Transport in India

Transport in the Republic of India is an important part of the nation's economy. Since the economic liberalisation of the 1990s, development of infrastructure within the country has progressed at a rapid pace, and today there is a wide variety of modes of transport by land, water and air. However, the relatively low GDP of India has meant that access to these modes of transport has not been uniform. Motor vehicle penetration is low with only 13 million cars on the nation's roads. 10% of Indian households own amotorcycle.
[4] [2] [3] [1]

In addition, only around

At the same time, the Automobile industry in India is and vehicle volume is expected to

rapidly growing with an annual production of over 2.6 million vehicles rise greatly in the future.

In the interim however, public transport still remains the primary mode of transport for most of the population, and India's public transport systems are among the most heavily utilised in the world. rail network is the longest and fourth most heavily used system in the world transporting over 6 billion passengers and over 350 million tons of freight annually.[5][6] Despite ongoing improvements in the sector, several aspects of the transport sector are still riddled with problems due to outdated infrastructure, lack of investment, corruption and a burgeoning population. The demand for transport infrastructure and services has been rising by around 10% a year[5] with the current infrastructure being unable to meet these growing demands. According to recent estimates by Goldman Sachs, India will need to spend US$1.7 Trillion on infrastructure projects over the next decade to boost economic growth of whichUS$500 Billion is budgeted to be spent during the Eleventh Five-Year Plan.[7]


Traditional means
Palanquins also known as palkis, were one of the luxurious methods used by the rich and noblemen for travelling. This was primarily used in the past to carry a deity or idol of a god, and many temples have sculptures of god being carried in a palki. Later on, it was primarily used by European noblemen and ladies from the upper classes of society prior to the advent of the railways in India.

Modern use of the

palanquin is limited to being an ostentatious method for the bride to enter Indian weddings. [edit]Bullock

carts and horse carriages

Bullock carts have been traditionally used for transport, especially in rural India. The advent of the British saw drastic improvements in the horse carriages which were used for transport since early days. Today, they are used in smaller towns and are referred as Tonga or buggies.Victorias of Mumbai are still

Is still vibrant and running providing service to hundreds of commuters of North Bengal region of West Bengal.35 million). link nbstc.used for tourist purposes. it has not been implemented yet.[20] Though a bill aiming to address this issue. [13] In recent years some cities have banned the movement of bullock carts and other slow moving vehicles on the main roads. they were banned in several cities for causing traffic congestion. was passed by the West Bengal Assembly in 2006. environmentalists have supported the retention of cycle rickshaws as a non-polluting and inexpensive mode of transport. They are still in use in Kolkata and provide an emission-free means of transport. Services are mostly run by state government owned transport corporations.[22] They are bigger than a tricycle where two people sit on an elevated seat at the back and a person pedals from the front.[26] In addition. The Delhi Police recently submitted an affidavit against plying of cycle rickshaws to ease traffic congestion in the city but it was dismissed by the DelhiHigh court.[21] [edit]Cycle rickshaw Cycle rickshaws were introduced into India in the 1940s. the 1st April. Hand-pulled rickshaw This type of transport are still available in Kolkata wherein a person pulls the rickshaw by hand. The Government of West Bengal proposed a ban on these rickshaws in 2005 describing them as "inhuman". In the late 2000s.[29] However. providing the cheapest way around the capital.[27] [edit]Trams Main article: Tram transport in India The advent of the British saw trams being introduced in many cities including Mumbai and Kolkata. but horse carriages are now rarely found in the metro cities of India. termed as 'Calcutta Hackney Carriage Bill'.[28] Public transport [edit]Buses The oldest Indian state transport under taking is "North Bengal State Transport Corporation" founded by the Raj Durbar regime in the year 1945. many state transport corporations have introduced various facilities like low-floor buses for the disabled and air-conditioned .[23][24][25] Cycle rickshaws have been a feature of Delhi streets since Indian independence in 1947. [34] and serve as a cheap and convenientmode of transport for all classes of after theeconomic liberalisation.With three buses and three trucks. The nationalized Calcutta Tramways Company is in the process of upgrading the existing tramway network at a cost of 24 crore (US$5.[21] The Government of West Bengal is working on an amendment of this bill to avoid the loopholes that got exposed when the Hand-pulled Rickshaw Owner's Association filed a petition against the Buses take up over 90% of public transport in Indian cities.

