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A DICTIONARY OF CHINESE-BUDDHIST TERMS by William Edward Soothill and Lewis Hodousby Soothill, William Edward and Lewis Hodons

(eds.) (1997), A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms (1937), Delhi: Motilal Nanarsidass Publishers Private Limited [1] 1. ONE STROKE eka. One, unity, monad, once, the same; immediately on (seeing, hearing, etc.). One by one, each, every one, severally.

Sixteen 'feet' form, or image, said to be the height of the Buddha's body, or 'tra sformation' body; v. . ekgra, aikgrya. Undeflected concentration, meditation on one object; v . A hall of spread tables; idem.

One being recognized as 'mean' then all is of the 'mean'; the three aspects of r ty, noumenon, phenomenon, and madhya, are identical in essence; v. 5. ekayna, One yna, the One yna, the vehicle of one-ness.

The one Buddha-yna. The One Vehicle, i.e. Mahyna, which contains the final or com e law of the Buddha and not merely a part, or preliminary stage, as in Hnayna. Mahyn ists claim it as the perfect and only way to the shore of parinirva. It is especia lly the doctrine of the Lotus Stra; v. . The pearl of the One yna, i.e. The Lotus Scripture.

The Tiantai, or Lotus School of the perfect teaching, or the one vehicle; v. The one-vehicle family or sect, especially the Tiantai or Lotus School. () The one vehicle method as revealed in the Lotus Stra. The One Vehicle in its final teaching, especially as found in the Lotus Stra.

(or ) Another name for the Lotus Stra, so called because it declar ion, the perfect Mahyna. The one-vehicle enlightenment. One of the five divisions made by Guifeng of the Huayan or Avatasaka A Shingon term for Amitbha. Future life in the Amitbha Pure Land. One man's untruth is propagated by a myriad men as truth; famae mendacia.

A human lifetime; especially the lifetime of kyamuni on earth.

The three sections, divisions, or periods of Buddha's teaching in his life- time, nown as , i.e. the , , , and stras; , i.e. , , and

main discourse, and final application. There are other definitions. The five period of Buddha's teachings, as stated by Zhiyi of the Tiantai ive are , , , , , the last two being the final period. The whole of the Buddha's teaching from his enlightenment to his nirva, including yna and Mahyna teaching. idem . A Buddha-cosmos; a world undergoing transformation by a Buddha. The Mahyna, or one-Buddha vehicle, especially the teaching of the Lotus Stra.

(); idem A Buddha-domain; or a one-Buddha region; also the Pure Land One Buddha or many Buddhas, i.e. some Hnayna Schools say only one Buddha exists e same aeon; Mahyna says many Buddhas appear in the same aeon in many worlds. A Buddha's Pure Land, especially that of Amitbha. () sakdgmin. Only one more return to mortality, v. and . v. . A particle, the very least.

Three honoured ones in one light or haloAmitbha, Avalokitevara, and Mahsthmap ni, Bhaiajya the and his younger brother. [2]

An atom of dust on a hare's down (aora). A measure, the 22,588,608,000th part o ana. The first anniversary of a death; any such anniversary; also .

In carving an image of Buddha, at each cut thrice to pay homage to the triratna. cate a similar rule for the painter and the writer. A school founded by Anhui, teaching that cognition is subjective.

A one-tenth bodhisattva, or disciple; one who keeps one-tenth of the commandments. sarva. All, the whole; , , . That all things are mind, or mental. The most honoured of all the world-honoured; a title of Vairocana; v. . The most honoured among men, especially Vairocana; v. .

trikona. The sign on a Buddha's breast, especially that on Vairocana's; the sign the Buddha-mind; it is a triangle of flame pointing downwards to indicate power overall temptations; it is also the sign of omniscience.

The assembly of all the Buddhas, a term for the two maalas, or circles; v. Garbhadhtu and the Vajradhtu. v. .

sarvatathgata, all Tathgatas, all the Buddhas.

The highest of the 108 degrees of samdhi practised by bodhisattvas, also called i.e. of the great void, or immateriality, and vajrasamdhi, Diamond samdhi. A sam the idea that all things are of the (same) Buddha-nature.

The talismanic pearl of all Buddhas, especially one in the Garbhadhtu maala w lotus in his left hand and the talismanic pearl in his right. The sign of the assurance of attaining Buddhahood. A sign of the wisdom of all buddhas, a triangle on a lotus in the Garbhadhtu

A Vairocana-samdhi, in which the light of the Tathgata-eye strea by reason of this samdhi is accredited with delivering the 'true word' which sums up all the principles and practices of the masters. A lotus-samdhi of Vairocana from which Amitbha was born. It undamental nature of all existence is pure like the lotus.

The original oath of every Tathgata, when as with the roar of a lion he d l creatures shall become as himself. sarvaja; v. , i.e. Buddha-wisdom, perfect knowledge, omniscience. The state or place of such wisdom. The thesaurus of ; Buddha. or Buddha. or The vehicle of (Mahyna), which carries men to the . sarvajat, omniscience, or the state or condition of such wisdom. The 59th chapter of the .

The wisdom of all wisdom, Buddha's wisdom, including bodhi, perfect enlightenment nd purity; great pity (for mortals); and tact or skill in teaching according to r ceptivity. The state or abode of all wisdom, i.e. of Buddha; is . Sarvajadeva, the deva (i.e. Buddha) of universal wisdom. [3] The Buddha-wisdom mind. The all-wise one, a title of Vairocana; v. . The one who completely fills all the 'four realms' (dharmadhtu), a doctrine of ool. sarvabhva. All things or beings; tr. of the name of Vivabh; v. . All sentient beings.

The Mlasarvstivda, a branch of the Sarvstivdin sect, which asserted the re

All phenomena, the phenomenal; all that is produced by causative action; everythin that is dynamic and not static.

The realistic School, Sarvstivda, a branch of the Vaibhika, claiming Rhula a serting the reality of all phenomena: ; ; ; . I , but the list is doubtful: Mlasarvstivda . Kyapya , also kno sarvad. One who gives his all; all-bestowing. ; sarvadharma. All things; all laws, existences, or beings.

One of the three signs in the maala of the Shingon School the sign of prod ngs or realms. The 'true word' of assurance of Vairocana and of all the eight classes of e symbol through which all may attain the sure Buddha-wisdom. Buddha's self-manifestation to all creation. sarvadharma-nyat, the emptiness or unreality of all things.

A sign for overcoming all hindrances, i.e. by making the sign of a sword thr ng both hands, palms outward and thumbs joined, saying Hail! Bhagavat! Bhagavat svh! Absolutely free or unhindered, e.g. like air; illimitable, universal.

All beings become Buddhas, for all have the Buddha-nature and must ultimately beco e enlightened, i.e. . This is the doctrine of developed Mahyna, or univer d to the limited salvation of Hnayna and of undeveloped Mahyna; ; ma, not one will fail to become Buddha. The sects which maintain the unreality of all things; v. . All the 'true word' rulers, shown in the Garbhadhtu and Vajradhtu groups.

The first Sanskrit letter 'a'; it is pronounced 'an' by the Shingon School and e sized as the heart of all wisdom. In India 'a' is the 'name of Vishu (especially as the first of the three sounds in the sacred syllable o or aum), also of Brahm, i va, and Vaivnara (Agni)' M. W. The samdhi, or trance, which brings every kind of merit for one's adornment. see . The 8th of the q.v.

The Tripiaka or , i.e. the whole of the Buddhist Canon. The collection w n China in the first year of A.D. 581. See B. N.

Sarvrthasiddha, or Siddhrtha; all wishes realized, name given to kyamuni at hi v. , . ; All things, idem . samanta. Everywhere, universal; a universal dhyna. The Shingon or 'True word' that responds everywhere.

The Father of all the living, Brahm .

Sarvasattva-priya-darana. The Buddha at whose appearance all beings rejoice lous Bodhisattva who destroyed himself by fire and when reborn burned both arms to cinders, an act described in the Lotus Stra as the highest form of sacrifice. Reborn as Bhaiajyarja . (2) The name under which Buddha's aunt, Mahprajpat, is to born as Buddha.

Sarvasattvujohr. Lit. subtle vitality of all beings; the quintessence or en iving beings. A certain rkas, wife of a demon. [4]

sarvasattva-ppa-praha. A samdhi on a world free from all the evil dest idem . All Buddhas.

trikoa. A triangle above a white lotus, apex downward, of pure white colour, re ting wisdom as a flame which burns up all passion and overcomes all opposition; the symbol of every Tathgata. It is specially connected with Vairocana. Also ; v. . A ketra, a land, a Buddha-realm or chiliocosm.

A kaa, the shortest space of time, a moment, the 90th part of a thought and 4,500t part of a minute, during which 90 or 100 are born and as many die. The teaching and influence of a Buddha during one Buddha-period; also the teachin g of the whole truth at once; also an instantaneous reform. The Five Tastes or periods of the Buddha's teaching as defined by the Tiantai i.e. the ; ; ; and q.v. and v. . sahasra; a thousand. 1,200.

The 1,200 merits or powers of the organs of eye, tongue, and mind predicted in tus Sutra, but, generally, the merits therein predicted to all six organs. A seal, sign, symbol. The sixth of the nine Vajradhtu groups.

'One is all and all is one.' Expressing the essential unity of all things; he Huayan and Tiantai schools.

One is (or includes) three; especially the one yna (the Buddha vehicle) is, or incl udes the three vehicles, i.e. bodhisattva, pratyekabuddha, and rvaka. One is ten, or, if one then ten, one being the root or seed of numbers, and contai ning all the rest. There are many other forms, e.g. and so on.

Ikvku Virhaka or Videhaka, translated by Sugar-cane king, also la and ancestor of the kya line. A word, or sentence; a subordinate or explanatory word or sentence; is also r .

For but one sentence of the Truth willingly to cast oneself into the fire. With one word to make clear the whole Law. An organism, a cosmos, or any combined form, e.g. a man, a world. One direction, each direction; with single mind, the mind fixed in one direction undistracted; e.g. (The land of that Buddha is) everywhere pure; no women

The Shin or Pure-land Shin Sect founded by Shinran, in Japan, whose chief tenet unwavering reflection on Amida (by repeating his name). A monastery wholly Hnayna. A monastery wholly Mahyna. A confirmatory reply to a question, e.g. Do not all die? All die. v. . One, or the same flavour, kind or character, i.e. the Buddha's teaching.

Completely, exhaustively, e.g. as water can be poured from one bottle to another w thout loss, so should be a master's pouring of the Law into the minds of his dis ciples. () varga ; a chapter, or division (of a stra). Anniversary of a death; also and .

A spit or a puff, i.e. as futile as thinking that a man could puff out a burning w rld and blow it again into complete existence, or could with a spit or a puff pu t it out. A call, shout, deafening shout. A four-character line of a gth, or verse. A world of four great continents surrounding a Mt. Sumeru. A cause; the cause from which the Buddha-law arises. [5] The one ground; the same ground; the Buddha-nature of all living beings i.e. as a ll the plants grow out of the one ground, so all good character and works grow f rom the one Buddha-nature. One meal a day taken before noon and without rising from the seat; it is the 5th o f the 12 dhtas. One region, realm, order, or category.

The three axioms in the one category; the three are , , and , which exist in verse; v. . It is a principle of the Tiantai .

Four different ways of looking at the same thing. Similar to i.e. one and lity though seen from different aspects. A grain of dust, an atom, a particle.

The whole in an atom, a universe in a grain of dust, one grain of dust is a microc sm of the universal whole.

A kalpa during which a human lifetime increases from ten years to 80,000 years and then decreases back to ten. At the end of the first century the increase is to 1 1 years; at the end of the second century to 12 years, and so on till a lifetime lasts 80,000 years; then decrease follows in the same ratio till 10 is reached. The whole period of accretion and declension covers a small kalpa, i.e. 16,800, 000 years; also called .

The setting up of altars before the Vajradhtu and Garbhadhtu maalas, each erecte worshipped separately; also . The summer retreat in India of, 90 days, from the 16th of the 4th moon to the 15t h of the 7th; v. .

A great chiliocosmos or universe of the three kinds of thousands of worlds. Th are termed ; ; . A great chiliocosmos is also termed q.v. Each al mountain Sumeru, surrounded by four continents, its seas being surrounded by a girdle or wall of iron; 1,000 such worlds make a small chiliocosmos; 1,000 of these make a medium chiliocosmos; 1,000 of these make a great chiliocosmos, or 1 ,000,000,000 worlds. Later Buddhists increased this number to a figure with 4,45 6,489 digits. It is a Buddha-universe.

The great house, i.e. the burning house (of the world) in the Lotus Stra; also The one great salvation vehicle of the Lotus Stra, the Mahyna. The one great work of a Buddha, universal enlightenment and release; also a life, or lifetime.

The one ru, i.e. the bhtatathat, or absolute, as the norm and essence of life. The rue suchness, or true character, or reality; the nature of things or beings. The whole of things as they are, or seem; a cosmos; a species; things of the same or der. Name of a celebrated monk, Yiru. V. ; . One of the 33 representations of Guanyin ascending on the clouds.

Immediate experiential enlightenment by the Tathgata truth; the immediate realiza n that all is bhtatathat. One word; a magic or esoteric word. Three homages at every word one copies of the stras.

The 'Single-word Majur', the magic word is M063830; or ; or parturition and to heal arrow-wounds. The image used is of a youthful smiling Maj ur, wearing the felicitous pearl, with one tress on his head, hence also called . A cryptic single-word reply to a question, requiring meditation for its apprehensi on; it is a Chan or Zen method. () The one word golden-wheel magical method (Shingon), the one word A monasterial family party, i.e. when a monk, on becoming head of a monastery, inv ites its inmates to a feast. Yining, a monk who went to Japan in 1299; v. .

The one reality; the bhtatathat; idem , . The one method, of salvation, the School. The Tathgata's perfect vehicle, i.e. that of the Lotus Scripture. The one real and perfect school, i.e. the Tiantai or Lotus School. The state or realm of ; the realization of the spirituality of all things; it tathgata-dharmakya.

The state of bhtatathat, above all differentiation, immutable; it implies the Budd -nature, or the immateriality and unity of all things; , ; it i l phenomena. [6]

The one reality being indivisible is apart from all transient (or empty) forms, an is therefore styled the formless, e.g. the invisible. The one precious thing, the spirit, or intelligent nature; the intelligent mind ( behind all things). A small kalpa; a period of the growth and decay of a universe. See and .

A hill; a monastery; Yishan, the name of a Chinese monk who voyaged to Japan in A .D. 1299 and who was also styled Yining.

An appearance, a lifetime, the period of an individual existence, also and One passage, or time, once; on one superficial going. A particle of dust; an atom, the smallest particle, a microcosm of the universe. With the whole mind or heart; one mind of heart; also the bhtatathat, or the whole of things; the universe as one mind, or a spiritual unity. With undivided mind to call on the name (of Guanyin).

The Tiantai 'three doubts' in the mind of a bodhisattva, producing fear of nfusion through multiplicity of duties, and ignorance, i.e. ; and q.v.

One mind and three aspects of knowledge. The separates the three aspects into q.v.; Tiantai unifies them into one immediate vision, or regards the three as as pects of the one mind.

The Tiantai insight ; also simultaneous vision of past, present, and futur d ; .

The infrangible-diamond rules of all bodhisattvas and Buddhas, a term o , founded on the . A kaa, or thought; a concentration of mind; a moment; the time of a thought, of whi ch there are varying measurements from 60 kaa upwards; the Fan-yi-ming-yi makes it one kaa. A reading. A repetition (especially of Amitbha's name). The Pure-land sec t identify the thought of Buddha with Amitbha's vow, hence it is an assurance of salvation.

Not a thought arising; beyond the necessity of thinking, as in the case of a Buddh .

In one thought to survey or embrace the 3,000 worlds, or a chiliocosmos with all i s forms of existence; to see the universe as a thought; it is a Tiantai mode of meditation. At one thought the work completed; karma complete in one thought. One repetition, r sincere thought of or faith in Amitbha's vow, and entrance into the Pure Land i s assured. In a moment's thought to obtain a myriad years and no return to mortality.

Monophysitic or 'pantheistic' sects of Mahyna, which assert that all beings have o and the same nature with Buddha. A breath, i.e. inspiration-cum-expiration; a rest, or cessation. Half a step at a breathing on arising from meditation.

() As one Ganges, i.e. as the sands of one Ganges river.

The Huayan doctrine that the law of the universal runs through the phenomenal, t fore a speck of dust is a microcosmos; also that with the Tathgata's enlightenmen t all beings were enlightened in him; in the perfection of one all are perfected ; one deed includes all. Adherence to one Buddha and one stra. A sudden remark, or question, by a monk or master to test a disciple, a Chan (Zen ) method.

The one finger-tip contemplation used by a certain monk to bring to another a conc ption of the universe. Also a parable in the Lakvatra-stra. The Chan or Zen sect the stras merely as indicators, i.e. pointing fingers, their real object being o nly attained through personal mediation.

A ball (or handful) of food; one helping; a frugal meal, the sixth of the 12 dhtas; also called and . A sun, or day from sunrise to sunset. ahortra. One day one night, a day and night, a division of time. The three divisions of a day, morning, noon, evening. [7] A one-day Buddha, i.e. he who lives a whole day purely. A stra copied in one day (perhaps by many hands); also styled . ming (i.e. bright, clear, illuminating) is the Shingon word for a dhra, or magical ormula; especially applied to a magical acts. ekasmin samaye (Pali: eka samaya); 'on one occasion,' part of the usual opening phr ase of a stra 'Thus have I heard, once,' etc. A period, e.g. a session of expoundi ng a stra. A company; a general assembly of monks in a monastery. The one moon represents Buddha, the three boats represent varying ways of viewing

im, e.g. according as those in a anchored boat and those in two others sailing i n opposite directions see different aspects of the moon, so is it in regard to t he Buddha.

The allegorical trikya or three bodies of the moon, i.e. form as , its light flection as ; the Buddha-truth has also its body, its light of wisdom , and its lication or use , but all three are one, or a trinity; see trikya, . A date, fixed time; a life time. The one ultimate, or finality; ultimate enlightenment; the one final truth or way ; the or Absolute. A karma; a karma-cause, causative of the next form of existence.

The is subjective; the is objective, e.g. smoke is the objective phenomenon, he subjective inference. The unity or continuity in the unbroken processes of nature; all nature, all being is but one continuous process. To kill one that many may live. A hair's tip; the smallest division (of space or time).

The same water may be viewed in four ways devas see it as bejewelled land, men as ter, hungry ghosts as pus and blood, fish as a place to live in. Cf. . A dharma, or law; an ordered something, a thing, a matter.

The seal or assurance of the one truth or law, see and ; the criterion of M ne, that all is bhtatathat, as contrasted with the Hnayna criteria of impermanence, non-personality, and nirva.

The one-law abode, i.e. the sum of the 29 particular or states of perfection in t e Pure-land stra of Vasubandhu.

The bhtatathat considered in terms of mind and as a whole; a law-realm; a spiritua realm; a universe. A mind universal, above limitations of existence or differentiation. A floating bubble (on the ocean), a man's life, or body. In one, or the same flow; of the same class. One burning of incense; a candle, or lamp.

The one way without barrier, i.e. the end of reincarnations in nirva; a meditati it.

A Chan sect idea not a thing to bring or carry away, empty-handed, i.e. nothing All one's life, a whole life time. Life-long innocence especially sexual.

A Tiantai doctrine that Buddha-enlightenment can be attained by any in one lifet i.e. the present life.

idem . In this one life to accomplish the three stages for final entry; it is associated ith the 20th vow of Amitbha; cf. .

Eka-jti-prati-baddha; a name or Maitreya, who is to be the next Buddha in this wo . Another definition is from one enlightenment to attain to Buddhahood. A 30-armed image of Maitreya. Unity-cum-differentiation; monism and pluralism; one and many; ekatva-anyatva, on eness and otherness. [8]

One announcement, or reading, and three responses, or promises of performance (k n); it is the mode of ordaining monks, three responses to the one call of the ab bot. ata. A hundred. e 108 beads c., one for a different

aaatam. The 108 klea, distresses, disturbing passions, or illusions of on a rosary, repetitions of the Buddha's name, strokes of a bell, et each distress. Also, one of the Mahrjas, with 108 hands, each holding implement.

itivttaka; stories of the lives of saints, part of the canon; also . lakana. One aspect, form, or side; ekatva, unity as contrasted with diversity; mon ism; the bhtatathat; the one mind in all things; cf. . The term is defined as the common mind in all beings, or the universal mind; he Buddha's Mahyna teaching; the former is symbolized by the land, the latter by t he rain fertilizing it. A state of samdhi in which are repressed hate and love, accepting and rejecting, ., and in which the mind reaches an undivided state, being anchored in calm and quiet. The wisdom that all is bhtatathat and a unity.

The unitary or monistic method is interpreted in more than a dozen ways; in genera it means to reach a stage beyond differentiation where all is seen as a unity.

One-ness means none-ness; in ultimate unity, or the unity of the absolute, there i no diversity. The whole of reality, the universe, the all, idem ; cf. , bhtatathat. The state of meditation on the absolute.

The dharma realm of the one reality, i.e. of the bhtatathat, complete in a speck ust as in a universe; such is the dharmakya, or spiritual body of all Buddhas, et ernal, above terms of being, undefinable, neither immanent nor transcendent, yet the one reality, though beyond thought. It is the fundamental doctrine of the . Th e is , , , , , , , The one reality, or undivided absolute, is static, not phenomenal, it is ust as it is self-existing.

A sea turtle with only one eye, and that underneath, entered a hollow in a floatin log; the log, tossed by the waves, happened to roll over, whereupon the turtle momentarily saw the sun and moon; an illustration of the rareness of the appeara nce of a Buddha; also of the difficulty of being reborn as a man. A bald-pated 'vehicle' an unproductive monk or disciple. All is empty, or of the void, non-material. Equal, all equal; of the first stage; a grade, rank, step.

Three salutations at each (use of the) pen, on painting a picture of the Buddha, o copying a scripture; cf. . () 'Crossed out' with a stroke of the pen; expunged; forgiven. Four snakes in one basket, i.e. the four passions in one body, cf. . An arrow's flight, two li.

'A thread, a butt'; the dragon which snatched a thread of a monk's robe and was co sequently protected from a dangerous bird; the ox which butted a monk's robe and became a monk at its next transmigration; e.g. the virtue of the robe. A film on the eye; a hindrance to enlightenment. The end of the monastic year at the summer retreat; a monastic year; also called r , the religious year; cf. .

A colour, the same colour; the same; especially a thing, or a form, v. rpa ; minute , trifling, an atom.

An atom or an odour is a complete microcosm of the middle way or gold s found in all things.

A blade of grassmay represent the Buddha, as does his image; it is a Buddha-centre. A leaf; a palm-leaf or page of a stra. [9] One of the 33 forms of Guanyin, standing on a lotus leaf. The Lotus-flower of the Pure-land of Amitbha, idem . The certainty of being born in the Pure-land. One lotus bearing all the living, i.e. the Pure-land of Amitbha. A lik, a nit, the 131,712,000th part of a yojana, seven times the smallest atom.

One act (of body, mouth, or mind); holding to one course; devoted. Yixing, A.D. 6 72-717, a celebrated monk whose secular name was Zhang Sui, posthumous title ; versed in mathematics and astronomy, a reformer of the Chinese calendar, and au thor of several works.

In one act to do all other acts; the act which includes all other acts. e.g. the st step; the one discipline which embraces all discipline; the fourth degree of a samdhi.

, , A samdhi for realizing that the nature of all Buddhas is the d all beings. Another meaning is entire concentration of the mind on Buddha.

Ekaga i; also The unicorn i, an ascetic born of a deer; ensnared b r, and became a minister of state; he is one of the previous incarnations of kyamu ni. See . haritaki. A fruit of the yellow myrobolan. Also (or ).

Ekavyvahrika or (Pali) Ekabyohra One of the 20 Hnayna dered things as nominal, i.e. names without any underlying reality; also styled things are but names.

The doctrine of fundamental unity; an abbrev. for the Mdhyamika fundamental do ; also, generally, in the sense of an axiom, or fundamental truth; there are var ying definitions of the one fundamental truth. One sense or perception; the one individual intelligence or soul which uses the v arious senses, likened to a monkey which climbs in and out of the various window s of a house a Satyasiddhi and Sautrntika doctrine. Also, a Vairocana maala. Followers of the heretical view. A turning word; a fateful word.

Once, one recital of Buddha's name, or of a stra, or magic formula; style of Zhi n, founder of the Ji-sh (Japan).. One way, the one way; the way of deliverance from mortality, the Mahyna. Yidao, a l earned monk of the Pure-land sect.

The 'a' school (Shingon) which takes a as the alpha (and even omega) of all wisdom the way by which all escape mortality. Mind apart from all ideas of activity or inactivity. Also styled, or explained, the ten mental resting places of the esoteric school. Inner light; intuitive wisdom. The one door out of mortality into nirva, i.e. the Pure-land door. The one door is the all-door; by entering the one door all doors of the faith are pened.

ekavcika Still one final stage of mortality before nirva. Also wrongly s which leads to one more reincarnation. The holy ones who have only one interval, or stage of mortality before nirva.

() icchantika. Also , One without desire for Buddha enlighten an enemy of the good; full of desires; one who has cut off his roots of goodness; it is applied also to a bodhisattva who has made a vow not to become a Buddha un til all beings are saved. This is called the icchantika of great mercy. Of the same realm or boundary, i.e. the world and nirva are one. A rain, i.e. a lesson from the Buddha, or his teaching, see Lotus V.

The one-sound teaching, i.e. the totality of the Buddha's doctrine; a school found ed by Kumrajva and Bodhiruci. [10]

The one vow, i.e. the 18th of the 48 vows of Amitbha, on which his sect is establ ed. idem . A meal a day, one of the twelve dhtas. Though externally differing, in nature the same; the fundamental unity of the uni verse. , Heaven, earth, and myself have the same root; all things

The trinity of Mahevara (iva), Nryaa (Viu), and Brahm

In the one body of the sagha is the whole triratna, Buddha, Dharma, and sagha. A Mind, Buddha, and the living, these three are without differentiation,

In one's own body to have the trikya of the self-natured, Buddha, i.e. by p ender to the Buddha. A samdhi in which instantaneous powers are acquired. A topknot.

The one topknot Majur; there are other representations with 5 and 8; cf.

The female raka styled 'Single top-knot', wife of a great raka who dwells by an; on scenting blood, she can fly to it in a night 80, 000 yojanas.

The four-handed, dark-blue raka with the flame of fire coming out of his h ttva in the Garbhadhtu maala.

A hempseed and a grain of rice a day, the scanty diet to which kyamuni reduced h f before his enlightenment.

One demon a myriad arrows, i.e. to listen to one Mra-temptation opens the way for myriad Mra-arrows. 2. TWO STROKES sapta, seven. The period of forty-nine days after death, when masses are said every seventh day till the seventh seventh day. The seventh seventh day of the masses for the dead. Masses for the dead on every seventh day for seven times. During this period the d eceased is in the antarbhava or intermediate state, known as and ; at the end of ty-nine days, judgment having been made, he enters upon his next state. By obser ving the proper rites, his family may aid him in overcoming his perils and attai ning to a happy destiny. also ; v. .

The seven unavoidables rebirth, old age, sickness, death, punishment (for sin), h iness (for goodness), consequences (cause and effect ).

The seven appurtenances of a monk the three garments, bowl, censer, duster (or fl rush), stool (nidana), paper, and material for washing.

sapta Buddha. The seven ancient Buddhas, viz. Vipayin , ikhin , Vivabh ni or , Kyapa , and kyamuni . The last four are said to be of The seven healing Buddhas, also , of whom there are two descriptions, one them as at various places in the eastern regions of space; another gives five in the east and two in the south.

The seven messengers, agents, or kleasdesire ; anger, or hate ; attachment, ; pride or arrogance ; ignorance, or unenlightenment ; false views ; and doubt v. .

Saptakotibuddha-mt. The fabulous mother of seven kos of Buddhas; i.e. Mar d; or Cund-Guanyin, q.v., who is represented as of whitish color, with eighteen and three eyes. [11]

( or ) The outer mantle, or toga, of a monk, composed of seven pieces; the Utta anga, v. .

A monastery is supposed to possess the following seven monks: invoker; lea r, or leader of the chanting; flower-scatterer; master of sacred words, or Sa shaker of the rings on the metal staff, or crozier; distributor of missals, et nother division is expounder; reader; ; director of the three ceremo An assembly of a monasterial fraternity.

A 'western term meaning an endowment for a complete monastic fraternity of seven mo nks.

The practice of the seven bodhyaga , and the eight marga or noble pa idem . The seven surpassing qualities of a Buddha; v. also ; they are his body, or s universal law, wisdom, perfection, destination (nirvana), ineffable truth, and deliverance. saptati' seventy.

The 'Diamond world' maala, or pantheon, of the esoteric sect, containing seventy e honoured ones. The seventy-two devas, namely, sixty-nine devas, the lord of Tai Shan, the god of he five roads, and Mahr .

Brahma obtained seventy-two words with which to save the world, but failing he swa lowed seventy, leaving one at each side of his mouth and , i.e. and things are, things are not, being and non-being. The age, 72, at which Buddha is reputed to have preached the Lotus Sutra. pacasaptati; '75.

The seventy-five dharmas of the Abhidharmakoa-bhsya, which classifies all phenom nder seventy-five categories or elements, divided into five groups; cf. , , .

ial rpi, 11 . (2) Mind cittam, 1. (3) Mental qualities citta-saprayu ntal cittaviprayukta-saskr, 14. These are the seventy-two Sarvastivadin di th, B. I. , p. 201 ). (5) In addition there are three unconditioned or non-pheno menal elements asaskta dharma, 3 (v. Keith, p. 160) .

The seven exce1lences claimed for the Buddha's teaching good in its timing or sea sonableness, meaning, expression, uniqueness, completeness, pure a sole objective, nirvana. There are other similar groups. The seven parables of the Lotus Sutra.

The seven defilements desire , false views , doubt , pride , arrogance torp iness; cf. . nanda's seven dreams, which are explained in the .

Earth , water, fire, wind, space (or ether), sight, and perception , , , , , d ; and .

sapta-tathgat. The seven tathgatas whose names are inscribed on a heptagonal pil ome Buddhist temples. One list , , , , , and ng (Ratnasabhava) (Prabhtaratna). The parable in the Nirvana Sutra of the sick son whose parents, though they love all their sons equally, devote themselves to him. So does the Buddha specially c are for sinners. The seven sons are likened to mankind, devas, sravakas, pratyek a-buddhas, and the three kinds of bodhisattvas of the , and .

The seven Japanese sects of Ritsu (or Rissh), Hoss, Sanron Kegon, n. [12]

sapta ratna The seven treasures, or precious things, of which there are v ptions, e.g. suvarna, gold; rpya, silver; vairya, lapis lazuli; sphaika, va, agate; rohita-mukta, rubies or red pearls; amagarbha, cornelian. Also the se royal (cakravartin) treasures the golden wheel; elephants; dark swift horses; the divine pearl, or beautiful pearls; able ministers of the Treasury; jewels of wo men; and loyal generals.

The grove of jewel trees, or trees of the seven precious things a part of the "Pur and", or Paradise.

The seven atoms composing an au ; , . Eitel's definition is seven atoms definition is doubtful. This molecule is larger than an "atom" , and according t o the Sarvstivda it is the smallest visible particle. It is also a division of a y ojana.

The seven realms of vijna, or perception, produced by eye, ear, nose, tongue, body mind, to which is added thought, q.v. The seven emotions : pleasure, anger, sorrow, joy, love, hate, desire.

The seven pretensions or arrogances asserting superiority over inferiors and equa lity with equals, superiority over equals and equality with superiors, superior over manifest superiors, egotism or overweening pride, vaunting assertion of po sing the Truth, vaunting one's inferiority (or false humility), and vaunting lack of virtue for virtue.

saptamt. The seven divine mothers, or personified energies of the principal deit

they are associated with the worship of the god iva, and attend on his son Skanda or Krttikeya, to whom at first only seven Mts were assigned, but in the later myth ology an innumerable number, who are sometimes represented as having displaced t he original divine mothers M.W. Their names are given as (1) Cmu or (2) G Indr, Aindr, or Mhendr or ; (6) Raudr ; and (7) Vrh ;

The seven (spreading) branchesthree sins of the body and four of speech, killing obbing, adultery; lying, slander, abuse, double-tongue (or vain conversation). Th ese are the first seven of the ten evils .

A method of invocation in which only seven kinds of signs and magical words are re uired. It is explained in the part of the Vairocana Sutra. The karma resulting from the above seven sins.

() (1) The seven "expedient" or temporary attainments or positions of Hnay in Mahayana by the () or () all preparatory to the () (2) The seven se of ordinary human beings, of devas, of rvakas, of pratyekabuddhas' and of the t hree bodhisattvas of the three teachings , and . (3) Also, ,

Ursa major; Worshipped in Japan as Wonderful Sight Bodhisattva who protects t ld. Siddham, idem. . The seven brilliant ones the sun and moon, together with the five planets which a re connected with fire, water, wood, metal, and earth. Their essence shines in t he sky, but their spirits are over men as judges of their good and evil, and as rulers over good and evil fortune. The following list shows their names in Chine se and Sanskrit: Sun , ; aditya Moon, ; soma Mars, ; agraka Mercury, ; budha Jupiter, ; bhaspati Venus, ; ukra Saturn, ; anaicara . The seven or holding fast for all ation). [13]

perfections, see, 9. Perfect rest in the bodhisattva nature to the great bodhi (awakened mind). perfect resultant aim in-pity Perfect in constant performance. Perfect in able device (for spir Perfect direction towards the highest bodhi. Perfect purity and p

The seven stages of existence in a human world, or in any desire-world. Also the hells, (2) as animals, (3) hungry ghosts, (4) gods, (5) men, (6) karma , and (7) in the intermediate stage. same as . The seven grounds for a happy karma through benevolence to the needy almsgiving itors, to travelers' to the sick, to their nurses, gifts of gardens and groves t o monasteries, etc., regular provision of food for them, and seasonable clothing and food for their occupants. A snake whose bite brings death before seven steps can be taken. The seven divine mothers, also styled the seven sisters ; v. .

The seven sisters. See . The seven vinaya, v. . Seven forms of punishment for monks. v. . The seven (unavoidable) things, v. .

The seven riches, or seven ways of becoming rich in the Law : faith, zeal, m straint, shame, obedient hearing (of the Law), abnegation, and wisdom arisi meditation. See .

saptdhikaraa-amatha. Seven rules given in the Vinaya for settling disputes amon onks. Disputes arise from causes : from arguments; from discovery of misconduct; judgment and punishment of such; the correctness or otherwise of a religious ob servance. The seven rules are : samukha-vinaya, face to face evidence, or appeal the law; smti-vinaya, witness or proof; amha-vinaya, irresponsibility, avaiya-vinaya, voluntary confession; pratijkraka-vinaya, decision by majority kya-vinaya, condemnation of unconfessed sin by the or japticaturthin method, i.e. t o make a statement and ask thrice for judgment; tastraka-vinaya. , i.e. cover d with straw, i.e. in protracted disputes the appointment by each side of an eld er to spread the straw of the law over the mud of the dispute. v. praj. idem . idem . idem . The 700 disciples who met the second synod at Vail; also .

The seven aspects of the bhta-tathat , v. One list is , The seven knowings - to know the Law, its meaning, the times for all duties, mode ration, oneself, the different classes of people, and people as individuals.

(1) The seven founders of the Huayan School, whose names are given as Avagh .e. ) , Zhiyan , Fazang , Chengguan and Zongmi ; (2) the seven founder , i.e. or Bodhidharma, Huike , Sengcan , Daoxin , Hongren , H The seven founders of the Pure Land School, i.e. Nagarjuna, Vasubandhu, Tanluan ochuo , Shandao , Yuanxin and Yuankong (or Faran ), whose teaching is izushengjiao . seven kinds of uncleanness, derived from the parental seed, parental intercourse, he womb, the prenatal blood of the mother, birth, one's own flesh, one's own put rid corpse.

The seven kinds of almsgivingto callers, travelers, the sick, their nurses, monas ies, regular food (to monks), general alms; v. , etc. The seven mental attitudes in penitential meditation or worship : shame, at not being free from mortality ; fear, of the pains of hell, etc.; turning from the evil world; desire for enlightenment and complete renunciation; impartiality in love to all; gratitude to the Buddha; meditation on the unreality of the sin-nature, that sin arises from perversion and that it has no real existence.

[14]

Seven abandonments or riddances cherishing none and nothing, no relations with other s, riddance of love and hate, of anxiety about the salvation of others, of form, giving to others (e.g. supererogation), benefiting others without hope of retur n. Another form is cherishing nothing, riddance of love and hate, of desire, anger , etc., of anxiety about, etc., as above.

The seven peerless qualities of a Buddha: his body with its thirty-two signs an ty-four marks; his way of universal mercy; his perfect insight or doctrine ; his wisdom ; his supernatural power ; his ability to overcome hindrances , e.g. illu , karma, and suffering; and his abiding place i.e. Nirvana. Cf. .

sapta-anitya. The seven impermanences, a non-Buddhist nihilistic doctrine discusse in the 4. The seven kinds of mortality, chiefly relating to bodhisattva incarnation.

Seven degrees of worshipping Buddha, ranging from the merely external to the highe t grade. The seven characteristicsof a Buddha's nature, v. . v. . The seven kinds of clothing, i.e. of hair, hemp, linen, felt, fine linen, wool, or silk.

Buddha's seven modes of discourse: frompresent cause to future effect; f ect to past cause; inherent cause andeffect; illustrative or figurative; parabolic; ordinary orpopular; unreserved, or as he reallythought, e.g d that all things have the Buddha-nature.

The sevenrhetorical powers or methods of bodhisattvas : direct and unimpeded; acu and deep; unlimitedin scope; irrefutable; appropriate, or according toreceptivity; purposive or objective (i.e. nirvana);proving the universal supreme method of at tainment, i.e. Mahayana.

The seven kinds of food or hra, sustenance : sleep for eyes, sound for ears, fragr for nose, taste for tongue, fine smooth things for the body, the Law for the mi nd, and freedom from laxness for nirvana.

The seven unrealities or illusions,v.. There are two lists:(1),,, See . karmavc; the The seven punishments of a monk.

v., .saptadhana. The seven sacred graces variously defined, e.g. faith e commandments, hearing instruction, shame (for self), shame (for others); renun iation; and wisdom. See . See .

saptabodhyaga, also , , , . Seven characteristics of f the bodhipakika dharma, v. it represents seven grades in bodhi,viz,(1) , dharma-pravicaya-sabodhyaga, discrimination of the true and the fa1se : (2) vryaabodhyaga, zeal, or undeflected progress;(3) prti-sabodhyaga., joy, delight; (4)

abdhi-sabodhyaga. Riddance of all grossness or weight of body or mind, so that the y may be light, free, and at ease; (5) smrti-sabodhyaga, power of remembering the various states passed through in contemplation; (6) samdhi-sabodhyaga.the power to keep the mind in a given realm undiverted; (7) or upek-sabodhyaga or upekaka, abandonment, auto-hypnosis, or indifference to all disturbances of the sub-cons cious or ecstatic mind.

The seven flowers of enlightenmenmt, idem. . Another versionispure in the comm s, in heart, in views, in doubt-discrimination, in judgment, in conduct, and in nirvana.

The crag at Rjagha on which the "seven-leaf tree" grew in the cave beneath which t first "synod" is said to have been held after the Buddha's death, to recall and determine his teaching.

The eight assemblies in seven different places, at which the sixty sections of the atasaka-stra are said to have been preached; the same sutra in eighty sections is accredited to the . One of the thirty-two signs on the Budda's bodythe , hands, shoulders, and head. [15]

The seven classes of disciples: (1) bhiku,monk;(2) bhiku a female observer of ments; (3) ikama, a novice, or observer of the six commandments; (4) rma le and female observers of the minor commandments; (6) upsaka, male observers of th e five commandments; and (7) upsik, female ditto. The first five have left home, th last two remain at home. Tiantai makes nine groups by dividing the last two into four, two remaining at home, two leaving home and keeping the eight commandment s. Others make four groups, i.e. (1), (2), (6), and (7) of the above. Tiantai al so has a four-group.

The seven types who fall into the waters of this lifethe first is drowned, the se th is a Buddha; the seven are icchantika, men amd devas, ordinary believers, rvaka s, pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, and Buddhas; also ca11ed .

The seven heretical views, v. . They are , , , , , , or , v. . () v. . v. . The ten names of the seventh vijna, v. manas . v. .

() Also, The seven grades or steps in virtue preceding the entr ltlessness in its first realization. These seven are preliminary to the (). Both grades of the Koa school of Hnayna.

The are the seven developments of holiness, which follow the . In the Hua are called , or. Cf. 25. The seven gati or states of sentient beings- nrakagati, in hell; preta, hungry gho st; tiryagyoni, animal; manuya, man; i, a genius or higher spiritual being; deva, g od; asura, demon of the higher order. v. .

The seven Sanskrit cases and nine conjugations. The former are also styled and (or ); sometimes with the Vocative called . The or tianta are a i and nine tmane.

() The seven rebellious acts, or deadly sins shedding a Buddha's blood, killin er, mother, monk, teacher, subverting or disrupting monks, killing an arhat. V. .

concealing, or non-confession of, any one of the seven deadly sins , for which i also used. The seven avenues of gem trees in Paradise.

The seven concentric mountain ranges around Sumeru, the central mountain of a univ erse, each range separated from the others by a sea; see . Their names are ,

The seven calamities in the, during which that stra should be recited: s ing their order (eclipses), conste11ations, irregular, fire, flood, wind-storms, drought, brigands Another set is pestilence, invasion, rebe11ion, unlucky stars , eclipses, too early monsoon, too late monsoon. Another is fire, flood, rakas, m isrule, evil spirits, cangue and prison, and robbers.

v. ; viparyaya, the seven inversions, or upside-downs, i.e. contrary or false po ons , , , , , , . (1) A translation of antaas meaning "at least"; and (2) of yvat, as far as. Even, or at least, a thought. As far as the past (is concerned). Navan; nava. Nine.

The nine kinds of error or illusion , i.e. views or mental processes, found also higher conditions of development. In past, present, and future worlds, each has its own past, present, and future, hence nine worlds or ages. [16] The nine lower of the ten worlds, the highest or tenth being the Buddha-world; the nine are always subject to illusion, confused by the senses.

Nine stages of mental concentration when in dhyna meditation, viz, , , , , The lowest rank of the patch-robe, v. . The nine "Indian" ways of showing respect, according to Xuanzang asking about wel fare; bowing the head; holding high the hands; bowing with folded hands; bending the knee; kneeling; hands and knees on the ground; elbows and knees ditto; the whole body prostrate. v. . The nine kalpas; though kyamuni and Maitreya started together, the zeal of the firs t enabled him to become Buddha nine kalpas sooner; see 111.

Also . Ninety-six classes of non-Buddhists or heretics and their pract x founders and each of them with fifteen schools of disciples; some say .

Also The Hnayna ninety-eight tempters, or temptations, that follow me to induce laxity. They are the ninety-eight kleas, or moral temptations in the re alm of view and thought, or external and internal ideas. A term in Buddhist logic; the nine possible combinations of like and unlike exampl es in a syllogism.

Nine classes, or grades, i.e. , , upper superior, middle superior, lower so on with and . They are applied in many ways, e.g. the highest type of inc being, to , the lowest, with corresponding karma; see . Each grade may also d into nine, thus making a list of eighty-one grades, with similar further subdi vision ad infinitum. An abbreviation for the highest grade in the Pure Land, see .

The sagh. There are nine grades of the monk's patch robe; the three low 11, and 13 patches, two long patches to one short one; the three middle 15, 17, 19, three long to one short; and the three superior 21, 23, 25, four long to one short.

Those born by transformation from the (heavenly) lotus into the ninefold .

The nine forms of Amitbha, corresponding to the nine departments of the Pure Land hiefly used with reference to the manual signs of his images.

The ninefold future life, in the Pure Land, v. .It is detailed in the su whose full title is .

Also The four , i.e. illusions or trials in the practice of religion, i. , pride, ignorance; these are divided each into q.v.; hence desire has all the ni ne grades, and so on with the other three.

, also , ,, The nine grades, or rewards, of th pment in the previous life, upon which depends, in the next life, one's distance from Amitbha, the consequent aeons that are needed to approach him, and whether one's lotus will open early or late. The nine karma to be attained by the conduct or practice through which one may be orn into the above Pure Land. The king or lord of the bodhi of the Pure Land, Amitbha. The nine similes: stars, eye-film, lamp, prestidigitation, dew, bubble, dream, li ghtning, cloud. There is also another group.

Nine of the ten dhtu or regions are causative, the tenth is the effect or re

The nine lands, i.e. the realm of desire or sensuous realm the four realms o or material forms; and the four formless realms, or realms beyond form; v. , nine realms are:(1) ; the desire realm with its five gati, i.e. hells, hungry gh animals, men, and devas. In the four form-realms are: (2) Paradise after earthl , this is also the first dhyna, or subject of meditation, . (3) Paradise of f rebirth, . (4) Land of wondrous joy after the previous joys, . (5) nment of thought, or recollection (of past delights), . The four formless, or infi nite realms, catur arpa dhtu, are:(6) knanty-yatanam, the land of infini irst samdhi, . (7) vijnnamtyyatanam, the land of omniscience, or infi ana, the land of nothingness, . (9) naivasajn-sajyatana, the land ng or not thinking, or where there is neither consciousness nor unconsciousness, i.e. above either; this is the . Eitel says that in the last four, "Life lasts 20

,000 great kalpas in the 1st, 40,000 in the 2nd, 60,000 in the 3rd, and 80,000 g reat kalpas in the 4th of these heavens." [17] v. . idem and . The nine graha, i.e. "seizers" or upholders, i.e. luminaries or planets, idem . idem Kuinagara; v. .

Also , , , , the nine orifices, cavities, entrances, leakages, or wo eyes, two ears, two nostrils, mouth, and two lower organs.

The nine magical characters implying that the armed forces are arra of evil. After reciting these words, four vertical and five horizontal lines, f orming a grid, are drawn in the air to show that the forces are arrayed. It was used among Taoists and soldiers, and is still used in Japan, especially when goi ng into the mountains.

The nine character maala, i.e. the lotus, with its eight petals and its centre itevara may be placed in the heart and Amitbha on each petal, generally in the sha pe of the Sanskrit "seed" letter, or alphabetic letter. The eight sects (q.v.) plus the Chan or Zen, or the Pure-land or Jdo sect. The nine honoured ones in the eight-petalled hall of the Garbhadhtu, i.e. Vairocan a in the centre of the lotus, with four Buddhas and four bodhisattvas on the pet als, the lotus representing the human heart; v. . v. .

The nine cakravla, or concentric mountain ranges or continents, separated by eigh eas, of a universe. The central mountain of the nine is Sumeru and around it are the ranges Khadiraka , dhara , Yugadhara , Sudaraa , a different order: Sumeru, Yugadhara, dhara, Khadiraka, Sudarana, Avakara, Vinataka emidhara, with an "iron-wheel" mountain encompassing all; there are also differen ces in the detail. The nine monthly visits or ascents to the hall for worship, every third day. The nine forms of complete knowledge of the four axioms and the cutting off of pas sion, delusion, etc., in the processes of and , as distinct from . The nine penetrating fames of the sword of Acala, , emblem of the destruction sions and hindrances in the nine realms, v. ; also used for the q.v. The nine evolutions, or movements of the mind in perception.

() or navasaj. Meditation on a corpse in order to curb desire; one of th the unclean: vydhmtakasaj, its tumefaction; vinlakas., its blue, mottled colour; vip dumakas., its decay; vilohitakas., its mess of blood,etc.; vipyakas., its dischar ges and rotten flesh; vikhditakas., its being devoured by birds and beasts; vikipt akas., its dismembering; asthis., its bones; vidagdhakas., their being burnt and returning to dust.

also , , The nine distresses borne by the Buddha while in the flesh, i. Sundar and Cac; others from Devadatta, Ajtaatru, etc.; v. 9.

The nine forms of pride: that I surpass, am equal to, not so bad as others; that others surpass, are as bad as, are inferior to me; that none surpass, are equal to, or worse than me. [18]

The nine suitable stages in religious service; cf. , 7; salutation to the iratna; repentance and confession; trust (in the Triratna); giving of self ( Tathgata); vowing to devote the mind to bodhi; rejoicing (in all good); l Tathgatas to rain down the saving law); praying for the Buddha-nature in self a others for entry in the Pure Land; demitting the good produced by the above eight methods, to others, universally, past, present, and future. This form of servic e is generally performed before engaging in esoteric observances. The verses in which these nine stages are presented are of a commendably devotional character.

Of the ten pramit bodhisattvas, q.v., in the tenth or empyrean court o first nine are associated with the above nine progressive steps, the tenth is a ssociated with the last four of the nine. () The nine groups in the diamond-realm maala.

The Huayan sutra in its older sixty chuan version is said to have been delive eight assemblies in seven places; the newer eighty chuan at nine assemblies in s even places; cf. .

q.v. Navagraha. The nine luminaries: ditya, the sun; Sma, the moon; the f , i.e. Agraka, Mars; Budha, Mercury; Bhaspati, Jupiter; Sukra, Venus; and turn; also Rhu, the spirit that causes eclipses; and Ketu, a comet. Each is asso ted with a region of the sky and also with a bodhisattva, etc., e.g. the sun wit h Guanyin, Venus with Amitbha, etc. The nine realities, states, or conditions in which sentient beings enjoy to dwell , v. next.

(or ), , , , see also , , and ; the nine seven abodes or stages of perception or consciousness to which are added the fifth and ninth below: (1) the world and the six deva-heavens of desire in which ther variety of bodies (or personalities) and thinking (or ideas); (2) the three brahma heavens where bodies differ but thinking is the same, the first dhyna heaven; (3 ) the three bright and pure heavens where bodies are identical but thinking diners the second dhyna heaven; (4) the three universally pure heavens where bodies and th inking are the same, the third dhyna heaven; (5) the no-thinking or no-thought heav en, the highest of the four dhyna heavens; (6) limitless space, the first of the mless realms; (7) limitless percepton, the second ditto; (8) nothingness, yond things, the third ditto; and (9) beyond thought or non-thought, the fourth d . The nine heavens of the fourth dhyna heaven. The nine kinds of karma, i.e. the desire realm and the form realm each has conduc t that causes karma, does not cause karma, or is neutral, making 6; in the forml ess realm there are non-causative deeds, neutrality, and immortality, making 9; 8. See also .

The nine kinds of irregular death; there are two groups, one connected with improp er food or meals, another with improper medical treatment, lawbreaking, drowning, etc. .

A stra translated in the later Han dynasty by An Shigao.

The samdhi of the nine degrees, i.e. the four dhynas , the four realms beyon he samdhi beyond sensation and thought ; see and . idem .

The nine grades (of arhats) who are no longer learning, having attained their goal .

The nine kinds of, and meditations on, q.v. There are two somewhat different gr ; one has , , , , , , (v. ),

In every universe there are nine realms, in every realm there are nine illusions i practice , and nine ways of relief; hence the nine ways of overcoming hindrances ; also there are nine uninterrupted ways of advance from one stage to another of the nine stages of the trailokya, by the wisdom of overcoming delusion in each s tage; also ; and cf. .

() The nine realms of error, or subjection to the passions, i.e. all the realm e living except the tenth and highest, the Buddha-realm. [19] idem . ()The succession of nine founders of the Tiantai School; v. .

The nine kinds of Mahyna dhyna for bodhisattvas, given in the 6 and re associated with the patience pramit and with the dhyna of the super-realms. The nine are meditations: (1) on the original nature of things, or mind as the real na ture, from which all things derive; (2) on achieving the development of self and a ll others to the utmost; (3) on the difficulties of certain dhyna conditions; (4) the entrance to all the (superior) dhyna conditions; (5) on the good; (6) practices and actions; (7) on ridding all sufferers from the miseries of passion nd delusion; (8) on the way to bring joy to all people both in this life and h r; (9) on perfect purity in the termination of all delusion and distress and the o taining of perfect enlightenment. v. . The nine bonds that bind men to mortality: love, hate, pride, ignorance, (wrong)v iews, possessions (or grasping), doubt, envy, meanness (or selfishness).They are the plus grasping, envy, and meanness. idem .

The nine states of bondage and the one state of liberation. The nine states are th hells of fire, of blood, of swords; asuras, men, devas, mras, nirgranthas, form and formless states; these are all sasra states, i.e. of reincarnation. The one st ate of freedom, or for obtaining freedom, is nirva. v. . The paradise of Amitbha, i.e. .

Formerly called , which was changed by the Tang poet Li Bai to the above; it i f the four sacred mountains of Buddhism, situated in Anhui, and its patron Bodhi sattva is Dizang .

The q.v. plus junior monks and nuns, i.e. novices who have received the eight com andments. v. .

In the nine stages trailokya each has its possible delusions and erroneous per es; the latter are overcome by theq.v. The nine truths, or postulates: impermanence; suffering; voidness (or unreality o f things); no permanent ego, or soul; love of existence or possessions, resultin g in suffering; the opposite (or fear of being without them), also resulting in suffering; the cutting off of suffering and its cause; nirva with remainder still to be worked out; complete nirva.

The kinds of cognition or consciousness (vijna); those of sight, hearing, smell, ta ste, touch, mind, mnas (or dna), i.e. mental perception; lya, bodhi-con purified or Buddha-consciousness. There is considerable difference as to the mea ning of the last three.

The nine wheels or circles on the top of a pagoda, also called the wheels of space the nine should only be on the stpa of a Buddha, others are entitled to as many as eight and a few as one.

Kumrajva's nine divisions of the meaning of the Lotus Stra, whence he was styled th . idem .

() Nine of the Hnayna twelve classes of stras, that is, all except the , erm is thus interpreted, but there is also a Mahyna division of nine of the twelve stras, i.e. all except the , , . These are: stras, the Buddha's sermons; gey l pieces; vykaraas, prophecies; gths, chants or poems; udas, impromptu or unsolicited addresses; ityuktas, or itivttakas, marratives; jtakas, stories of former lives of Buddha, etc.; vaipulyas, expanded stras, etc.; adbhutadharmas, miracles, etc.; v . . [20] v. . v . The nine kinds of birth; the four from the womb, egg, moisture, transformation are common to devas, earth, and the hells; the five others are birth into the heave ns of form, of non-form, of thought, of non-thought, and of neither (i.e. beyond either). The nine classes of ghosts are of three kinds: without means, small means, rich. The first group have burning torch-like mouths, or narrow needle mouths, or g mouths; the second group have hair like needles, or stinking hair, or tumours; the rich ghosts haunt sacrifices to the dead, or eat human leavings, or live tr uculently. The five elements together with time, space, mind (manas), and soul (tman) accordi ng to the teaching of the "heretical" Vaieika sect; v. . the nine kinds of days of abstinence on which no food is eaten after twelve o'cloc k: noon and the commands are observed. They are: Every day of the first month, o f the fifth month, of the ninth month, and the following six days of each month, 8th, 14th, 15th, 23rd, 29th, and 30th. On these days Indra and the four deva-ki

ngs investigate the conduct of men. To end, see through, understand, thoroughly, know, make clear, thoroughly, compl etely, final. The complete vision obtained when the body is in complete rest and the mind freed from phenomenal disturbance.

A revealing cause, v. , i.e. a producing or direct cause, e.g. a seed; and ng "cause", e.g. a light, as indicating the effect; knowledge or wisdom.

The second of the three Buddha-nature "causes", i.e. is the as direc g the perfect Buddha-nature, associated with the ; is the revealing or enlight ause, associated with the Buddha-wisdom; is the environing cause, e.g. his goodnes and merits which result in deliverance, or salvation. The mastery of abstract contemplation. Complete enlightenment, or clear apprehension.

A noted disciple named Ajta-Kauinya, v. , also known as, and . Magadha, maternal uncle of kyamuni, whose first disciple he became". He is "to be reborn as Buddha under the name of Samana-Prabhsa". Eitel. Parij, thorough knowledge.

Revelation of the whole meaning, or truth, as is partial revelation adapted ( capacity of the hearers. Teaching of the whole truth. The stras containing it. Mahyna counts all Hnayna sutras as ; Mahyna th kinds according to different schools. Thorough penetration, clear understanding. Dv, dvau. Two; dvitya, second. The six non-Buddhist philosophers, . This life and the hereafter.

kyamuni and Prabhtaratna, the Buddha in the eleventh chapter of the Lotus S o .

The two realms of conscious or sentient beings , and unconscious or material

dviyna. The two vehicles conveying to the final goal. There are several definition s: (1) Mahyna and Hnayna. (2) and or . rvaka and Pratyekabuddha. ( t rvakas and pratyekas also become Buddhas. (4) The "two vehicles" of "three" an e", the three being the pre-Lotus ideas of rvaka, pratyeka, and bodhsattva, the on e being the doctrine of the Lotus Stra which combined all three in one. The eighteen Hnayna sects and the five Vinaya sects. The eighteen tianta, personal endings of the Sanskrit verb. [21]

A method of meditation by coupling with ,,, respectively. Cf.

The two groups of food, each of five kinds: bhojanya, v. cereals, fish, and fles and khdanya, v. fruits and sweetmeats. The two Buddhas sitting together, v. .

The period between the nirva of kyamuni and the future advent of Maitreya, i.e sent period.

Dual aspects of the Buddha-nature, i.e., the Buddha-nature which is fundament all sentient beings, and the functioning Buddha-nature active and effective in so me, but not in others, a doctrine of the school. v. .

Two kinds of devotion or practice, and sole or single-minded, and miscellane varied, defined as (1) chief or sole duty, and (2) aids thereto or adjunctive ob servances. Also causative devotion of a bodhisattva in former life, and its actua manifestation here. or A term applied by Tiantai in criticism of Huayan, which while it is a plete doctrine, yet has the "crudities" of the and comes short of the really perf ect Lotus doctrine.

Two hypotheses in the 1: (1) the non-substantial hypothesis, that the entity or individuality, i.e. no and , no and , no real subject and objec l is transient subject and object, but that all is transient emotion; (2) the fa l hypothesis, that there is entity or individuality, subject and object, etc.

The dual lights, i.e. the halo from a Buddha's body and the light from his m so the constant halo from the bodies of Buddhas and the supernatural light sent by a Buddha (e.g. from between his eyebrows) to illuminate a distant world.

The two ways of entering the truth: by conviction intellectually, by (provi practice. The sixteen meditations. V. . Twelve. idem .

the twelve vows of . during the twelve (=twenty-four) hours of the day.

The two external and internal, or ordinary ranks, and , in the first forty of fty-two stages ; the are ordinary believers who pursue the stages of ; the alous, who are advancing through the next three groups of stages up to the forti eth.

The two modes of escape from mortality, the long way called the or , ne's own salvation; and the across or short way of the Pure-land sect or faith r invocation of another, i.e. Amitbha.

The dual benefits, or profits: benefiting or developing oneself and others; in se king enlightenment in bodhisattvahood, in saving the multitude. Hnayna "seeks only one's own benefit"; the bodhisattva rule seeks both one's own benefit and that o f others, or personal improvement for the improving of others.

Dual powers; there are three definitions: (1) one's own strength, or endeavours, .e. salvation by cultivating , , and ; another's strength, e.g. the saving power Amitbha. (2) Power of thought in choosing (right principles); power of pract erformance. (3) and positive and negative forces: dominant and subordinate; activ and inert energy.

The dual aid bestowed by the Buddha, manifest or external aid bestowed by the Bud ha, in the blessings and powers of this life; invisible aid bestowed by the Buddh a, in getting rid of sins, increasing virtue, etc.

The two surpassing fruits, or rewards given by Buddha, i.e. final nirva and perfec enlightenment. viati. Twenty.

Twenty-two of the q.v.; they are , , and [22]

The twenty-two roots, organs, or powers, v. . They are: (1) eye, cakurindr , rotrendriya; (3) nose, ghrendriya; (4) tongue, jihvendriya; (5) body, k ind, manandriya (the above are the ); (7) female organ, strndriya; (8) male uendriya; (9) life, jvitendriya; (10) suffering (or pain), dukhendriya; (11) sukhendriya; (12) sorrow, daurmanasyendriya; (13) joy, saumanas-yendriya; (14) ndoning, upekendriya (from 10 to 14 they are the ); (15) faith, raddhendriya; (1 , vryendriya; (17) memory, smtndriya; (18) meditation, or trance, samdhndriy om, prajendriya (these are the ); (20) the power for learning (the Fo riya; (21) the power of having learned (them), jendriya; (22) the power of wledge (of them), jtdvndriya (these three are called the ) .

The Abhidharma-koa divides the eighteen realms into twenty-two categories. are twenty-two modes or processes in the perfect development of a Buddha and hi s works. The monk's twenty-five-patch garment, v. .

The twenty-five kinds of perfect understanding of the truth; they refer to the isciples of the Buddha are said each to have acquired a special knowledge of one of these twenty-five and to have been recognized as its authority, e. g. Guanyi n of the ear, Dignga of sound, etc. Tiantai's twenty-five aids to meditation, v. .

The twenty-five forms of existence, fourteen in the desire realms , seven in t ms of form , and four in the formless realms , v. . The twenty-five guardian deities who protect any keeper of the commandments, i.e. ive for each of the commandments against killing, robbing, adultery, lying, and drinking.

The twenty-five bodhisattvas who protect all who call on Amitbha i. e. , Each of the five night watches is divided into five making twenty-five dian.

Sroakovia. Defined as the most zealous of kyamuni's disciples, who became a lived in a heaven for ninety-one kalpas, where his feet did not touch the groun d, he was born with hair on his soles two inches long, an omen which led his fat her and brothers to endow him with twenty kotis of ounces of gold, hence this na me. v. 22.

The twenty-eight heavens, or devalokas: six of the desire-world , eighteen of m-world , and four arpa or formless heavens . The heavens of the world of form a teen according to the Sarvstivda School, seventeen according to Stra Schoo en according to the Sthavir.

The twenty-eight nakatras or constellations, divided into four mansions of seven h, referred to East, or Spring; South, Summer; West, Autumn; and North, Winter. The month-names derived from them differ slightly in form. E.: Citr, Niy (or Svt ikh, Anurdh, Rohi, Jyehaghn (or Jyesth), Mlabarha (or Mla), Prva Dhanih) atabhi, Prva-Prohapada, Uttara-Prohapada. W.: Revat, Av Kttik, Rohi, Invak (or Mgairas), Bhu (or rdr). S.: Punarvasu, algun, Uttara-Phalgun, Hast.

or The twenty-eight forms of existence, or birth. the twenty-ninth is t v. .

The twenty-eight Buddhist patriarchs as stated by the Mahynists. The Tiantai sch eckons twenty-three, or twenty-four, with the addition of aakavsa, contemporary wit h his predecessors, but the Chan school reckons twenty-eight: (1) Mahkyapa, ( 3) akavsa, ; 4) Upagupta, ; (5) Dhaka, ; (6) Mikkaka, or Miccak uddhanandi, ; (9) Buddhamitra, ; (10) Prva, or Prvika, or juna, ; (15) Kadeva, ; (16) Rhulata, ; (17) Saghanandi, ; ( ubandhu, ; (22) Manorhita, ; (23) Haklena, ; (24) rasiha, ; ( , ; (28) Bodhidharma, . The twenty-eight yakas. [23] The thousand-hand Guanyin has twenty-eight groups of great is or genii, on of the Peacock king, Mayrarja; also each of the mahrjas, or guardians ions, has the same provision of demons, known as company of spirits. The name of the .

The twenty devas. (1) (Mahbrahman), (2) (akra devnm Indra), (3) ) (Virhaka), (6) (Virpka), (7) (?Gunyapati), (8) (M (Skanda), (13) (Pthiv), (14) (Bodhidruma, or Bodhi-vka), (1 a, etc. There are many different names), (19) (Sgara), (20) (Yama-rja).

The twenty kinds of wisdom or knowledge as denied by Tiantai i.e. the Hnayna (or seven kinds, five, four, and four; cf. .

The twenty skandhas intp. as sections or chapters, i.e. the thirty-one to the three chuan of the , beginning with and ending with ; they are twenty s rules for the monastic life and intercourse. The eighteen Hnayna sects, together with the two original assemblies of elders. The dual receptivity or karma of pleasure and pain, the physical and the mental, i.e. and . The two dukta, doing evil and speaking evil; v. .

The double harmony or unity, i. e. and , indicating those who are united in doctr ne and practice, or the sagha.

The two good things, the good character that arises from meditation or contemplat on mdash especially of the Pure Land; the good character attainable when, though not in meditation, one controls oneself in thought, word, and deed;. Also the good

character not yet evolved; and the good character already evolved;. Also goo n theory and practice.

Two causes, of which there are various definitions: (1) The producing cause (of a l good things); and the revealing or illuminating cause i.e. knowledge, or wisdom . (2) The 8th q. v.: the cause that is able to produce all sense and perceptions, also all good and evil; and the environmental or adaptive cause, which aids the 8t h , as water or earth does the seed, etc. (3) or Practice or habit as cause e sire causing desire; and or the rewarding cause, or fruit-ripening cause, e. g. asure or pain caused by good or evil deeds. (4) Correct or direct cause i.e. the Buddha-nature of all beings; and the contributory cause, or enlightenment (see ab ve) which evolves the or Buddha-nature by good works. (5) Immediate or direct cau e and distant or indirect cause or causes.

The two perfect doctrines, a term of the Tiantai School, called (also and the present really perfect doctrine arising from the Lotus Stra; is the older, omparatively speaking perfect doctrine of the pre-Lotus teaching, that of the , , and schools; but the older was for limited salvation and not universal like the ; these two are also termed and . The Huayan school has a division of the two perfe tions into gradual perfection and immediate perfection. The dual adornment, that of wisdom and that of ; good deeds, 27.

