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Rao S. Thallam
Fellow, IEEE
Salt River Project
Phoenix, AZ, USA
Presented at:
National Workshop on Electric Power Quality
Nov 10, 2004
Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur
Kanpur, UP, India
Harmonics 
Application of Standards
00lllß0
• Introduction
• THD and TDD
• Displacement and True Power Factor
• KFactor and Transformer Derating
• When should you be concerned?
• Application of IEEE 519 Standard
• Harmonics Measurements
• Industrial Customers
• Commercial Customers
• IEC Standards
• Conclusions
2
"This alternating current thing
is just a fad. It is much too
dangerous for general use"
Thomas Alva Edison
What Are Harmonics ?
Harmonics are due to distortion of the voltage or
current waveform
The distortion comes from nonlinear devices,
principally loads
V(t)
I(t)
V
I
Nonlinear Resistor
3
Decomposition into Harmonic
Components
·
+
+
+
+
+
+
·
·
+
60 Hz
(h = 1)
300 Hz
(h = 5)
420 Hz
(h = 7)
540 Hz
(h = 9)
660 Hz
(h = 11)
780 Hz
(h = 13)
180 Hz
(h = 3)
Current vs. Voltage Harmonics
Pure
Sinusoid
Distorted Load
Current
Distorted Voltage
+

(Voltage Drop)
Harmonic currents flowing through the
system impedance results in harmonic
voltages at the load
4
Why bother about Harmonics?
Important aspect of power quality
Damaging Effects to Consumer Loads
and Power System
Problems may be incipient
NonLinear Loads are Increasing
Power Factor Correction Capacitors
Total Harmonic Distortion
Defines the total harmonic content of
current or voltage
Ratio of the RMS of the harmonic
content to the RMS of the Fundamental,
as % of Fundamental
5
THD =
sum of squares of amplitudes of all harmonics
square of amplitude of fundamental
x 100 .
Mathematically, THD of a voltage wave form can be defined as,
THD =
V
V
100 . x
h
h
h
2
1
2
2 =
=∞
Total Harmonic Distortion
THD for Current Waveform
THD=
I
I
100 x
h
h
h
2
1
2
2 =
=∞
6
Total Demand Distortion Factor
(TDD)
Applies for current distortion only.
The total rms harmonic current
distortion, in % of the maximum
demand load current (15 or 30 min
demand)
Displacement Power Factor
When V and I are not distorted, PF is:
“Ratio of the active power of the
fundamental, in watts, to the apparent
power of the fundamental wave, in volt
amperes”
P = V
1rms
I
1rms
Cos
PF = Cos
7
Power and Power Factor
When significant distortion is present
PF = Cos θ θθ θ
“Displacement
Power Factor”
True Power Factor
Ratio of the total power, in watts, to the
total voltamperes. This includes
fundamental and all harmonic
components.
This is also called “Distortion Power
Factor”
8
True Power Factor
PF
P
S
=
S V
rms
I
rms
=
P
T
v t i t dt
T
=
1
0
( ) ( )
Where:
Engineering Speak
“We are looking at a number
of approaches”
Translation:
We are guessing.
9
Engineering Speak
“We are making modifications to
address minor difficulties”
Translation:
We are starting over.
Engineering Speak
“Test results are gratifying”
Translation:
It worked and boy are we surprised!
10
Engineering Speak
“We are trying some new
approaches”
Translation:
We threw some new guys on it.