Bengaluru.[44] In recent years. taxis can either be hailed or hired from taxi-stands. Bus Rapid Transit systems already exist in Pune. Toyota Innova. Delhi and Ahmedabad with new ones coming up in Vishakhapatnam and Hyderabad. It was built by Airtel. [47] In cities and localities where taxis are expensive or do not ply as per the government or municipal regulated fares. Private taxi operators are not required to have a specific livery. Hyderabad. The city of Chennai houses Asia's largest bus terminus. Tata Indica. The livery of the taxis in India varies from state-to-state. In 2009. Maruti Esteem. A similar system exists for autorickshaws.taxis need to be hired over phone. Hyundai Santro and Tata Indigo have become fairly popular among taxi operators. they are required by law to be registered as commercial vehicles. Bengaluru. all taxis are required to have a fare-meter installed. most taxicabs have yellow-black livery while in West Bengal. The passengers are charged according to the number of people with different destinations. Since 2006. taxis have yellow livery. . High Capacity buses can be found in cities like Mumbai. radio taxis have become increasingly popular with the public due to reasons of safety and convenience. The service aims to provide low-cost connectivity to the economically backward sections of the society to the nearest major bus station. However. According to government of India regulations. people use share taxis.[46] There are additional surcharges for luggage. Mahindra Logan. These are normal taxis which carry one or more passengers travelling to destinations either en route to the final destination. In Delhi and Maharashtra. located near Cubbon Park. Maruti Omni. or near the final destination.[45] whereas in cities like Kolkata and Mumbai. latenight rides and toll taxes are to be paid by the passenger. taxis can be hailed on the street. Depending on the city/state.These Buses are allowed to operate only in the Greater Hyderabad. cars such as Chevrolet Tavera.buses to attract private car owners to help decongest roads. the Chennai Mofussil Bus Terminus. [37][38][39] New initiatives like Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems and air conditioned buses have been taken by the various state government to improve the bus public transport systems in cities. known as share autos. the Government of Karnataka and the Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation flagged off a propoor bus service called the Atal Sarige. [35][36] Bengaluru was the first city in India to introduce Volvo B7RLEintra-city buses in India in January 2006. Bengaluru is the first Indian city to have an airconditioned bus stop. Nagpur and Chennai. [40] The APSRTC has introduced [41] Buses with two coaches. In cities such as Ahmedabad.[42][43] [edit]Taxi Main article: Taxis in India Most of the traditional taxicabs in India are either Premier Padmini or Hindustan Ambassador cars.

but designs vary considerably from place to place. to have an "in-taxi" magazine.3 million passengers daily and has the highest passenger density in the world. and Hubballi-Dharwad provide a facility of prepaid auto booths.The city of Mumbai will soon be the first city in India. green or black colour and has a black. or charging night-fare before midnight. [48] [edit]Auto Rickshaws Main article: Autorickshaw Autorickshaw in Mumbai An auto rickshaw is a three wheeler vehicle for hire that has no doors and is generally characterised by a small cabin for the driver in the front and a seat for passengers in the rear. [53] [29] TheMumbai Suburban Railway is the first rail system in India which began services in Mumbai in 1867. where the passenger pays a fixed fare as set by the authorities for various locations.[49] Generally it is painted in yellow. in this case beingSouth Mumbai. A recent law prohibits auto rickshaw drivers from charging more than the specified fare. Kolkata. transports 6. titled MumBaee.[52] [edit]Metro Rail Delhi Metro. In Mumbai and other metropolitan cities. which will be issued to taxis which are part of the Mumbai Taximen's Union. Mumbai is also the only city which prohibits these vehicles from entering a certain part of the city. and also prohibits the driver from refusing to go to a particular location. yellow or green canopy on the top.[50] In Chennai. 'autos' or 'ricks' as they are popularly known have regulated metered fares. operational since 2002 The present suburban railway services in India are extremely limited and are operational only in Mumbai. Chennai and Delhi. . it is common to see autorickshaw drivers demand more than the specified fare and refuse to use fare meter [51] Airports and railway stations at many cities such as Bengaluru. The magazine debuted on 13 July 2009.

