Culture imperialism and political imperialism reflect in media imperialism.

CULTURAL IMPERIALISM
The cultural imperialism thesis holds that dominant societies are able to impose their culture on that of subordinate societies as a means of establishing and perpetuating control. This is seen as part of the historical development of a wider economic and political imperialism illustrated particularly in the relationship between developed and underdeveloped nations. More specifically, cultural imperialism refers to the spread of cultural values, ideas and practices which reflect and reproduce the µsuperiority¶ of the dominant culture (Christianity, Shakespeare and McDonald¶s are but three examples). At the same time it describes the devaluation and destruction of indigenous culture (for instance, polygamy or witchcraft). Media imperialism refers to the way in which the mass media is able to organise and purvey cultural imperialism. The concept has been especially popular among Marxists, who lay stress on the determining role of political economy ± and more precisely, ownership of the world¶s media by major capitalist interests ± in understanding the world media order and culture. It has been particularly associated with the rising power of the USA during the twentieth century and its ability to shape systems of information and entertainment for ultimately ideological purposes, a process sometimes labelled Americanisation. The USA is the biggest domestic producer and the largest exporter of televisionprogrammes, while many of the major international media corporations are American (for example, Time Warner and Fox). Thus, many societies in Africa, Asia, Latin America and other parts of the world experience a diet of television drawn overwhelmingly from North America, and indeed Europe. O¶Sullivan et al. use the example of television schedules in Fiji composed almost entirely of European and American programmes, including various sports, the British comedy Porridge and the American programmes WKRP in Cincinnati and Hollywood Wives (O¶Sullivan et al. 1998). One of the primary motives in such cases is financial as American corporations sell media products to buyers in developing world countries way below the cost of producing domestic programmes. The problem is compounded by the fact that media products and processes are perceived as flowing in one direction only, with American audiences being unused to anything but Americanprogrammes. The cultural imperialism thesis holds that in the context of a world information order, multinational corporations (MNCs) own the mass media and are therefore able to control technology such as satellites, the flow and distribution of images and information and textualcontent itself. For example, major newsagencies such as Reuters form parts of large MNCs which control the technology of news production, the distribution of news programmes (tending to be exported from developed societies to developing societies), and the content of news texts (Gurevitch 1991). The result is that television news sets an ideological agenda that favours the advanced capitalist societies. Cultural imperialism, then, is closely bound up with economic imperialism. This kind of approach would also point to the mass media¶s ability to develop new markets byadvertising the imperative of consumption; the rapid worldwide spread of MTV, with its representation of a glamorous, exciting and implicitly American way of life, is seen as a prime illustration of this. Satellite technology has

critiques in the early-to-mid 20th century suggested that media weaken or delimit the individual's capacity to act autonomously ² sometimes being ascribed an influence reminiscent of the telescreens of the dystopian novel 1984. has the capacity to veil the exploitative reality of economic relations (via. Warner Bros and Disney cartoons). Theorists of a Gramscian bent have rejected what they see as this mechanistic and determinist account. in which the national identity of smaller nations is lessened or lost due to media homogeneity inherent in mass media from the larger countries. Both µfirst¶ and µthird world¶ populations come to see the world through a µwestern gaze¶. however. Current theories cultural and personal beliefs. communication theory and sociology to refer to the theories about the ways in which mass media affect how their audiences think and behave. in their seminal text How to Read Donald Duck. Media influence or media effects are used in media studies. audiences cannot fail to be affected. It can legitimate the superiority of µwestern¶ culture (Upstairs. "Mid 20th-century empirical studies. then. Proponents of the cultural and media imperialism thesis see the result of these economic and cultural processes as dissemination of dominant capitalist ideology throughout the world. Mass media content created for newsworthy events and those stories that are not told all have Television broadcasting has a large amount of control over the content society watches and the times in which it is viewed. In this model. advertising) and compensate for the miseries of everyday life with the provision of so-called µprozac television¶ such as Dallas. However. Connecting the world to individuals and reproducing the self-image of society. arguing that cultures are able to resist forces of imperialism. threaten existing national identities. among other things. consideration of different and competing representations ± for instance. in the process. For example. Television. This allows for.g. the analysis is still couched in terms of a fundamental organising relationship between two societies or formations within those societies. Dorfman and Mattelart (1975) point to the racial stereotyping of µother¶ nationalities and the promotion of capitalism and consumerism in Disney comics. psychology. culture should be seen as an arena of political struggle or µcultural politics¶ rather than imposition. with the former becoming µarmchair conquistadores¶ (Shohat and Stam 1994). of µAfricans¶ on British television ± and of the capability of governments and others to reject µwestern¶ media products. say. This is a distinguishing feature of traditional media which New media have challenged by altering the . In other words. as per the propaganda model. Downstairs) and the inferiority of µthe other¶ via racist representations (e.exacerbated the situation as media products ± an example here would be the availability and popularity of American basketball in the Caribbean ± are able to ignore borders and. Attempts in a number of countries to regulate the import of American material have been thwarted by media corporations and the American government. Media imperialism is a theory based upon an over-concentration of mass media from larger nations as a significant variable in negatively affecting smaller nations. The labelling of this homogenisation as µCoca-Cola culture¶ is not incidental.