KFactor
KFactor is ratio of eddy current losses
due to distorted current compared to the
losses for the same rms fundamental
frequency current
Example:
Eddy Current Losses with 100 A rms with harmonics =
270 Watts
Eddy Current Losses with 100 A rms 60 Hz sine wave =
27 Watts
K  Factor = 270/27 = 10
11
KFactor
K = I ( )
2
pu
=
h
h
h
h
=
∞
1
2
KFactor
Assumes eddy current losses are
proportional to f
2 
OK for small
conductor sizes and low harmonics
At higher frequencies, eddy current loses
are proportional to f
Transition frequency depends on winding
configuration, material
Al  2200 Hz, Cu  700 Hz
Kfactor over estimates harmonics effect
at higher frequencies
12
THD and KFactor
(Example Calculation)
Harmonics for 3ph PWM type ASD
Fund. = 100 A rms
5th : 60 A rms = 0.6 pu
7th : 40 A rms = 0.4 pu
11th : 30 A rms = 0.3 pu
13th : 20 A rms = 0.2 pu
THD = Sqrt (0.6
2
+ 0.4
2
+ 0.3
2
+0.2
2
)* 100 =81 %
K = 1
2
+ 0.6
2
* 5
2
+ 0.4
2
* 7
2
+ 0.3
2
*11
2
+0.2
2
*13
2
= 1 + 9 + 7.84 + 10.89 + 6.76 = 35.49
Transformer Derating
Non Krated transformers have to be
derated when load current has harmonics
IEEE C57.110 “Recommended Practice
for Establishing Transformer Capability
When Supplying Nonsinusoidal Load
Currents”
13
Krating
Krated transformers can handle non
sinusoidal load current up to the full load
rating with kfactor up to the krating of
the transformer
Krated transformers are designed to
have lower eddy current losses
Type of Load Typical Waveform
Current
Distortion
Weighting
Factor (W
i
)
Single Phase
Power Supply
0 10 20 30 40
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
Time (mS)
Current
80%
(high 3rd)
2.5
Semiconverter
0 10 20 30 40
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
Time (mS)
Current
high 2nd,3rd,
4th at partial
loads
2.5
6 Pulse Converter,
capacitive smoothing,
no series inductance
0 10 20 30 40
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
Time (mS)
Current
80% 2.0
6 Pulse Converter,
capacitive smoothing
with series inductance > 3%,
or dc drive
0 10 20 30 40
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
Time (mS)
Current
40% 1.0
6 Pulse Converter
with large inductor
for current smoothing
0 10 20 30 40
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
Time (mS)
Current
28% 0.8
12 Pulse Converter
0 10 20 30 40
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
Time (mS)
Current
15% 0.5
ac Voltage
Regulator
0 10 20 30 40
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
Time (mS)
Current
varies with
firing angle 0.7
Sources of Harmonics
14
Example 1  dc drive
Example 2  PWM drive, no choke
15
Example 3  PWM drive with choke
Example 4  Switched mode power
supply currents
Phase A (50 Amps)
Phase B (50 Amps)
Phase C (57 Amps)
Neutral (82 Amps)
16
Example 5  electronic ballast
Line to Neutral Voltage for Electronic Ballast
0 10 20 30 40 50
200
150
100
50
0
50
100
150
200
Time (mS)
V
o
l
t
a
g
e
(
V
)
Max:
Min:
Avg:
Abs:
RMS:
CF :
FF :
170
170
109.055
170
120.727
1.40814
1.10703
Line Current for Electronic Ballast
0 10 20 30 40 50
1.00
0.75
0.50
0.25
0.00
0.25
0.50
0.75
1.00
Time (mS)
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
(
A
m
p
s
)
Max:
Min:
Avg:
Abs:
RMS:
CF :
FF :
0.784
0.792
0.305828
0.792
0.334094
2.37059
1.09242
When Should You be Concerned
About Harmonics
20 % of total load is power
electronic load
If service transformer is loaded
near rating
When PF correction capacitors
are planned
Neutral to ground voltage in 120 V
supply exceeds 1 to 2 volts
17
Harmonic Standards
Several Countries have developed
Standards to limit harmonics
IEEE 5191992
IEEE 519A2004?
IEC 6100032, 6100034, 61000312
IEEE 519
IEEE 519 “Recommended Practices and
Requirements for Harmonic Control in
Electric Power Systems”
Specifies load current harmonic limits
at PCC
Specifies supply voltage harmonic
limits at PCC
IEEE 519A “Guide for Applying
Harmonic Limits on Power Systems”
18
HARMONICCURRENT DISTORTIONLIMITS IN%OF I
L
V< 69 kV
I
SC
/ I
L
h < 11 11 < h < 17 17 < h < 23 23 < h < 35 35 < h TDD
<20 4.0 2.0 1.5 0.6 0.3 5.0
2050 7.0 3.5 2.5 1.0 0.5 8.0
50100 10.0 4.5 4.0 1.5 0.7 12.0
1001000 12.0 5.5 5.0 2.0 1.0 15.0
>1000 15.0 7.0 6.0 2.5 1.4 20.0
IEEE 519 Standard Limits
Application Concerns
• Selecting PCC
• Calculating I
SC
and I
L
• What is TDD ?
• Measurement Problems
• Time Varying Harmonics
• General Procedure for Applying Harmonic
Limits
• Cost of Problems vs. Cost of Solutions
• Distributed Generation Limits
19
What is PCC ?
“Point in the public network which is
closest to the consumer concerned
and to which other customers are or
may be connected” IEC 610003
4:1998
20
HARMONIC VOLTAGE DISTORTION LIMITS
(in % of Nominal Fundamental Frequency Voltage)
Bus Voltage at PCC
Individual Harmonic Voltage
Distortion
Total Voltage Harmonic
Distortion (THDV)
V < << < 69 kV
3.0 5.0
69 kV < << < V < << < 161 kV
1.5 2.5
V > >> > 161 kV 1.0 1.5
IEEE 519 Standard Limits
(Utility)
21
IEEE 519 Standard
Limits apply for the “worst case” for
normal operation (lasting longer than one
hour)
For shorter periods, during startups limits
may be exceeded by 50%
Even harmonics are limited to 25% of odd
harmonic limits
Cogen  use I
sc
/ I
L
< 20, irrespective of
actual value
Harmonic Current Measurements
• Calculate harmonics as % of a fixed
(average max. demand) current, not as %
of fundamental
• Limits in the Table Apply only to Odd
harmonics – Even Harmonics are limited
to 25% of those limits
• CT Characteristics are important – usually
good (should be less than 3 dB)
• How long to monitor?