There are three groups: and : the former is the ubiquitous, unadulterated or nt dharma-name, or essence of things; the latter is the form-nature, or formal exi tence of the dharma, pure or impure according to the mind and action of the livi ng. The and are Pure-land or Paradise; and impure land, e.g. the present world. I the Pure-land there are also , the land in which a Buddha himself dwells and in hich all beings are transformed. There are other definitions, e. g. the former i s Buddha's Paradise, the latter the world in which he dwells and which he is tra nsforming, e. g. this Sah-world.

The two (erroneous) tenets, or attachments: (1) or that of the reality of th permanent personality, the tman, soul or self. (2) that of the reality of dharma, things or phenomena. Both are illusions. "All illusion arises from holding to th e reality of the ego and of things." [24]

The dual reward. (1) or The material environment on which a person depends, ng from former karma, e.g. country, house, property, etc. (2) or his direct rewar , i. e. his body, or person.

The two superior kinds of bodhisattvas, bodhisattva superior in wisdom (c cial to self); bodhisattva superior in pity for others and devotion to their salva ion.

The two devas. (1) and Sun-deva and Moon-deva. (2) A deva born simultan individual and a deva with the same name as the individual; both devas have the du ty of watching over the individual. (3) and Brahma and Indra.

The two devas are Mahevara and Viu; the three i are Kapila, Ulka, and abha

The two sisters, one the deva "merit" or "achieving", who causes people to acqu wealth; the other, the "dark" one, who causes them to spend and waste; these siste rs always accompany each other.

There are various definitions of the two aspects of the bhtatathat. (1) (a) ess essence or substance, e.g. the sea; (b) its conditioned or ever-changing forms as in the phenomenal world, e.g. the waves. (2) (a) The inexpressible absolute, o

ly mentally conceivable; (6) aspects of it expressible in words, its ideal reflex. (3) (a) The absolute as the void, e.g. as space, the sky, a clear mirror; (b) olute in manifestation, or phenomenal, e. g. images in the mirror: the womb of t he universe in which are all potentialities. (4) (a) The Buddha-nature in bonds, i. . all beings in suffering; (b) the Buddha-nature set free by the manifestation of t e Buddha and bodhisattvas. (5) (a) The Buddha-nature defiled, as in unenlightened m n, etc., e.g. the water-lily with its roots in the mud; (b) the pure Buddha-nature purifed or bright as the full moon. (6) and similar to the first definitio ove.

The dual "marvel" of the Lotus stra, the or comparative view, i.e. compared wi previous teaching, which is the rough groundwork; and the or view of it as the pe rfection of teaching; hence it is "wonderful" in comparison with all previous do ctrine, and absolutely 'wonderful' in itself; cf. .

The two beginnings, i.e. of Hnayna, by the preaching of the gama stras; and o the preaching of the Avatasaka stra. Double-letters, i.e. a monk-because a monk's name consists of two characters. The two-character Majur. The two kinds of study or learning: (a) reading and reciting, (b) meditation and thought.

Two theories or schools stated by the Huayan (Kegon) school as and q.v., s and . There are ten point of difference between them. Another division is the . v.

The two esoteric aspects, i.e. and , the former referring to the doctrine, t er to the esoteric acts of a Tathgata. The two honoured ones, kyamuni and Amitbha. (or ) The two honored ones (kyamuni and Amitbha) as one in teaching.

The two honored ones (kyamuni and Amitbha) as teacher and saviour, with referen he teaching of the way of salvation of the first, and the consequent saving vows of the second.

The two sages, or preceptors in the Lotus Stra, kyamuni and Prabhtaratna. Al ordinary preceptors. The two kinds of introductory phrase: (a) the ordinary opening phrase of a sutra " Thus have I heard"; and (b) specific openings referring to the circumstances in which the stra was produced. Twice over, a second time. [25] The two kinds of power or virtue are and ; also and ; also and

The two minds, the original, simple, pure, natural mind of all creatures, the Bud ha-mind, i.e. ; and the illusion-mind, which results in complexity and confusi o, the meditative mind, or mind fixed on goodness; and the the scattered, inatten ive mind, or mind that is only good at intervals. The two patiences or endurances: patience towards all under all circumstances; rest, as a bodhisattvain the assurance of no (re-) birth, i.e. in immortality. Al

so patience under suffering, and imperturbable examination of or meditati or of all things. Also, physical and mental patience, or endurance.

The two awakenings, or kinds of entry into bodhisattvahood, i.e. immediate and ual.

The two aspects of illusion: perplexities or illusions and temptations arise from false views or theories. or , ditto from thoughts arising through contact with the world, or by habit, such as desire, anger, infatuation, etc. They are also style d illusions connected with principles and illusions arising, in practice; v.

The two kinds of love, ordinary human love springing from desire; bodhisattv ligious love, i.e. desiring to save all creatures.

The two kinds of transformation-body of a Buddha, i.e. the Buddha's surpassin as seen by bodhisattvas, and the Buddha's inferior human body as seen by ordinary people.

The two grades of commandments, or prohibitions, e. g. and for monks; y; and heretical rules and correct rules; and numerous other pairs. () The two erroneous views of individualism: (a) The erroneous view that ndependent human personality or soul, and (b) the like view that anything exists w ith an independent nature.

The two reasons for clinging to the idea of the self: (a) the natural, or i cleaving to the idea of a self, or soul; (b) the same idea developed as the resul of (erroneous) reasoning. Cf. .

The two values of the commandments: (a) prohibitive, restraining from evil; (b) structive, constraining to goodness.

Dual division of the Buddha's teaching. There are various definitions: (1) Tianta i has (a) exoteric or public teaching to the visible audience, and (b) at the sam time esoteric teaching to an audience invisible to the other assembly. (2) The S hingon School by "exoteric" means all the Buddha's preaching, save that of the whi ch it counts esoteric. (3) (a) and (b) graduated and immediate teaching, terms wi h various uses, e.g. salvation by works Hnayna, and by faith, Mahyna, etc.; they are applied to the Buddha's method, to the receptivity of hearers and to the teachi ng itself. (4) Tiantai has (a) and (b) teachings relating to the or real ty and teachings relating to immortal realms. (5) (a) and (b) Terms used in t stra, meaning incomplete word, or letter, teaching and complete word teaching, i. e. partial and complete, likened to Hnayna and Mahyna. (6) (a) and (b) completing those who failed to hear the Lotus; (b) "supporting the law, while d iscoursing on immortality," i.e. that the keeping of the law is also necessary t o salvation. (7) Tiantai's division of (a) and (b) the partial teaching of the nd schools as contrasted with the perfect teaching of the school. (8) Tiantai's division of (a) and (6) temporary and permanent, similar to the last two. (9) (a) e ordinary teaching of a moral life here; (b) the teaching of Buddha-truth of othe -worldly happiness in escape from mortality. (10) (a) the Mahyna perfect or comple teaching, and (b) Hnayna incompleteness. (11) The Huayan division of (a) neven teaching as in the Lotus and Nirva stras, and (b) direct or levelled up tea g as in the Huayan stra. (12) The Huayan division of (a) all the Buddha's teaching for conversion and general instruction, and (b) his rules and commandments for t he control and development of his order.

The two times or periods morning and evening. Also kla, a regular or fixed hour meals, and samaya, irregular or unfxed hours or times. [26]

The two kinds of wisdom; there are various pairs. The Huayan school uses and iang () uses and ; the Tiantai uses and . (1) (a) or ) or , the same wisdom in its limitation and relation to ordinary human affai ) Absolute wisdom and (b) or relative or temporal wisdom. (3) (a) wisdom of all the particulars.

The two kinds of Tathgata-wisdom, and absolute and functional (or relative) rfect and complete.

Sakdgmin; v. and . The second "fruit" of the four kinds of Hnayna arhats, wh once more to return to mortality. Also the two kinds of fruit or karma: (a) The g ood or evil characteristics resulting from habit or practice in a former existen ce; (b) the pain or pleasure resulting (in this life) from the practices of a prev ious life.

The two "roots" or natural powers. (1) (a) keen, able (in the religion); (b) (2) (a) ; The power or ability which uses the sense organs to discern the truth; (or) the sense organs as aids. (3) The male and female sexual organs.

Two classes of karma. (1) (a) leads to the , i.e. the award as to the species hich one is to be born, e.g. men, gods, etc.; (6) is the or fulfillment in detail i.e. the kind or quality of being e.g. clever or stupid, happy or unhappy, etc. (2) (a) and (b) Good and evil karma, resulting in happiness or misery. (3) (a) s to the karma of being reborn in Amitbha's Pureland e. g. offerings, chantings, e tc.; (b) thought and invocation of Amitbha with undivided mind, as the direct meth od.

The two dna , i. e, kinds of donating, or almsgiving: (a) ordinary alms, a l, or other-worldly gifts.

The two kinds of seeking: seeking to get (e.g. pleasure) and seeking long li

The two tenets in regard to things; of. , i.e. the common or natural r things as real; the tenet of the reality of things as the result of false reason ng and teaching.

Contrasted types of the Dharmakya; five pairs are given, and ; an

The two rivers and the white path, i.e. the path leading to life between the river of desire and hatred, which are compared to water and fire.

The two ways in the current of transmigration: to flow with it in continual re-in arnation; resist it and seek a way of escape by getting rid of life's delusions, as in the case of the saints. Two Nirvanas, v. .

The two conditions relating to the passions and delusions: the condition in which they can prevail; that in which they cannot prevail.

Two kinds of impermanence, immediate and delayed. things in motion, manifes ent; things that have the semblance of continuity, but are also transient, as life ending in death, or a candle in extinction.

The two categories of antman: no (permanent) human ego, or soul; no uality in or independence of self or of things. The wisdom that recognizes the two categories of antman, v. .

The two neutrals, or indeterminates which cannot be noted as good or evil.

The two kinds of klea, i.e. passions, delusions, temptations, or trials. (1) (a) ix fundamental kleas arising from the six senses; (b) the twenty consequent kleas ising out of the six. (2) (a) Klea arising from false reasoning; (b) l to all. (3) (a) The six great, e.g. extravagance, and (b) ten minor rritability. (4) (a) Ordinary passions, or temptations; (b) fierce, sudden passions, or temptations. The two kinds of sin, and . [27]

The two guardian spirits represented on the temple gates, styled Vajrayaka o

The two kinds of manifestation, or appearance, the necessary appearance in the fl sh of the Buddha for ordinary people, and the non-necessity for this to those of s piritual vision.

The 250 commandments, or perfect or complete commandments, which are obli ks and nuns. They are or the four prjika; thirteen saghvasea ttik; four pratideanya; hundred ikkaraya, and seven kinds of The dual advantages or benefits: profitable to the life which now is, and that wh ich is to come.

The two forms, or characteristics, of the bhutatathata, universal and particular. The gives (a) pure wisdom, cf. laya-vijna, out of whose primary condition vable, beneficial functions and uses. The same stra gives also a definition of the as (a) that all things, pure or impure, are fundamentally of the same universal, e.g. clay which is made into tiles; (b) but display particular qualities, as affe cted by pure or impure causes, e.g. the tiles. Another definition, of the 31, is ( a) universals, as impermanence; (b) particulars, for though all things have the u iversal basis of impermanence they have particular qualities, e.g. earth-solidit y, heat of fire, etc. v. and . idem . The second patriarch of the Chan school, Huike . the second patriarch in China of the Chan school, who, to induce bodhidharma ive him, is said to have cut of his left arm in the snow in order to prove his f irmness and determination. The bliss of the gods, and the bliss of the saints ; v. also .

The two fields for the cultivation of happiness: (a) the eighteen Hnayna cl ose under training in religion; (b) the nine divisions of those no longer in train ng, i.e. who have completed their course. Also (a) the pitable or poor and needy, as the field or opportunity for charity; (b) the field of religion and reverence of the Buddhas, the saints, the priesthood.

Two kinds or classes For those not given below see under, etc., as for instance nder.

The two Buddha-domains: (a) the Buddha's domain or state of absolute enlighte (b) the domain that the Buddha is transforming.

The two forms of service, or offerings: (1) (a) to those who have escaped ls, e.g. Buddhas; (b) to those still living in the toils. (2) (a) offerings (b) of the Buddha-truth.

The two kinds of light: (1) (a) physical light; (b) or wisd delusive light; (b) the true light of the Buddha. (3) (a) The constant or eternal light; (b) the light in temporary manifestations.

Two aspects of cause and effect, a division of the "four noble truths" (a) nt life, the being the effect, and the the cause; (b) in the future li on (of passion, or mortality) being the fruit, and the the " eightfold noble path " the cause.

Two kinds of seed: (1) (a) the seed or latent undivided (moral) force imman highest of the eight , i.e. the laya-vijna; (b) the newly influenced, or acti en acted upon by the seven other , thus becoming productive. (2) (a) The so-call eed which causes moral action similar to , e.g. good or evil seed producing good or evil deeds; (b) karma seed, the sixth acting with the eighth. [28]

Two kinds of seclusion, or retirement from the world: Bodily withdrawal into seclu ion. Spiritual withdrawal from all evil, and into meditation.

Two kinds of charity: (1) (a) goods; (b) the saving truth. (2) (a) Pure chari ecting no return; (b) the opposite.

Two kinds of mind: mind in its inner character and influence; in its outer manifes ations.

Two kinds of patience, or endurance: (a) of the assaults of nature, heat, cold, et .; (b) of human assaults and insults.

Two kinds of seed-nature, the character of the laya seed and its development: (1) ( a) The original good seed-nature; (b) the seed-nature in practice or developm ) (a) The immanent abiding original good seed-nature; (b) the seed pr to its ground. (3) (a) The seed-nature of the saints, by which they attain nirvana ; (b) the seed-nature in the foolish and ignorant.

Two classes of Buddha's predictions of a disciple's destiny, prediction in complete detail; partial, or incomplete prediction. v. . The two kinds of death, natural death, and .

violent death, or death fro

Two classes of monks: monks who hear and repeat many stras, but are not ks who read and repeat few sutras but are devoted in their lives. Two kinds of purity, according to the Huayan stra; ty; and acquired purity through avoiding pollution. natural purity, i.e.

Two nirvanas: (1) also That with a remnant; the cause has been ant of the effect still remains, so that a saint may enter this nirvana during l ife, but have to continue to live in this mortal realm till the death of his bod y. (2) or Remnantless nirva, without cause and effect, the connection wit mortal life being ended, so that the saint enters upon perfect nirva on the death of the body; cf. 31. Another definition is that Hnayna has further transmigration while Mahyna maintains final nirvana. "Nothing remnaining" is differently interpre

ted in different schools, by some literally, but in Mahyna generally, as meaning n o further mortal suffering, i.e. final nirva. Two forms of esoteric baptism, v. .

Two kinds of relics the whole body, or parts of it. Also, the Buddha's physical r ins or relics, and the sutras, which form his spiritual (dharmakya) remains. Monastic and lay bodhisattvas. A bodhisattva's mortal and immortal bodies. Two kinds of sickness: physical and mental or spiritual. Two classes of saints or, preachers: those who preach and those who preach without words. The two kinds of (spiritual) provender: charity and wisdom.

The two false views, one that of a nihilistic school which denied that earthly hap iness is dependent on a moral life; the other a materialistic school which maint ained the moral life in the interests of self, sought earthly happiness, and fai led to apprehend nirva.

() Two kinds of icchantika, q.v.: (a) the utterly depraved, abandoned, a f Buddha-truth; (b) bodhisattvas who refuse to enter upon their Buddhahood in or der to save all beings. [29]

The two voids, unrealities, or immaterialities; v. . There are several antitheses: (1) (a) ; The non-reality of the atman, the soul, the person; (6) the non-re f things. (2) (a) The Tiantai division that nothing has a nature of its own; (b) herefore its form is unreal, i.e. forms are temporary names. (3) (a) Tiantai says the and know only the ; (b) the and have , , and q.v. (4) (a) he is devoid of all impurity; (b) and full of all merit, or achievement.

Two kinds of meditation on the 'void', or unreality: (a) the meditation that are unproduced, having no individual or separate natures, i.e. that all things a re void and unreal; cf. ; (b) that they are therefore formless, cf. . Also . Two kinds of reply, one by words, the other by signs.

The two bodies or elements in a stra: and the words and the meaning, or ideas

The two classes of offence: (a) crime which is wrong in itself, e.g. murder, etc. (b) crime not wrong in itself, e.g. taking alcohol, but forbidden by the Buddha for the sake of the other commandments; transgression of this is therefore a sin against the Buddha. Two excellent things, i.e. meditation and wisdom. The two meanings or teachings, partial and complete; v. . A pair of wings: charity and wisdom. kyamuni and Prabhtaratna .

The two attendants by the side of Amitbha, i.e. Guanyin and Mah

Yaoshi, the Master of Medicine, i.e. sunlight and moonlight; also the two by ky , i.e. Majur and Samantabhadra.

Two kinds of praj, or wisdom. (1) (a) The praj of the three stages of r a, and imperfect Bodhisattva schools; (b) the praj of the perfect Bodhisattva te ga Tiantai division. (2) (a) temporal praj; (b) supernatural. (3) (a rajpramit; (b) the second part.

The two rpakya or incantation-bodies of a Buddha, his and or sabhogaky stinguished from the dharmakya.

The two places from which the Buddha is supposed to have preached the Lotus Stra, e. the Vulture Peak, the sky, and again the Vulture Peak; the three assemblies a re (1) those he addressed from the Peak, chapters 1 to the middle of the elevent h chapter; (2) those addressed from the sky, to the end of the twenty-second cha pter; and (3) again those on the Vulture Peak, from the twenty-third chapter to the end. Two kinds of suffering: within, e.g. sickness, sorrow; from without, e.g. calamit ies.

The two piakas or tripiakas, i.e. the Buddhist canon: (a) the rvaka, or Hn the Bodhisattva, or Mahyan canon. The two groups: the monks, or clergy; the laity who observe the five and the eigh t commands. Two classes of conduct: following wrong views; following wrong desires, or emotio ns. There are other pairs. The two kinds of clothing: (a) the regulation three robes for monks and five for uns, which must be worn; (b) optional garments.

Two (wrong) views: (1) Looking on people grudgingly with regard to almsgiving and preaching the Buddha-truth. (2) (a) Holding to the real existence of (material) things; (b) holding to their entire unreality. (3) (a) Holding to the view of tot l annihilation; (b) to that of permanence or immortality.

The two enlightenments: (1) The has two(a) the immanent mind in all thing ch lighteth every man that cometh into the world", also defined as the dharmakya; (b) initial enlightenment or beginning of illumination; this initiation leads on to Buddhahood, or full enlightenment. (2) (a) The fifty-first stage of a bodhisat tva's practice; (b) the fifty-second stage, or enlightenment of Buddhahood.(3) ( ) A Buddha's own or natural enlightenment; (b) his enlightening of all others. [30]

The two universal bases of meditation: the external forms, or the phenomenal, and he real or underlying nature, i. e. practice and theory.

Two kinds of deliverance, mukti or moka: (1) (a) Active or earthly deliver tship; (b) nirvana-deliverance. (2) (a) The pure, original freedom or inn verance acquired by the ending of all hindrances (to salvation). (3) (a) The arhat 's deliverance from hindrances to wisdom; (b) his complete deliverance in regard t o both wisdom and vision and . (4) (a) The dull who take time or are slow in at ing to vision; (b) the quick or clever who take "no time". (5) (a) A hea livered from desires; (b) a mind delivered from ignorance by wisdom. Two kinds of statement, or definition: latent or negative and patent or positive ; e. g. is a negative statement, is a positive statement.

Double-tongued; also .

Two forms of statement: (a) savti-satya, also called , , , , ment, as if phenomena were real; (b) paramartha-satya, also called , , mea ect dogma or averment of the enlightened. Another definition is and , royal law an Buddha law. laya-vijna and mano-vijna; i. e. and ; v. .

The two protectors: the inner, oneself, by studying and following the Law; the o uter, those who supply what is needful for one's body and mind, e. g. supporters . The two kinds of poverty: of goods, and of the religion. Two ways of passing over (to bliss): the lengthwise, or long way (of Hnayna); and the crosswise, or short way of Mahyna.

A man's two legs, compared to goodness and wisdom, being counted as the first fi ve of the pramits, as the sixth; v. . The honoured one among bipeds or men, ddha; cf. .

Two forms of body; there are numerous pairs, e. g. (1) (a) The varied forms of th karmic or ordinary mortal body, or being; (b) the transformable, or spiritual bod y. (2) (a) The earthly body of the Buddha; (b) his nirmakya, which may take an at will. (3) (a) his earthly body; (b) his moral and mental naturea Hnayna def , but Mahyna takes his earthly nirmakya as the and his dharmakya or that and his kya as . (4) The dharmakya and nirmakya. (5) (a) The absolute trut , i. e. the dharmakya; (b) the functioning or temporal body. (6) (a) the dharm d sabhogakya; (b) the nirmakya. (7) (a) his permanent or eternal body; (b) ody. (8) (a) and idem . The two wheels of a cart compared by the Tiantai school to (or to its Tiantai fo rm ) and meditation and wisdom; see 5. Also food and the doctrine, i. e. cal and spiritual.

The two Ways: (1) (a) or The open or unhindered way, or the way of removin acles or intervention, i. e. all delusion; (b) the way of release, by realization of truth. (2) (a) The hard way of "works", i. e. by the six pramit and the discipl es. (b) the easy way salvation, by the invocation of Amitbha. (3) (a) The wa carnation or mortality; (b) the enlightened way of escape from the miseries of tr ansmigration. (4) (a) The way of instruction; (b) the way of realization. (5) The two lower excretory organs. The two sides, extremes, or antitheses. [31]

(1) (a) That things exist; (6) that since nothing is self-existent, things ca said to exist. (2) (a) The plus side, the common belief in a soul and permanence; (b) the minus side, that nothing exists even of karma. (3) (a) and (b) nd immortality; v. .

The two are the divisions which took place immediately after the Buddha's death in o (a) the elder monks or intimate disciples, and (b) the general body of discipl es, styled respectively and q.v.; the five are the divisions, which are said to h ve occurred a century later, into Dharma-guptah , Mulasarvastivadah , Mahisasak piyah and Vatsiputriya .

The two "measurings," or parts of a syllogism : (a) appearance, e.g. smoke; (b) erence, e.g. fire from smoke. Two doors, entrances, schools, etc. There are many such pairs. The two borders, or states: according to Hnayna, nirvana and mortality; according t o Mahyna the two are one.

The two hindrances:(1) (a) The passions and delusion which aid rebirth and hind ntrance into nirvana; (b) or, worldly wisdom e.g. accounting the seeming as real hindrance to true wisdom. (2) (a) as above; (b) hindrances to deliverance. (3 drances to truth; (b) hindrances of the passions, etc.

The two immediate or direct ways to perfection, as defined by Jingxi of the Huaya school; the gradual direct way of the Lotus; the direct way of the Huayan sutra , which is called the , while that of the Lotus is called the .

The Pure Land will not be limited to those who repeat the name of Amitbha accordi to his eighteenth vow; but includes those who adopt other ways (as shown in his nineteenth and twentieth vows). v. . The two kinds of food: (1) (a) The joy of the Law; (b) the bliss of meditation. ( 2) (a)The right kind of monk's livelihood - by mendicancy; (b) the wrong kind by any other means. see . The drake and the hen of the mandarin duck who are always together, typifying var ious contrasted theories and ideas, e.g. permanence and impermanence, joy and so rrow, emptiness and non-emptiness, etc. The black and white rats - night and day. manuya; nara; purua; pudgala. Man, the sentient thinking being in the desire-realm , whose past deeds affect his present condition. The Honoured One among or of men, the Buddha.

A Lotus among men, a Buddha, also applied to all who invoke Amitbha. ; A Lion among men, a Buddha. The Tree among men, giving shelter as the bodhi-tree, a Buddha. The Lord of the herd. These and other similar terms are applied to the Buddha.

The three most wicked among men: the Icchantika; v. : the slanderers of Maha those who break the four great commandments. The Honoured One among or of men, the Buddha. A Lotus among men, a Buddha, also applied to all who invoke Amitabha. (or ); A Lion among men, a Buddha. The Tree among men, giving shelter as the bodhi-tree, a Buddha.

One of the five vehicles, v. , that of the five commandments, the keeping of which

ensures rebirth in the world of men. Every man has by origin the perfect Buddha-nature.

The i jina, or immortal among men, i.e. the Buddha; also a name for Bimbisra in his reincarnation. This is given by Eitel as 'Narasaghrma of Kapisa,' But this is doubtful.

mnua-ktya; demons shaped like men; domestic slaves, introduced into Kashmir by Ma ika; also intp. as "work to be done by men." The causative influences for being reborn as a human being, i.e. a good life. Tho se in positions of honour have obtained them by former deeds of benevolence, rev erence to Buddhas and monks, patience, humility, devotion to the sutras, charity , morality, zeal and exhortation, obedience, loyalty - hence they have obtained affluence, long life, and are held in high regard. Those in mean condition are t hus born because of the opposite characteristics in previous incarnation. [32] The (false) tenet of a soul, or ego, or permanent individual, i.e. that the indiv idual is real, the ego an independent unit and not a mere combination of the fiv e skandhas produced by cause and in effect disintegrating; v. . Men and devas. Two of the q.v. Two of the q.v.

A summary of the teaching of the Chan sect by Zhizhao of the Song dynasty. The highest forms of reincarnationi.e. those of devas and men. The third beat of the first watch, 9-11 p.m., when men are settled for the night. The treasure of men, Buddha. idem . A leader or teacher of men. nsiha. The Lion of men, Buddha as leader and commander. Same as .

Personality, the human soul, i.e. the false view, that every man has a permanen rd within , which he calls the tman, soul, or permanent self, a view which forms t basis of all erroneous doctrine. Also styled ; ; ; cf. . Human bhva or existence, one of the . Men and things; also, men and the Buddha's law, or teaching.

Man as without ego or permanent soul; cf. and . Other similar terms are The knowledge, or wisdom, of antman, cf. . Man is only a temporary combination formed by the five skandhas and the twelve ni

dnas, being the product of previous causes, and without a real self or permanent soul. Hnayna is said to end these causes and consequent reincarnation by disciplin e in subjection of the passions and entry into nirvana by the emptying of the se lf. Mahyna fills the "void" with the Absolute, declaring that when man has emptied himself of the ego he realizes his nature to be that of the absolute, bhtatathat; v. . The meditation on, or insight into the selflessness of person . Human msa or flesh. Human msa or flesh.

Human-touch healing prince, i.e. kyamuni in a previous incarnation, whose touch he ed all diseases, as did the application of his powdered bones after his decease in that incarnation. The human stage of the six gati, or states of existence. The human body, or person. Cattle in human shape, stupid ignorant, heedless. idem . A being resembling but not a human being, i.e. a kinnara.

A human head at the top of a daa or flagpole, used as one of Yama's symbols; v. Men and disembodied spirits, or demons; disembodied ghosts. To enter, entry, entrance; come, bring or take in; at home; awaken to the truth; begin to understand; to relate the mind to reality and thus evolve knowledge.

The "six entries" ayatana, which form one of the links in the chain of causaton, v. preceding link beingcontact, and the succeeding link perception. The six are the qualities and effects of the six organs of sense producing sight, hearing, smel l, taste, touch, and thought (or mental presentations). v. also .

To enter the school of monism, i.e. that the one great reality is universal an ute without differentiation. [33] Entrance, stay, exit; v. . The bringing in of an image of a Buddha. The ceremony of bringing in a Buddha's image. The Buddha-law by which all may attain to Buddhahood. To believe, or enter into belief. The two doors of ingress and egress, i.e. enter the gate of self-purification and dornment, then go forth to benefit and save others. . Flaming, blazing, glowing (jvl). v. .

v. . To inter the bones or body of a monk in a dagoba; v. . To go to the altar (for baptism, in the esoteric sect). To enter into meditation by tranquillizing the body, mouth (i.e. lips), and mind, . To enter the master's study for examination or instruction; to enter the status o f a disciple, but strictly of an advanced disciple. To receive consecration. To inter into rest, or nirvana; also, to die. Also or .

The eight Japanese who came to China in the Tang dynasty and studied the esote trine.

To enter the heart, or mind; also used for entering a particular state, its three stages being entry, stay, and exit.

He in me and I in him, i.e. the indwelling of the Buddha, any Buddha, or the Buddh s.

The method in expounding scriptures of giving the main idea before proceeding to d tailed exposition. Srota-apama, v. . idem . The monk's robe, worn equally for a palace, or for begging in town or hamlet.

To enter again through the dark gate into mortality, e.g. as a bodhisattva does, e en into the hells, to save the suffering. Another interpretation is the return o f a bodhisattva to common life for further enlightenment. To become an arhat. To enter the assembly (of monks); also .

Five rules for the entrant - submission, kindness, respect, recognition of rank or order, and none but religious conversation.

To enter into meditation; it differs from as means complete stillne le means thought and study for enlightenment in regard to truth. To become a monk, ; to leave home and enter the Way. To inter the bones (of a monk) in a stpa, or a grave. Entering, or putting into the casket (for cremation); i.e. encoffining a dead mon k. aa, eight.

The eight negations of Nagarjuna, founder of the Mdhyamika or Middle School . T r pairs are "neither birth nor death, neither end nor permanence, neither identi ty nor difference, neither coming nor going." These are the eight negations; add "neither cause nor effect"and there are the ten negations; v. .

See .

Meditation on the eight negations . These eight, birth, death, etc., are the leading ideas, or eight wrong calculations. No objection is made to the terms in the apparent, or relative, sense , but in the real or absolute sense these eight i eas are incorrect, and the truth lies between them ; in the relative, mortality need not be denied, but in the absolute we cannot speak of mortality or immortal ity. In regard to the relative view, beings have apparent birth and apparent dea th from various causes, but are not really born and do not really die, i.e. ther e is the difference of appearance and reality. In the absolute there is no appar ent birth and apparent death. The other three pairs are similarly studied. [34] idem .

The eight inexpressibles, or things surpassing thought, i.e. eight qualities of th ocean (depth, extent, etc.) in illustration of nirva; v. .

The teaching of the 26, on the eight incorrect views in regard to (1) a permanent ego; (2) the five skandhas as not the constituents of the living; (3) te, or determination of length of life;(4) acreator; (5) permanence; (6) 7) thereality of things; (8) their unreality. The eight things "unclean" to monks, of which there are different groups. 0ne grou p is - to keep gold, silver, male slaves, female slaves, cattle, stores, or to t rade or farm. Another is - to own cultivated lands, to farm, keep supplies of gr ain and silk, servants, animals or birds, money, cushions and pans, and furnitur e and gilded beds.

By the eight negations of the Mdhyamika doctrine, the true reality of things is s n.

Each of the "four continents" has two other continents, i.e. Jambudvpa has Cmara a Varacmara; Prvavideha has Deha and Videha; Aparagodnya has ah and Uttaramantria; arakuru has Kurava and Kaurava; v. . The eight skandhas, or sections of the Abhidharma, v. .

The eight appurtenances of a monk - three garments, bowl, stool, filter, needle an thread, and chopper. The four special characteristics of the Dharmalakaa sect, i.e. , , The eight roads in the eight directions, bounded with golden cords, mentioned in t he Lotus Stra as in certain Buddha-realms. Eight Buddhas of the eastern quarter. The classification or grades of disciples according to g, i.e. (1) grade of the five classes, or stages, of ten classes of or ordinary monks and nuns; above these are of those progressing towards Buddhahood i.e.(3) , (4) t or Buddha stage , i.e. . Cf. .

the Tiantai perfect teachi lay disciples; (2) grade the bodhisattva stages , (5) , (6) , (7)

The eight stages of the human foetus: kalala, the appearance after the firs m conception; arbuda, at end of second week; pe, third; ghana, fourth; uring fifth week; sixth, hair, nails, and teeth; seventh, the organs of sense, e yes, ears, nose, and tongue; and eighth, complete formation.

v. .

The myriads of "thoughts", or moments in a single day and night, each with its uences of good and evil; probably 8,400,000,000 is meant. The eight victorious stages, or degrees, in meditation for overcoming desire, or a ttachment to the world of sense; v. . ati, eighty.

The eighty-one kinds of illusion, or misleading thoughts, arising out of desir r, foolishness, and pride - nine grades in each of the nine realms of desire, of form and beyond form.

The eighty-one divisions in the Praj-pramit stra comprising form ; welve means of sensation ; eighteen realms ; four axioms ; twelve nidnas ; eighte six pramit , and four jna . Also . The eighty notable physical characteristics of Buddha; cf. .

The translation of the Hua-yen in eighty chan, made by iknanda in the

The original Vinaya recited by the Buddha's disciple Upli eighty times during the mmer retreat, while the Tripiaka was being composed after the Buddha's death.

The eight fundamental principles, intuitional or relating to direct mental vision, of the Ch'an (Zen) School, q.v.; they are ; ; ;; [35]

The eight savours (or pleasures) of the Buddha's nirva: perpetual abode, ex f distress, etc.), eternal youth, immortality, purity, absolute freedom mperturbility, and joy.

() The eight cases of nouns in Sanskrit, termed Subanta, , i.e. nirdea, u , sampradna, apdna, svmivacana, sanidhnrtha, mahtraa.

Eight fundamental characteristics of a complete or perfect school of teaching, wh ch must perfectly express , , , , , , , and . idem . idem . As high as eight tla (palmyra) trees, very high.

() The eight great naraka, or hot hells: (1) sajva hell of rebirth into the hell of black cords or chains; (3) saghta , in which all are squeezed into a mas s between two mountains falling together; (4) raurava ; hell of crying and wailing ; (5) mahraurava hell of great crying; (6) tapana hell of burning; (7) pratp fierce heat; (8) avci unintermitted rebirth into its sufferings with no respite. v . and .

The eight diamond-kings, or bodhisattvas, in their representations as fierce guard ans of Vairocana ; is represented as ; ; as ; as;

The eight great powers of personality or sovereign independence, as one of the fou qualities of nirva: powers of self-manifolding, infinite expansion, levitation ransportation, manifesting countless forms permanently in one and the same place

, use of one physical organ in place of another, obtaining all things as if noth ing, expounding a stanza through countless kalpas, ability to traverse the solid as space. v. 23.

see . Another group is given in the ; another in the by Faxian; and there are other groups.

The eight Shingon representations of Guanyin: as one of the above , as the one, as a rkas, as with four faces, as with a horse's head, as Mahsthmaprpta , idem .

The eight messengers of , also known as ; Majur also has ei

or The eight attendants on (cf. ). They are ,

The eight great "spirit", or sacred stpas erected at (1) Kapilavastu, Buddha's bi place; (2) Magadha, where he was first enlightened; (3) the deer-park Benares, w here he first preached; (4) Jetavana, where he revealed his supernatural powers; (5) Kanykubja (Kanauj), where he descended from Indra's heavens; (6) Rjagha, where Devadatta was destroyed and the Sagha purifed; (7) Vaili, where he announced his s peedy nirvana; (8) Kuinagara, where he entered nirva. There is another slightly var iant list.

The eight leading characters of the chapter in the Nirva stra ath, or nirva, as entry into joy. The eight magic words to be placed on eight parts of the body. The eight-word dhra, esoteric methods connected with Vairocana and Majur. The eight devalokas, i.e. four dhyna devalokas of the region of form, and four arpa lokas; and . [36] The eight degrees of fixed abstraction, i.e. the four dhynas corresponding to the four divisions in the heavens of form, and the four degrees of absolute fixed ab straction on the or immaterial, corresponding to the arpadhtu, i.e. heavens of for mlessness.

or Eight of the early Japanese sects: Kusha, Jjitsu, Ritsu, Hos ngon.

The eight Japanese schools with the Zen school added. The first f rely extinct. The eight cold and eight hot hells.

Also written . The eight cold narakas, or hells: (1) arbuda, tumo enlarged tumors; bursting blains; (3) aaa, chattering (teeth); (4) haha only sound possible to frozen tongues; (5) ahaha, or hahava, ditto to frozen throa ts; (6) utpala, blue lotus flower, the flesh being covered with sores resembling i t; (7) padma, red lotus flower, ditto; (8) puarka, the great lotus, ditto. v idem . The eight teachers murder, robbery, adultery, lying, drinking, age, sickness, and d eath; v. .

The eight knti, or powers of patient endurance, in the desire-realm and the two rea lms above it, necessary to acquire the full realization of the truth of the Four Axioms, ; these four give rise to the , i.e. , , , , the endurance o results in their realization. In the realm of form and the formless, they are c alled the . By patient meditation the false or perplexed views will cease, and t ht kinds of jna or gnosis be acquired; therefore results from and the sixteen, re called the , i.e. the sixteen mental conditions during the stage of , when ns or perplexities of view are destroyed. Such is the teaching of the . The are etc. .

Or . Eight lines of thought, in the 21 , for resisting Mra-attacks and ring the meditation on impurity, etc.; i.e. thought of the Buddha, of the Law (o r Truth), the fraternity, the commandments, alms-giving, the devas, breathing, a nd death. There are also the , i.e. that truth is obtained through absence of d e, contentment, aloneness, zeal, correct thinking, a fixed mind, wisdom, and inn er joy. v. .

Also Bashpa, Phagspa, Baghcheba, Blo-gros-rgyal-mtshah, Chos-rgyal-phags-pa. Tibet, teacher and confidential adviser of Kublai Khan, who appointed him head of the Buddhist church of Tibet A.D. 1260. He is the author of a manual of Buddh ist terminology and translated another work into Chinese. In A.D. 1269 he construct d an alphabet for the Mongol language, "adapted from the Tibetan and written ver tically," and a syllabary borrowed from Tibetan, known by the name of Hkhor-yig, for which, however, the Lama Chos-kyi-hod-zer 1307-1311 substituted another alp habet based on that of kya-paita.

The eight kinds of pride, mna, arrogance, or self-conceit, though inferior, to t k oneself equal to others (in religion); to think oneself superior among manifest superiors; to think oneself not so much inferior among manifest superiors; t one has attained more than is the fact, or when it is not the fact; self-superio rity, or self-sufficiency; pride in false views, or doings; arrogance; extre gance. The eight kinds of pride, or arrogance, resulting in domineering: because of stre ngth; of clan, or name; of wealth; of independence, or position; of years, or ag e; of cleverness, or wisdom; of good or charitable deeds; of good looks. Of thes e, eight birds are named as types: two kinds of owl, eagle, vulture, crow, magpie , pigeon, wagtail. idem . The eight factors of a Buddhist syllogism.

() The first eight of the ten commandments, see ; not to kill; not to take thi given; no ignoble (i.e. sexual) conduct; not to speak falsely; not to drink win e; not to indulge in cosmetics, personal adornments, dancing, or music;not to sle ep on fine beds, but on a mat on theground; and not to eat out of regulation hour s,i.e. after noon. Another group divides the sixthinto two against cosmetics and ado rnments andagainst dancing and music; the first eight are thencalled the eight pro hibitory commands and the last the or fasting commandment. Also ; () [37]

The eight Tiantai classifications of kyamuni's teaching, from the Avatasaka to the otus and Nirva stras, divided into the two sections (1) his four kinds of teach the content of the Truth accommodated to the capacity of his disciples; (2) his fo r modes of instruction. (1) The four are: (a) The Tripiaka or Hnayna teach and pratyekabuddhas, the bodhisattva doctrine being subordinate; it also includ ed the primitive nya doctrine as developed in the Satyasiddhi stra. (b) His later " ermediate" teaching which contained Hnayna and Mahyna doctrine for rvaka, pratyekabud ha, and bodhisattva, to which are attributed the doctrines of the Dharmalakaa or Y ogcrya and Mdhyamika schools. (c) His differentiated , or separated, bodhisattva te

ching, definitely Mahyna. (d) His final, perfect, bodhisattva, universal teaching a s preached, e.g. in the Lotus and Nirva stras. (2) The four methods of instruction re: (a) Direct teaching without reserve of the whole truth, e.g. the stra. (b) al or graded, e.g. the , , and stras; all the four are also included und . (c) Esoteric teaching, only understood by special members of the assembly. (d) eral or indeterminate teaching, from which each hearer would derive benefit acco rding to his interpretation. The eight commands given by the Buddha to his foster-mother, i.e. aunt, when she w as admitted to the order, and which remain as commands to nuns: (1) even though a hundred years old a nun must pay respect to a monk, however young, and offer h er seat to him; (2) must never scold a monk; (3) never accuse, or speak of his m isdeeds; but a monk may speak of hers; (4) at his hands obtain reception into th e order; (5) confess sin (sexual or other) before the assembly of monks and nuns ; (6) ask the fraternity for a monk as preceptor; (7) never share the same summe r resort with monks; (8) after the summer retreat she must report and ask for a responsible confessor. Also ; (or ) ; ; v. 48.

idem also the eight sections of the stra; also a term for the first eigh .

The four quarters, the four half-quarters and above and below, i.e. the univers all directions.

The eight heavens and devas at the eight points of the compass: E., the Indra, or a kra heaven; S., the Yama heaven; W., the Varuna, or water heaven; N., the Vairama na, or Pluto heaven; N.E., the na, or iva heaven; S.E., the Homa, or fire heaven; S. W., the Nirti, or Raka heaven; N.W., the Vyu, or wind heaven. All these may be consi dered as devalokas or heavens. An Indian division of the day into eight "hours", four for day and four for night . The and ; see . The Hua-yen stra, as delivered at eight assemblies. idem .

() ryamrga. The eight right or correct ways, the "eightfold noble path" fo nirva; also styled , , , , , , , . The d freedom from the common delusion. (2) Samyak-sakalpa, correct thought and purpos e. (3) Samyag-vc, correct speech, avoidance of false and idle talk. (4) Samyak-k ta, correct deed, or conduct, getting rid of all improper action so as to dwell in purity. (5) Smnyag-jva, correct livelihood or occupation, avoiding the five immo ral occupations. (6) Samyag-vyyma, correct zeal, or energy in uninterrupted progre in the way of nirva. (7) Samyak-smti, correct remembrance, or memory, which retain the true and excludes the false. (8) Samyak-samadhi, correct meditation, absorpt ion, or abstraction. The means of course Buddhist orthodoxy, anything contrary t o this being or heterodox, and wrong.

Buddha-bhita-aaga-samya-mrga-stra. Tr. by An Shigao of the Eastern Han B.N r translation of theSamyuktgama . [38]

Eight rivers of IndiaGanges, Jumna,? Sarasvat, Hirayavat or Ajiravat, ? d St.

The eight dharmas, things, or methods.There are three groups: (1) idem q.v. (2)

v. (3) The eight essential things, i.e. instruction, doctrine, knowledge or wisd om attained, cutting away of delusion, practiceof the religious life, progressiv status, producing the fruit of saintliness. Of these are known as the .

or The eight prjika, in relation to the sins of a nun; for the first four ous contact with a male; (6) any sort of improper association (leading to adulte ry); (7) concealing the misbehaviour (of an equal, or inferior); (8)improper deal ings with a monk. v. .

The eight conditions of no leisure or time to hear a Buddha or his truth, idem .

The eight universalized powers of the six senses, the mind and the dha v. . The eight skandhas or sections of the Abhidharma, i.e. miscellaneous; concerning b ondage to the passions, etc.; wisdom; practice; the four fundamentals, or elemen ts; the roots, or organs; meditation; and views. The in thirty sections, attribute d to Ktyyana, is in the Abhidharma. The eight sons of the last of the 20,000 shining Buddhas born before he left become a monk; their names are given in the first chapter of the Lotus stra. In Japan there are also eight sons of a Shinto deity, reincarnated as one of the si x Guanyin. The eight royal days, i.e. the solstices, the equinoxes, and the first day of each of the four seasons. also (or ) idem .

() also Eight aspects of the Buddha's life, which the gives as in the Tuita heaven; (2) entry into his mother's womb; (3) abode there visibly p reaching to the devas; (4) birth from mother's side in Lumbin; (5) leaving home a t 19 (or 25) as a hermit; (6) after six years' suffering attaining enlightenment ; (7) rolling the Law-wheel, or preaching; (8) at 80 entering nirva. The group of antai is slightly different descent from Tuita, entry into womb, birth, leaving h ome, subjection of Mra, attaining perfect wisdom, preaching, nirvana. See also th e two , i.e. and . idem .

The succession of the eight founders of the esoteric sect, or Shingon, i.e. panese . idem .

The eight happy conditions in which he may be reborn who keeps the five commands a d the ten good ways and bestows alms: (1) rich and honourable among men; (2) in the heavens of the four deva kings; (3) the Indra heavens; (4) Suyma heavens; (5) Tuita heaven; (6) nirmarati heaven, i.e. the fifth devaloka; (7) Paranirmita-v , i.e. the sixth devaloka heaven; (8) the brahma-heavens. The eight fields for cul tivating blessedness: Buddhas; arhats (or saints); preaching monks (updhyya); teac hers (crya); friars; father; mother; the sick. Buddhas, arhats, and friars (or mon ks in general) are termed reverence-fields; the sick are compassion-fields; the r st are grace- or gratitude- fields. Another group is: to make roads and wells; can als and bridges; repair dangerous roads; be dutiful to parents; support monks; t end the sick; save from disaster or distress; provide for a quinquennial assembl y. Another: serving the Three Precious Ones, i.e. the Buddha; the Law; the Order

; parents; the monks as teachers; the poor; the sick; animals. [39]

Differentiated rules of liberation for the eight ordersmonks; nuns; mendicant s male; and female; disciples male; and female; and the laity who observe the fi rst eight commandments.

The eight kinds of surpassing things, i.e. those who keep the first eight commandm nts receive the eight kinds of reward they escape from falling into the hells; bec oming pretas; or animals; or asuras; they will be born among men, become monks, and obtain the truth; in the heavens of desire; in the brahma-heaven, or meet a Buddha; and obtain perfect enlightenment. The eight kinds of congee, or gruel, served by the citizens to the Buddha and his disciples when in retreat in the bamboo grove of K; they were of butter, or fats, o r hempseed, milk, peas, beans, sesamum, or plain gruel.

() Eight causes of giving convenience; fear; gratitude; reward-seeking; tradition (or customary); hoping for heaven; name and fame; personal virtue. The eight kinds of prediction made known to self, not to others; to others not to f; to self and others; unknown to self or others; the near made known but the re mote not; the remote made known but not the intermediate steps; near and remote both made known; near and remote both not made known. idem ; also eight divisions of the q.v. of the compass.

Pleasant breezes from th

Eight things unclean to a monk: buying land for self, not for Buddha or the frate rnity; ditto cultivating; ditto laying by or storing up; ditto keeping servants (or slaves); keeping animals (for slaughter); treasuring up gold, etc.; ivory an d ornaments; utensils for private use. idem . The eight rafts, idem The eightfold noble path. The eight entanglements, or evils: to be without shame; without a blush; envious; mean; unregretful; sleepy (or indolent); ambitious; stupid (or depressed). The and of rvakas. () idem . idem .

The eight-arm deva; an epithet of Brahma as Nryaadeva creator of men. idem and .

The Amitbha eight pennons of various colours, indicating the eight directions of sp ace. The eight distresses birth, age, sickness, death, parting with what we love, meetin g with what we hate, unattained aims, and all the ills of the five skandhas. idem .

An abbreviation for () The number of atoms in the human body is suppose

Hence the term is used for a number of things, often in the general sense of a g reat number. It is also the age apex of life in each human world. There are the 84,000 stpas erected by Aoka, each to accommodate one of the 84.000 relics of the Buddha's body; also the 84,000 forms of illumination shed by Amitbha; the 84,000 excellent physical signs of a Buddha; the 84,000 mortal distresses, i.e. 84,000 o r ; also the cure found in the 84,000 methods, i.e. , , , or.

An abbreviation for the 84,000 teachings or lessons credited to the B of all sufferings, and the 12 stras in which they are contained. The bodhisattva's 80,000 duties. The eight lotus-petals, a name for Sumeru. is the central court of the with Vairocana as its central figure, also termed ic name for the heart is the eight-petal fleshly heart, and being the seat of me ditation it gives rise to the term eight-leaf lotus meditation. The eight (wrong) perceptions or thoughts, i.e. desire; hate; vexation (with othe rs); home-sickness; patriotism (or thoughts of the country's welfare); dislike of death; ambition for one's clan or family; slighting or being rude to others. 13.

aa-vimoka, moka, vimukti, mukti. Liberation, deliverance, freedom, emancipation, e, release in eight forms; also and cf. and . The eight are stages of men on: (1) Liberation, when subjective desire arises, by examination of the ll things and realization of their filthiness. (2) Liberation, when no s arises, by still meditating as above. These two aredeliverance by meditation on impurity, the next onpurity. (3) Liberation by concentration on the pu on of a permanent state of freedom from all desire. The above three "correspond to the four Dhynas". (Eitel.) (4) Liberation in realization of the infinity o or the immaterial. (5) Liberation in realization of infinite knowledge. (6) ealization of nothingness, or nowhereness. (7) Liberation in the state of ere is neither thought nor absence of thought. These four arise out of abstract meditation in regard to desire and form, and are associated with the . (8) y means of a state of mind in which there is final extinction, nirva, of both sens ation, vedan, and consciousness, saj. [40] Eight physical sensations which hinder meditation in its early stages: restlessne ss, itching, buoyancy, heaviness, coldness, heat, roughness, smoothness. 8.

The eight stras ; there are three lists of eight; one non-Buddhist; one by Asa nder of the Yoga School; a third by Jina Dinnga. Details are given in the 4 an

The eight truths, postulates, or judgments of the Dharmalakana school, i.e. four mmon or mundane, and four of higher meaning. The first four are (1) common postu lates on reality, considering the nominal as real, e.g. a pot; (2) common doctri nal postulates, e.g. the five skandhas; (3) abstract postulates, e.g. the four n oble truths ; and (4) temporal postulates in regard to the spiritual in the materi al. The second abstract or philosophical four are (5) postulates on constitution and function, e.g. of the skandhas; (6) on cause and effect, e.g. the ; (7) on th e void, the immaterial, or reality; and (8) on the pure inexpressible ultimate o r absolute.

The eight parijna, or kinds of cognition, perception, or consciousness. They are th e five senses of cakur-vijna, rotra-v., ghrna-v., jihv-v., and kya-v., i.e. seeing, ring, smelling, tasting, and touch. The sixth is mano-vijna, the mental sense, or intellect, v. . It is defined as mentality, apprehension, or by some as will. The seventh is styled klia-mano-vijna discriminated from the last as pondering,

; it is the discriminating and constructive sense, more than the intellectually perceptive; as infected by the laya-vijna., or receiving "seeds" from it, it is con sidered as the cause of all egoism and individualizing, i.e. of men and things, therefore of all illusion arising from assuming the seeming as the real. The eig hth is the laya-vijna, which is the storehouse, or basis from which come all "s consciousness. The seventh is also defined as the dna or "laying hold of" or "h g on to" consciousness.

The eight fundamental powers of the and the eight powers functioning t sensations.

The eight perceptions are fundamentally unity, opposed by the school with the ne that they are fundamentally discrete. Eight characteristics of a Buddha's speaking: never hectoring; never misleading o r confused; fearless; never haughty; perfect in meaning; and in flavour; free fr om harshness; seasonable (or, suited to the occasion). Eight supernatural powers of transformation, characteristics of every Buddha: (1) to shrink self or others, or the world and all things to an atom; (2) to enlarge ditto to fill all space; (3) to make the same light as a feather; (4) to make t he same any size or anywhere at will; (5) everywhere and in everything to be omn ipotent; (6) to be anywhere at will, either by self-transportation, or bringing the destination to himself, etc; (7) to shake all things (in the six, or eightee n ways); (8) to be one or many and at will pass through the solid or through spa ce, or through fire or water, or transform the four elements at will, e.g. turn earth into water. Also ; . The eight (spoke) wheel, idem . The eight grades, i.e. those who have attained the and .

The eight misleading terms, which form the basis of the logic of the , i.e. bir death, past, future, identity, difference, annihilation, perpetuity (or e ). The regards these as unreal; v. . idem . ( or or ) idem . [41] A term for q.v. The eight heterodox or improper practices, the opposite of the eight correct path s.

() The eight classes of supernatural beings in the Lotus stra: deva, nga ura, garua, kinnara, mahoraga. Also called and .

The eight groups of demon-followers of the four mahrjas, i.e. gandharvas, pica pretas, ngas, ptanas, yakas, and rkasas.

The eight weighty and truly precious things, i.e. the eight metals, which depend f r evaluation on gold, the highest and greatest, used to illustrate the Buddha as supreme and the other classes in grades beneath him. Also , i.e. the eight pricele s things.

( or ) Eight kinds of syllogisms in Buddhist logic; v. . ( roposition; (3) doubtful, or seemingly valid but faulty; (4) seemingly invali

assailable; (5) manifest, or evidential; (6) inferential; (7) seemingly evi 8) seemingly inferential. idem . The eight conditions in which it is difficult to see a Buddha or hear his dharma: in the hells: as hungry ghosts; as animals; in Uttarakuru (the northern contine nt where all is pleasant); in the long-life heavens (where life is long and easy ); as deaf, blind, and dumb; as a worldly philosopher; in the intermediate perio d between a Buddha and his successor. Also . The eight tones of a Buddha's voice beautiful, flexible, harmonious, respect-produc ing, not effeminate (i.e. manly), unerring, deep and resonant.

The eight upside-down views: heretics believe in permanence, pleasure, pers nd purity; the two Hnayna vehicles deny these both now and in nirva. Mahyna denies th m now, but asserts them in nirva. Also . The eight winds, or influences which fan the passions, i.e. gain, loss; defamatio n, eulogy; praise, ridicule; sorrow, joy. Also .

The eight Mras, or destroyers: the mras of the passions; the skandha-mr the mra-king. The above four are ordinarily termed the four mras: the other he four Hnayna delusions of rvakas and pratyekabuddhas, i.e. impermanence; jo ; impersonality; impurity; cf. . () idem . The hill of swords in one of the hells. The gati or path of rebirth as an animal, so called because animals are subjects of the butcher's knife. The wind that cuts all living beings to piecesat the approach of a world-kalpa's e nd; also described as the disintegrating force at death.

bala; power, strength, of which there are several categories: power of choice and of practice; the power of Buddha; of meditation (samdhi) and of practice. paca the five powers of faith, zeal, memory (or remembering), meditation, and wisdom . A child's power is in crying; a woman's in resentment; a king's in domineering; an arhat's in zeal (or progress); a Buddha's in mercy; and a bhiku's in enduranc e (of despite) . q.v. The ten powers of Buddhas and bodhisattvas.

vra. A strong or mighty man, hero, demigod. Used for the Licchavi, also ; s and are defined as Kuinagara. A monk who degrades himself by becoming a fighter (e.g. boxer), or a slave. The vrya-pramit.

The bodhisattva vrya-pramit. One of the twenty-eight honoured ones in the G p. [42]

() The is intp. as the ten powers of a Buddha, the are his four qu s. Power-born; one who is born from the Truth, a monk.

Daa, ten, the perfect number. ekdaa, eleven.

Ten universals, or modes of contemplating the universe from ten aspects,i.e. fro e viewpoint of earth, water, fire, wind blue, yellow, red, white, space, or mind . For example, contemplated under the aspect of water,then the universe is regard ed as in flux and change. Also called , . It is one of the .

The eleven-faced Guanyin, especially connected with tantric performances, ekda there are three or more stras on the subject. Trayodasa; thirteen.

The thirteen Shingon rulers of the dead during the forty-nine days and until the t hirty-third commemoration.The thirteen are , , , , , , r, signs, etc. Thethirteen powers or bodhisattva balas of the Pure land school: , The thirteen Buddhist schools of China v. .

, ,

The school of the ten pairs of unified opposites founded by Jingxi on the tea f the Lotus stra. There are several books bearing the name. The unifying principl e is that of the identity of contraries, and the ten apparent contraries are mat ter and mind, internal and external, practice and proof (or realization), cause a nd effect, impurity and purity, objective and subjective, self and other, action, speech, and thought, relative and absolute, the fertilized and the fertilizer (i .e. receiver and giver). There are several treatises on the subject in the Canon . (or ) idem ().

The ten rules which produce no regretsnot to kill, steal, fornicate, lie, tall of fellow -Buddhist's sins, deal in wine, praise oneself and discredit others, be m ean, be angry, defame the Triratna (Buddha, Law, Fraternity).

() A T'ien-t'ai mode of meditation in ten "vehicles" or stages, for the attainme f bodhi.

The comfort or ease of progress produced by the ten vehicle meditation is com o a couch or divan.

The ten vehicle meditation like a breeze blows away error and falsity as dust

The bodhisattva-merit resulting from the attainment of the ten groups of excellenc s in the southern version of the Nirva Stra 19-24. There is an unimportant with the above.

Ten unlawful things said to have been advocated by the Vail monks, which led to lling of the second Council. dvdaa, twelve. idem . The twelve Buddhas of the esoteric sect placed three on the east, one in each of t he other seven directions, and one each for zenith and nadir.

Amitbha's twelve titles of light. The gives them as , etc., i.e

immeasurable boundless, irresistible, incomparable, yama (or flaming), pure, joy , wisdom, unceasing, surpassing thought, ineffable, surpassing sun and moon. Ano ther list is given in the .... (or ) idem .

Dvdaaga prattyasamutpda; the twelve nidnas; v. and ; also ; stence: (1)avidy, ignorance, or unenlightenment; (2) saskra, action, activity, ion, "dispositions," Keith; (3) vijna, consciousness; (4) nmarpa, name and form ana, the six sense organs, i.e. eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind; (6) spara , contact, touch; (7) vedan, sensation, feeling; (8) t, thirst, desire, craving; updna, laying hold of, grasping; (10) bhava, being, existing; (11) jti, birth; (12 jarmaraa, old age, death. The "classical formula" reads "By reason of ignorance di spositions; by reason of dispositions consciousness", etc. A further application of the twelve nidnas is made inregard totheir causaton of rebirth: (1) ignorance, as inherited passion from the beginningless past ; (2) karma, good and evil, of past lives; (3) conception as a form of perception; (4) nmarpa, or body and mind e volving (in the womb); (5) the six organs on the verge of birth; (6) childhood w hose intelligence is limited to spara, contact or touch; (7) receptivity or buddi ng intelligence and discrimination from6 or 7 years; (8) thirst, desire, or love, age of puberty; (9) the urge of sensuous existence; (10) forming the substance, bhava, of future karma; (11) the completed karma ready for rebirth; (12) old ag e and death. The two first are associated with the previous life, the other ten with the present. The theory is equally applicable to all realms ofreincarnation. The twelve links are also represented in a chart, at the centre of which are th e serpent (anger), boar (ignorance, or stupidity), and dove (lust) representing the fundamental sins. Each catches the other by the tail, typifying the train of sins producing the wheel of life. In another circle the twelve links are repres ented as follows: (1) ignorance, a blind woman; (2) action, a potter at work, or man gathering fruit; (3) consciousness, a restless monkey; (4) name and form, a boat; (5) sense organs, a house; (6) contact, a man and woman sitting together; (7) sensation, a man pierced by an arrow; (8) desire, a man drinking wine; (9) craving, a couple in union; (10) existence through childbirth; (11) birth, a man carrying a corpse; (12) disease, old age, death, an old woman leaning on a stic k. v. Prattya-samutpda stra. [43] To the add and q.v. ( or ) The twelve vows of the Master of Healing; v. .

The twelve devas (especially of the Shingon sect): Brahm; the deva of earth;of th oon; of the sun; Indra; of fire; Yama; of the rakas (or demons); of water; of win d; Vairamaa (wealth); and Mahevara (iva). Also .

The twelve zodiacal mansions: east-gemini or ; aries ; taurus ; west-li gittarius or; south aquarius ; pisces ; capri-cornus ; north cancer; leo ens ). They are used in the vajradhtu group of the Garbhadhtu maala, E.W.S.N.

The twelve bad occupations: sheep-butcher; poulterer (or hen-breeder);pork but owler; fisherman; hunter; thief; executioner; jailer; juggler; dog-butcher; beat er (i.e. hunt servant).

Those who follow the twelve practices of the ascetics: (1) live in a hermitage;( lways beg for food; (3) take turns at begging food; (4) one meal a day; (5) redu ce amount of food; (6) do not take a drink made of fruit or honey after midday; (7) wear dust-heap garments; (8) wear only the three clerical garments; (9) dwel l among graves; (10) stay under a tree; (11) on the dewy ground; (12) sit and ne ver lie.

The homa-, or fire-spirits; Whose representations, colours, magic words, signs, sy bols, and mode of worship are given in the 20. Also ; . The twelv a or Vairocana, the discoverer or source of fire, symbolizing knowledge; (2) the moon which progresses to fullness, with mercy as root and enlightenment as fruit , i,e. Buddha; (3) the wind, represented as a half-moon, fanner of fame, of zeal , and by driving away dark clouds, of enlightenment; (4) the red rays of the ris ing sun, rohitaka, his swords (or rays) indicating wisdom; (5) M004101 a form half stern, half smiling, sternly driving away the passions and trials; (6) irate, be llowing with open mouth, showing four teeth, flowing locks, one eye closed; (7) fi re burning within, i.e. the inner witness, or realization; (8) the waster, or dest royer of waste and injurious products within, i.e. inner purification; (9) the pr oducer at will, capable of all variety, resembling Vivakarman, the Brahmanic Vulc an; (10) the fire-eater; (11) untraceable; (12) the completer, also the subdu emons. v. . The twelve lamps used in the cult of the Master of Healing .

The twelve animals for the "twelve horary branches" with their names, hours, and t he Chinese transliterations of their Sanskrit equivalents; v. 23 and 56. There are also the thirty-six animals, three for each hour. The twelve are: Serpent , 9-11 a.m. ; Horse ,11-1 noon ; Sheep , 1 3 p.m. ; Monkey , 3-5 p. 1 p.m.; Rat , 11-1 midnight ; Ox 1-3 a.m. ; Tiger (or Lion) , 3 .m . [44]

The twelve aspects of the bhtatathhat or the ultimate, which is also styled the e" or nirvana-like: and the "void" or immaterial: (1) The chen ju itself; (2) a e medium of all things; (3) as the nature of all things; (4) its reality cont unreality of phenomena; (5) its immutability contra mortality and phenomenal varia ion; (6) as universal or undifferentiated; (7) as immortal, i.e. apart from b d death, or creation and destruction; (8) as eternal, its nature ever sure; (9) a the abode of all things; (10) as the bounds of all reality; (11) as the realm pace, the void, or immateriality; (12) as the realm beyond thought or expression.

The twelve spirits connected with the cult of the Master of Heali d with the twelve hours of the day, of which they are guardian spirits. Their na mes are as follows: (or ) Kumbhra; Vajra; Mihira; Ara; nd Vikarla. idem . v. . v. . ; ; idem .

idem .

Twelve divisions of the Mahyna canon: (1) stra; (2) geya; (3) 6) jtaka; (7) adbhuta-dharma, i.e. the abhidhama; (8) av ) vykaraa. Cf. .

Dvdaaviharaa stra. The life of kyamuni to his twelfth year, translated by K .

idem

Dvda-anikya astra. One of the , composed by Ngrjuna, translated by Kumr re several works on it. The twelve-vow king, i.e. Yao Shih , the Master of Healing. Pacadaa, fifteen.

The fifteen honoured ones, with whom certain Shingon devotees seek by yoga to b e united; of the fifteen, each represents a part of the whole, e.g. the eyes, ea rs, mouth, hands, feet, etc. v. in its , etc., chapter. The fifteen kinds of Guanyin's imagesnormal face, with thousand hands, horse's eleven faces, as Cund (Marci), with the talismanic wheel, net, white robe, leaf rob e, moon, willow, fruit, as Tr, with azure neck, and as Gandharja.

The fifteen days of the waxing moon are likened to the fifteen kinds of increasing wisdom , and the fifteen waning days to the fifteen kinds of deliverance from evi l .

The ten stages, or periods, in bodhisattva-wisdom, praj , are the ; the meri cter attained are the q.v. Two interpretations may be given. In the first of thes e, the first four stages are likened to entry into the holy womb, the next four to the period of gestation, the ninth to birth, and the tenth to the washing or baptism with the water of wisdom, e.g. the baptism of a Katriya prince. The ten s tages are (1) the purposive stage, the mind set upon Buddhahood; (2) clear un ding and mental control; (3) unhampered liberty in every direction; (4) acqui e Tathgata nature or seed; (5) perfect adaptability and resemblance in self-dev nt and development of others; (6) the whole mind becoming Buddha-like; (7) no ression, perfect unity and constant progress; (8) as a Buddha-son now complete; (9 ) as prince of the law; (10) baptism as such, e.g. the consecration of king interpretation of the above is: (1) spiritual resolve, stage of rota-panna; (2) s ubmission to rule, preparation for Sakdgmin stage;(3) cultivation of virtue, attainm ent of Sakdgmin stage; (4) noble birth, preparation for the angmin stage; (5) perfect means, attainment of angmin stage; (6) right mind, preparation for arhatship; (7) no-retrogradation, the attainment of arhatship; (8) immortal youth, pratyekabud dhahood; (9) son of the law-king, the conception of bodhisattvahood; (10) baptis m as the summit of attainment, the conception of Buddhahood. [45]

Ten stages of mental or spiritual development in the Shingonsect, beginning w human animal and ending with perfect enlightenment; a category by the Japanese monk Kb, founded on the ,.

Daabhmivibhs stra. A commentary by Ngrjuna on the and the regarding Amitbha; translated by Kumrajva circa A.D. 405.

There are several, groups; that of the Huayan stra is Kyapa, Kanakamuni, Krakucchan a, Vivabh, ikhin, Vipayi, Tiya (or Puya),Tissa, ? Padma, and Dpakara. Another gro at of the Amitbha cult, one for each of the ten directions. There are other group s.

