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Solving Linear System Using Augmented Matrices Echelon Form of a Matrix Row-Reduced Echelon Form of a Matrix Inverse of a Matrix Applications to Commercial Examples (Multiplying Matrices)

Topic

Homework

Pg 10 #1,2,3,8,9,10ai, 11,12 Pg 40 #3,4,6,7 Handout Handout Handout Handout Handout Handout Handout

Lesson 1: - Section 1.1 Iterative Process Iteration is the process of repeating the same procedure over and over again Examples: y y y y Tree branches same pattern repeated until smaller and smaller Nautilus shell the pattern repeated itself Water Cycle (page 8) Flow charts

Fractal is a geometric figure that is created using an iterative process and self-similar shapes.

Example 2: Tree Diagram a) Draw out what may happen when tossing a coin 3 times. b) How many different outcomes are possible?

Recursive formula is a formula for calculating a series of terms, each of which is derived from the preceding terms. The initial value is called the seed value. Example 3: The cursive formula t n ! 3t n @1 @t n @2 defines a sequence of numbers. Find the next 3 terms in the sequence given that the seed values are t1 ! 1 and t2 ! 3

Lesson 2: Simulation Instead of studying actual situations that sometimes might be too costly, too dangerous, or too time consuming, researches create similar situations using random devices so that they are less expensive, less dangerous or less time consuming. For examples, pilots use flight simulators to practice on before they actually fly a real plane. Many video games use the computer to simulate real life sports techniques such as baseball, football, or hockey. Mathematical simulation techniques use random number devices (calculator, computer software, dice, . . .) with probability to create conditions similar to those found in real life. These devices generate what are called random numbers. The Monte Carlo Method of simulation uses random devices. The steps are 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. List all possible outcomes of the experiments. Determine the probability of each outcome. Set up a correspondence between the outcomes of the experiment and random numbers. Generate the random numbers (i.e: roll the dice, toss the coin, spin a wheel, etc) Repeat the experiment and tally the outcomes. Compute any statistics and state the conclusions.

If an experiment involves two outcomes and each has a probability of a coin/die can be used. If an experiment involves five outcomes, each with a probability of 1/5, a die can be rolled. The numbers one through five would represent the outcomes. If a six is rolled, it is ignored. A spinner with five equally divided section can also use. Example: Simulate the genders of a family with four children.

Lesson 3: Modelling with Matrices A _____________ is a ____________ array of number arranged in _______________________. It is used to manage and organized data. Examples of application of matrix are W Hamilton Toronto Ottawa Winnipeg 5 4 3 6 L 2 3 3 0 T 0 0 1 1 P 10 8 7 13

Q1 Intel AMD

52.1 30.6

Q2

62.2 43.2

Q3

40.4 29.1

Q4

46.3 24.5

A ! 5 @2 3 2 1 0

Each numbers appearing in the matrix is called an __________________. An ______________________ matrix is a matrix with m rows and n columns. The numbers m and n are the ________________________. SQUARE MATRIX ___________________________________

In mathematics, it is conventional to used ___________________ to denote ___________ and use _____________ letters with two indices to represent the _______________of a matrix.

Example: For each matrix state, where possible the value of a11 , a13 , a31 , and a22 .

6 9 @7 a) A !L 7 10 8 M K J 8 11 4

@3 2 8 M b) A !L 1 K J ffff 79 4

Solution:

If A and B are two matrices with the _______________, then we define their sum, A + B, to be the

B C

Scalar Multiplication (Distributive) is the operation of multiplying a matrix by a scalar (real number). The result is obtained by multiplying each element of the matrix by the scalar.