– Very stable, One day may be adequate
– one week – for most cases
– Permanent monitoring in some cases
22
Presentation of Results –
snap shots
Presentation of Results –
Time Trends
23
Harmonic Voltage Measurements
• Measure at PCC
• Low Voltage – measure with direct
connection
• Higher Voltages – Connect with PT –
frequency response is good to 3 k Hz (50
th
harmonic)
• Avoid CCVTs – frequency response is not
good
Evaluation Procedure
• Nonlinear load is less than 10  20% of
total plant load – No harmonic evaluation
necessary
• Weighted Disturbing Power
S S W
Dw Di i
i
= ×
( )
24
Type of Load
Typical Waveform
Current
Distortion
Weighting
Factor (W
i
)
Single Phase
Power Supply
0 10 20 30 40
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
Time (mS)
Current
80%
(high 3rd)
2.5
Semiconverter
0 10 20 30 40
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
Time (mS)
Current
high 2nd,3rd,
4th at partial
loads
2.5
6 Pulse Converter,
capacitive smoothing,
no series inductance
0 10 20 30 40
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
Time (mS)
Current
80%
2.0
6 Pulse Converter,
capacitive smoothing
with series inductance > 3%,
or dc drive
0 10 20 30 40
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
Time (mS)
Current
40%
1.0
6 Pulse Converter
with large inductor
for current smoothing
0 10 20 30 40
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
Time (mS)
Current
28%
0.8
12 Pulse Converter
0 10 20 30 40
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
Time (mS)
Current
15%
0.5
ac Voltage
Regulator
0 10 20 30 40
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
Time (mS)
Current
varies with
firing angle
0.7
Fluorescent
Lighting
17%
0.5
Evaluation Procedure
• If SDw / Ssc < 0.1%, then automatic
acceptance
• SDw is weighted disturbing power
• Ssc is short circuit capacity at PCC
• If customer has or considering PF
Correction Capacitors, harmonic
evaluation is always necessary
25
Choose PCC
Calculate Short Circuit
Capacity (I
SC
)
Stage 1:
Is Detailed Evaluation
Necessary?
Estimate Weighted Disturbing
Power (S
DW
) or %Nonlinear
Load
Is Power Factor
Correction Existing or
Planned?
No
Calculate Short Circuit Ratio
(SCR=I
SC
/I
L
)
Yes
Characterize Harmonic Levels
(Measurements, Analysis)
Stage 2:
Does facility
meet harmonic
limits?
Calculate Average Maximum
Demand Load Current (I
L
)
Yes
No
Design Power Factor
Correction and/or Harmonic
Control Equipment (include
resonance and interaction
concerns)
Verification Measurements
and Calculations
(if necessary)
Yes
No
UTILITY CUSTOMER
26
Applying Harmonic Limits For
Industrial Facilities
1. Usually supplied by dedicated transformer
2. Several nonliner loads – ASDs, Rectifiers, DC
drives, Induction furnaces
3. Loads are relatively low PF  Power factor
correction capacitors are installed
4. Industrial loads like motors do not provide
much damping for resonance conditions
5. Problems inside the facility before causing
problems in utility system
6. Limit Voltage distortion to 5% at PCC – provide
some margin for distortion within facility
Applying Harmonic Limits For
Industrial Facilities
1. Choose PCC
2. Characterize Harmonic Loads
3. Determine if PF Correction Needed
4. Calculate Expected Current Harmonics
at PCC
5. Design Harmonic Control Equipment, if
necessary
6. Verify performance with measurements
27
Applying Harmonic Limits For
Commercial Customers
• Significant percentage of Load is
Electronic Equipment and Switch mode
Power Supplies
• High Efficiency Fluorescent Lighting
• HVAC Load is ASD drives
• Significant harmonic cancellation Meeting
IEEE 519 at SES is rarely a problem
• Internal Harmonic Problems – neutral
overheating, transformer overloading,
communication interference
Overview of Proposed Revisions
to IEEE 519
• Immediate
– Increased voltage limits for buses < 1 kV