() The ten rhymes in "lai", a verse which expresses the Buddhist doctrine of mor eterminism, i.e. that the position anyone now occupies is solely the result of h is character in past lives; heredity and environment having nothing to do with h is present condition, for, whether in prince or beggar, it is the reward of past deeds. ' The upright from the forbearing come,

The poor from the mean and greedy come, Those of high rank from worshippers come, The low and common from the Prideful come, Those who are dumb from slanderers come, The blind and deaf from unbelievers come, The long-lived from the merciful come, The short-lived from life, takers come, The deficient in faculties from command-breakers come, The complete in faculties from command-keepers come. '' . . . . . . . . . . '

; The ten messengers, deluders, fundamental passions; they are divide nd five dull; the five dull ones are desire, hate, stupidity, pride, and doubt; t he five sharp are , , , , , v. .

The ten grades of bodhisattva faith, i.e. the first ten in the fifty-two bodhisat tva positions: (1) faith (which destroys illusion and results in); (2) remembran ce, or unforgetfulness; (3) zealous progress; (4) wisdom; (5) settled firmness i concentration; (6) non-retrogression; (7) protection of the Truth; (8) refl owers, e.g. for reflecting the Truth; (9) the nirva mind in effortlessness; (10) tion at will in anything and everywhere. adaa, eighteen.

veikadharma, or buddhadharma, the eighteen different characteristics of a Budd mpared with bodhisattvas, i.e. his perfection of body (or person), mouth (or spe ech), memory, impartiality to all, serenity, self-sacrifice, unceasing desire to save, unfagging zeal therein unfailing thought thereto, wisdom in it, powers of deliverance, the principles of it, revealing perfect wisdom in deed, in word, i n thought, perfect knowledge of past, future, and present, v. 26. The eighteen perfections of a buddha's sambhogakya, v. . Also .

Brahmaloka, the eighteen heavens of form, rpadhtu, three of the first dhyna, e second, ; ; ; three of the third, ; ; ; and nine of se two which Northern Buddhists added are Punya-prasava and Anabhraka ." Eitel.

The eighteen Japanese Buddhist sects, i.e. ; ; ; ; ; ; ; The eighteen arhats.

The eighteen things a monk should carry in the performance of his dutieswillow twig s, soap, the three garments, a water-bottle, a begging-bowl, mat, staff, censer, filter, handkerchief, knife, fire-producer, pincers hammock, sutra, the vinaya, the Buddha's image, and bodhisattva image or images; cf. 37.

The eighteen Brahmalokas, where rebirth is necessary, i.e. where mortality still e ists. The eighteen dhtu, or realms of sense, i.e. , , the six organs, their

ons, and their perceptions. [46]

(); The eighteen Indian non-Buddhist classics, i.e. the four vedas, s. ( or ); ; v. . The eighteen schools of Hnayna as formerly existing in India; v. .

The eighteen layers of hells, which are described by one writer as the condition which the six sense organs, their six objects, and the six perceptions do not h armonize. Another says the eighteen are the hell of knives, the boiling sands, t heboiling excrement, the fiery carriage, the boiling cauldron, the iron bed, etc.

In the two maalas, Vajradhtu and Garbhadhtu, each has nine central objects of wo The Shingon disciple devotes himself to meditation on one of these eighteen eac h day.

oaa Sixteen is the esoteric (Shingon) perfect number, just as ten is the perfect nu ber in the Huayan stra and generally, see 5. i.e. the and .

() The sixteen devas are E. Indra and his wife; S.E. the fire deva and his w ma and his wife; S.W. Yaka-rja (Kuvera) and wife; W. the water deva and his nga wif e (akti); N.W. the wind deva and wife; N. Vairamaa and wife; N.E. na and wife. The sixteen non-Buddhist "heretical" Indian philosophers. The sixteen lessons of the Praj-pramit.

() ; idem . The sixteen of the Four Axioms , i.e. f ssociated with .

Two lists are given, one of sixteen mahrjas; another of sixteen good s ll of them are guardians of the good and enemies of evil.

The sixteen ancient kingdoms of India whose kings are addressed in the ast, Magadha, Brasi, Kapilavastu, Kuinagara, Kaumb, Pacla, Paliputra, Mathur, ana, Devvatra, K, and Camp. The sixteen great powers obtainable by a bodhisattva, i.e. of will, mind, action, hame (to do evil), energy, firmness, wisdom, virtue, reasoning, personal appeara nce, physical powers, wealth, spirit, magic, spreading the truth, subduing demon s. idem .

(); The sixteen princes in the Lotus Stra who became Buddhas a ch it.

The sixteen heretical views on me and mine, i.e. the ego in self and othe sm or fate, immortality, etc.; v. 25. (or ) The sixteen bodhisattvas; there are two groups, one of the ic cults; the exoteric list is indefinite; the esoteric has two lists, one is of four bodhisattvas to each of the Buddhas of the four quarters of the Diamond Re alm; the other is of the sixteen who represent the body of bodhisattvas in a kal

pa, such as the present: E. , , , ; S. , ,

; W.

The sixteen meditations of Amitbha on the setting sun, water (as ice, crystal, etc. ), the earth, and so on.

Sixteen necessaries of a strict observer of ascetic rules, ranging from garments m de of rags collected from the dust heap to sleeping among graves. There are many groups of ten profitable things or advantages, e.g. ten in regard to edibles, ten to congee, to learning, to study of the scriptures, to wisdom, t o zeal, etc. Daabala. The ten powers of Buddha, giving complete knowledge of: (1) what is right or wrong in every condition; (2) what is the karma of every being, past, presen t, and future; (3) all stages of dhyna liberation, and samdhi; (4) the powers and faculties of all beings; (5) the desires, or moral direction of every being; (6) the actualcondition of every individual; (7) the direction and consequence of al l laws; (8) all causes of mortality and of good and evil in their reality; (9) t he end of all beings and nirva; (10) the destruction of all illusion of every kind . See the 25 and the 29. The religion of Him who has the ten powers, i.e. Buddhism. () The honoured (unequalled) possessor of the ten powers, Buddha. Daabala-Kyupa, one of the first five disciples. The ten powers and ten understandings of a Buddha.

( ) Ten merits (or powers) commended by the Buddha to his bhikuszealous pro ment with few desires, courage, learning (so as to teach), fearlessness, perfect observance of the commands and the fraternity, regulations, perfect meditation, perfect wisdom, perfect liberation, and perfect understanding of it.

The ten kalpas that have expired since Amitbha made his forty-eight vows, or complete bodhi, hence he is styled . These ten kalpas as seen by Puxian are ent. [47] The ten pramits observed by bodhisattvas, see and . Hnayna has another he four q. v. the six of sacrificing one's life to save mother; or father; or a B uddha; to become a monk: to induce another to become a monk; to obtain authority to preach. idem . The ten questions to the Buddha, put into the mouth of Vajrapi, which, with the ans wers given, form the basis of the . What is (or are) (1) the nature of the bodhi-mi nd? (2) its form or forms? (3) the mental stages requisite to attainment? (4) th e difference between them? (5) the time required? (6) the character of the merit sattained? (7) the activities or practices necessary? (8) the way of such practic es? (9) the condition of the uncultivated and cultivated mind? (10) the differen ce between it and that of the follower of Yoga?

() The ten good characteristics, or virtues, defined as the non-committal of t vils, q. v. Tiantai has two groups, one of ceasing to do evil, the other of lear ning to do well . ; The position, or power, attained in the next life by observing the

re, to be born in the heavens, or as rulers of men. The ten good crafts, or meditations of pratyeka-buddhas, i. e. on the five skandha s, twelve , eighteen , twelve , etc. The ten commandments (as observed by the laity). () The excellent karma resulting from practice of the ten commandments. The bodhisattvas of the q. v. caturdaa, fourteen.

The fourteen other-world realms of fourteen Buddhas, i. e. this realm of kya irteen others.

The fourteen devas and nine dragon and other kings, who went in the train of Ma hank the Buddha at the last of his Huayan addresses; for list see 61. The fourteen transformations that are connected with the four dhyna heavens. The fourteen difficult questions of the "heretics" to which the Buddha made no rep ly, for, as it is said, the questions were no more properly put than if one aske d " How much milk can you get from cow's horn?" They are forms of: All is perman ent, impermanent, both or neither; all changes, changes not, both, neither; at d eath a spirit departs, does not, both, neither; after death we have the same bod y (or personality) and spirit, or body and spirit are different.

daabhmi; v. . The "ten stages" in the fifty-two sections of the development of a isattva into a Buddha. After completing the he proceeds to the . There are severa oups. I. The ten stages common to the Three Vehicles are: (1) dry wisdom stage, e. unfertilized by Buddha-truth, worldly wisdom; (2) the embryo-stage of the natu re of Buddha-truth, the ; (3) (), the stage of the eight patient enduran om from wrong views; (5) of freedom from the first six of the nine delusions in p ractice; (6) of freedom from the remaining three; (7) complete discrimination ard to wrong views and thoughts, the stage of an arhat; (8) pratyeka-buddhahood, o ly the dead ashes of the past left to sift; (9) bodhisattvahood; (10) Buddhahoo . 78. II. The ten stages of Mahyna bodhisattva development are: (1) overcome the former difficulties and now entering on the path to Buddhahood; (2) Vimal, freedom from all possible defilement, the stage of purity; (3) Prabh of further enlightenment; (4) Arcimat, of glowing wisdom; (5) Sudurjay, t or final difficulties; (6) Abhimukh, the open way of wisdom above definitions of impurity and purity; (7) Dragam, proceeding afar, getting above ideas of self in r to save others; (8) Acal, attainment of calm unperturbedness; (9) Sdhumat est discriminatory wisdom, knowing where and how to save, and possessed of the te n powers; (10) Dharmamegha, attaining to the fertilizing powers of the law-cloud. Each of the ten stages is connected with each of the ten pramits, v. . Each of the r four vehicles has a division of ten. III. The ten rvaka stages are: (1) disciple by receiving the three refuges, in the Buddha, Dharma, and Sagha; (2) be lief, or the faith-root; (3) belief in the four truths; (4) ordinary discip serve the , etc.; (5) those who pursue the three studies; (6) Way; (7) rota-panna, now definitely in the stream and assured of nirva; (8) one more rebirth; (9) angmin, no rebirth; and (10) arhatship. IV. The t pratyekabuddha are (1) perfect asceticism; (2) mastery of the twelve links of ca ion; (3) of the four noble truths; (4) of the deeper knowledge; (5) of the eight fold noble path; (6) of the three realms ; (7) of the nirva state; (8) of the six s ernatural powers; (9) arrival at the intuitive stage; (10) mastery of the remain ing influence of former habits. V. The ten stages, or characteristics of a Buddha, are those of the sovereign or perfect attainment of wisdom, exposition, discrimi nation, mra-subjugation, suppression of evil, the six transcendent faculties, man

ifestation of all bodhisattva enlightenment, powers of prediction, of adaptabili ty, of powers to reveal the bodhisattva Truth. VI. The Shingon has its own elabo rate ten stages, and also a group , see ; and there are other groups. [48]

The twenty-second chapter of the sixty-chapter version of the , thetwenty-si eighty-chapter version.

The vow of bodhisattvas to attain the by fulfilling the ten pramits, v.

Ten stages of mind, or mental development, i.e. (1) the four kinds of bound (2) the mind of the ten good qualities; (3) the illuminated mind; (4) wing wisdom; (5) the mind of mastery; (6) the mind of the open way (above nor initions); (7) the mind of no rebirth; (8) the mind of the inexpressible; ( of wisdom-radiance; (10) the mind of perfect receptivity. v. also .

Ten objects of or stages in meditation in the Tiantai school, i.e. the five ska s; life's distresses and delusion; sickness, or dukha, its cause and cure; maic influences; Mra affairs, how to overthrow their rule; the conditions of samdhi; various views and doubts that arise; pride in progress and the delusi t one has attained nirva; temptation to be content with the lower nirva, instead ing on to the greater reward; bodhisattvahood; see the 5.

() The ten nights (and days) from the sixth to the fifteenth of the tenth moon the Pure-land sect intones stras.

The ten chief discip1es of kyamuni, each of whom was master of one power or gift ra of wisdom; Maudgalyyana of supernatural powers; Mahkyapa of discipline; Aniruddha of deva vision; Subhti of explaining the void or immaterial; Pra of expounding the law; Ktyyana of its fundamental principles; Upli of maintaining the rules; Rhula of the esoteric; and nanda of hearing and remembering. idem . The ten vows of Puxian , or Samantabhadra.

The ten essential qualities, or characteristics, of thing, according to the chap of the Lotus stra: form; nature; corpus or embodiment; powers; mental cause; effect; karmic reward; the inseparability, or inevit v. .

The ten wonders, or incomprehensibles; there are two groups, the traceable or man fested and the fundamental. The are the wonder of: (1) the universe, s embracing mind, Buddha, and all things as a unity; (2) a Buddha's all-embracing knowledge arising from such universe; (3) his deeds, expressive of his wisdom; (4 ) his attainment of all the various Buddha stages, i.e. and; (5) his t nd truth, wisdom, and vision; (6) his response to appeal, i.e. his (spiritual) res ponse or relation to humanity, for "all beings are my children"; (7) his supernatu ral powers; (8) his preaching; (9) his supernatural retinue; (10) the d through universal elevation into Buddhahood. The are the wonder of (1) th impulse or causative stage of Buddhahood; (2) its fruit or result in eternity, joy , and purity; (3) his (Buddha) realm; (4) his response (to human needs); (5) natural powers; (6) his preaching; (7) his supernatural retinue; (8) h ternal) life; (10) his blessings as above. Both groups are further defined as pr ogressive stages in a Buddha's career. These "wonders" are derived from the Lotu s stra.

The ten schools of Chinese Buddhism: I. The (1) Vinaya-discipline, or (2)

arma, or Reality (Sarvstivdin) (3) Satyasiddhi sect founded on this stra (4) Mdhyamika or (5) Lotus, "Law-flower" or Tiantai (6) ) Ch'an or Zen, mind-only or intuitive, v. ; (9) (Jap. Shingon) or esoteri tbha-lotus or Pure Land (Jap. Jdo) . The 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 9th are found in Japan ther than in China, where they have ceased to be of importance. II. The Hua-yen has also ten divisions into ten schools of thought: (1) the reality of self (or so l) and things, e.g. mind and matter; (2) the reality of things but not of soul; (3 things have neither creation nor destruction; (4) present things are bot d real; (5) common or phenomenal ideas are wrong, fundamental reality is the only ruth; (6) things are merely names; (7) all things are unreal ; (8) the bhtatathat i s not unreal; (9) phenomena and their perception are to be got rid of; (10) the perfect, all-inclusive, and complete teaching of the One Vehicle. III. There are two old Japanese divisions: , , , , , , usha, Jjitsu, Hoss, Sanron, Tendai, Kegon, Shingon, (Hnayna) Ritsu, and Jdo; the addi tion being Zen. [49]

The ten precious things; the ten precious mountains, or mountain of ten preciou ings; v. and .

The spirit king of each of the ten mountains Himlaya, Gandhamdana, Vaidhar, kara, Nemindhara, Cakrava, Ketumat, and Sumeru.

The ten monks necessary for a full ordination of a monk, i.e. three leaders a n witnesses. The ten pramits or virtues transporting to nirva; idem q.v.

each of the pramits has three forms of observance, e.g. the first, dna or gi msgiving, truth-giving, and courage-giving. The three forms differ with each p

The ten acolytes or attendants on an crya, or superior religious teacher, in his c emonial offices, following the pattern of the ten principal disciples of kyamuni.

The ten virtues, powers, or qualities, of which there are several groups, e.g. in the , there are the ten virtues of a teacher of the Law, i.e. he shou n its meaning; able widely to publish it; not be nervous before an audience; be untiring in argument; adaptable; orderly so that his teaching can be easily foll owed; serious and dignified; bold and zealous; unwearied; and enduring (able to bear insult, etc.). The ten virtues or qualities of a disciple according to the faith; sincerity; devotion to the trikya; (seeking the) adornment of true wisdom ; perseverance; moral purity; patience (or bearing shame); generosity in giving; courage; resoluteness.

The ten kinds of heart or mind; there are three groups. One is from the 4, minds gnorant and dark; affected by evil companions; not following the good; doing evi l in thought, word, deed; spreading evil abroad; unceasingly wicked; secret sin; open crime; utterly shameless; denying cause and effect (retribution) all such mu st remain in the flow of reincarnation. The second group (from the same book) is the the mind striving against the stream of perpetual reincarnation; it shows it self in devout faith, shame (for sin), fear (of wrong-doing), repentance and con fession, reform, bodhi (i.e. the bodhisattva mind), doing good, maintaining the right law, thinking on all the Buddhas, meditation on the void (or, the unrealit y of sin). The third is the group from the 3; the "seed" heart (i.e. the orig od desire), the sprout (under Buddhist religious influence), the bud, leaf, flow er, fruit, its serviceableness; the child-heart, the discriminating heart, the h eart of settled judgment (or resolve). The ten inexpressible joys of the Pure-land; also .

The ten repetitions of an invocation, e.g. namo Amitbha.

These ten invocations will carry a dying man with an evil karma into the Pure-land See , but cf. . A bodhisattva's ten objects of thought or meditation, i.e. body, the senses, mind, things, environment, monastery, city (or district), good name, Buddha-learning, riddance of all passion and delusion.

The arteries of the "ten invocations", i.e. the teacher's giving and the disciple' receiving of the law.

The ten irate rjas, or protectors, whose huge images with many heads and limbs en in temples; perhaps the ten krodha gods of the Tibetans (Khro-bo); their name s are Yamntaka; Ajita; ? Padmhtaka; Vighnntaka; [50]

Ten kinds of the Buddha's grace: his (1) initial resolve to universalize (his sal vation); (2) self-sacrifice (in previous lives); (3) complete altruism; (4) his descent into all the six states of existence for their salvation; (5) relief of the living from distress and mortality; (6) profound pity; (7) revelation of him self in human and glorified form; (8) teaching in accordance with the capacity o f his hearers, first hnayna, then mhayna doctrine; (9) revealing his nirva to stimula e his disciples; (10) pitying thought for all creatures, in that dying at 80 ins tead of at 100 he left twenty years of his own happiness to his disciples; and a lso the tripiaka for universal salvation. idem .

Dakuala. The ten "not right" or evil things are killing, stealing, adultery, lying, double-tongue, coarse language, filthy language, covetousness, anger, perverted views; these produce the ten resultant evils () Cf. ; . The ten disturbers of the religious life: a domineering (spirit); heretical ways; dangerous amusements; a butcher's or other low occupation; asceticism (or selfis h hnayna salvation); (the condition of a) eunuch; lust; endangering (the character by improper intimacy); contempt; breeding animals, etc. (for slaughter). Entirely completed, perfect.

ikpada. The ten prohibitions (in Pli form) consist of five commandments for the la n: (1) not to destroy life ptiptveramai; (2) not to steal adinndnver ery abrahmacaryaver.; (4) not to lie musvdver.; (5) not to take intoxicatin reyya-majjapamdahnver. Eight special commandments for laymen consist of the preceding five plus: (6) not to eat food out of regulated hours vikla-bhojanver.; (7) not se garlands or perfumes ml- gandha-vilepana-dhraa-maana-vibhanah d beds (chastity) uccsayan-mahsayan. The ten commandments for the monk are eight plus: (9) not to take part in singing, dancing, musical or theatrical perf ormances, not to see or listen to such nacca-gta-vdita-viskadassanve acquiring uncoined or coined gold, or silver, or jewels jtarpa-rajata-p Mhayna these ten commands for the monk were changed, to accord with the new enviro nment of the monk, to the following: not to kill, not to steal, to avoid all unc hastity, not to lie, not to slander, not to insult, not to chatter, not to covet , not to give way to anger, to harbour no scepticism. The ten Yoga books, the foundation work being the , the other ten are ,

v. . The ten directions of space, i.e. the eight points of the compass and the nadir a nd zenith. There is a Buddha for each direction . The worlds in all directions. A Buddha-realm, idem . see .

The ten universals of a bodhisattva: universal pity; vow of universal nt action; universal cutting off of delusions; freedom of entry into all fo th; universal superhuman powers; universal accordance with conditions of the vity of others; powers of universal explication of the truth; power of un ce of all Buddhas; the perfecting of all beings universally.

The ten forms of understanding. I. Hnayna: (1) common understanding; (2) nderstanding, i.e. on the Four Truths in this life; (3) ditto, applied to the two upper realms ; (4), (5), (6), (7) understanding re each of the Four Truths separat ely, both in the upper and lower realms, e.g. ; (8) understanding of the minds o hers; (9) the understanding that puts an end to all previous faith in or for self , i.e. ; (10) nirva wisdom; v. 26. II. Mahyna. A Tathgatas ten pow sdom: (1) perfect understanding of past, present, and future; (2) ditto of Buddha Law; (3) unimpeded understanding of the whole Buddha-realm; (4) unlim nderstanding of the whole Buddha-realm; (5) understanding of ubiquity; (6) f universal enlightenment; (7) understanding of omnipotence, or universal co understanding of omniscience re all living beings; (9) understandi he laws of universal salvation; (10) understanding of omniscience re all Buddh m. v. 16. There are also his ten forms of understanding of the "Five Seas" of w s, living beings, karma, passions, and Buddhas." [51] idem . v. . The ten rare or surpassing terms connected with the ten surpassing laws; they are iven in Xuanzang's translation of Vasubandhu's . The ten Yama courts, cf. .

The ten perfect or perfecting Mahyna rules; i.e. in (1) right belief; (2) condu 3) spirit; (4) the joy of the bodhi mind; (5) joy in the dharma; (6) joy in medi tation in it; (7) pursuing the correct dharma; (8) obedience to, or accordance w ith it; (9) departing from pride, etc.; (10) comprehending the inner teaching of Buddha andtaking no pleasure in that of the rvaka and pratyeka-buddha order.

The ten dharma-worlds, or states of existence, i.e. the hells (or purgatories),pre as, animals, asmas, men, devas, rvakas, pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, Buddhas. In the esoteric teaching there is a series of hells, pretas, animals, asuras, men, devas, rvakas, bodhisattvas, relative Buddhas, absolute Buddhas. Ten ways of devotion to the Buddhist sutras: to copy them; serve the places where they are kept, as if serving the Buddha's shrine; preach or give them to others; listen attentively to their exposition; read; maintain; discourse on them to ot hers; intone them; ponder over them; observe their lessons.

The ten prjikas, or sins unpardonable in a monk involving his exclusion from the

unity; v. .

(or ) The ten are the six prmitas with four added. The six are charity (or a purity (or morality), patience, zealous progress, meditation, wisdom; i.e., , , The four additions are ; ; and upya, adaptability (or, teaching as suited to t asion and hearer):praidhna, vows; bala, force of purpose; and jna, knowledge. Also Ten powers only possessed by Buddhas: (1) prediction; (2) knowing and fulfilling t he desires of the living; (3)-(10) are various forms of omniscience, i.e. (3) of all Buddha-realms and their inhabitants; (4) their natures; (5) good roots; (6) laws; (7) wisdom; (8) every moment; (9) evolving domains, or conditions; (10) l anguage, words, and discussions. v. 99. idem .

The ten boundless treasuries of a bodhisattva: (1) belief and faith; (2) the dments; (3) shame of past misdeeds; (4) blushing over the misdeeds of others; (5) hearing and knowledge of the truth; (6) giving; (7) wisdom; (8) memory; (9) kee ping and guarding the stras; (10) powers of expounding them. 20. The ten unhindered transformations and ubiquitous powers of a Buddha. () The ten ox-pictures, the first, a man looking for an ox, then seeing its en seeing the ox, catching it, feeding it, riding it home, ox dies man lives, bo th dead, return whence they came and enter the dust. ; ( h . v. .

) The ten philosophic ideas expressed in two metrical versions, each

The ten kings presiding over the ten departments of purgatory. The king of the ten sweet dews, i.e. Amitbha. idem . The teaching of the Lotus stra of universalism, that all become Buddha.

Bodhisattvas, above the , who have reached the stage of transforming being ten kinds of realms.

The ten directional decisions: (1) renouncement of the world; (2) observance of th commandments; (3) patience or endurance; (4) zealous progress; (5) meditation; (6) wisdom or understanding; (7) the will for good for oneself and others; (8) pr tection (of Buddha, Dharma, Sangha); (9) joy; (10) highest wisdom.v. , [52]

The ten aspects of the bhtatathat or reality attained by a bodhisattva during his fty-two stages of development, cf. and , each of which is associated with one of t ese zhenru: (1) the universality of the zhenru; (2) its superiority over its ubiquity; (4) its independence or self-containedness; (5) s on; (6) above differences of impurity and purity; (7) objective indif iable, i.e. can be neither added to nor taken from; (9) the basis of all wisdom; ) and all power. The above are the group from the 10. Another the q.v.

The ten kinds of eyes: (1) eyes of flesh; (2) deva eyes; (3) wisdom eye eyes; (5) Buddha eyes; (6) eyes of judgment; (7) eyes shining with Buddha immortal eyes; (9) unhindered eyes; (10) omniscient eyes.

v. . The ten rules for translation. v. 3.

The deluded, e.g. the hnaynists, because of their refusal to follow the higher t remain in the condition of reincarnation and are impure in ten ways: in body, m outh, mind, deed, state, sitting, sleeping, practice, converting others, their e xpectations. Ten meditations on each of the , , , and .

Ten kinds of suitable aids to religious success: almsgiving (or self-sacrifice); k eping the commandments; forbearance; zealous progress; meditation; wisdom; great kindness; great pity; awaking and stimulating others; preaching (or revolving) the never receding wheel of the Law. The ten kinds of wisdom and power, v. and .

Ten kinds of bodhisattva wisdom, or omniscience, for the understanding of all thin s relating to all beings, in order, to save them from the sufferings of mortalit y and bring them to true bodhi. The ten are detailed in the Hua-yen stra in two gr oups, one in the and one in the . The ten vows of Puxian . idem . idem .

Ten illusions arising from environmental conditions: sleight of hand; mirage; drea s; reflections or shadows; gandharva cities (or cities of the sirens, seen in th e sea-mist); echoes; the moon reflected in water; floating bubbles; motes (musca e volitantes); fire-wheel (made by revolving a flare). A meditation or reflection on the ten illusions .

The ten bonds that bind men to mortality to be shameless, unblushing, envious, me an, regretful, torpid, busy, absorbed, angry, secretive (of sin).

The ten rkas, or demonesses mentioned in the Lotus Stra . They are now emples, each as an attendant on a Buddha or bodhisattva, and are chiefly connect ed with sorcery. They are said to be previous incarnations of the Buddhas and bo dhisattvas with whom they are associated. In their evil state they were enemies of the living, converted they are enemies of evil. There are other definitions. Their names are: (1) Lamb, who is associated with kyamuni; (2) Vilamb, who d with Amitbha; (3) Kadant, who is associated with Bhaiajya; (4) Pupad ated with Prabhtaratna; (5) Makuadant, who is associated with Vairocana; associated with Samantabhadra; (7) ? Acal, who is associated with Maju associated with Maitreya; (9) Kunt, who is associated with Avalokitevara; ( ohr, who is associated with Kitigarbha. A lakh, i.e. an or .

The Happy Land, i.e. Amitbha's Paradise in the West, beyond ten thousand millio ha-realms.

Ten titles of a Buddha: Tathgata; Arhat; Samyaksambuddha; Vi uttara; Purua-damya-srathi; st deva-manuym; Buddha-lokanth [53]

The ten necessary activities in the fifty-two stages of a bodhisattva, following on the and ; the two latter indicate personal development . These ten lines of are for theuniversal welfare of others . They are: joyfulservice; beneficial servic ; never resenting; without limit; never out of order; appearing in any form at w ill; unimpeded; exalting the pramits amongst all beings; perfecting the Buddha-law by complete virtue; manifesting in all things the pure, final, true reality.

The ten (wrong) views; see and add , , , and desire, hate, pride . idem . The ten guardians of the law, assistants to the . Ten aspects of the Buddhakaya q.v. The ten armies of Mra, which the Buddha attacks and destroys; the armies are desir e, anxiety, hunger and thirst, longing, torpidity, fear, doubt, poison, gain, ha ughtiness (i.e. disdaining monks). idem ; v. . Ten supernatural powers, e.g. of seeing, hearing, appearance, etc.; cf. . The Buddha's teaching is so difficult that of ten who enter it nine fall away. The ten (good) ways for deliverance from mortality- not to kill, steal, act wrong ly, lie, be double-tongued, be of evil speech, slander, covet, be angry, look wr ongly (or wrong views). Ten faults in eating flesh, and ten in drinking intoxicants. v. .

The ten prjika, or a monk's most serious sins; also ; . They a lying, selling wine, talking of a monk's misdeeds, self-praise for degrading oth ers, meanness, anger at rebuke, vilifying the Triratna. The esoteric sect has a group in regard to giving up the mind of enlightenment, renouncing the Triratna and going to heretical sects, slandering the Triratna, etc. Another group of ten is in the 9 and 17; cf. . idem , .

The ten weighty bodhisattva hindrances, according to the , which are respectivel ercome by entry into the ; v. 9; the first is the natural heart hinderi , etc.; v. .

Ten characteristics of the "diamond heart" as developed by bodhisattva: (1) comple e insight into all truth; (2) saving of all creatures; (3) the glorifying of all Buddha-worlds; (4) supererogation of his good deeds; (5) service of all Buddhas ; (6) realization of the truth of all Buddha-laws; (7) manifestation of all pati ence and endurance; (8) unflagging devotion to his vocation; (9) perfection of h is work; (10) aiding all to fulfill their vows and accomplish their spiritual en ds. 55.

Ten "fruits" that accrue to the resolute "diamond-heart" of a bodhisattva: fai itation; refection on the doctrine; thoroughness in contemplation; straight-forw ard progress to Buddhahood; no retrogression; the Mahyna spirit (of universal salv ation); freedom from externals (or impressions); wisdom; firm establishment; v. ,

The ten kinds of well-nourished heart, essential to entry into the cult of the hig er patience and endurance: a heart of kindness; of pity; of joy (in progress tow ard salvation of others); renunciation; almsgiving; delight in telling the doctr ine; benefiting or aiding others to salvation; unity, or amity; concentration in meditation; wisdom; v. ,.

The ten "doors" or connections between and ; is defined as form and as common illustration of wave and water indicates the idea thus expressed. The hat in ten ways form and substance are not separate, unconnected entities. (1) l i the substance is always present with shih the phenomena; (2) shih is always pr esent with li; (3) shih depends on li for its existence; (4) the shih can reveal the li; (5) the shih (mere form, which is unreal) can disappear in the li;(6) t he shih can conceal the li; (7) the true li is the shih;(8) the shih is li; (9) t he true li (or reality) is not the shih; (10) the shih is not the (whole) li; v. 2. The fifth of the five meditations of the , i.e. on li e shih; (2) the shih is as the li; , and so on. The in the 35, chiefly for purposes of meditation. Another group, the , treats of the Canon an chools. [54]

Ten hindrances; bodhisattvas in the stage of overcome these ten hindrances and re lize the q.v. The hindrances are: (1) the hindrance of the common illusions nlightened, taking the seeming for real; (2) the hindrance of common unenlightened conduct; (3) the hindrance of ignorant and dull ideas; (4) the hindrance ion that things are real and have independent existence; (5) the hindrance of the er ideals in Hnayna of nirva; (6) the hindrance of the ordinary ideas of the pure; (7) the hindrance of the idea of reincarnation; (8) the hindran ce of activity even in the formless world; (9) the hindrance of no desire to act f r the salvation of others; (10) the hindrance of non- attainment of complete mas of all things. v. 10. The king of the ten vows, Puxian, or Samantabhadra. () The ten 'fast' days of a month are 1, 8, 14, 15, 18, 23, 24, 28, 29, and 30. ertain periods flesh was forbidden on these days, also all killing, hunting, fis hing, executions, etc.

()The ten Buddhas or bodhisattvas connected with the ten days of fasting d rn are , , , , , , , , . To divine, foretell.

pukkaa; also A degraded caste of sweepers, or scavengers, and bearers of cor 3.THREE STROKES Ten feet; an elder; a wife's parents; a husband.

Sixteen "feet", the normal height of a Buddha in his "transformation body" nirm ; said to be the height of the Buddha when he was on earth.

sixteen-foot diamond-body; also a metal or golden image of the Buddha 16 feet high mentioned in the Northern History. A virile, zealous disciple, a man who presses forward unceasingly.

A firm-willed man, especially used of a bodhisattva who dauntlessly presses forwar .

The country of virile men, Puruapura , ancient capital of Gandhra, the m irthplace of Vasubandhu. hna, adhara. Below, lower, inferior, low; to descend, let down, put down.

The three lower paths of the six destinations (gati) , i.e. beings in hell, pret and animals.

The lower yna, i.e. Hnayna; likened to an old worn-out horse. To alight from (a veh cle, horse, etc.).

The regions in the nine divisions of the trailokya below the of the arpa The inferior, mean yna, a scornful term for Hnayna.

() Below, to transform all beings, one of the great vows of a bodhisattva. k bodhi. Also .

one of the four heterodox means of living, i.e. for a monk to earn his live bending down to cultivate the land, collect herbs, etc.; opposite of , i.e. making a heterodox living by looking up, as in astrology, fortune-telling, etc. 3.

The three lowest of the nine classes born in the Amitbha Pure Land, v. . Thes owest grades are (1) The highest of the three lowest classes who enter the Pure La d of Amitbha, i.e. those who have committed all sins except dishonouring the stras . If at the end of life the sinner clasps hands and says "Namo Amitbha", such a o ne will be born in His precious lake. (2) The middle class consists of those who h ve broken all the commandments, even stolen from monks and abused the law. If at death such a onehears of the great power of Amitbha, and assents with but a thoug ht, he will be received into paradise. (3) The lowest class, because of their sins should have fallen into the lowest gati, but by invoking the name of Amitbha, th ey can escape countless ages of reincarnation and suffering and on dying will be hold a lotus flower like the sun, and, by the response of a single thought, will enter the Pure Land of Amitbha. [55] The lower regions of the q. v.; also the lower half of the in the fifty-two of bodhisattva development. To see the lower grade out of which one has migrated, as rough, wretched, and a rance; a Brahman form of meditation. To descend from the hall, especially after the morning congee. The lower gati, the hells, hungry ghosts, animals. Those (born) with base character, or of low capacity. To lay on the cudgel, beat; syn. for the instilled intelligence with his staff.

Te Shan monastery, whose Chan sect abbot

To apply the torch; syn. for setting alight the funeral pyre of a monk. idem . The lower, or human world . To sow the seed; to preach, or teach. Tiantai defines three periods: (1) when the seed of Buddha's teaching is sown in the heart; (2) when it ripens; (3) when it

is stripped or harvested, i. e when one abandons all things.

Inferior candles. The and superior and inferior candles are senior and junio ; those of longer and shorter service; but see . The seven lower orders of disciples, who with the monks and nuns in full orders m ake the . The lowest order of a monk's robes, that of five patches; lower garments. To give instruction; to state a case (as at law).

A meditation of the Amitbha sect on the q. v.; it is the last of sixteen conte ons, and deals with those who have committed the five rebellious acts and the ten evils , but who still can obtain salvation; v. . idem.

The downward turn, in transmigration. Primal ignorance or unenlightenment acting a ainst the primal, true, or Buddha-nature causes transmigration. The opposite is wh en the good prevails over the evil. is sometimes used for to save those below. The inferior rooms of a monastery, on the left as one enters. uttar ; above upper, superior; on; former. To ascend, offer to a superior.

The three dharmas, systems, or vehicles, , Mahyna; also , q. v.

, and bodhisattva, pratyek

The Mahyna esoteric school, especially the Shingon. Mahyna-yoga, chiefy associated with .

The Mahyna Ch'an (Zen) School, which considers that it alone attains the highest r lization of Mahyna truth. Hnayna philosophy is said only to realize the unreality of the ego and not the unreality of all things. The Mahyna realizes the unreality of the ego and of all things. But the Ch'an school is pure idealism, all being min d. This mind is Buddha, and is the universal fundamental mind. [56] The lantern festival at the first full moon of the year. A man of superior wisdom, virtue, and conduct, a term applied to monks during the Tang dynasty. A term used in the Pure Land sect for a worshipper of Amitbha. To offer up an offering to Buddha, or to ancestors. Superior order, grade, or class.

; The three highest of the nine stages of birth in the Pure Land, The highest stages in the Pure Land where the best appear as lotus flowers on the ool of the seven precious things; when the lotuses open they are transformed int o beings of the Pure Land. To go into the hall to expound the doctrine; to go to a temple for the purpose of worship, or bearing presents to the monks; to go to the refectory for meals.

The tablet announcing the time of worship at a temple or monastery. The superior disciple, who becomes perfect in (spiritually) profiting himself and others. The profits self but not others; the neither.

Sthavira; or Mahsthavira. Old man, or elder; head monk, president, or abbot; the f irst Buddhist fathers; a title of Mahkyapa; also of monks of twenty to forty-nine y ears standing, as are from ten to nineteen and under ten. The divides pr s into four classes, those presiding over monasteries, over assemblies of monks, over sects, and laymen presiding over feasts to monks.

; Sthavir; Sthaviranikya; or ryasthvir. The school of the liest sections of Buddhism were this (which developed into the Mahsthavir) and the Mahsnghik or . At first they were not considered to be different schools, the esenting the intimate and older disciples of kyamuni and the being the rest. It is said that a century later under Mahdeva a difference of opinion arose on certain d octrines. Three divisions are named as resulting, viz. Mahvihravsina, Jetavany, and ayagiri-vsina. These were in Ceylon. In course of time the eighteen Hnayna sects wer e developed. From the time of Aoka four principal schools are counted as prevaili ng: Mahsghika, Sthavira, Mlasarvstivda, and Samitya. The following is a list of the ven sects reckoned as of the : ; ; ; ; ; ; ; sm in its tenets, though it is said to have changed the basis of Buddhism from a n agnostic system to a realistic philosophy. An abbot originally meant a mountain monastery. A man of superior character or capacity, e.g. with superior organs of sight, hear ing, etc.

Similar to the first half of Above to seek bodhi, below to save a Buddha-nature, which is the real nature of all beings.

() rdhvasrotas. The flow upwards, or to go upwards against the stream of transm on to parinirva. Also . The severe fundamental trials arising out of the ten great delusions; also the tri als or distresses of present delusions. The devas of the regions of form and formlessness. v. . To place offerings on an altar; also .

The 'higher bond' or superior, the or Sthavira, among the three directors of a mo astery. v. . A monk's outer robe, uttar-samgh, worn over the shirt or antara-vsaka. Upper shoulder, i.e. the left or superior; one worthy of respect.

Circumambulation with the superior shoulder to the image; the left was formerly co sidered the superior side; but this is uncertain.

The "la" is the end of a summer's retreat, which ends the monastic year, hence ar senior, junior monks. [57] () Kugrapura,

city of Kua-grass palaces, or the mountain

Viia-critra Bodhisattva, who suddenly rose out of the earth as Buddha was conc

e of his Lotus sermons; v. Lotus stra 15 and 21. He is supposed to have been a co nvert of the Buddha in long past ages and to come to the world in its days of ev il. Nichiren in Japan believed himself to be this Bodhisattva's reincarnation, a nd the Nichiren trinity is the Buddha, i.e. the eternal kyamuni Buddha; the Law, i .e. the Lotus Truth; and the Sagha, i.e. this Bodhisattva, in other words Nichire n himself as the head of all living beings, or eldest son of the Buddha. Mahyna, ; v. . The superior or outer robe described as of twenty-five patches, and styled the ut tar saght. The higher gati, directions, or transmigrations. A superior disciple or follower. Superior, or highest class, idem . The fourteenth of the sixteen contemplations of the Amitbha school, with reference to those who seek the Pure Land with sincere, profound, and altruistic hearts. The upward turn: (1) progress upward, especially in transmigration; (2) increase in enlightenment for self, while q.v. is for others.

The superior rooms, i.e. on the right as one enters a monastery, the are on the l ft. President, or presiding elders. Tri, trayas; three. Trinity; also 31.

The twenty-one days spent by the Buddha, after his enlightenment, in walking rou he bo-tree and considering how to carry his Mahyna way of salvation to the world; v. ,.

() The three samdhis, or the samdhi on three subjects; (); at of reincarnational, or temporal, called ; and that of liberation, or ni he three subjects and objects of the meditation are (1) to empty the mind of the ideas of me and mine and suffering, which are unreal; (2) to get rid of the idea of form, or externals, i.e. the which are the five senses, and male and female, a nd the three ; (3) to get rid of all wish or desire, also termed and . A mor meditation is called the Double Three Samdhi in which each term is doubled , sect has also a group of its own. This refers to the state of faith in the worshipper; the three are impure, not le, not constant; the three are the opposite. Three bad roots, or qualities desire, anger, and stupidity , , , v. . Three unstable things the body, length of life, wealth. The three never lost, idem .

The three kinds of flesh unclean to a monk killed, or has doubt about it; v. v. .

The three that need no guarding i.e. the of a Buddha, his body, mouth (or lips)

d mind, which he does not need to guard as they are above error. The three non-backslidings, i.e. from position attained, from line of action pursu ed, and in dhyna.

The three periods, , , or , , , past, present, and future. The unive ernally in motion, like flowing stream. Also , ,, or , , unborn, born, d a has a division of ten kinds of past, present, and future i.e. the past spoken of as past, present, and future, the present spoken of in like manner, the futur e also, with the addition of the present as the three periods in one instant. Al so .

The thousand Buddhas of each of the three kalpas of the past, called kalp nt , and the future . Their names are variously given in several sutra, with a comp lete list in the .

Everything past, present, future, whether mental or material, is intangible, fle g, and cannot be held; v. . A Buddha's perfect knowledge of past, present, and future. [58]

The Buddhas of the past, present, and future, i.e. Ksyapa, kyamuni, and Maitreya. The reality or otherwise of things chools admit the reality of the present but e future . Others take different views, sed. See Vibh stra 77 or

or events past, present, and future. Some Hnay dispute the reality of the past and th all of which have been exhaustively discus 20.

The Sarvstivadah school maintains that as the three states (past, present eal, so the substance of all things is permanent; i.e. time is real, matter is e ternal. Mind, or thought, past, present or future, is momentary, always moving, unreal and cannot be laid hold of. idem .

One of a Tathgata's ten kinds of wisdom, i.e. knowledge of past, present, and futur e. The wisdom-law or moral law that frees from all impediments, past, present, . Also styled ; ; ; ; and .

A name for Majur ; as guardian of the wisdom of Vairocana he is the bodhi-m Buddhas past, present, and future.

There are two definitions: (1) The realms of matter, of life, and min e Buddha's mind. (2) The psychological realm (mind), realm of life, and or realm.

Triyna, the three vehicles, or conveyances which carry living beings across sasra o mortality (births-and-deaths) to the shores of nirva. The three are styled ,, and Sometimes the three vehicles are defined as rvaka, that of the hearer or obedient d isciple; Pratyeka-buddha, that of the enlightened for self; these are described as because the objective of both is personal salvation; the third is Bodhisattva, or ahyna, because the objective is the salvation of all the living. The three are als o depicted as three wains, drawn by a goat, a deer, an ox. The Lotus declares tha t the three are really the One Buddha-vehicle, which has been revealed in three

expedient forms suited to his disciples' capacity, the Lotus Stra being the unify ing, complete, and final exposition. The Three Vehicles are differently explaine d by different exponents, e.g. (1) Mahyna recognizes (a) rvaka, called Hnayna, leadin in longer or shorter periods to arhatship; (b) Pratyeka-buddha, called Madhyama yna, leading after still longer or shorter periods to a Buddhahood ascetically at tained and for self; (c) Bodhisattva, called Mahayana, leading after countless a ges of self-sacrifce in saving others and progressive enlightenment to ultimate Buddhahood. (2) Hnayna is also described as possessing three vehicles , , or , and conveying to personal salvation their devotees in ascetic dust and ashes and mental annihilation, the leading to bodhi, or perfect enlightenment, and the Bu ddha's way. Further definitions of the Triyna are: (3) True bodhisattva teaching for the ; pratyeka-buddha without ignorant asceticism for the ; and rvaka with ignor ant asceticism for the . (4) (a) The One-Vehicle which carries all to Buddhahood: of this the Hua-yen and Fa-hua are typical exponents; (b) the three-vehicl ing practitioners of all three systems, as expounded in books of the ; (c) the ure and simple as seen in the Four gamas. rvakas are also described as hearers Four Truths and limited to that degree of development; they hear from the pratye ka-buddhas, who are enlightened in the Twelve Nidnas ; the bodhisattvas make the six forms of transmigration their field of sacrificial saving work, and of enlig htenment. The Lotus Stra really treats the . Three Vehicles as or expedient ways, d offers a Buddha Vehicle as the inclusive and final vehicle. The Dharmalakaa School of the Three Vehicles, led by the .

The consider the Triyna as real, and the "one vehicle" of the Lotu cal, or an expedient form of expression. The commands relating to body, speech, and mind , , . v. . (or ) A term for a monk's robe of five, seven, or nine patches.

The three is or wise men and the two devas, i.e. Kapila, founder of the S or Ulka or Kada, founder of the or Vaieika philosophy; and with iva and Viu as the two deities.

Savaji; the heretical people of Vji, an ancient kingdom north of the Ganges, south ast of Nepal. (Eitel.).

Trikya, v. . Also the or founders of the branch of the Chan (Zen) School ingyuan , and Keqin . [59]

The three Buddha-lands, realms, or environment, corresponding to the Trikya; v.

All the living are Buddha-sons, but they are of three kindsthe commonalty are al sons; the followers of the two inferior Buddhist vehicles, and , are seconda ons (i.e. of concubines); the bodhisattvas, i.e. mahynists) are true sons, or sons in the truth.

The three kinds of Buddha-nature: (1) the Buddha-nature which is in all l even those in the three evil paths (gati). (2) the Buddha-nature developed by the right discipline. (3) the final or perfected Buddha-nature resulting from the de pment of the original potentiality.

savti, which means concealed, not apparent, is intp. as common ideas or ph ; it is also intp. as that which hides reality, or seems to be real, the seeming .

The bodhi, or wisdom, of each of the Trikya, , i.e. that under the bodhi tree parinirva, that of tathgatagarbha in its eternal nirva aspect.

The Buddha's three modes of discourseunqualifed, i.e. out of the fullness of his na ture; qualified to suit the intelligence of his hearers; and both. idem . sabuddha; the truly enlightened one, or correct enlightenment. The three (divine) messengersbirth, sickness, death; v. . Also .

The three ways of discipline, i.e. three rvaka and three bodhisattva ways. The thre e rvaka ways are no realization of the eternal, seeing everything as transient; s, through only contemplating misery and not realizing the ultimate nirva-joy; non go discipline, seeing only the perishing self and not realizing the immortal sel f. The bodhisattva three are the opposite of these. idem . Under three raftersthe regulation space for a monk's bed or seat; in meditation.

prajpti. The word q.v. in Buddhist terminology means that everything is merely ph omenal, and consists of derived elements; nothing therefore has real existeme, b ut all is empty and unreal, . The three are things, sensations, and nam The three fallacious postulates in regard to , , and . The meditations on the three false assumptions . idem . M067874 The three misleading things: desire, ire, and perverted views. M067874=

The three half-true, or partial revelations of the , and , and the tr Stra. The 300,000 families of rvast city who had never heard of the Buddha's epiphany he was often among them.

() Sun, moon, and stars. Also, in the second dhyna of the form-world there are o deva regions , , and q.v. Also Avalokitevara is styled su hsthmaprapta is styled divine son of the moon, and the bodhisattva of t tyled divine son of the bright stars. The eighth, eighteenth, and twenty-eighth days of a moon. Eighteen, especially referring to the eighteen sects of Hnayna. An esoteric objection to three, six, or nine persons worshipping together. The three essential articles for worship: flower-vase, candlestick, and censer. The three powers, of which there are various groups: (1) (a) personal power; (6) tathgata-power; (c) power of the Buddha-nature within. (2) (a) power of a wise ey e to see the Buddha-medicine (for evil); (b) of diagnosis of the ailment; (c) of suiting and applying the medicine to the disease. (3) (a) the power of Buddha; (b) of samdhi; (c) of personal achievement or merit.

The triple-power verse: In the power of my virtue, . And the ai he power of the spiritual realm, I can go anywhere in the land of the living. [60]

The three divisions of a treatise on a stra, i. e. introduction, discus t, application.

The three asakhyeya kalpas, the three countless aeons, the period of a bodhisattv a's development; also the past , the present , and the future kalpas. Ther roups. The thousand Buddhas in each of the three kalpas. tridaa. Thirty; abbreviation for the thirty-three deities, heavens, etc.

dvtria. Thirty-two. (or ) The thirty-two forms of Guanyin, and of of a Buddha to that of a man, a maid, a rakas; similar to the thirty-three forms named in the Lotus Stra. dvtriadvaralakaa. The thirty-two laka rt, or 'wheel-king', especially of the Buddha, i. e. level feet, thousand-spoke w heel-sign on feet, long slender fingers, pliant hands and feet, toes and fingers finely webbed, full-sized heels, arched insteps, thighs like a royal stag, hand s reaching below the knees well-retracted male organ, height and stretch of arms equal, every hair-root dark coloured, body hair graceful and curly, golden-hued body, a 10 ft. halo around him, soft smooth skin, the , i. e. two soles, two palm s, two shoulders, and crown well rounded, below the armpits well-filled, lion-sh aped body, erect, full shoulders, forty teeth, teeth white even and close, the f our canine teeth pure white, lion-jawed, saliva improving the taste of all food, tongue long and broad, voice deep and resonant, eyes deep blue, eyelashes like a royal bull, a white rn or curl between the eyebrows emitting light, an ua or fleshy protuberance on the crown. These are from the 48, with which the 4, a different list. The eleventh chapter of the . The twenty-f . Thirty-three. ; , ; ; Trayastri situated on the summit of Mt. Sumeru, where Indra rules over his thirty-two deva s, who reside on thirty-two peaks of Sumeru, eight in each of the four directons . Indra's capital is called Sudarana, Joy-view city. Its people are a yojana i ht, each one's clothing weighs (1/4 oz. ), and they live 1, 000 years, a day and night being equal to 100 earthly years. Eitel says Indra's heaven 'tallies in al l its details with the Svarga of Brahminic mythology' and suggests that 'the who le myth may have an astronomical meaning', or be connected, with 'the atmosphere with its phenomena, which strengthens Koeppen's hypothesis explaining the numbe r thirty-three as referring to the eight Vasus, eleven Rudras, twelve dityas, and two Avins of Vedic mythology'. In his palace called Vaijayanta 'Indra is enthron ed with 1, 000 eyes with four arms grasping the vajra. There he revels in number less sensual pleasures together with his wife ac... and with 119, 000 concubines w ith whom he associates by means of transformation'.

() The thirty-three forms in which Guanyin is represented: with willow lo, as strolling, with white robe, as lotus-sleeping, with fishing-creel, as med icine-bestowing, with folded hands, holding a lotus, pouring water, etc. The thirt -three possible fallacies in the statement of a syllogism, nine in the propositi on pratij, fourteen in the reason hetu, and ten in the example udharaa.

The thirty-three forms in which Avalokitevara (Guanyin) is said to have presented h imself, from that of a Buddha to that of a woman or a rakas. Cf. Lotus Stra chapter . The thirty-five Buddhas before whom those who have committed sins involving interm inable suffering should heartily repent. There are different lists. The thirty-six physical parts and excretions of the human body, all being unclean, i. e. the vile body.

() The thirty-six departmental guardian divinities given in the or which is used. Their Sanskrit and Chinese names are given in Chinese as follo ws: (1) or kindly light, has to do with attacks of disease; (2) or rs; (4) or disorders of the stomach; (5) or tumours; (6) or rascibility; (9) or lust; (10) or devils; (11) or deadly our quarters; (14) or enemies; (15) or robbers; (16) or tilence; (19) or the five plagues (? typhoid); (20) or corpse worms oncentration; (22) or restlessness; (23) or attraction; (24) poison; (26) or fear; (27) or calamities; (28) or child ct magistracy; (30) or altercations; (31) or anxieties and distress ; (33) or supernatural manifestations; (34) or jealousy; (35) hey have innumerable assistants. He who writes their names and carries them with him can be free from all fear. [61]

, , The thirty-seven conditions leading to bodh ory, or subjects of reflection; samyakpraha, four proper lines of exertion; steps towards supernatural power; paca indriyi, five spiritual faculties; pac heir five powers; sapta bodhyaga, seven degrees of enlightenment, or intelligence; and aa-mrga, the eightfold noble path. The thirty-seven heads in the Vajradhtu or Diamond-realm maala.

The four large circles in each of which the thirty-seven are represented, in old the diamond-realm symbol, the vajra; in another, the symbol relating to the triple realm of time, past, present, future; in another, the Guanyin symbol; and in another, the symbol of infinite space. idem . In each of the ten states there are three conditions, , , , entry, stay, he 'thirty lives'. trisahasra, three thousand; a term used by the Tiantai School for , i. e. all everything in a chiliocosm, or Buddhaworld; v. . idem .

The kalpa of the ancient Buddha Mahbhijbhibh (; ), mentioned in th of incalculable antiquity, e. g. surpassing the number of the particles of a chi liocosm which has been ground to powder, turned into ink, and dropped, drop by d rop, at vast distances throughout boundless space.

tri-sahasra-mah-sahasra-loka-dhtu, a great chiliocosm; ; , g continents, eight seas and ring of iron mountains form one small world; 1, 000 of these form a small chiliocosm ; 1, 000 of these small chiliocosms form a medium chiliocosm ; a thousand of these form a great chiliocosm , which thus consi , 000, 000 small worlds. The indicates the above three kinds of thousands, theref ore is the same as , which is one Buddha-world.

The reality at the basis of all things, a Tiantai doctrine, i. e. the or The udumbara flower which flowers but once in 3, 000 years; v. .

A bhiku's regulations amount to about 250; these are multiplied by four for the c itions of walking, standing, sitting, and sleeping and thus make 1, 000; again m ultiplied by three for past, present, and future, they become 3, 000 regulations .

The stra of the three thousand regulations.

The three signs or proofs of a Hnayna sutra non-permanence, non-personality, nirv thout these the stra is spurious and the doctrine is of Mra; the proof of a Mahyna st ra is the doctrine of ultimate reality, q. v. Also . The three vehicles (Hnayna, Madhyamayna, Mahyna) are one, i. e. the three lead sattvaship and Buddhahood for all. The three states of Vedan, i. e. sensation, are divided into painful, pleasurable, and freedom from both , , . When things are opposed to desire, pain arises; when a ccordant, there is pleasure and a desire for their continuance; when neither, on e is detached or free. 1. The karma or results arising from the pursuit of courses that produce pain, pleasu re, or freedom from both.

Three cryptic questions of Yunmen, founder of the Yunmen Chan School. They are: ( ) What is it that stops all flow (of reincarnation) ? The reply from the is realization of the oneness of mind, or that all is mind. (2) What contains and in ludes the universe? The . (3) One wave following another what is this? Birth , or transmigration, phenomenal existence. [62] The three flavours, or pleasant savours: the monastic life, reading the scripture s, meditation.

The union of the three, i.e. indriya, lambana, and vijna, i.e. organ, obje gnition. The general meaning is , , superior, medium, inferior.

The three esoteric kinds of siddhi, i.e. complete attainment, supreme felicity. Th y are superior, to be born in the Vairocana Pure-land; in one of the other Pur nds among which is the Western Paradise; and in the Sun Palaces among the devas. lso styled .

The three grades of rmaera, i.e. 7-13 years old styled ; 14-19

The three grades of hearers, i.e. with the spirit; with the mind; w idem and .

The three good "roots", the foundation of all moral development, i.e. , , elfish desire), no ire, no stupidity (or unwillingness to learn). Also, , , giving , kindness, moral wisdom; v. the three poisons for which these are a cure. The three types of friends with whom to be intimate, i.e. a teacher (of the Way), fellow-endeavourer and encourager, and a patron who supports by gifts (dnapati).

(or ) The three good or upward directions or states of existence: the highe f goodness rewarded with the deva life, or heaven; the middle class of goodness with a return to human life; the inferior class of goodness with the asura state. Cf. ; v. 30.

The six "causes" of the Abhidharma Koa as reduced to three in the Satyasiddhi producing cause, as good or evil deeds cause good or evil karma; habit cause, e. . lust breeding lust; dependent or hypostatic cause, e.g. the six organs and thei

objects causing the cognitions .

The three causes produce their three effects: (1) differently ripenin fferently ripening effects, i.e. every developed cause produces its developed ef fect, especially the effect of the present causes in the next transmigration; (2 ) blessed deeds produce blessed rewards, now and hereafter; (3) wisdom (n wisdom-fruit (hereafter). idem omitting . idem . The three defilersdesire, hate, stupidity (or ignorance), idem .

The three sure or certain things are , and , i.e. the reward of the true discip s an infinite body or personality, an endless life, and boundless (spiritual) po ssessions, , , , v. :.

The three recompenses, i.e. in the present life for deeds now done; in the n irth for deeds now done; and in subsequent lives. v. .

The mire is interpreted by a road, i.e. the three unhappy gati or ways; (a) fires of hell; (b) to the hell of blood, where as animals they devour each other ; (c) the asipattra hell of swords, where the leaves and grasses are sharp-edged swords. Cf. . Much intercourse with good friends, much hearing of the Law, much meditation on t he impure. Also, much worship, much service of good friends, much inquiry on imp ortant doctrines. There are other groups.

The three great characteristics of the in the Awakening of Faith: (1) f the bhtatathat in its essence or substance; it is the embodied nature of t all the living, universal, immortal, immutable, eternal; (2) the greatness of its attributes or manifestations, perfect in wisdom and mercy, and every achievemen t; (3) the greatness of its functions and operations within and without, perfectl y transforming all the living to good works and good karma now and hereafter. Th ere are other groups, e.g. , , and . [63]

Three authoritative works of the Tiantai School, i.e. the , , and , each The trimrti iva, Viu, and Brahm. v. .

v. and add Kuveradeva and Nirgrahtha, son of Jt, i.e. of Three repetitions (of a verse).

A muni, recluse, or monk, who controls his body, mouth, and mind , , . Also The three sons, one filial, wise, and competent; one unfilial but clever and comp etent; one unfilial stupid, and incompetent; types respectively of bodhisattvas, rvakas, and icchahtikas, 33. The "three seasons" of an Indian year spring, summer, and winter; a year.

The "three studies" or vehicles of learning discipline, meditation, wisdom: (a) rning by the commandments, or prohibitions, so as to guard against the evil cons equences of error by mouth, body, or mind, i.e. word, deed, or thought; (b) learn ing by dhyna, or quietist meditation; (c) learning by philosophy, i.e. study of pr inciples and solving of doubts. Also the Tripiaka; the being referred to the vina ya, the to the stras, and the to the stras. The three months of summer retreat, var; v. . The "three characters", a term for Amitbha.

The three Schools of , , and q.v., representing the ideas of , ary reality, and neither; or absolute, relative, and neither. idem .

The three mystic things: the body, mouth (i.e. voice), and mind of the Tathgata, w hich are universal, all things being this mystic body, all sound this mystic voi ce, and all thought this mystic mind. All creatures in body, voice, and mind are only individualized parts of the Tathgata, but illusion hides their Tathgata natu re from them. The esoterics seek to realize their Tathgata nature by physical sig ns and postures, by voicing of dhra and by meditations, so that He may ent im, which is the perfection of siddhi ; v. 1. . The three mystic things associated with the six elements, i.e. the mystic body is ssociated with earth, water, and fire; the mystic words with wind and space; the mystic mind with cognition. v. sammityanikya.

The three mystic things, body, mouth, and mind, of the Tathgata are identical wit hose of all the living, so that even the fleshly body born of parents is the dha rmakya, or body of Buddha: .

Triratna, or Ratnatraya, i.e. the Three Precious Ones: Buddha, Dharma, Sagha Buddha, the Law, the Ecelesia or Order. Eitel suggests this trinity may be adap ted from the Trimrti, i.e, Brahma, Viu, and Sva. The Triratna takes many forms, e.g. the Trikya q.v. There is also the Nepalese idea of a triple existence of each Bud dha as a Nirva-Buddha, Dhyni-Buddha, and Mnui-Buddha; also the Tantric trinity of Vai rocana as Nirva-Buddha, Locana according to Eitel "existing in reflex in the world of forms", and the human Buddha, kyamuni. There are other elaborated details know n as the four and the six kinds of triratna and , e.g. that the Triratna exists ach member of the trinity. The term has also been applied to the q.v. Popularly t he are referred to the three images in the main hall of monasteries. The centre o ne is kyamuni, on his left Bhaiajya and on his right Amitbha. There are other expl tions, e.g. in some temples Amitbha is in the centre, Avalokitevara on his left, a nd Mahsthmaprpta or Majur on his right. Table of Triratna, Trikya, and Trailokya: ASAGHABUDDHA Essential BodhiReflected BodhiPractical Bodhi Dhyni BuddhaDhyni Bodhis attvaMnu Buddha DharmakyaSambhogakyaNirmakya PurityCompletenessTransformations 4th a-ketra3rd Buddha-ketra1st and 2nd Buddha ketra ArpadhtuRpadhtuKmadhtu. [64]

The things appertaining to the triratna, i.e. to the Buddha temples and images, etc .; to the dharma the scriptures; to the sagha cassock, bowl, etc.

The tritratna as the treasury of all virtue and merit; also the tripiaka, stras ya , abhidharma ; also rvakas, pratyekabuddhas, and bodhisattvas. idem .

v. . The three honoured ones: Buddha, the Law, the Ecclesia or Order. Others are: Amitb ha, Avalokitevara, and Mahsthmaprpta, who, according to the Pure-land sect, come to welcome the dying invoker. Another group is Bhaiajya, Vairocana, and Candraprabha ; and another, kyamun, Majur, and Samantabhadra. The three honoured Buddhas of the West: Amitbha, Avalokitevara, Mahsthmaprpta. odhisattvas, the two latter are called Buddhas when thus associated with Amitbha. Amitbha, Avalokitevara, Mahsthmaprpta, receive into the western paradise the o calls on Amitbha. The thrice repeated procession around an image; there is dispute as to which shou lder should be next to the image, v. .

The three superior monks and a minimum of seven witnesses required for an ordinati n to full orders; except in outlandish places, when two witnesses are valid.

The esoteric doctrine that the three body, mouth, and mind are one and universal. us in samdhi the Buddha "body" is found everywhere and in everything (pan-Buddha) , every sound becomes a "true word", dhra or potent phrase, and these are summed up in mind, which being universal is my mind and my mind it, it in me and I in it. O her definitions of the three are , , the triratna; and , , mind, Buddha, an ng. Also . Cf. . v. 1.

The three universal positions or stages, i.e. the three states expressed by , . idem and . idem .

The three equal essentials of the fire sacrifice, i.e. the individual as offer object of worship, and the altar.

Samk, investigation, i.e. the Skhya, a system of philosophy, wrongly ascri ts to Jtisena, or Jayasena, who debated the twenty-five Skhya principl muni but succumbed, shaved his head and became a disciple, according to the 39.

; ; (or ) ; Samatyanikya, Samata, or S y numerous and widely spread during the early centuries of our era. The is in th ipiaka. It taught "that a soul exists in the highest and truest sense", "that an arhat can fall from arhatship, that a god can enter the paths of the Order, and that even an unconverted man can get rid of all lust and ill-will" (Eliot, i, 26 0). It split into the three branches of Kaurukullak vantikh, and Vtsputry. Samiti is a saint mentioned in the . idem . A woman's three subordinations, to father, husband, and son; stated in several str as, e.g. 28.

The three virtues or powers, of which three groups are given below. (1) (a) The tue or potency of the Buddha's eternal, spiritual body, the dharmakya; (b) of his p rj, or wisdom, knowing all things in their reality; (c) of his freedom from all b and his sovereign Iiberty. Each of these has the four qualities of , , eternity, j y, personality, and purity; v. (2) (a) The potency of his perfect knowledge;

cutting off all illusion and perfecting of supreme nirva; the above two are for hi s own advantage; (c) of his universal grace and salvation, which bestows the ben s he has acquired on others. (3) (a) The perfection of his causative or karmic wor ks during his three great kalpas of preparation; (b) the perfection of the fruit, or results in his own character and wisdom; (c) the perfection of his grace in the salvation of others.

The three minds, or hearts; various groups are given: (1) Three assured ways of r eaching the Pure Land, by (a) perfect sincerity; (b) profound resolve for it; (c) ve on demitting one's merits to others. (2) (a) The 8th or laya-vijna mind, the s house, or source of all seeds of good or evil; (b) the 7th or mano-vijna mind, the mediating cause of all taint; (c) the ayatana-vijna mind, the immediate influen e six senses. (3) (a) (b) (c) The mind entering into a condition, staying th parting. (4) A pure, a single, and an undistracted mind. There are other groups. [65]

The tree forms of knti, i.e. patience (or endurance, tolerance). One of the groups is patience under hatred, under physical hardship, and in pursuit of the faith. Another is patience of the blessed in the Pure Land in understanding the truth t hey hear, patience in obeying the truth, patience in attaining absolute reality; v. . Another is patience in the joy of remembering Amitbha, patience in meditatio n his truth, and patience in constant faith in him. Another is the patience of s ubmission, of faith, and of obedience.

(or ). Whether all creatures believe, do not believe, or part believe and part believe, the Buddha neither rejoices, nor grieves, but rests in his proper mind and wisdom, i.e. though full of pity, his far-seeing wisdom keeps him above the d sturbances of joy and sorrow. 27. The three types of character , , good, bad ree aspects of the nature of a thing partial, as when a ake; only partly reliable, i.e. incomplete inference, as s mere hemp; all around, or perfect, when content, form, d.

and undefinable, or neutral; v. rope is mistaken for a sn when it is considered a etc., are all considere

The differentiation of the three conditions of good, evil, and neutral. All action and speech have three mental conditions reflection, judgment, decision.