D E D E 1 2 4 1 3 @1 Examples: If A !L 0 @1 3 M B !L 2 @1 6M C ! 1 2 5 D ! 0 @1 5 K J K J @2 3 7 @1 @3 0 0 2 0 2 3 5 H I H I

c) 2D

d) C + 2D

e) A + 2D

f) D + B

Lesson 4: Multiplying Matrices If A is a m B p matrix and B is a p B n matrix then the matrix product of A and B, denoted by AB, is an m B n matrix. If the number of columns in A does not equal the number of rows in B, then the matrix product AB is not defined. Two matrices can be multiplied when their inner dimensions are equal. The outer dimensions are the dimensions of the resultant matrix when matrices A and B are multiplied.

A5 B 4 B B 4 B 1 ! C 5 B 1

Same Dimensions Outer dimensions give dimensions of resultant matrix

a Gb b AB ! a a2 J 1 2 3 4 b3 b4

H I

F a1

a b a2 b3 =J 1 1 a3 b1 a4 b3

H I F a1 a2 G b1 J K AB !

a1 b2 a2 b4 a3 b2 a4 b4

a3 a4 b 2

a b a2 b2 K !J 1 1 a3 b1 a4 b2

Example 1: Evaluate the followings where possible

D

a)

2 @2 1 2

H E 1 3 @1 L J 2

3 M 0K @1 2

2 b) L 1 J @1

E 1D M 1 @1 0 1 0K 2 1 20 2

c)

I H @5 @ A e) 2 @2 0 L 2 M K J

@2

Example 2: Matrix A represents the proportion of students at a high school who have part-time jobs on

Saturdays and the length of their shifts. Matrix B represents the number of students at each grade level. a) Calculate AB. Interpret what each entry represents.

Gr 12 0.15 0.45 0.1

H E 2 1 @1 0 1 L J 1

1 0 2 1 20 @1 2

d)

12 2 6 3 6 @1 @3

D E

M 4 hours of less 4.1 - 6 hours Greater than 6 hours B= 120 137 103 95

Example 2: Team Ottawa Buffalo Toronto Boston Montreal Win 39 36 31 28 23 Loss 17 25 23 27 36 Tie 8 5 10 6 5 OTL 3 1 5 7 4 Score Win Loss Tie OTL Points 2 0 1 1

a) Represent the team standings as a 5 X 4 matrix A. Represent the points system as a column matrix B.

Lesson 5: Solving Linear System Using Augmented Matrices Augmented Matrix Transformed a system of equations and unknowns to a matrix Example:

D

a)

3x 2y ! 1 x @2y ! 7

3 4 1 1 @2 7

D

b)

3x @y ! @8 5y ! 12

3 @1 @8 0 5 12

Notice that x does not appear in the second equation; therefore, its coefficient is 0. In the matrix of coefficients we must insert this 0. To solve the above system we follow the Elementary Row Operations

Elementary Row Operations 1. We can interchange the rows of the matrix 2. We can add (or subtract) multiplies of one row to (or from) another row 3. We can multiply or divide any row by a nonzero real number Example 1: Solve the following linear systems using elementary row operations. a)

2@ 3 1 4 0 @ 3

D

B)

3 @2 5 4 5 @1

Lesson 6: Echelon Form of a Matrix The matrix method for solving a system of equations involves applying row operations to reduce the augmented matrix to an equivalent form in which the solution to the system is easily obtained. In this section we introduce one such fir and show how elementary row operations are used to obtained. Matrix is said to be in echelon form if the following conditions are satstified. Echelon Form 1. The first non-zero entry in any row is a 1 2. Each row contains more leading zeros than the preceding row 3. All zero rows are at the bottom

1 5 @4 0 1 9

1 7 @8 2 M L J 0 1 @3 @6 K 0 0 1 @1

1 @7 @3 0 0 1

I

1 @5 7 0 0 0

I

H L L L L L L J

0 1 9 M L J 0 0 1 K 0 0 0

1 0 0 0

1fff 6 M M 2 M 1 @ 4 M M M 0 0 K 0 0

Example 1: Use a sequence of row operations to reduce the following matrix to echelon from.