MNCs helping India to become developed country. The employees of these companies are having high salary. . They are introducing new products of cost effective. India is a developing country. Multinationals are modern day imperialism Multinational Companies: Are they devils in disguise? In Against:The main advantage of MNCs is reducing of unemployment. There have been suggestions that allowing consumers to produce information through the internet will lead to an overload of information. The internet creates a space for more diverse political opinions. Some MNCs are including in social activities. social and cultural viewpoints and a heightened level of consumer participation. Economy of pakistan increases. which is highly necessary for developing countries in present generation.participation habits of the public. They are helping us to connect with whole world.

of course you are entitled to any amount of money that you would like. In these companies there is least scope of using creativity. in very apologetic language. But please. drinking and arguing. The pay scale of Indian employees of these companies is less compared to foreign employees of the same companies. Many talented people are settling in foreign countries to work for MNCs. Watteson would go to the bookkeeper's office at the paper. At the end of each day. By MNCs. Employees of these companies are working like robots. So that. . Conclusion:Multinational companies are not disadvantage to our country. open up the till and take our a fistful of money to finance his evening's eating. said. Newspaper are the most respected medium Henry Watteson was editor of the Louisville Courier Journal after the Civil War and made that paper one of the most respected through his powerful editorials. But employees of these companies should not take responsibility for overloaded work just for high salary. Some young people are attracted by the high salary and moulding their career wrongly for luxury life. After a hard day's work at the office. "Mr. Mostly. and not spending their valuable time with their family. and using for the development of the other countries. Kentucky Colonel's goatee. there can have fulfilment of passion and also fulfilment of personal life. The bookkeeper.In Favor:Pakistan has many intelligent people. Watteson. employees are just following instructions of their superiors. One evening he went to take the money and there was a plaintive note from the bookkeeper. he liked to spend his evenings in his combined hobbies: vervent political arguments and fervent absorbing of good Kentucky bourbon. The stress of MNC employees is more compared to others. But the intelligence is not used by India. There are many cases of mental health problems in these employees. and a ferocious temper. pakistan need MNCs to become developed country. local companies are having losses. He was an imposing man with white hair. Mr.