A Tiantai classification of the three delusions, also styled ; ; ; ; , leakages, uncleannesses, and bonds. The first of the following three is common to all disciples, the two last to bodhisattvas. They arise from (a) , , things se en and thought, i.e. illusions from imperfect perception, with temptation to lov e, hate, etc.; to be rid of these false views and temptations is the discipline and nirva of ascetic or Hnayna Buddhists. Mahyna proceeds further in and by its bodhi attva aims, which produce their own difficulties, i.e. (b) illusion and temptation through the immense variety of duties in saving men; and (c) illusions and tempta tions that arise from failure philosophically to understand things in their real ity.

The three evil gati, or paths of transmigration; also , the hells, hungry als. The three evil mental states: desire, hate (or anger), malevolence.

The three evil thoughts are the last, desire, hate, malevolence; the three good t houghts are thoughts of (love to) enemies, the same to family and friends, to those who are neither enemies nor friends, i.e. to all; v. 72.

Samudra, the sea, an ocean; also samudra-sgara. Samudra and sgara

The three modes of attaining moral wisdom: from reading, hearing, instruction; reflection, etc.; from practice (of abstract meditation).

The three who should be served, or worshipped a Buddha, an arhat, and a cakravart g. idem . The three sets of commandments, i.e. the ten for the ordained who have left home, the eight for the devout at home, and the five for the ordinary laity. idem . Sama, level, equal, same, etc.; cf. () and . sampanna, in the state of samdhi. samhita; steadfast, tranquil. A degree of meditation.

Samataa, an ancient kingdom on the left bank of the Ganges, near its mouths, exte ng to the Hooghly, over 3,000 li in circuit, low and damp, with a hardy people, short and dark. Eitel says "close to the sea at the mouth of the Brahmaputra." E liot says: "In the east of Bengal and not far from the modern Burmese frontier." [66] (or , , ) Samdhi; idem . Silent or meditative repetition of the name of Buddha. Samsa. a-samsa, v. . Samavya, coming together, combination; advantageous union.

; ; ; Sma-veda-sahit. A collection of verses sung at sacri das, or four if Atharva Veda is counted, as it was later; the verses are taken a lmost wholly from the gveda.

Sumgadh, said to be a daughter of Anthapiada of rvast, who married the ruler ed the ruler and people.

(or ) idem ; but is also explained as a short period, a season of A term among the esoterics for the q.v. smnya, generality; in common; inclusive; v. . idem . The public gathering for a festival, lay and cleric, before parting at the end of he summer retreat.

(or ); (or ); sampatti, attainment, arrival; defi r to sampanna, attainment. Eitel says: "a degree of abstract ecstatic meditation paratory to the final attainment of samdhi." Clough speaks of eight sampattis, i.e . attainments "eight successive states induced by the ecstatic meditation." v. al so .

samanantaram, immediately following or contiguous; thout interval, i.e. an immediate cause.

i.e. one of the fo

The three prajapti, v. ; they are the and and .

() Three members of a syllogism: pratij the proposition, hetu the reaso le; cf. .

The three teachings, i.e. , (or ), and Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism; or fucianism, Taoism (aIso known as ), and Buddhism. In Japan they are Shinto, Confuc ianism, and Buddhism. In Buddhism the term is applied to the three periods of kyam uni's own teaching, of which there are several definitions: (1) The Jiangnan Scho ol describe his teaching as (a) progressive or gradual; (b) immediate, i.e. as on e whole, especially in the ; and (c) or indeterminate. (2) Guangtong, a wri Iater Wei dynasty, describes the three as (a) progressive for beginners, i.e. f rom impermanence to permanence, from the void to reality, etc.; (b) immediate fo r the more advanced; and (c) complete, to the most advanced, i.e. the Huayan as a bove. (3) The q.v. (4) The Southern school deals with (a) the of Hnayna; ( (c) the perfect idealism. v. 4. Tiantai accepts the division of , , and aching, but adopts gradual, immediate, and perfect, with the Lotus as the perfec t teaching; it also has the division of , , and q.v. Master of the Tripiaka; a title of Xuanzang .

The three cuttings off or excisions (of beguiling delusions, or perplexities). (1 ) (a) to cut off delusions of view, of which Hnayna has eighty-eight kinds; (b) tice, eighty-one kinds; (c) nothing left to cut off, perfect. v. 2. (2) (a) the nature or root (of delusion); (b) to cut off the external bonds, or objective causes (of delusions); (c) (delusion) no longer arising, therefore nothing produce d to cut off. The third stage in both groups is that of an arhat. A term of the esoterics for body, mouth (speech), and mind, their control, and the entry into the q.v. 1. The three forms of giving: (1) (a) one's goods; (b) the Law or Truth; (c) courage , or confidence: 11. (2) (a) goods; (b) worship; (c) preaching. (3) (a) food; (b) valuables; (c) life. The third day's ceremonies after a death to gain Yama's favour as the deceased app ears before him.

The three insights; also . Applied to Buddhas they are called , to arhats nto the mortal conditions of self and others in previous lives; (b) supernatural i nsight into future mortal conditions; (c) nirva insight, i.e. into present mortal fferings so as to overcome aIl passions or temptations. In the 27 the three are te rmed ; and . For v. 16.

trividy. The three clear conceptions that (1) all is impermanent anitya; (2) a sorrowful dukha; (3) all is devoid of a self antman. [67]

() Samdhi, "putting together, composing the mind, intent contemplation, perfect ption, union of the meditator with the object of meditation." (M. W.) Also (, ted by or , the mind fixed and undisturbed; by correct sensation of the object emplated; by ordering and fixing the mind; by the condition when the motion ind are steadied and harmonized with the object; by the cessation of distraction a d the fixation of the mind; by the mind held in equilibrium; by , i.e. to s eathing. It is described as concentration of the mind (upon an object). The aim is , mukti, deliverance from all the trammels of life, the bondage of the passions

and reincarnations. It may pass from abstraction to ecstasy, or rapture, or tra nce. Dhyna represents a simpler form of contemplation; sampatti a stage furth ced; and samdhi the highest stage of the Buddhist equivalent for Yoga, though Yog a is considered by some as a Buddhist development differing from samdhi. The says en the mind has been concentrated, then the will is undivided; when active th as been put to rest, then the material becomes etherealized and the spirit liberate d, on which knowledge, or the power to know, has free course, and there is no my stery into which it cannot probe. Cf. 5, 20, 23, 28; 2; 2, 9, 1 3, 20, numerous kinds and degrees of samdhi. Samdhi Buddha, one of the ten Buddhas mentioned in the . The candra-maala, i.e. moon-wheel or disc samdhi; Ngrjuna is said en his departure as a cicada after delivering the Law (or patriarchate) to Kadeva. Fire of samdhi, the fire that consumed the body of Buddha when he entered nirva.

The symbols or offerings should tally with the object worshipped, e.g. a white flo er with a merciful or a white image. The different stages of a bodhisattva's samdhi; cf. 28.

samdhi-mra, one of the ten mras, who lurks in the heart and hinders progress in m ation, obstructs the truth and destroys wisdom.

samaya is variously defined as coming together, meeting, convention; timely; reement, of the same class; equal, equalized; aroused, warned; riddance of indrances. Especially it is used as indicating the vows made by Buddhas and bodh isattvas, hence as a tally, symbol, or emblem of the spiritual quality of a Budd ha or bodhisattva.

The distinguishing symbol of a Buddha or bodhisattva, e.g. the Lotus of Guanyin; a so used for q. v.

samaya commandments: the rules to be strictly observed before full ordination in t e esoteric sects.

samaya-maala. One of the four kinds of magic circles in which the saints are d by the symbols of their power, e.g. pagoda, jewel, lotus, sword.

samaya wisdom. In esoteric teaching, the characteristic of a Buddha's or bodhisatt a's wisdom, as shown in the maala.

The samaya assembly, i.e. the second of the nine maalas, consisting of seventy-t saints represented by the symbols of their power. Samaya world, a general name for the esoteric sect.

(or ) The embodiment of samaya, a term of the esoteric sect; i.e. the symb a or bodhisattva which expresses his inner nature, e.g. the stpa as one of the sy mbols of Vairocana ; the lotus of Guanyin, etc. is used for Buddha, for a bodhisa tva. The exoteric sects associate the term with the sabhogakya. The three divisions of the day, i.e. dawn, daylight, and sunset; or morning, noon , and evening; also the three periods, after his nirva, of every Buddha's teaching , viz., correct, or the period of orthodoxy and vigour, semblance, or the period of scholasticism, and end, the period of decline and termination. The thrice a day meditation about 10 a.m. and 4 and 8 p.m.

The three periods of Buddhism 1,000 years of pure or orthodox doctrine, 1,00 f resemblance to purity, and 10,000 years of decay. Other definitions are and years each, or 1,000 and 500, or 500 and 1,000. i.e. v. .

() The three periods and characteristics of Buddha's teaching, as defined by alakana school . They are: (1) , when he taught the reality of the skandhas a ts, but denied the common belief in real personality or a permanent soul; this pe riod is represented by the four gamas and other Hnayna stras. (2) nya, when the idea of the reality of things and advocated that all was unreal; the period of the praj stras. (3) Madhyama, the mean, that mind or spirit is real, while are unreal; the period of this school's specific stra the , also the and late n the two earlier periods he is said to have adapted his teaching to the developm ent of his hearers; in the third to have delivered his complete and perfect doct rine. Another division by the is (1) as above; (2) the early period of the Mahyna r epresented, by the ; (3) the higher Mahyna as in the . v. also .

The three stages of karma in the present life because of present deeds; in the next life because of present actions; and in future lives because of present actions . [68]

The three kinds of wisdom: (1) (a) rvaka and pratyeka-buddha knowledge that a harma or laws are void and unreal; (b) bodhisattva-knowledge. of all things in th ir proper discrimination; (c) Buddha-knowledge, or perfect knowledge of all things in their every aspect and relationship past, present, and future. Tiantai associ ates the above with , , . (2) (a) earthly or ordinary wisdom; (b) sup itual (rvaka and pratyeka-buddha) wisdom; (c) supreme wisdom of bodhisattvas s. v. 27, 3, and 3. Cf. . God of the wind, which is Vata in Sanskrit. samanta; tr. by , , universal, everywhere; also , . (or , or ) Samantagandha, universally fragrant. A tree , Samantabhadra, Puxian; v. .

The three kinds of bhava, or existence; idem q. v. The three states of mortal exi tence in the trailokya, i. e. in the realms of desire, of form, and beyond form. Another definition is present existence, or the present body and mind; in a futu e state; antara-bhava, in the intermediate state. The three sets of limitation reedom: (a) direct resistance or opposition; (b) environment or condition; (c) a ttachment. The three active) functioning dharmas: (1) pratigha, matter or form, i. e. that which has ' substantial resistance'; (2) mind; and (3) entities neither of matter nor mind; cf. . The three forms of all phenomena, birth, stay (i. e h; utpda, sthiti, and nirvana.

sammata, intp. as 'unanimously accorded'; i. e. name of the first king (elected the beginning of each world-kalpa. The third of the Hnayna four fruits or results, i. e. non-return to mortality. The three tree-trunks, or main stemsdesire, hate, stupidity; v. .

The three (evil) 'roots' desire, hate, stupidity, idem . Another group is the thr grades of good roots, or abilities , , superior, medium, and inferior. Another is the three grades of faultlessness .

The three Brahma heavens of the first dhyna: that of Brahma-priadya, the assem Brahma; Brahma-purohitas, his attendants; Mahbrahm, Great Brahma. The three smallest things, i. e. an atom as the smallest particle of matter; a let ter as the shortest possible name; a kaa, as the shortest period of time.

trividha-dvra. The three conditions, inheritances, or karma, of which there are se veral groups. (1) Deed, word, thought, , , . (2) (a) Present-1ife happy karma; (6) present-life unhappy karma; (c) karma of an imperturbable nature. (3) (a) Good; ( b) evil; (c) neutral karma. (4) (a) Karma of ordinary rebirth; (6) karma of Hn rvana; (c) karma of neither, independent of both, Mahyna nirvana. (5) (a) Pres s and their consequences in this life; (b) present deeds and their next life con sequences; (c) present deeds and consequences after the next life, There are oth er groups of three.

To serve or worship with perfect sincerity of body, mouth and mind; the s ans that in worship an three correspond. The three joys the joy of being born a deva, the joy of meditation, the joy of nir vana. see . The three kinds of dna, i. e. charity; giving of goods, of the dharma, of abhaya, or fearlessness. Idem .

The Tiantai division of the schools of Buddhism into four, three termed temporar . e. , and q.v. v. e fourth is the orreal or perfect School of SaIvation by fa to Buddhahood, especially as revealed in the Lotus Sutra, see .

three lusts, i. e. for form, carriage or beauty, and refinement, or soft ouch. [69]

The three emperors Wu who persecuted Buddhism: of the Wei dynasty A.D. 424-452; the Zhou A.D. 561-578; of the Tang A.D. 841-7.

Triaraa, or araa-gamana. The three surrenders to, or "formulas of refuge" in, the ee Precious Ones , i.e. to the Buddha , the Dharma , the Sagha . The three formu e Buddham araa gacchmi, Dharma saraa gacchmi, Sagha araa fidei of the early Buddhists". The surrender is to the Buddha as teacher , the La w as medicine , the Ecclesia as friends . These are known as the .

The receiving of the Law, or admission of a lay disciple, after recantation of his previous wrong belief and sincere repetition to the abbot or monk of the three r efuges .

() The ceremony which makes the recipient a or upasaka or ups epting the five commandments. There are five stages of sangui; the first two are a above, at the third the eight commandments are accepted, at the fourth the ten, at the fifth an the commandments. is also a general term for a Buddhist.

The three poisons, also styled ; ; they are concupiscence, or wrong desire, te, or resentment, and stupidity, ignorance, unintelligence, or unwillingness to accept Buddha-truth; these three are the source of all the passions and delusio ns. They represent in part the ideas of love, hate, and moral inertia. v. 19, 31. The r (i.e. goddess of Fortune) of the three poisons, a title of Majur.

idem v.

The three dharma, i.e. the Buddha's teaching; the practice of it; reali eriential proof of it in bodhi and nirva. idem . idem . v. . idem q.v.

The three law-wheels, or periods of the Buddha's preaching, according to Paramrtha, to Jiaxiang of the school, and to Xuanzang of the school.

sampta; finished, ended, perfect; a term used at the conclusion of Homa or Fire-wor ship. The three prajpti, q.v.

Sampaha, according to Eitel, Malasa, a valley in the upper Punjab; but perhaps mb state north of Citral in the Hindukush.

The three gates to the city of nirva, i.e. , , and the void (or the i ness, and inactivity; idem .

The three kinds of "clean" fleshwhen a monk has not seen the creature killed, has n ot heard of its being killed for him, and has no doubt thereon.

Samantabhadra, interpreted Puxian, pervading goodness, or "all gracious", niversal fortune; also styled Vivabhadra. The principal Bodhisattva of Emei shan. He is the special patron of followers of the Lotus Stra. He is usually seated on a white elephant, and his abode is said to be in the East. He is one of the fou r Bodhisattvas of the Yoga school. v. .

The three progressive developments of the Buddha's teaching according to the Praj s chool: (a) the initial stage in the Lumbin deer park; (b) the period of the eigh ucceeding years; (c) the Praj or wisdom period which succeeded. The three affluents that feed the stream of mortality, or transmigration: desire; (material, or phenomenal) existence; ignorance (of the way of escape). 22. The three firesdesire, hate, and stupidity; v. . The three calamities; they are of two kinds, minor and major. The minor, appearin g during a decadent world-period, are sword, pestilence, and famine; the major, for world-destruction, are fire, water, and wind. 12. v. . The three distresses of which dragons and dragon-kings are afraid fiery heat, fierc e wind, and the garua bird which preys on them for food. [70] The three that are without (essential) difference, i.e. are of the same nature of mind is the same in Buddhas, and men, and all the living; (b) the natu re and enlightenment of all Buddhas is the same; (c) the nature and enlightenment

of all the living is the same. The says , .

The three things without a nature or separate existence of their own: (a) for arance or seeming, is unreal, e.g. a rope appearing like a snake; (b) life ditto, for it is like the rope, which is derived from constituent materials; (c) the pt of the or bhtatathat, is unreal, e.g. the hemp of which the rope is made; the bh atathat is perfect and eternal. Every representation of it is abstract and unreal . The three are also known as , , ; v. 9.

The three studies, or endeavours, after the passionless life and escape from trans igration: (a) Moral discipline; (b) meditation, or trance; (c) the resulting wis dom.

The three roots for the passionless life and final escape from transmigration, i.e the last three of the q.v. An older group was ; ; v.

The treasury of the three inexhaustible adornments or glories, i.e. the , ds, and thoughts of a Buddha.

The three shinings; the sun first shining on the hill-tops, then the valleys and plains. So, according to Tiantai teaching of the Huayan stra, the Buddha's doctri ne had three periods of such shining: (a) first, he taught the Huayan stra, trans forming his chief disciples into bodhisattvas; (b) second, the Hnayna stras in gene ral to rvakas and pratyeka-buddhas in the Lumbin garden; (c) third, the stras down the for all the living. See the 35, where the order is five, i.e. bodhis ekabuddhas, rvakas, lay disciples, and all creatures.

samudaya, gather together, accumulate, the or , i.e. the second of the Four he aggregation of suffering. The three monkeys, one guarding its eyes, another its ears, a third its mouth.

The three animals hare, horse, elephant crossing a stream. The rvaka is like the h who crosses by swimming on the surface; the pratyeka-buddha is like the horse w ho crosses deeper than the hare; the bodhisattva is like the elephant who walks across on the bottom. Also likened to the triyna. 23, 27. The three sweet things cream, honey, curd.

The three births, or reincarnations, past, present, future. Tiantai has (a) plant ing the seed; (b) ripening; (c) liberating, stripping, or harvesting, i.e. begin ning, development, and reward of bodhi, a process either gradual or instantaneou s. Huayan has (a) a past life of seeing and hearing Buddha-truth; (b) liberat the present life; (c) realization of life in Buddhahood. This is also called ood in the course of three lives. There is also a definition of three rebirths a s the shortest term for arhatship, sixty kalpas being the longest. There are oth er definitions. The three "fields" of varying qualities of fertility, i.e. bodhisattvas, rvakas, an d icchantis, respectively producing a hundred-fold, fifty-fold, onefold. 33.

Trailokya or Triloka; the three realms; also . It is the Buddhist metaphysical equ valent for the Brahmanic cosmological bhuvanatraya, or triple world of bhr, bhuva, and svar, earth, atmosphere, and heaven. The Buddhist three are , , and , i.e. w of sensuous desire, form, and formless world of pure spirit. (a) Kmadhtu is the re alm of sensuous desire, of and sex and food; it includes the six heavens of desi re, the human world, and the hells. (b) Rpadhtu is the realm of form, meaning t hich is substantial and resistant: it is above the lust-world and contains (so t o speak) bodies, palaces, things, all mystic and wonderfula semi-material concept ion like that in Revelation; it is represented in the , or Brahmalokas. (c) Ar

r rpyadhtu, is the formless realm of pure spirit, where there are no bodies, places , things, at any rate none to which human terms would apply, but where the mind dwells in mystic contemplation; its extent is indefinable, but it is, conceived of in four stages, i,e. the four "empty" regions, or regions of space in the immat erial world, which are the four "formless" realms, or realms beyond form; being ab ove the realm of form, their bounds cannot be defined. v. . v. . [71]

The triple world is but one mind; from a verse of the stra; it proceeds o other thing; mind, Buddha, and all the living, these three are not different"; in other words, there is no differentiating between these three, for all is min d. The honoured one of the three worlds, i.e. Buddha. The kindly father of the triple world Buddha. The burning house of the triple world, as in the Lotus Stra parable. The sick-bed of the trailokya, especially this world of suffering. The trailokya eye, i.e. Buddha, who sees all the realms and the way of universal e scape. The tablet used at the annual ceremonial offerings to "all souls", v. . The trailokya-garbha, the womb or storehouse of all the transmigrational. The hero of the trailokyaBuddha. The three doubts of self, of teacher, of the dharma-truth.

The three ailments: (1) (a) lust, for which the meditation on uncleanness is medy; (b) anger, or hate, remedy meditation on kindness and pity; (c) stupidit r ignorance, remedy meditation on causality. (2) (a) Slander of Mahyna; (b) ross sins; (c) to be a "heathen" or outsider; the forms recorded seem to be icch antika, ecchantika, and aicchantika. Cf. .

The three resolves of the Awakening of Faith: (a) to perfect the b the stage of faith; (b) to understand and carry into practice this wisdom; (c) ealization, or proof of or union with bodhi. The three white foods milk, cream (or curd), and rice (especially upland rice). is the rule of the three white foods .

(or ) The 348 (or 341) rules for a nun; there are also groups of 2

(or ) The 341 (or 348) rules for a nun; there are also groups of 2 The reputed and disputed number (360) of kyamuni's assemblies for preaching.

The 300 yojanas parable of the Magic City, erected by a leader who feared that his people would become weary and return; i.e. Hnayna nirva, a temporary rest on the way to the real land of precious things, or true nirva; v. . idem .

idem .

The three-eyed, a term for iva, i.e Mahevara; simile for the dharmakya, or spiritua body, praj, or wisdom, and nirva emancipation. The three forms or positions: er. nirva; no nirva; or

The three links, or consequences: (a) the worlds with their kingdoms, which arise from the karma of existence; (b) all beings, who arise out of the five skandhas; (c) rewards and punishments, which arise out of moral karma causes.

Three aspects of the bhtatathat, implying that it is above the limitations of form creation, or a soul. (1) (a) without form; (b) without creation; (c) t can be called a nature for comparison; e.g. chaos, or primal matter. (2) (a) The bhtatathat as good; (b) as evil; (c) as neutral, or neither good no Samatiya, v. .

() The period necessary for a bodhisattva to become a Buddha, i.e. three in the , and 100 kalpas to acquire the thirty-two or characteristic marks of a Bud dha; cf. .

The three (sources of) felicity: (1) The has the felicity of (a) filial for elders, keeping the ten commandments; (b) of keeping the other commandments; (c) of resolve on complete bodhi and the pursuit of the Buddha-way. (2) The 18 s the blessedness of (a) almsgiving, in evoking resultant wealth; (b) observa the (against killing, stealing, adultery, lying) and the (against alcohol, etc.), in obtaining a happy lot in the heavens; (c) observance of meditation in obtaining final escape from the mortal round. Cf. .

The three things that bring a happy lot almsgiving, impartial kindness and Iove, po ndering over the demands of the life beyond. The third dhyna heaven of form, the highest paradise of form. [72] Worship with , , , body, mouth, and mind. The three categories of , or , and eighteen .

The three mysteries, a term of the esoteric school for , , and ; i.e. the symb mystic word or sound; the meditation of the mind. A term for the mystic letter, the mystic symbol, and the image. Three kinds, sorts, classes, categories, etc.

Three kinds of past, present, and future as intp. according to , , and The three types of meditation on the principles of the q.v., i.e. the dogmas v. .

Three modes of serving (the Buddha, etc.): (a) offerings of incense, flowers, food etc.; (b) of praise and reverence; (c) of right conduct. The three kinds of light: (a) extemal sun, moon, stars, lamps, etc.; (b) dharma,

the light of right teaching and conduct; (c) the effulgence or bodily halo emitt ed by Buddhas, bodhisattvas, devas. The three kinds of good roots almsgiving, mercy, and wisdom.

Three kinds of unity or identity of (a) phenomena with "substance", e.g. wave he water; (b) phenomena with phenomena, e.g. wave with wave; (c) substance with s bstance, e.g. water with water. The three kinds of hells hot, cold and solitary.

The three major kinds of wisdom: (a) self-acquired, no master needed; (b) unacquir d and natural; (c) universal. Three definitions of heaven: (a) as a name or title, e.g. divine king, son of Heav en, etc.; (b) as a place for rebirth, the heavens of the gods; (c) the pure Budd ha-land.

A Buddha in his three eternal qualities: (a) in his nature or dharmakya; (b) roken eternity, sabhogakya; (c) in his continuous and eternally varied forms, nirm The three kinds of mental distress: desire, anger, stupidity, idem . Patience or forbearance of body, mouth, and mind.

(or ) Three modes of repentance: (a) to meditate on the way to prev delusions; (b) to seek the presence of the Buddha to rid one of sinful thoughts a nd passions; (c) in proper form to confess one's breach of the rules before the Bu ddha and seek remission.

(or ) The three reasons of bodhisattva's pity because all beings are lik nts; because of his knowledge of all laws and their consequences; without extern al cause, i.e. because of his own nature.

The three modes of the Buddha's teaching of the Southern Sects: immediate, g or progressive, and indeterminate.

The three kinds of uccheda cutting-off, excision, or bringing to an end: (1) (a) the incoming of wisdom, passion or illusion ceases of itself; (b) with realizatio n of the doctrine that all is unreal, evil karma ceases to arise; (c) illusion be ng ended, the causal nexus of the passions disappears and the attraction of the external ceases. (2) The three rvaka or ascetic stages are (a) ending the conditio of false views; (b) getting rid of desire and illusion in practice; (c) no mo sion or desire to be cut off.

The wisdom of common men, of the heterodox, and of Buddhism; i.e. (a) normal, y knowledge or ideas; (b) other worldly wisdom, e.g. of Hnayna; (c) dly wisdom, of Mahyna; cf. . [73]

Three kinds of existence: (a) that of qualities, as of opposites, e.g. length ortness; (b) that of phenomenal things so-called, e.g. a jar, a man; (c) that o e noumenal, or imaginary, understood as facts and not as illusions, such as a "h are's horns" or a "turtle's fur". Three kinds of desire food, sleep, sex.

Three Tiantai modes of entering dhyna: (a) gradual, from the shallow to the simple to the complex; (b) irregular, simple, and complex mixed; (c) immediate a

d whole. v. .

The three kinds of pramit ideals, or methods of perfection: (a) tha relating to this world; (b) that of rvakas and pratyekabuddhas relating to t ife for themselves; (c) the supreme one of bodhisattvas, relating to the f r all; cf. . The threefold way of obtaining pure karma, idem .

The three purities of a bodhisattva a mind free from all impurity, a body pure be se never to be reborn save by transformation, an appearance perfectly pure and a dorned.

Three kinds of baptism: (1) (a) Every Buddha baptizes a disciple by layin is head; (b) by predicting Buddhahood to him; (c) by revealing his glory profit. (2) Shingon has (a) baptism on acquiring the mystic word; (b) on remiss ion of sin and prayer for blessing and protection; (c) on seeking for reward in the next life.

The three sources, or causes of the rise of the passions and illusions: (a) the d, or active thought; (b) the objective world; (c) their constant interaction, he continuous stream of latent predispositions.

The three kinds of appearance: (1) In logic, the three kinds of percepts: (a) i ential, as fire is inferred from smoke; (b) formal or spatial, as length, breadth , etc.; (c) qualitative, as heat is in fire, etc. (2) (a) names, which are mere ndications of the temporal; (b) dharmas, or "things"; (c) the formless all thr incorrect positions.

Three ways in which bodhisattvas manifest themselves for saving those suffering th pains of hell, i.e. physically, by supernatural powers, change of form, etc.; m entally, through powers of memory and enlightenment; orally, by moral exhortatio n.

Three kinds of rpa, i.e. appearance or object: (1) (a) visible objects; (b) invisib le objects, e.g. sound; (c) invisible, immaterial, or abstract objects. (2) (a) colour, (b) shape, (c) quality.

Three classes of delusive views, or illusions those common to humanity; those of e inquiring mind; and those of the learned and settled mind.

The Tiantai School has a definition of the physical body of the Buddha; ical body with its vast variety; his real body, or dharmakya. The esoteric sect asc ribes a trikya to each of its honoured ones. v. . The three dukha or afflictions of the body old age, sickness, death.

The three kinds of icchantika: (a) the wicked; (b) called to save all beings; (c) otherwise those without a nature for final nirv Three kinds of scent, or incense, i.e. from root, branch, or flower.

The three voids or immaterialities. The first set of three is (a) , (b) , (c) second, (a) , (b) , (c) the self, things, all phenomena as "empty" or immate he third relates to charity: (a) giver, (b) receiver, (c) gift, all are "empty". () idem .

[74]

The three equal and universal characteristics of the one Tathgata, an esoteric def inition: (1) (a) his body, (b) discourse, (c) mind. (2) (a) his life or works ) spiritual body ; (c) salvation ; in their equal values and universality.

Three equal or universal currents or consequences, i.e. the certain consequen t follow on a good, evil, or neutral kind of nature, respectively; the temporal or particular fate derived from a previous life's ill deeds, e.g. shortened life f rom taking life; each organ as reincarnated according to its previous deeds, hence the blind. idem tripiaka.

The three divisions of the twelve nidnas, q.v.: (a) past, i.e. the first two sent the next eight; (c) future the last two. The three auras of earth, of the animate, and of the inanimate invoked against dem on influences.

The three refined, or subtle conceptions, in contrast with the cruder or common c ncepts, in the Awakening of Faith . The three are "ignorance", or the unenli ndition, considered as in primal action, the stirring of the perceptive faculty; ability to perceive phenomena; perceptive faculties; the object perceived, o mpirical world. The first is associated with the corpus or substance, the second and third with function, but both must have co-existence, e.g. water and waves. v. .

The three ties: (a) , the tie of false views, e.g. of a permanent ego; (b) line; (c) of doubt. The three are also parts of used for it.

The three stras and one stra on which the Pure Land sect bases its teaching:

The three bonds, i.e. directors of a monastery: (a) sthavira, elder, president; ( ) vihrasvmin, v. the abbot who directs the temporal affairs; (c) karmadna, v cts the monks. Another meaning: (a) ; (b) ; (c) vihrapla, v. director of w ree vary in different countries. v. . The three bonds desire, anger, stupidity; idem . The three nidnas or links with the Buddha resulting from calling upon him, a term of the Pure Land sect: (a) that he hears those who call his name, sees their wors hip, knows their hearts and is one with them; (b) that he shows himself to those who desire to see him; (c) that at every invocation aeons of sin are blotted out, and he and his sacred host receive such a disciple at death. The three things that work for punishment body, mouth, and mind. () v. . v. .

The three sages, or holy ones, of whom there are several groups. The Huayan have V irocana in the center with Majur on his left and Samantabhadra on his right. The Mi uo or Pure-land sect, have Amitbha in the center, with Avalokitevara on his left a nd Mahsthmaprpta on his right. The Tiantai use the term for the , , and v. .

The three groups, i.e. Those decided for the truth; those who are decide

the undecided. Definitions vary in different schools.

() The three cumulative commandments: (a) the formal 5, 8, or 10, and the re atever works for goodness; (c) whatever works for the welfare or salvation of li ving, sentient beings. interprets the above three as implicit in each of the ten co mandments e.g. (a) not to kill implies (b) mercy and (c) protection or salvation .

The three things possible and impossible to a Buddha. He can (a) have perfect kn dge of all things; (b) know all the natures of all beings, and fathom the affair s of countless ages; (c) save countless beings. But he cannot (a) annihilate cau sality, i.e. karma; (b) save unconditionally; (c) end the realm of the living. [75] V. ( ), but the former is only associated with, or nirva.

Three divisions of the eight-fold noble path, the first to the third self-control the fourth and fifth self-purification, the last three self-development in the r ligious life and in wisdom. Also , , substance, form, and function. The three exposures, i,e. the three sins of a monk each entailing his unfrocking w illful non-confession of sin, unwillingness to repent, claiming that lust is not contrary to the doctrine. v. .

The three prajs, or perfect enlightenments: (a) wisdom in its essence or wisdom of perceiving the real meaning of the last; (c) or the wisdom of k in their temporary and changing condition. The three kinds of rpa or form-realms: the five organs (of sense), their objects, and invisible perceptions, or ideas. Cf. .

The three kinds of dukha, pain, or suffering: that produced by direct causes; s or deprivation; by the passing or impermanency of all things.

A parable in the Lotus Sutra; the small plants representing ordinary men and devas medium sized plants rvakas and pratyeka-buddhas, and , and tall plants and large trees three grades of bodhisattvas. Another definition applies the term to the five "vehicles". There are also others. The three adornments, or glories, of a country: material attractions; religion and learning; men, i.e. religious men and bodhisattvas. Sabhoga or Sabhta. An ancient i of Mathur.

sabhogakya. (1) The "body of enjoyment " or recompense-body of a Buddha; his body, one of the Trikya, . (2) The third of the buddhaketra , the domain in which respond perfectly to their Buddha.

sabodhi, intp. . Perfect universal awareness, perfectly enlightened; v

The three laka; a laka is a mark, sign, token, aim, object; it is also 100,000, i. an . The three laka of the esoteric sects are the or magic word, the symbol and t he object worshipped. Other such threes are body, mouth, and mind; morning, noon, and evening; cold, heat, and rain, etc. v. .

A Tiantai name for Hnayna, whose tripiaka is ascribed to Mahkyapa. A student of Hnayna. A teacher of the Law; especially Xuanzang of the Tang dynasty; and cf. . sayaksabuddha (). The third of the ten titles of a Buddha, defined as perfect universal knowledge or understanding; omniscient.

; sayak-sabodhi. Correct universal intelligence, ( rrect universal perfect enlightenment (). An epithet of every Buddha. The full term is anuttar-sayak-sabodhi, perfect universal enlightenment, knowledge, or understand ing; omniscience.

The three kinds of skandhas, aggregations, or combinations, into which all life m ay be expressed according to the or Mahsakh school: combination for a momen existence; combination for a period, e.g. a single human lifetime; the tot ce of all beings.

The three places where kyamuni is said to have transmitted his mind or thought d and without speech to Kyapa: at the by a smile when plucking a flower; at the e shared his seat with him; finally by putting his foot out of his coffin. The moka of the three places, i.e. moral control over body, mouth, and mind.

Three classes of rayak or ascetics distinguished by their three kinds of abo dwell in retired places, as in forests; among tombs; in deserts; v. .

Three lines of action that affect karma, i.e. the ten good deeds that cause happy karma; the ten evil deeds that cause unhappy karma; or karma arising without ty, e.g. meditation on error and its remedy.

The three yna, or vehicles to nirva, i.e. rvaka, pratyekabuddha, and bodhisattva, [76] Three devices in meditation for getting rid of Mra-hindrances: within, to get rid of passion and delusion; without, to refuse or to withdraw from external temptat ion. The three regulation garments of a monk, kaya, i.e. sagh, assembly t worn over the antarvsaka, vest or shirt. The only proper garments of a monk. The three deteriorators, idem .

sapua. One of the twelve ways of putting the hands together in worship, i.e. bring g the hands together without the palms touching.

The three reports and eight investigations . Two angels, and , o he first a female at his right shoulder noting the evil deeds; the second, a mal e, at his left shoulder noting the good deeds; both report on high and in hades six times a month. Thus in each month there are and in each year and . denote a day in each of the first, fifth, and ninth months when the recording ang els of the four Lokaplas report on the conduct of each individual. See also . are the opening days of the four seasons and the two solstices and two equinoxes during which similar investigations are made. See also .

The three kinds of enlightenment: (1) (a) Enlightenment for self; (b) for ot c) (or ) perfect enlightenment and accomplishment; the first is an arhat's, the st and second a bodhisattva's, all three a Buddha's. (2) From the Awakening of F aith (a) inherent, potential enlightenment or intelligence of every being; (b) tial, or early stages of such enlightenment, brought about through the external perfuming or influence of teaching, working on the internal perfuming of subcons cious intelligence; (c) completion of enlightenment, the subjective mind in perfec t accord with the subconscious (or superconscious) mind, or the inherent intelli gence.

The three studies, meditations, or insights. The most general group is that of Ti antai: (a) study of all as void, or immaterial; (b) of all as unreal, transient, r temporal; (c) as the via media inclusive of both. The Huayan group is , d . The group is , and . A three-cornered altar in the fire worship of Shingon, connected with exorcism. ( ) The three emancipations, idem and q.v. They are

Buddha's three modes of discourse, i.e. without reserve, or the whole truth; tact ical or partial, adapting truth to the capacity of his hearers; and a combinatio n of both.

The three stras translated by Kumrajva, on which the Three stra School (M ts doctrines, i.e. Madhyamaka-stra, on "the Mean", A.D. 409; Dvdaanikyapoints, A.D. 408; Sata-stra, the hundred verses, A.D. 404.

The Sanlun, Mdhyamika, or Middle School, founded in India by Ngrjuna, in China by iang during the reign of An Di, Eastern Jin, A.D. 397-419. It flourished up to th e latter part of the Tang dynasty. In 625 it was carried to Japan as Sanron. Aft er the death of Jiaxiang, who wrote the , a northern and southern division took pla e. While the Mdhyamika denied the reality of all phenomenal existence, and define d the noumenal world in negative terms, its aim seems not to have been nihilisti c, but the advocacy of a reality beyond human conception and expression, which i n our terminology may be termed a spiritual realm. A request thrice repeated implying earnest desire.

The three dogmas. The "middle" school of Tiantai says , . i.e. , things causally produced are in their essential nature unreal (or immaterial) ; (b) , though things are unreal in their essential nature their derived forms are rea l; (c) ; but both are one, being of the one reality. These three dogmas are found ed on a verse of Ngrjuna's , , "All causally p name, and indicate the 'mean'." There are other explanations the interprets the a nd as ; the makes independent. is the all, i.e. the totality of all things, spoken of as the or true, or real; is the differentiation of all things and is spoken of as common, i.e. things as commonly named; is the connecting idea which makes a unity of both, e.g. "all are but parts of one stupendous whole." The ma kes all and the all into one whole, unifying the whole and its parts. may be tak en as the immaterial, the undifferentiated all, the sum of existences, by some a s the tathgatagarbha ; as the unreal, or impermanent, the material or transient fo the temporal that can be named, the relative or discrete; as the unifier, which places each in the other and all in all. The "shallower" school associated and ith the noumenal universe as opposed to the phenomenal and illusory existence re presented by . The "profounder" school teaches that all three are aspects of the s ame. [77]

The unity of , , , three aspects of the same reality, taught by the as d m the which separates them.

The three states of mind or consciousness: the original unsullied consciousness o Mind, the tathgatagarbha, the eighth or laya ; mind or consciousness diver ontact with or producing phenomena, good and evil; consciousness discriminating an d evolving the objects of the five senses. Also manas, laya, and amala, v () The three transformations of his Buddha-realm made by kyamuni on the Vulture first, his revelation of this world, then its vast extension, and again its stil l vaster extension. See Lotus Sutra. (or). The three virtuous positions, or states, of a bodhisattva are , characteristics of a saint or holy one are the whole of the . (or ) sapatti. To turn out well, prosper, be on the path of success.

savara. (or ) To hinder, ward off, protect from falling into the three inf igrations; a divine being that fills this office worshipped by the Tantra School . The sixth vijna, v. .

trikya. The threefold body or nature of a Buddha, i.e. the , , and , o gakya, and nirmakya. The three are defined as , , and , the Buddha-body per essential nature; his body of bliss, which he "receives" for his own "use" and e njoyment; and his body of transformation, by which he can appear in any form; i. e. spiritual, or essential; glorified; revealed. While the doctrine of the trikya is a Mahyna concept, it partly results from the Hnayna idealization of the earthly Buddha with his thirty-two signs, eighty physical marks, clairvoyance, clairaudi ence, holiness, purity, wisdom, pity, etc. Mahyna, however, proceeded to conceive of Buddha as the Universal, the All, with infinity of forms, yet above all our c oncepts of unity or diversity. To every Buddha Mahyna attributed a three-fold body : that of essential Buddha; that of joy or enjoyment of the fruits of his past s aving labours; that of power to transform himself at will to any shape for omnip resent salvation of those who need him. The trinity finds different methods of e xpression, e.g. Vairocana is entitled , the embodiment of the Law, shining everywh ere, enlightening all; Locana is ; c.f. , the embodiment of purity and bliss; kya is or Buddha revealed. In the esoteric sect they are Vairocana, Amitbha, and . The are also dharma, sagha, buddha. Nevertheless, the three are considered trinity, the three being essentially one, each in the other. (1) Dharmakya in its earliest conception was that of the body of the dharma, or truth, as preached by kyamuni; later it became his mind or soul in contrast with his material body. In Mdhyamika, the dharmakya was the only reality, i.e. the void, or the immateria1, t he ground of all phenomena; in other words, the the tathgatagarbha, the bhtatathat. According to the Huayan (Kegon) School it is the or noumenon, while the other two areor phenomenal aspects. "For the Vijnavda... the body of the law as highest reali ty is the void intelligence, whose infection (saklea) results in the process of bi rth and death, whilst its purification brings about Nirva, or its restoration to i ts primitive transparence" (Keith). The "body of the law is the true reality of everything". Nevertheless, in Mahyna every Buddha has his own ; e.g. in the dharmaky aspect we have the designation Amitbha, who in his sabhogakya aspect is styled Ami tyus. (2) Sambhogakya, a Buddha's reward body, or body of enjoyment of the merits he attained as a bodhisattva; in other words, a Buddha in glory in his heaven. Thi s is the form of Buddha as an object of worship. It is defined in two aspects, ( a) for his own bliss, and (b) for the sake of others, revealing himself i o bodhisattvas, enlightening and inspiring them. By wisdom a Buddha's dharmakya i s attained, by bodhisattva-merits his sabhogakya. Not only has every Buddha all th e three bodies or aspects, but as all men are of the same essence, or nature, as Buddhas, they are therefore potential Buddhas and are in and of the trikya. More over, trikya is not divided, for a Buddha in his is still one with his and , e bodies being co-existent. (3) ; ; nirmakya, a Buddha's transformation,

dy, in which he appears at will and in any form outside his heaven, e.g. as kyamun i among men. [78]

The are the , , and ; the are , , and , i.e. the virtue, or independence, reality; of (b) , being praj or wisdom; and of (c) , being Nirva. v. . v. . The three physical wrong deeds killing, robbing, adultery.

triyna. or (1) The three vehicles across sasra into nirva, i.e. the ather in the Lotus Sutra to lure his children out of the burning house: (a) goat carts, representing rvakas; (b) deer carts, pratyekabuddhas; (c) bullock carts, b odhisattvas. (2) The three principal schools of Buddhism Hnayna, Madhyamayna, Mahyna. idem .

The three rules () of the Tiantai Lotus School: (a) The absolute and hat; (b) meditation upon and understanding of it; (c) the extension of this u ing to all its workings. In the the three are traced to the of the Lotus Su e developed as: (a) the abode of mercy, or to dwell in mercy; (b) the garment urance, or patience under opposition; (c) the throne of immateriality (or spiritua lity), a state of nirva tranquility. Mercy to all is an extension of , patience of nirva tranquility of . The three ranks of those who reach the Pure Land of Amitbha: superior i.e. monks a nd nuns who become enlightened and devote themselves to invocation of the Buddha of boundless age; medium, i.e. laymen of similar character who do pious deeds; inferior, i.e. laymen less perfect than the last.

The three wheels: (1) The Buddha's (a) body or deeds; (b) mouth, or discourse; ( ) mind or ideas. (2) (a) (or ) His supernatural powers, or powers of (bodily) sel -transformation, associated with body; (b) his discriminating understanding of ot ers, associated with mind; (c) or his (oral) powers of teaching, associate ) Similarly (a) ; (b) ; (c) . (4) , , and . The wheel of illusio karma sets rolling that of suffering, which in turn sets rolling the wheel of i llusion. (5) (a) Impermanence; (b) uncleanness; (c) suffering. Cf. .

The three-wheel world, i.e. , , and . Every world is founded on a wheel of d; above this is one of water; above this is one of metal, on which its nine mou ntains and eight seas are formed. idem .

The three periods of the Buddha's teaching as defined by Paramrtha: (a) the ling onwards of the Law-wheel, the first seven years' teaching of Hnayna, i.e. the four axioms and unreality; (b) illuminating or explaining the law-wheel, th y years' teaching of the praj or wisdom stras, illuminating and by illuminati ity; (c) maintaining the law-wheel, i.e. the remaining years of teaching of the de eper truths of both unreality and reality. Also the three-fold group of the Lotus School: (a) radical, or fundamental, as found in the stra; (b) b other teaching; until (c) branches and leaves are reunited with the root in t s Sutra, . The three-wheel condition giver, receiver, gift.

() The three turns of the law-wheel when the Buddha preached in the Deer Park: icative, i.e. postulation and definition of the ; (b) hortative, e.g. suffe d be diagnosed; (c) evidential, e.g. I have overcome suffering, etc.

() The twelve processes are the application of the above heel of the law () to each of the four postulates. The three "turns" are also appli d to the four kinds of knowledge, i.e. , , , and . Three brothers Ksyapa, all three said to be disciples of the Buddha. The three unpardonable sins of Devadatta, which sent him to the Avici hell schism, stoning the Buddha to the shedding of his blood, killing a nun. [79] Sama, , equal, like, same as.

The three feelings of oppression that make for a bodhisattva's recreancy the vastne ss of bodhi; the unlimited call to sacrifice; the uncertainty of final persevera nce. There are three modes of training against them. idem and .

(1) The three paths all have to tread; , , i.e. (a) ; ; the y; (b) the path of works, action, or doing, productive of karma; (c) the resultan path of suffering. As ever recurring they are called the three wheels. (2) , , rv as, pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, cf. .

Three magical "true words" or terms of Shingon for self-purification, i.e. M0046 067153 which is the "true word" for the body; for the mouth or speech; and M00 M067153 for the mind. Three aspects of the omniscience of Buddha: knowledge of future karma, of past ka rma, of present illusion and liberation; v. . idem .

Three divisions. Included under this category are such terms as , ,

(l) The Garbhadhtu maala, or pantheon, has the three divisions of , , , i otus, and Diamond or Vajra. (2) The teaching of the , and is said to esoteric Buddhism.

the colors of the three divisions of the great pantheon (): Vairocana, whi nting) Amitbha, yellow; and the Diamond Ruler kyamuni, a ruddy yellow.

There are several groups: (1) The Amitbha group, also styled , is , s , and ; also called . (3) The Lotus group is the ,

The three modes of diagnosis: the superior, listening to the voice; the medium, erving the external appearance; the inferior testing the pulse. (or ) idem .

The three meditations, on the relationship of the noumenal and phenomenal, of the yan School: (a) the universe as law or mind, that all things are , i.e. all thin r phenomena are of the same Buddha-nature, or the Absolute; (b) that the Buddh e and the thing, or the Absolute and phenomena are not mutually exclusive; (c) henomena are not mutually exclusive, but in a common harmony as parts of the who

le.

The three metals, gold, silver, copper. The esoterics have (a) earth, water, fire , representing the mystic body; (b) space and wind, the mystic mouth or speech; ( ) cognition, the mystic mind. saprpta, intp. by , , or well, properly, or timely arrived. Also ly or universally. It is a word spoken authoritatively some say before, some say after a common meal; a "blessing" to ward off evil from the food.

A trident; emblem of the Garbhadhtu ; and of the , , and. Also writ Three twenty-fourths of a tael, the weight of a deva's garments, e.g. featherweig ht.

() The three whole months of abstinence, the first, fifth, and ninth months, ood should be taken after noon. The four deva-kings are on tours of inspection d uring these months. trividha-dvra, the three gates; a monastery; purity of body, speech, and thought; idem also .

The three officiators in a monastery for incense, for writing, and for acting

The three great asakhyeya (i.e. beyond number) kalpas the three timeless perio bodhisattva's progress to Buddhahood. [80]

The three dhra, which word from dhra, " maintaining,""preserving,"is defin maintaining wisdom or knowledge. Dhra are"spells chiefly for personal use" (Eliot), as compared with mantra, which are associated with religious services. The Tian tai School interprets the "three dhra" of the Lotus Sutra on the lines of the, i.e. nd. Another group is the power to retain all the teaching one hears; scrimination; power to rise superior to external praise or blame.

() The Three Stages School founded by the monkXinxing in the Sui dynasty bed in A.D. 600 and again finally in A.D. 725; also styled ; . Past, present, future, idem .

The three Indian seasons, spring, summer, and winter, also styled, , , the h and cold seasons.

The three vighna, i.e. hinderers or barriers, of which three groups are given: (1 ) (a) the passions, i.e. desire, hate, stupidity; (b) the deeds done; (c) tions. (2) (a) ; (b) ; (c) skin, flesh, and heart (or mind) trou m external objects: internal views, and mental ignorance. (3) the three weighty ob structions: (a) self-importance, ; (b) envy, ; (c) desire, . The three kaya, i.e. "mixed dyes" or infections: the passions; their karma; reincar nation; or illusion, karma, and suffering. The three hardships, or sufferings in the three lower paths of transmigration, v. .

The three-faced great black deva, Mahkla v. , with angry mien, a form of Mahe a, as destroyer. Another interpretation says he is a union of Mahkla, Vairavaa, and a Gandharva.

The three subversions or subverters: (evil) thoughts, (false) views, and (a delude d) mind.

The three after death remainders, or continued mortal experiences, of rvakas and pr atyekabuddhas, who mistakenly think they are going to final nirva, but will still further passion and illusion, further karma, and continued rebirth, in re d the trailokya. The three horses, one young, strong, and tractable; another similar but not tract able; a third old and intractable, i.e. bodhisattvas (or bodhisattva-monks), rvaka s and icchantis.

The three kinds of evil spirits, of which three groups are given: (1) , an d . Thee three halls of silence where talk and laughter are prohibited: the bathroom, the sleeping apartment, the privy. See. See . Incense balls made of various kinds of ingredients; typifying the aggregation of mortal suffering, and its destruction by the, fires of wisdom. Long, for long, long ago; also . One who has spent many years in monastic life, or in a particular monastery.

Perfect enlightenment long acquired; kya-Tathgata in ancient kalpas having achi mplete bodhi, transmitted it to Majur Avalokitevara, and others, i.e., their enlight enment is the fruit of his enlightenment. :. The perfect enlightenment achieved by the Buddha in remote kalpas. To beg. a beggar. A bhiku, mendicant monk, or almsman.

M004101Khri-srong-lde-btsan, king of Tibet (A.D. 743-798). In 747 he brought to Tib t "the real founder of Lamaism" (Eliot), Padmasabhava, a Buddhist of Swat (Urgya o introduced a system of magic and mysticism (saturated with ivaism) which found its way into Mongolia and China. The king was converted to Buddhism by his mothe r, a Chinese princess, and became a powerful supporter of it. He encouraged the translation of the Buddhist canon which was completed by his successors. He is w orshipped as an incarnation of Majur.

; ; ; ; ; ; ; kaya, used in the sense of omega, implying finali

The Brahman who begged one of riputra's eyes in a former incarnation, then tra it, causing riputra to give up his efforts to become a bodhisattva and turn back to the Hnayna.

To beg for food, one of the twelve dhtas prescribing outward conduct of the monk; mendicancy is the right livelihood of a monk, to work for a living is an improper life: mendicancy keeps a monk humble, frees him from the cares of life, and offe rs the donors a field of blessedness; but he may not ask for food.

The four divisions of the mendicant's dole; to provide for (1) fellow religionists (2) the poor, (3) the spirits, (4) self. [81] Yu, a preposition, in, at, etc. , similar to . Used in error for .

Kcana-ml, a hair circlet or ornament of pure gold; name of the wife of Kul ity to her husband when he had been disgraced. Kujara. Name of a tree. Kujara. Name of a tree.

; ; ; ; ; ; ; Kustana, or Khotan, in Turkestan, t il the Moslem invasion. Buddhism was introduced there about 200 B.C. or earlier. It was the centre from which is credited the spread of Mahayanism, v. 12. Gone, lost, dead, ruined; not.

The things left behind at death by any one of the five orders of monks or nuns; cl thing, etc., being divided among the other monks or nuns; valuables and land, et c., going to the establishment. Dead; the dead. The soul of the dead. All, everybody, common, ordinary.

The ordinary practising monk as contrasted with the the holy monk who has achieve higher merit. ; ; blapthagjana. Everyman, the worldly man, the outside the Law of the Buddha, because of his karma.

The serious misfortunes of the sinful man in whom the laya-vijna, the fundame ligence, or life force, of everyman, is still unenlightened; they are compared t o ten progressive stages of a dream in which a rich man sees himself become poor and in prison. The common underlying nature of all men; also called . Common men, or sinners, also believers in Hnayna; also the unenlightened in general .

The eight subverted views of common men and Hinayanists counting the impermanent a ermanent, the non-joy as joy, the non-ego as ego, the impure as pure; the really permanent as impermanent, the real joy, the true ego, the real purity as non-jo y, non-ego, impurity; cf. . Ordinary, or worldly teachers unenlightened by Buddhist truth. Desires or passions of the unconverted. Common, ignorant, or unconverted men. The anxieties of common or unconverted men.

The ordinary blessedness of devas and men as compared with that of the converted. Common seed, ordinary people. The practices, good and evil, of commom ,or unconverted men. Sinners and saints. Sinners and saints are of the same fundamental nature. Sinners and saints are of the same fundamental nature. This world, where saints and sinners dwell together; one of the Tiantai . Ordinary knowledge, worldly knowledge, that of the unenlightened by Buddha. The common mortal body, the ordinary individual. A blade, a sword; to kill. Asipattravana; the forest of swords, where every leaf is a sharp sword, v. . sahasra. A thousand.

The 1,250, i.e. the immediate disciples of Buddha's disciples, all former here nverted to Buddha's truth. The 1,200 merits of tongue in the Lotus Sutra. The 1,200 merits of ear in the Lotus Sutra. The 1,200 merits of mind in the Lotus Sutra.

The thousand Buddhas. Each of the past, present, and future kalpas has a thousand Buddhas; kyamuni is the "fourth" Buddha in the present kalpa.

professes to give their names. A scripture which lists the names of the thousand b ddhas. The thousand-petalled lotus on which sits Locana Buddha, each petal a transformat ion of kyamuni; Locana represents also the Sagha, as Vairocana represents the Dharm a. The thousand "suchnesses" or characteristics, a term of the Tiantai sect. In each of the ten realms , from Buddha to purgatory, the ten are present, totaling one hu ndred. These multiplied by the ten categories of existence make a thousand, and multiplied by the three categories of group existence make 3,000.

(); The thousand-hand Guanyin, see below. There are v .g. an abbreviation of ; also or

Sahasrabhuja-sahasranetra. One of the six forms of Kuanyin with a thousand arms an a thousand eyes.

Sahasrabhuja-sahasranetra. One of the six forms of Kuanyin with a thousand arm thousand eyes.

Sahasrabhuja-sahasranetra. One of the six forms of Kuanyin with a thousand a thousand eyes. The image usually has forty arms, one eye in each hand; and forty

multiplied by twenty-five is the number of regions in this universe. For the or r tinue, the maala and signs v. .

The gate of understanding of the thousand laws the second stage of a bodhisattva's udy and attainment. Bingheul Mingbulak. A lake country 30 li E. of Talas.

The Buddha Locana seated on a lotus of a thousand petals, each containing myriads f worlds in each world is, kyamuni seated under a bodhi tree, all such worlds atta ining bodhi at the same instant. The Deva with 1,000 of a thousand petals, i.e. that of Locana Buddha.

Sahasrara; the thousand-spoked wheel sign, i.e. the wrinkles on the soles of a cak avarti, or Buddha.

(or ) Master of a thousand stras a title of Ngrjuna and of Vasubandhu. The thousand-li colt, a name for Xuanzang. [82] A fork, forked; to fold, folded. The palms of the hands together with the fingers crossed forming ten. Also, the p alms together with the middle fingers crossing each other, an old Indian form of greeting. In China anciently the left hand was folded over the right, but with women the right hand was over the left. In mourning salutations the order was re versed. kaa, an instant, a moment; also . kam, v. . aya, diminish, decay, end; v. .

mukha, the mouth, especially as the organ of speech. , , are the three media of c rruption, body or deed , mouth or word, and mind or thought. Oral transmission. Oral transmission.

One of the eleven heretical sects of India. which is said to have compared the mou h to the great void out of which all things were produced. The great void produc ed the four elements, these produced herbs, and these in turn all the living; or more in detail the void produced wind, wind fire, fire warmth, warmth water, wa ter congealed and formed earth which produced herbs, herbs cereals and life, hen ce life is food; ultimately all returns to the void, which is nirvana.

Exponents of the doctrine which compares the mouth to the great void from which al things are produced; see .

Exponents of the doctrine which compares the mouth to the great void from which al things are produced; see . The mouth sign, one of the fourteen symbols of q.v. Harmony of mouths or voices, unanimous approval.

The four evils of the mouth, lying, double tongue, ill words, and exaggeration; c f. . One of the . Secret or magical words, either definite formulas of the Buddha et words from his dharma, kaya, or spirit. Patience of the mouth, uttering no rebuke under insult or persecution; there are similarly and .

One of the . (1) The work of the mouth, i.e. talk, speech. (2) The evil karma ed by the mouth, especially from lying, double-tongue, ill words, and exaggerati on. The offering of the praise or worship of the lips; also and .

Esoteric commentary or explanation of two kinds, one general, the other only impa ted to the initiated. Esoteric commentary or explanation of two kinds, one general, the other only impa rted to the initiated. Invocation.

The samdhi in which with a quiet heart the individual repeats the name of Buddha, the samdhi attained by such repetition. Orally transmitted decisions or instructions.

One of the . The wheel of the mouth. or the wheel of the true teaching; Bud hing rolling on everywhere, like a chariot-wheel, destroying misery. Mouth meditation, i.e. dependence on the leading of others, inability to enter int o personal meditation. Bh; bhmi; pthiv. Earth, locality, local, vulgar.

The local guardian deity of the soil or locality, deus loci; in the classics and g overnment sacrifices known as ; as guardian deity of the grave . The is the sh this deity as ruler of the site of a monastery, and is usually east of the main hall. On the 2nd and 16th of each month a or reading of a sutra should be done at the shrine. anaicara. Saturn. ani, the Hindu ruler of the planet, was "identified elf ".[Eitel.] Tibet.

The putting of earth on the grave 108 times by the Shingon sect; they als he deceased's body, and even on the sick, as a kind of baptism for sin, to save the deceased from the hells and base reincarnations, and bring them to the Pure Land. sthltyaya. Serious sin. An earthen loaf, i.e. a grave; but v. . Aoka is said to have become king as a reward for offering, when a child in a previ ous incarnation, a double-handful of sand as wheat or food to the Buddha.

A gentleman, scholar, officer. v. purua.

One of the eight heterodox views, i.e. the pride arising from belief in a purua,

mana. A crematory; a burial place for remains from cremation. A grave; v. . doubtful. [83] Evening. The evening service. The morning service.

Maha. ; . Great, large, big; all pervading, all-embracing; numerous ; surpassi sterious ; beyond comprehension ; omnipresent . The elements, or essentia a) The three all-pervasive qualities of the q.v. : its , , substance, for ctions, v. . (b) The four tanmtra or elements, earth, water, fire, air (or win the . (c) The five, i.e. the last four and space , v. . (d) The six , fire, wind, space (or ether), mind . Hnayna, emphasizing impersonality , consider these six as the elements of all sentient beings; Mahyna, emphasizing the unrealit y of all things , counts them as elements, but fluid in a flowing stream of life, with mind dominant; the esoteric sect emphasizing nonproduction, or non-creation , regards them as universal and as the Absolute in differentiation. (e) The add rception, to the six above named to cover the perceptions of the six organs . Mahsamata. The first of the five kings of the Vivarta kalpa ( ), one of the kya clan.

vantiks. The great school of the son who "could not be abandoned" (a subdivi Samatiyas ), whose founder when a newborn babe was abandoned by his parents.

The two great characteristics of the evil state, no sense of shame or d ss.

Mahyna; also called ; ; ; ; ; ; , ; with the Hnayna. It indicates universalism, or Salvation for all, for all are Buddh a and will attain bodhi. It is the form of Buddhism prevalent in Tibet, Mongolia , China, Korea, Japan, and in other places in the Far East. It is also called No rthern Buddhism. It is interpreted as the greater teaching as compared with the s aller, or inferior. Hnayna, which is undoubtedly nearer to the original teaching o f the Buddha, is unfairly described as an endeavour to seek nirvana through an a sh-covered body, an extinguished intellect, and solitariness; its followers are sravakas and pratyekabuddhas (i.e. those who are striving for their own delivera nce through ascetic works). Mahyna, on the other hand, is described as seeking to find and extend all knowledge, and, in certain schools, to lead all to Buddhahoo d. It has a conception of an Eternal Buddha, or Buddhahood as Eternal (Adi-Buddh a), but its especial doctrines are, inter alia, (a) the bodhisattvas , i.e. being s who deny themselves final Nirvana until, according to their vows, they have fi rst saved all the living; (b) salvation by faith in, or invocation of the Buddha s or bodhisattvas; (c) Paradise as a nirvana of bliss in the company of Buddhas, bodhisattvas, saints, and believers. Hnayna is sometimes described as self-benefit ing, and Mahyna as self-benefit for the benefit of others, unlimited altruism an y being the theory of Mahyna. There is a further division into one-yana and threeyanas: the tryna may be rvaka, pratyeka-buddha, and bodhisattva, represented by a go at, deer, or bullock cart; the one-yna is that represented by the Lotus School as the one doctrine of the Buddha, which had been variously taught by him accordin

g to the capacity of his hearers, v. . Though Mahyna tendencies are seen in later fo rms of the older Buddhism, the foundation of Mahyna has been attributed to Ngrjuna The characteristics of this system are an excess of transcendental speculation t ending to abstract nihilism, and the substitution of fanciful degrees of meditat ion and contemplation (v. Samdhi and Dhyna) in place of the practical asceticism o f the Hnayna school."[Eitel 68-9.] Two of its foundation books are the and the ge numberof Mahyna sutras are ascribed to the Buddha.

The two Mahyna kinds of Buddhahood: (1) that of natural purity, for every on nherent nature; (2) that attained by practice. The Mahyna good roots realm, a name for the Amitbha Pure-land of the West.

The four fruits, or bodhisattva stages in Mahyna, the fourth being that of a Budd ta-panna, sakdgmin, angmin, and arhan. This is a catego [84] Mahyna "cause" is variously described as the mind of enlightenment ; or the ind all things . "Mahynafundament", title of Kuiji, a noted disciple of Xuanzang ; known idem the Lotus Sutra.

"Mahyna-deva", a title given to Xuanzang, who was also styled Moksa "Moka-deva", a title given to Xuanzang.

The school of Mahyna, attributed to the rise in India of the Mdhyamika, i.e. the ool ascribed to Ngrjuna, and the Yoga or Dharmalakaa school, the other school ayna. In China and Japan the and are classed as Hnayna, the rest being Mahyn h the principal schools are , , , , , , , q.v. The mind or heart of the Mahyna; seeking the mind of Buddha by means of Mahyna.

The commands or prohibitions for bodhisattvas and monks, also styled ; ; according to the school. The gives ten weighty prohibitions and forty-eight lighte r ones; v. also . v. ; for v. .

The sutra and scriptures of the Mahyna, their doctrines being square an all equally, or universal.

Viatik-vijaptimtrat-siddhi-stra. A title of one of three treatises 535, tr. 557-569, and tr. by Xuanzang in 661 being the other two. a title for v. . and v. .

The supreme Mahyna truth, according to the , is that of ultimate reality the temporary and apparent; also reliance on the power of the vow of the bodhis attva.

The Mahyna great moral law involving no external action; a Tiantai expressio nner change which occurs in the recipient of ordination; it is the activity with in; also ; .

The lands wholly devoted to Mahyna, i.e. China and Japan, where in practice ther no Hnayna.

Mahyna sutras, the stra-piaka. Discourses ascribed to the Buddha, presumed to be en in India and translated into Chinese. These are divided into five classes cor responding to the Mahyna theory of the Buddha's life: (1) Avatasaka, the sermons fi st preached by kyamuni after enlightenment; (2) Vaipulya, ; (3) Praj Pramit, ma Puarka, ; and last (5) Mahparinirva, . Another list of Mahyna sutras is Hnayna are given as the Agamas , etc.

Mahynastra-lakra-k. An exposition of the teachings of the Vijna-vda 0-3 by Prabhkaramitra. 13 chuan. Mahyna- raddhotpda-stra, attributed to Avaghoa (without sufficient A.D. 553 and iknanda between 695-700; there are nineteen commentaries on it. It is described as the foundation work of the Mahyna. Tr. into English by Timothy Richa rd and more correctly by T. Suzuki as The Awakening of Faith.

Abhidharma of the Mahyna, the collection of discourses on metaphysics and doctrine

Vimalakrti-nirdea-stra, () is the Sanskrit title of a work of which the ations, one made by Upanya A.D. 502-557. [85]

( ) For the sake of a great cause, or because of a great matter the Buddha appeared, e. for changing illusion into enlightenment. The Lotus interprets it as enlighte nment; the Nirvana as the Buddha-nature; the as the joy of Paradise.

Sealed with the sign of manhood, i.e. of the religious life. Maharsi. Great sag applied to Buddhist saints as superior to ordinary "immortals"; also to sravakas , and especially to Buddha; are the Buddha's laws or commands. Vasistha was of the seven rsis of Brahmanic mythology. A title of the esoteric sect for their form of Buddha, or Buddhas, especially of Vairocana of the Vajradhtu and kyamuni of the Garbhadhtu groups. Also, an abbreviati on of a dhra as is of a sutra, and there are other scriptures. Ended, finished; dead to the world; also .

Great or firm faith in, or surrender to Buddha, especially to Amitabha. A heart of faith great as the ocean. A fully ordained monk, i.e. a bhiku as contrasted with the ramaa. The Director or Pope of monks; an office under Wudi, A.D. 502550, of the Liang dyn asty, for the control of the monks. Wendi, 560-7, of the Ch'en dynasty appointed a or Director over the monks in his capital. The great commander, one of the sixteen q.v., named Atavika as, chiefly spells connected with his cult.

(or

The Great-Light Ming-wang, kyamuni in a previous existence, when king of Jambudv Benares. There his white elephant, stirred by the sight of a female elephant, r an away with him into the forest, where he rebuked his mahout, who replied, "I c an only control the body not the mind, only a Buddha can control the mind." Ther eupon the royal rider made his resolve to attain bodhi and become a Buddha. Late r, he gave to all that asked, finally even his own head to a Brahman who demande d it, at the instigation of an enemy king.

bhsvara. The third of the celestial regions in the second dhyna heaven of the f lm; v. .

