁne Fourier transform. let us consider the second order case (i. L ¼ fa. ba0 > > > pﬃﬃﬃ > : dexpðjc du2 =2ÞxðduÞ.sina. which can be obtained from the quadratic phase function in (2) by scaling the coordinates and the amplitude [31. the FRFT kernels corresponding to different values of a are closely related to the wavelet transform. M = 2): AF wg ðt. the Collins formula.b. 2. The transformation is useful in many practical applications such as optics.

However.g. 3. a ðuÀt=mÞeÀjððk þ mÞ=kmÞ=2 dtA À1 where Fa is deﬁned as the discrete fractional Fourier transform matrix. Hence. a ðuÞ ¼ 2p 1=2L 0þ1 11=L Z L jðL=2Þcotaðu2 þ t2 ÞÀjLutcsca @ x ðtÞe dt A À1 ð28Þ The L-FRFT form can be evaluated using the FRFT as XL. the generalized (L) form of the FRFT can be written as Lð1ÀjcotaÞ XL. we are required to numerically calculate the FRFT [49]. Practical realizations of FRFT In order to practically realize the FRFT based operators. when da0. These complex exponential kernels often introduce very fast oscillations as shown in Fig. 3. As depicted in the previous section. Coordinate transformation of other higher-order time– frequency representations The FRFT and LCT framework can be generalized for some higher order time–frequency representations. a ðuÞ ¼ L 1=2L 0þ1 þ1 þ1 Z Z Z 1 þ jcota ðLÀ1Þ=2L @ . as far as we know there are no reported results for other higher-order time–frequency representations such as the polynomial WD (e. the DFRFT obtained by direct sampling of the FRFT lacks closed-form properties and is not additive. and other optical systems. a ðuÞ ¼ 1=2ðk þ mÞ ðkþ mÞð1 þ jcotaÞ 2pkm 0þ1 11=ðk þ mÞ Z k m Â@ Xk. as shown in (19). fa0 and all other parameters are equal to zero. However. the FRFT is a subclass of integral transformations characterized by quadratic complex exponential kernels. In addition.1356 ´ E. Given that we are concerned with practical implementations using discrete signals. x(n) is a vector representing the signal.3.3. the goal of this section is to provide an overview of various practical implementations proposed over the years. However. we only consider approaches for the implementation of the socalled discrete fractional Fourier transform (DFRFT).1. This results in greater time of computation. we discuss the case of the L-Wigner distribution (L-WD) introduced in [47] for achieving high concentration of the time–frequency representations by eliminating the socalled inner interferences.. The generalization. 2. it is not possible to evaluate these transformations by direct numerical integration since these fast oscillations require excessively large sampling rates.ct+ df). Sejdic et al. These transformations correspond to more complex distortions in the time–frequency plane in comparison to the FRFT and LPFT. a ðuÞ ¼ Xa ðu þ tÞXa ðuÀtÞeÀjcotat dtA p À1 ð30Þ In general the L-FRFT of the k +m-th order can always be expressed using the L-FRFT of k-th and m-th orders: Xk þ m. A summary of various approaches is shown in Table 3. Multiparameter coordinate transformations Further generalizations of these transforms can be achieved by introducing additional parameters. producing the coordinate transform of the L-WD LWD(at+ bf. [49]) are beyond the scope of this paper. 3. depending on the order and particular decomposition employed. A possible approach is to decompose these integral transformations into sub-operations. the optical based implantations (e. we still require signiﬁcantly higher sampling rates than the Nyquist rate. Here. x(n). The L-WD can be deﬁned as LWDðt. In other words.50–55]. and the need for more memory.2. we obtain the LPFT for M =3. meaning ð31Þ Similar coordinate transform can be determined for all time–frequency representations depending on powers of the signal local-autocorrelation xðt þ t=2ÞxÃ ðtÀt=2Þ.1.. the resultant discrete transform may lose many important properties (i. of length N we can deﬁne the DFRFT as follows: Xa ðnÞ ¼ Fa xðnÞ ð33Þ xL ðt þ 0:5t=LÞxÃL ðtÀ0:5t=LÞexpðÀj2pfttÞ dt ð26Þ À1 Signal xL ðtÞ. unitarity and reversibility). 2p À1 À1 À1 L Y i¼1 ! Xa ðui Þ dui ÂeÀjðcota=2Þ ÀPL i ¼ 1 u2 Àu2 i Á d LuÀ L X i¼1 !! u2 i ð29Þ For L= 2. ﬁlters.f Þ ¼ Z 1 2. DFRFT through sampling of FRFT A straightforward approach for obtaining the DFRFT is to sample the FRFT. a ðu þ t=kÞXm. .. this relationship can be written as 0þ1 11=2 Z 1 þ jcota 1=4 @ 2 Ã X2. correlators. Therefore.. as shown in (32). since the sampling theorems for the FRFT of bandlimited and time-limited signals follow from those of the Shannon sampling theorem [14.e. [48]) with the usage of several auto-correlations. Therefore.g. can be deﬁned for ba0 as 1=2L @ xL ðtÞ ¼ ð1=2pjbjÞ 0þ1 Z À1 1 x ðtÞe L jðL=2Þðð1ÀaÞ=bÞu2 ÀjðLðtÀuÞ2 Þ=2b duA Âejðð1ÀdÞ=bÞt 2 =2 ð27Þ For rotation a ¼ d ¼ cosa and c ¼ Àb ¼ sina. such generalization would be given as " # #" # !" # " ! tu t t b g 1 a b ¼ þ ½t f ð32Þ fu y f f 1 c d f where tu and f u represent the transformed coordinates. / Signal Processing 91 (2011) 1351–1369 investigate a range of possible application of this coordinate transform given recent advances in signal processing. larger numerical inaccuracies. could be used to describe many existing transforms as well.. For example. Mathematically. and Xa ðnÞ is a vector representing the DFRFT of the signal. for a discrete signal.