– Limits for timevarying harmonics
– Revised notch and ringing limits and
definitions
• Nearterm
– Measurements
• Limits for SinglePhase Equipment
– Dropped
28
Voltage Distortion Limits
(% of nominal fundamental frequency
voltage)
Bus Voltage at PCC (V
n
)
Individual Harmonic
Voltage Distortion (%)
Total Voltage
Distortion  THD
Vn
(%)
V kV
n
≤ 69 3.0 5.0
69 161 kV V kV
n
< ≤ 1.5 2.5
V kV
n
> 161 1.0 1.5
Harmonic Voltage Limits
• Add a new voltage limit category for
buses less than 1 kV
– 5% limit for individual harmonics
– 8% limit for voltage THD
• Main concern is associated with
multiple zero crossings
– Research has shown that concern has
merit
29
TimeVarying Harmonics
• Limits must be based on factual cause/effect
– Thermal effects occur over time
– Burst distortion effects can be instantaneous
– Startup/abnormal conditions should be tolerated
• The facts suggest providing
– Significant limit increases for short periods
– Some limit increases for intermediate periods
– No increases for the majority of the time
• Some statistical techniques may be needed
Time Varying Harmonics
30
Time Varying Harmonics –
Total Duration Limits
Total Duration of
Harmonic Bursts (T
total
)
Total Duration of
Harmonic Bursts
(T
total
in%)
Acceptable
harmonic distortion
level
T
total
≤
15 min. T
total
≤
1% 3.0
×
(design limits)
15 min.< T
total
≤
1.2 hr. 1% < T
total
≤
5% 2.0
×
(design limits)
1.2 hours < T
total
5% < T
total 1.0
×
(design limits)
Time Varying Harmonics – Single
Burst Limits
Maximum Duration
of
Single Harmonic
Bursts (T
max
)
Max. Duration of
Single Harmonic
Bursts (T
max
in
%)
Acceptable
harmonic
distortion level
T
max
≤ 15 sec. T
max
≤ 0.02% 3.0×(design
limits)
15 sec.< T
max
≤ 30
min.
0.02% < T
max
≤ 2% 2.0×(design
limits)
30 min. < T
max
2% < T
max
1.0×(design
limits)
31
Time Varying Harmonics
(24 hour period)
Total Duration of
Harmonic Bursts
Maximum
Duration of a
Single Harmonic
Burst
Acceptable
Harmonic
Distortion Level
<15 minutes < 15 seconds 3.0 x design limit
>15 minutes and
< 1.2 hours
>15 sec and < 30
minutes and
2.0 x design limit
>1.2 hours and > 30 minutes design limit
Measurements
• Define measurement specification
– Many commercial meters exist
• 8, 12, and 16 cycle windows
• 128 and 256 samples/cycle
• Filtering
– IEC 61000430 offers potential
• Specific requirements
• Captures 3s, 10m, and 2hr values
32
IEC Standards
Apply at equipment level, 240 V or less, 1ph,
690 V or less, 3ph, 50 or 60 Hz
6100032: loads with input current < 16 A
61000312: loads with input current >16A and
<75A (published in 2004)
6100034: loads with input current > 75 A
Use varies from country to country, mandatory
in EC
UL certification available in US
IEC 6100032
Class A  General Purpose loads, 3ph
balanced equipment (plus any eqpt not in
B,C,D)
Class B  Portable tools
Class C  Lighting equipment
Class D  Equipment with “special wave
shape” (conduction angle < 60
0
), P < 600W
33
Class A (Balanced 3ph Equipment)
Harmonic Max. Permissible Harmonic
Order Current (Amps)
3 2.3
5 1.14
7 0.77
9 0.4
11 0.33
13 0.21
1539 0.15 x 15/n
2 1.08
4 0.43
6 0.30
840 0.23 x 8/n
0l888 8 IF0fl80l0 100l8l 0l888 8 IF0fl80l0 100l8l 0l888 8 IF0fl80l0 100l8l 0l888 8 IF0fl80l0 100l8l
Use Limits for Class A multiplied by 1.5
34
Class C Equipment (Lighting >25W)
Harmonic Max. Harmonic
Order Current (% of Fund.)
2 2
3 30 x PF
5 10
7 7
9 5
1139 3
(odd harmonics only)
Class D Equipment (Special Waveshape)
Harmonic Relative Limit Max. Harmonic
Order (mA/W) Current (Amps)
3 3.4 2.30
5 1.9 1.14
7 1.0 0.77
9 0.5 0.40
11 0.35 0.33
1339 3.85/n 0.15 x 15/n
(odd harmonics only)
35
IEC 312 (for Equpt >16 A and < 75 A}
IEC 6100034
Loads with rated current > 75 A
Stage 1: SC KVA/EQ. KVA > 33
Stage 2: SC KVA/EQ. KVA 66, 120,
175, 250, 350, 450, 600
Stage 3: Local Utility Requirements
apply.