A magazine article owned by the company becomes a book owned by the company. Affiliated television stations now make an average of between 30% and 50% annually. who owns our media? . you see an extraordinary race toward monopoly or monopoly-like control which gets more rapid all the time. "all" seems to mean all the profit that can be quickly and ruthlessly taken from their media properties. That becomes a television program owned by the company. When you look at it all. always generous. Today. each is trying to collect as many outlets as possible in any one media. It does not take an angel from heaven to tell us that the company will be less enthusiastic about outside ideas for productions that it does not own. of our 1600 daily newspapers. 50 corporations had half or more of all the business in all the major media in the United States. approximately 30% to 50% more than the costs of production. Watteson look quaint. a half dozen corporations have most of the revenues. Three major studios have most of the movie business. They're also trying to buy control or market domination not just in one medium. thanks to their combined lobbying. but a half dozen corporations have most of the sales in the book industry. For example. Since cable became dominated by newspapers.000 magazines with individual titles. Almost weekly we read of another great media merger. opened the cash drawer with trepidation and was relieved to see a note from Mr. Of our 11. Perhaps that's why our theme asks two main questions: First. Today a small number of multinational corporations control most of our media. There are at least 2500 book publishing houses. have risen sharply and now range between 20% and 40% annually. They all gobble up each new medium as it gets popular. Watteson's temper. including printed and broadcast news. He opened the not. "I took it all. The new owners have something else in mind when they drive to take it all. knowing Mr. like cable and videocassettes. average newspaper pre-tax annual profits. Of our four television networks and 900 commercial stations. broadcasters and movie company owners and was deregulated. but what they mean by "all" makes Mr.leave a note on how much you take out so we can make our books right the next morning. which becomes a movie owned by the company. but in all the media." The next morning. Time/Warner forms the largest media conglomerate in the world. cable fees around the country have risen radically. Since the growth of concentration of ownership. including corporations dominant in more than one medium. It's shown in theaters owned by the company and the movie sound track is issued on a record label owned by the company and the vocalist on the cover of one of the company magazines. the bookkeeper. three corporations have most of the audience and revenues. And more and more we will be dealing with closed circuits to control access to most of the public. that number is less than 25 and shrinking." The modern owners of our news media seem to have taken their lesson from Mr. from an original manuscript or news series to its use in as many forms as possible. The major owners of our media mean three things by "all": First. The aim is to control the entire process. Rupert Merdoch adds another major segment to his global empire. Watteson. They are taking it all. Lastly. In 1982. The note said. about a dozen corporations now control more than half of all national daily circulation. Watteson.

Each day. In broadcasting. the three networks Ñ ABC. there's good news and bad news. Most reporters in the standard media can say correctly. This kind of selection is a legitimate and necessary part of the news process. The chief owners of magazines in the general news are dominated by Time/Warner. factual and important local and national information. There is a daily volume of routine. although not all the issue general news. fictionalize less.. The good news about American reporting is that in some technical matters it is the best news in the world. which are an important source of knowledge about public affairs. Knight-Ridder. That gives some idea of the major owners of the news and of books. certain social data. a British firm. Time/Warner. and Thompson. a French firm. despite some loss of audience. each week. mainly with the institutions and the conventions of standard American journalism. But our average in terms of preparation and care of journalists is better than the average anyplace else. They lie less than journalists elsewhere. and on the whole take seriously their individual duty to provide the public with accurate information. Newhouse and about 8 others. International Thompson. particular foreign scenes. or other spokespersons and analysts are mentioned obscurely. But most reporters are told every day what to write about. certain public figures. Hachette. why are they so bad? Or at least. but I think they're rare. as with life in general. particular personalities. But if things are so good. Bertlesmann. as trouble-some as I believe they are? The problem lies. Our second question is: How well do they serve the public? Well. particular government activities. which. a German firm. Each day editors necessarily select some stories for emphasis and some for de emphasis. how often is the result a serious departure from the realities of our social. and particular series in some depth. which controls more than 40% of the country's magazine business. with 116 papers. while other stories. CBS and NBCÑ still have most of the television audience and business. There are exceptions. the leading ones are Gannett.000 broadcast reporters. Other major owners are Rupert Murdoch. which does carry news. Collectively they issue daily an extraordinary volume of daily news items. particular stories. We sometimes make the mistake of comparing our average with other countries' elite. is owned by the Washington Post Company. if at all. they are pointed toward particular tasks. a Canadian firm. which owns Simon and Shuster. It's journalists are the most highly educated in the world and far better educated than any earlier generation of American Journalists." And I think that is correct. There are 50. I think.To name a few names: In daily papers. Newsweek. In the resulting mass of stories there are often articles of importance and sometimes distinction. "No editor ever tells me to lie. In books. Hearst Newhouse. Reader's Digest Association. economic and political life? . Certain kinds of stories.000 print journalists in this country and 50. certain analysts of social and political events are regularly on the network evening news and the front page. The problem lies in something beyond the mass of useful items. each month. which owns USA Today and 88 other daily papers. They operate under higher professional ethics than journalists elsewhere and higher than at any time in the past. But when we look at the selection process over time. some for the wastebasket. Maxwell. for about 6 million total daily circulation. some of the major owners are Gulf & Western.