[62] There are also monorail systems being planned in Kolkata and in Delhi. . [54] Its first service ran between Howrah and Hooghly covering a distance of 38. Chennai. Ahmedabad and Mumbai.[66] Long distance transport [edit]Railway Main articles: Rail transport in India and Indian Railways The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway is aWorld Heritage Site. Bengaluru.[64] but this is yet to be implemented anywhere on a commercial scale following an accident in 2004.[65] A two-track elevated corridor has been proposed above the existing Western Railway line between the stations of Churchgate and Virar in Mumbai for air-conditioned EMUs. was established in Kolkata in 1854.[59] Amritsar [60] and Kochi.[59] Lucknow. The Delhi Metro followed in 2002 and has carried over a billion [56] commuters in seven years since its inauguration. the Kolkata Suburban Railway. Rapid transit systems are also under construction in Hyderabad. Rapid transit systems have been proposed in Thane. the Kolkata Metro.[63] The Konkan Railway Corporation had patented a suspended monorail system called the Skybus Metro in Margao.[87] and one of the fewsteam engines in operation in India.[61] Mumbai is presently building India's first urban monorail.6 km (24 mi). Kolkata [55] was the first city in India to possess a subterreanean rapid transport system.[57] Pune.Mumbai Suburban Railway. The third Metro system in India the Bangalore Metro has begun its trials and will soon be starting its commercial operations. the lifeline of Mumbai The first rapid transit system in India. Kolkata has a circular rail line and Chennai has an elevated rail transit called MRTS.[58] Kanpur. whose operations commenced in 1984. Apart from these.

transporting over 18 million passengers and more than 2 million tonnes offreight daily across one of the largest and busiest rail networks in the world.435 mi). becoming one of the largest networks in the world. each having a divisional headquarters. [88][89] By 1947. metre and narrow gauges. It operates both long distance and suburban rail systems on a multi-gauge network of broad. there were forty-two rail systems.909 stations over a total route length of around 63. It also owns locomotive and coach production facilities.4 million employees. IR owns over 200. the year of India's independence.951 mi)) into broad gauge in a project called Project Unigauge.000 coaches and 8. the second highest in the world.465 km (39. and is in the process of converting all the metre gauge (14. 50. covering 6.406 km (8. are provided by the state-run Indian Railways. which are further sub-divided into sixty seven divisions. under the supervision of the Ministry of Railways. . Indian Railways is divided into sixteen zones. first introduced in 1853.000 (freight) [88][93] [88] wagons. Trucks on the Konkan Railway Rolling Highway Rail services in India. with more than 1.000 locomotives.Budgam railway station on the Kashmir Railway. Indian Railways provides an important mode of transport in India. [92] It is the world's largest commercial or utility As to rolling stock. In 1951 the systems were nationalised as one unit. [90][91] The rail network traverses through the length and breadth of the country. employer.

[98][99] [100] [97] which was The RORO service. [94] Proposals have been made to introduce high-speed rail in India.84 million).10. Pakistan has proposed a rail link with China across the Khunjerab Pass. Another proposal has been made to [96] introduce a High-speed rail in India similar to that of the Shinkansen of Japan. It was highly popular.[105] however in the disputed region of Gilgit-Baltistan.941 crore (US$655. connecting it to the National Capital ofNew Delhi. [edit]Road Main article: Indian Road Network .000 [101] allowed trucks to be transported on flatbed trailers. A proposal has been made to [95] build a Maglev track within the city of Mumbai. and the Thar Express between Jodhpur and Karachi. Two trains operate to Pakistan . carrying about 1. the Konkan Railway Corporation introduced the Roll On Roll Off (RORO) service. the first of its kind in India. and freight services between Raxaul and Birganj. as per the feasibility study conducted by the Ministry of External Affairs through RITES Ltd. a unique roadrail synergy system.[103] The construction of this missing link. In 1999.[102] No rail link exists at present with Myanmar. trucks and bringing in about 74 crore worth of earnings to the corporation till 2007. the Maitree Express. Nominal rail links to Nepal exist ² passenger services between Jaynagar and Bijalpura. extended up to Surathkal in Karnataka in 2004.Kashmir Railway is the second highest in the world and the first phase was completed in 2009. No rail link exists with either China or Sri Lanka. on the section between Kolad in Maharashtra and Verna in Goa.[104] Rail links with Bhutan have been proposed. Bangladesh is connected by a bi-weekly train. the current controller of this area. is estimated to cost 2. but a railway line is to be built through from Jiribam (in Manipur) to Tamu through Imphal andMoreh.the Samjhauta Express between Delhi and Lahore. [edit]International Rail links between India and neighbouring countries are not well-developed. as well as other parts of Maharashtra in the form of the Mumbai Maglev.