(c) a ¼ 3p=8 and (d) a ¼ p=2. using the FFT for convolution. Cannot be written in a closed form that its applications are very limited [56]. Hence. was proposed in [57]. Approach Sampling of FRFT Linear combination Eigenvalue decomposition Advantages Mostly straightforward application of the Shannon sampling theorem Simple implementation of Fourier operators Maintains some important properties of the FRFT Disadvantages May loose many important properties The transform results do not match the result of the continuous FRFT Could lack the fast computation algorithm. Since this type of DFRFT is a special case of continuous FRFT. many properties of the FRFT also exist and have the fast algorithm. a type of DFRFT. this type of DFRFT cannot be deﬁned for all values of a due to various imposed constraints. Both of the methods are based on the idea that we can manipulate the expression for the FRFT. In particular. equally spaced impulse train. Table 3 A summary of properties for main directions for obtaining the DFRFT. At the same time. such that the form can be appropriately sampled. Speciﬁcally. Sejdic et al. 3. Ozaktas et al. x(t). The FRFT kernel function for various a values with the solid line representing the real part and the dashed line representing the imaginary part (t= 1): (a) a ¼ p=8. provides us with samples of . In order to maintain some of the FRFT properties. the ﬁrst method begins to simply by multiplying the signal. derived as a special case of the continuous FRFT. (b) a ¼ p=4. However. and then performing the convolution using the fast Fourier transform (FFT). proposed two innovative approaches for obtaining the DFRFT through sampling of the FRFT [58]. with a chirp function: gðtÞ ¼ exp½Àjpt 2 tanða=2ÞxðtÞ followed by a chirp convolution hðtÞ ¼ Aa þ1 Z À1 ð34Þ exp½jpcscðaÞðtÀtÞgðtÞ dt ð35Þ and the last chirp multiplication Fa ðxðtÞÞ ¼ exp½Àjpt 2 tanða=2ÞhðtÞ ð36Þ The convolution operation in the above equation can be achieved by sampling g(t). it was assumed that the input function is a periodic.´ E. / Signal Processing 91 (2011) 1351–1369 1357 a 2 1 Amplitude b 2 1 Amplitude 0 0 −1 −1 −2 −5 0 u 5 −2 −5 0 u 5 c 2 d 2 1 1 Amplitude −5 0 u 5 Amplitude 0 0 −1 −1 −2 −2 −5 0 u 5 Fig.

5 Magnitude 0. (b) the magnitude of computed FRFT of the impulse function. Theoretical and computed FRFTs of impulse and step functions ða ¼ p=4Þ: (a) the magnitude of theoretical FRFT of the impulse function. the above procedure can be given as Xa ¼ Fa x ¼ DKHKJx ð37Þ Then. K is a diagonal matrix that corresponds to chirp multiplication. (c) the magnitude of theoretical FRFT of the unit function and (d) the magnitude of computed FRFT of the unit function. the overall procedure can be represented as Xa ¼ Fa x ¼ DKJx where Kðm. Very similar results were obtained in [52] as well. 4. This is a desirable property for a deﬁnition of the DFRFT matrix [58].06 0. the authors rewrote the FRFT into the form: Xa ¼ Aa expðjpcotðaÞu2 Þ þ1 Z À1 allowing us to obtain the samples of the fractional transform in terms of the samples of the original signal as N m 2 Aa X exp jp cotðaÞ Xa ðmÞ ¼ 2Dt 2Dt n ¼ ÀN !! n 2 n mn À2cscðaÞ ð40Þ þ cotðaÞ x 2 2Dt 2Dt ð2DtÞ which is a ﬁnite summation and Dt represents the sampling interval.5 Magnitude 1 1 0. Speciﬁcally. we need to sample g(t) at the rate twice the original sampling rate used for x(t). / Signal Processing 91 (2011) 1351–1369 Fa ðxðtÞÞ. (37) provides the samples of the a-th transform in terms of the samples of the original signal. However.4 0.02 0 −1 0 1 2 u 3 4 5 1. assuming that x and Xa denote column vectors with N elements containing the samples of x(t) and its DFRFT. Eq. and H corresponds to the convolution operation.2 0 −1 0 1 2 u 3 4 5 0. The second approach. Sejdic et al.8 Magnitude 0. 1 0. then. proposed in [58]. . However.5 0 −1 0 1 2 u 3 4 5 0 −1 0 1 2 u 3 4 5 Fig. Thus. respectively.1358 ´ E. the modulated function ½expðjpcotðaÞtÞxðtÞ is represented by Shannon’s interpolation formula: ½expðjpcotðaÞtÞxðtÞ ¼ N X h n n x exp jpcotðaÞ 2Dt 2Dt n ¼ ÀN n i ð39Þ Âsinc 2Dt tÀ 2Dt where D and J are matrices representing the decimation and interpolation operation. Sample computed FRFTs for impulse and step functions are shown in Fig.6 0. In a matrix form. which means that the samples of x(t) need to be interpolated. implements a very similar principle.5 1. in a matrix notation.1 0.nÞ ¼ m 2 Aa exp jp cotðaÞ 2Dt 2Dt !! n 2 mn À2cscðaÞ þcotðaÞ 2Dt ð2DtÞ2 ð41Þ expðÀj2pcscðaÞutÞ½expðjpcotðaÞtÞxðtÞ dt ð42Þ ð38Þ for jnj and jmj r N and where Aa is a constant. one has to keep in mind that the bandwidth and time-bandwidth product of g(t) can be as large as twice that of x(t).04 0. 4.08 Magnitude 0.