The great light shining everywhere, especially the ray of light that streamed from between the Buddha's eyebrows, referred to in the Lotus Sutra. One of the six forms of Guanyin. Mah-cund, a form of Guanyin. There are dhras beginning with the name Cund.

mahkalpa. The great kalpa, from the beginning of a universe till it is destroyed a nd another begins in its place. It has four kalpas or periods known as vivarta th e creation period; vivartasiddha the appearance of sun and moon, i.e. light, and t he period of life, human and general; savarta or destruction first by fire, then ter, then fire, then deluge, then a great wind, i.e. water during seven small ka lpas, fire during 56 and wind one, in all 64; savartatthhi total destruction gradu ly reaching the void. A great kalpa is calculated as eighty small kalpas and to last 1,347,000,000 years. Kapphia or Mahakapphia v. . King Powerful, noted for his unstinted generosity. Indra to test him appeared as a Brahman and asked for his flesh; the king ungrudgingly cut of and gave him his arm. Indra was then Devadatta, King Powerful was kyamuni; v. ().

The mighty "diamond" or Vajra-mahrja in the Garbhadhtu group, a fierce guardian rvant of Buddhism, see below.

ryara. Also The great brave, or rya the brave. An Indian Buddhist author of s rks.

A guardian ruler in the Garbhadhtu group called Mahnla, the Great Blue Pearl, s sapphire, which in some way is associated with him.

Another name for , one of the incarnations of Vairocana represented with t ach hand holding one of his symbols. Also ; . See . See .

Mahsthma or Mahsthmaprpta . A Bodhisattva representing the Buddha-w Amitbha's right, with Avalokitevara on the left. They are called the three holy on es of the western region. He has been doubtfully identified with Maudgalyyana. Al so . The Buddha of mighty power (to heal and save), a Buddha's title. [86] Greatly zealous and bold a title of Vairocana. The transforming teaching and work of a Buddha in one lifetime. () A major chiliocosm, or universe, of 3,000 great chiliocosms, v. . A major chiliocosm, or universe, of 3,000 great chiliocosms, v. . A temple and its great bell in Lhasa Tibet, styled

, built when the T'ang prince

ecame the wife of the Tibetan king Ts'ah-po and converted Tibet to Buddhism. The good-fortune devs, and also devas, also called sutras. idem . The sixth bodhisattva in the second row of the Garbhadhtu Guanyin group. The fifth bodhisattva in the second row of the Garbhadhtu Guanyin group.. The sixth bodhisattva in the third row of the Garbhadhtu Guanyin group. , concerning whom there

mahraurava. The hell of great wailing, the fifth of the eight hot hells. Also

Great monk, senior monk, abbot ; a monk of great virtue and old age. Buddhoingha, ( Fotu cheng ), who came to China A.D. 310, was so styled by his Chinese disciple long.

Dpakara. The Buddha of burning light, the twenty-fourth predecessor of kyamuni ple of Varaprabha ; v. and . In the Lotus Sutra he appears from his nirvana on th e Vulture Peak with kyamuni, manifesting that the nirvana state is one of continue d existence. The great order, command, destiny, or fate, i.e. life-and-death, mortality, reinc arnation. The catalogue in 14 juan of the Buddhist scripture made under the Empress g dynasty, the name of which she changed to Zhou.

The larger, or fuller edition of a canonical work, work, especially of the next. ; The Mahaprajnaparamita sutra as tr. by Kumarajiva in 27 chuan 10 chuan edition.

The larger, or fuller edition of a canonical work, work, especially of the The Mahprajpramit-stra as tr. by Kumrajva in 27 chuan,

Great! the robe of deliverance verses in praise of the cassock, from the , tion into the order. A catalogue of the Buddhist library in the Tang dynasty A.D. 664.

The Record of Western Countries by Xuanzang of the Tang dynasty ; v. .

The great benefit that results from goodness, also expressed as implying th ne is the greater the resulting benefit.

The ten mental conditions for cultivation of goodness, being a part of the forty-s x methods mentioned in the 4 ; faith, zeal, renunciation, shame (for one's own sin ), shame (for another's sin), no desire, no dislike, no harm, calmness, self-con trol. v. . Well acquainted with the good ; great friends. daki, v. .

The throne of Indra, whose throne is four-square to the universe ; also Indra-altar of square shape. He is worshipped as the mind-king of the universe,

things depending on him. Great and perfect enlightenment, Buddha-wisdom. Great perfect mirror wisdom, i.e. perfect all-reflecting Buddha-wisdom.

A meditation on the reflection of the perfect Buddha-wisdom in every being, that an image may enter into any number of reflectors, so the Buddha can enter into m e and I into him . Great earth, the whole earth, everywhere, all the land, etc. Ten bodhisattva bhmi, or stages above that of in the 4, and the mental ected with them. is also defined as good and evil, the association of mind with t hem being by the ten methods of , , , , , , , , , .

Dignga, or Mah-Dignga, also known as Jina, founder of the medieval school of logic about the fifth century A.D. His works are known only in Tibetan translati ons. [Winternitz.] [87] A great altar, the chief altar.

Mahasattva. A great being, noble, a leader of men, a bodhisattva; also a rvaka, ddha; especially one who benefits himself to help others. Bamboo slips used before Kuan-yin when the latter is consulted as an oracle. '

The great night, i.e. that before the funeral pyre of a monk is lighted; also ; The great dream, "the dream of life," this life, the world.

Mahdeva. . (1) A former incarnation of kyamuni as a Cakravart. (2) A title ) An able supporter of the Mahsghika, whose date is given as about a hundred years a fter the Buddha's death, but he is also described as a favorite of Aoka, with who m he is associated as persecutor of the Sthavir, the head of which escaped into Ka shmir. If from the latter school sprang the Mahyna, it may account for the detesta tion in which Mahdeva is held by the Mahynists. An account of his wickedness and he resies is given in 3 and in 99. (1) A monastery of the Manichaean sect, erected in Changan during the Tang dynasty by order of the emperor Taizong C.E. 627-650; also (2) A Nestorian monastery ment ioned in the Christian monument at Sianfu. Elder sister, a courtesy title for a lay female devotee, or a nun.

Mahtejas. Of awe-inspiring power, or virtue, able to suppress evildoers and protect the good. A king of garuas, v. . Title of a protector of Buddhism styled ; spells, esoteric words, sutras, etc., connected with this title.

The great brhmaa, applied to the Buddha, who though not of Brahman caste was the diment of Brahman virtues. A sutra dealing with . The great reliable Brhmaa, i.e., kyamuni in a previous life when minister here is sutra of this name.

The mayra, or "peacock" ,v. There are seven sets of spells connected w

Mahendra, or Mahendr, or Rja mahendr. A city near the mouth of the Godavery, th nt Rjamundry. The great comforter, or pacifier a Buddha's title. Great insight, great wisdom, great pity, the three virtues ieves enlightenment and wisdom and saves all beings.

for Buddha by which

The samdhi which the Tathgata enters, of perfect tranquility and concentration wit total absence of any perturbing element; also parinirva. Also ; . The great tranquil or nirvana dharmaking, i.e. Vairocana. Parinirva; the great nirvana. The grove of great cold, sitavana, i.e., burial stpas, the graveyard. Great Jewel, most precious thing, i.e. the Dharma or Buddha-law; the bodhisattva; the fire-altar of the esoteric cult.

The "great precious region" described in the sutra as situated between the worl desire and the world of form. The great precious mai, or pure pearl, the Buddha-truth.

Mahratna-dharma-rja. Title of the reformer of the Tibetan church, founder of the ow sect, b. A.D. 1417 ,worshipped as an incarnation of Amitbha, now incarnate in every Bogdo gegen Hutuktu reigning in Mongolia. He received this title in A. D. 1426. See Tsong-kha-Pa. The "great precious ocean," (of the merit of Amitabha).

Mahratnaka-stra. Collection of forty-nine sutras, of which thirty-six were tra y Bodhiruci and collated by him with various previous translations. The great precious flower, a lotus made of pearls. King of jewel-lotuses, i.e., the finest of the gem-flowers . A throne for the . The great precious treasury, containing the gems of the Buddha-truth. Mahvihra. The Great Monastery, especially that in Ceylon visited by Faxian about A. D. 400 when it had 3,000 inmates; v. . [88] The great guide, i.e. Buddha, or a Bodhisattva. The two vehicles, Mahyna and Hinayana; v. and . Great teacher, or leader, one of the ten titles of a Buddha. Great magician, a title given to a Buddha. Great leader across mortality to nirvana, i.e. Buddha, or Bodhisattva. He of great, wide wisdom in the Tripiaka, a title of Amogha .

bhadanta. Most virtuous, a title of honor of a Buddha; in the Vinaya applied to ks. The great mind and power, or wisdom and activity of Buddha. Great mind ocean, i.e. omniscience.

() Invoking Buddha with a loud voice; meditating on Buddha with continuous conce tion. Invoking Buddha with a loud voice; meditating on Buddha with continuous concentrat ion.

The monk Ta-chin who sacrificed himself on the pyre, and thus caused Yang Ti of th Sui dynasty to withdraw his order for dispersing the monks. The great realm for learning patience, i.e. the present world. The Lord of great grace and teacher of men, Buddha. The great wild elephant, i.e. the untamed heart.

mahkaru, "great pity"; i.e. greatly pitiful, a heart that seeks to save the sufferi g; applied to all Buddhas and bodhisattvas; especially to Guanyin.

The samdhi of great pity, in which Buddhas and bodhisattvas develop their great p .

Vicarious suffering (in purgatory) for all beings, the work of bodhisattvas. The e idea in regard to Guanyin is conveyed in. Another name of the or containing a spell against lust. The altar of pity, a term for the garbhadhtu maala , or for the Sakyamumi group.

The bow of great pity. Pity, a bow in the left hand; wisdom , an arrow in the righ hand.

The thirty-two or thirty-three manifestations of the All-pitiful Guanyin respo o every need.

Great pity universally manifested, i.e. Guanyin, who in thirty-three manifestation meets every need. The samadhi of Maitreya.

Mahkaru-puarka-stra, tr. by Narendrayaas and Dharmapraj A.D. 552, five boo The great pitiful one, Kuan-yin. The womb store of great pity, the fundamental heart of bodhi in all: this womb is ened to a heart opening as an eight-leaved lotus, in the center being Vairocana, the source of pity. The maala of the .

The samdhi in which Vairocana evolves the group, and it is described as the " all Buddha-sons".

Guanyin, the Bodhisattva of great pity. Guanyin, the greatly pitiful regarder of (earth's) cries.

A degree of samdhi in which Vairocana produced the Bodhisattva Vajrapla ike a helmet and surrounds them like mail by his great pity.

The greatly pitiful icchantikah, who cannot become a Buddha till his saving work i done, i.e. Guanyin, Dizang. Great mercy,or compassion.

Great mercy and great pity, characteristics of Buddhas and bodhisattvas, i.e. kind ess in giving joy and compassion in saving from suffering. It is especially appl ied to Guanyin. The honored one of great kindness, Maitreya. The monastery of "Great Kindness and Grace", built in Changan by the crown prince f Taizong C.E. 648, where Xuanzang lived and worked and to which in 652 he added its pagoda, said to be 200 feet high, for storing the scriptures and relics he had brought from India. "Tripitaka of the Ta Cien T'zu En Si" is one of Xuanzang's titles.

The director or fosterer of pity among all the living, i.e. the fifth in the the Garbhadhtu group. Also ; ; ; . His Sanskrit name is transli [89] The general meaning or summary of a sutra or stra. Also, the name of a youth, a for mer incarnation of the Buddha : to save his nation from their poverty, he plunge d into the sea to obtain a valuable pearl from the sea-god who, alarmed by the a id rendered by Indra, gave up the pearl ; v. . tr. by Gunabhadra of the Liu Sung dynasty, 1 chuan.

Mah prajpat, Gautama's aunt and foster-mother, also styled Gotami or man received into the order. There are sutras known by her name. is also a name f or the sea-god. The great worshipful one of the ten titles of a Buddha. A general assembly. The general assembly (of the saints). The "greatly ignorant", name of a monastery and title of its patriarch, of the Ch 'an (Zen) or intuitive school.

Mahmati (1) Great wisdom, the leading bodhisattva of the Lakvatra-stra. gchow master of the Chan school, Zonggao of the Song dynasty, whose works are the . (3) Posthumous title of Yixing, a master of the Chan school in the Tang dynast The sign of the great wisdom sword, the same esoteric sign as the and oks, the abbreviated titles of which are and its supplement the . Mahsambhava. Great completion. The imaginary realm in which (in turn) appeared 20,0 00 kos of Buddhas all of the same title, Bhmagarjita-ghoasvararja.

The complete commandments of Hnayna and Mahayana, especially of the latter.

The greater self, or the true personality . Hnayna is accused of only knowing an ying the common idea of a self, or soul, whereas there is a greater self, which is a nirvana self. It especially refers to the Great Ego, the Buddha, but also t o any Buddha ;v.1, etc., and 23.

Mahkauhila, , an eminent disciple of kyamuni, maternal u aryya-stra. sudana, , , ; i.e. Sakyamuni as a prince in a former life, when he y his generosity. The great all-embracing receiver a title of a Buddha, especially Amitbha.

The great teaching. (1) That of the Buddha. (2) Tantrayna. The mahtantra, yoga, yog acarya, or tantra school which claims Samantabhadra as its founder. It aims at e cstatic union of the individual soul with the world soul, Ivara. From this result the eight great powers of Siddhi (aa-mahsiddhi), namely, ability to (1) make one's body lighter (laghiman); (2) heavier (gaiman); (3) smaller (aiman); (4) larger ( mahiman) than anything in the world ; (5) reach any place (prpti) ; (6) assume an y shape (prkmya) ; (7) control all natural laws (itva) ; (8) make everything depend upon oneself; all at will (v. and ). By means of mystic formulas (Tantras or dhr spells (mantras), accompanied by music and manipulation of the hands (mdra), a st ate of mental fixity characterized neither by thought nor the annihilation of th ought, can be reached. This consists of six-fold bodily and mental happiness (yo ga), and from this results power to work miracles. Asaga compiled his mystic doct rines circa A.D. 500. The system was introduced into China A.D. 647 by Xuanzang' s translation of the Yogcrya-bhmi-stra ; v. . On the basis of this, Amogh d the Chinese branch of the school A.D. 720 ; v. . This was popularized by the lab ours of Vajrabodhi A.D. 732 ; v. . idem . The net of the great teaching, which saves men from the sea of mortal life.

mahopya; the great appropriate means, or expedient method of teaching by buddhas an d bodhisattvas ; v. . mahvaipulya ; cf. The great Vaipulyas, or sutras of Mahyna. and aipulya is extension, spaciousness, widespread, and this is the idea expressed b oth in broad, widespread, as opposed to narrow, restricted, and in levelled up, equal everywhere, universal. These terms suggest the broadening of the basis of Buddhism, as is found in Mahyna. The Vaipulya works are styled sutras, for the bro ad doctrine of universalism, very different from the traditional account of his discourses, is put into the mouth of the Buddha in wider, or universal aspect. T hese sutras are those of universalism, of which the Lotus is an outstanding examp le. The form Vaitulya instead of Vaipulya is found in some Kashgar MSS. of the L otus, suggesting that in the Vetulla sect lies the origin of the Vaipulyas, and with them of Mahyna, but the evidence is inadequate.

The fundamental honoured one of the , described as the Buddha who has r ersal law.

Buddhvatasaka-mahvaipulya-stra ; the Avatasaka, Hua-yen, or Kegon sutra ra and others A.D. 418-420. The various translations are in 60, 80, and 40 chuan , v. .

Tathgatagarbha-stra, tr. A.D.350-431, idem , tr. by Budd

[90]

Mahvaipulya or vaipulya ; . They are called sutras of infinite first introduced into China by Dharmaraka (A.D.266 317). The name is common to Hnayna and Mahayana, but chiefly claimed by the latter for its special sutras as exten ding and universalizing the Buddha's earlier preliminary teaching. v. and .

Mahvaipulya-mahsanipta-stra, tr. A.D. 397 439, said to have been preached m the age of 45 to 49 ...to Buddhas and bodhisattvas assembled from every region , by a great staircase made between the world of desire and that of form". B.N. Another version was made by Jnagupta and others in A.D. 594 called . Vimalakrti-nirdea-stra, tr. by Dharmaraka A.D.265 316.

Mihirakula , an ancient Huna king in the Punjab circa A.D. 520 who persecu v. 4.

(or ). The great princely almsgiver, i.e. kyamuni in a previous life; also

moka-mah-pariad; a great gathering for almsgiving to all, rich and poor, uennial.

Vairocana, or Mahvairocana ; ; ; The on sect in Japan, "represented by the gigantic image in the temple at Nara." (El iot.) There he is known as Dai-nichi-nyorai. He is counted as the first, and acc ording to some, the origin of the five celestial Buddhas (dhyni-buddhas, or jinas ). He dwells quiescent in Arpa-dhtu, the Heaven beyond form, and is the essence of wisdom (bodhi) and of absolute purity. Samantabhadra is his dhyni-bodhisattva. Th e "teaches that Vairocana is the whole world, which is divided into Garbhadhtu (mat erial) and Vajradhtu (indestructible), the two together forming Dharmadhtu. The ma nifestations of Vairocana's body to himself that is, Buddhas and Bodhisattvas are r epresented symbolically by diagrams of several circles ". Eliot. In the or vajradht u maala he is the center of the five groups. In the or Garbhadhtu he is the cente the eight-leaf (lotus) court. His appearance, symbols, esoteric word, differ ac cording to the two above distinctions. Generally he is considered as an embodime nt of the Truth , both in the sense of dharmakya and dharmaratna . Some hold Va a to be the dharmakya of kyamuni but the esoteric school denies this id as , the Tathagata who, in the highest, reveals the far-reaching treasure o e. the sun. is described as one of his transformations. Also, a ramaa of orary of Padma-sabhava); he is credited with introducing Buddhism into Khotan and being an incarnation of Majur; the king Vijaya Sabhava built a monastery for him. A meeting for the worship of Vairocana.

The cult of Vairocana especially associated with the Garbhakoadhtu, or phen d. The cult has its chief vogue in Japan.

The Vairocana sutra, styled in full , tr. in the Tang dynasty the first six are the text and the seventh instructions for worship. It is one o f the three sutras of the esoteric school. Its teaching pairs with that of the . Th re are two versions of notes and comments on the text, the 20 chuan, and other works, e.g. ; ; in four versions with different ti Vairocana, the king of bodhi. The angels or messengers of Vairocana, v. .

The"Great Ming"dynasty catalogue of the Tripitaka, made during the reign o Yung Lo; it is the catalogue of the northern collection.

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The great bright white-bodied bodhisattva, sixth in the first row of the Garbh anyin group.

Supplementary miscellaneous collection of Buddhist books, made under the Min A.D. 1368-1644. Mahmati; cf. ; Great Wisdom, Buddha-wisdom, omniscience; a title of Majur, as eosis of transcendental wisdom.

A stra ascribed to Ngrjuna on the greater Prajna-paramita sutra; the sastra wa Kumrajva, A.D. 397 415, in 100 chuan.

The Buddha-door of great wisdom, as contrasted with that of his great compass

The stage of the Great Wisdom chrism, or anointing of a Buddha, as having attain o the Great Wisdom, or omniscience; it is the eleventh stage. The Buddha-wisdom store.

() The great maala; one of four groups of Buddhas and bodhisattvas of the es ol. The esoteric word "a " is styled the great maala-king.

The great, chief, or fundamental book or text. Tiantai takes the as the major three Pure Land sutras, and the as the minor.

Mnavana-saghrma "The monastery of the great forest", S. of Mongal The Veuvana monastery, called or , and , Venuvana vihra, in the a favourite resort of Sakyamuni. mahrpa; great form. The kalpa of Mahbhij-jnabhibhu, who is to appear as Buddha m called Sabhava.

The great taint, or dharma of defilement, sex-attraction, associated with E od of love.

Mahbrhmaas; the third Brahmaloka, the third region of the first dhyna. Mahbrahman great Brahma, ; it is also a title of one of the six Guanyin of the Tiantai sect.

Mahbrahman; Brahma; ; ; ; ; ; . Eitel says: "The Buddhism, but placed in an inferior position, being looked upon not as Creator, but as a transitory devat whom every Buddhistic saint surpasses on obtaining bodh i. Notwithstanding this, the Saddharma-puarka calls Brahma 'the father of all livin g beings'" . Mahbrahman is the unborn or uncreated ruler over all, especially to Buddhism over all the heavens of form, i.e. of mortality. He rules over thes e heavens, which are of threefold form: (a) Brahma (lord), (b) Brahma-purohitas (ministers), and (c) Brahma-priadyh (people). His heavens are also known as the mid dle dhyna heavens, i.e. between the first and second dhynas. He is often represent ed on the right of the Buddha. According to Chinese accounts the Hindus speak of him (1) as born of Nryaa, from Brahma's mouth sprang the brahmans, from his arms t he katriyas, from his thighs the vaiyas, and from his feet the dras; (2) as born fro m Viu; (3) as a trimrti, evidently that of Brahma, Viu, and iva, but Buddhists define Mahbrahma's dharmakya as Mahevara (iva), his sabhogakya as Nryaa, and his nirmak He is depicted as riding on a swan, or drawn by swans.

idem The term is incorrectly said by Chinese interpreters to mean freedom desire. He is associated with Vairocana, and with fire. v. also .

Mahbrahma deva rja, king of the eighteen Brahmalokas. Mahpratibhna. A bodhisattva in the Lotus Sutra, noted for pleasant discourse.

() "Unceasing great joy ", a Shingon name for the second of its eight , v. . There are works under this title.

A sutra, also called by Fali and others; is a Sanskrit term meaning ction. The great opportunity, or Mahyna method of becoming a bodhisattva. Great trees, i.e. bodhisattvas, cf. .

Mahvka i, the ascetic Vyu, who meditated so long that a big tree grew out of s. Seeing a hundred beautiful princesses he desired them; being spurned, he was filled with hatred, and with a spell turned them into hunchbacks; hence Kanykubja , v. or the city of hump-backed maidens; its king was ? Brahmadatta. v. 5.

The King of the mahdruma Kinnaras, Indra's musicians, who lives on Gandha-mdan utra is , 4 chuan, tr. by Kumrajva. [92] The great potentiality; or the great power of Buddhas and bodhisattvas to transfo rm themselves into others, by which e.g. My becomes the mother of 1,000 Buddhas, Rh ula the son of 1,000 Buddhas, and all beings are within the potency of the dharm akya. An abbreviation of . A bodhisattva protector of monasteries, depicted as shading his eyes with his looking afar, said to have been a Warden of the Coast under the emperor Aoka.

One who has swept away completely all illusions, or all consciousness; also Great bhiku, i.e. one of virtue and old age; similar to . Mahvairocana, v. .

() mahpralaya; the final and utter destruction of a universe by (wind), flood e.

Great red lotuses name of a cold hell where the skin is covered with chaps like lotu ses. mahramaa. The great shaman, i.e. Buddha; also any bhiku in full orders. A director of the order appointed by Wendi of the Sui dynasty, A.D. 581-618. The great Dharma, or Law (of Mahyna salvation). Intellectual pride, arrogance through possession of the Truth.

Sudharmarja, King of the Sudharma Kinnaras, the horse-headed human-bodied musicians of Kuvera. The Great Law conch, or Mahyna bugle.

The Great Law drum; v. Mahbherhraka-parivarta; tr. by Gunabhadra A.D. 42

The raining, i.e. preaching, of the Mahyna.

The great pramits, or perfections, of bodhisattvas, i.e. the ten pramits above A great continent; one of the four great continents of a world; v. . mahsamudra-sgara The Ocean.

The eight marvellous characteristics of the ocean its gradually increasing dep nfathomableness, its universal saltness, its punctual tides, its stores of preci ous things, its enormous creatures, its objection to corpses, its unvarying leve l despite all that pours into it.

The ten aspects of the ocean, the Huayan sutra adds two more to the eight r waters lose their names in it; its vastness of expanse. The ocean symbol, i.e. as the face of the sea reflects all forms, so the samdhi of a bodhisattva reflects to him all truths; it is also termed . The great ocean congregation; as all waters flowing into the sea become salty, so all ranks flowing into the sangha become of one flavour and lose old differentia tions.

The first two of the three Buddha-powers; they are (a) his principle of n the extinotion of suffering, and (b) his supreme or vajra wisdom. Great, full, or complete; tr. of mah-pra, king of monster birds or garuas who are mies of the ngas or serpents; he is the vehicle of Viu in Brahmanism.

One of the sixteen bodhisattvas of the southern quarter, born by the will of Vairo ana. The greater baptism, used on special occasions by the Shingon sect, for washing wa y sin and evil and entering into virtue; v. .

Pratpana or Mahtpana; the hell of great heat, the seventh of the eight hot hells. idem q.v.

The six things or mental conditions producing passion and delusion: stupidity, e s, laziness, unbelief, confusion, discontent (or ambition); v. 4. v. Pratpana. The great blazing perfect light, a title of .

The great ox cart in the Lotus Sutra parable of the burning house, i.e. Mahy

kroa; the distance of the lowing of a great ox, the "eighth" (more correctly fourth .) part of a yojana; v. . [93] mahrja . Applied to the four guardians of the universe, . Mahprajpat , great "lady of the living", the older translation being ar) of love; also head of the community (of nuns), i.e. Gautami the aunt and nurs e of kyamuni, the first nun. She is to be reborn as a Buddha named Sarvasattvapriy adaran.

The area of a vihra or monastic establishment. Four characters often placed on the boundary stones of monasterial grounds.

The "mother of Buddhas" with her great snow-white (radiant) umbrella, emblem o rotection of all beings; there are two dhra-stras that bear this name and give her d escription, the and .

? Uttaraka. The deva of the Himlayas, one of the retinue of the The great white-bullock cart of the Lotus Sutra, the Mahyna, as contrasted with eer-cart and goat-cart of rvakas and pratyekabuddhas, i.e. of Hnayna. The great mandra flower, also called .

Paravsin, the great white-robed one, a form of Guanyin all in white, with white throne, etc., also called or . Mahmaudgalyyana; v. . The great aid-the-dynasty monastery at Kaifeng, Henan, founded in A.D. 555, first amed , changed circa 700 to the above; rebuilt 996, repaired by the Jin, the Yuan, and Ming emperors, swept away in a Yellow River flood, rebuilt under Shun Zhi, restored under Qian Long. The reception by an abbot of all his monks on the first day of the tenth moon. Supernatural or magical powers. dhra spells or magical formulae connected with supernatural powers .

The great deva king, Mahkla, the great black one, (1) title of Mahevara, i.e. iv a guardian of monasteries, with black face, in the dining hall; he is said to h ave been a disciple of Mahdeva, a former incarnation of kyamuni. The great propitious anniversary, i.e. a sacrifice every third year.

The four great seeds, or elements () which enter into all things, i.e. earth, wate , fire, and wind, from which, as from seed, all things spring.

The great void, or the Mahyna parinirva, as being more complete and final than the rva of Hnayna. It is used in the Shingon sect for the great immaterial or spiritual wisdom, with its esoteric symbols; its weapons, such as the vajra; its samdhis; i ts sacred circles, or maalas, etc. It is used also for space, in which there is ne ither east, west, north, nor south. ? Vajrahsa The great laughing Mingwang, v. .

sthavira, a chief disciple, the Fathers of the Buddhist church; an elder; an abbot ; a priest licensed to preach and become an abbot; also .

ra, a hero bodhisattva, one of the sixteen in the southern external part of th The head of the order, an office instituted by Wen Di of the Sui dynasty; cf. . The great stra, i.e. the 2 juan , so-called by the Pure-land sect and by ida stra being the smaller stra; cf. and . A term for the heart.

The main principles of Buddhism, likened to the great ropes of a net.

The bhtatathat as the totality of things, and Mind as the Absolute, (or ) The king, or city, of all ideas, or aims, i.e. the heart as mind. The great sage or saint, a title of a Buddha or a bodhisattva of high rank; as al so are and the great holy honored one, or lord. idem v. , on whom there are three works. [94] one of the five .

see Majur ; there are two works under the first of these titles, one unde d one under .

see Majur ; there are two works under the first of these titles, one un one under .

vara, self-existent, sovereign, independent, absolute, used of Buddhas and bodhisa vas.

Mahevara, or iva, lord of the present chiliocosm, or universe; he i orms, one as the prince of demons, the other as divine, i.e. Picamahevara and uddhodanamahevara. As Pica, head of the demons, he is represented with three eyes a nd eight arms, and riding on a white bull; a bull or a linga being his symbol. T he esoteric school takes him for the transformation body of Vairocana, and as ap pearing in many forms, e.g. Viu, Nryana (i.e. Brahm), etc. His wife (akti) is Bhm, hvsa, or Pure dwelling, he is described as a bodhisattva of the tenth or highest d egree, on the point of entering Buddhahood. There is dispute as to whether both are the same being, or entirely different. The term also means the sixth or high est of the six desire heavens.

The abode of Mahevara at the apex of the form realm. Also, the condition or place om which the highest type of bodhisattva proceeds to Buddhahood, whence it is al so styled the pure abode heaven.

The great goodness-promoting monastery, one of the ten great Tang monasteries at C angan, commenced in the Sui dynasty. The great ship of salvation Mahyna. The captain of the great ship of salvation, Buddha.

mahparinirva, explained by the great, or final entrance into extinctio great entrance into perfect rest; great extinction and passing over (from . It is interpreted in Mahyna as meaning the cessation or extinction of passion an d delusion, of mortality, and of all activities, and deliverance into a state be yond these concepts. In Mahyna it is not understood as the annihilation, or cessat ion of existence; the reappearance of Dpakara (who had long entered nirva) along w kyamuni on the Vulture Peak supports this view. It is a state above all terms of human expression. See the Lotus Sutra and the Nirva stra.

The Mah-parinirva stras, commonly called the Nirva stras, said to i just before his death. The two Hnayna versions are found in the . The Mahy nese versions, the northern in 40 juan, and the southern, a revision of the nort hern version in 36 juan. Faxian's version is styled 6 juan. Treatises on the st

2 juan tr. by Jnabhadra; 33 juan; 1 juan by Vas The Mah-prajpramit-stra.

The worship of a new copy of the stra when finished, an act first attributed to ang.

Mah-prajpramit stra, said to have been delivered by kyamuni in fou s, i.e. Gidhraka near Rjagha (Vulture Peak); rvast; Paranirmitavaavartin, and Velu ar Rjagha (Bamboo Garden). It consists of 600 juan as translated by Xuanzang. Part s of it were translated by others under various titles and considerable differen ces are found in them. It is the fundamental philosophical work of the Mahyna scho ol, the formulation of wisdom, which is the sixth pramit. The great bitter sea, or great sea of suffering i.e. of mortality in the six gati, or ways of incarnate existence. Mahvyha; great fabric; greatly adorned, the kalpa or Buddha-aeon of Mahkyapa. The great ornate world; i.e. the universe of Akagarbha Bodhisattva st by the stra of that name, in the east by the 12.

Vaipulya-mahvyha-stra, tr. by Divkara, Tang dynasty, 12 juan; in which the Bud ibes his life in the Tuita heaven and his descent to save the world.

or Strlakra-stra. A work by Avaghoa, tr. by Kumrajva A.D. 4

The great bodhi, i.e. Mahyna or Buddha-enlightenment, as contrasted with the inf bodhi of the rvaka and pratyekabuddha. The banner of great bodhi, an esoteric symbol of Buddha-enlightenment. bodhisattva-mahsattva, a great Bodhisattva. [95]

puarka, ; ; the great white lotus; the last of the eight cold hell The great Lotus heaven in the Paradise of the West.

The wisdom of the great lotus, samdhi-wisdom, the penetrating wisdom of Mahsatya-nirgrantha. An ascetic who is said to have become a disciple of the The Tripiaka; the Buddhist canon. "The Tripitaka at a Glance" in 10 juan by Chen Shi of the Ming dynasty. A catalogue of the Korean canon in 3 juan. Mahraurava ; The hell of great wailing, the fifth of the eight hot hells.

mahsagha. The great assembly, any assembly, all present, everybody. The seal of a monastery. Stage-struck, awed by an assembly, one of the five .

Mahsghik, the school of the community, or majority; one of the chief thavir or Sthavir, i.e. the elders. There are two usages of the term, first, when th

e sthavira, or older disciples assembled in the cave after the Buddha's death, a nd the others, the , assembled outside. As sects, the principal division was that which took place later. The Chinese attribute this division to the influence of M ahdeva, a century after the Nirva, and its subsequent five subdivisions are also as sociated with his name: they are Prvasail, Avaraail, Haimavat, Lokottara-vdina, a i-vdina; v. . The monk's patch-robe, made in varying grades from nine to twenty-five patches. The supreme bodhi, or enlightenment, and the enlightening power of a Buddha. The World-honored One of the great enlightenment, an appellation of the Buddha. The mother of the great enlightenment, an appellation of Majur. The great enlightened golden i, a name given to Buddha in the Song dynasty. idem .

Mahvdin, Doctor of the stras, a title given to eminent teachers, especially of t and Vaiseika schools.

Sarasvat (); ( ); ; A riv ven and confer her invention of language and letters on the human race by the sa ge Bhrata, whence one of her names is Bharat'; sometimes assumes the form of a swa n; eloquence, or literary elegance is associated with her. Cf. M. W. Known as th e mother of speech, eloquence, letters, and music. Chinese texts describe this d eity sometimes as male, but generally as female, and under several forms. As 'go ddess of music and poetry' she is styled (or ) ; ; . She is repre with two arms and a lute, another with eight arms. Sister of Yama. 'A consort of both Brahm and Majur,' Getty. In Japan, when with a lute, Benten is a form of Sarav ast, colour white, and riding a peacock. Tib. sbyas-can-ma, or ag-gi-lha-mo; M. kel e-yin iikin tegri; J. ben-zai-ten, or benten.

The great protective sign, a manual sign, accompanied with a transliterated repeti tion of 'Nama sarva-tathgatebhya; Sarvath Ha Kha Rkas mahbali; Sarva-Tathgata-pu a Trta apratihati svh'.

Great elephant (or nga) treasure, an incense supposed to be produced by ngas or dr ons fighting. Daxian (Jap. Daiken), a Korean monk who lived in China during the Tang dynasty, o f the Dharmalakaa school, noted for his annotations on the stras and styled ologist.

The stra of this name (Mahratnaka) tr. by Bodhiruci (in abridged form mahmajaka or rubia cordifolia, from which madder is made. Born by the highway side, v. Cunda; also .

The great body, i.e. the nirmakya, or transformable body of a Buddha. Also, Ma ing of garuas. The great bullock-cart in the parable of the burning house, i.e. Mahyna, v. Lotus S utra. [96]

One of the thirty-three bodhisattvas in the court of the Garbhadhtu group,

f delusion. Also . v. . idem .

Mahktyyana or Ktyyana ; , v. and . (1) A disciple of k Mahkyapa, v. .

Mahbhij Jnbhibhu. The great Buddha of supreme penetraton and wisdom. "A ose realm was Sambhava, his kalpa Mahrpa. Having spent ten middling kalpas in ecst atic meditation he became a Buddha, and retired again in meditation for 84,000 k alpas, during which his sixteen sons continued (as Buddhas) his preaching. Incar nations of his sons are," Akobhya, Meruka, Sihaghoa, Sihadhvaja, kapratihita, Ni Indradhvaja, Brahmadhvaja, Amitbha, Sarvalokadht- padravodvegapratyuttrna, Tamla-patr a-candanagandha, Merukalpa, Meghasvara, Meghasvararja, Sarvaloka-bhayastambhitatv a- vidhvasanakra, and kyamuni; v. Eitel. He is said to have lived in a kalpa earlier than the present by kalpas as numerous as the atoms of a chiliocosm. Amitbha is his ninth son. kyamuni his sixteenth, and the present or assembly of believers are said to be the reincarnation of those who were his disciples in that former aeon ; v. Lotus Sutra, chapter 7. Title of Shenxiu, a disciple of the fifth patriarch.

One who has the mind of or for supreme enlightenment, e.g. a bodhisattva-mahsattva. Great Lord of healing, an epithet of Buddhas and bodhisattvas. The great bell in the bell tower of a large monastery.

() Mahcakravla. The great circular 'iron' enclosure; the higher of the dou mountains forming the outer periphery of every world, concentric to the seven ci rcles around Sumeru.

The great mirror, posthumous title of the sixth Chan (Zen) patriarch, Huin ially bestowed in A.D. 815. Four fundamentals, i.e. the , , , and q. v. The great hero a Buddha's title, indicating his power over demons. Great cock peak, any outstanding peak.

Mahsaghata-stra The stra of the great assembly of Bodhisattvas from the apocalpytic sermons delivered to them by the Buddha; 60 juan, tr. in parts a t various times by various translators. There are several works connected with i t and others independent, e.g. , (and ) , , Mahsanipta. A division of the strapiaka containing avadnas, i.e. comparisons, parables, and stories illustrating the doctrines. A monastery for Uigur Manichaeans, ordered to be built by A.D. 765.

mahnla. A precious stone, large and blue, perhaps identical with Indra-n Indra of precious stones, a 'sapphire' (M. W.). The great vow, of a Buddha, or bodhisattva, to save all the living and bring them to Buddhahood.

The forty-eight vows and the great meritorious power of Amitbha, or the efficacy his vows. The Pure Reward-Land of Amitbha, the reward resulting from his vows.

The great vow boat, i.e. that of Amitbha, which ferries the believer over the sea o f mortality to the Pure Land.

Da Dian, the appellation of a famous monk and writer, named Baotong, whom tigers ollowed; he died at 93 years of age in A. D. 824; author of and Great Storms, the third of the three destructive calamities to end the world.

Mahkyapa q. v., he who "drank in light" (with his mother's milk), she having beco adiant with golden-colored pearl, a relic of Vipayin, the first of the seven form er Buddhas; it is a false etymology. [97]

Abhyudgata-rja. Great august monarch, name of the kalpa in which ubha-vyha nown in the older literature, is to be reborn as a Buddha. makara a monster fish.

Mahkla (or ) the great black deva . Two interpretations are give ibes the deva as the masculine form of Kl, i.e. Durg, the wife of iva; with one face and eight arms, or three faces and six arms, a necklace of skulls, etc. He is w orshipped as giving warlike power, and fierceness; said also to be an incarnatio n of Vairocana for the purpose of destroying the demons; and is described as the "great time"(-keeper) which seems to indicate Vairocana, the sun. The exoteric cu lt interprets him as a beneficent deva, a Pluto, or god of wealth. Consequently he is represented in two forms, by the one school as a fierce deva, by the other as a kindly happy deva. He is shown as one of the eight fierce guardians with t rident, generally blue-black but sometimes white; he may have two elephants unde rfoot. Six arms and hands hold jewel, skull cup, chopper, drum, trident, elephan t-goad. He is the tutelary god of Mongolian Buddhism. Six forms of Mahkla are note d: (1) A black-faced disciple of the Buddha, said to be the Buddha as Mahdeva in revious incarnation, now guardian of the refectory. (2) Kl, the wife of i . (4) Cintmai, with the talismanic pearl, symbol of bestowing fortune. (5) mons. (6) Mahkla, who carries a bag on his back and holds a hammer in his righ J., Daikoku; M., Yeke-gara; T., Nag-po c'en-po.

The black deva's flying shard magic: take the twig of a jia tree (Catalpa Bun he twig pointing north-west; twist it to the shape of a buckwheat grain, write t he Sanskrit letter on each of its three faces, place it before the deva, recite his spell a thousand times then cast the charm into the house of a prosperous pe rson, saying may his wealth come to me. () A feast given to monks.

The Bodhisattva who, having attained the stage, by the power of his vow trans himself into a dragon-king, 1. Women, female; u. f. thou, you.

Woman, described in the Nirva stra 9 as the "abode of all evil", proached, clear breezes without form may yet be grasped, cobras that harbour poi son may yet be touched, but a woman's heart is never to be relied upon." The Bud dha ordered nanda: "Do not Look at a woman; if you must, then do not talk with he r; if you must, then call on the Buddha with all your mind" an evidently apocryph

al statement of 8.

The six feminine attractions; eight are given, but the sixth and eighth are consid red to be included in the others: color, looks, style, carriage, talk, voice, re finement, and appearance. v. .

The thirty-fifth vow of Amitbha that he will refuse to enter into his final joy every woman who calls on his name rejoices in enlightenment and who, hating her woman's body, has ceased to be reborn as a woman; also . A woman's salutation, greeting, or obeisance, performed by standing and bending th e knees, or putting hands together before the breast and bending the body. " Women forbidden to approach," a sign placed on certain altars.

One of the twenty heretical sects, who held that Mahevara created the first w begot all creatures.

A nun, or bhiku, which is abbreviated to . The first nunnery in China is s een established in the Han dynasty. The woman-kingdom, where matriarchal government is said to have prevailed, e.g. B rahmapura, v. , and Suvaragotra, v. .

Female devas in the desire-realm. In and above the Brahmalokas they do not exist.

The story of a woman named Liyi who was so deeply in samdhi before the Buddh ur could not arouse her; she could only be aroused by a bodhisattva who has sloughe d off the skandhas and attained enlightenment. A lay woman who devotes herself to Buddhism.

A woman of virtue, i.e. a nun, or bhiku. The emperor Hui Zong of the Song dynasty ( .D. 1101-1126) changed the term to . [98] Sexual desire. Yoni. The female sex-organ. The woman offence, i.e. sexual immorality on the part of a monk. Woman as a disease; feminine disease.

Female beauty is a chain, a serious delusion, a grievous calamity. The 14 says better to burn out the eyes with a red-hot iron than behold woman with unsteady heart. Woman the robber, as the cause of sexual passion, stealing away the riches of rel igion, v. 14. Woman as chain, or lock, the binding power of sex. 14. kumra; son; seed; sir; 11-1 midnight. Kukyar, Kokyar, or Kukejar, a country west of Khotan, 1,000 li from Kashgar, perha ps Yarkand.

The seed cut off, i.e. the seed which produces the miseries of transmigration.

Seed and fruit; seed-produced fruit is , fruit-produced seed is . The fruit pr by illusion in former incarnation is , which the Hnayna arhat has not yet finally cu t off. It is necessary to enter Nirva without remnant of mortality to be free from its "fruit", or karma. The fruit full of seeds, the pomegranate. A famous learned monk Zixuan, of the Song dynasty whose style was Changshui, the ame of his district; he had a large following; at first he specialized on the ragam a ; later he adopted the teaching of Xianshou of the Huayan school. The seed bond, or delusion of the mind, which keeps men in bondage. Small courts and buildings attached to central monastery. An inch. Questioned as to what he did with his day, Lu Xuanri replied "one does not s on an inch of thread". Small, little; mean, petty; inferior.

Hnayna . The small, or inferior wain, or vehicle; the form of Buddhism which d after kyamuni's death to about the beginning of the Christian era, when Mahyna doct rines were introduced. It is the orthodox school and more in direct line with th e Buddhist succession than Mahynism which developed on lines fundamentally differe nt. The Buddha was a spiritual doctor, less interested in philosophy than in the remedy for human misery and perpetual transmigration. He "turned aside from idl e metaphysical speculations; if he held views on such topics, he deemed them val ueless for the purposes of salvation, which was his goal" (Keith). Metaphysical speculations arose after his death, and naturally developed into a variety of Hna yna schools before and after the separation of a distinct school of Mahyna. Hnayna re mains the form in Ceylon, Burma, and Siam, hence is known as Southern Buddhism i n contrast with Northern Buddhism or Mahyna, the form chiefly prevalent from Nepal to Japan. Another rough division is that of Pali and Sanskrit, Pali being the g eneral literary language of the surviving form of Hnayna, Sanskrit of Mahyna. The te rm Hnayna is of Mahynist origination to emphasize the universalism and altruism of M ahyna over the narrower personal salvation of its rival. According to Mahyna teachin g its own aim is universal Buddhahood, which means the utmost development of wis dom and the perfect transformation of all the living in the future state; it dec lares that Hnayna, aiming at arhatship and pratyekabuddhahood, seeks the destructi on of body and mind and extinction in nirva. For arhatship the Four Noble Truths are the foundation teaching, for pratyekabuddhahood the twelve-nidnas, and these two e therefore sometimes styled the two vehicles . Tiantai sometimes calls them the ( Hnayna) Tripiaka school. Three of the eighteen Hnayna schools were transported to Chi na: (Abhidharma) Koa; Satya-siddhi; and the school of Harivarman, the Vinaya s These are described by Mahynists as the Buddha's adaptable way of meeting the que stions and capacity of his hearers, though his own mind is spoken of as always b eing in the absolute Mahyna all-embracing realm. Suchis the Mahyna view of Hnayna, if the Vaipulya stras and special scriptures of their school, which are repudiate d by Hnayna, are apocryphal, of which there seems no doubt, then Mahyna in condemnin g Hnayna must find other support for its claim to orthodoxy. The stras on which it chiefly relies, as regards the Buddha, have no authenticity; while those of Hnayna cannot be accepted as his veritable teaching in the absence of fundamental rese arch. Hnayna is said to have first been divided into minority and majority section s immediately after the death of kyamuni, when the sthvira, or older disciples, rem ained in what is spoken of as "the cave", some place at Rjagha, to settle the futu

re of the order, and the general body of disciples remained outside; these two a re the first and q. v. The first doctrinal division is reported to have taken under the leadership of the monk Mahdeva (q.v.) a hundred years after the Buddha's nirva and during the reign of Aoka; his reign, however, has been placed later than this by historians. Mahdeva's sect became the Mahsghik, the other the Sthvira. In ti e the two are said to have divided into eighteen, which with the two originals a re the so-called "twenty sects" of Hnayna. Another division of four sects, referre d to by Yijing, is that of the (Arya) Mahsaghanikya, ryasthavir, another division of five sects, . For the eighteen Hnayna sects see . [99]

The three characteristic marks of all Hnayna stras: the impermanence of phenome unreality of the ego, and nirva. The nine classes of works belonging to the Hnayna, i.e. the whole of the twelve urses; the Vaipulya, or broader teaching; and the Vykaraa, or prophesies. The Sthaviravdin, School of Presbyters, and Sarvstivdin, q.v.

The Hnayna partial and gradual method of obeying laws and commandments, as com th the full and immediate salvation of Mahyna.

A Chinese list of the "eighteen" sects of the Hnayna, omitting Mahsghik, tivdah as generic schools: I. The Mahsghik is divided into eight schools as fo Ekavyavahrik; (2) Lokottaravdina; (3) Kaukkuik (Gokulik); ityaail; (7) Aparaail; (8) Uttaraail. II. ryasthavir, imavat. The Sarvstivda gave rise to (2) Vtsputry, which gave ri and (6) Saagarik; (7) Mahsak produced (8) Dharmagupt. From utrntik. v. . Cf Keith, 149-150. The division of the two schools is ascribed to Ma a century after the Nirva. Under I the first five are stated as arising two centu ries after the Nirva, and the remaining three a century later, dates which are unr eliable. Under II, the Haimavat and the Sarvstivda are dated some 200 years after the Nirva; from the Sarvstivdins soon arose the Vtsputryas, from whom soon sprang the t d, fourth, fifth, and sixth; then from the Sarvstivdins there arose the seventh wh ich gave rise to the eighth, and again, nearing the 400th year, the Sarvstivdins g ave rise to the ninth and soon after the tenth. In the list of eighteen the Sarvs tivdah is not counted, as it split into all the rest.

Tiantai's division of Hnayna into four schools or doctrines: (1) Of reality ence of all phenomena, the doctrine of being (cf. , etc.); (2) of unreality, istence (cf. ); (3) of both, or relativity of existence and non-existence her, or transcending existence and non-existence (cf. ). Hnayna and the heretical sects; also, Hnayna is a heretical sect. The commandments of the Hnayna, also recognized by the Mahyna: the five, eight, n commandments, the 250 for the monks, and the 348 for the nuns. [100] The Hnayna stras, the four sections of the gamas v. . The Hnayna stras or Abhidharma.

The philosophical canon of the Hnayna, now supposed to consist of some thirt ks, the earliest of which is said to be the Guanirdea stra, tr. as before A. date of the Abhidharma" is "unknown to us" (Keith). The robe of five patches worn by some monks in China and by the Jdo sect of

. To urinate; also . Buddhist monks are enjoined to urinate only in one fixed spot.

antar-kalpa, or intermediate kalpa; according to the it is the period in which life increases by one year a century till it reaches 84,000 with men 8,400 feet high; then it is reduced at the same rate till the life-period reaches ten year s with men a foot high; these two are each a small kalpa; the reckons the two toge ther as one kalpa; and there are other definitions.

() A small chiliocosm, consisting of a thousand worlds each with its Mt. Sumer inents, seas, and ring of iron mountains; v. . Small group, a class for instruction outside the regular morning or evening servi ces; also a class in a household. The leader of a small group. A summarized version.

() Kumrajva's abbreviated version, in ten juan, of the Mah-praj The sects of Hnayna. A junior monk of less than ten years full ordination, also a courtesy title for a disciple; and a self-depreciatory title of any monk; v. dahara. The rules and regulations for monks and nuns in Hnayna. To repeat Buddha's name in a quiet voice, opposite of .

A small volume; Tiantai's term for the () ; the large stra being the Having a mind fit only for Hnayna doctrine. ; Having a mind fit only for Hnayna doctrine. Small trees, bodhisattvas in the lower stages, v. .

A little water or "dripping water penetrates stone"; the reward of the religious l fe, though difficult to attain, yields to persistent effort. The laws or methods of Hnayna. upakleabhmikh. The ten lesser evils or illusions, or temptations, one of the s of mental conditions of the seventy-five Hnayna elements. They are the minor mor al defects arising from unenlightenment; i.e. anger, hidden sin, stinginess, , vexation, ill-will, hate, adulation, deceit, pride. The small rjs, called millet scattering kings. A small assembly of monks for ceremonial purposes. One of the four divine flowers, the mandra-flower, v. . The small Maudgalyyana, one of six of that name, v. . An anniversary (sacrifice). The Hnayna doctrine of the void, as contrasted with that of Mahyna.

v. ; also styled . The Hnayna saint, or arhat. The inferior saint, or bodhisattva, as compared with th e Buddha. [101] Smaller herbs, those who keep the five commandments and do the ten good deeds, th ereby attaining to rebirth as men or devas, v. . The practice, or discipline of Hnayna; also, urination.

Majaka. ; Explained by pliable. Rubia cordifolia, yielding th

The monk Huiyuan of the Sui dynasty. There was a Chin dynasty monk of the same e. A junior monk ordained less than ten years. A junior teacher. The small meal, breakfast, also called . A corpse: to manage: u. f. .

Sri. ; ; ; ; ; ; (1) Fortune, prosperity; high rank, succ r are named as its connotation. (2) The wife of Viu. (3) An honorifc prefix or aff ix to names of gods, great men, and books. (4) An exclamation at the head of lit urgies. (5) An abbreviation for Majur. rbhuja, i. e. Mlaya. ryaas , a god who bestows good luck. ; ; ira. acacia sirissa. The marriage tree . The her kind the with small leaves and fruit. Also called . iraka. Name of a monk.

; rgupta, an elder in Rjagha, who tried to kill the Buddha wi

rmitra, an Indian prince who resigned his throne to his younger brother came to China, translated the and other books.

To kill a person by the vetala method of obtaining magic power by incantation dead body; when a headless corpse, or some part of the body, is used it is ; when the whole corpse it is .

Kuinagara or Kuigramaka. ; ; ; Explained by ity, near Kasiah, 180 miles north of Patna; the place where kyamuni died. tavana, see . (or ) mana, amayma, a cemetery, idem . rgua, abundantly virtuous, a title of a Buddha.

ikhin, ; ; (or ); ; crested, or a fame; explained by the it is a shell like tuft of hair. (1) The 999th Buddha of the last kalpa, wh

muni is said to have met. (2) The second of the seven Buddhas of antiquity, born in Prabhadvaja as a Katriya. (3) A Maha-brahma, whose name ikhin is defined as ng a flaming tuft on his head; connected with the world-destruction by fire. The Fanyimingyi describes ikhin as or fame, or a flaming head and as the god yled also Suddha, pure; he observed the Fire Dhyna, broke the lures of the realm desire, and followed virtue. A deva of music located in the East.

ivi, ; ; also wrongly ; one of kyamuni's former incarnations, whe he cut off and gave his own flesh to an eagle which pursued it, which eagle was iva transformed in order to test him. 35.

Sila, ; intp. by pure and cool, i.e. chaste; also by restraint, or ke dments; also by of good disposition. It is the second pramit, moral purity, i. e. o f thought, word, and deed. The four conditions of la are chaste, calm, quiet, exti nguished, i. e. no longer perturbed by the passions. Also, perhaps la, a stone, i. e. a precious stone, pearl, or coral. For the ten las or commandments v. , the firs t five, or paca-la , are for all Buddhists. If the la, or moral state, is not pure, none can enter samdhi.

la-pramit. Morality, the second of the pramits. A curtain made of chaste precious stones. labhadra, a prince mentioned in 6. [102] Moral purity, essential to enter into samadhi.

Sravasti, idem . labhadra. A learned monk of Nalanda, teacher of Hsumzang, A. D. 625. ladharma, a ramaa of Khotan. laprabha. the Sanskrit name of a learned monk.

laditya, son of Pratapaditya and brother of Rajyavardhana. Under thc spiritual a pices of Avalokitevara, he became king of Kanyakubja A. D. 606 and conquered Indi a and the Punjab. He was merciful to all creatures, strained drinking water for horses and elephants, was a most liberal patron of Buddhism, re-established the great quinquennial assembly, built many stpas, showed special favour to labhadra an d Xuanzang, and composed the Aama-hr -caitya-saskta-stotra. He reigned

Also (or or ) . Chavames accepts the identification with Chighnan, a regio amirs (Documents sur les Tou-kiue Occidentaux, p. 162).

Hiranyavati, M003296 ; ; the gold river, a river of Nepal, now c h kyamuni is said to have entered nirva. The river is identifed with the Ajitavati. said to be Sujta, son of an elder of Rjagha and the same as .

() tavana, ; ; ; cold grove , i. e. a place for exposin o v. or mana. A hill, mountain; a monastery.

'Mountain world' i. e. monasteries. (1) 'Hill monk', self-deprecatory term used by monks. (2) A monk dwelling apart f rom monasteries.

A branch of the Tiantai School founded by Wu En (d. A. D. 986) giving the 'shallo er' interpretation of the teaching of this sect; called Shan-wai because it was developed in temples away from the Tiantai mountain. The 'Profounder' sect was d eveloped at Tien-tai and is known as 'the sect of the mountain family ' or home se ct. The 'mountain school', the ' profounder ' interpretation of Tiantai doctrines dev eloped by Ssu-ming; v. last entry. The weight of a mountain, or of Sumeru may be more readily ascertained than the et ernity of the Buddha. Writing brushes as numerous as mountains, or as the trees on the mountains (and i nk as vast as the ocean). ' Mountain and water robe, ' the name of a monastic garment during the Sung dynast y; later this was the name given to a richly embroidered dress.

Sgara-varadhara-buddhi-vikidit-bhij. (or ) . The name und in Anavanamita-vaijayanta, during the kalpa Manojna-sabdabhigarjita, v. . 'Mountains, seas, the sky, the of Impermanence, the messenger of thers who tried to use their miraculous ountains, seas, sky, and market places. t to be reported as dead, 2.

(busy) market place' cannot conceal one from the ey death, a phrase summing up a story of four bro power to escape death by hiding in the m The one in the market place was the firs

The king of the mountains, i. e. the highest peak. The gate of a monastery; a monastery. A stream, a mountain stream; Ssu-ch'uan province. Making offerings at the streams to the ghosts of the drowned. Work, a period of work, a job. Time, work, a term for meditation; also . ilpasthana-vidy. One of the five departments of knowledge dealing with the the various crafts, mechanics, natural science (yin-yang), calculations (especi ally for the calendar and astrology), etc. Nata, a dancer; the skilful or wily one, i. e. the heart or mind. Self, personal, own. Personal advantage, or profit. One's own heart. [103]

The method of the self-realization of truth, the intuitive method o

The buddha-kya, or realm of Buddha in contrast with the realm of ordinary beings. , Self-attained assurance of the truth, such as that of the Buddha.

Myself (is) Amitbha, my mind (is) the Pure Land. All things are but the o t outside existing beings there is no Buddha and no Pure Land. Thus Amitbha is th e Amitbha within and the Pure Land is the Pure Land of the mind. It is an express ion of Buddhist pantheism that all is Buddha and Buddha is all. Already, past; end, cease. Past, present, future, , , .

Those born into the 'future life, ' (of the Pure Land) in the past, in the prese and to be born in the future.

bhta. Become, the moment just come into existence, the present moment; being, ex ing; a being, ghost, demon; a fact; an element, of which the Hindus have five ear th, water, fire, air, ether; the past.

jendriya. The second of the q. v. One who already knows the indriya or ro from the practical stage associated with the Four Dogmas, i. e. purpose, joy, p leasure, renunciation, faith, zeal, memory, abstract meditation, wisdom. A monk far advanced in religion; an arhat.

Already returned, or, begun again, e. g. the recommencement of a cycle, or course .

Those who have abandoned the desire-realm; divided into two classes, ordinary who have left desire, but will be born into the six gati; the saints, who will n ot be reborn into the desire-realm; e. g. non-Buddhists and Buddhists. A shield; a stem, or pole; to offend; to concern; to seek. ; ; hd, hdaya, the physical heart.

kcana, golden; i. e. a tree, a shrub of the same type, with golden hue, des f the leguminous order; perhaps the Kunjara. Wrongly written (or ) and . Dhanus. A bow; a bow's length, i. e. the 4, 000th part of a yojana. Seven grains of wheat make 1 finger-joint ; 24 finger-joints make 1 elbow or cubit ; 4 cubits ake 1 bow; or 1 foot 5 inches make 1 elbow or cubit: 4 cubits make 1 bow; 300 bo ws make 1 li; but the measures are variously given. Kumbha demons, v. . 4. FOUR STROKES No, not, none. (Sanskrit a, an. ). Neither unity nor diversity, or doctrine of the , v. . Not long (in time).

Not long before he visits the place of enlightenment or of Truth, i. e. soon wil come a Buddha. Not to bring to a finish, not to make plain, not plain, not to understand, incomp rehensible.

Texts that do not make plain the Buddha's whole truth, such as Hnayna and ate Mahyna texts. The incomprehensible wisdom of Buddha. advaya. No second, non-duality, the one and undivided, the unity of all things, t he one reality the universal Buddha-nature. There are numerous combinations, e. g . good and evil are not a dualism: nor are and the material and immaterial, and delusion and awareness all these are of the one Buddha-nature.

neither plural nor diverse, e. g. neither two kinds of nature nor difference in fo m. The one undivided truth, the Buddha-truth. Also, the unity of the Buddha-nature. is similar to ; also the cult of the monistic doctrine; and the immediacy nto the truth.

' Not only the void '; or, non-void; rvakas and pratyekabuddhas see only the 'void bodhisattvas see also the non-void, hence is the the 'void' of the 'mean'. I term of the Intermediate school. Not coming (back to mortality), an explanation of angmin.

angamana-nirgama. Neither coming into nor going out of existence, i. e. the origi constituents of all things are eternal; the eternal conservation of energy, or of the primal substance.

Without being called he comes to welcome; the Pure-land sect believes that Amitbha himself comes to welcome departing souls of his followers on their calling upon him, but the (Jdo Shin-shu sect) teaches that belief in him at any time ensures r rth in the Pure Land, independently of calling on him at death. [104]

One of the ten kinds of ' heresies' founded by Sajayin Vairputra, v. , who t here is no need to seek the right path, as when the necessary kalpas have passed, mortality ends and nirvana naturally follows. adinndna-verama; the second of the ten commandments, Thou shalt not steal. Not in the same class, dissimilar, distinctive, each its own. asakt-samdhi; a samdhi in more than one formula, or mode. One of the six indefinite statements of a syllogism, where proposition and not agree. The general among the particulars, the whole in the parts. Varied, or individual karma; each causing and receiving his own recompense.

veika-buddhadharma. The characteristics, achievements, and doctrine of Buddha whic distinguish him from all others. See .

the eighteen distinctive characteristics as defined by Hnayna are his , ghteen are perfection of body; of speech; of memory; impartiality or universalit y; ever in samdhi; entre self-abnegation; never diminishing will (to save); zeal; thought; wisdom; salvation; insight into salvation; deeds and mind accordant wi th wisdom; also his speech; also his mind; omniscience in regard to the past; al

so to the present; and to the future.

Distinctive kinds of unenlightenment, one of the two kinds of ignorance, also styl d ; particular results arising from particular evils. Dissimilarity, singularity, sui generis. The things special to bodhisattvas in the in contrast with the things they mmon with rvakas and pratyeka-buddhas. Varied, or individual conditions resulting from karma; every one is his own transm igration; one of the . The indivisible, or middle way .

acala; nicala; dhruva. The unmoved, immobile, or motionless; also the term is us for the unvarying or unchanging, for the pole-star, for fearlessness, for indiff erence to passion or temptation. It is a special term of Shingon applied to its m ost important Bodhisattva, the q. v.

; or , Akobhya, one of the Five Wisdom, or Dhyni-Bud , Amitbha, and Amoghasiddhi. He is especially worshipped by the Shingon sect, as a disciple of Vairocana. As Amitbha is Buddha in the western heavens, so Akobhya i s Buddha in the eastern heaven of Abhirati, the realm of joy, hence he is styled or , also free from anger. His cult has existed since the Han dynasty, see a-Tathgatasya-vyha. He is first mentioned in the prajnapramit sutra, then in the Lot us, where he is the first of the sixteen sons of Mahbhij-jnabhibhu. His dhyni-bodhisa tva is Vajrapi. His appearance is variously described, but he generally sits on a lotus, feet crossed, soles upward, left hand closed holding robe, right hand fin gers extended touching ground calling it as color is pale gold, some say blue a vajra is before him. His esoteric word is Hum; his element the air, his human fo rm Kanakamuni, v. . Jap. Ashuku, Fudo, and Mudo; Tib. mi-bskyod-pa, mi-'khrugs-pa (mintug-pa); Mong. l kdelkci. v. . Offerings to . The messengers of Akobhya-buddha .

; ; ; ; . Prayers an The eighth of the ten stages in a Buddha's advance to perfection. Prayers to to protect the house. The samdhi, or abstract meditation, in which he abides.

Aryacalanatha tr. and and Acalaceta, tr. ddhas; and the chief of the five Ming Wang. He is regarded as the third person i n the Vairocana trinity. He has a fierce mien overawing all evil spirits. He is said to have attained to Buddhahood, but also still to retain his position with Vairocana. He has many descriptive titles, e. g. ; , etc. Five di en to him. He carries a sharp wisdom-sword, a noose, a thunder-bolt. The colour of his images is variousblack, blue, purple. He has a youthful appearance; his ha ir falls over his left shoulder; he stands or sits on a rock; left eye closed; m outh shut, teeth gripping upper lip, wrinkled forehead, seven locks of hair, ful l-bodied, A second representation is with four faces and four arms, angry mien, protruding teeth, with fames around him. A third with necklaces. A fourth, red, seated on a rock, fames, trident, etc. There are other forms. He has fourteen di stinguishing symbols, and many dharanis associated with the realm of fire, of sa ving those in distress, and of wisdom. He has two messengers Kimkara and Ceta

including these, a group of eight messengers each with image, symbol, word-sign, e c. Cf. . Prayer for the aid of to end calamity and cause prosperity. [105]

One of the six kinds of inaction, or laissez aIIer, the state of being unmove easure or pain. liberation from being disturbed (by the illusions of life). .

an arhat who has attained to the state of the immovable liberation Immortality, nirvana. Immobility, one of the ten meanings of the void. An assembly for preaching and praising the virtues of .

The as the vajra representative, or embodiment, of Vairocana for saving ings.

Neither the thing itself nor something apart, e. g. the water and the wave; simila to .

Amitbha's vow of not taking up his Buddhahood till each of his forty-eight vows lfilled, an affix to each of the vows. Free from the receptivity, or sensation, of things, emancipated from desire. In the Lotus Sutra, cap. 25, the bodhisattva obeying the Buddha's command, anyin a jewel-garland, which the latter refused saying he had not received the B uddha's command to accept it. This attitude is attributed to his samdhi, the samdhi of utter 'voidness', or spirituality. May not, can not: unpermissible, for-bidden; unable. Buke, the name of a monk of the Ling Miao monastery in the Tang dynasty, a disciple of Subha-karimha, and one the founders of Shingon. ampalabhya; alabhya. Beyond laying hold of, unobtainable, unknowable, unreal, anot her name for the void. See .

The mind or thought, past, present, future, cannot be held fast; the past is g e future not arrived, the present does not stay. One of the eighteen ; it is the Beyond thought or description, v. . The 'void' that is beyond words or thought.

, the 'void' that is beyond words or

The four indescribables, v. size of the Buddha-lands.

18, are the worlds; living beings; dragon

The five indescribables, of the 30, are: The number of living beings; all nces of karma; the powers of a state of dhyna; the powers of nagas; the powers of the Buddhas.

The ineffable Honoured One; the Tathgata of ineffable light; tit

A name for the Huayan sutra.

A name for the Huayan sutra. The full title is also a name for the

The samdhi, or liberation of mind, that ensures a vision of the ineffable

The existence of those who do the , or forbidden, i. e. the hells. Not to be cast away said to be the name of the founder of the Mahsakah, or into a well at birth by his mother, saved by his father, at first brahman, afte rwards a Buddhist; v. , but probably apocryphal. The Buddha wisdom that in its variety is beyond description. invisible, perceptible, or material things, e. g. sound, smell, etc. Invisible, imperceptible, or immaterial things. Unmentionable, indefinable; truth that can be thought but not expressed.