vehicles. The future of newspapers has been widely debated as the industry has faced down soaring newsprint prices. And the internet's search function allows advertisers to tailor their pitch to readers who have revealed what information they're seeking ± an enormous advantage. But while television's arrival in the 1950s presaged the decline of newspapers' importance as most people's source of daily news. The competing mediums also offer advertisers the opportunity to use moving images and sound. newspapers have been pinched by consolidation of large department stores. The Internet has also gone a step further than television in eroding the advertising income of newspapers. which once accounted for substantial advertising sums. slumping ad sales. The newspaper industry has always been cyclical. . Both television and the Internet bring news to the consumer faster and in a more visual style than newspapers. bankruptcy or severe cutbacks has risen²especially in the United States. and the industry has weathered previous troughs. the explosion of the internet in the 1990s and the first decade of the 21st century increased the panoply of media choices available to the average reader while further cutting into newspapers' hegemony as the source of news. some of which depended on classifieds for 70% of their ad revenue. as ± unlike broadcast media ± it proves a convenient vehicle for classified advertising.[1] Revenue has plunged while competition from internet media has squeezed older print publishers. the loss of much classified advertising and precipitous drops in circulation. and real estate.Where does the money come into the news industry. At the same time. where the industry has shed a fifth of its journalists since 2001. which are constrained by their physical form and the need to be physically manufactured and distributed. In recent years the number of newspapers slated for closure. Free services like Craigslist have decimated the classified advertising departments of many newspapers. particularly in categories such as jobs.

but their principal sources of profit. adding that Indian TV channels were open to the Pakistani public and were tremendously popular there. ³Indian cinema is extremely advanced and we want Indian filmmakers to work with us. but without print media's capital-intensive overhead. newspapers have also been increasingly assailed by other media taking away not only their readers. chairman of a senate committee on culture and tourism. musicians and actors from Pakistan have crossed over to India seeking opportunities. which is underway in Goa. PANAJI: A special task force formed by Pakistan to revive its film industry will be visiting Mumbai to learn from Bollywood. Nilofar Bakhtiar. In the recent past. Recent examples are Ali Zafar¶s Tere Bin (Laden) and Mona Liza¶s Kajraare. Speaking to reporters in Panaji.´ she said.´ Bakhtiar said. said she would be lining up meetings for the 16-member task force with top Bollywood personalities. it would have good impact on our industry and future relations of both the countries. But newspapers have not been alone in this: the rise of cable television and satellite television at the expense of network television in countries such as the United States and United Kingdom is another example of this fragmentation.[34] Some estimates put the percentage of online news derived from newspapers at 80%. often aiming only to serve specific interest groups. Many of these 'new media' are not saddled with expensive union contracts. printing presses. Many of these competitors are simply 'aggregators' of news. often derived from print sources. If they come to India. We would like India to reciprocate.As their revenues have been squeezed. .[35] Many newspapers also suffer from the broad trend toward ³fragmentation´ of all media ± in which small numbers of large media outlets attempting to serve substantial portions of the population are replaced by an abundance of smaller and more specialized organizations. ³We recently formed a task force to revive Pakistani cinema in which we have leading filmmakers as members. We also want training opportunities for our actors and directors in India. The film industry in pakistan can be revived. So-called narrowcasting has splintered audiences into smaller and smaller slivers. delivery fleets and overhead built over decades.´ said Bakhtiar. a senior Pakistani senate committee chairman said here Saturday. ³It took us a long time and tremendous pressure to allow Indian cinema to be aired in Pakistan. who is leading a delegation of Pakistani officials and filmmakers to the South Asian Film Festival (SAFF).