3.g. we can just use the following deﬁnitions: Ya ðmÞ ¼ yðmÞ Ya ðmÞ ¼ yðÀmÞ when a ¼ 2Dp when a ¼ ð2D þ 1Þp ð47Þ ð48Þ It has also been noticed that the operator is periodic in the parameter a with a fundamental period 2p [62]. This DFRFT is efﬁcient to calculate and implement. In particular. However. In other words. In particular. and thus. FH ¼ FÀ1 ¼ FÀa a a Fa FÀa ¼ I ð51Þ ð52Þ Furthermore. Du as yðnÞ ¼ xðnDtÞ. Fa . and the output function Xa ðuÞ of the FRFT are obtained by the interval Dt. In fact. the constraints that M Z N (2N + 1. Eqs.y. respectively. 3. the total number of the multiplication operations required is 2P þ ðP=2Þlog2 P.2.D 2 ZÞ. À N + 1. and the inverse discrete Fourier transform ðF3p=2 Þ. In other words. it is not the discrete version of the continuous transform [63]. we know that all of these matrices provide more accurate results. [57. the number of points in the time and frequency domains) and ! 4 1X 2a exp jpl Àk =2 4l¼1 p ð50Þ for 0 r k r3.58]) and the fact that most of these provide a satisfactory approximation to the continuous transform. In other words. In order to alleviate some of the problems associated with the DFRFT proposed in [58]. if the signal energy contained within this circle is approaching to the total signal energy. time inverse operation ðFp Þ. Linear combination-type DFRFT One of the ﬁrst approaches for the DFRFT was proposed by Dickinson and Steiglitz [61]. there might be several DFRFT matrices providing the same result within the accuracy of this approximation. for 0 r a r p=2 was given as [61] Fa ¼ 3 X k¼0 bk Fkp=2 ð49Þ where bk ¼ where n = À N. Assuming that the samples of the input function.D 2 ZÞ. 2M+ 1 are. Additionally. 3. / Signal Processing 91 (2011) 1351–1369 1359 However. a new type of DFRFT.M. The transform kernel of the DFRFT can be deﬁned as F2a=p ¼ UD2a=p U ð55Þ The inverse DFRFT is simply a Hermitian forward DFRFT with Àa. This type of the DFRFT was proposed to combat the issues associated with previous implementations such as a lack of unitarity and index additivity (e. where P=2M+1 is the length of the output. there is no proper choice for Du and Dt that satisﬁes the inverse formula. it has been shown that the operator deﬁned by (49) is unitary [62].N and m = À M. the following two formulas of the DFRFT are in order: sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ sinaÀjcosa j Ya ðmÞ ¼ cotam2 Du2 exp 2 2M þ1 N X 2pnm j exp cotan2 Dt 2 yðnÞ Â exp Àj 2M þ1 2 n ¼ ÀN ð44Þ when sina 40 ða 2 2Dp þ ð0.. it is difﬁcult to ﬁlter out the chirp noise with this type of DFRFT [56]. it does not match the . The authors also claimed that this DFRFT also has the lowest complexity among all types of DFRFT that still work similarly to the continuous FRFT [56]. (44) and (45) become the DFT or IDFT. the DFRFT was derived by using the linear combination of identity operation (F0). the main problem is that the transform results will not match to the continuous FRFT [60]. which is unitary. x(t). Its performance is similar to the FRFT and can be efﬁciently calculated by FFT. signals can be recovered from their transforms only within some approximation errors [59. [59. In addition. We note that when M= N and a ¼ p=2ðÀp=2Þ.63. reversible. However. Sejdic et al. then.g. the DFRFT is based on the eigendecomposition of the DFT kernel matrix [60]. We also note that when a ¼ Dp ðD 2 ZÞ.60]. both presented cases assumed that the WD of x(t) is zero outside an origin-centered circle of diameter equal to the sampling period [58]. ÀM +1. and ﬂexible. In their paper.0Þ. This type of the DFRFT corresponds to a completely distinct deﬁnition of the fractional Fourier transform. the closed-form analytic expression of this DFRFT can be obtained.´ E. In other words. Therefore.y.60. in these cases.. we cannot use the above as the deﬁnition of the DFRFT. the operator satisﬁes the angle additivity property [62]: Fa1 Fa2 ¼ Fa1 þ a2 and angle multiciplity property [62]: Fm ¼ Fma a ð54Þ ð53Þ DuDt ¼ 2pjsinaj=ð2M þ 1Þ ð46Þ must also be satisﬁed.64]). was proposed in [56]. For example. pÞ. Ya ðmÞ ¼ Xa ðmDuÞ ð43Þ continuous FRFT and lacks many of the characteristics of the continuous FRFT. Because there are two chirp multiplications and one FFT. DFRFT based on eigenvectors A possible approach for the DFRFT is based on searching the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the DFT matrix and then computing the fractional power of the DFT matrix (e. the fractional matrix operator. discrete Fourier transform ðFp=2 Þ. Nevertheless. and sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ÀsinaÀjcosa j cotam2 Du2 exp Ya ðmÞ ¼ 2 2M þ1 N X 2pnm j exp cotan2 Dt 2 yðnÞ exp j Â 2M þ1 2 n ¼ ÀN ð45Þ when sina o 0 ða 2 2Dp þ ðÀp.