36
IEC Standards
IEC Standards are based on European
distribution system
3 ph, 3wire feeder, and 3ph, 3wire
branches, 11 or 12 kV
3ph (deltastar), large (500 kVA  1000
kVA) distribution transformers
400/230V, 3ph long secondary
USNC  IEC standards in US
US distribution systems are
different
3ph, 4wire Feeder, 1ph, 2wire
branches, most 15 kV class
Small (50  100 kVA) transformers
serving 6 to 8 residents
120/240 V, 1ph, short secondaries
No consensus between manufacturers,
utilities and users
37
Comparison of European and North
American Systems
European North American
Feeder 3ph, 3wire 3ph, 4wire
Branch 3ph, 3wire 1ph, 2wire
Transformer 500 kVA1MVA 50 kVA100kVA
Connection Y / ∇ ∇∇ ∇ Gr Y / Gr Y
Secondary 400/230V, 3ph 120/240V, 1ph
Length Long short
00ß0l08l0ß8
• Harmonics are important aspect of
power quality
• Application of power electronics is
causing increased level of harmonics
• Survey the loads and make
preliminary evaluation
• IEEE and IEC Standards reviewed
"This alternating current thing is just a fad. It is much too dangerous for general use" Thomas Alva Edison
What Are Harmonics ?
Harmonics are due to distortion of the voltage or current waveform The distortion comes from nonlinear devices, principally loads
I(t)
Nonlinear Resistor
V(t)
V I
2
Decomposition into Harmonic Components
60 Hz (h = 1)
+ + + + + + +
180 Hz (h = 3) 300 Hz (h = 5) 420 Hz (h = 7) 540 Hz (h = 9) 660 Hz (h = 11) 780 Hz (h = 13)
· · ·
Current vs. Voltage Harmonics
+ (Voltage Drop) Distorted Voltage 
Pure Sinusoid
Distorted Load Current
Harmonic currents flowing through the system impedance results in harmonic voltages at the load
3
as % of Fundamental 4 .Why bother about Harmonics? Important aspect of power quality Damaging Effects to Consumer Loads and Power System Problems may be incipient NonLinear Loads are Increasing Power Factor Correction Capacitors Total Harmonic Distortion Defines the total harmonic content of current or voltage Ratio of the RMS of the harmonic content to the RMS of the Fundamental.
Mathematically. 2 h = ∞ Vh THD = h = 2 V2 1 x 100 .Total Harmonic Distortion THD = sum of squares of amplitudes of all harmonics x 100 square of amplitude of fundamental . THD of a voltage wave form can be defined as. THD for Current Waveform T D= H h=∞ I2 h h= 2 I 2 1 x100 5 .
PF is: “Ratio of the active power of the fundamental. to the apparent power of the fundamental wave.Total Demand Distortion Factor (TDD) Applies for current distortion only. The total rms harmonic current distortion. in watts. in % of the maximum demand load current (15 or 30 min demand) Displacement Power Factor When V and I are not distorted. in voltamperes” P = V1rms I1rms Cos PF = Cos 6 .
Power and Power Factor When significant distortion is present PF = Cos θ “Displacement Power Factor” True Power Factor Ratio of the total power. to the total voltamperes. This is also called “Distortion Power Factor” 7 . in watts. This includes fundamental and all harmonic components.
8 .True Power Factor P PF = S Where: S = Vrms Irms 1 P= T T 0 v ( t )i ( t ) dt Engineering Speak “We are looking at a number of approaches” Translation: We are guessing.
Engineering Speak “Test results are gratifying” Translation: It worked and boy are we surprised! 9 .Engineering Speak “We are making modifications to address minor difficulties” Translation: We are starting over.
Factor = 270/27 = 10 10 .Engineering Speak “We are trying some new approaches” Translation: We threw some new guys on it. KFactor KFactor is ratio of eddy current losses due to distorted current compared to the losses for the same rms fundamental frequency current Example: Eddy Current Losses with 100 A rms with harmonics = 270 Watts Eddy Current Losses with 100 A rms 60 Hz sine wave = 27 Watts K .
KFactor K = h=∞ h =1 Ih (pu)2 h2 KFactor Assumes eddy current losses are proportional to f 2 .OK for small conductor sizes and low harmonics At higher frequencies. Cu . eddy current loses are proportional to f Transition frequency depends on winding configuration.700 Hz Kfactor over estimates harmonics effect at higher frequencies 11 .2200 Hz. material Al .
84 + 10.22)* 100 = 81 % K = 12 + 0.32 +0.2 pu THD = Sqrt (0.89 + 6.4 pu 11th : 30 A rms = 0.62 * 52 + 0.3 pu 13th : 20 A rms = 0.62 + 0.42 * 72 + 0.49 Transformer Derating Non Krated transformers have to be derated when load current has harmonics IEEE C57.THD and KFactor (Example Calculation) Harmonics for 3ph PWM type ASD Fund.42 + 0.32 *112+0.22*132 = 1 + 9 + 7. = 100 A rms 5th : 60 A rms = 0.76 = 35.6 pu 7th : 40 A rms = 0.110 “Recommended Practice for Establishing Transformer Capability When Supplying Nonsinusoidal Load Currents” 12 .