work is under progress to equip some of the important national highways with four lanes. India has a total of 66. [106] Average growth of the number of vehicles has been around [106] Highways have facilitated development along the route and many towns have sprung up along major highways. [108] [107] However congestion and bureaucratic delays enroute ensure that trucking goods from Gurgaon to the port in Mumbai can take up to 10 days.The Network of National Highways in India. though only about 2% of the road network is covered by these roads. forming the economic backbone of the country. In recent years construction has commenced on a nationwide system of .[106] UnderNational Highways Development Project (NHDP). As per the National Highways Authority of India. 10. also there is a plan to convert some stretches of these roads to six lanes. The National Highways carry about 40% of total road traffic. the most notable being the Mumbai-Pune Expressway. India has a network of National Highways connecting all the major cities and state capitals. about 65% of freight and 80% passenger traffic is carried by the roads. of which 200 km (124 mi) are classified as expressways.590 km (41.16% per annum over recent years. As of 2005. but very few are constructed of concrete. Road transport Benchmark Freight Index (BFI) initiative taken in India in recent past All national highways are metalled.377 mi) of National Highways.

have proven extremely useful in connecting villages and towns across the country.650. including the Golden Quadrilateral and North-South and East-West Corridors which link the largest cities in India. introduced in the 1960s and 1970s.210 mi). was launched in 2000 to build all-weather roads to connect all habitations with a population of 500 or above (250 or above for hilly areas).multi-lane highways. particularly in the countryside and remote areas where the rail network cannot be accessed and airline operations are few or non-existent. At 0.050.410 km (2.380 mi) State Highways 131. Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (Prime Minister's Rural Road Program). public bus transport is predominantly owned and operated by public agencies. In 2000. Due to this social significance.20). around 40% of villages in India lacked access to all-weather roads and remained isolated during the monsoon season. the total road length in India is 3.654 mi) Rural and Other Roads 2.000 km (2.000 mi) (Approx) Buses are an important means of public transport in India.958 mi) Major District Roads 467.300.16) or Brazil's (0. [109][110] As per 2009 estimates. and most state governments operate bus services through a State Road Transport Corporation.590 km (41.063.[112] These corporations. [5][109] To improve rural connectivity.899 km (81. Type of Road Length [5] Expressways 650 km (400 mi) as of 2006 National Highways 66.65) and far higher than that of China's (0.000 mi) Total Length 3.[29] . [111] making the Indian road network the third largest road network in the world.320.763 km (290.000 km (1. a project funded by the Central Government with the help of World Bank.650.66 km of highway per square kilometre of land the density of India¶s highway network is higher than that of the United States (0.

a government-owned company that also manages offshore and other marine transport infrastructure in the country.2 Lakh GT (0.[117] Mumbai Port & JNPT(Navi Mumbai) handles 70% of maritime trade in India. It owns and operates about 35% of Indian tonnage and operates in practically all areas of shipping business servicing both national and international trades. [114] Personnel are trained at the Maritime Training Institute in Mumbai. Vishakapatnam. Kolkata (including Haldia). Kochi. New Mangalore. there are 187 minor and intermediate ports. 43 of which handle cargo.[edit]Water and sea transport Main article: Shipping Corporation of India Maritime transportation in India is managed by the Shipping Corporation of India.5 lakh GT (48 lakh DWT) and also manages 53 research.6 Lakh DWT) on behalf of various government departments and other organisations.[92] Other than these.[116] The ports are the main centres of trade. in Malta and Iran through joint ventures. Chennai. [113] It has a fleet of 79 ships of 27. [edit]Ports Main article: Ports in India [114] The Corporation also operates Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust in Navi Mumbai ranks 25th in the world as per container traffic. The minor ports are regulated by the respective state .[118] There are twelve major ports: Navi Mumbai.[92] The distinction between major and minor ports is not based on the amount of cargo handled. a branch of [115] the World Maritime University. Paradip. They come under the purview of the Major Port Trusts Act. The major ports are managed by port trusts which are regulated by the central government. Mormugao and Kandla. which was set up in 1987.Tuticorin. Mumbai. survey and support vessels of 1. 1963. In India about 95% of the foreign trade by quantity and 70% by value takes place through the ports. Ennore.