our literature review showed that applications are very scarce beyond optics. Therefore. which is deﬁned as QPðm. . Using the ﬁndings presented in [60. Recently. a computationally more efﬁcient algorithm was proposed in [73].expðÀjaðNÀ2ÞÞ. the OPA minimizes the total errors between those samples. Although the Mathieu functions can converge to Hermite functions.66]. a fast numerical algorithm for the DRFT was proposed in [77].expðÀjaðNÀ2ÞÞ. and the cascade method has a regular structure. the Gram–Schmidt algorithm (GSA) or the orthogonal procrustes algorithm (OPA) can be used [60]. This DFRFT satisﬁes the rotation property on the WD. This approach has been extended to the so-called multiple-parameter discrete fractional Fourier transform (MPDFRFT) [65. However. [59.64]) is found in the obtained eigenvectors in previous contributions. we review the practical applications of the FRFT and its discrete counterpart as a signal processing tool. it will be very complicated to derive.4.expðÀjaÞ. authors in [76] proposed that the DFRFT can be obtained as the multiplication of DFT and the periodic chirps. the DFRFT becomes an elliptical rotation in the continuous time–frequency plane for sampling periods different from pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2p=N [60]. the authors investigated the relationship between the FRFT and the DFRFT and found that for a sampling period equal pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ to 2p=N. Using the group theory. nÞ ¼ þ1 Z À1 ð57Þ ð58Þ for N even. audio. Applications In this section. Using Chirp-Z transforms. The GSA minimizes the errors between the samples of the Hermite functions and the orthogonal DFT Hermite eigenvectors.63. Here. . it should be noted that these types of DFRFTs lack the fast computation algorithm and the eigenvectors cannot be written in a closed form. With this equivalence of implementation. authors in [67] believe that the discrete time counterparts of the continuous time Hermite–Gaussians maintained the same properties. . the convergence for the eigenvectors obtained in previous approaches are not so fast for the high-order Hermite functions by the linear mean square error criterion [60]. As well. Nevertheless. and U =[u0 u1 yuN À 2 uN] when N is even. we only provide a brief overview of these techniques. Furthermore. the MPDFRFT maintains all of the desired properties and reduces to the DFRFT when all of its order parameters are the same. while maintaining the same computational efﬁciency. In order to resolve this issue about the approximation of Hermite–Gaussian functions. it is very suitable for VLSI implementation. the authors argued that their method is easier to implement in comparison with the method proposed in [61]. A similar approach to [60] has been proposed in [67]. Additionally. a reader should refer to these contributions. the DFRFT of any angle can be computed by a linear combination of the DFRFTs with special angles [70]. which are useful in voice. However. when the number of points is not prime. the FRFT can be computed by mapping variables m and n of the QPT onto a and u of the FRFT. For complete details. . and the additivity and reversible property. and easy implementation. the above fast algorithms are also extended to real value sequences [75]. methods for parallel and cascade computations of DFRFT are proposed xðtÞeÀjmtÀjnt dt 2 ð59Þ Compared with (1). uk is the normalized eigenvector corresponding to the k-th order Hermite function and D2a=p is deﬁned as the following diagonal matrix: D2a=p ¼ diagðexpðÀj0Þ. . 4. The chirp signal detection is a common one. . Several other approaches for obtaining the DFRFT were proposed in the literature. . In fact. Speciﬁcally. and image signal analysis. where N is the number of samples in the time domain.expðÀjaÞ. Other approaches The FRFT can also be realized by the quadratic phase transform (QPT) [71. a nearly tri-diagonal commuting matrix of the DFT and a corresponding version of the DFRFT was proposed in [69]. This method allows free choice of resolutions in both fractional Fourier spaces. . By this new method.. a number of fast algorithms for the QPT can be used to compute the FRFT [71. On the other hand. We anticipate additional publications regarding practical applications of . The parallel method is suitable for the signal whose DFRFT in special angles are already known.72].1360 ´ E. By further exploiting the periodic and symmetric properties of the QPT and with the radix-2 decimation-in-frequency principle. Sejdic et al. However. 3. in that they were just discrete Mathieu functions [60]. when N is odd. simultaneous data-peeping in any region. However. the DFRFT performs a circular rotation of the signal in the time–frequency plane [60]. expðÀjaðNÀ1ÞÞÞ for N odd and D2a=p ¼ diagðexpðÀj0Þ. It should be also pointed out that the main difference between the approach proposed in [60] and similar approaches proposed (e. Most of the eigenvectors of this proposed nearly tri-diagonal matrix result in a good approximation of the continuous Hermite–Gaussian functions by providing a smaller approximation error in comparison to the previous approaches.73–75].67]. These algorithms can reduce the numbers of both complex multiplications and additions by a factor 2log2 N.g. In order to ensure orthogonality of the DFT Hermite eigenvectors (uk). for these elliptical rotations an angle modiﬁcation and a post-phase compensation in the DFRFT are required to obtain results similar to the continuous FRFT [60]. therefore. the fast algorithms proposed in [71] make use of the concept of decimation-in-time decomposition along the m and n domain.expðÀjaNÞÞ in [70]. this type of DFRFT can be derived only when the fractional order of the DFRFT equals some speciﬁed angles. / Signal Processing 91 (2011) 1351–1369 8 PNÀ1 > k ¼ 0 expðÀjkaÞuk uT > k <P NÀ2 F2a=p ¼ expðÀjkaÞuk uT k > k¼0 > : þ expðÀjN aÞu uT N N for N odd for N even ð56Þ where U =[u0 u1 yuN À 1]. since these discrete time counterparts exhibited better approximations than the other proposed approaches [68].