Gaendra; the 733rd of the Buddhas of the present kalpa , in which 1,000 Buddh appear, of whom four have appeared.

Two guardians of the Law on the right of Majur in the Garbhadhtu maala, na unharmonizing natures, one of the .

Not good; contrary to the right and harmful to present and future life, e. g. idem , i. e. or . M066116 Ignorant, rustic: immature or ignorant.

anuccaayanmahayana. Not to sit on a high, broad, large bed, the ninth of t ents.

Neither adding nor subtracting; nothing can be added or taken away. In referenc to the absolute nothing can be added or taken away; vice versa with the relative.

the unvarying bhtatathat, one of the ten ; also the eighth of the

avinya; indestructible, never decaying, eternal.

A term in Shingon for the magic word 'a', the indestructible embodiment of V a.

The four dhyna heavens, where the samdhi mind of meditation is indestructible, a e external world is indestructible by the three final catastrophes. Two kinds of arhats practice the skull meditation, the dull who consider the ashes, the intelligent who do not, but derive supernatural powers from the medi tation. [106] Vairocana the indestructible, or eternal.

The luminous mind-temple of the eternal Vairocana, the place in the V realm, of Vairocana as teacher.

The twenty-sixth patriarch, said to be Puryamitra (Eitel), son of a king in Southe n India, labored in eastern India, d. A. D. 388 by samdhi. musvd-verama, the fourth commandment, thou shalt not lie; no false speaking.

abrahamacary-verama, the third commandment, thou shalt not commit adultery, i. e. inst fornication and adultery for the lay, and against all unchastity for the cl erics. aaika; no longer studying, graduated, one who has attained. Unfixed, unsettled, undetermined, uncertain. One of the 'four karma' aniyata or indefinite karma; opposite of .

One of the six mental conditions, that of undetermined character, open to any infl ence good or evil.

() Of indeterminate nature. The Dharmalakana school divides all bein according to their potentialities. This is one of the divisions and contains fou r combinations: (1) Bodhisattva-cum-rvaka, with uncertain result depending on the more dominant of the two; (2) bodhisattva-cum-pratyekabuddha; (3) rvaka-cum-pratye kabuddha; (4) the characteristcs of all three vehicles intermingled with uncerta in results; the third cannot attain Buddhahood, the rest may.

One of the three Tiantai groups of humanity, the indeterminate normal class , as contrasted with sages whose natures are determined for goodness, and the wick ed whose natures are determined for evil. Indeterminate teaching. Tiantai divides the Buddha' s mode of teaching into four; this one means that Buddha, by his extraordinary powers of upya-kaualya, or adaptab ility, could confer Mahyna benefits on his hearers out of his Hnayna teaching and vi ce versa, dependent on the capacity of his hearers.

() Direct insight without any gradual process of samdhi; one of three forms meditation. ahis. Harmlessness, not injuring, doing harm to none. A term of greeting between monks. i. e. I do not take the liberty of inquiring in to your condition. Anagamin. He who does not return; one exempt from transmigration. Practices not in accord with the rule: immoral or subverted rules, i. e. to do evi l, or prevent good; heretical rules and practices. The meditation against forgetfulness.

acintya. Beyond thought and words, beyond conception, baffling description, The ineffable vehicle, Buddhism.

The youth of ineffable wisdom, one of the eight youths in the Majur court o htu. acintya-jna, inconceivable wisdom, the indescribable Buddha-wisdom. Inexpressible karma-merit always working for the benefit of the living.

acintyadhtu. The realm beyond thought and words, another name for the bhtatathat

The practice of the presence of the invisible Dharmakya in the esoteric w The Void beyond thought or discussion, a conception of the void, or that nd the material, only attained by Buddhas and bodhisattvas. The wisdom thus attained which removes all distresses and illusions. The Huayan sutra. The Huayan sutra.

The indescribable vsan, i. e. suffusion, or 'fuming', or influence of primal , on the bhtatathat, producing all illusion. v Awakening of Faith.

The indescribable changes of the bhtatathat in the multitudinous forms of all th

Ineffable changes and transmigrations, i. e. to the higher stages of mortality the traidhtuka or trailokya . Unhappy, uneasy, the disturbing influence of desire.

The bodhisattva virtue of not sparing one's life (for the sake of bodhi). The excommunication of an unrepentant monk; one of the . Neither clever nor pure a term of rebuke. [107] Lay Buddhists may not pay homage to the gods or demons of other religions; monks and nuns may not pay homage to kings or parents.

jtarpa-rajata-pratigrahad vaira ma (virati). The tenth commandment oined or coined gold and silver, or jewels.

Amitbha's vow of non-abandonment, not to enter Buddhahood till all were born into s Paradise. No slackness or looseness; concentration of mind and will on the good. Without ceasing, unceasing. The unceasing light (or glory) of Amitbha. One of the twelve shining Buddhas. Unceasing continuity. Unceasing remembrance, or invocation of the Buddha. One of the . Unceasing reading of the sutras. Unceasing reading of the sutras. Unceasing turning of the wheel, as in a monastery by relays of prayer and meditati

on.

The sixth, or highest of the six types of arhats; the other five groups have to bi e their time and opportunity for liberation in samdhi, the sixth can enter immediat ely.

The second of Amitbha's forty-eight vows, that those born in his kingdom should again enter the three evil lower paths of transmigration. Unsullied by the things of the world (e. g. the lotus). Uncontaminated ignorance.

The samdhi which is uncontaminated by any (evil) thing, the samdhi of puri n samdhi holding as symbol of it a blue lotus in his left hand.

nya-gta-vditra-vikadarand-vairama (virati). The seventh comman , dancing, plays, or going to watch and hear them. Not strict food, not exactly food, things that do not count as a meal, e. g. fruit and nuts. Undying, immortal. Sweet dew of immortality, a baptismal water of Shingon.

Medicine of immortality, called shh , which grows on the Himlayas and be seeing it endless and painless life. One of the eight , the desire for long life. The gate of immortality or nirvana, i. e. Mahyna.

prtiptd vairama (virati). The first commandment, Thou shalt not kill the livi Not in accordance with the Buddha law, wrong, improper, unlawful. The fear of giving all and having nothing to keep one alive: one of the five fears . anirodha, not destroyed, not subject to annihilation. anirodhnupda, neither dying nor being reborn, immortal, v. . Unclean, common, vile.

; or ; Ucchuma, a bodhisattva connected w 'Unclean' almsgiving, i. e. looking for its reward in this or the next life. 'Unclean', flesh, i. e. that of animals, fishes, etc., seen being killed, heard be ing killed, or suspected of being killed; Hnayna forbids these, Mahyna forbids all f lesh. Ignoble or impure deeds, sexual immorality. The meditation on the uncleanness of the human body of self and others, e. g. the nine stages of disintegration of the dead body q.v.; it is a meditation to destro y desire; other details are: parental seed, womb, the nine excretory passages, t he body's component parts, worm-devoured corpse all unclean.

A sutra of Dharmatrata.

'Unclean' preaching, i. e. to preach, whether rightly or wrongly, from an e, e. g. for making a living. One of the three : impermanence, impurity, distress , , . anutpatti; anutpda. Non-birth: not to be reborn, exempt from rebirth; arhan is mis takenly interpreted as 'not born', meaning not born again into mortal worlds. Th e 'nir' in nirvana is also erroneously said to mean 'not born'; certain schools say that nothing ever has been born, or created, for all is eternal. The Shingon word 'a' is interpreted as symbolizing the uncreated. The unborn or uncreated i s a name for the Tathgata, who is not born, but eternal ; hence by implication th e term means "eternal". di, which means"at first, " "beginning","primary", is als o interpreted as uncreated. [108]

One of the , when illusion no longer arises the sufferings of being reborn in th il paths are ended.

v. 'Neither (to be) born nor ended' is another term for permanent, etern aving been created nothing can be destroyed; Hnayna limits the meaning to the stat e of nirvana, no more births and deaths; Mahyna in its Mdhyamika form extends it un iversally, no birth and death, no creation and annihilation, see . Nothing is produced (1) of itself; (2) of another, i. e. of a cause without itself ; (3) of both; (4) of no-cause. Not in doubt that the creature has been killed to feed me, v. . The non-interrelated mind, see . Actions non-interrelated (with mind).

Amogha, Amoghavajra. ; ; Not empty (or not in vain) vajra. Th l in China. A Singhalese of northern brahmanic descent, having lost his father, he came at the age of 15 with his uncle to , the eastern sea, or China, where in 7 18 he became a disciple of Vajrabodhi. After the latter's death in 732, and at his wish, Eliot says in 741, he went to India and Ceylon in search of esoteric or t antric writings, and returned in 746, when he baptized the emperor Xuan Tsung. H e was especially noted for rain-making and stilling storms. In 749 he received p ermission to return home, but was stopped by imperial orders when in the south o f China. In ?756 under Su Tsung he was recalled to the capital. His time until 7 71 was spent translating and editing tantric books in 120 volumes, and the Yogac ara rose to its peak of prosperity. He died greatly honoured at 70 years of age, in 774, the twelfth year of Tai Tsung, the third emperor under whom he had serve d. The festival of feeding the hungry spirits is attributed to him. His titles of d are Thesaurus of Wisdom and Amogha Tripitaka. rymogha-pramai, also styled 'At will vajra'; in the Garbhadhtu the court.

The realm of phenomena; in contrast with the universal or dha lusion of phenomena.

Amoghasiddhi. The Tathgata of unerring performance, the fifth of the five wis yni-buddhas of the diamond-realm. He is placed in the north; his image is gold-co lored, left hand clenched, right fingers extended pointing to breast. Also, 'He

is seated in 'adamantine' pose (legs closely locked) '(Getty), soles apparent, l eft hand in lap, palm upwards, may balance a double vajra, or sword; right hand erect in blessing, fingers extended. Symbol, double vajra; color, green (Getty); word, ah!; blue-green lotus; element, earth; animal, garua; akti (female personif ication), Tr; Mnui-Buddha (human or savior Buddha), Maitreya. T., dongrub; J., Fuk j An unerring lasso. See .

( or ); Amoghapa . Not empty (or unerring) n dhtu group, catching deva and human fish for the bodhi-shore. The image has three faces, each with three eyes and six arms, but other forms have existed, one wit h three heads and ten arms, one with one head and four arms. The hands hold a ne t, lotus, trident, halberd, the gift of courage, and a plenipotentiary staff; so metimes accompanied by 'the green Tr, Sudhana-Kumra, Hayagrva and Bhku (Getty). Ther re numerous sutras, etc.

Amoghadarin, the unerringly seeing Bodhisattva, shown in the upper second place tsang's court in the Garbhadhtu; also .

Amoghavajra-bodhisattva. A Bodhisattva in the court of the

Amoghkua. Guanyin of the 'Unerring hook', similar to ; als

() The ch'an or intuitive School does 'not set up scriptures'; it lay ion and intuition rather than on books and other external aids: cf. Lakvatra-stra.

Never Despise, a previous incarnation of the Buddha, as a monk whose consta g to all he met, that they were destined for Buddhahood, brought him much persec ution; see the chapter of this title in the Lotus Sutra. The practice of 'Never Despise'. See . Unrefined, indecent, improper, or smart speech.

ml-gandha-vilepana-dhraa-maana-vibhaasthnd vairama (virati) the body with wreaths of fragrant fowers, or using fragrant unguents. [109]

The sixteenth of Amitbha's forty-eight vows, that he would not enter final Budd as long as anyone of evil repute existed.

(or ) Not in order of age, i. e. clerical age; disorderly sitting; taking a se hich one is not entitled. Not independent, not one's own master, under governance. adattdna. Taking that which is not given, i. e. theft; against this is the second mmandment.

one of the , the state of experiencing neither pain nor pleasure, i. e. abov so styled the state in which one has abandoned both.

Praa-kyapa. One of the six heretics, or Tirthyas, opposed to kyam Not of false or untrue nature; true, sincere; also .

Without doing yet to do, e. g. . Unenlightened, uncomprehending, without 'spiritual' insight, the condition of peo

ple in general, who mistake the phenomenal for the real, and by ignorance beget karma, reaping its results in the mortal round of transmigration; i. e. people g enerally.

The first two of the of the saint, in which the illusion of mistaking the p for the real still arises.

The prohibition of mentioning the errors and sins of other disciples, cleric

Not to request; uninvited; voluntary. The uninvited friend, i. e. the Bodhisattva. Uninvited preaching or offering of the Law, i. e. voluntarily bestowing its benefi ts. Unchanging nature, immutable, i. e. the bhtatathat. The immutable bhtatathat in the absolute, as compared with nal conditions.

, i. e. in re

The conditioned immutable, i. e. immutable as a whole, but not in its parts, i. e. its phenomenal activity.

The stage of endurance, or patient meditation, that has reached the state where ph nomenal illusion ceases to arise, through entry into the realization of the Void , or noumenal; also (or ) .

() avaivartika, or avinivartanya. Never receding, always progressing, not backs , or losing ground; never retreating but going straight to nirvana; an epithet o f every Buddha.

Never receding from position attained; from a right course of action; from pur g a right line of thought, or mental discipline. These are duties of every bodhi sattva, and have numerous interpretations.

The four kinds of non-backsliding, which includes three kinds of non-backsliding top of which the Pure Land sect adds another place or abode, i. e. that those w ho reach the Pure Land never fall away, for which five reasons are given termed . T e Dharmalakaa sect makes their four , , , and , faith, position attained, re and accordant procedure. The seventh of the , the stage of never receding, or continuous progress. The Pure Land, from which there is no falling away. The first of a bodhisattva's ; it is also interpreted by right action and right ght.

One of the nine aaika, i. e. the stage beyond study, where intuition rules. N ne of the twenty-seven sages. A never receding bodhisattva, who aims at perfect enlightenment. () The never-receding Buddha vehicle, of universal salvation. Not to return, never returning. Cf. .

The third of the four directions or aims, see angmin, not returning to , but rising above it to the or the form-realm, or even formless realm.

The fruits, fruition, or rewards of the last. Various stages in the final life of parinirva are named, i. e. five, six, seven, eight, nine, or eleven kinds. A nominal assistant or attendant, an attendant who has no responsibilities. [110] Vikla-bhojand vairama (virati); part of the sixth of the ten commandments, i. t eating out of regulation hours, v. .

One of the , a philosophical school, whose rule was self-gratification, 'n ' others.

sur-maireya-madya-pramdasthnd vairama (virati). The fifth of the ten commandme against alcohol.

viklabhojana; part of the sixth of the ten commandments, i. e. against eating flesh ; v. . madhya. Middle, central, medium, the mean, within; to hit the centre. v. also . The middle vehicle to nirvana, includes all intermediate or medial systems betwee n Hnayna and Mahyna. It also corresponds with the state of a pratyekabuddha, who liv es chiefly for his own salvation but partly for others, like a man sitting in th e middle of a vehicle, leaving scarcely room for others. It is a definition made by Mahayanists unknown to Hnayna. Another name for the uttar sagh, the middle garment of price, or esteem. The fifteenth of the seventh moon; see . The fifteenth of the first moon. See . The fifteenth of the tenth moon; cf. . Middling kalpa, a period of 336, 000, 000 years. () A middling chiliocosm, see . Central India, i. e. of the five Indies, as mentioned by Xuanzang in the . The middle Agama . Middle rank or class. Chanting of Buddhist hymns is divided into three kinds , , and . An arrangement by the esoteric sect of the Five Dhyni-Buddhas, Vairocana being the first in position, Akobhya east, and so on.

Madhyadesa. (); The middle kingdom, i. e. Central North India, v. medium disciples, i. e. rvakas and pratyekabuddhas, who can gain emancipation for t hemselves, but cannot confer it on others: cf. and . () Central North India, idem . A monastery on the Feilai peak at Hangchow.

The ides the istence, ve them, tra.

school or principle of the mean, represented by the Dharmalakaa school, w Buddha's teaching into three periods, the first in which he preached ex the second non-existence, the third neither, something 'between' or abo e. g. a realm of pure spirit, vide the Sadhinirmocana-stra and the Lotus

A monk's inner garment, i. e. the five-patch garment; also . idem . The central honored one in any group of Buddhas, e. g. among the five . idem . Repenting or recanting midway, i. e. doubting and falling away.

One of the , i. e. the antar-bhva or intermediate state of existence between dea d reincarnation; hence is an unsettled being in search of a new habitat or reincar ation; v. . An unsettled being in search of a new habitat or reincarnation; v. .

Medium capacity, neither clever nor dull, of each of the six organs ; there are th ee powers of each organ , , and . Central North India, idem . [111] Each of the four great continents at the foot of Mount Sumeru has two middling co ntinents. In the midst of the stream, i. e. of mortality, or reincarnations.

() The central figure of the eight-petalled group of the Garbhadhtu maala; i. enomenal Vairocana who has around him four Buddhas and four bodhisattvas, each o n a petal. From this maala spring the four other great maalas. The name of a Buddha in the center of lotus.

The Court of the eight-petaled lotus in the middle of the Garbhadhtu, with Vair in its center and four Buddhas and four bodhisattvas on the eight petals. The lo tus is likened to the human heart, with the Sun-Buddha at its center. The four Bu ddhas are E. Akobhya, S. Ratnasambhava, W. Amitbha, N. Amoghasiddhi; the four bodh isattvas are S. E. Samantabhadra, S. W. Majur, N. W. Avalokitevara, and N. E. Maitre ya. One of the five kinds of those who never recede but go on to parinirva, cf. . Medium-sized herbs, medium capacity, v. .

Meditation on the Mean, one of the ; also meditation on the absolute which unites ll opposites. There are various forms of such meditation, that of the , the , t

Prnyya-mla-stra-k, or Pryamula-stra-k; the Mdhyamika-stra, a ator, and Nlacakus as compiler; tr. by Kumrajva A. D. 409. It is the principal work of the Mdhyamika, or Middle School, attributed to Ngrjuna. Versions only exist in C hinese and Tibetan; an English translation by Miyamoto exists and publication is promised; a German version is by Walleser. The is the first and most?? important of the q. v. The teaching of this School is found additionally in the ;

pposes the rigid categories of existence and non-existence and , and denies the t wo extremes of production (or creation) and nonproduction and other antitheses, in the interests of a middle or superior way.

The Mdhyamika school, which has been described as a system of sophisiic nihilism, ssolving every proposition into a thesis and its antithesis, and refuting both; but it is considered by some that the refuting of both is in the interests of a third, the which transcends both. The third of the three postulates of the Tiantai school, i. e. , , and q.

The middle stage of the referred to in the i. e. the middle class of tho t life; also . the meditation on the condition of .

The 'mean' has various interpretations. In general it denotes the mean between tw o extremes, and has special reference to the mean between realism and nihilism, or eternal substantial existence and annihilation; this 'mean' is found in a thi rd principle between the two, suggesting the idea of a realm of mind or spirit b eyond the terminology of or , substance or nothing, or, that which has form, and is therefore measurable and ponderable, and its opposite of total non-existence. See . The following four Schools define the term according to their several scrip tures: the School describes it as the , v. ; the School as the e antai as the true reality; and the Huayan as the dharmadhtu. Four forms of the M are given by the . The doctrine of the 'mean', is the dharmadhtu, or 'spiritual ' universe.

The third period of the Buddha's teaching, according to the , giving the via m tween the two extremes, the absolute as not confined to the phenomenal or the no umenal; also called .

The reality of the 'mean' is neither substance or existent, nor void or nont, but a reality which is neither, or a mean between the two extremes of materia lism and nihilism; also . The 'mean' as the basic principle in the and schools of the doctrine of the mation body'. The 'mean' is the first and chief of all principles, nothing is outside it. One of the Tiantai three meditations, i. e. on the doctrine of the Mean to get of the illusion of phenomena. [112]

A treatise by Vasubandhu, translated by Xuanzang in three chuan and by Chen Zh n two fascicles. It is an explanation of the Madhynta-vibhga-stra, said to h en by Maitreya to Asaga. An intermediate dhyna stage between two dhyna-heavens; also ; . The intermediate existence between death and reincarnation, a stage varying from seven to forty-nine days, when the karma-body will certainly be reborn; v. . The means used (by the deceased' s family) for ensuring a favorable reincarnation uring the intermediate stage, between death and reincarnation. The midday meal, after which nothing whatever may be eaten.

The central Buddha in a group. Red, cinnabar color; a remedy, drug, elixir. The pubic region, 2 1/2 inches below the navel. To say, speak. Continuing to speak; they say, people say; as follows, and so on, etc. Why? The opening stanza of the Nirvana sutra 3. Interlock, dovetail-mutual. The fault of transferring from one object of worship over to another a, gift, or d uty, e. g. using gilt given for an image of kyamuni to make one for Maitreya; or ' robbing Peter to pay Paul'. Kneeling with both knees at once, as in India; in China the left knee is first pl aced on the ground; also . Hasa saghrma, 'Wild goose monastery, ' on Mount Indraailaguh, whose inmates ed from starving by the self-sacrifice of a wild goose; also (or ) . A well.

Like ladling the moon out of the well; the parable of the monkeys who saw the moon fallen into a well, and fearing there would be no more moonlight, sought to save it; the monkey-king hung on to a branch, one hung on to his tail and so on, but the branch broke and all were drowned. 'Like the well and the river', indicating the impermanence of life. The 'well ' r efers to the legend of the man who running away from a mad elephant fell into a well; the 'river ' to a great tree growing on the river bank yet blown over by t he wind. The flower of the water, i. e. that drawn from the well in the last watch of the night, at which time the water is supposed not to produce animal life. paca, five.

Five, three, eight, two, a summary of the tenets of the school, , , The five higher bonds of desire still existing in the upper realms, i. e. in both he form and formless realms. The five bonds in the lower desire-realms, i. e. desire, dislike, self, heretical deals, doubt , , , , . The five inconceivable, or thought-surpassing things. v. . Five improper things for a monk to eat twigs, leaves, flowers, fruit, powders. idem . idem .

The five vehicles conveying to the karma reward which differs according to the ve hicle: they are generally summed up as (1) rebirth among men conveyed by observin g the five commandments; (2) among the devas by the ten forms of good action; (3) among the rvakas by the four noble truths; (4) among pratyekabuddhas by th dnas; (5) among the Buddhas and bodhisattvas by the six pramits q. v. Anothe is the various vehicles of bodhisattvas; pratyekabuddhas; rvakas; general; and de vas-and-men. Another is Hnayna Buddha, pratyekabuddhas, rvakas, the gods of the Brah ma heavens, and those of the desire-realm. Another is Hnayna ordinary disciples: rva kas: pratyekabuddhas; bodhisattvas; and the one all-inclusive vehicle. And a six th, of Tiantai, is for men; devas; rvakas-cum-pratyekabuddhas; bodhisattvas: and t he Buddha-vehicle. The esoteric cult has: men, corresponding with earth; devas, with water: rvakas, with fire: pratyekabuddhas, with wind; and bodhisattvas, with the 'void'.

All the different classes will obtain an entrance into the Pure Land by the vow of Amitbha. The five things fallaciously explained by Mahdeva, as stated in the Kathvatthu. [113]

The five periods each of 500 years. In the tenth chapter of the the Bud as saying that after his death there would be five successive periods each of 50 0 years, strong consecutively in power (1) of salvation, (2) of meditation, (3) of learning, (4) of stpa and temple building, and finally (5) of dissension. The twenty-five Bodhisattvas . v. .

() The five fundamental condition of the passions and delusions: wrong view e common to the trailokya; clinging, or attachment, in the desire-realm; clingin g, or attachment, in the form-realm; clinging, or attachment, in the formless re alm which is still mortal: the state of unenlightenment or ignorance in the trai lokya which is the root-cause of all distressful delusion, Also . The Five Dhyni-Buddhas of the Vajradhtu and Garbhadhtu; v. .

A Shingon term for the five Buddhas in their five manifestations: Vairocana as ete nal and pure dharmakya; Akobhya as immutable and sovereign; Ratnasabhava as bliss a nd glory; Amitbha as wisdom in action; kyamuni as incarnation and nirmakya. Five classes of Buddhists; also idem q. v.

; () ; ; A Buddha-crown containing the Five Dhy en holding the akti, and hence are called by the Tibetans the 'crowned Buddhas' ( Getty). Vairocana in the Vajradhtu wears a crown with five points indicative of t he five qualities of perfect wisdom, etc., as represented by the Five Dhyni-Buddh as.

The five characteristics of a Buddha' s nature: the first three are the q. urth is the fruition of perfect enlightenment, and the fifth the fruition o ition, or the revelation of parinirva. The first three are natural attributes, the two last are acquired. The manual signs by which the characteristic of each of the Five Dhyni-Buddhas wn in the Diamond-realm group, i. e. Vairocana, the closed hand of wisdom; Akobhy a, right fingers touching the ground, firm wisdom; Ratnasabhava, right hand open uplifted, vow-making sign; Amitbha, samdhi sign, right fingers in left palm, preac hing and ending doubts; and Amoghasiddhi, i. e. kyamuni, the karma sign, i. e. fin

al nirvana. These mdra, or manual signs, are from the but other forms are common.

(); Five bodhisattvas sometimes placed on the left of kyamuni, in wisdom: (1) (); M027897, Sitta-patra, with white parasol, les of Avalokitevara; (2) Jaya, with sword symbol of wisdom, or discretion; (3) wheel symbol of unexcelled power of preaching; (4) ; (or or h insignia of authority or a fame; (5) ; ; ; ; lusion, with a hook as symbol. The forms, colors, symbols, etc., of the .

Abbreviation for . There is also a translated by

Baptism with five vases of perfumed water, symbol of Buddha-wisdom in its five for s. The five working organs: the mouth, hands, feet, sex organ, and anus.

The five categories, or divisions; there are several groups, e. g. (1) Hnayna and M ahyna have groupings of all phenomena under five heads, i. e. Hnayna has 75 which ar e 11 , 1 , 46 , 14 , and 3 ; Mahyna has 100 which are 8 are , , , , and or . (3) The five evolutions in the after 27 days; pe, 37; ghana, 47; prakha, 57 days when form and organs are all compl ete. (4) Certain combinations of the Eight Diagrams are sometimes styled five ons of prince and minister.

The five kinds of samdhi: (1) On mortality, the and ; (2) rva yekabuddha on the twelve nidnas; (4) bodhisattva on the and the ; (5) Buddha on t one Buddha-vehicle, which includes all others; v. .

The five kinds of offerings unguents, chaplets, incense, food, and lamps (or candle s).

The five messengers of Majur, , ; they are shown on his left p; their names are (1) Ken (or ) ; . (2) Upaken ; [114]

The five comrades, i. e. kyamuni's five old companions in asceticism and first con rts, v. . Also .

() The monk' s robe of five patches or lengths, also termed as the lowest s of patch-robes. It is styled the garment ordinarily worn in the monastery, ad and for general purposes; also written .

idem and i. e. the five meditations for settling the mind and ridd ors of desire, hate, ignorance, the self, and a wayward or confused mind; the fi ve meditations are , , , and i. e. the vileness of all th discrimination, breathing; some substitute meditation on the Buddha in place of the fourth; another division puts breathing first, and there are other differenc es. Five eights, i. e. forty.

All the five, eight, and ten commandments, i. e. the three groups of disciples, la ty who keep the five and eight and monks who keep the ten.

The forty forms of Guanyin, or the Guanyin with forty hands: the forty forms multi plied by the twenty-five things make 1, 000, hence Guanyin with the thousand hands

The five sense perceptions and the eighth or laya vijna, the fecundating principl consciousness in man.

The five complete utensils for worship two flower vases, two candlesticks, and a ce nser. The 'five swords' or slayers who were sent in pursuit of a man who fled from his king, e. g. the five skandhas . idem and .

The Mahsaka Vinaya, or five divisions of the law according to that schoo

paca-dharmakya, the five attributes of the dharmakya or 'spiritual' body of the a, i. e. that he is above all moral conditions; tranquil and apart from all fals e ideas; wise and omniscient; free, unlimited, unconditioned, which is the state of nirvana; that he has perfect knowledge of this state. These five attributes sur ass all conditions of form, or the five skandhas; Eitel interprets this by exemp tion from all materiality (rpa); all sensations (vedana); all consciousness (saj); a ll moral activity (karman); all knowledge (vijna). The esoteric sect has its own g roup. See also . The five kinds of incense, or fragrance, corresponding with the , i. e. the of , , etc. Five of the ten 'runners 'or lictors, i. e. delusions; the ten are divided into fi ve dull, or stupid, and five sharp or keen, appealing to the intellect; the latt er are , , , , . The five kalpas spent by Amitbha thinking out and preparing for his vows.

pacabalni, the five powers or faculties one of the categories of the thirty-seven odhipakika dharma ; they destroy the five obstacles, each by each, and ar h (destroying doubt); vryabala, zeal (destroying remissness); or smtibala, thought (destroying falsity); samdhibala, concentration of mind, or meditation (des troying confused or wandering thoughts); and prajbala, wisdom (destroying all illus ion and delusion). Also the five transcendent powers, i. e. the power of meditati on; the resulting supernatural powers; adaptability, or powers of 'borrowing' o olving any required organ of sense, or knowledge, i. e. by beings above the seco nd dhyna heavens; the power of accomplishing a vow by a Buddha or bodhisattva; and august power of Dharma. Also, the five kinds of Mara powers exerted on sight, . The five effective or meritorious gates to Amitbha's Pure Land, i. e. worship of , praise of him, vows to him, meditation on him, willingness to suffer for unive rsal salvation. Fifty-three past Buddhas, of which the lists vary.

The fifty-three honored ones of the Diamond group, i. e. the thirty-seven plus six een bodhisattvas of the present kalpa.

The fifty-three wise ones mentioned in the chapter of the Huayan [115]

The fifty-two stages in the process of becoming a Buddha; of these fifty-one are t bodhisattvahood, the fifty-second to Buddhahood. They are: Ten or stages of fait h; thirty of the or three grades of virtue i. e. ten , ten , and ten ; a three grades of holiness, or sainthood, i. e. ten , plus and . These are the i stages; there are others, and the number and character of the stages vary in d

ifferent schools.

The fifty-two groups of living beings, human and not-human, who, accordin ana-sutra, assembled at the nirvana of the Buddha. The fifty-two kinds of offerings of the .

The maala of Amitbha with his fifty-two attendant Bodhisattvas and Buddhas. A as or or ; said to have been communicated to

similar to . The ten primary commands and the forty-eight s se between kyamuni's nirvana and the advent of Maitreya, 56, 070, 000 years.

The fifty (or fify-two) objects of worship for suppressing demons and pestilences, and producing peace, good harvests, etc.; the lists differ. The Sanskrit alphabet given as of fifty letters.

The fifty minor kalpas which, in the chapter of the Lotus, are supernaturally o seem as but half a day.

The fiftieth turn, i. e. the great-ness of the bliss of one who hears the Lotus Su ra even at fiftieth hand: how much greater that of him who hears at first hamd ! idem and The fifty evils produced by the five skandhas, i. e, eight.

Fifty modes of meditation mentioned in the ; i. e. the bodhi paksik r , four , eight , eight , nine , and eleven .

The five thousand supremely arrogant (i. e. Hnayna) monks who left the great ass y, refusing to hear the Buddha preach the new doctrine of the Lotus Sutra; see i ts chapter. () The five Indias, or five regions of India, idem q. v. Worship on the four fives, i. e. the fifth, tenth, twentieth, and twenty-fifth d ays of the month; also . The hell in which the sufferers are dismembered with five-pronged forks. The five tenacious bonds, or skandhas, attaching to mortality. The five vedanas, or sensations; i. e. of sorrow, ofjoy; of pain, of pleasure; of freedom from them all; the first two are limited to mental emotions, the two ne xt are of the senses, and the fifth of both; v. 5.

One of the four kinds of q. v.; the mental concept of the perceptions of th ses. The five flavours, or stages of making ghee, which is said to be a cure for all ailments; it is a Tiantai illustration of the five periods of the Buddha's t eaching: (1) M000190 ksira, fresh milk, his first preaching, i. e. that of the Av atamsaka, for rvakas and pratyeka-buddhas; (2) dadhi, coagulated milk, cream, the Agamas, for Hnayna generally; (3) navanita, curdled, the Vaipulyas, ola, butter, the Prajna, for the Mahyna ; (5) sarpirmandla, clarified bu e Lotus and Nirvana sutras, for the Mahyna ; see also , and v. lavours -sour, bitter, sweet, pungent, and salty. [116]

Five kinds of concentration, i. e. that of heretics, ordinary people, Hnayna, Mah and the supreme vehicle, or that of believers in the fundamental Buddha-nature of

all things; this is styled ; ,; . The porridge of five flavors made on the eighth day of the twelfth moon, the anniv ersary of the Buddha's enlightenment.

The five circuits or areas of cause and effect, i. e. the five main subjects of th Huayan sutra. A division of the disciples, in the Lotus Sutra, into five grades those who hear a nd rejoice; read and repeat; preach; observe and meditate; and transform self an d others.

() pacatanmtri, the five subtle or rudimentary elements out of which rise th tions of sound, touch, form, taste, and smell. They are the fourth of the . The five good (things), i. e. the first five commandments.

The five causes, v. 7. i. e. (1) producing cause; (2) supporting cause r establishing cause; (4) maintaining cause; (5) nourishing or strengthening caus . These all refer to the four elements, earth, water, fire, wind, for they are t he causers or producers and maintainers of the infinite forms of nature. Another list from the Nirvana-Sutra 21 is (1) cause of rebirth, i. e. previous delusion; (2) intermingling cause, i. e. good with good, bad with bad, neutral with neutral ; (3) cause of abiding in the present condition, i. e. the self in its attachment s; (4) causes of development, e. g. food, clothing, etc.; (5) remoter cause, th rental seed. idem . The five planets, see . The objects of the five senses, corresponding to the senses of form, sound, smell , taste, and touch. The objects of the five senses, which being dusty or earthly things can taint the true nature; idem . The ceremonies before the .

The five bad dreams of King Ajtaatru on the night that Buddha entered nirvana as th moon sank the sun arose from the earth. the stars fell like rain, seven comets appeared, and a great conflagration filling the sky fell on the earth. The five elements earth, water, fire, wind, and space. v. also the five agents. the esoteric cult the five are the physical manifestation, or garbhadhtu, v. ; as being in all phenomena they are called the five evolvers; their phonetic embryos re those of the Five Dhyani-Buddhas of the five directions, v. .

The five dta, i. e. great lictors, or deva-messengers birth, old age, d rthly laws and punishments said to be sent by Mra as warnings. The five powerful Bodhisattvas, guardians of the four quarters and the centre. idem .

The symbols of the five elements earth as square, water round, fire triangular, win d half-moon, and space a combination of the other four. The five great gifts, i. e. ability to keep the five commandments.

The five Dharmaplas, or Law-guardians of the Five Dhyni-Buddhas, of whom they ar nations or embodiments in two forms, compassionate and minatory. The five kings are the fierce aspect, e. g. Yamantaka, or the Six-legged Honoured One is an ema on of Majur, who is an emanation of Amitbha. The five kings are , , ,

The five chief colours yellow for earth, white for water, red for fire, black for w ind, azure for space (or the sky). Some say white for wind and black for water. The meditation on the five elements .

The fifth of the thirteen great courts of the Garbhadhtu-maala, named , the five Dharmaplas . The five great dragon-kings of India.

) Five devas in the Garbhadhtumaala located in the north-east. Also ; The five regions of India, north, south, east, west, and central; v. .

The five Tathgatas, or Dhyni-Buddhas, in their special capacity of relieving the l of hungry ghosts; i. e. Ratnasambhava. Akobhya, Amoghasiddhi, Vairocana, and kyamu ni; v. . ' [117] The five wonders, i. e. of purified or transcendental sight, sound, taste, smell, and touch in the Pure-land. The joys in the Pure land. The five creature desires stimulated by the objects of the five earthly senses. idem .

The five controlling powers, v. , birth, old age, sickness, death, and the (impe ) magistrate.

The fourth of the judges of the dead, who registers the weight of the sins of t eceased.

The five great schools of Mahyna, i. e. , , , and . There are ot

() Division in China of the Ch'an, Intuitive or Meditative School. It divid rthern and southern schools under Shenxiu and Huineng respectively. The northern chool continued as a unit, the southern divided into five or seven , viz. , , others are and .

What the five classes, i. e. rulers, thieves, water, fire, and prodigal sons, have as their common prey, the wealth struggled for by others. The five precious things, syn. all the precious things. There are several groups, e. g. gold, silver, pearls, cowries, and rubies; or, coral, crystal, gold, silv er, and cowries; or, gold, silver, pearls, coral, and amber; etc.

The five special things, or five devotions, observance of any one of which, accor ding to the Japanese Shin sect, ensures rebirth in the Pure Land; they are , , r worship, reading, meditation, invocation, or praise. idem .

Five mountains and monasteries: (1) in India, sacred because of their connection with the Buddha: Vaibhra-vana; Saptaparaguh; Indr g the Five Dynasties and the Southern Sung dynasty, on the analogy of those in I ndia; three at Hangzhou at Jingshan, Beishan, and Nanshan and two at Ningbo a Shan and Taiboshan. Later the Yuan dynasty established one at Chin Ling, the e chief of these under the Ming dynasty.

The five masters or teachers, i. e. respectively of the sutras, the vinaya, the str as, the abhidharma, and meditation. A further division is made of and . Th . of different periods, are Mahkyapa, nanda, Madhyntika, avsa, and Upagupta; anoth p connected with the Vinaya is Upli, Dsaka, Sonaka, Siggava, and Moggaliputra Tiss va. The or five of the same period are variously stated: the Sarvstivdins say they were the five immediate disciples of Upagupta, i. e. Dharmagupta, etc.; see . The five lions that sprang from the Buddha's five fingers; 16.

paca-vrika-pariad, or moka-mah-parisad, v. . The ancient quinquennial asse ion and exhortation, ascribed by some to Aoka. The five means of transportation over the sea of mortality to salvation; they are the five pramits almsgiving, commandment-keeping, patience under provocation, nd meditation. The doctrines of the q. v. The five virtues, of which there are various definitions. The five virtues requir ed in a confessor at the annual confessional ending the rainy retreat are: freed om from predilections, from anger, from fear, not easily deceived, discernment o f shirkers of confession. Another group is the five virtues for a nurse of the s ick, and there are others.

The five conditions of mind produced by objective perception: immediate or inst neous, the first impression; attention, or inquiry; conclusion, decision; l or good; the production therefrom of other causations. [118]

The five stages of bodhisattva-knti, patience or endurance according to the : (1 auses of passion and illusion controlled but not finally cut off, the condition of , , and ; (2) firm belief, i. e. from the to the ; (3) f all mortality, i. e. to ; (4) patience for full apprehension, of the trut birth, to ; and (5) the patience that leads to complete nirvana, to The five angry ones, idem .

The five devotional gates of the Pure-land sect: (1) worship of Amitbha with the dy; (2) invocation with the mouth; (3) resolve with the mind to be reborn in the Pure-land; (4) meditation on the glories of that land, etc.; (5) resolve to bes tow one's merits, e. g. works of supererogation, on all creatures.

The five different natures as grouped by the Dharmalakana sect; of these the f nd second, while able to attain to non-return to mortality, are unable to reach Buddhahood; of the fourth some may, others may not reach it; the fifth will be r eborn as devas or men: (1) rvakas for arhats; (2) pratyekabuddhas for pratyekabudd ha-hood; (3) bodhisattvas for Buddhahood; (4) indefinite; (5) outsiders who have not the Buddha mind. The Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment has another group, i. e. the natures of (1) ordinary good people; (2) rvakas and pratyekabuddhas; (3) bodhi sattvas; (4) indefinite; (5) heretics. idem .

) The five fears of beginners in the bodhisattva-way: fear of (1) giving away a they should have no means of livelihood; (2) sacrificing their reputation; (3) sacrificing themselves through dread of dying; (4) falling into evil; (5) addres sing an assembly, especially of men of position.

The five stages in a penitential service. Tiantai gives: (1) confession of past s ins and forbidding them for the future; (2) appeal to the universal Buddhas to k eep the law-wheel rolling; (3) rejoicing over the good in self and others; (4) of fering all one's goodness to all the living and to the Buddha-way; (5) resolve, or vows, i. e. the . The Shingon sect divides the ten great vows of Samantabha five , the first three vows being included under or submission; the fourth is rep entance; the fifth rejoicing; the sixth, seventh, and eighth appeal to the Buddh as; the ninth and tenth, bestowal of acquired merit. The five delusions, idem . The feelings, or passions, which are stirred by the five senses. The five sins killing, stealing, adultery, lying, drinking intoxicants. Cf. . idem . idem and . The five kinds of selfishness, or meanness: monopolizing (1) an abode; (2) an alm sgiving household; (3) alms received; (4) praise; (5) knowledge of the truth, e. g. of a sutra.

paca-verama; the first five of the ten commandments, against killing, stealing, adu tery, lying, and intoxicating liquors. ; ; ; ; They are bind well as on monks and nuns. The observance of these five ensures rebirth in the h uman realm. Each command has five spirits to guard its observer .

The five Buddha-ketra, or dependencies, the realms, or conditions of a Buddha. Th are: (1) his dharmakya-ketra, or realm of his 'spiritual nature', dependent on and et identical with the bhutatathata; (2) with its five immortal skandhas, i. e. hi s glorified body for his own enjoyment;. (3) the land or condition of his self-exp ression as wisdom; (4) his sabhogakya realm for the joy of others; (5) th ch his nirmakya depends, that of the wisdom of perfect service of all, which result s in his relation to every kind of condition. idem . The five skandhas, idem .

A stra of Asaga , also translated as the , giving a description of Ma u prepared a summary of it; tr. by Wuxiang. Translations were also made by Paramrt ha and Xuanzang; other versions and treatises under various names exist. [119]

(or ) The five parts (avayava) of a syllogism: pratij, the proposit araa, the example; upanaya, the application; and nigamana, the summing up, or con clusion. These are also expressed in other terms, e. g. ; ; ; ;, and .

The five moral laws or principles arising out of the idea of the mah-nirva in the

The five division of Buddhism according to the Huayan School, of which there are two That of Dushun down to Xianshou is (1) Hnayna which interprets nirva

tion; (2) the primary stage of Mahyna, with two sections the and stic, (3) Mahyna in its final stage, teaching the and universal Buddhahood; ediate, direct, or intuitive school, e. g. by right concentration of thought, or faith, apart from 'works'; (5) the complete or perfect teaching of the Huayan, c ombining all the rest into one all-embracing vehicle. The five are now different iated into ten schools. The other division, by Guifeng of the same school, is (1) birth as human beings for those who keep the five commandments and as devas thos e who keep the as above; (4) as above; and (5) the ddha-nature; it includes (3), (4), and (5) of the first group. See also . The work in three juan by Fazang of the Tang dynasty, explaining the doctrines he Five Schools. The five Dhyni-Buddhas of the five regions; see the esoteric . An abbreviation for , i. e. ; also the Tiantai . The five Dhyni-Buddhas of the Vajradhtu.

paca-bhij. The five supernatural or magical powers; six is the more common number i Chinese texts, five is the number in Ceylon; v. . The five night watches; also the fifth watch.

paca-vidy, the five sciences or studies of India: (1) abda, grammar and composition ilpakarmasthna, the arts and mathematics; cikits, medicine; hetu, logic; adhytma, p hilosophy, which Monier Williams says is the 'knoowledge of the supreme spirit, or of tman', the basis of the four Vedas; the Buddhists reckon the Tripiaka and the as their , i. e. their inner or special philosophy. The five planets, Jupiter, Mars, Saturn, Venus, and Mercury; also .

A Tiantai classification of the Buddha's teaching into five periods and eight kind of doctrine, which eight are subdivided into two groups of four each, and

() The five periods or divisions of kyamuni's teaching. According to Tiantai t (1) the Avatasaka or first period in three divisions each of seven days, after his enlightenment, when he preached the content, of this sutra; (2) the twelve years o f his preaching the gamas in the Deer Park; (3) the eight years of preaching M m-Hnayna doctrines, the vaipulya period; (4) the twenty-two years of his preaching he praj or wisdom sutras; (5) the eight years of his preaching the Lotus Sutra a day and a night, the Nirvana Sutra. According to the Nirvana School (now part of the Tiantai) they are (1) the period when the differentiated teaching began an the distinction of the three vehicles, as represented by the Four Noble Truths f or rvakas, the Twelve Nidnas for pratyekabuddhas, and the Six Pramits fo 2) the teaching common to all three vehicles, as seen in the ; (3) th e , and other sutras olling the bodhisattva teaching at the expense of that f 4) the common objective teaching calling all three vehicles, through the Lotus, to union in the one vehicle; (5) the teaehmg of eternal life i. e. the revelation th rough the Nirvana sutra of the eternity of Buddhahood; these five are also calle d ; ; ; ; and . According to Liu Chiu of the Chin dynasty, t iate and gradual attainment, the latter having five divisions called similar to t ose of the Tiantai group. According to Fabao of the Tang dynasty the five are (1) ; (2) or ; (3) or ; (4) or ; (5) or . [120]

The five kinds of wisdom of the Shingon School. Of the six elements earth, re, air (or wind), ether (or space) , and consciousness (or mind ), the first five form the phenomenal world, or Garbhadhtu, the womb of all things , the sixth is the

conscious, or perceptive, or wisdom world, the Vajradhtu , sometimes called the Dia mond realm. The two realms are not originally apart, but one, and there is no co nsciousness without the other five elements. The sixth element, vijna, is further subdivided into five called the Five Wisdoms: (1) dharmadhtu-prakti-jna amala-vijna, or pure ; it is the wisdom of the embodied nature of the dharmadhtu, d efined as the six elements, and is associated with Vairocana , in the centre, who abides in this samdhi; it also corresponds to the ether element. (2) adaranareat round mirror wisdom, derived from the laya-vijna, reflecting all things; corre sponds to earth, and is associated with Akobhya and the east. (3) samat-jna, d om mano-vijna, wisdom in regard to all things equally and universally; corresponds to fire, and is associated with Ratnasabhava and the south. (4) pratyavekaa-j d from , wisdom of profound insight, or discrimination, for exposition and doubt-d estruction; corresponds to water, and is associated with Amitbha and the west. (5 ) ktynuhna-jna, derived from the five senses, the wisdom of perfecting the self-welfare and the welfare of others; corresponds to air and is associated wit h Amoghasiddhi and the north. These five Dhyni-Buddhas are the . The five kinds of sdom are the four belonging to every Buddha, of the exoteric cult, to which the esoteric cult adds the first, pure, all-refecting, universal, all-discerning, an d all-perfecting.

; ; The five Dhyni-Buddhas, or Wisdom-Tathgatas of the Vajrad of wisdom; possibly of Nepalese origin. The Wisdom Buddha represents the dharmaky a or Buddha-mind, also the Dharma of the triratna, or trinity. Each evolves one of the five colours, one of the five senses, a Dhyani-bodhisattva in two forms o ne gracious, the other fierce, and a Mnui-Buddha; each has his own akti, i. e. femi nine energy or complement; also his own bja, or germ-sound or seal, i. e. rea ubstantive word, the five being for a, for h, for ? hr, for ? a, escribed as the emanations or forms of an di-Buddha, Vajrasattva; the four are co nsidered by others to be emanations or forms of Vairocana as the Supreme Buddha. The five are not always described as the same, e. g. they may be (or ) Bhaiajya, abhtaratna, Vairocana, Akobhya, and either Amoghasiddhi or kyamuni. Below is a class ified list of the generally accepted five with certain particulars connected wit h them, but these differ in different places, and the list can only be a general guide. As to the Dhyni-bodhisattvas, each Buddha evolves three forms , sattva who represents the Buddha's dharmakya, or spiritual body; (2) a vajra or d iamond form who represents his wisdom in graciousness; and (3) a fierce or angry form, the who represents his power against evil. (1) Vairocana appears in the th ree forms of Vajra-pramit Bodhisattva, Universally Shining Vajrasattv (2) Akobhya's three forms are kagarbha, complete power, and Ku antabhadra, Sattvavajra, and or Trailokyavijayarja; (4) Amitbha's ar , and Hayagrva, the horse-head Dharmapla; (5) Amoghasiddhi's are Maitreya, nd Vajrayaka. The above Bodhisattvas differ from those in the following list: Table 1 ' Name Chinese Position Element Sense Color Vairocana centre ether sight white Akobhya east earth sound blue Ratnasabhava south fire smell yellow Amitbha west water taste red Amoghasiddhi north air touch green Table 2 Germ Animal Dhyani-Bodhisattva Buddha a lion Samantabhadra Krakucchanda h elephant Vajrapi Kanakamuni ? a horse Ratnapi Kyapa ? hr goose or peacock Avalokitevara kyamuni ? garua Visvapi ? Maitreya ' idem .

Each of the Five Dhyani-Buddhas is accredited with the three forms which repre s body, speech, and mind, e. g. the embodiment of Wisdom is Vairocana, his p g form is , and his will form is ; the embodiment of the mirror is Akobhya, his is ; and so on; v. .

Five ways of intoning 'Amitbha' established by Fazhao of the Tang dynasty, k his brochure . [121]

The five fruits, or effects; there are various groups, e. g. I. (1) fruit ripen divergently, e. g. pleasure and goodness are in different categories; present or gans accord in pain or pleasure with their past good or evil deeds; (2) fruit of t he same order, e. g. goodness reborn from previous goodness; (3) present position and function fruit, the rewards of moral merit in previous lives; (4) superior fru it, or position arising from previous earnest endeavor and superior capacity: (5 ) fruit of freedom from all bonds, nirvana fruit. II. Fruit, or rebirth: (1) conc ption (viewed psychologically); (2) formation mental and physical; (3) the six or ans of perception complete; (4) their birth and contact with the world; (5) cons ciousness. III. Five orders of fruit, with stones, pips, shells (as nuts), chaff -like (as pine seeds), and with pods.

pacendriyi. (1) The five roots, i. e. the five organs of the senses: eyes, ears, no e, tongue, and body as roots of knowing. (2) The five spiritual organs pr positi ve agents: faith, energy, memory, visionary meditation, wisdom. The q rded as negative agents. see .

They are the six great klea, i. e. passions, or disturbers, minus views, or delu ns; i. e. desire, anger, stupidity (or ignorance), pride, and doubt. The five kinds of karma: of which the groups are numerous and differ. The pleasures of the five senses, v. . The five desires, arising from the objects of the five senses, things seen, heard , smelt, tasted, or touched. Also, the five desires of wealth, sex, foodand-drin k, fame, and sleep. idem .

The five proper courses to ensure the bliss of the Pure Land: (1) Intone th tras , , and ; (2) meditate on the Pure Land; (3) worship solely (5 ) extol and make offerings to him. Service of other Buddhas, etc., is styled () .

pacabhojanya. The five foods considered proper for monks in early Buddh boiled grain or pease, parched grain, flesh, cakes.

( or ); also , , or M029401 The five-pronged vajra or thunderb d five wisdom powers of the vajradhtu; doubled it is an emblem of the ten pramits. n the esoteric cult the five-pronged vajra is the symbol of the five wisdom pow and the five Buddhas, and has several names , , ; , ,

The first five of Buddha's converts, also called , jta-Kauinya , A Mahnma-Kulika , i. e. but there are numerous other forms of their names.

pacadharma. The five laws or categories, of which four groups are as follows: I.

five categories of form and name: (1) appearances, or phenomena; (2) their names ; (3) sometimes called ordinary mental discrimination of them (1) and (2) are ob tive, (3) subjective; (4) corrective wisdom, which corrects the deficiencies and errors of the last: (5) the Bhutatathata or absolute wisdom, reached through the erstanding of the law of the absolute, or ultimate truth. II. The five categories nto which things and their principles are divided: (1) mind; (2) mental conditi or activities; (3) the actual states or categories as conceived; (4) hypothet gories, has twenty-four, the Abhidharma fourteen; (5) the state of rest, or the ctive principle pervading all things; the first four are the and the last the . I II. cf. ; the five categories of essential wisdom: (1) the absolute; (2) eat perfect mirror reflecting all things; (3) wisdom of the equal Buddha nature of all beings; (4) wisdom of mystic insight into all things and removal of ignorance nd doubt; (5) wisdom perfect in action and bringing blessing to self and others. I . The five obnoxious rules of Devadatta: not to take milk in any form, nor meat, n r salt; to wear unshaped garments, and to live apart. Another set is: to wear ca st-off rags, beg food, have only one set meal a day, dwell in the open, and abst ain from all kinds of flesh, milk, etc. Followers of the five ascetic rules of Devadatta, the enemy of the Buddha. idem . idem .

The five pramits (omitting the sixth, wisdom), i. e. dna, almsgiving: la, com eping; knti, patience (under provocation): vrya, zeal; and dhyna, meditation.

The five 'seas' or infinities seen in a vision by Puxian, v. 3, viz., (1) all , (2) all the living, (3) universal karma, (4) the roots of desire and pleasure of all the living, (5) all the Buddhas, past, present, and future. [122] The five 'clean' products of the cow, its paca-gavya, i. e. urine, dung, milk, cre am (or sour milk), and cheese (or butter); cf M. W.

, Cf. . The five pure-dwelling heavens in the fourth dhyna heaven, in inally born: Avhs, the heaven free from all trouble; Ataps, of no heat or of beautiful presentation; Sudarans, beautiful; and Akanihs, the highe m-realm. , idem .

; The five kaya periods of turbidity, impurity, or chaos, i. e. of decay; t redited to the kalpa, see , and commence when human life begins to decrease below 20,000 years. (1) the kalpa in decay, when it suffers deterioration and gives ris e to the ensuing form; (2) deterioration of view, egoism, etc., arising; (3) th ssions and delusions of desire, anger, stupidity, pride, and doubt prevail; (4) in consequence human miseries increase and happiness decreases; (5) human life time gradually diminishes to ten years. The second and third are described as the it self and the fourth and fifth its results. The period of increasing turbidity or decay; see .

The five burnings, or five pains, i. e. infraction of the first five commandments leads to state punishment in this life and the hells in the next.

The five infinites, or immeasurables body, mind, wisdom, space, and all the living as represented respectively by the five Dhyni Buddhas, i. e. , , , , and

The uninterrupted, or no-interval hell, i. e. avci hell, the worst, or eighth of th e eight hells. It is ceaseless in five respects karma and its effects are an endl ess chain with no escape; its sufferings are ceaseless; it is timeless; its fate or life is endless; it is ceaselessly full. Another interpretation takes the se cond, third, and fifth of the above and adds that it is packed with implements of torture, and that it is full of all kinds of living beings.

or The five karma, or sins, leading to the avci hell v. and . The five Teng-lu are (1) A. D 1004-8; (2) ; (3) ; (4)

, and

The five vases used by the esoteric school for offering flowers to their Buddha, the flowers are stuck in a mixture of the five precious things, the five grains and the five medicines mingled with scented water.

The five vases are emblems of the five departments of the Vajradhtu, and the frag t water the wisdom of the five. Wisdom Buddhas. Baptism with water of the five vases

representing the wisdom of the five Budd

Five rebirths, i. e. five states, or conditions of a bodhisattva's rebirth: (1) t o stay calamities, e. g. by sacrificing himself; (2) in any class that may need him; (3) in superior condition, handsome, wealthy, or noble; (4) in various grad es of kingship; (5) final rebirth before Buddhahood; v. 4. idem . idem . pacaata. Five hundred, of which there are numerous instances, e. g. 500 former exis tences; the 500 disciples, etc. or 500 generations.

A disciple who even passes the wine decanter to another person will be reborn wi t hands for 500 generations; v. .

() 500 great arhats who formed the synod under Kanika and are the suppo he Abhidharma-mahvibh-stra, 400 years after Buddha entered nirvana ( 56-9). The 500 Lohans found in some monasteries have various definitions.

The 'five hundred ' rules for nuns, really 348, viz. 8 , 17 , 30 , 178 idem .

; The 500 sects according to the 500 years after the Buddha's death () The 500 questions of Mah-maudgalyyana to the Buddha on discipline.

The 500 yojanas of difficult and perilous journey to the Land of Treasures: v. the Lotus Sutra.

The mental and physical sufferings arising from the full-orbed activities of the s andhas , one of the eight sufferings; also (). [123] The five kinds of eyes or vision: human; deva (attainable by men in dhyna); Hnayna isdom; bodhisattva truth; and Buddha-vision or omniscience. There are five more relate to omniscience making ten kinds of eyes or vision.

idem and .

() A contemplation of the five stages in Vairocana Buddhahood entry int maintenance of it; attainment of the diamond mind; realization of the diamond em bodiment; and perfect attainment of Buddhahood. It refers also to the of the Vair ocana group; also (or ) .

The five indriyas or organs of perception eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin. v. idem .

(or ) pacabhij; also () the five supernatural powers. (1 ) ( ous view of anything anywhere in the form-realm. (2) () divyarotra, abili sound anywhere. (3) () paracitta-jna, ability to know the thoughts of al ) () prvanivsnusmti-jna, knowledge of all formed existences of self to be anywhere or do anything at will. See 5. Powers similar to these are also att ainable by meditation, incantations, and drugs, hence heterodox teachers also ma y possess them.

The five patriarchs. Those of the Huayan (Kegon) sect are ; ; archs are ; ; ; and . The () Lianshe sect has ; ; idem . () The five esoteric or occult ones, i. e. the five bodhisattvas of the diamond m, known as Vajrasattva in the middle; desire on the east; contact, south; love, west; and pride, north. Vajrasattva represents the six fundamental elements of sentient existence and here indicates the birth of bodhisattva sentience; desire is that of bodhi and the salvation of all: contact with the needy world for its salvation follows; love of all the living comes next; pride or the power of nir vana succeeds.

or The maala of this group contains seventeen figures represent h their twelve subordinates. The five kinds; but frequently the is omitted, e. g. for see . The five modes of trisarana, or formulas of trust in the Triratna, taken by those ho (1) turn from heresy; (2) take the five commandments; (3) the eight commandmen ts; (4) the ten commandments; (5) the complete commandments.

The five kinds of sexually incomplete females, , , , , and . v.

The five kinds of paakas, i. e. eunuchs, or impotent males: by birth; ema ontrollable emission; hermaphrodite; impotent for half the month; they are known as Sandha; ? Runda; Irypaaka; Paaka; Pakapaaka;

The five kinds of terms which Xuanzang did not translate but transliterated the e eric (such as ); those with several meanings (such as ); those without equivale hina (such as ); old-established terms (such as ); and those which would be l sive when translated.

The five kinds of angmins , who never return to the desire-realm: (1) t s on the intermediate stage between the realm of desire and the higher realm of form; (2) who is born into the form world and soon overcomes the remains of illus ion; (3) who diligently works his way through the final stages; (4) whose fin rture is delayed through lack of aid and slackness; (5) who proceeds from lower to higher heavens into nirvana. Also and the being 'Parinirva'.

Five kinds of esoteric ceremonial, i. e. (1) ntika, for stopping calamiti success or prosperity; (3) abhicraka, for suppressing, or exorcising; (4) g, or attracting (good beings, or aid); (5) vakaraa, for seeking the aid of B bodhisattvas; also and cf. . [124] The signs of the five kinds of vision, v. .

The five kinds of weishi, or idealistic representation in the sutras and stras a med up by Cien of the Dharmalakana school: (1) wisdom or insight in obj ns; (2) in interpretation; (3) in principles; (4) in meditation and pr fruits or results of Buddhahood. The first four are objective, the fifth subjec t. The five kinds of maala ceremonials, v. .

( ) ; Five excellent causes, e.g. of blessedness: keeping the commandm od and clothing; a secluded abode; cessation of worry; good friendship. Another group is: riddance of sin; protection through long life; vision of Buddha (or Am itbha, etc. ); universal salvation (by Amitbha); assurance of Amitbha's heaven.

The five kinds of almsgiving or dnas to those from afar, to those going afar, to sick, the hungry, and those wise in Buddhist doctrine.

The five germ-natures, or roots of bodhisattva development: (1) the germ natu tudy of the void (or immaterial), which corrects all illusions of time and space ; it corresponds to the stage; (2) that of ability to discriminate all the n of phenomena and transform the living; the stage; (3) (the middle-) way germ-nat which attains insight into Buddha-laws; the ; (4) the saint germ-nature which es holiness by destroying ignorance; the which the bodhisattva leaves the ranks of the and becomes ; (5) the bodhi-rank germ-nature which produces Buddhahood,

Five epidemics in Vail during the Buddha's lifetime bleeding from the eyes, pu e ears, nose-bleeding, lockjaw, and astringent taste of all food.

The five kinds of mental aberration: (1) the five senses themselves not functionin properly; (2) external distraction, or inability to concentrate the attention; (3) internal distraction, or mental confusion; (4) distraction caused by ideas o f mean and mine, personality, possession, etc. (5) confusion of thought produced by Hnayna ideas.

The five inferences in (Indian) logic: (1) from appearance, e. g. fire from ) from the corporeal, e. g. two or more things from one; (3) from action, e. animal from its footmark; (4) from recognized law, old age from birth; (5) and effect, that a traveler has a destination.

The five kinds of masters of the Law, v. Lotus Sutra, one who receives and s; recites; expounds; and copies the sutra.

The Huayan school's five forms of dharmadhtu: (1) or the phenomen t and interactive; the inactive, quiescent, or noumenal realm; (3) or ndent and interactive; (4) either active nor inactive, but it is also wave being water and water wave; (5) or the unimpeded realm, the u and noumenal, of the collective and individual.

The five kinds of a Buddha's dharmakya. There are four groups. I. (1) of bhtatathat-wisdom; (2) of all virtuous achievement; (3) of incarnatio ; (4) of unlimited powers of transformation; (5) of unlimited space; the ond are defined as sabhogakya, the third and fourth as nirmakya, and the fifth as the

dharmakya, but all are included under dharmakya as it possesses all the others. I I. The esoteric cult uses the first four and adds as fifth indicating the universe as pan-Buddha. III. Huayan gives (1) the body or person of Buddha born from the d arma-nature. (2) the dharmakya evolved by Buddha virtue, or achievement; (3) kya with unlimited powers of transformation; (4) the real dharmakya; (5) dharmakya. IV. Hnayna defines them as q. v. [125]

The five abhiecan baptisms of the esoteric school for ordaining cryas, teache chers of the Law: for admitting disciples: for putting an end to calamities or s uffering for sins; for advancement, or success; and for controlling (evil spirit s ) or getting rid of difficulties, cf. . Also, baptism of light: of sweet dew (i. . perfume): of the 'germ-word' as seed; of the five baptismal signs of wisdom ma de on the forehead, shoulders, heart, and throat, indicating the five Dhyni-Buddh as; and of the ' true word' on the breast.

The five 'stores', or the five differentiations of the one Buddha-nature; (1) thgata-nature, which is the fundamental universal nature possessed by all the liv ing: (2) the source or treasury of all right laws and virtues: (3) the storeh the dharmakya obtained by all saints: (4) the eternal spiritual nature, free from earthly errors; (5) the storehouse of the pure Buddha-nature. Another similar gr is , , , , and . see . The acts of the q. v.; also idem .

The five kinds of those who have testified to Buddhism; also ; ; i. e. isciples, the is, devas, and incarnate beings. Also, the Buddha, sages, devas, sup ernatural beings, and incarnate beings. Also, the Buddha, bodhisattvas, rvakas, me n, and things. See .

Five kinds of supernatural power: (1) of bodhisattvas through their insight int uth; (2) of arhats through their mental concentration; (3) supernatural or magica powers dependent on drugs, charms, incantations, etc.; (4) or reward or karma po ers of transformation possessed by devas, ngas, etc.; (5) magical power of goblins , satyrs, etc. v. .

The five kinds of bells used by the Shingon sect in Japan, also called , i. e. erent names are derived from their handles; the four first named, beginning with the five-pronged one, are placed each at a corner of the altar, the last in the middle. see . The five mras associated with the five skandhas; also ; , . The five arrows, i. e. the five desires . A monk's garment of patches. The five bonds to mortality: desire, hata, pride, envy, grudging. One of Indra's musicians who praised Buddha on a crystal lute; v. 33. The five suspended corpses, or dead snakes, hanging from the four limbs and neck of Mara as Papiyan; v. Nirvana sutra 6.

The five films, or interceptors of the light of sun and moon smoke, cloud dust, fo g, and the hands of asuras. idem . Pacairsha, Pancaikha. Wutai Shan, near the northeastern border of Shanxi, one of four mountains sacred to Buddhism in China. The principal temple was built A. D. 471-500. There are about 150 monasteries, of which 24 are lamaseries. The chief director is known as Changjia Fo (the ever-renewing Buddha). Majur is its patron s aint. It is also styled .

The five primary colors, also called (or ): blue, yellow, red, ound colors are crimson, , scarlet, purple, green, brown. The two sets corr to the cardinal points as follows: east, blue and green; west, white, and crimso n; south, red and scarlet; north, black and purple; and center, yellow and brown . The five are permutated in various ways to represent various ideas. five compound colors are crimson, , scarlet, purple, green, brown.

: faith, white; zeal, red; memory yellow; meditation, blue; and wisdom, black. Thes e are represented inter alia in the (or , or , or ) the five-color cord is also a brahman's sign worn on the shoulder and forbidden by the Buddha. [126] The five forms of suffering: I. (1) Birth, age, sickness, death; (2) parting with those loved; (3) meeting with the hated or disliked; (4) inability to obtain th e desired; (5) the five skandha sufferings, mental and physical. II. Birth, age, sickness, death, and the shackles (for criminals). III. The sufferings of the h ells, and as hungry ghosts, animals, asuras, and human beings.

The five bodhi, or stages of enlightenment: (1) resolve on supreme bodhi; ( ol, i. e. of the passions and observance of the pramits: (3) mental enlightenmen udy, and increase in knowledge and in the prajpramit: (4) mental expansion, fr m the limitations of reincarnation and attainment of complete knowledge; (5) attai ment of a passionless condition and of supreme perfect enlightenment;. The five covers, i. e. mental and moral hindrances desire, anger, drowsiness, exci tability, doubt. idem .