The following waterways have been declared as National Waterways:  National Waterway 1 . The total cargo moved by inland waterways is just 0.  [121] National Waterway 3 . surveying the economic feasibility of new projects and also administration and regulation.Dhubri stretch of the Brahmaputra river system with a total length of 891 kilometers (554 mi) in 1988.33 Mt.Allahabad . India has an extensive network of inland waterways in the form of rivers. with a total length of 205 kilometers (127 mi) in 1993. canals. compared to the corresponding figures of 20% for Germany and 32% for Bangladesh.Hooghly river system with a total length of 1. It does the function of building the necessary infrastructure in these waterways. The Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI) is the statutory authority in charge of the waterways in India. The total navigable length is 14.Haldia stretch of the Ganges . Assam and Kerala.500 kilometers (9.governments and many of these ports are private ports or captive ports.15% of the total inland traffic in India. [edit]Waterways Main article: Inland Waterways Authority of India [92] Boats sailing on National Waterway 2 atGuwahati.010 mi) in October 1986.620 kilometers (1.200 km (3.Kollam .231 mi) of river and 485 km (301 mi) of canals can be used by mechanised crafts.Bhagirathi . [121] . Assam.[119]Freight transport by waterways is highly underutilised in India compared to other large countries. out of which about 5.000 mi).Saidiya .Kottapuram stretch of the West Coast Canal along with Champakara and Udyogmandal canals. backwaters and creeks. West Bengal. The total amount of traffic handled at the major ports in 2005-2006 was 382.[120] Cargo transport in an organised manner is confined to a few waterways in Goa.[121]  National Waterway 2 .

Vijaywada stretch of the Krishna . Major new entrants include Air Deccan. GoAir.Paradeep and Talcher .Puducherry canal network.[132] The total deal with Airbus was worthUS$3 billion. Kingfisher Airlines. India's flag carrier. with a total length of 623 km (387 mi) in 2007.095 km (680 mi) in 2007. has invested millions of dollars to increase its fleet. Air India and Jet Airways are the most popular brands in domestic air travel in order of their market share. Air India. Air India recently placed orders for more than 68 jets from Boeing for US$7.Bhadrachalam . SpiceJet.Rajahmundry and Wazirabad .5 billion while Indian placed orders for 43 jets from Airbus for US$2.[127][128] Jet Airways. More than half a dozen low-cost carriers entered the Indian market in 2004-05.Dhamara stretch of the Mahanadi Brahmani river system along with the East Coast Canal. even though the Mumbai-Delhi air corridor was ranked 6th by the Official Airline Guide in 2007 among the world's busiest routes.[134] [edit]Airports Main article: List of airports in India .[126] India's vast unutilised air transport network has attracted several investments in the Indian air industry in the past few years.Mangalgadi . IndiGo Airlines entered the limelight when it announced orders for 100 Airbus A320s worth US$6 billion during the Paris Air Show. However.[122][123] [edit]Aviation Rapid economic growth in India has made air travel more affordable.[125] These airlines connect more than 80 cities across India and also operate overseas routes after the liberalisation of Indian aviation.5 billion. [130] This trend is not restricted to traditional air carriers in India. Paramount Airways and IndiGo Airlines. a large section of country's air transport system remains untapped. The highest by any Asian domestic carrier. National Waterway 4 .[129] but this has been put on hold due to the recent economic slowdown. Kingfisher Airlines.Godavari river system along with the Kakinada . [133] s Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport in Mumbai is currently India's busiest airport in terms of passenger traffic. India's largest private carrier.[122][123]  National Waterway 5 . To meet India's rapidly increasing demand for air travel.[131] Kingfisher Airlines became the first Indian air carrier on June 15. [124] Several other foreign airlines connect Indian cities with other major cities across the globe. with a total length of 1. presently operates a fleet of 159 aircraft and plays a major role in connecting India with the rest of the world. 2005 to order Airbus A380 aircraft.

The Indira Gandhi International Airport and the Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport handle more than half of the air traffic in South Asia.999 ft) 77 7 914 m (2.047 m (9.250 with paved runways and 96 with unpaved runways and more than 20 international airports in the Republic of India.There are more than 335 (2008 est.438 m (7.047 m (9.) [135] civilian airports in India . particularly in North-east India.997 ft) or more 19 0 2.999 ft) 3.999 ft) 1.524 m (5. and also to various State Governments in India.524 m (5.000 ft) above mean sea level.997 ft) 55 1 1. there are 30 heliports in India.[136] Length of runways Airports Airports with paved with unpaved runways (2008 est.)[135] runways (2008 est.)[135] 3.999 ft) 16 47 Total [edit]Heliports 251 94 As of 2007.000 ft) 84 39 Under 914 m (2.[139] Pawan Hans Helicopters Limited is a public sector company that provides helicopter services to ONGC to its off-shore locations.[135] India also has the world's highest helipad at the Siachen Glacier a height of 6400 metre (21.000 ft) 2. [136][137][138] Indira Gandhi International Airport in Delhi is India's busiest in terms of the number of daily flights.438 m (7. .

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