this situation is gradually changing with more papers focusing on this transform. Our goal is to emphasize that the FRFT is a valuable tool in many various applications. 5(b). [1. since these classical time–frequency tools do not provide a framework sufﬁcient for a comprehensive analysis [2]. WD). This is illustrated with Figs. estimation and restoration of signals in fractional domains were developed for these applications. Usage of two angles in the 2D FRFT offers signiﬁcant possibility to hide more different watermarks in images than the standard DFT or DCT-based domains. From spread between these two lines we can conclude that watermark detection is reliable. Furthermore. several well-established transforms are already used in the multimedia applications (e. DFT). Here.. Watermarking using the FRFT: (a) original image and (b) watermarked image. 6(a) where upper line corresponds to detection in the watermarked image while lower line corresponds to detection in non-watermarked image. DWT. 5 and 6 taken from [82].1. The third reason is that this transform with a relatively long history in the other signal processing related disciplines. we foresee an increased number of applications of the FRFT based time– frequency representations in speech and music processing.. .g. Secondly.9]) described either more traditional applications such as ﬁltering and signal recovery or only brieﬂy covered different applications. Walsh. Then. multimedia applications are commonly subject to some sort of standardization. The digital watermarking is a technique used for the copyright protection of digital multimedia data [85]. 6(b) demonstrates a situation when a search with the proper watermark key is performed around proper angles. For example. Detection of watermarks for 1000 watermark keys is demonstrated in Fig. Filtering in fractional Fourier domains may enable signiﬁcant reduction of the mean square error in comparison with ordinary Fourier domain ﬁltering. 5(a) while the watermarked image is given in Fig. It should be also mentioned that in this paper we devote more space to newer applications of the FRFT such as watermarking and communications. Fig. In particular. the FRFT can be applied to the problem of time-varying ﬁltering of non-stationary. Similarly.2. This is a quite important fact and it helps in increasing the 4. Filtering The idea of using the FRFT for fundamental signal processing procedures such ﬁltering. It can be seen that the watermark can be detected only if the angle under which the watermark is embedded is known. Also. estimation and restoration is particularly interesting for applications involving optical information processing [78. Watermarking The FRFT and its counterparts have not be fully exploited in the ﬁeld of the multimedia due to several plausible reasons. 4. Some problems stemming from such applications demand such advanced time–frequency representations (e. ﬁnite energy processes both in continuous-time and discretetime frameworks [80]. DST. biomedical signal processing.g... spectrogram. revealing that under certain conditions one can improve upon the special cases of these operations in the conventional space and frequency domain. and mechanical vibrations analysis. Other contributions (e. However. is still relatively unknown in the multimedia systems. A desired ability for these techniques is a creation of a large number of watermarks that can be embedded in multimedia data without perceptible degradation of host data. Sejdic et al. / Signal Processing 91 (2011) 1351–1369 1361 the FRFT are bound to appear.79].g. Watermark is embedded for angles a1 ¼ a2 ¼ 0:375p.´ E. Fig. 5. In this ﬁgure the original Lena image used as a common test example is given in Fig.g. Firstly. [82–84]). a relatively short history of the fast algorithms for the FRFT realization and a short period for the detailed study of the FRFT properties limit its wider usage in this area. it is worthwhile mentioning the application in the digital watermarking (e. DCT. a novel fractional adaptive ﬁltering scheme was introduced [81]. the FRFT domains offer more ﬂexibility since it has been shown that the FRFT watermarks with various angles have small correlation. and simulation results showed that adaptive ﬁltering in the fractional domain is superior in comparison to its time domain counterparts. In several publications the concepts of ﬁltering. the optimum multiplicative ﬁlter function that minimizes the mean square error in the a-th fractional Fourier domain was derived in [80].

6. but not in the space or spatial-frequency domain only. 7(b). or when all targets in one range bin have similar motion parameters. If the signal’s components have signiﬁcantly different chirp-rates. since watermarks are concentrated in the joint space/spatial-frequency domain [87]. In particular. It has been shown that the LPFT-based methods for focusing ISAR images can achieve a signiﬁcantly higher output SNR than those based on the STFT. the impact of the noise and other errors is severely reduced on the FRFT coefﬁcients by pre-ﬁltering these coefﬁcients yielding a scheme that is more robust to various attacks.. this concept of watermarking provides results robust to the standard ﬁltering. A quantitative analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the LPFT applied in the ISAR imaging is presented in [102]. Adaptive parameters are obtained by using a simple concentration measure. Radar applications A couple of techniques related to the FRFT have been recently used for focusing SAR/ISAR images (e. a sum of the weighted LPFT is used. Moving target focusing can be performed by this technique for some speciﬁc scenarios. the obtained SAR image will be focused only when one target exists in a range bin. 7(c). In addition. 