3rd.0 80% (high 3rd) 0 10 20 30 40 Current 0.8 0.0 0 10 20 30 40 Time (mS) 13 .5 Current 0.5 Sources of Harmonics Single Phase Power Supply 0. 4th at partial loads 0 10 20 30 40 2.0 0.5 1. capacitive smoothing with series inductance > 3%.0 varies with firing angle 0.0 0 10 20 30 40 Time (mS) 1.Krating Krated transformers can handle nonsinusoidal load current up to the full load rating with kfactor up to the krating of the transformer Krated transformers are designed to have lower eddy current losses Type of Load 1.5 1.5 Current 12 Pulse Converter 0. or dc drive 0.0 6 Pulse Converter.5 Current 0.0 6 Pulse Converter with large inductor for current smoothing 0.0 Time (mS) 1.0 40% 1.0 28% 0.5 Current Distortion Weighting Factor (Wi) 2. no series inductance 0.0 15% 0.0 0 10 20 30 40 Time (mS) 1.0 high 2nd.0 6 Pulse Converter. capacitive smoothing.0 Time (mS) 1.0 0.5 1.5 0.5 1.5 1.0 0.5 Current Semiconverter 0.0 0 10 20 30 40 Time (mS) 1.5 1.5 ac Voltage Regulator Current 0.0 0.0 Typical Waveform 0.0 0 10 20 30 40 Time (mS) 1.0 80% 2.5 0.0 0.7 0.5 1.5 Current 0.
PWM drive. no choke 14 .Example 1 .dc drive Example 2 .
Switched mode power supply currents Phase A (50 Amps) Phase B (50 Amps) Neutral (82 Amps) Phase C (57 Amps) 15 .Example 3 .PWM drive with choke Example 4 .
00 0 10 20 30 40 50 Time (mS) Line to Neutral Voltage for Electronic Ballast 200 Voltage (V) 150 100 50 0 50 Max: Min: Avg: Abs: RMS: CF : FF : 170 170 109.50 0.40814 1.727 1.305828 0.00 Current (Amps) 0.10703 100 150 200 0 10 20 30 40 50 Time (mS) When Should You be Concerned About Harmonics 20 % of total load is power electronic load If service transformer is loaded near rating When PF correction capacitors are planned Neutral to ground voltage in 120 V supply exceeds 1 to 2 volts 16 .792 0.75 1.334094 2.25 0.Example 5 .50 0.25 0.00 Max: Min: Avg: Abs: RMS: CF : FF : 0.09242 0.055 170 120.75 0.792 0.electronic ballast Line Current for Electronic Ballast 1.37059 1.784 0.
Harmonic Standards Several Countries have developed Standards to limit harmonics IEEE 5191992 IEEE 519A2004? IEC 6100032. 6100034. 61000312 IEEE 519 IEEE 519 “Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electric Power Systems” Specifies load current harmonic limits at PCC Specifies supply voltage harmonic limits at PCC IEEE 519A “Guide for Applying Harmonic Limits on Power Systems” 17 .
0 12.0 6.0 1.5 0.0 2.0 20.0 7.0 5.5 2.5 2.4 5.5 7.5 0.0 12.5 4.0 1.0 8.0 15.6 1.0 0.0 3.0 1.IEEE 519 Standard Limits HA ONICCURRENT DISTORTIONLIM IN%OF IL RM ITS V< 69 kV ISC/ IL <20 2050 50100 1001000 >1000 h < 11 11 < h < 17 17 < h < 23 23 < h < 35 35 < h TDD 4.5 4.3 0.5 5.0 2.0 10.0 15.0 Application Concerns • • • • • • Selecting PCC Calculating ISC and IL What is TDD ? Measurement Problems Time Varying Harmonics General Procedure for Applying Harmonic Limits • Cost of Problems vs.7 1. Cost of Solutions • Distributed Generation Limits 18 .
What is PCC ? “Point in the public network which is closest to the consumer concerned and to which other customers are or may be connected” IEC 6100034:1998 19 .
0 2.5 1.5 1.0 20 .5 1.IEEE 519 Standard Limits (Utility) HARMONIC VOLTAGE DISTORTION LIMITS (in % of Nominal Fundamental Frequency Voltage) Bus Voltage at PCC V < 69 kV 69 kV < V < 161 kV V > 161 kV Individual Harmonic Voltage Distortion Total Voltage Harmonic Distortion (THDV) 3.0 5.
not as % of fundamental • Limits in the Table Apply only to Odd harmonics – Even Harmonics are limited to 25% of those limits • CT Characteristics are important – usually good (should be less than 3 dB) • How long to monitor? – Very stable. irrespective of actual value Harmonic Current Measurements • Calculate harmonics as % of a fixed (average max. One day may be adequate – one week – for most cases – Permanent monitoring in some cases 21 . during startups limits may be exceeded by 50% Even harmonics are limited to 25% of odd harmonic limits Cogen .IEEE 519 Standard Limits apply for the “worst case” for normal operation (lasting longer than one hour) For shorter periods.use Isc / IL < 20. demand) current.
