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Economics Dr.

Sauer

Chapter 3 Reading Guide: Government I I. Negative Externalities SUV example:

An externality is

Technical definition: an externality is an uncompensated impact on a third party. Externalities can be positive or negative. What typically happens when an activity has a small private cost and a large social cost?

What will markets do to fix externality problems?

Examples of negative externalities: Pollution:

Dog poo:

A negative externality you faced in your life:

In a market economy, government policy is one way of fixing externality problems. Externalities are the reason for many types of policy suggestions. children on airplanes: mobile phone use: take-out food: global warming:

II. Positive Externalities Give some examples of positive externalities: Think of a positive externality from your life:

Explain how cigarette smoking has both positive and negative externalities associated with it.

III. Dealing with Externalities A. Regulations Explain how regulations can correct externalities.

B. Taxes Explain how taxes can correct externalities.

Explain why taxing behaviors that generate negative externalities can create good incentives.

What are some of the problems associated with taxing externalities?

C. Private Solutions Explain the 3 insights of Nobel Prize winner Ronald Coase: The parties involved in the externality have an incentive to come to an agreement on their own.

The solution will be the same, regardless of who starts with the property right.

In order for a private solution to be reached, transaction costs have to be low.

IV. Governments are Needed to Make Markets Possible in the First Place Governments are needed to set the rules:

provide infrastructure:

develop institutions:

define/protect property rights:

Explain the patent system:

provide justice system:

provide public goods:

V. Public Goods Public goods have two characteristics: 1) 2) Explain how the free-rider problem is present in public goods.

Examples: Basic research:

Law enforcement:

Parks / Open Space:

VI. Governments Redistribute Wealth In order to make markets possible, deal with externalities, and provide public goods, governments need to raise money. What does economics tell us about how income and wealth should be distributed? Explain using Nobel Prize winner Amarty Sens story.

According to economists, should governments protect people from themselves?

___________________________________________________________________________________ In your own words, summarize the main points of this chapter.