4. Otherwise. Estimated chirp-rate parameters (angles in the FRFT terminology) are depicted with dashed lines in Fig. / Signal Processing 91 (2011) 1351–1369 Fig. the estimation of these parameters should be performed separately for each component. a modulus of the target effective rotation vector is calculated from the obtained estimation. For targets with very complex motion patterns. The main obstacle in further applications of these techniques is the complexity that can be reduced with various previously described fast realization strategies. Focusing of the radar image is performed for each cross-range parameter and the focused image is given in Fig. A technique for applying the product higher-order ambiguity function (PHAF) for estimating parameters of the radar signal and focusing SAR images is proposed in [103]. In order to overcome this drawback. Moreover. Both of these techniques are closely monitored and followed by numerous researchers [88–97]. Additional improvements have been achieved when these chirp-rates are ﬁltered with median ﬁlter (thick line). a single chirp-rate parameter can be estimated for all components. a watermarking scheme in the space/spatialfrequency domain has been proposed in [87]. the obtained estimate is additionally reﬁned by combining estimations obtained for close reﬂectors. Therefore. 7(a) (the ﬁgure is taken from [100]). A practically useful scheme for the FRFT based watermarking is recently proposed in [86]. but the chirprate is estimated by using contrast of the LPFT-based ISAR image.3. Moreover. The ISAR image is then focused by using the estimated value of signal parameters obtained through the LPFT calculation. Sejdic et al. for monocomponent and multicomponent signals with similar chirp-rates. A similar approach is proposed in [101]. Two forms of the adaptive LPFT-based technique for focusing ISAR images are proposed in [100]. [98. the availability of the FRFT fast realizations will lead to numerous implementations of the FRFT and related transforms in multimedia. The adaptive LPFT is calculated for each region in order to form focused ISAR image. number of watermarks that can be embedded within multimedia data. these versions of the LPFT can be applied for any realistic motion. the radar images focused with the ﬁltered chirp-rate as depicted in Fig.1362 ´ E. we demonstrate test image of the B727 plane given in Fig. Analysis of the detector: (a) statistical analysis of detecting watermark signal in watermarked and non-watermarked image and (b) detection of watermark signal using different transformation angles. an algorithm for separating signal . The focusing is performed without assuming any particular model of a target’s motion. Then. Therefore.g. Similarly. segmentation of the radar image in regions-of-interests is performed. This watermarking technique uses 2D chirp signals that are well concentrated in the joint space/spatial-frequency domain. The ﬁrst technique is based on knowing that. Focusing of the SAR images is usually performed by estimating parameters of a received signal. This technique is commonly referred to as the LPFT in the related literature. 7(d). this technique fails to achieve high concentration of each target simultaneously.99]). Here. More precisely. For multicomponent signals with different chirp-rates.

4. In addition. the procedure proposed in [105] based on the LPFT with automatic selection of the chirp-rate parameters. B727 radar image: (a) results obtained by the FT-based method. ﬁltered adaptive chirp rate (light solid line). for doubly selective channels (channels with selectivity in both time and frequency) this technique produces non-satisfactory results. The drawback of the LPFT-based technique. is high computational complexity needed for selection of chirp-rate that produces the best concentration. an algorithm for the automated selection of phase parameters used for the LPFT calculation is proposed in [105]. linear interpolation of ﬁltered data (bold solid line) and (d) adaptive LPFT with interpolated data. Martone . an adaptive set of chirp-rates is formed for each unfocused target. Further improvement of the obtained estimate is performed by using a ﬁne search in the region around the chirp-rate obtained from the coarse search. Sejdic et al. / Signal Processing 91 (2011) 1351–1369 1363 Fig. The LPFT technique with predeﬁned set of the chirp-rates gives signiﬁcantly improved results as shown in Fig. However. (b) adaptive LPFT method. However. Therefore. In [104–106] it has been shown that the LPFT-based methods for focusing SAR images are more robust to the additive noise inﬂuence than the STFT radar imaging techniques. the PHAF is evaluated and the position of its maximum is used for the coarse estimation of chirp-rate. Here. applied in this manner. components corresponding to targets with different motion parameters is applied in [104] where the LPFTbased technique is used for focusing each component. Communications Traditional multicarrier (MC) systems are designed with the DFT based schemes. respectively. (c) adaptive chirp rate (dotted line). The main representative of these techniques is the orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM). 7. It can be seen that the moving targets have seriously spread components. produces highly focusing of all considered targets (Fig. 8(d)).´ E. 8(c). In this algorithm. When one or more unfocused targets are detected in a range. Alternative tools such as a technique called the S-method [107] are unable to separate overlapping targets (Fig. The number of chirp-rates in the ﬁne search stage is rather small (usually not larger than several tens) which yields a signiﬁcant decrease in the computational complexity with respect to the technique proposed in [104] (which requires hundreds or thousands). 8(b)). a procedure for the third-order phase compensation is applied in the proposed algorithm without a signiﬁcant increase of the calculation burden. we have borrowed ﬁgure from [105] where the SAR image of several moving and stationary targets is shown (Fig.4. 8(a)). ot and om represent the range and the cross-range.