Presentation of Results – snap shots Presentation of Results – Time Trends 22 .
Harmonic Voltage Measurements • Measure at PCC • Low Voltage – measure with direct connection • Higher Voltages – Connect with PT – frequency response is good to 3 k Hz (50th harmonic) • Avoid CCVTs – frequency response is not good Evaluation Procedure • Nonlinear load is less than 10 .20% of total plant load – No harmonic evaluation necessary • Weighted Disturbing Power SDw = i ( SDi × Wi ) 23 .
0 0.0 Time (mS) Fluorescent Lighting 17% 0.0 80% 0 10 20 30 40 2.5 Current 0.5 0.0 Time (mS) 1.5 1.3rd.5 12 Pulse C onverter 0.5 Semiconverter 0.5 S ingle Phase Pow er S upply Current 0. no series inductance 0.0 0.0 40% 1. harmonic evaluation is always necessary 24 .5 1.0 0.0 Current 0.0 6 Pulse Converter. capacitive smoothing.0 28% 0 10 20 30 40 0.0 varies w ith firing angle 0 10 20 30 40 0.5 high 2nd. then automatic acceptance • SDw is weighted disturbing power • Ssc is short circuit capacity at PCC • If customer has or considering PF Correction Capacitors.8 Current 0. 4th at partial loads 0 10 20 30 40 2.0 15% 0 10 20 30 40 0.5 Current 0.5 Current 1.5 1.0 0.0 ac V oltage Regulator 0.0 Time (mS) 1.0 6 Pulse Converter.5 1.0 0.7 Current 0.0 0 10 20 30 40 Time (mS) 1.5 Evaluation Procedure • If SDw / Ssc < 0. capacitive smoothing w ith series inductance > 3% .Type of Load 1.5 1.0 0 10 20 30 40 Time (mS) 1. or dc drive 6 Pulse Converter w ith large inductor for current smoothing 0.0 Typical W aveform 0.0 Time (mS) 1.0 0.0 Time (mS) 1.5 1.5 Current D istortion 80% (high 3rd) W eighting Factor (W i ) 2.5 0.1%.5 0.
UTILITY CUSTOMER Choose PCC Calculate Short Circuit Capacity (I ) SC Is Power Factor Correction Existing or Planned? Estimate Weighted Disturbing Power (S ) or % Nonlinear DWLoad Yes No Calculate Average Maximum Demand Load Current (I ) L Yes Stage 1: Is Detailed Evaluation Necessary? No Calculate Short Circuit Ratio (SCR=I /I ) SC L Characterize Harmonic Levels (Measurements. Analysis) Stage 2: Does facility meet harmonic limits? No Yes Design Power Factor Correction and/or Harmonic Control Equipment (include resonance and interaction concerns) Verification Measurements and Calculations (if necessary) 25 .
Verify performance with measurements 1. 3.Applying Harmonic Limits For Industrial Facilities 1. 5. Rectifiers. 4. if necessary 6. 2. Usually supplied by dedicated transformer Several nonliner loads – ASDs. 3. 6. Induction furnaces Loads are relatively low PF .Power factor correction capacitors are installed Industrial loads like motors do not provide much damping for resonance conditions Problems inside the facility before causing problems in utility system Limit Voltage distortion to 5% at PCC – provide some margin for distortion within facility Applying Harmonic Limits For Industrial Facilities Choose PCC Characterize Harmonic Loads Determine if PF Correction Needed Calculate Expected Current Harmonics at PCC 5. 2. DC drives. 4. 26 . Design Harmonic Control Equipment.
communication interference Overview of Proposed Revisions to IEEE 519 • Immediate – Increased voltage limits for buses < 1 kV – Limits for timevarying harmonics – Revised notch and ringing limits and definitions • Nearterm – Measurements • Limits for SinglePhase Equipment – Dropped 27 .Applying Harmonic Limits For Commercial Customers • Significant percentage of Load is Electronic Equipment and Switch mode Power Supplies • High Efficiency Fluorescent Lighting • HVAC Load is ASD drives • Significant harmonic cancellation Meeting IEEE 519 at SES is rarely a problem • Internal Harmonic Problems – neutral overheating. transformer overloading.
(% of nominal fundamental frequency voltage) Bus Voltage at PCC (Vn) Individual Harmonic Voltage Distortion (%) 3.5 1.THDVn (%) 5.5 1.0 Total Voltage Distortion .5 Voltage Distortion Limits Vn ≤ 69 kV 69 kV < Vn ≤ 161kV Vn > 161kV Harmonic Voltage Limits • Add a new voltage limit category for buses less than 1 kV – 5% limit for individual harmonics – 8% limit for voltage THD • Main concern is associated with multiple zero crossings – Research has shown that concern has merit 28 .0 2.0 1.