This came about to keep the British Empire running ± fastly tansferring messages abroad. (The words µtele¶ and µgraph¶ mean µfar¶ and µwrite¶ respectively) The Optical Telegraph was invented c. The most popular radio programmes are: The Archers Desert Island Discs Radio grew out of telegraphy ± the long distance transfer of messages ± as a communication device.dot. He came to the U.dash. It is cheaper and you don¶t have to listen intently.dash. There are always big advances In 1896. They found this new technology quicker. cheaper and easier to maintain. In 1809 German Scientists invented an electrical version with 35 wires in acid representing Latin letters and when shocked the jars would bubble.dot.dot] which means S. They were inspired by the Indian Smoke Signals and Roman Fire Beacons. .K. This gave rise to the creation of morse code. 1830. Today we continued our Introduction to Media Studies module by looking at The Radio and whether it is populist or elitist.dot.dash. In the beginning it was the only output and was extremely popular. For example in rescue like on the Titanic. The problem is they can stop working due to bad visibility such as fog and you can only communicate 2 words per minute if your lucky. They soon found uses for it. where they built radio masts and sent the first radio message µ Are you ready?¶.O. communicating a message. Radio is seen as TV¶s poorer cousin but it didn¶t used to be.S (Save Our Souls). Then radio transmitters were invented which were used to send binary codes. The most famous morse code is [dot. the Italians were not interested in Marconi¶s new wireless communication invention.you can dip in and out of radio.dot. Or in Wartime to pass messages such as in WW1. Then came the laying of the Oceanic Telegraph Cables to India et. They were constructed every few miles on hills to communciate with each other using signals. Or in spying where theJapanese monitored Russia warships. Then then did the first transatlantic radio transmisson from Wales to Newfoundland. specifically Wales.The radio is the most popular medium.

Television has created history in recent past.during war time. Since the 1970s the availability of video cassettes.2. In recent years Internet television has seen the rise of television available via the Internet. and Asian Network. meaning "far sight": Greek tele ( ). Radio 2 took the light programme. the television set has become commonplace in homes. e.in technology Radio went commercial is the US and Europe in the 1920 s. which was modeled on the existing radio broadcasting systems developed in the 1920s. and uses high-powered radio-frequency transmitters to broadcast the television signal to individual TV receivers. 6music. No commercial radio license was given till 1973.4. have resulted in the television set frequently being used for viewing recorded as well as broadcast material. far. . businesses and institutions. particularly as a vehicle for advertising. In 1938 however most people turned away from the BBC and tuned into foreign stations. DVDs and now Blu-ray Discs. The etymology of the word has a mixed Latin and Greek origin.3.g. Britian was in the swinging sixties and Radio 1 was broadcasting it out. television transmission. laserdiscs. and Latin visio.5 Live. a source of entertainment. "Television" may also refer specifically to a television set.to see. Theres BBC Radio 1. 1xtra. They were finally fighting back against pirate radio. Images are usually accompanied by sound. Radio 3 look the third programme and Radio 4 became the home service. vis. television programming. Commercial Radio was based on the US model with Snappy DJ¶s and pop music. and news. 7. Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images that can be black-and-white or monochromatic (shades of grey) or multicolored. The BBC had a virtual monopoly apart from pirate radio. In 1967 the BBC wanted to combat this and launched Radio 1 as an antidote to the previous. Although other forms such as closed-circuit television (CCTV) are in use. the most common usage of the medium is for broadcast television. Commercially available since the late 1920s. or to view in the first person. sight (from video. iPlayer and Hulu.

rather than a television. .[1] Signals are now often transmitted with stereo and/or surround sound in many countries. industrial process control. A standard television set comprises multiple internal electronic circuits. in places where direct observation is difficult or dangerous. Ham TV stations were on the air in many cities before commercial TV stations came on the air. and guiding of weapons. including those for receiving and decoding broadcast signals. A television system may use different technical standards such as digital television (DTV) and high-definition television (HDTV). pleasure and public service events by amateur radio operators.The broadcast television system is typically disseminated via radio transmissions on designated channels in the 54±890 MHz frequency band. A visual display device which lacks a tuner (television) is properly called a video monitor. Television systems are also used for surveillance. but in recent years public broadcasting and commercial broadcasting have been progressively introducing digital television (DTV) broadcasting technology. Until the 2000s broadcast TV programs were generally transmitted as an analog television signal. Amateur television (ham TV or ATV) is also used for non-commercial experimentation.

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