Furthermore. For channels with fast variations with available the line-ofsight component (usually associated with mobile stations mounted on high speed carriers and/or non-urban environments) this scheme signiﬁcantly outperforms DFT-based counterparts. Similarly. These chirp based modulations and associated AFT schemes have been identiﬁed as a suitable basis for multicarrier communications such as aeronautical and satellite [110]. (c) LPFT with predeﬁned set of chirp rates and (d) proposed LPFT. in our opinion the AFT technique are important candidates for novel digital standards for the aeronautical communications with solved problem of the fast realizations of the AFT (FRFT).. Simulated SAR image of seven target points obtained by using: (a) 2D FT. other contributions discussed the application of the FRFT in communication systems. 8. chirp modulation spread spectrum based on the FRFT was recently proposed for demodulation of multiple access systems [112]. The numerical analysis of the proposed receiver showed improved performance. 4. The numerical analysis showed that the FRFT based receiver is more ﬂexible and efﬁcient system for multiple access by reducing the designing complexity of the system. Performance of this technique is signiﬁcantly improved since the time–frequency plane can be adjusted (rotated) in a way to compensate undesired modulation of the signals introduced by high velocity of participants and/ or by multipath component shifted from the line-of-sight components. The best results for the AFT-MC techniques are observed for en-route scenario while in the worst case for the parking scenario. outperforming the simple minimum mean squared error receiver in Rayleigh faded channel.g. the AFT-based technique behaves the same as the OFDM. Then. The authors also argued that receivers based on the FRFT are more sensitive than earlier coherent receivers for chirp signals.1364 ´ E. a minimum mean squared error receiver based on the FRFT for MIMO systems with space time processing over Rayleigh faded channels was presented. In a very recent publication (e. Table 4 provides a comparison between the AFT-MC technique and the standard OFDM for four typical scenaria that can be observed in the case of the aeronautical channels. Sejdic et al. The authors argued that their method is very basic and further improvements can be .5. Table 4 A comparison of two techniques. Compression An interesting application of the FRFT to compression can be found in [113]. In particular. OFDM Signiﬁcantly better Slightly better Equal published a corner-stone paper where the discrete FRFT is used instead of the DFT in multicarrier systems [108]. / Signal Processing 91 (2011) 1351–1369 2D FT 150 100 50 0 −50 −100 −150 −100 150 100 50 0 −50 −100 −150 −100 x[m] −50 0 50 x[m] −50 0 LPFT y[m] 150 100 50 0 −50 −100 −150 100 −100 y[m] 50 y[m] 150 100 50 0 −50 −100 −150 100 −100 y[m] Adaptive 1D SM x[m] −50 0 50 100 Proposed LPFT x[m] −50 0 50 100 Fig. [111]). there is still a room for improvement. Scenario En-route Arrival/ takeoff Slightly better Taxi Parking AFT-MC vs. This technique is generalized for general linear canonical form of the transform (afﬁne Fourier transform—AFT) in [109]. This form has shown an improved ﬂexibility with respect to the FRFT-based scheme. the contribution dealt with image compression and found that even though the presented method yielded inferior results in comparison to commonly available compression algorithms. (b) adaptive S-method.

In particular. An application of the FRFT to computer tomography was also recently discussed [129]. it has been rediscovered in the literature several times. these systems become time (or space) varying systems. In order to do so. Hence. Fractal signal processing The FRFT also found its application in processing of fractal signals. especially in terms of quality of reconstructed signal and the percentage root-mean-square difference.6. where authors proposed a scheme for signal compression based on the combination of DFRFT and set partitioning in hierarchical tree (SPIHT). Other applications The FRFT can be useful in terms of differential equations [7. this encryption method enhances data security because the order parameters of the modiﬁed FRFT can be exploited as extra keys for decryption. The application of the scheme to different types of signals demonstrated a signiﬁcant reduction in bits leading to high signal compression ratio. Recently. For example. 4.g. Then.8. the rotation angle) in comparison with the ordinary Fourier transform. For example. a user ﬁrst selects at least four parameters including an angle of rotation. The results were further compared with those obtained with the discrete cosine transform. While use of the fractional Fourier transform increases the cost of the training procedure. Furthermore.´ E. The second part of the paper covered various practical realizations of the FRFT. 4. The concept of compression using the FRFT has been further extended in [114]. bandwidth. Further details about the application of the FRFT to differential equations can be found in [128]. as the dynamic range of error signal is too small. a two-dimensional FRFT has been used to characterize the effect of scattering [129]. and storage requirements. a time exponent. At the encryption side. This random discrete FRFT is also ﬁrst applied to the image encryption to show its potentials. a random discrete FRFT. The FRFT has also been applied to transient motor current signature analysis (TMCSA) [130]. This paper also proposed the optimization of the FRFT to generate a spectrum where the frequency-varying fault harmonics appear as single spectral lines and. In particular. which is equivalent to solving a set of linear equations [119]. However. especially for solving these equations. exhibits an important feature that the magnitude and phase of its transform output are both random..9. For example. The use of fractional based pre-processing resulted in an improved performance comparing to both no preprocessing and ordinary Fourier transform pre-processing. more than one modiﬁed FRFT kernels corresponding to the encryption key are selected and multiplied with the input signal. using the double random phase encoding in the multiple-parameter FRFT domain. The modiﬁed FRFT (e. the improvements achieved with its use come at no additional routine operating cost. the FRFT was used as a pre-processor for a neural network [115]. On the other hand. In particular. we provided an overview of the FRFT from the signal processing point of view. As such. It is also shown that the current standard algorithms such as AES [122] outperform the above system in terms of both encryption speed. Conclusion The FRFT is a powerful mathematical transform that generalizes the ordinary Fourier transform through the order parameter a. the paper is thematically divided into three topics. such as wavelet-based method and a global estimator based on dispersional analysis. [118]) along with the double random phase encoding technique has been successfully applied for encrypting digital data. a FRFT based estimation method was introduced to analyze the long range dependence in time series. the FRFT was used for the determination of the main parameters of fractals in [124]. the DFRFT is shown to be more suitable for compression than the DCT. / Signal Processing 91 (2011) 1351–1369 1365 achieved by combining with other techniques. the FRFT of a function x(t) can be considered as a solution of a differential equation. In [125]. therefore. and a sampling rate as the encryption key. 4. a reverse procedure with respect to the encryption process is used for decryption. . the FRFT was used for estimation of the Hurst exponent. Also. 5. Cryptography The FRFT can also be used in the ﬁeld of cryptography [117–121]. Pattern recognition Given that the FRFT provides an extra parameter (e. In the ﬁrst part. In this paper. Namias solved several Shrodinger equations using this assumption [7]. a 2004 US patent invented a cryptographic approach [117]. Speciﬁcally. The FRFT can be also shown to be a particular case of the evolution operators [127]. a phase. it is insecure because a known plaintext attack can break this scheme.. However. this encryption scheme has shown to be linear [119]. 4. due to the shortcomings of Fourier transform for such an analysis.126]. For example.7. the FRFT also provides additional degrees of freedom in pattern recognition systems. Sejdic et al. where x(t) can be considered as the initial condition of the equation. the fractional based pre-processing resulted in a substantial reduction of classiﬁcation and localization error. Further examples can be found in [1. we presented the deﬁnition of the FRFT and tied it to other mathematical representations.g. Hence.7. The results have shown that the FRFT estimator can achieve a reliable estimation of the Hurst exponent when compared to some other existing estimation methods. facilitate the diagnostic process. proposed in [123]. our goal was to attract signal processing practitioners to this mathematically eloquent concept and depict its advantages.126]. In particular. it has been also shown that pattern recognition methods based on matched ﬁltering can be generalized by replacing the standard Fourier operations by fractional Fourier operations [116]. There is no need to encode the error signal and send along with the encoded DFRFT coefﬁcients.