D

a)

4 @ 13 5 @ 3 @ 1 5

H

b)

2 @1 @4 @7 L M J 1 @1 @3 @4 K 1 1 @1 @2

Example 2: Solve the following system of equations by reducing the corresponding augmented matrix to echelon form.

a)

2x @3y z ! @2 2x y @z ! 4 x @y @z ! 1

Lesson 7: Row-Reduced Echelon Form of a Matrix A Matrix is said to be in row-reduced echelon form if the following conditions are true. Row-Reduced Echelon Form 1. The matrix is in echelon form 2. When a column contains the leading 1 of any row, then all other entries in that column are zero. Examples of row reduced echelon form

H

D

1 0 @4 01 8

L J 0 1 0 @1

1 0 0 0 0 1

I L 1 @3 0 0

J

0 0

0 0

1 0 0 0

120 001

7

D

Example 1: Use a sequence of row operations to find the row-reduced echelon form of

2 @3 3 1 4 7

Example 2: Solve the following system of equations by reducing the corresponding augmented matrix to row-reduced echelon form. 2x @y z ! 6

@x y @z ! @4 x y 2z ! 3

Lesson 8: Inverse of a Matrix For a square matrix A, the inverse is written A . When A is multiplied by A identity matrix I. Non-square matrices do not have inverse.

@1 @1

Note: Not all square matrices have inverses. A square matrix which has an inverse called invertible or nonsingular, and a square matrix without an inverse is called noninvertible or singular.

AA

D

@1

E

!A

D

@1

A!I

D E E D E

AA

@1

! 4 3 @2 3 ! 1 0 01 3 2 3 @4

D D E

@1

D E

and A

A ! @2 3 4 3 ! 1 0 01 3 @4 3 2

E D

ab For , A ! cd

E

the inverse can be found by using this formula:

@1

D 1 fffffffffffffff

A! 12 34

H

Solution:

2. Augmented matrix method (This method works for any square matrix) Use Gauss-Jordan Elimination (reduce echelon form) to transform

C

D E

Example: Determine the inverse of Solution

1 2 1 0 3 4 0 1

A! 12 34

a)

35 14

1 2 3 b) L J 0 4 5 1 0 6

Example: We let each letter of the alphabet be represents by a natural number. That means A is 1, B is 2, and C is 3 . . . . . . Y is 25 and Z is 26. Then the message for NO HOMEWORK TONIGHT could be translated to read

14, 15, 8, 15, 13, 5, 23, 15, 18, 11, 20, 15, 14, 9, 7, 8, 20

14 15 , 13 5 , 18 11 , 14 9 , 20 24 7 8 24 24 8 15 23 15 20 15

ED

ED

ED

ED

To make the code more challenging we introduce a coding matrix let say

The result is . . .

D

To decode the above message we need to find the inverse of matrices with the inverse.

41 72

E

and then multiply the above

Lesson 9: Applications to Commercial Examples (Multiplying Matrices) Example 1: A recording company produces singles, albums cassette tapes, and compact discs. The production costs for these can be divided into two categories: raw materials and labour. This information is stored in the following form. Entries in dollars. Raw Materials Singles Albums Cassette Tapes Compact Discs 0.27 0.89 1.63 5.37 Labour 0.76 2.87 2.18 5.52

Assume that the company plans to produce 20 000 singles, 80 000 albums, 95 000 cassette tapes, and 10 000 compact discs. What is the total cost of raw materials and total cost of labour for product of these quantities?

Example 2: A computer software firm has three outlets in Branton: the main, the west end, and the east end branches. Each outlet sells thee types of software that we designate as business, scientific, and entertainment. The head office uses a matrix to record the following information concerning the number of each type of software sold by each outlet in a given month.

Scientific 24 10 18

If, on the average, a piece of business software costs $400, a piece of scientific software costs $200, and a piece of entertainment software costs $50, find the total receipts for each store in the given month.

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