TimeVarying Harmonics • Limits must be based on factual cause/effect – Thermal effects occur over time – Burst distortion effects can be instantaneous – Startup/abnormal conditions should be tolerated • The facts suggest providing – Significant limit increases for short periods – Some limit increases for intermediate periods – No increases for the majority of the time • Some statistical techniques may be needed Time Varying Harmonics 29 .
2 hours < T total Total Duration of Harmonic Bursts (Ttotal in %) Ttotal ≤ 1% 1% < Ttotal ≤ 5% 5% < Ttotal Acceptable harmonic distortion level 3.Time Varying Harmonics – Total Duration Limits Total Duration of Harmonic Bursts (T ) total Ttotal ≤ 15 min. total 1. < Tmax Max.0 ×(design limits) 2.< Tmax ≤ 30 min.0 ×(design limits) Time Varying Harmonics – Single Burst Limits Maximum Duration of Single Harmonic Bursts (Tmax) Tmax ≤ 15 sec.2 hr. 15 sec. 30 min.0×(design limits) 30 .< T ≤1. Duration of Single Harmonic Bursts (Tmax in %) Tmax ≤ 0.02% 0.0×(design limits) 1.0×(design limits) 2. 15 min.0 ×(design limits) 1.02% < Tmax ≤ 2% 2% < Tmax Acceptable harmonic distortion level 3.
and 16 cycle windows • 128 and 256 samples/cycle • Filtering – IEC 61000430 offers potential • Specific requirements • Captures 3s. 12.2 hours >15 sec and < 30 minutes and 2.0 x design limit >1.0 x design limit <15 minutes >15 minutes and < 1. 10m.Time Varying Harmonics (24 hour period) Total Duration of Harmonic Bursts Maximum Duration of a Single Harmonic Burst < 15 seconds Acceptable Harmonic Distortion Level 3. and 2hr values 31 .2 hours and > 30 minutes design limit Measurements • Define measurement specification – Many commercial meters exist • 8.
Portable tools Class C . P < 600W 32 .General Purpose loads.IEC Standards Apply at equipment level. 240 V or less. 690 V or less. 3ph balanced equipment (plus any eqpt not in B.Lighting equipment Class D .C. 1ph. mandatory in EC UL certification available in US IEC 6100032 Class A .Equipment with “special wave shape” (conduction angle < 600). 50 or 60 Hz 6100032: loads with input current < 16 A 61000312: loads with input current >16A and <75A (published in 2004) 6100034: loads with input current > 75 A Use varies from country to country.D) Class B . 3ph.
14 0.08 0.43 0.4 0.21 0.77 0.15 x 15/n 1.Class A (Balanced 3ph Equipment) Harmonic Order 3 5 7 9 11 13 1539 2 4 6 840 Max. Permissible Harmonic Current (Amps) 2.23 x 8/n 33 .33 0.30 0.3 1.
15 x 15/n (odd harmonics only) 34 .40 0.85/n Max.0 0.77 0.33 0.35 3.Class C Equipment (Lighting >25W) Harmonic Order 2 3 5 7 9 1139 Max. Harmonic Current (% of Fund. Harmonic Current (Amps) 2.9 1.14 0.5 0.4 1.) 2 30 x PF 10 7 5 3 (odd harmonics only) Class D Equipment (Special Waveshape) Harmonic Order 3 5 7 9 11 1339 Relative Limit (mA/W) 3.30 1.
175.! "# $ IEC 6100034 Loads with rated current > 75 A Stage 1: SC KVA/EQ. 350. 35 . 250. 600 Stage 3: Local Utility Requirements apply. KVA > 33 Stage 2: SC KVA/EQ. 450. 120. KVA 66.
3ph long secondary USNC . 2wire branches. 1ph.IEC standards in US IEC Standards US distribution systems are different 3ph. 3wire feeder.100 kVA) transformers serving 6 to 8 residents 120/240 V. large (500 kVA . short secondaries No consensus between manufacturers. 1ph. most 15 kV class Small (50 .IEC Standards are based on European distribution system 3 ph. 4wire Feeder.1000 kVA) distribution transformers 400/230V. and 3ph. 3wire branches. utilities and users 36 . 11 or 12 kV 3ph (deltastar).
1ph Long • Harmonics are important aspect of power quality • Application of power electronics is causing increased level of harmonics • Survey the loads and make preliminary evaluation • IEEE and IEC Standards reviewed 37 . 4wire 1ph. 3wire Y/∇ North American 3ph. 3wire 3ph.Comparison of European and North American Systems European Feeder Branch 3ph. 2wire Gr Y / Gr Y short Transformer 500 kVA1MVA 50 kVA100kVA Connection Secondary Length 400/230V. 3ph 120/240V.
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