Acknowledgments ´ The work of Igor Djurovic is supported in part by the Ministry of Science and Education of Montenegro. Furthermore. but these discrete realizations could lose many important properties of the FRFT. A second stream relies on a linear combination of ordinary Fourier operators raised to different powers. In particular. we also outlined other approaches that appeared in the literature. One stream is represented through direct sampling of the FRFT. Ozaktas. This enabled us to increase the number of watermarks embedded within multimedia data. This relationship enables us to relate the FRFT to a wide class of time–frequency transforms. Table 5 contains reference sorted according to their topics). Future contributions in this theme will include a further understanding of the FRFT and its ties to other mathematical transforms.1366 ´ E.3. Djuro Stojanovic from Crnogorski Telekom and Pu Wang from the Stevens Institute of Technology for shaping up some sections of this manuscript. we should point out that the major drawbacks of this approach are that they cannot be written in a closed form and might have computational costs.g. The conclusions stemming from each part were as follows: Besides its ties to the ordinary Fourier transform. these realizations often produce an output that does not match the output of the continuous FRFT. fractal signal processing. we have witnessed a strong expansion of the FRFT in several ﬁelds. The digital realizations of the FRFT can be divided into three major streams. we expect an expansion of FRFT-based methods in different applications to dominate the future contributions. Similar trends have been observed in multimedia signal processing.A. we showed the direct relationship between the AF. ﬁltering). Last. the authors would like to thank the reviewers whose comments have helped them to improve the technical quality and the presentation of the manuscript. the FRFT can be further related to various time–frequency transforms.6. we outlined the connection between the FRFT and L-WD for the ﬁrst time in the literature. In particular. Also. Time–frequency feature representation using energy concentration: an overview of recent advances. The Fractional Fourier Transform with Applications in Optics and Signal Processing. The main advantage is that the FRFT-based schemes increase processing accuracy.62] [59. radar applications. For example. Table 5 References sorted according to their topics.45. Furthermore.126–130] . We speciﬁcally suggested that potential realizations of the FRFT could be achieved with the so-called quadratic phase transform. the WD and the FRFT. Kutay.M.vectors Other approaches for DFRFT Applications Filtering Watermarking Radar applications Communications Compression Pattern recognition Cryptography Fractal signal processing Other application Refs. Anticipated contributions in this ﬁeld need to deal with issues associated with the current schemes. Z. Lastly. The number of publications discussing practical applications of the FRFT has been steadily rising. a group of authors described an adaptive ﬁltering scheme in a recent contribution. Sejdic et al. From these past contributions. USA. 2001. J.46] [14. including watermarking. The realizations obtained through this stream tend to closely resemble the representations obtained by the continuous FRFT.60. Djurovic. Further research and applications of existing schemes will increase in the near future. Digital Signal Processing 19 (1) (2009) 153–183. The ´ authors would like to thank Vesna Popovic from the ´ University of Montenegro. and wireless communications. John Wiley. biomedical signal processing and mechanical vibration analysis.63–70] [71–77] [78–81] [82–84.50–58] [61. ´ ´ [2] E. However. It is the least complicated approach. Sejdic.125] [7. the kernel associated with the FRFT can introduce very fast oscillations that require excessively large sampling rates.86–97] [98–106] [108–112] [113. In particular. Furthermore. Problems stemming from such applications require the employment of such advanced time–frequency transforms. we also have the FRFT present in other ﬁelds as well (e.116] [117–123] [124. The presented results showed a superior performance in comparison to its time domain counterparts. The third stream approaches the discrete realizations based on the idea of an eigenvalue decomposition. the FRFT can be considered as the special case of the LCT. Chichester. Nevertheless. Overall. I. / Signal Processing 91 (2011) 1351–1369 while the practical applications of the FRFT were discussed in the third part of the paper.. New York. the paper provided a compact summary of the recent contributions regarding the FRFT (for convenience. M. where the FRFT has been used for watermarking. [1.114] [115. Such a relationship provides a direct generalization link between the FRFT and many higher-order/afﬁne mathematical transformations. pattern recognition. The FRFT is a very powerful tool and has been applied to many ﬁelds. Zalevsky. we showed that the FRFT can be considered as a special case of the second-order LPFT and LPP.4–15] [2. Topics Theoretical contributions Introductory and review contributions FRFT and time–frequency representations FRFT and linear canonical transform DFRFT through sampling of FRFT Linear combination-type DFRFT DFRFT based on eigen. In particular. Jiang. References [1] H. but not least. In particular. we expect to see increased application of the FRFT based time–frequency representations in speech and music processing.16–44] [1. the watermark could be detected only if the angle under which the watermark was embedded was known.

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