The five skandhas, paca-skandha: also ; ; The five cumulations, subs , i. e. the components of an intelligent being, specially a human being: (1) rpa, form, matter, the physical form related to the five organs of sense; (2) vedana , reception, sensation, feeling, the functioning of the mind or senses in connec tion with affairs and things; (3) saj, conception, or discerning; the functioning o f mind in distinguishing; (4) saskra, the functioning of mind in its processes reg arding like and dislike, good and evil, etc.; (5) vijna, mental faculty in regard to perception and cognition, discriminative of affairs and things. The first is said to be physical, the other four mental qualities; (2), (3), and (4) are asso ciated with mental functioning, and therefore with ; (5) is associated with the fa culty or nature of the mind manas. Eitel gives form, perception, consciousness, ac tion, knowledge. See also Keith's Buddhist Philosophy, 85-91. (or or ) The worlds in which the five skandhas exist. The abode of the five skandhas the human body.

A stra by Vasubandhu on the Mahyna interpretation of the five skandha chuan. Other works are the tr. by Yijing of the Tang dynasty. tr. by an dynasty: both are in the 2 and 10 respectively; also a commentary by V The Mara of the skandhas, v. .

The five to be constantly served father, mother, teacher, religious director, th ick.

Ceremonial touching of the five places on the body brow, right and left shoulders eart, and throat. has similar reference to . v. .

idem . Also, the five groups, i. e. monks, nuns, nun-candidates, and male and fema e novices.

The five lines of conduct. I. According to the Awakening of Faith they are alms ng; keeping the commandments; patience under insult; zeal or progress; meditatio n. II. According to the Nirvana Sutra they are saintly or bodhisattva deeds; arhat , or noble deeds; deva deeds; children's deeds (i. e. normal good deeds of men, devas, and Hinayanists); sickness conditions, e. g. illness, delusion, etc.; int o all these lines of conduct and conditions a Bodhisattva enters. III. The five elements, or tanmtra wood, fire, earth, metal, and water; or earth, water, ire, ai r, and ether (or space) as taught by the later Mahyna philosophy; idem . The five Yanas or Vehicles, idem . The five garments worn by a nun are the three worn by a monk: with two others. The five signs of decay or approaching death, of which descriptions vary. e. g. u ncontrolled discharges, flowers on the head wither. unpleasant odor, sweating ar mpits, uneasiness (or anxiety); Nirvana Sutra 19.

The five wrong views: (1) satkya-di, i. e. and the view that ther , and a mine and thine: (2) antar-grha, extreme views. e. g. extinction or permane nce; (3) mithy, perverse views, which, denying cause and effect, destroy the found ations of morality; (4) di-parmara, stubborn perverted views, viewing inferior s superior, or counting the worse as the better; (5) la-vrata-parmara, rigid v avour of rigorous ascetic prohibitions, e. g. covering oneself with ashes. Cf. . [127]

The five bodhi, or states of enlightenment, as described in the Awakening of Fa see also for a different group. (1) Absolute eternal wisdom, or bodhi; (2) its initial stages, or in action, arising from right observances; (3) bodhisattva . attainment of bodhi in action, in the ; (4) further bodhisattva-enlightenment rding to capacity, i. e. the stages , , and ; (5) final or complete en the stage of , which is one with the first, i. e. . The is bodhi in the potent bodhi in the active state, hence (2), (3), (4), and (5) are all the latter, but the fifth has reached the perfect quiescent stage of original bodhi.

The five meditations referred to in the Lotus Sutra 25: (1) on the true, idem , meditate on the reality of the void or infinite, in order to be rid of illusion in views and thoughts; (2) on purity, to be rid of any remains of impurity connect ed with the temporal, idem ; (3) on the wider and greater wisdom, idem , 'middle' way; (4) on pitifulness, or the pitiable condition of the living, and b y the above three to meditate on their salvation; (5) on mercy and the extension of the first three meditations to the carrying of joy to all the living.

The five wheels of liberation, or salvation, i. e. the five maalas in which are ive Dhyni-Buddhas, see ; also called and. idem .

It idem . idem .

The five axioms: (1) the cause, which is described as of the Four Noble Trut the effect as ; (3) or diagnosis as ; (4) or the end reme axiom, i. e. the ; v. .

The five parijnas, perceptions or cognitions; ordinarily those arising from the fiv e senses, i. e. of form-and-color, sound, smell, taste, and touch. The Awakening o f Faith has a different set of five steps in the history of cognition; (1) initia l functioning of mind under the influence of the original unenlightenment or stat e of ignorance; (2) the act of turning towards the apparent object for its observ ation; (3) observation of the object as it appears; (4) the deductions derived fr m its appearance; (5) the consequent feelings of like or dislike, pleasure or pain , from which arise the delusions and incarnations. The five gati, i. e. destinations, destinies: the hells, hungry ghosts, animals, human beings, devas; cf. and .

A series of pictures to show the course of life and death, ascribed in the Sarv Vinaya 34 to the Buddha. see .

The five wheels, or things that turn: I. The or five members, i. e. the knees, th elbows, and the head; when all are placed on the ground it implies the utmost r espect. II. The five foundations of the world. first and lowest the wheel or cir cle of space; above are those of wind; of water; the diamond, or earth; on these rest the nine concentric circles and eight seas. III. The esoteric sect uses th e term for the five elements, earth, water, fire, wind, and space; also for the . IV. The five fingers (of a Buddha).

The five are the five elements, to which the sixth is added, i. e. the six earth, water, fire, air and space, and intelligence or mind.

() A stpa with five wheels at the top; chiefly used by the Shingon sect cating the indwelling Vairocana.

A meditation of the esoteric school on the five elements, earth, water, f space, with their germ-words, their forms (i. e. square, round, triangular, hal f-moon, and spherical), and their colors (i. e. yellow, white, red, black, and b lue). The five wheels also represent the Five Dhyni-Buddhas, v. . The object is tha t the individual may be united with the five Buddhas, or Vairocana. The fifth wheel limit, or world foundation, i. e. that of space. The five evolutions, or developments; (1) resolve on Buddhahood; (2) observance o f the rules; (3) attainment of enlightenment; (4) of nirvana; (5) of power to ai d others according to need. idem . The above five developments are given the colors respectively of yellow, red, whit e, black, and blue (or green), each color being symbolic, e. g. yellow of Vairoc

ana, red of Majur, etc. [128]

The five forbidden pungent roots, garlic, three kinds of onions, and leeks; if ea en raw they are said to cause irritability of temper, and if eaten cooked, to ac t as an aphrodisiac; moreover, the breath of the eater, if reading the sutras, w ill drive away the good spirits.

pacnantarya; The five rebellious acts or deadly sins, parricide, matricide, arhat, shedding the blood of a Buddha, destroying the harmony of the sangha, or fraternity. The above definition is common both to Hnayna and Mahyna. The lightest of these sins is the first; the heaviest the last. II. Another group is: (1) sac rilege, such as destroying temples, burning sutras, stealing a Buddha's or a mon k's things, inducing others to do so, or taking pleasure therein; (2) slander, o r abuse of the teaching of rvaka s, pratyekabuddhas, or bodhisattvas; (3) ill-trea tment or killing of a monk; (4) any one of the five deadly sins given above; (5) denial of the karma consequences of ill deeds, acting or teaching others accord ingly, and unceasing evil life. III. There are also five deadly sins, each of wh ich is equal to each of the first set of five: (1) violation of a mother, or a f ully ordained nun; (2) killing a bodhisattva in a sangha; (5) destroying a Buddh a's stpa. IV. The five unpardonable sin of Devadatta who (1) destroyed the harmon y of the community; (2) injured kyamuni with a stone, shedding his blood; (3) indu ced the king to let loose a rutting elephant to trample down kyamuni; (4) killed a nun; (5) put poison on his finger-nails and saluted kyamuni intending to destroy him thereby. v. .

One who by non-Buddhistic methods has attained to the five supernatural powers . Spirits possessed of the five supernatural powers. They are also identified five b odhisattvas of the : monastery in India, who, possessed of supernatural powers, wen t to the Western Paradise and begged the image of Maitreya, whence it is said to have been spread over India. idem .

There is difference of statement whether there are five or six gati, i. e. ways or destinies; if six, then there is added the asura, a being having functions both good and evil, both deva and demon. An officer in the retinue of the ten kings of Hades. A general in the retinue of the ten kings of Hades, who keeps the book of life.

One of the ten kings of Hades who retries the sufferers on their third year of i sonment. The five alternatives, i. e. (things) exist; do not exist; both exist and non-exi st; neither exist nor non-exist: neither non-exist nor are without non-existence .

The five universal mental activities associated with every thought the idea, mental contact, reception, conception, perception, , , , , ; cf. . idem .

() The five improper ways of gain or livelihood for a monk, i. e. (1) changing h ppearance, e. g. theatrically; (2) advertising his own powers and virtue; (3) fo

rtuning by physiognomy, etc.; (4) hectoring and bullying; (5) praising the gener osity of another to induce the hearer to bestow presents.

The five classes, or groups I. The four truths, which four are classified as ory, and practice, e. g. the eightfold path. II. The five early Hnayna sects, see arvastivadah. III. The five groups of the Vajradhtu maala. To cut off the five classes of misleading things, i. e. four and one , i. e. heory in regard to the four truths, and erroneous practice. Each of the two class es is extended into each of the three divisions of past, three of present, and t hree of future, making eighteen mental conditions.

The five chief Mahyna sutras according to Tiantai are: ; ; t, Lotus, and Nirvana sutras.

Asaga, founder of the Yogcra school, is said, by command of Maitreya, to have e he five great stras, , , , , and .

(or or ). Ceremonials of the esoteric cult for ridding f g evil (spirits); seeking the love of Buddhas; calling the good to aid; cf. . The five Dhyni-Buddhas, v. .

The first five Hnayna sects Dharmagupta, Sarvstivda, Mahsaka, Kyapya, and The five Dhyni-Buddhas v. . idem . ( ) Yama as protector in the retinue of the thousand-hand Guanyin. idem . [129]

The five graduated series of universes: (1) tri-sahasra-mah-sahasraor chiliocosm; (2) such chiliocosms, numerous as the sands of Ganges, form one Buddha-universe; (3) an aggregation of these forms a Buddha-universe ocean; (4) an aggregation of these latter forms a Buddha-realm seed; (5) an infinite aggreg ation of these seeds forms a great Buddha-universe, 50. Another division is (1) a world, or universe; (2) a Buddha-nature universe, with a different interpretatio n; and the remaining three areas above, the sea, the seed, and the whole Buddhauniverse. The five heavy blockages, or serious hindrances; see infra. The five banks of clouds or obstructions for a woman, see .

paca-klea ; The five dull, unintelligent, or stupid vices or temptation or resentment, stupidity or foolishness, arrogance, doubt. Overcoming these cons titutes the paca-la, five virtues, v. . Of the ten or agents the other five are keen, acute, intelligent, as they deal with higher qualities.

(, ) The five-armed vajra, ; , ; e

idem ; there is also a fivefold meditation on impermanence, suffering, the v on-ego, and nirvana. The five compound colours, v. .

The five ahils, i. e. five bad monks who died, went to the hells, and were reb or imperfect males; also .

() The five Agamas, , i. e. (1) Drghgama; (2) Ma see . is the older term. idem . () idem . idem .

The five hindrances, or obstacles; also ; . I. Of women, i. e. inability to be ahma-kings, Indras, Mra-kings, Caikravarti-kings, or Buddhas. II. The hindrances to the five powers, i. e. (self-) deception a bar to faith, as sloth is to zeal, anger to remembrance, hatred to meditaton, and discontent to wisdom. III. The hi ndrances of (1) the passion-nature, e. g. original sin; (2) of karma caused in p revious lives; (3) the affairs of life; (4) no friendly or competent preceptor; (5) partial knowledge.

The five hindrances to woman, see above, and her three subordinations, i. e. to fa her, husband. and son. v. . The five musical tones, or pentatonic scale do, re, mi, sol, la; also ; . pacaikha, the five locks on a boy's head; also used for q. v. idem . idem Wu-Tai Shan .

The five kinds of devas: (1) in the upper realms of form and non-form; (2) i. e. four of the six devas of the desire-realm; (3) on the earth, i. e. the othe r two of the six devas, on Sumeru; (4) wandering devas of the sky, e. g. sun, moon starvas, (5) under-world devas, e. g. ngas, asuras, mras, etc. Of. . The five groups of five each of the consonants in the syllabary called Siddha.

The five preachers in the Huayan sutra: the Buddha; bodhisattvas; rvakas; the de n their praise songs; and material things, e. g. the bodhi-tree; v. . The five kinds of spiritual food by which roots of goodness are nourished: correc t thoughts; delight in the Law; pleasure in meditation; firm resolve, or vows of self-control; and deliverance from the karma of illusion. The incense composed of five ingredients (sandalwood, aloes, cloves, saffron, and camphor) offered by the esoteric sects in building their altars and in performi ng their rituals. Cf. . and v. . [130] The five c, topknots or locks, emblems of the q. v. A five-pointed crown with a meaning similar to .

Majur of the five locks. Now, at present, the present. A Tiantai term indicating the present 'perfect' teaching, i. e. that of the Lotus , as compared with the older 'perfect ' teaching which preceded it. The present school, i. e. my school or sect. scales, mail: important; resolute, firm; an attendant; petty, small. A transient thought, see kaa . Kindness, benevolence, virtue. Kind sir! Benevolent and honored, or kindly honored one, i. e. Buddha.

The benevolent king, Buddha; the name kya is intp. as able in generosity. Also cient king, probably imaginary, of the 'sixteen countries' of India, for whom th e Buddha is said to have dictated the , a sutra with two principal translations int o Chinese, the first by Kumrajva styled or without magica ed , etc., into which the magical formulae were introduced; these were ls to protect the country from all kinds of calamities and induce prosperity.

Service of the (or ) the meeting of monks to chant the above incantatio The incantations made in the .

The two Vajrapi and who act as door guardians of temples, variously known as A file of ten; sundry, what. Things (in general), oddments. The is Kumrajva and the his disciple Sengzhao. idem What ? What.

Sincere, true; to assent. Yun-k'an, a famous monk of the Sung dynasty. Yun-jo, a famous monk of the Yuan dynasty. Beginning, first, original, head; dollar; Mongol (dynasty). The tree of the origin of felicity, i. e. the bodhi-tree or ficus religiosa, also styled ; , and .

Primal ignorance; the original state of avidya, unenlightenment, or ignorance; ori inal innocence. Also ; .

The original or fundamental cause which produces phenomena, e. g. karma, reincarn tion, etc.; every cause has its fruit or consequences. The idea of cause and eff ect is a necessary condition of antecedent and consequence; it includes such rel ations as interaction, correlation, interdependence, co-ordination based on an i ntrinsic necessity.

The original or fundamental marvel or mystery, i. e. the conception of nirvana.

Prabh, ; beginning, in the beginning, primordial. Prabh is a title of V tion of the sun.

The original or primal mind behind all things, idem the of the Awakening o he source of all phenomena, the mind which is in all things.

Original brightness or intelligence; the or bhtatathat as the source of al enlightenment. Yuan-hsiao, a famous Korean monk who traveled, and studied and wrote in China dur ing the Tang dynasty, then returned to Korea; known as Hai-tung Shih. Name of Chan-jan, the seventh head of the Tiantai School; he died 1116. The original patriarch, or founder of a sect or school; sometimes applied to the Buddha as the founder of virtue.

The Yuan tripiaka, compiled by order of Shih Tsu (Kublai), founder of the Yuan dyn asty, and printed from blocks; begun in 1277, the work was finished in 1290, in 1, 422 works, 6, 017 sections, 558 cases or covers. It contained 528 Mahayanist and 242 Hinayanist sutras; 25 Mahyna and 54 Hnayna vinaya; 97 Mahyna and 36 Hnayna 108 biographies; and 332 supplementary or general works. In size, and generally, it was similar to the Sung edition. The or Catalogue of the Yuan tripiaka is als nown as .

A star that controls the attainment of honors, and the riddance of sickness a resses. The star varies according to the year star of the suppliant which is one of the seven stars in Ursa Major. Within, inner. The bhiku monk who seeks control from within himself, i. e. by mental processes, a s compared with the the one who aims at control by physical discipline. e. g. fas ting, etc.

() A title for the monk who served at the alter in the imperial palace, institut n A. D. 756; also called .

Buddhist scriptures; of. non-Buddhist scriptures. There are also divisions of int rnal and external in Buddhist scriptures. [131]

The inner or higher ranks of ordinary disciples as contrasted with the lower grad s; those who are on the road to liberation; Hnayna begins the stage at the also d ; Mahyna with the from the upwards. Tiantai from the of its

The inner, or sixth gua associated with mind, in contrast with the other five gua qualities or attributes of the visible, audible, etc. The clerk, or writer of petitions, or prayers, in a monastery; also Internal and external: subjective and objective. .

Inner and outer both 'ming '; the first four of the q. v. are 'outer' and the 'inner'. Internal organ and external object are both unreal, or not material.

Within and without the religion; Buddhists and non-Buddhists; also, heretics withi n the religion. The inner learning, i. e. Buddhism. Food that has been kept overnight in a monastic bedroom and is therefore one of t he 'unclean' foods; v. . The Buddhist shrines or temples in the palace, v. .

The mind or heart within; the red lotus is used in the as its emblem.

(or ) The 'central heart ' maala of the or the central throne hich it refers.

The antartman or ego within, one's own soul or self, in contrast with bahirtman xternal soul, or personal, divine ruler. Buddhism, in contrast with other cults. adhyatmvidy, a treatise on the inner meaning (of Buddhism), one of the q. v. Buddhism, as contrasted with other religions. Inner quiescence, cf. the six . . Cooked food in a monastic bedroom, becoming thereby one of the 'unclean' foods; v .

The realm of mind as contrasted with that of the body; also the realm of cognitio as contrasted with externals, e. g. the five elements. The inner mystic mind of the bodhisattva, though externally he may appear to be a rvaka. The seed contained in the , i. e. layavijna, the basis of all phenomena. Empty within, i. e. no soul or self within. The condition of perception arising from the five senses; also immediate, conditi onal, or environmental causes, in contrast with the more remote. Inner censing; primal ignorance, or unenlightenment; perfuming, censing, or actin g upon original intelligence causes the common uncontrolled mind to resent the m iseries of mortality and to seek nirvana; v. Awakening of Faith. The inner garbhadhtu, i. e. the eight objects in the eight leaves in the central g roup of the maala. The inner company, i. e. the monks, in contrast with the laity. antaravsaka, one of the three regulation garments of a monk, the inner garment. The clerk, or writer of petitions, or prayers, in a monastery; also The witness or realization within: one's own assurance of the truth. Internal perception, idem . .

[132] A place for Buddhist worship in the palace, v. and . The psychological elements in the , viz. the seventh and eighth categories. The inner ranks, i. e. the part of a temple near the altar, where the monks sit.

The inner court of the Tusita heaven, where Maitreya dwells and preaches; also Internal, or mental hindrances, or obstacles. Buddhist ceremonies in the palace on the emperor's birthday, v. .

Public, general, official; a duke, grandparent, gentleman; just, fair. J. kan; A dossier, or case-record; a cause; public laws, regulations; case-law. blems set by Zen masters, upon which thought is concentrated as a means to attai n inner unity and illumination. A public place; in public. a, a. Six.

The six things which enable a bodhisattva to keep perfectly the six pramits wo l offerings, study of the moral duties, pity, zeal in goodness, isolation, delig ht in the law; these are described as corresponding to the pramits seriatim; v. 12 The sixth of the q. v. idem .

The six stages of Bodhisattva development, i. e. ; ; ; ; The six articles for worship flowers, a censer, candles, hot liquid, fruits, tea. The six senses on which one relies, or from which knowledge is received; v. .

ayatana; (or ) the six entrances, or locations, both the organ se, tongue, body, and mind; sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, and perception. The six form one of the twelve nidanas, see . The are the six organs, the ects, and the or guas, the six inherent qualities. The later term is q. v. The forty-eight great or surpassing vows of Amitbha, also . v. ; also . The six stages of rebirth for ordinary people, as contrasted with the saints : in he hells, and as hungry: ghosts, animals, asuras, men, and devas.

The six things that ferry one to the other shore, i. e. the six pramits, v.

The six swords (or arrows), i. e. the six senses, v. , which are defined as t ities of sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, and mind. ai, sixty. The sixty-two or views, of which three groups are given: The in the e skandhas under four considerations of time, considered as time past, whether e ach of the five has had permanence, impermanence, both, neither, 5 x 4 = 20; aga

in as to their space, or extension, considered as present time, whether each is finite, infinite, both, neither =20; again as to their destination, i. e. future , as to whether each goes on, or does not, both, neither (e. g. continued person ality) = 20, or in all 60; add the two ideas whether body and mind are a unity o r different = 62. The Tiantai School takes , or personality, as its basis and cons iders each of the five skandhas under four aspects, e. g (1) rpa, the organized b ody, as the ego; (2) the ego as apart from the rpa; (3) rpa as the greater, the eg o the smaller or inferior, and the ego as dwelling in the rpa; (4) the ego as the greater, rupa the inferior, and the rupa in the ego. Consider these twenty in t he past, present, and future = 60, and add and impermanence and permanence as fu ndamentals = 62. There is also a third group. The 60 rolls: the Tiantai , or three collections of fundamental texts of that The sixty-four classes of Indian writing or literature, Brahmi, Kharosthi, etc.

The sixty-four Aryan or noble characteristics of a Buddha's tones or voice, e. g igdha smooth; mduk gentle, etc. Eighteen lictors in the avci hell each with sixty-four eyes.

The sixty different mental positions that may occur to the practitioner of Yoga, s ee , ; examples of them are desire, non-desire, ire, kindness, foolishness, wis cision, doubt, depression, brightness, contention, dispute, non-contention, the spirit of devas, of asuras, of ngas, of humanity, woman (i. e. lust), mastery, co mmercial, and so on. [133]

The six stages of Bodhisattva developments as defined in the Tiant 'ai , i. e. Per ect, or Final Teaching, in contrast with the previous, or ordinary six developme nts of , , , etc., as found in the Differentiated or Separate school. The re: (1) realization that all beings are of Buddha-nature; (2) the apprehension erms, that those who only hear and believe are in the Buddha. law and potentiall y Buddha; (3) advance beyond terminology to meditation, or study and accordant act ion; it is known as or ; (4) semblance stage, or approximation to e , i. e. the ; (5) discrimination of truth and its progressive expe the , , , , and of the known also as the cause or root o i. e. the or fruition of holiness. (1) and (2) are known as external for, to, all. (1) is theoretical; (2) is the first step in practical advance, followe d by (3) and (4) styled internal for all, and (3), (4), (5), and (6) are known as the the eight grades.

Buddha in six forms; (1) as the principle in and through all things, as pan-Bud ll things being of Buddha-nature; (2) Buddha as a name or person. The other four a re the last four forms above. The six vedanas, i. e. receptions, or sensations from the six organs. Also . v. .

() The six points of reverent harmony or unity in a monastery or convent: bod ty in form of worship, oral unity in chanting, mental unity in faith, moral unit y in observing the commandments, doctrinal unity in views and explanations, and , , , or economic unity in community of goods, deeds, studies, or charity. The six unions of the six sense organs with the six objects of the senses, the eye with the object seen, etc. The six tastes, or flavors bitter, sour, sweet, acrid, salt, and insipid.

The six illustrations of unreality Diamond Sutra: a dream, a phantasm, a bubble, a shadow, dew, and lightning. Also .

The six causations of the six stages of Bodhisattva development, q. v. Also, the ixfold division of causes of the Vaibhikas (cf. Keith, 177-8); every phenomenon de pends upon the union of primary cause and conditional or environmental cause; an d of the there are six kinds: (1) karaahetu, effective causes of two kinds: g cause, as the earth empowers plant growth, and non-resistant cause, as space doe s not resist, i. e. active and passive causes; (2) sahabhhetu, co-operative causes, as the four elements in nature, not one of which can be omitted; (3) sabhgahe uses of the same kind as the effect, good producing good, etc.; (4) saprayuktahetu, mutual responsive or associated causes, e. g. mind and mental conditions, subje ct with object; Keith gives 'faith and intelligence'; similar to (2); (5) sarvatra gahetu, universal or omnipresent cause, i. e. of illusion, as of false views aff ecting every act; it resembles (3) but is confined to delusion; (6) vipkahetu, diff erental fruition, i. e. the effect different from the cause, as the hells are fr om evil deeds. Six bodhisattvas in the Dizang group of the garbhadhtu, each controlling one of th e or ways of sentient existence. They deal with rebirth in the hells, as hungry g hosts, animals, asuras, men, and devas.

() Six things that defile: exaggeration, flattery, arrogance, vexati ce.

aagarik, ; or . One of the twenty Hnayna sects, connect The six fields of the senses, i. e. the objective fields of sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, and idea (or thought); rpa, form and color, is the field of vision; sound, of hearing; scent, of smelling; the five flavors, of tasting; physical f eeling, of touch; and mental presentation, of discernment; cf. ; and next. [134]

The six guas, qualities produced by the objects and organs of sense, i. e. sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, and idea; the organs are the , , , and the percepti discernments the ; cf. . Dust is dirt, and these six qualities are therefore the se of all impurity. Yet the Buddha made use of them to preach his law. The six great or fundamental things, or elements earth; water; fire; wind (or air ); space (or ether); and mind, or perception. These are universal and creative o f all things, but the inanimate are made only of the first five, while the animat e are of all six. The esoteric cult represents the six elements, somewhat differe ntly interpreted in the garbhadhtu and vajradhtu. Also .

The unity in variety of the six elements and their products; ordinary eyes see onl the differentiated forms or appearances, the sage or philosopher sees the unity . The six elements unimpeded, or interactive; or the six elements in their ance, or whole. The doctrine of the esoteric cult of tran-substantiation, or the free interchangeability of the six Buddha elements with the human, like with li ke, whereby yoga becomes possible, i. e. the Buddha elements entering into and p ossessing the human elements, for both are of the same elemental nature.

The six great klea, passions, or distressers: desire, resentment, stupidity, prid doubt, and false views. The spirits of the six elements.

Meditation on the six elements; in the exoteric cult, that they are unreal and unc lean; in the esoteric cult, that the Buddha and human elements are of the same s ubstance and interchangeable, see above. v. . The six devalokas, i. e. the heavens with sense organs above Sumeru, between the brahmalokas and the earth, i. e. ; ; ; ; ; and . The six prjikas, v. . The six 'likes' or comparisons, like a dream, a phantasm, a bubble, a shadow, dew , and lightning, v. . The six misleaders, i. e. the six senses. idem . The six words or syllables, Namo Amitbha. a name for Majur. See .

The six-word dhra of Majur (or ) or . T ix forms of Guanyin and the , , , and ceremonials, some conne . There are several dhras, e. g. the aakara-vidymantra. The six words generally ed with Guanyin are (or ). There is also the six word Lamaistic ch

The six schools, i. e. ; ; ; ; , and q. v.; the las uts in place of them and Tendai and Shingon.

The six trthikas or heterodox teachers Praa-Kyapa, Maskarin, Sajayin, Ajita-ke akuda-Ktyyana, and Nirgrantha; see .

Name of the king who, thirteen years after the destruction of the Jetavana vihra. ich had been rebuilt 'five centuries ' after the nirvana, again restored it. The six years of kyamuni's austerities before his enlightenment.

The six things that ferry one beyond the sea of mortality to nirvana, i. e. the s ix pramits (): (1) dna, charity, or giving, including the bestowing ; (2) la, keeping the command rents; (3) knti, patience under insult; (4) progress; (5) dhyna, meditation or contemplation; (6) praj; wisdom, the power cern reality or truth. It is the last that carries across the sasra (sea of incarn ate life) to the shores of nirvana. The opposites of these virtues are meanness, wickedness, anger, sloth, a distracted mind, and ignorance. The adds four other pr amits: (7) upya, the use of appropriate means; (8) praidhna, pious vows; (9) wer of fulfillment; (10) jna knowledge. [135]

The reward s stimulated by the six pramits are enrichment; all things, o power; long life; peace (or calmness); discrimination, or powers of exposition o f the truth.

The six infinite means of crossing the sea of mortality, i. e. the six pramits The six characteristics of a bhagavat, which is one of a Buddha's titles: soverei gn, glorious, majestic, famous, propitious, honored.

() The six thoughts to dwell upon: Buddha, the Law, the Order, the commands, alm ing, and heaven with its prospective joys. The six stages of the six kinds of mindfulness .

The emotions arising from the six organs of sense for which term is the olde pretation; v. .

The six kinds of wisdom. Each is allotted seriatim to one of the six positions q. v. (1) the wisdom of hearing and apprehending the truth of the middle way is asso ciated with the ; (2) of thought with the ; (3) of observance with the eme, or the mean, with the ; (5) of understanding of nirvana with ; (6) illuminate all beings associated with Buddha-fruition. They are a Differentiated School series and all are associated with the school of the or middle way. Six perfections (some say five, some seven) found in the opening phrase of each su tra: (1) 'Thus' implies perfect faith; (2) ' have I heard, ' perfect hearing; (3 ) 'once, 'the perfect time; (4) 'the Buddha, ' the perfect lord or master; (5) ' on Mt. Gdhraka, ' the perfect place; (6) 'with the great assembly of bhikus, ' the p erfect assembly. The six directions E. W. N. S. above and below. The brahman morning act of bathing and paying homage in the six directions; observ ing the 'well-born' do this; the Buddha is said to have given the discourse in t he .

, (or ) The praises of Amitbha proclaimed by the Buddhas of the s The six 'hours' or periods in a day, three for night and three for day, i. e. mor ning noon, evening; night, midnight, and dawn. Also, the six divisions of the ye ar, two each of spring, summer, and winter. six daily periods of worship. six daily periods of meditation. six daily periods of unintermitting devotions. six daily periods of worship of ceremonial.

The six mental 'taints' of the Awakening of Faith . Though mind-essence is by pure and without stain, the condition of ignorance, or innocence, permits of tain t or defilement corresponding to the following six phases: (1) the taint interrela ed to attachment, or holding the seeming for the real; it is the state of and is cut off in the final pratyeka and rvaka stage and the bodhisattva of faith; (2) taint interrelated to the persisting attraction of the causes of pain and pleasu re; it is the finally eradicated in the bodhisattva stage of purity; (3) related to the 'particularizing intelligence' which discerns things within and w ithout this world; it is the first , cut off in the bodhisattva stage of spiritual ty; (4) the non-interrelated or primary taint, i. e. of the 'ignorant' mind as rdly discerning subject from object, of accepting an external world; the third cu t of in the bodhisattva stage of emancipation from the material; (5) th ed or primary taint of accepting a perceptive mind, the second , cut of in the bod hisattva of intuition, or emancipation from mental effort; (6) the nonprimary taint of accepting the idea of primal action or activity in the absolute ; it is the first , and cut of in the highest bodhisattva stage, entering on Buddh hood. See Suzuki's translation, 80-1. The six characteristics found in everything hole and parts, unity and diversity, e

ntirety and (its) fractions. The six indriyas or sense-organs: eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind. See als o , , , and .

Substitution of one organ for another, or use of one organ to do the work of all t e others, which is a Buddha's power.

The powers of the six senses, i. e. the achievement by purification of their inter hange of function. A penitential service over the sins of the six senses.

The six organs and their purification in order to develop their unlimited power an interchange, as in the case of a Buddha. This full development enables e. g. th e eye to see everything in a great chiliocosm from its highest heaven down to it s lowest hells and all the beings past, present, and future, with all the karma of each. [136]

The state of the organs thus purified is defined by Tiantai as the of the v. . The six sexual attractions arising from color; form; carriage; voice (or speech); softness (or smoothness); and features.

The devalokas, i. e. the heavens of desire, i. e. with sense-organs; the first is described as half-way up Mt. Sumeru, the second at its summit, and the rest betw een it and the Brahmalokas; for list v. . Descriptions are given in the 9 and th hey are also spoken of as , i. e. as still in the region of sexual desire.

the six heavens where sexual desire continues, and the four dhyna heavens of puri above them free from such desire. The six prohibition rules for a female devotee: indelicacy of contact with a male; purloining four cash; killing animals; untruthfulness; food after the midday me al; and wine-drinking. Abbreviated as . is also a term for . The six pramits, v. . v. . v. .

The six things personal to a monk sagh, the patch robe; uttar sagh, the stol es; antara-vaasaka, the skirt or inner garment of five pieces; the above are the three garments: paatra, begging bowl; ni.siidana, a stool: and a water-strainer: the six are also called the . The six auspicious indications attributed to the Buddha as a preliminary to his d elivery of the Lotus Sutra, see , : (1) his opening address on the infinite; (2) samdhi; (3) the rain of flowers; (4) the earthquake; (5) the delight of the behol ders; (6) the Buddha-ray. The six elements: earth, water, fire, air (or wind), space, and mind; idem . The (human) body, which is composed of the six elements .

The six animals likened to the six organs , v. . The six transcendental, or magical, powers, v. .

The six patriarchs of the Ch'an (Zen) school , who passed down robe and begging bo l in succession i. e. Bodhidharma, Huike, Sengcan, Daoxin, Hongren, and Huineng , , and .

The six Bodhisattva-stages in the Bodhisattva-bhumi sutra are: (1) Buddha-seed nature in the ; (2) of discernment and practice in the and attaining reality in the ; (4) of progress in riddance of incorrect think the ; (5) of powers of correct decision and judgment in the eighth and ninth the perfect Bodhisattva stage in the tenth and the , but not including the he Buddha-stage.

The six deceivers common to all the living greed, anger, torpor, ignorance, dou d incorrect views.

The six kinds of certainty resulting from observance of the six pramits: f wealth; of rebirth in honorable families; of no retrogression (to lower of progress in practice; of unfailingly good karma; of effort om. 12. The six seals, or proofs, i. e. the six pramits, . v. . The six kinds of ascetics; also ; ; v. .

The six able devices of Bodhisattvas: (1) preaching deep truths in simple form t ad on people gladly to believe; (2) promising them every good way of realizing t heir desires, of wealth, etc.; (3) showing a threatening aspect to the disobedie nt to induce reform; (4) rebuking and punishing them with a like object; (5) gra nting wealth to induce grateful offerings and almsgiving; (6) descending from he aven, leaving home, attaining bodhi, and leading all to joy and purity. 8. [137] For the first five see ; the sixth is the Buddha stage of . Cf. . The meditation on the six natures .

The fifth of the q. v. is expanded into six kinds of proper practice: rea ning, studying, worshipping, invoking, praising, and making offerings. idem .

The six earthquakes, or earth-shakings, also , of which there are three di ories. I, Those at the Buddha's conception, birth, enlightenment, first preachin g, when Mra besought him to live, and at his nirvana; some omit the fifth and aft er 'birth' add 'leaving home '. II. The six different kinds of shaking of the ch iliocosm, or universe, when the Buddha entered into the samdhi of joyful wanderin g, see 1, i. e. east rose and west sank, and so on with w. e., n. s., s. n., mid and borders, borders and middle. III. Another group is shaking, rising, waving, reverberating, roaring, arousing, the first three referring to motion, the last three to sounds; see the above ; which in later translations gives shaking, rising, reverberating, beating, roaring, crackling.

Six windows and one monkey (climbing in and out), i. e. the six organs of sense an

the active mind. The six arrows, i. e. the six senses; v. . A cloth or cord tied in six consecutive double loops and knots. The cloth represe nts the fundamental unity, the knots the apparent diversity. v. 5.

The six kinds of offender, i. e. one who commits any of the four grave sins, or troys harmony in the order, or sheds a Buddha's blood. The six arhats i. e. kyamuni and his first five disciples, cf. .

The six common-herd bhikus, to whose improper or evil conduct is attributed the l ng down of many of the laws by kyamuni; also ; different lists of names are given, t he generally accepted list indicating Nanda, Upananda, Avaka, Punarvasu, Chanda, and Udyin. Udyin is probably Kalodayin, a name given in other lists. The six sovereign rulers, i. e. the six senses, see .

The six boats, i. e. the six pramits for ferrying to the bank beyond mortality. The six supernatural signs; idem . The heretics of the six austerities are referred to as ; v. . The sixty thousand verses of the Buddha-law which Devadatta could recite, an abili ty which did not save him from the avci hell. () The six bonds, or the mind of the six bonds: greed, love, hate, doubt, lust, e. The six sins that smother the six pramits: grudging, commandment-breaking, anger, f amily attachment, confused thoughts, and stupid ignorance.

ayatana. The six places, or abodes of perception or sensation, one of the nidnas, ; they are the or six organs of sense, but the term is also used for the so . idem . The six o escape. Only six senses and bird, a snake,

senses are likened to six wild creatures in confinement always struggli when they are domesticated will they be happy. So is it with the the taming power of Buddha truth. The six creatures are a dog, a a hyena, a crocodile (iumra), and a monkey.

Among Buddhists the term means the practice of the six pramits; it is referred, g outsiders, to the six austerities of the six kinds of heretics: (1) starvation; (2) naked cave-dwelling (or, throwing oneself down precipices); (3) self-immolat on, or self-torturing by fire; (4) sitting naked in public; (5) dwelling in silen e among graves; (6) living as animals. [138]

The six meditations, also called ; comparing the lower realms with llowing characters being the subject of meditation: the three lower represent co arseness, suffering, and resistance; these in meditation are seen as distasteful : while the higher are the calm, mystic, free, which are matters for delight. By this meditation on the distasteful and the delectable the delusions of the lowe r realms may be overcome.

idem ; see . The six ruiners, i. e. the attractions of the six senses, idem , q. v. The six decisions, i. e. the concepts formed through the mental contact of the si x senses; later called . The six immediate relations father and mother, wife and child, elder and younger b rothers. () cf. and .

The six kinds of Guanyin. There are two groups I. That of Tiantai: most pitifu merciful; of lion-courage; of universal light; leader amongst g resent Brahma. Each of this bodhisattva's six qualities of pity, etc., breaks th e hindrances respectively of the hells, pretas, animals, asuras, men, and devas. II. As thousand-handed; the holy one; horseheaded; eleven-faced; Cund (or Marci); with the wheel of sovereign power.

'When the six knots are untied the unity disappears. ' The six knots represent the six organs causing mortality, the cloth or cord tied in a series of knots represe nts nirvana. This illustrates the interdependence of nirvana and mortality. Cf. ; v. 5. idem .

The six vedgas, works which are 'regarded as auxiliary to and even in some se art of the Veda, their object being to secure the proper pronunciation and corre ctness of the text and the right employment of the Mantras of sacrifice as taugh t in the Brhmaas '. M. W. They are spoken of together as the four Vedas and si nd the six are Sik, Chandas, Vykarana, Nirukta, Jyotia, and Kalpa. The six metaphors, v. .

The six logical categories of the Vaieika philosophy: dravya, substance; gua, quali y; karman, motion or activity; smnya, generality; viea, particularity; samavya, inher ence: Keith, Logic, 179. Eitel has 'substance, quality, action, existence, the u num et diversum, and the aggregate'.

The six cauras, or robbers, i. e. the six senses; the sense organs are the 'ma akers', or medial agents, of the six robbers. The are also likened to the six ple asures of the six sense organs. Prevention is by not acting with them, i. e. the eye avoiding beauty, the ear sound, nose scent, tongue flavors, body seductions , and mind uncontrolled thoughts.

The six directions of reincarnation, also : (1) naraka-gati, or that of the ) preta-gati, of hungry ghosts; (3) tiryagyoni-gati, of animals; (4) evolent nature spirits; (5 ) manuya-gati, of human existence; (6) deva-gati, of a existence. The is attributed to Avaghoa.

The six-legged Honored One, one of the five fierce guardians of Amitbha, i. e. s six heads, faces, arms, and legs; rides on an ox; and is an incarnation of Majur. The Jna-prasthna-sapdbhidharma is a philosophical work in the Canon.

The six kinds of cakravart, or wheel-kings, each allotted to one of the ; the iro heel king to the , copper , silver , gold , crystal , and pearl

abhij, or a abhij. The six supernatural or universal powers acquired by a Buddha by an arhat through the fourth degree of dhyna. The 'southern' Buddhists only hav e the first five, which are also known in China; v. ; the sixth is (

ral consciousness of the waning of vicious propensities. [139]

The six ways or conditions of sentient existence; v. ; the three higher are the three lower .

The Buddhas and bodhisattvas of the six gati, i. e. the six dizang q. v.; ; the six dizang are also styled Bodhisattvas who can change the lot of those six gati. The four modes of the six rebirths womb, egg, moisture, or transformation. The six ways of rebirth, see above, and the four holy ways of rebirth, the latter eing respectively into the realms of rvakas, pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, and Bu ddhas; the ten are known as the . A sutra dealing with the six ways of rebirth. A sutra dealing with the six ways of rebirth.

The six works chosen by Cien as authoritative in the Dharmalakana s are three translations; 4 tr.; untranslated; untrans

a-samsa; also (or ) the six interpretations of compound terms, con t parts or together. (1) or karmadhraya, referring to the equality of depend oth terms, e. g. Mahyna, 'great' and 'vehicle'), both equally essential to 'Mahyna ith its specific meaning; (2) (or ) tatpurua, containing a principal term, e. rception, where the eye is the qualifying term; (3) (or ) bahuvrhi, the sign sion, e. g. he who has enlightenment; (4) dvandva, a term indicating two separa deas, e. g. teaching and meditation; (5) avyaybhava, an adverbial compound, or m resulting from 'neighboring' association, e. g. thought or remembering place, i . e. memory; (6) dvigu, a numerative term, e. g. pacaskandha, the five skandha W. gives the order as 4, 3, 1, 2, 6, and 5. The six difficult things to be born in a Buddha-age, to hear the true Buddha-law, to beget a good heart, to be born in the central kingdom (India), to be born in human form, and to be perfect; see, Nirvana Sutra 23. idem . idem .

The six 'coarser' stages arising from the or three finer stages which in turn are produced by original , the unenlightened condition of ignorance; v. Awakening of F aith . They are the states of (1) knowledge or consciousness of like and dislike sing from mental conditions; (2) consciousness of pain and pleasure resulting from the first, causing continuous responsive memory; (3) attachment or clinging, aris ing from the last; (4) assigning names according to the seeming and unreal with fi ation of ideas); (5) the consequent activity with all the variety of deeds; (6) suffering resulting from being tied to deeds and their karma consequences.

The six monthly poadha, or fast days: the 8th, 14th, 15th, 23rd, 29th, and 30th. T hey are the days on which the Four Mahrjas take note of human conduct and when evi demons are busy, so that great care is required and consequently nothing should be eaten after noon, hence the 'fast', v. 30th command. The 13 describes them or dangerous days, and says they arose from an ancient custom of cutting of the flesh and casting it into the fire. To cut, carve; a whole; urgent; the system of spelling, i. e. the combination of

the initial sound of one Chinese word with the final sound of another to indicat e the sound of a third, a system introduced by translators of Buddhist works; v. . A title of Avaghoa. To divide. separate; a fractional part: a share: a duty.

avasthaa; defined as time and position; i. e. a state, e. g. the state of wa turbed into waves, waves being also a state of water; a dependent state. vibhajya, or vibhaaga; parikalpana; vikalpa; divide, discriminate, discern, reaso n; to leave. See also .

three forms of discrimination (1) natural discrimination, e. g. of present 2) calculating discrimination (as to future action); (3) discriminating b of affairs that are past.

The third of the three kinds of perception , i. e. real (or abstract), manifest, reasoned (or inferred); it includes all the eight except the layavijna. viveka. Differentiating knowledge, discrimination of phenomena, as contrasted with the knowledge of the fundamental identity of all things. [140]

The taint on mind following upon the action of discriminating, i. e. one of th . Awakening of Faith . There are several sutras and stras with various titles. The One Vehicle discriminated as 'three' for the sake of the ignorant.

The Vibhajyavdins. A school the origin of which is obscure. The meaning of the te not necessarily limited to this school, is the method of particularization in d ealing with questions in debate. It is suggested that this school was establishe d to harmonize the differences between the Sthavirs and Mahsghikas. The Abhidharma P itaka 'as we have it in the Pali Canon, is the definite work of this school ', K eith, 153. The discriminating perception, i. e. of mind, the sixth organ.

Delusions arising from reasoning and teaching, in contrast with errors that a turally among people. A metaphor only correct in part, e. g. a face like the moon. visarj. To dismiss, scatter, separate, as an assembly. To divide, separate, leave the world, v. . New Year's eve, the dividing night of the year, also styled .

bhgya. Lot, dispensation, allotment, fate.

, , , all refer to the mortal lot, or dispensation in regard t ation.

Those of the same lot, or incarnation, dwelling together, e. g. saints and sinners in this world.

The wheel of fate, or reincarnation.

Includes (1) , the condition and station resulting from good or bad karma realms (desire, form, and formlessness) and in the six paths; (2) the condition an station resulting from good karma in the realms beyond transmigration, includin g arhats and higher saints.

The doctrine which differentiates the three vehicles from the one vehicle; as t which maintains the three vehicles to be the one. idem .

piapta, ; food given as alms; piaptika means one who lives on alm lumps (of food) falling (into the begging bowl); the reference is to the Indian method of rolling the cooked food into a bolus for eating, or such a bolus given to the monks. One of the Tiantai q. v. Also .

Parturition: in Buddhism it means a Buddha's power to reproduce himself ad infini tum and anywhere. praka, i. e. full; name of a yaka, or demon.

(also see ) puarka, ; , , , ; r. For Saddharma-puarka, the Lotus Sutra, v. . The eighth and coldest hell is er this flower, because the cold lays bare the bones of the wicked, so that they resemble the whiteness of this lotus. It is also called ; when a bud, it is known as ; and when fading, as . the budding phase of the white lotus (puarka). the fading phase of the white lotus (puarka) . Not; do not; translit. m and v. mudga; 'phaseolus mungo (both the plant and its beans),' M. W.; intp. as and beans by the Fanyi mingyi. Maudgalyyana or Maudgalaputra, idem Mahmaudgalyyana .

Mgnandi, or Mgala; rejoicing deer; a ramaa called Lu-chang, w gs of other monks; also a previous incarnation of kyamuni, and of Devadatta, who a re both represented as having been deer. B.rhaspati, Jupiter-lord, Jupiter. A hook to entangle, inveigle, arrest; a tick, mark. An employee in a monastery, especially of the Shingon sect. In Japan, the second rank of official blind men. To transform, metamorphose: (1) conversion by instruction, salvation into Buddhi sm; (2) magic powers of transformation, of which there are said to be fourteen me ntal and eight formal kinds. It also has the meaning of immediate appearance out of the void, or creation ; and of giving alms, spending, digesting, melting, etc. [141]

The lord of transformation, or conversion, i. e. a Buddha; also one who exhorts b elievers to give alms for worship: also an almsgiver. A deva or Buddha transformed into human shape. is in female form. To save others. A Buddha's long or 'eternal' life spent in saving others; implying his powers of u nlimited salvation. nirmabuddha, an incarnate, or metamorphosed Buddha: Buddhas and bodhisattvas have u niversal and unlimited powers of appearance, v. . To transform (into), create, make. For the sake of converting the people.

The rules or methods laid down by the Buddha for salvation: Tiantai speaks of as ransforming method, and q. v. as transforming truth; its are four modes of co n or enlightenment: direct or sudden, gradual, esoteric, and variable. The twofold division of the Buddha's teaching into converting or enlightening and iscipline, as made by the Vihaya School, v. .

In the Amitbha cult the term means before its first sutra, the , just as hool means 'before the Lotus.' the preface to the by Shandao of the Tang dynasty.

All the expedient, or partial, teaching suited to the conditions before the Wulian shou jing .

The merit of converting others becomes one's own in increased insight and liberati n); it is the third stage of merit of the Tiantai five stages of meditation and action .

one of the three kinds of lands, or realms; it is any land or realm whose inhabit nts are subject to reincarnation; any land which a Buddha is converting, or one in which is the transformed body of a Buddha. These lands are of two kinds, pure like the Tusita heaven, and vile or unclean like this world. Tiantai defines th e huatu or the transformation realm of Amitbha as the Pure-land of the West, but other schools speak of huatu as the realm on which depends the nirmakya, with varyi ng definitions.

Mahsakah, ; ; , an offshoot from the nirvana. The name Mahisasakah is said to be that of a ruler who 'converted his land' or people; or 'rectified his land'. The doctrines of the school are said to be similar to those of the Mahsghika; and to have maintained, inter alia, the re y of the present, but not of the past and future; also the doctrine of the void and the non-ego; the production of taint by the five perceptions; the theory of nine kinds of non-activity, and so on. It was also called the school which denie ality to past and future. The magic, or illusion city, in the Lotus Sutra; it typifies temporary or incompl ete nirvana, i. e. the imperfect nirvana of Hnayna. The region, condition, or environment of Buddha instruction or conversion: simila r to .

The altar of transformation, i. e. a crematorium. The magical palace, or, palace of joy, held in the fortieth left hand of: Guanyin of the thousand hands; the hand is styled or . To instruct and guide.

three sovereign powers for converting others are those of supernatural transf n (i. e. physical ); memory or knowledge of all the thoughts of all beings (i. e. mental ); and teaching and warning (i. e. oral ). Power to instruct and guide, one of the . The power of a Buddha, or bodhisattva, to be transformed into a nun. The converted followers of a Buddha, or bodhisattva. To convert and transport, or save. [142] The mind in the transformation body of a Buddha or bodhisattva, which apprehends things in their reality. see .

Nirmarati, the fifth of the six desire-heavens, 640, 000 yojanas above Me above the Tuita, or fourth deva. loka; a day is equal to 800 human years; life l asts for 8, 000 years; its inhabitants are eight yojanas in height, and light-em itting; mutual smiling produces impregnation and children are born on the knees by metamorphosis, at birth equal in development to human children of twelve hence the 'joy-born heaven'.

Instruction in the Buddhist principles, as is in practice, Tiantai in its Buddha's teaching during his lifetime into the four periods of , , , and Pitaka, nterrelated, Differentiated, and Complete, or All-embracing. The fount of conversion, or salvation, the beginning of the Buddha's teaching. Metamorphosis and manifestation; the appearance or forms of a Buddha or bodhisatt va for saving creatures may take any form required for that end. The law of phenomenal change which never rests.

aupapdaka, or aupapduka. Direct metamorphosis, or birth by transformation, one of t he , by which existence in any required form is attained in an instant in full mat urity. By this birth bodhisattvas residing in Tuita appear on earth. Dhyni Buddhas and Avalokitevara are likewise called . It also means unconditional creation at th e beginning of a kalpa. Bhuta is also used with similar meaning. There are variou s kinds of , e. g. the transformation of a Buddha or bodhisattva, in any for without gestation, or intermediary conditions: , birth in the happy land of Amitb by transformation through the Lotus; the dharmakya, or spiritual body, born or fo d on a disciple's conversion. A subscription list, or book; an offering burnt for ease of transmission to the s pirit-realm. The transformation form or body (in which the Buddha converts the living).

The nirmakya Buddha in the triratna forms; in Hnayna these are the human 16-f his dharma as revealed in the four axioms and twelve nidnas, and his sangha, or disciples, i. e. arhats and pratyekabuddhas. Rice obtained by monastic begging and the offering of exhortation or instruction, similarly charcoal and tea; sometimes used with larger connotation. charcoal obtained by monastic begging and the offering of exhortation or instruct ion. tea obtained by monastic begging and the offering of exhortation or instruction. The cause of a Buddha's or bodhisattva's coming to the world, i. e. the transform ation of the living; also, a contribution to the needs of the community. A Buddha's or bodhisattva's metamorphoses of body, or incarnations at will. A Buddha or bodhisattva transformed: into a (human) bodhisattva; or a bodhisattva in various metamorphoses.

() The two lines of teaching: i. e. in the elements, for conversion and admiss d or in the practices and moral duties especially for the Order, as represented i the Vinaya; cf. . To convert and entice (into the way of truth).

nirmakya, , ; The third characteristic or power of the trikya which has power to assume any shape to propagate the Truth. Some interpret the term as connoting pan-Buddha, that all nature in its infinite variety is the phe nomenal Buddha-body. A narrower interpretation is his appearance in human form ex pressed by , while is used for his manifold other forms of appearances. q. v. means direct 'birth' by metamorphosis. It also means the incarnate avaatara of a deity. The eight forms of a Buddha from birth to nirvana, v. . To transform, convert (from evil to good, delusion to deliverance). The traces or evidences of the Buddha's transforming teaching; also . [143] The way of conversion, transformation, or development; also . Noon. The noon offering (of incense). To turn over, turn or send back; contrary; to rebel. One of the seven kinds of mortality, i. e. escape from it into nirvana. The system of indicating the initial and final sounds of a character by two other s, ascribed to Sun Yen in the third century A D., arising out of the translit. of Sanskrit terms in Buddhist translation. One of the twelve forms of folded hands, i. e. with interlocking fingers. very, great.

Kumaararja. Crownprince. An epithet of Buddhas, and of Majur.

There are several , etc. . One named the Subaahu-parip.rcchaa w t title between 265-316 A. D., four leaves; under the second title by Dharmaraka during the same period. Life perilous as the (unscaleable) top of the loneliest peak. Space, where nothing exists; also ; .

A ruffian, a rough fellow. A man; a sage, officer, hero; a husband, mate; a fellow; a particle, i. e. for, so, etc. A wife; the wife of a king, i. e. a queen, devi. The common people, the unenlightened, hoi polloi, a common fellow. Heaven; the sky; a day; cf. dyo, dyaus also as a deva, or divine being, deity; an d as sura, shining, bright.

The three classes of devas: (1) famous rulers on earth styled , ; (2) ations of the six paths; (3) the pure, or the saints, from rvakas to pratyeka-buddh as. 7.

The four classes of devas include (1) famous rulers on earth styled , ; incarnations of the six paths; (3) the pure, or the saints, from rvakas to pratyeka buddhas, and (4) all bodhisattvas above the ten stages . The Buddhas are not inclu ed; 22.

(1) famous rulers on earth styled , ; (2) the highest incarnations the pure, or the saints, from rvakas to pratyekabuddhas, and (4) all bodhisatt bove the ten stages , and (5) a supreme heaven with bodhisattvas and Buddhas i al immutability; 23. Cf. .

The heavens above, i. e. the six devalokas of the region of desire and the rupa s andarupalokas, i. e. and .

The first words attributed to kyamuni after his first seven steps when b er's right side: 'In the heavens above and (earth) beneath I alone am the honour ed one. 'This announcement is ascribed to every Buddha, as are also the same spe cial characteristics attributed to every Buddha, hence he is the come in the mann er of all Buddhas. In Mahayanism he is the type of countless other Buddhas in co untless realms and periods. devaatideva: deva of devas. The name given to Siddhartha (i. e. kyamuni) when, on s presentation in the temple of Mahevara (Siva), the statues of all the gods prost rated themselves before him. Devapati. The Lord of devas, a title of Indra.

Devendra-samaya. Doctrinal method of the lord of devas. A work on royalty in the p ssession of a son of Raajabalendraketu. devayna. The deva vehicle one of the five vehicles; it transports observers of en good qualities to one of the six deva realms of desire, and those who observe dhyna meditation to the higher heavens of form and non-form.

devas and men; also a name for devas.

`saastaa devamam.syaanaam , teacher of devas and men, one of the ten because he reveals goodness and morality, and is able to save.

The story of the man who saw a disembodied ghost beating a corpse which he sai is body that had led him into all sin, and further on an angel stroking and scat tering: lowers on a corpse, which he said was the body he had just left, always his friend. idem .

deva-i, or devas and rsis, or immortals. Ngrjuna gives ten classes of is whose l is 100, 000 years, then they are reincarnated. Another category is fivefold: dev a-is in the mountains round Sumeru: spirit-is who roam the air: humans who ha ed the powers of immortals; earth is, subterranean; pretas, or malevolent is.

Divine messengers, especially those of Yama; also his three messengers, or lict ld age, sickness, death; and his or , i. e. the last three together with rebir prisons or punishments on earth. () idem Narayana. [144] A deva-crown, surpassing human thought. The mouth of Brahma, or the gods, a synonym for fire, as that element devours the offerings; to this the homa, or fire altar cult is attributed, fire becoming the object of worship for good fortune. Fire is also said to speak for or tell the will of the gods.

The Tiantai or Heavenly Terrace mountain, the location of the Tiantai sect; its na me is attributed to the six stars at the foot of Ursa Major, under which it is su pposed to be, but more likely because of its height and appearance. It gives its name to a xian in the Zhejiang taizhou prefecture, south-west of Ningbo. The m tery, or group of monasteries, was founded there by Zhiyi, who is known as .

The three modes of kyamuni's teaching as explained by the Tiantai sect: (1) the n, or immediate teaching, by which the learner is taught the whole truth at once ; (2) the gradual teaching ; (3) the undetermined or variable method-whereby he is taught what he is capable of receiving . Another category is gradual, direct, and perfect, the last being found in the final or complete doctrine of the Lotus Sutra . Another is: (1) the Tripiaka doctrine, i. e. the orthodox Hnayna; (2) inte or interrelated doctrine, i. e. Hnayna-cum-Mahyna; (3) differentiated or separated ctrine, i. e. the early Mahyna as a cult or development, as distinct from Hnayna.

The nine patriarchs of the Tiantai sect: Ngrjuna; Hui-wen of the ci of Nanyue; (or ) Zhizhe, or Zhiyi; Guanding of Changan; Fah nran of . The ten patriarchs are the above nine with Daosui considered a patr n Japan, because he was the teacher of Dengyo Daishi who brought the Tendai syst em to that country in the ninth century. Some name Huiwen and Huici as the first and second patriarchs of the school of thought developed by Zhiyi at Tiantai; v . .

The or four periods of teaching, i. e. , , , and Hnayna, omplete or Final; the q, v. are the four modes of teaching, direct, gradual, esote ic, and indefinite. The four types each of method and doctrine, as defined by Tiantai; see .

The actual founder of the Tiantai 'school' Zhiyi; his was De-an, and , A. D. 538-597. Studying under Huici of Hunan, he was greatly influenced by his teaching; and found in the Lotus Sutra the real interpretation of Mahayanism. In 575 he first came to Tiantai and established his school, which in turn was the foundation of important Buddhist schools in Korea and Japan.

The Tiantai, or Tendai, sect founded by Zhiyi. It bases its tenets on the Lotus ra with the , , and ; it maintains the identity of the Absolute an and attempts to unlock the secrets of all phenomena by means of meditation. It flourished during the Tang dynasty. Under the Sung, when the school was decadent , arose Ciming, under whom there came the division of Hill or Tiantai School and e School outside, the latter following Wuen and in time dying out; the former, a more profound school, adhered to Ciming; it was from this school that the Tianta i doctrine spread to Japan. The three principal works of the Tiantai founder are called , i. e. exposition of the deeper meaning of the Lotus; exposition and meditation; the last was directive and practical; it was in the line of Bodh idharma, stressing the 'inner light'.

The laws of the Tiantai sect as given in the Lotus, and the ten primary commandmen ts and forty-eight secondary commandments of the Sutra of Brahma's Net (Brahm hey are ascribed as the the Mahyna perfect and immediate moral precepts, immed the sense of the possibility of all instantly becoming Buddha.

Tiantai Shao guoshi, a Chekiang priest who revived the Tiantai sect by journeyin Korea, where the only copy of Zhiyi's works existed, copied them, and returned to revive the Tiantai school. Qianshu (A. D. 960 -997), ruler of Wuyue, whose cap tal was at Hangchow, entitled him Imperial Teacher. Queen of Heaven, v. . The mirror of heaven and earth, i. e. the Prajpramit-stra, see .

The mansions of the devas, located between the earth and the Brahmalokas; the hea venly halls; heaven. The Ganges is spoken of as coming from the heavenly mansions. The heavens and the hells, places of reward or punishment for moral conduct. devakany; apsaras; goddesses in general; attendants on the regents of the sun and moon; wives of Gandharvas, the division of the sexes is maintained throughout th e devalokas . [145]

A son of Heaven. The Emperor-Princes, i. e. those who in previous incarnations ha ve kept the middle and lower grades of the ten good qualities and, in consequence , are born here as princes. It is the title of one of the four mara, who is or lo rd of the sixth heaven of desire; he is also known as () and with his follow s the Buddha-truth. devapura; devaloka; the palace of devas, the abode of the gods, i. e. the six cel estial worlds situated above the Meru, between the earth and the Brahmalokas. v. .

A library of the sutras. The treasury of all the sutras in the Tuita Heaven in Ma eya's palace. Another collection is said to be in the or Dragon's palace, but is associated with Ngrjuna. The most honoured among devas, a title of a Buddha, i. e. the highest of divine b eings; also used for certain maharja protectors of Buddhism and others in the sen

se of honoured devas. Title applied by the Daoists to their divinities as a coun terpart to the Buddhist .

Preceptor of the emperor, a title of the monk Yixsing, and of the so-called Daois Pope.

King, or emperor of Heaven, i. e. Indra, i. e. (); ; (); a he ancient gods of India, the god of the sky who fights the demons with his vajr a, or thunderbolt. He is inferior to the trimrti, Brahma, Viu, and iva, having taken the place of Varua, or sky. Buddhism adopted him as its defender, though, like a ll the gods, he is considered inferior to a Buddha or any who have attained bodh i. His wife is Indr. Lord of devas, born in the womb of an ass, a Buddhist fable, that Indra knowing as to be reborn from the womb of an ass, in sorrow sought to escape his fate, an d was told that trust in Buddha was the only way. Before he reached Buddha his l ife came to an end and he found himself in the ass. His resolve, however, had pr oved effective, for the master of the ass beat her so hard that she dropped her foal dead. Thus Indra returned to his former existence and began his ascent to B uddha.

The city of akra, the Lord of devas, called Sudarana city good to behold, o behold. The deva-bow, the rainbow. The vase of deva virtue, i. e. the bodhi heart, because all that one desires comes from it, e. g. the the talismanic pearl. Cf. .

devnpriya. 'Beloved of the gods, 'i. e. natural fools, simpletons, or the ignorant. The tree in each devaloka which produces whatever the devas desire. Heaven-bestowed, a name of Devadatta, v. . Existence and joy as a deva, derived from previous devotion, the fourth of the se ven forms of existence. The phallic emblem of iva, which Xuanzang found in the temples of India; he says t he Hindus 'worship it without being ashamed'. The ladder-to-heaven hill or monastery, i. e. Tiantai mountain in Chekiang. Heavenly music, the music of the inhabitants of the heavens. Also one of the thre e 'joys' that of those in the heavens. Natural capacity; the nature bestowed by Heaven.

The prijta tree which grows in front of Indra's palace the king among th .

ulk, the 'heavenly dog' i. e. a meteor. Also 'a star in Argo' according to Will The heavens and hells; devalokas and purgatories.

Maharja-devas; Caturmahrja. The four deva kings in the first or lowest deval s four sides. E. Dhtarra. S. Virhaka. W. Virpka. N. eared to Amogha in a temple in Xianfu, some time between 742-6, and in consequenc e he introduced their worship to China as guardians of the monasteries, where th eir images are seen in the hall at the entrance, which is sometimes called the hal

l of the deva-kings. is also a designation of Siva the , i. e. Mahevara eign ruler. [146]

Devarja-tathgata, the name by which Devadatta, the enemy of kyamuni, will be k is future appearance as a Buddha in the universe called Devasopna; his present res idence in hell being temporary for his karmaic expurgation. idem. deva lines or pictures. Deva-king; the Tang monk Daowu of the Tianhuang monastery at Jingzhou.

bhtatathat, permanent reality underlying all phenomena, pure and unchanging e. g. t he sea in contrast with the waves; nature, the natural, , natural re eation. The real or ultimate Buddha; the bhtatathat; another name for the Dharmakya, the ce of all life.

The fundamental reality or bhtatathat, is the only illumination. It is a dictum sui of the Tang to the famous Japanese monk Dengy. The apprehension of this fundam ental reality makes all things clear, including the universality of Buddha- hood . It also interprets the phrase that the void, the 'mean ', the seeming, ar cts of the one mind.

divyacakus. The deva-eye; the first abhij, v. ; one of the five classes of eye sight, unlimited vision; all things are open to it, large and small, near and d istant, the destiny of all beings in future rebirths. It may be obtained among m en by their human eyes through the practice of meditation : and as a reward or nat ural possession by those born in the deva heavens . Cf , etc. The power of the celestial or deva eye, one of the ten powers of a Buddha.

One of the three enlightenments , or clear visions of the saint, which enables h o know the future rebirths of himself and all beings. The wisdom obtained by the deva eye. () The complete universal knowledge and assurance of the deva eye.

The sixth of Amitbha's forty-eight vows, that he would not enter the final stag l all beings had obtained this divine vision. idem ; also a term used by those who practise hypnotism. Tiandu, an erroneous form of , or Yindu, India. devlaya, devatgra, or devatgha. Brahminical temples.

deva or devat . (1) Brahma and the gods in general, including the inhabita evalokas, all subject to metem-psychosis. (2) The fifteenth patriarch, a native of South India, or Ceylon and disciple of Ngrjuna; he is also styled Devabodhisatt va , ryadeva , and Nilanetra blue-eyed, or clear discriminator. He works and a famous antagonist of Brahmanism.

The spirits are Indra and his retinue; devas in general; the are the ear as, demons, ghosts, etc.

Divine youths, i. e. deva guardians of the Buddha-law who appear as Mercuries, or youthful messengers of the Buddhas and bodhisattvas.

A famous group of monasteries in the mountains near Ningpo, also called ountain; this is one of the five famous mountains of China.

() India; zhu is said to have the same sound as tu, suggesting a connectio tu in Indu; other forms are Sindhu, Scinde; Hindu; and . The ter , which is the meaning of Indu, but it is said to be so called because the sages of India illumine the rest of the world: or because of the half-moon shape of t he land, which was supposed to be 90, 000 li in circumference, and placed among other kingdoms like the moon among the stars. Another name is ? Indravadana, o bhavana, the region where Indra dwells. A hill and monastery near Hangchow.

(or ). The three seasons of an Indian year: Grma, the hot season, from f enth day, to fifth month, fifteenth; Varkla, the rainy season, fifth month, sixteen th, the to ninth month, fifteenth; Hemanta, the cold season, ninth month, sixtee nth, to first month, fifteenth. These three are each divided into two, making si x seasons, or six periods: Vasanta and grma, varkla and arad, hemanta and iira. The ve months are Caitra, Vaikha, Jyaiha, ha, rvaa, Bhdrapada, vavuja, Krttika, hlguna. [147]

The nine forms of etiquette of India: speaking softly, bowing the head, raising th hands high, placing hands together, bending knees, kneeling long, hands and kne es touching the ground, bowing the head, lowering arms and bending knees, bringi ng head, arms, and knees to the ground.

The five mountains of India on which the Buddha assembled his disciples: Vaibhara, Saptaparnaguha, Indrasailaguha, Sarpiskundika-pragbhara, Grdhrakuta.

The kingdom of the king with kalm-apda, i. e. spotted, or striped feet ; cf () divyarotra, deva-ear, celestial ear.

(); The second of the six abhijs by which devas in the for fourth dhyna, and others can hear all sounds and understand all languages in the realms of form, with resulting wisdom. For its equivalent interpretation and it s and v. . The seventh of the forty-eight vows of Amitbha, not to become Buddha until all the divine ear.

Devadarita or Devadia, Deva-arm city, but the Sanskrit means deva (or divinely) i ated. The residence of Suprabuddha, father of My, mother of the Buddha. Deva, or divine, flowers, stated in the Lotus Sutra as of four kinds, mandras, mahm andras, majakas, and mahmajakas, the first two white, the last two red. A Buddha's canopy, or umbrella; a nimbus of rays of light, a halo. The host of heaven, Brahma, Indra, and all their host. The five signs of approaching demise among the devas, cf. . A bodhisattva's natural or spontaneous correspondence with fundamental law: one o f the of the Nirvana Sutra.

Deva garments, of extreme lightness. An illustration of the length of a small kalpa: if a great rock, let it be one, or even 40 li square, be dusted with a deva-garment once in a hundred years til l the rock be worn away, the kalpa would still be unfinished.

Vasubandhu, ; (or ) (or ) 'akin to the gods ', or a native of Puruapura, or Peshawar, by Eitel as of Rjagriha, born '900 years afte r the nirvana', or about A. D. 400; Takakusu suggests 420-500, Peri puts his dea th not later than 350. In Eitel's day the date of his death was put definitely a t A. D. 117. Vasubandhu's great work, the Abhidharmakoa, is only one of his thirt y-six works. He is said to be the younger brother of Asaga of the Yogcra school, by whom he was converted from the Sarvstivda school of thought to that of Mahyna and o f Ngrjuna. On his conversion he would have 'cut out his tongue' for its past heres y, but was dissuaded by his brother, who bade him use the same tongue to correct his errors, whereupon he wrote the and other Mahayanist works. He is called the t wenty-first patriarch and died in Ayodhya. The deva language, i. e. that of the Brahman, Sanskrit. Natural perception, or wisdom; the primal endowment in man: the or bhtatathat. idem . devangar, the usual form of Sanskrit writing, introduced into Tibet, v. .

deva-gati, or devasopna, . (1) The highest of the six paths , the realm of de . the eighteen heavens of form and four of formlessness. A place of enjoyment, w here the meritorious enjoy the fruits of good karma, but not a place of progress toward bodhisattva perfection. (2) The Dao of Heaven, natural law, cosmic energ y; according to the Daoists, the origin and law of all things. The classes of devas; the host of devas; the host of heaven.

Brahma, Indra, the four devaloka-rjas, and the other spirit guardians of Buddhism

Deva Subhti, one of three Subhtis, disciples of the Buddha; said to have been so ed because of his love of fine clothing and purity of life. [148] sudh, food of the gods sweet dew, ambrosia, nectar; blue, yellow, red, and white i n colour, white for the higher ranks, the other colours for the lower. Deva incense, divine or excellent incense. Gods and demons; gati, or reincarnation, among devas and demons.

deva-mra, one of the four Mras, who dwells in the sixth heaven. Paranirmita-va n, at the top of the Kmadhtu, with his innumerable host, whence he constantly obst ructs the Buddha-truth and its followers. He is also styled the slayer; also expl ined by sinful love or desire, as he sends his daughters to seduce the saints; al so () Papiyan, the evil one. He is the special Mra of the kyamuni period; oth suffer from other Mras; v. . Mras and heretics both enemies of Buddha-truth.

The deva drum in the Good Law Hall of the Trayas-trias heavens, which sounds o f, warning the inhabitants of the thirty-three heavens that even their life is i mpermanent and subject to karma: at the sound of the drum Indra preaches against

excess. Hence it is a title of Buddha as the great law-drum, who warns, exhorts , and encourages the good and frightens the evil and the demons.

Divyadundubhimeghanirghosa. One of the five Buddhas in the Garbhadhtu of the central group; said to be one of the dharmakya of Sakyamuai, his or universa l emanation body; and is known as corresponding with Akobhya, cf. and

Dundubhisvara-rja. Lord of the sound of celestial drums, i. e. the thund h of 2, 000 kotis of Buddhas who attained Buddhahood. Devas, including Brahma, Indra, and the devas, together with the ngas.

devas, ngas, and others of the eight classes: devas, ngas, yakas, gandharvas, a garuas, kinnaras, mahoragas. ; ; ; ; ; ; ; . devas, ngas, yakas. A hole: surname of Confucius; great, very; a peacock.

mayra, a peacock; the latter form is also given by Eitel for Mauriya as 'an an city on the north-east frontier of Matipura, the residence of the ancient Maurya (Morya) princes. The present Amrouah near Hurdwar'. Mathur, or Kapura; modern Muttra; (or , , or ); s for its stupas, reputed birthplace of Krisna.

'Peacock king, ' a former incarnation of kyamuni, when as a peacock he sucked fr rock water of miraculous healing power; now one of the mahrja bodhisattvas, with f our arms, who rides on a peacock; his full title is . There is another Few: also used as a transliteration of at, six.

(); parttbhs; the fourth Brahmaloka, i. e. the first region of the secon also called . Shaoshi, a hill on the Sungshan where Bodhidharma set up his infra.

Six brief treatises attributed to Bodhidharma, but their authenticity is denied.

Shaokang, a famous monk of the Tang dynasty, known as the later Shandao, his mast r.

The monastery at in Dengfeng xian, Henanfu, where Bodhidharma sat with his wall for nine years.

Wu-i, a cook of the Shao-lin monastery, who is said single-handed to have driven o f the Yellow Turban rebels with a three-foot staff, and who was posthumously rew arded with the rank of 'general '; a school of adepts of the quarter-staff, etc. , was called after him, of whom thirteen were far-famed. Content with few desires.

() Parttaubhas. The first and smallest heaven (brahmaloka) in the third dhyna form. Hungry ghosts who pilfer because they are poor and get but little food. Collect, mass; to quarter, camp. To sprout; very; stingy. Druma, the king of the kinhara, male and female spirits whose music awakened mysti

cs from their trance: v. 17. The open hand, palm; to lay hold of; to flatter. Pali, considered by ' Southern ' Buddhists to be the language of Magadha, i. e. Mg adh Prkrit, spoken by kyamuni: their Tripiaka is written in it. It is closely allied to Sanskrit, but phonetically decayed and grammatically degenerate. v. . Pataliputra, v. .

The three cryptic sayings of Hojin styled Baling, name of his place in Yu uccessor of Yunmen . 'What is the way ? The seeing fall into wells. What is the fe ather-cutting sword (of Truth)? Coral branches (i. e. moonbeams) prop up the moo n. What is the divine (or deva) throng ? A silver bowl full of snow. ' [149] (or ) ; Something to lay hold of, e. g. a nose or an arm; evidence. my. Illusion, hallucination, a conjurer's trick, jugglery, i. e. one of the ten il lustrations of unreality. or An illusionist, a conjurer. The powers of a conjurer. Illusion and transformation, or illusory transformation. Illusory and defiled, i. e. body and mind are alike illusion and unclean. An illusionist, a conjurer. The illusion mind, or mind is unreal. Illusory; to delude.

Blditya, the morning sun (lit. mock-sun) king, circa A. D. 191. prob ng of Magadha, who fought and captured Mihirakula, the king of Ceka, or the Hnas, who was an opponent of Buddhism. Illusory existence. Conjuring tricks, illusion, methods of Bodhisattva transformation. Illusion, illusory appearance. The illusory; anything that is an illusion; all things, for they are illusion. The illusion-body, i. e. this body is not real but an illusion. The wilderness of illusion, i. e. mortal life. The ways or methods of illusion, or of bodhisattva transformation. To stretch, draw, lead, bring in or on. To introduce, initiate.

Initiate and instruct.

One of the q. v. the Buddha-nature in all the living to be developed by pro ses. To lead men into Buddha-truth); also a phrase used at funerals implying the leadi ng of the dead soul to the other world, possibly arising from setting alight the funeral pyre. A phrase used by one who ushers a preacher into the 'pulpit' to expound the Law.

To accept, receive, welcome as a Buddha does all who call on him, as stated in t nineteenth vow of Amitbha. The stage of fruition, i. e. reward or punishment in the genus, as contrasted wit h the differentiated species or stages, e. g. for each organ, or variety of condi tion. 2.

; ; The principal or integral direction of karma, in contrast with es; see last entry.

Stavhana, a prince of Kosala, whose father the king was the patron of attributing his father's unduly prolonged life to Ngrjuna's magic, is said to have compelled the latter to commit suicide, on hearing of which the king died and t he prince ascended the throne. 10. One of the the force or cause that releases other forces or causes. A hand-bell to direct the attention in services. A term for the instructor of beginners.

The great leader who introduces the meal, i. e. the club which beats the call to m als.

One of the of the Tang dynasty; it was his duty to welcome back the emperor turn to the palace, a duty at times apparently devolving on Buddhist monks.

hd, hdaya (or ); the heart, mind, soul; citta the heart as th ence. In both senses the heart is likened to a lotus. There are various definiti ons, of which the following are six instances: (1) hd, the physical heart of sentie nt or nonsentient living beings, e. g. men, trees, etc. (2) citta, the layavijna, totality of mind, and the source of all mental activity. (3) manas, the thinking a nd calculating mind; (4) ; ; ; citta; the discriminating mind; (5) e permanent mind; (6) the mind essence of the sutras. one of the seven dhyna , the mind fixed in one condition. ( or ) The functioning of the mind not corresponding with the first of which this is the fourth. The mind vehicle, i. e. meditation, insight. The pavilion of the mind, i. e. the body; cf. .

The Buddha within the heart: from mind is Buddha hood: the Buddha revealed in or to the mind; the mind is Buddha. , The mind, Buddha, and all the livin rence between the three. i. e. all are of the same order. This is an important d octrine of the Huayan sutra, cf. its ; by Tiantai it is called the hings.

The karmic activity of the mind, the of the three agents, body, mouth, and mind. The light from (a Buddha's) mind, or merciful heart, especially that of Amitbha. [150] Mental impression, intuitive certainty; the mind is the Buddha-mind in all, which can seal or assure the truth; the term indicates the intuitive method of the Ch ' an (Zen) school, which was independent of the spoken or written word. One of the three classes of spells, idem . Mind life, i. e. the life, longevity, or eternity of the dharmakya or spiritual bo dy, that of mind; also . v. 78. Mind as the receptacle of all phenomena.

Mind, from which all things spng; the mental ground, or condition; also used for t he third of the three agents-body, mouth, mind. The citadel of the mind, i. e. as guardian over action; others intp. it as the bo dy, cf. . The impurities of the mind, i. e. passion and delusion; the two phrases are used s synonyms. Mind dust or dirt, i. e. the passions, greed, anger, etc. The intuitive sect, i. e. the Ch'an (Zen) school; also ; . The mind as master, not (like the heretics) mastering (or subduing) the mind . Every mind; also citta-caitta, mind and mental conditions, i. e. and . The mind and its conditions or emotions; is an older form of . Pondering on (Buddha) and not passing (the time) in vain.

Immutable mind-corpus, or mind-nature, the self-existing fundamental pure mind, t he all, the Tathgata-garbha, or ; ; also described in the Awakeni er definition identifies with saying , the nature is the mind, and m her, that mind and nature are the same when awake and understanding, but differ when in illusion; and further, in reply to the statement that the Buddha-nature is eternal but the mind not eternal, it is said, the nature is like water, the m ind like ice, illusion turns nature to mental ice form, awakening melts it back to its proper nature. The universe in a thought; the mind as a microcosm. Thought; the thoughts of the mind. Mind, thought, and perception (or discernment).

wisdom, i. e. mind or heart wisdom, e. g. controlled in body and wise in mind Heart-yearning (for the Buddha).

() Mental conditions, the attributes of the mind, especially the moral qualities emotions, love, hate, etc.; also , v. .

An older term for q. v. the several qualities of the mind. The esoterics make Vair cana the , i. e. Mind or Will, and the moral qualities, or mental attributes, are ersonified as his retinue. Mind and knowledge, or the wisdom of the mind, mind being the organ, knowing the function. Mind (as the) moon, the natural mind or heart pure and bright as the full moon. The mind' s or heart' s moon-revolutions, i. e. the moon' s varying stages, typify ing the grades of enlightenment from beginner to saint. Manas, or the mind-organ, one of the twenty-five tattva or postulates of a univer se. The pole or extreme of the mind, the mental reach; the Buddha. The motive power of the mind, the mind the motor. The mind as a reflecting water-surface; also the mind as water, clear or turbids. [151] The heart chaste as ice; the mind congealed as ice, i. e. unable to solve a diffi culty.

Mental dharmas, idea all 'things' are divided into two classes and physical and ntal; that which has substance and resistance is physical, that which is devoid o f these is mental; or the root of all phenomena is mind . The exoteri differ in their interpretation: the exoterics hold that mental ideas or 'things ' are unsubstantial and invisible, the esoterics that they have both subs m. The mind is dharmakya, 'tathgata in bonds,' . Mind waves, i. e. mental activity.

Mind as a sea or ocean, external phenomena being the wind, and the eight forms of cognition being the waves. The fountain of the mind; the thought-welling fountain; mind as the fons et origo of all things.

The mind without resting-place, i. e. detached from time and space, e. g. the past being past may be considered as a 'non-past' or non-existent, so with present an d future, thus realizing their unreality. The result is detachment, or the liber ated mind, which is the Buddha-mind, the bodhi-mind, the mind free from ideas of c reation and extinction, of beginning and end, recognizing that all forms and nat ures are of the Void, or Absolute. The lamp of the mind; inner light, intelligence. The mind as a restless monkey. The mind, the will the directive or controlling mind, the functioning mind as a w hole, distinct from its or qualities.

Vairocana as the ultimate mind, the attributes being personified as his retinue. A plied also to the and the .

The mind and its qualities, or conditions. The mind stuff of all the living, being of the pure Buddha-nature, is likened to a translucent gem. The two gates of mind, creation and destruction, or beginning and end. The field of the mind, or heart, in which spring up good and evil. Mind and eye, the chief causes of the emotions. Heart-shape (of the physical heart); manifestation of mind in action; (the folly of assuming that) mind has shape. Actions corresponding with mind, or mind productive of all action. Our mind is by nature that of the bhtatathat. The mind as bhtatathat, one of the of the Awakening of Faith. The eye of the mind, mental vision. The spirit of the mind, mental intelligence: mind. Mind-space, or mind spaciousness, mind holding all things, hence like space; also , the emptied mind, kenosis.

Hdaya or 'Heart' Sutra, idem ; ; styled 'divinely di of evil spirits. The mind in bondage taking the seeming for the real. Mental cognition of the environment; to lay hold of external things by means of t he mind.

He whose mind is free, or sovereign, an arhat who has got rid of all hindrances to abstraction. Heart-flower, the heart in its original innocence resembling a fower. The lotus of the mind or heart; the exoteric school interprets it by original pur ity; the esoteric by the physical heart, which resembles a closed lotus with eig ht petals. [152] Medicine for the mind, or spirit. The activities of the mind, or heart; also working on the mind for its control; a lso mind and action. Mind and act not separated, thought and deed in accord, especially in relation to mitbha. The very core, or essence. Contemplation of the mind and its thoughts, v. . The inner witness, or assurance, mind and Buddha witnessing together.

The mind and cognition; mind and its contents; the two are considered as identica l in the Abhidharma-koa, but different in Mahyna. The bent or direction of the mind, or moral nature. Footprints, or indications of mind, i. e. the mind revealed by deeds. The mind-road, i. e. the road to Buddhahood. Mind-measure; the ordinary man's calculating mind; also, capacity of mind. The heart-mirror, or mirror of the mind, which must be kept clean if it is to ref lect the Truth. The mind spirit, or genius; intelligence; cf. . The will of the mind, resolve, vow. The incense of the mind, or heart, i. e. sincere devotion. The mind like a horse, that needs breaking in, or stimulating with a whip, cf. . A perverse mind, whose karma will be that of a wandering ghost. () The mra-robbers of the mind, i. e. the passions. A spear. idem q. v. Koti. p; hasta; kara; hand, arm. mdra, mystic positions of the hand; signet-rings, seals; finger-prints.

In yoga practices it means correspondence of hand, mouth, and mind, i. e. manual ns, esoteric words or spells, and thought or mental projection. Vajrapi, or Vajradhara, who holds the thunderbolt. A portable censer (with handle). A hand-chime (or bell) struck with a stick. The lines on the palm and fingers especially the 'thousand' lines on a Buddha's ha nd. A branch; to branch, put off, pay, advance. cvara. A mendicant' s garment.

, A pratyekabuddha, who understands the twelve nidnas, or chain of causation, a attains to complete wisdom. His stage of attainment is the . The various articles required for worship.

; ; ; . Newer forms are ; (); , i. e. , , ca of Buddha were collected, hence a place where his sutras or images are placed. E ight famous Caityas formerly existed: Lumbin, Buddha-gay, Vras, Jetavana, Kanykubja, gha , Vail, and the la grove in Kuinagara. Considerable difference of opinion

the exact connotation of the terms given, some being referred to graves or stpas , others to shrines or temples, but in general the meaning is stpas, shrines, and any collection of objects of worship.

; ; ? Caityaaila; described as one of the twenty sects o ng tombs or in caves. Chih-lou-chia-ch'an, a ramaa who came to China from Yueh-chih A. D. 147 or nd worked at translations till A. D. 186 at Loyang. To divide, distribute for use, i. e. . Chih-ch'ien; name of a Yueh-chih monk said to have come to Loyang at the end of t he Han dynasty and under the Wei; tall, dark, emaciated, with light brown eyes; very learned and wise.

, , , , , , , , , , ; Cina; Maha-cina. assert that the Chinese were degenerate Katriya), in the Mahbharata, and in Buddhi st works. This name may have been derived from families ruling in western China under such titles as Chin at Fen-chou in Shansi 1106-376 B. C., Ch'en in Honan 1 122-479 B. C., Ch'in in Shensi as early as the ninth century B. C., and to this latter dynasty the designation is generally attributed. [153]

Cnadeva gotra. The 'solar deva' of Han descent, first king of Khavan ss of the Han dynasty (206 B. C. -A. D. 220) on her way as a bride-elect to Pers ia, the parentage being attributed to the solar deva. 12. Mucilinda, v. or Maha-m.

Chih-lang, formerly a polite term for a monk, said to have arisen from the fame o f the three Chih of the Wei dynasty Chih-ch'ien, Chih-ch'an, and Chih-lia Letters, literature, writing; refined; culture; civil; a despatch; veined; a cas h; to gloss.

Textual explanation or criticism, also termed ; ; ; , etc.; the term applies on canonical texts in general, but has particular reference to the Lotus Sutra, i. e. the . A portfolio, or satchel for Buddhist books. The letter; letters; literal; the written word is described as the breath and lif e of the dharmakya; cf. ruta. A literalist, pedant; narrow. A teacher of the letter of the Law, who knows not its spirit. muni, idem and , e. g. kyamuni.

() Majur -later . is also used for Majuntha, Majud ju. Origin unknown; presumably, like most Buddhas and bodhisattvas, an idealizat ion of a particular quality, in his case of Wisdom. Maju is beautiful, r; good fort une, virtue, majesty, lord, an epithet of a god. Six definitions are obtained fr om various scriptures: (or ) wonderful or beautiful) head; universal head; ead (probably a transliteration); revered head; wonderful virtue (or power); ully auspicious; the last is a later translation in the . As guardian of wisdom s often placed on kyamuni's left, with on the right as guardian of law , the latte

holding the Law, the former the wisdom or exposition of it; formerly they held t he reverse positions. He is often represented with five curls or waves to his ha ir indicating the q. v. or the five peaks; his hand holds the sword of wisdom and he sits on a lion emblematic of its stern majesty: but he has other forms. He i s represented as a youth, i. e. eternal youth. His present abode is given as eas t of the universe, known as clear and cool mountain, or a region precious abode Abode of Treasures, or from which he derives one of his titles, . One of his hesies China as his post-nirva realm. In past incarnations he is described as bein g the parent of many Buddhas and as having assisted the Buddha into existence; h is title was the supreme Buddha of the ngas, also or ; now his title joyfully cares for the jewel: and his future title is to be Buddha universally re vealed. In the Introductory Chapter of the Lotus Sutra he is also described as th e ninth predecessor or Buddha-ancestor of kyamuni. He is looked on as the chief of the Bodhisattvas and represents them, as the chief disciple of the Buddha, or a s his son . Hnayna counts riputra as the wisest of the disciples, Mahyna gives ef place, hence he is also styled mother, or begetter of understanding. He is sho wn riding on either a lion or a peacock, or sitting on a white lotus; often he h olds a book, emblem of wisdom, or a blue lotus; in certain rooms of a monastery he is shown as a monk; and he appears in military array as defender of the faith . His signs, magic words, and so on, are found in various sutras. His most famou s centre in China is Wu-tai shan in Shansi. where he is the object of pilgrimage s, especially of Mongols. The legends about him are many. He takes the place in Buddhism of Vivakarman as Vulcan, or architect, of the universe. He is one of the eight Dhyni-bodhisattvas, and sometimes has the image of Akobhya in his crown. He was mentioned in China as early as the fourth century and in the Lotus Sutra he frequently appears, especially as the converter of the daughter of the Dragon-k ing of the Ocean. He has five messengers and eight youths attending on him. H in the Garbhadhtu maala is the seventh, in which his group numbers twenty-five. Hi s position is northeast. There are numerous sutras and other works with his name as title, e. g. Gayara stra, tr. by Kumrajva 384-417: and its or hiruci 535. see list in B. N.

The samdhi of Majur styled the formless wonderful wisdom, or wonderfu of that which is beyond form. [154]

The five messengers of Majur, each bearing one of his five expressions o re ; ; ; , and .

The eight 'pages' of Majur are ; ; ; ; ; ; The repentance of Majur, i. e. of his former doubting mind, cf. St. Thomas. The seventh great court of the thirteen in the Garbhadhtu group; it shows Majur centre of a group of twenty-five.

The dragon pool by the side of the throne of Vajrapi, called Mucilinda q. v The written word and the truth expressed; written principles, or reasonings; a tr eatise; literary style. The evidence of the written word, or scripture.

Mrdhajta, Mndht, i. e. born from his mother's head, a reputed previous i Buddha, who still ambitious, despite his universal earthly sway, his thousand s ons, etc., few to Indra's heaven, saw the celestial dev, but on the desire arisin o rule there on Indra's death, he was hurled to earth; v. . A bushel, i. e. ten Chinese pints.

A bushel-shaped curtain, e. g. a state umbrella. Dame of the Bushel; queen of heaven or Marci, . The husband of the Dame of the Bushel , a Daoist attribution. An adze; to chop; a catty, 1 and 1/3 lb.: penetrating, minute. ; A somersault. Square; place; correct; a means, plan, prescription; then, now, just. An abbot, head of a monastery; the term is said to arise from the ten-foot cubic welling in which Vimalakirti lived, but here seems to be no Sanskrit equivalent.

upya. Convenient to the place, or situation, suited to the condition, opportune, a ppropriate; but is interpreted as method, mode, plan, and as convenient for . e. a convenient or expedient method; also as and as , which implies strate correct. It is also intp. as partial, temporary, or relative (teaching of) knowle dge of reality, in contrast with praj, and absolute truth, or reality instead seeming. The term is a translation of upya, a mode of approach, an expedient, stra tagem, device. The meaning is teaching according to the capacity of the hearer, b y any suitable method, including that of device or stratagem, but expedience ben eficial to the recipient is understood. Mahyna claims that the Buddha used this ex pedient or partial method in his teaching until near the end of his days, when h e enlarged it to the revelation of reality, or the preaching of his final and co mplete truth; Hnayna with reason denies this, and it is evident that the Mahyna clai m has no foundation, for the whole of its or scriptures are of later invention. T antai speaks of the q. v. or Three Vehicles as expedient or partial revelations, nd of its or One Vehicle as the complete revelation of universal Buddhahood. This is the teaching of the Lotus Sutra, which itself contains teaching to lead up to the full revelation; hence the terms (or ) , i. e. expedient or partial trut in the full revelation, meaning the expedient part of the Lotus, and the expedient or partial truths of the teaching which preceded the Lotus; see the of that work, also the second chapter of the . is also the seventh of the ten pramits.

An intermediate 'land 'of the Japanese monk Kenshin, below the Pure-land, w a appears in his transformation-body. Abbreviation for the last and next but one. upya-jna; the wisdom or knowledge of using skilful means (for saving others).

One of the Tiantai Four Lands, which is temporary, as its occupants still h s to be purged away.

The right of great Bodhisattvas, knowing every one's karma, to kill without sinnin , e. g. in order to prevent a person from committing sin involving unintermitted suffering, or to aid him in reaching one of the higher reincarnations. upya, the seventh pramit. A bodhisattva in the Garbhadhtu group, the second on the right in the hall

Though the Buddha is eternal, he showed himself as temporarily extinct, as neces to arouse a longing for Buddha, cf. Lotus, 16. The gates of upya, i. e. convenient or expedient gates leading into Truth.

Expedient gates or ways of using the seeming for the real. [155] A term covering the whole of the Mahyna sutras, idem . Opportunism in obtaining a living, i. e. a monk who makes a living by fawning or b y bullying, one of the four illicit ways of livelihood. Out of the world; the life of a monk.

vaipulya, expansion, enlargement, broad, spacious. is intp. by correct nd by broad or wide; some interpret it by elaboration, or fuller explanation of t he doctrine; in general it may be taken as the broad school, or wider teaching, in contrast with the narrow school, or Hnayna. The term covers the whole of the sp ecifically Mahyna sutras. The sutras are also known as scriptures of measureless ing, i. e. universalistic, or the infinite. Cf. .

A vaipulya sutra, the Lalita-vistara, in 12 chuan, giving an account of the Bu the Tuita heaven and his descent to earth as kyamuni: tr. by Divkara under the Tang dynasty; another tr. is the .

Heretical followers of Mahyna, who hold a false doctrine of the Void, teachin total non-existence, or nihilism. Square, four square, one of the five shapes.

vaipulya; cf. . is interpreted as referring to the doctrine, as equal, or un , i. e. everynwhere equally. An attempt is made to distinguish between the two a bove terms, being now used for vaipulya, but they are interchangeable. Eitel says the vaipulya sutras 'are distinguished by an expansion of doctrine and style (St ras developes, Burnouf). They are apparently of later date, showing the influence of different schools; their style is diffuse and prolix, repeating the same ide a over and over again in prose and in verse; they are also frequently interlarde d with prophecies and dhras'; but the two terms seem to refer rather to the content than the form. The content is that of universalism. Chinese Buddhists assert th at all the sutras from the Huayan onwards are of this class and therefore are Mahyn a. Consequently all or sutras are claimed by that school. Cf. .

One of Tiantai's methods of inducing samdhi, partly by walking, partly by sitting ased on the ; Zhiyi delivered the to his disciple Guanding

() One of the subjects of meditation in the on the hindrances cause sense.

() An open altar at which instruction in the commandments was preached to th founded on the Mahyna-vaipulya sutras; the system began in 765 in the capital unde r Daizong of the Tang dynasty and continued, with an interim under Wuzong, till t e Xuanzong period.

The third of the five periods of Tiantai , the eight years from the twelfth to entieth years of the Buddha's teaching, i. e. the period of the , the , and o lya sutras. The sutras taught during the expedient period. A monk's robe said to be so called because of its square appearance; also . Square-shaped, properly, according to scale.

Direction. srya; the sun; a day. .

(); Srya-prabhsana. Sunlight, and () Moonlight Healing; Sunlight is the ninth in the Dizang Court of the Garbhadhtu group. The sunrise exponents, a title of the founders of the before the Christian Japan.

() srya, ; ; (or ) ; also . The sun-rule palace, driving a quadriga. The retinue of Indra in his palace of the sun. The sun-palace, the abode of supra.

Five characters taken from the names of, and representing five Buddhas in the Va htu , , , , and . Meditation on, and observing of the setting sun, the first of the sixteen meditati ons in the .

sryvarta-samdhi, one of the sixteen samdhi mentioned in the , ;

Nakatratr-rja-ditya; a degree of meditation, i. e. the sun, stars and constellat amdhi.

The sun, one of the nine luminaries; one of the retinue of shown in the easter rt of the Garbhadhtu group driving three horses. Candra-vimala-srya-prabhsa-r. A Buddha whose realm resembles Sukhvat.

Candra-srya-pradpa, or Candrrkadpa. The title of 20, 000 Buddhas who succeed r preaching the Lotus Sutra, v. , . [156] Japan. Buddhism was introduced there from Korea in the sixth century, and in the seventh from China. 10 a. m. styled by Tiantai the hour of wisdom.

Srya-vaa, one of the five surnames of kyamuni, sun-seed or lineage, his first anc s having been produced by the sun from. 'two stalks of sugar-cane'; v. Ikvku. A mai , or pearl, crystal-clear as the sun, which gives sight to the blind.

Nichiren, the Japanese founder, in A. D. 1252, of the Nichiren sect, which is a known as the or Lotus sect. Its chief tenets are the three great mysteries , ing the trikya: (1) or chief object of worship, being the great maala of the worlds of the ten directions, or universe, i. e. the body or nirmakya of Buddha; (2) the t tle of the Lotus Sutra Myo-ho-ren-gwe-kyo, preceded by Namo, or, 'Adoration to t cripture of the lotus of the wonderful law, ' for it is Buddha's spiritual body; (3) the altar of the law, which is also the title of the Lotus as above; the bel iever, wherever he is, dwells in the Pure-land of calm light , the sabhogakya.

The sun's disc, which is the exterior of the sun palace of ; it is said to consi f sphaika, or fiery crystal.

candra, (); ; ; the moon, called also soma, from the in worship, and later personified in association with the moon. It has many othe r epithets, e. g. Indu, incorrectly intp. as marked like a hare; Nikara, make night; Nakatrantha, lord of constellations; the crest of Siva; vjin, drawn by (or lord of) white horses; tu, the spirit with white rays; pirit with cool rays; Mgka, the spirit with marks m form like a deer; a e. Candrottar-drik-vykaraa-stra of the maid in the moon.

Candraprabha, Moonlight. One of the three honoured ones in the Vajradhtu ur court of the Garbhadhtu, known also as .

Moonlight prince, name of kyamuni in a previous incarnation as a prince, when he t one of his bones to anoint a leper with its marrow and gave him of his blood t o drink. 12.

Moonlight king, the same as , the name of kyamuni in a previous incarnatio his head to a brahman.

The son of an elder of the capital of Magadha, who listening to heretics an his son's pleadings, endeavoured to destroy the Buddha in a pitfall of fire, but , on the Buddha's approach, the fire turned to a pool and the father was convert ed; the son was then predicted by the Buddha to be king of China in a future inc arnation, when all China and the Mongolian and other tribes would be converted, v. .

The bodhisattva Moonlight who attends on the Master of Healing; also in the M of the Garbhadhtu; used for ; v. . The hare in the moon.

Moon and division, a tr. of candrabhaga, The two rivers Candra and Bhaga jo Chenab river, Punjab, the Acesines of Alexander. An external altar in temples in the open, i. e. under the moon.

Candradeva, or Somadeva. (or ) The ruler of the moon, to whom the ter also applied.

The male regent of the moon, named , one of the metamorphoses of the Bodhisatt aprpta; the male regent has also his queen .

Upanya, an Indian monk, son of the king of Udyna, who tr.

The moon-palace of the made of silver and crystal; it is described as forty-nin janas square, but there are other accounts. The return of the day in each month when a person died. A Buddha's 'moon-love samdhi' in which he rids men of the distresses of love and e.

Candraknta, the moon-love pearl or moonstone, which bestows abundance of water or r ain.

() The Yuezhi, or 'Indo-Scythians', () and a country they at one time occ khara, Tokharestan, or Badakshan. Driven out from the northern curve of the Yell ow River by the Huns, circa 165 B. C., they conquered Bactria , the Punjab, Kashmi

r, 'and the greater part of India. ' Their expulsion from the north of Shansi wa s the cause of the famous journey of Zhangqian of the Han dynasty and the beginn ing of Chinese expansion to the north-west. Kanishka, king of the Yuezhi towards the end of the first century A. D., became the great protector and propagator o f Buddhism. [157] idem ; there is a . Also (or ). Moon-shining, or Moon-effulgence; a group shown outside the Garbhadhtu group in th e Diamond Court.

candra-dpa-samdhi, the samdhi said to have been given to by Buddha, th in two translations.

Moon-king, aka, a ruler of Karasuvara, who tried to destroy the bodhidrum ; dethroned by lditya. Candravarma, a learned monk of the Ngavadana monastery. New moon eyebrows, i. e. arched like the Buddha's. Candravaa, descendants of the moon, 'the lunar race of kings or the second great li ne of Katriya or royal dynasties in India. ' M. W.

) The pearl or jewel in the fortieth hand of the 'thousand hand' Guanyin, tow worship is paid in case of fevers; the hand is called .

An elder of Vail, who at the Buddha's bidding sought the aid of Amitbha, (Mah ) and Guanyin, especially the last, to rid his people of a pestilence. See Vimal akrti Sutra. The chariot of . The moon's disc, the moon.

(or ) The moon contemplation ( or samdhi) in regard to its sixteen nights o the full, and the application of this contemplation to the development of bodhi within, especially of the sixteen kinds of bodhisattva mind of the lotus and of the human heart. The 'moon-face Buddha', whose life is only a day and a night, in contrast with the sun-face Buddha whose life is 1, 800 years.

One of the names of a Ming Wang, i. e. 'moon-black' or 'moon-spots', dues all resisters, past, present, and future, represented with black face, thre e eyes, four protruding teeth, and fierce laugh. The moon rat, one of the two rats, black and white, that gnaw the cord of life, i . e. night and day. Wood; a tree; kha, a piece of wood, wood, timber. The elder with the tree, or the wooden elder; the elder's staff. A Buddha of wood, i. e. an image of wood. mukhaprochana, or face-wiper, towel handkerchief, one of the thirteen articles onk.

; moka, prtimoka ; moka is deliverance, emancipation; pra of evils one by one; the 250 rules of the Vinaya for monks for their deliverance from the round of mortality.

Mokadeva. A title given by the Hinayanists in India to Mahynadeva, i. e. X

Mokagupta. A monk of Karashahr, protagonist of the Madhyamayna school, 'whose ig ce Xuanzang publicly exposed. ' Eitel.

mukti, deliverance, liberation, emancipation; the same meaning is given to hich has more the sense of being free with (gifts), generosity. A wooden pettifogging monk; a rigid formalist. Mudra, a seal; mystic signs with the hands. Bhaspati; 'Lord of increase,' the planet Jupiter.

Jupiter, one of the nine luminaries, q. v.; on the south of the diamond hall outs de the Garbhadhtu maala.

A tree whose wood can exorcise evil spirits, or whose seeds are used as rosar . It is said to be the aria , which means unharmed, secure; it is the name of t berry and other shrubs. Seeds used for rosary-beads.

Papaya forest, i. e. Uruvilva, the place near Gay where Kyapa, their austerities before the latter's enlightenment; hence the former is styled Uruvilva Kyapa. Brownish colour made from bark, probably cinnamon. [158] Blockhead, a stupid person, one who breaks the commandments.

; ; tagara. An incense-yielding tree, putchuk; vangueria spinosa or t onaria; Eitel. Living on wild fruits nuts, etc. The wooden fish; there are two kinds, one round for use to keep time in chanting, the other long for calling to meals. The origin of the use of a fish is unk xampl e to monks to be watchful: there is no evidence of connection with the Christian . Wooden horse, a symbol of emancipation. To owe: debt; deficient; to bend, bow, yawn, etc.; the Sanskrit sign ly space, great and unattainable or immeasurable. said to imp

To stop, halt, cease; one of the seven definitions of dhyna described as a i; it is defined as silencing, or putting to rest the active mind, or auto-hypnosi ; also the mind centred, lit. the mind steadily fixed on one place, or in one n. It differs from which observes, examines, sifts evidence; has to do with gett ng rid of distraction for moral ends; it is abstraction, rather than contemplati on; see In practice there are three methods of attaining such abstraction: (a) by fixing the mind on the nose, navel, etc.; (b) by stopping every thought as it a rises; (c) by dwelling on the thought that nothing exists of itself, but from a preceding cause.

To stop, cease; to stop breathing by self-control; to bring the mind to rest; use d for . Self-control in keeping the commandments or prohibitions relating to deeds and wo rds, which are styled , , . ; Stopping offences; ceasing to ing wrong.

(or ) amatha-vipayan, which Sanskrit words are intp. b . When the physical organism is at rest it is called zhi, when the mind is seein g clearly it is called guan. The term and form of meditation is specially connec ted with its chief exponent, the founder of the Tiantai school, which school is styled Zhiguan Zong, its chief object being concentration of the mind by special m ethods for the purpose of clear insight into truth, and to be rid of illusion. T he Tiantai work gives ten fields of mediation, or concentration: (1) the , , and assion and delusion; (3) sickness; (4) karma forms; (5) mra-deeds; (6) dhyna; (7) (wrong) theories; (8) arrogance; (9) the two Vehicles; (10) bodhisattvahood. A name for the Tang monk Daosui . Another name for the Tiantai school.

The upek, indifference to or abandonment of both and , i. e. to rise above bo the universal. Another name for the.

The foundation work on Tiantai's modified form of samdhi, rest of body f vision. It is one of the three foundation works of the Tiantai School: was deli vered by Zhiyi to his disciple Chgan who committed it to writing. The treatises it are numerous. To compare; than; to assemble, arrive; partisan; each; translit. pi, bhi, vi, v. also , .

; ; bhiku, a religious mendicant, an almsman, one who has left home, bee d, and depends on alms for a living. Some are styled mendicant scholars, all are -seed, offspring of Buddha. The Chinese characters are clearly used as a phoneti c equivalent, but many attempts have been made to give meanings to the two words , e. g. as and as , hence one who destroys the passions and delusions, also overawe Mra and his minions; also to get rid of dearth, moral and spiritual. Two kinds and ; both indicate self-control, the first by internal mental or spiritual ethods, the second by externals such as strict diet. is a fragrant plant, emblem of the monastic life.

; bhiku. A nun, or almswoman. The first woman to be ordained was the B at, who had nursed him. In the fourteenth year after his enlightenment the Buddha yielded to persuasion and admitted his aunt and women to his order of religious mendicants, but said that the admission of women would shorten the period of Bu ddhism by 500 years. The nun, however old, must acknowledge the superiority of e very monk; must never scold him or tell his faults; must never accuse him, thoug h he may accuse her; and must in all respects obey the rules as commanded by him . She accepts all the rules for the monks with additional rules for her own orde r. Such is the theory rather than the practice. The title by which Mahprajpat was a ddressed was applied to nuns, i. e. rya, or noble, , though some consider the Chine se term entirely native.

The nun's '500 rules' and the eight commanding respect for monks, cf. and orks; the Bhiku-sghika-vinaya-prtimoka-stra was tr. by F

[159] An authoritative assembly of at least four monks; idem . piaka-koa. i. e. a thesaurus, treasury, store.

A monastery five li west of Khotan where Laozi is said to have converted the Huns to Buddhism.

Viuddhasiha; the second form is defined by Eitel as pure lio ; the first is named in the 6, but they may be two different persons. idem. q. v.

() Plusragiri, Hill firm as an elephant, a mountain southwest o elary deity of which was converted by Sakvamuni.' Eitel. Aoka built a stpa on its summit. is found in error for and for . (); vinata, A low hill.

Comparison and inference; it is defined as comparison of the known, and inferenc of the unknown. It is the second form in logic of the three kinds of example, , and , e. g. the inference of fire from smoke.

viruddha. A contradicting example or analogy in logic, e. g. the vase is permanent (or eternal), because of its nature; one of the nine, in the proposition, of the thirty-three possible fallacies in a syllogism. Hair; feathers. flaw, ailment. Hair-hole, pore, the pores. A hair rope, i. e. tied up by the passions, as with an unbreakable hair rope.

A name for ordinary people, i. e. non-Buddhists, the unenlightened; the i be a translation of vla, hair or down, which in turn is considered an error for bl a, ignorant, foolish, i. e. simple people who are easily beguiled. It is also sa id to be a form of bala-pthag-jana, v. , which is intp. as born in ignorance; the ignorant and untutored in general. The ignorant people. An ignorant, gullible person. idem ; also, a barber-monk who shaves the fraternity. Mudgalaputra, idem Mahmaudgalyyana, v. . water; liquid. A bubble on the water, emblem of all things being transient. v. . Water and milk an illustration of the intermingling of things; but their essential separateness is recognized in that the rja-hasa (a kind of goose) is said to be a ble to drink up the milk leaving behind the water.

A monk's hat shaped like the character 'water' in front. water vessel; a filter used by the esoterics in baptismal and other rites.

water-globule, a tabu term for the more dangerous term fire-pearl or ruby, also a tered to pearl ball; it is the ball on top of a pagoda. An atom of dust wandering freely in water one of the smallest of things. The water, or round, altar in the homa, or Fire ceremonial of the esoterics; also an altar in a house, which is cleansed with filtered water in times of peril. The element water, one of the four elements q. v.

Varua, ; , the he ve s, r the sky, where re l uds d dr g s; g, wh rules the l uds, r i s, d w ter ge er lly. O e f the i the es teri m alas; he rules the west; his consort is the represented on his left, and his chie retainer is placed on his right. or is the method of worshipping Varua for rain. The 743 rd Buddha of the present universe.

The water dhyna, in which one becomes identified with water, for during the period of trance one may become water; stories are told of devotees who, having turned to water, on awaking found stones in their bodies which had been thrown into th eir liquid bodies, and which were only removed during a succeeding similar tranc e. The planet Mercury, one of the nine luminaries; it is shown south of the west doo r of the diamond court in the Garbhadhtu. udakacandra; jalacandra; the moon reflected in the water, i. e. all is illusory a nd unreal. Guanyin gazing at the moon in the water, i. e. the unreality of all phenomena. [160] Water shuttle flowers, i. e. fish. Spume, bubbles, and flame, e. g. that all is unreal and transient. Waves of water; the wave and the water are two yet one an illustration of the iden tity of differences. Cleansed by water; edibles recovered from fowing water are 'clean'food to a monk. The calamity of water, or food; one of the three final world catastrophes of fire , wind, and water, v. . Jalmbara (third son of Jalavhana) reborn as kyamuni's son Rhula. The water-lantern festival in the seventh month. sphaika, ; water crystal, rock crystal. A monk's robe, because its patches resemble rice-fields; also . The realm of water, one of the four elements.

sphaika, crystal, idem . A gauze filter. A bird, very rarely seen, possibly a snow-goose; also (or ): . Water-burial, casting a corpse into the water, one of the four forms of burial. Water-store, or treasury; second son of Jalavhana, born as Gop, see . A water-bag, or filter. also ; similar to q. v. The third of the four 'wheel' on which the earth rests space, wind (or air), water , and metal.

The samdhi of the water 'wheel' , one of the ; water is fertilizing a er the effect of this samdhi is the fertilizing of good roots, and the softening or reduction of ambition and pride. or () The festival of water and land, attributed to Wudi of the Liang dynasty ent on a dream; it began with placing food in the water for water sprites, and o n land for ghosts; see 4. The waterman in a monastery. The three final catastrophes, see .

Fire, flame. ikhin ; , which means fire in the sense of flame, is the name of t th Buddha of the kalpa preceding this. Universal conflagration one of the ten universals, and one of the meditations on final destruction of all things by fire. The fire-tender in a monastic kitchen. Fire-light, flame. The flame dhyna by which the body is self-immolated. The flame samdhi, also styled the fourth dhyna. idem . The fire sign, for which a triangle pointing upwards is used; a triangular arrang ement of fingers of the right hand with the left.

The fiery pit (of the five desires ); also that of the three ill destinies the he , animals, hungry ghosts. Fire altar, connected with homa or fire worship; also . The element fire, one of the four elements.

The fire devas shown as the 12th group in the diamond court of the Garbhadhtu; v. [161]

hva; to call, invoke; also .

The parable of the burning house; one of the 'seven parables' in the Lotus Sutra hat of the burning house from which the owner tempts his heedless children by th e device of the three kinds of carts goat, deer, and bullock, especially a whitebullock cart i. e. Mahyna. Monks in a, burning house, i. e. married monks. The fire dhyna v. . The monk who attends to the fire; also ; . i. e. q. v. The kitchen account of the rice cooked and persons served.

The ruler over the fire-star, Mars, whose tablet hangs in the south side of a temp e and whose days of worship, to prevent conflagrations, are the fourth and eight eenth of each moon; he is identified with the ancient emperor Yen Ti. Agraka, the planet Mars. Mars, one of the nine luminaries, shown south of the Diamond hall in the Garbhadht u. ? Fire-tongs, made of wood, themselves burnt up before all brushwood is used up, a simile of a bodhisattva who so far forgot his vow to save all the living as to enter nirvana before completing his work. The homa or fire service of the esoterics. An asbestos cassock; also a non-inflammable robe said to be made of the hair of ire-rat. Purified, food made 'clean' by fire, or cooking. The hell of liquid fire. The conflagration catastrophe, for world destruction, v. . The scorching hell, where sinners are burnt up.

A samdhi entered into by the Buddha, in which he emitted flames to overcome a poi ous dragon. Also (or ) q. v. The homa or fire altar of the esoterics. The 'fire-board' or wooden plaque, hung in the kitchen, the striking of which war ns the monks that the meal is ready. The fiery dogs which vomit fire on sinners in hell. Fire-pearl, or ruby; the ball on top of a pagoda, see .

A flame-emitting samdhi, the power to emit flames from the body for auto-holocaus or other purposes. It is especially associated with q. v. and Shingon practice of the yoga which unites the devotee to him and his powers.

The realm of fire, one of the realms of the four elements , i. e. earth, water, fi

e, and wind. Cf. . A dharai of q. v. agni-dhtu-samdhi; the meditation on the final destruction of the world by fire.

The gods of fire, stated as numbering forty-four in the Vedic pantheon, with Mahbr ahm as the first; of these the Vairocana sutra takes twelve, i. e. ; ; ; The directions for the fire sacrifices in the Atharva-veda, the fourth Veda; the e soteric sect has also its for magical purposes. Brahmans, servers of the sacred fire. hora, hour, hours, time; astrologically a horoscope; said to be the country where Yixing studied astronomy. [162] Accumulated fires (of hell); accumulating one's own hell-fires; the body as a hea p of fire, i. e. to be feared; the fires of angry passions. This genius and his wife are shown above Vaisramana in the Garbhadhtu.

; or One of the five , i. e. one of the incarnations of ravartt, called by Shingon ; this incarnation is placed fourth on kyamuni's left Garbhadhtu. A kind of censer, made in two superimposed circles with a cover. jhpita, ; cremation, the relics being buried. Fire-vomiting serpents in the hells. The hells, animals, and hungry ghosts, i. e. the fiery, bloody, and knife-sharp de stinies, the .

The fiery chariot (belonging to the hells); there is also the hell of the fir ot, and the fire-pit with its fiery wheels; the sufferer first freezes, then is tempted into the chariot which bursts into flames and he perishes in the fire pi t, a process each sufferer repeats daily 90 kos of times. Whirling fire, e. g. fire whirled in a circle, the whole circle seeming to be on fire, emblem of illusion; a fire wheel. A sign made by putting the doubled fists together and opening the index fingers to form the fire-sign, a triangle.

(or ) The fiery way, i. e. the destiny of the hot hells, one of the three evil des inies. Citrabhnu, described as one of the ten great writers of the Indian contemporary and colleague of Vasubandhu; but the description is doubtful. Fire-bell-in warning to be careful of fire. The 'fire-court', a kind of contemplation, in which the devotee sees himself enci rcled by fire after circumambulating three times to the right while making the f ire-sign. Also ; .

A peak near Tiantai, where the founder of that school overcame Mra. A monastery cook. One of the Ming Wang v. . Burnt offerings, as in the homa worship. Claws, talons; servants.

() The quantity of earth one can put on a toe-nail, i. e. in proportion to the w earth in the world, such is the rareness of being reborn as a human being; or, according to the Nirvana Sutra 33, of attaining nirvana. A stpa, or reliquary, for preserving and honouring the nails and hair of the Buddh a, said to be the first Buddhist stpa raised. Nail 'cleaned', i. e. fruit, etc., that can be peeled with the nails, one of the five kinds of 'clean' food.

The long-nailed ascetic Brahmacr (of the) Vtsputrya; it is said that his nails w reatise and his hair a discourse . pit, Father.

pit-mt, father and mother, parents; ignorance is referred to as father, and concupiscence, as mother, the two ignorance and concupiscence being the parents o f all delusion and karma. Samdhi is also referred to as father, and praj na (wisd om) as mother, the parents of all knowledge and virtue. In the vast interchanges of rebirth all have been or are my parents, therefore all males are my father a nd all females my mother: see 2. The paternal or native city, especially kyamuni's, Kapilavastu. A slice, slip, card; brief, few. A brief samdhi, or meditation. Tooth, teeth; toothed; a broker.

The bodhisattva fiercely showing his teeth in defence of the Buddha, also styled is east of the Buddha in the Vajradhtu.

go, gaus; ox, bull, bullock, etc. A term applied to the Buddha Gautama as in king of bulls, possibly because of the derivation of his name; the phrase (or ox, to seek an ox, means to use the Buddha to find the Buddha. To live as a cow, eating grass with bent head, etc. as certain Indian heretics ar e said to have done, in the belief that a cow's next reincarnation would be in t he heavens. [163]

go-rjas, the amount of dust that can rest on the top of a cow's hair, i. e. seven t imes that on a sheep's. go-vrauka, or kukkura-vratika. Heretics who lived as oxen or dogs. The king of bulls, i. e. a Buddha, or bodhisattva; it is applied to Gautama Buddh a, possibly derived from his name.

; ; Gavpati, v. and . ox hide mortal happiness injures the wisdom-life of gods and men, just as ox hide shrinks and crushes a man who is wrapped in it and placed under the hot sun. gomaya, cow-dung, considered in India as clean and cleansing; used by the esoteri cs for 'cleansing' altars. The first Gotama ancestor of kyamuni, who is reputed to have sprung from cow-dung the Sugar-cane garden, probably a mere tradition that the family sprang from he rdsmen. () Only the eyes (i. e. vision, or insight) of oxen and sheep. Ox-horns, a synonym for things that are even, or on a level. The ox that by merely touching a monk's robe with its horn was transformed into a eva.

Ox-horns la grove, said to be a couple of la or teak trees shaped like ox-ho rew near Kuinagara, under which the Buddha preached the Nirvana Sutra. He is repo rted to have entered nirvana in a grove of eight la trees standing in pairs. v. .

Godnya, (or , or ) ; ; ; Aparagodna, , ed, where oxen are the principal product and medium of exchange. Ox-tracks, i. e. the teaching of a Buddha the royal bull.

the bhiku Gavpati, q. v., also styled (), said to have been a ruminating like a cow, and cow-faced: so born because of his previous herdsman's misdeeds.

Bullock cart, the white bullock cart as the one universal vehicle of salvation, The ox-head lictors in the hells.

Goga {M044209} a mountain 13 li from Khotan. One of the same name exists in Kiangsu, which gave its name to a school, the followers of Fa-jung, called N shan fa, or (or ); its fundamental teaching was the unreality of all things, l is dream, or illusion. The guardian deity of the Jetavana monastery, and an incarnation of q. v.

; gora-candana, ox-head sandal-wood, also styled red sand d mountains, and if rubbed on the body to make one impervious to fire, also gene rally protective against fire, curative of wounds and generally medicinal. 'The first image of kyamuni was made of this wood. ' Eitel. 10.

The milk of cow and ass, the one turns to 'curd', the other to 'dung ', i. e. alik in appearance, but fundamentally different, as is the case with the Buddha's te aching and that of outsiders.

(or ) Cow-bezoar aid, a charm used for childless women to obtain children should be written with cow bezoar on birch-bark and carried on the person. rja, king, prince, royal; to rule.

; The king of samdhis, the highest degree of samdhi, the voking Buddha, or sitting in meditation or trance. A royal i, i. e. a sovereign who retires from the world and attains to the five tra nscendent powers. Wanggu, name of a President of the Board of Rites during the Sung dynasty, who wa s also a devout Buddhist, end of eleventh century. idem .

Wang Rixiu, a doctor who became a devout and learned follower of Amida and Guan he was of Longshu, was also known as Xuzhong, and compiled the 1160-2 Rjyavardhana, tr. by Wang Tseng. A brother of Harshavardhana, king of

Royal law, the law by which a king should rule his country. A sutra on royal law, tr. by Yijing; there are other treatises on it. A royal feast referred to in the Lotus Sutra, where the hungry people feared to a ccept the King's feast till he came himself and called them; i. e. the feast of Buddhahood and the Buddha's call. [164] Rjagha. King Bimbisra is said to have removed his capital here from Kugrapura, a little further eastward, because of fire and other calamities. Rjagha was surrou nded by five hills, of which Gdhraka (Vulture Peak) became the most famous. It was the royal city from the time of Bimbisara 'until the time of Aoka'. Its ruins are still extant at the village of Rjgir, some sixteen miles S. S. W. of Bihr; they ' form an object of pilgrimages for the Jains'. Eitel. The first synod is said to have assembled here. 5. FIVE STROKES Fire, heat, south; the third of the ten stems. A junior, or so-and-so. the boy who attends to the lamps (which are associated with 'fire'). Moreover, yet, meanwhile. So be it, granted, a qualified assent. A mound, a plot; personal name of Confucius. A (dry) well on a hill top, symbolical of old age. ; q. v. Kuche, Karashahr.

yuga. An age, 1, 000th part of a kalpa. loka, the world. originally meant a huma n generation, a period of thirty years; it is used in Buddhism both for yuga, a period of time ever flowing, and loka, the world, worldly, earthly. The world is that which is to be destroyed; it is sunk in the round of mortality, or transmi gration; and conceals, or is a veil over reality. Transmigration after transmigration in the six states of mortal existence. () The Lord of the world, Brahm; Mahevara; also the four mahrjas ; v.

A generation, a lifetime; the world. He on whom the world relies Buddha. laukika; common or ordinary things, custom, experiences, common or worldly ways o r views). Non-Buddhist classical works. Vasumitra; v. .

The pleasures of the world, v. .

lokajyeha, world's most Venerable, or lokantha, lord of worlds. ; of every Buddha. Also a tr. of Bhagavat, v. . () ordinary or worldly knowledge or wisdom. Common or ordinary dharmas, i. e. truths, laws, things, etc.

Loka ; the finite world, the world, a world, which is of two kinds: (1) t ving, who are receiving their correct recompense or karma; (2) that of the mate , or that on which karma depends for expression. By the living is meant the senti ent.

The lord, or ruler over a world or dhyna heaven, one for each of the four dhyna he ens.

One of the four siddhntas: the Buddha's line of reasoning in earthly or common te to draw men to the higher truth. World-state, or condition; appearances, phenomena. idem . Earthly happiness, arising from the ordinary good living of those unenlightened b y Buddhism, one of the ; also, the blessings of this world. The highest of the q. v. aila ; ; a crag, a mountain. ayansana, lying and sitting, couch and seat.

Lokevararja, a Buddha under whom Amitbha, in a previous existence, enter tic life and made his forty-eight vows. [165] World hero, i. e. a Buddha; also . Vasubandhu, idem q. v. worldly discussions; ordinary unenlightened ways of description or definition; al so styled evil discussions, especially when applied to the hedonistic lokyatika te achings, v. .

ordinary or worldly truth, opposite of truth in reality; also ; ;

Ordinary worldly postulates that things are permanent, as contrasted with the do ne of impermanence advocated by Hnayna; both positions are controverted by Tiantai , which holds that the phenomenal world is neither becoming nor passing, but is an aspect of- eternal reality. The ways, or procedure, of the world: the phenomenal. The world; in the world; the finite impermanent world, idem . The vehicle, or teaching for the attainment of good fruit in the present life, in contrast with that for attainment in lives outside this world. World-devas, i. e. earthly kings. The third court in the Garbhadhtu. Worldly knowledge, i. e. that of ordinary men and those unenlightened by Buddhism.

Worldly dna, or giving, i. e. with thoughts of possession, meum, tm, and the thing iven, v. . The world law, or law of this world, especially of birth-and-death; in this respec t it is associated with the first two of the four dogmas, i, e. suffering, and i ts accumulated consequences in karma.

World-forms, systems, or states are eternal (as existing in the Absolute, the

Lokaviruddha; one of the thirty-three logical errors, to set up a premise contrary to human experience. The Eye of the world, the eye that sees for all men, i. e. the Buddha, who is also the one that opens the eyes of men. Worldly, or ordinary eyes. Also .

A sutra discussing causality in regard to the first three of the Four Dogmas , the 34.

lokavid, tr. as Knower of the world, one of the ten titles of a Buddha

The speedy and straight way to Buddhahood (for all) which the world finds it h believe.

The World-hero and two legged (or human) honoured one, Buddha, or the honoured a human bipeds. Chief, lord, master; to control.

viharsvmin; controller, director, the four heads of affairs in a monastery , Chief and attendant, principal and secondary. Lord, master; to dominate, control; the lord within, the soul; the lord of the un iverse, God. The spirits controlling the eight directions. The or abbot of a monastery. Lacking. lacking in the right way, shortcoming, poor, an expression of humility.

Instead of, in place of, acting for, for; e. g. to offer incense in place of anot her; a generation, v. . To deliver, hand over to, hand down. To deliver, entrust to. ( ); or . The work explaining the handing down of kyamuni's wenty-four in number; tr. in the Yuan dynasty in six juan; cf. 4. Another, other, the other, his, her, it, etc. Another's strength, especially that of a Buddha, or bodhisattva, obtained through faith in Mahyna salvation.

Those who trust to salvation by faith, contrasted with those who seek salvati orks, or by their own strength. Trusting to and calling on the Buddha, especially Amitbha.

Overcome by specific sin; i. e. any of the four prjikas, or sins of excommunicatio

() Paranirmita-vaavartin, ; ; the sixt e six devalokas, the abode of Mahevara (i. e. iva), and of Mra.

That part of a buddhaketra, or reward land of a Buddha, in which all beings recei and obey his truth; cf. . The valuables of another person; other valuables. Another and oneself; both he and I.

; ; paracittajna. Intuitive knowledge of the minds of all o the fourth or third of the . The eighth of Amitbha's forty-eight vows that men and d evas in his paradise should all have the joy of this power.

(or ); ; (or ) Sthavir; ; One of th v. ; the school was reputed as later represented by the Mahvihra-vsins, Jetavanys, hayagirivsins, in Ceylon; but the history of the Buddhist sects is uncertain. [166] Another life, or world, either previous to or after this. sthna, a place, state, condition.

i, an immortal. ; the gen, of whom there is a famous group of eight f the hills, a hermit; the Buddha. The gives ten kinds of immortals, walkers on th e earth, fliers, wanderers at will, into space, into the deva heavens, transform ing themselves into any form, etc. The names of ten is, who preceded kyamuni, the fi rst being ? Jatisena; there is also a list of sixty-eight given in the five is deva gen, spirit gen, human gen, earth, or cavern gen, and , The Mgadva, a deer park N. E. of Vras, 'a favourite resort ) near Benares. ' Eitel. The i's city, i. e. the Buddha's native city, Kapilavastu. Daoist treatises on alchemy and immortality.

The voice of Buddha. The royal-stag Genius, i. e. Buddha. By means of, by using, by; whereby, in order to.

Direct transmission from mind to mind, as contrasted with the written word; the in uitive principle of the Chan (Zen), or intuitive school. Strong, valiant; suddenly. juman, jti, birth, production; rebirth as man, animal, etc.; life, position by birth; race, being; the four methods of birth are egg, womb, water, and tran sformation. Elder brother. Elder and younger brothers; brother, brethren, i. e. members of the fraternity. Return, turn back, a turn. The days on which the day of death is remembered.

nivartana-stpa, erected on the spot where kyamuni sent back his horse after q me. hima; hemanta; winter. The winter retreat, 16t of 10th moon to 15th of 1st. The night before the winter solstice. The morning of that day. The observances of that day. To go out, come forth, put forth; exit; beyond. (1) Appearance in the world e. g. the Buddha's appearing. (2) To leave the world; a monk or nun. (3) Beyond, or outside this world, not of this world; of nirvana character. The great work of the Buddha's appearing, or for which he appeared. The nirvana, or other-world mind. The aim cherished by the Buddha in appearing in the world. The fruit of leaving the world; the result in another world; nirvana. The work or position of one who has quitted the world, that of a monk. The garment of one who has left the world. An abode away from the world, a monastery, hermitage. ( ) (or ) Lokottaravdina, an offshoot of he school are unknown, but the name, as implied by the Chinese translation, sugg ests if not the idea of di-Buddha, yet that of supra-mundane nature.

To go out of the world; the world (or life) beyond this; the supra-mundane; the sp iritual world.

, or . The way of leaving the world, i. e. of enlightenment, idem ; t To shed a Buddha's blood, one of the five grave sins.

A bodhisattva's entry into time and space, or the phenomenal , for the sake of sav ng others.

surpassing the supra-mundane; the stage of Bodhisattvahood above the eighth o e. To leave the dusty world of passion and delusion. To come out of the state of dhyna; to enter into it is . pravraj; to leave home and become a monk or nun. One who has left home and become a monk or nun. Two kinds are named: (1) one sically leaves home, and (2) one who does so in spirit and conduct. A further divi sion of four is: (1 ) one who physically leaves home, but in spirit remains with wife and family; (2) one who physically remains at home but whose spirit goes f orth; (3) one who leaves home, body and spirit; and (4) one who, body and mind, refuses to leave home. [167] To breathe out. Breathing out-not waiting for breathing-in, breathless. The wisdom of leaving mortality, or reincarnations; the wisdom of leaving the wor ld.

avadnas, stories of memorable deeds. The sixth of the twelve sections of t nsisting of parables and comparisons. The going forth period, i. e. from the sufferings of mortality; the appointed tim e of going forth; the period of setting forth.

To manifest, reveal, be manifested, appear, e. g. as does a Buddha's temporary bo dy, or nirmakya. Name of Udyi a disciple of Buddha to be reborn as Samantaprabh of a son of Ajtaatru.

To be born; to produce; monastic food, superior as bestowed in alms, called and The unfettered, or free bhtatathat, as contrasted with the . The surpassing sacred truth, or the sacred immortal truth. To leave the world and enter the nirvana way. To stand out from the class or rank (e. g. to ask question). outstanding, of outstanding ability, egregious, standing forth. The public announcement of the distribution of the kahina garment (v. nth of the rainy season, i. e. of the coming forth of the monks from their retre

) in

at. To leave, come out from. to leave the passions and delusions of life, an intp. of nirvana. External; the components of a thing or matter; to put forth a body. Add, added; increase; put on. Added strength or power (by the Buddhas or bodhisattvas); aid.

; kasa, visibility, splendour; a species of grass, saccharum spontaneum. M. W adhihna, to depend upon, a base, rule. It is defined as dependence on the onfers his strength on all (who seek it), and upholds them; hence it implies pra yer, because of obtaining the Buddha's power and transferring it to others; in g eneral it is to aid, support.

To repeat tantras over offerings, in order to prevent demons from taking them or m king them unclean. By the aid of Buddha to enter Buddhahood. A wand (made of peach wood) laid on in driving out demons, or in healing disease, the painful place being beaten. Tantras are repeated while the wand is used on t he patient. The body which the Buddha depends upon or his manifestation, i. e. the nirmakya.

; kaya, a colour composed of red and yellow, i. e. brown, described as a mi but is defined as red. Kalavika, v. . prayoga. Added progress, intensified effort, earnest endeavour. The second of the four stages of the known also as .

; Goodness acquired by earnest effort, or 'works', as differentiated fr s.

; ; Divine or Buddha aid or power bestowed on the living, for their prote ection. Merit, meritorious; achievement, hence achieving strength, earnest effort after t he good). Kun-dgah-grags, also named Danupa, a famous Tibetan monk of the thirteenth ho had influence at the Mongol court under Kublai Khan and after, d. 1303. (or ) ilpasthna-vidy-stra; 'the stra of arts and sciences, ' i. s on knowledge; it treats of 'arts, mechanics, dual philosophy, and calendaric c alculations'. Eitel.

Virtue achieved; achievement; power to do meritorious works; merit; meritorious v irtue; the reward of virtue; a name for Puyatara, one of the twenty-four dev worshipped in China.

The grove of merit and virtue, i. e. a Buddhist hall, or monastery; also the scrip

ures. Envoy to the virtuous, or officer supervising virtue, controller of monks and nuns appointed by the Tang Court. [168] ( ) idem () Lakm, goddess of fortune. ) The water or eight lakes of meritorious deeds, or virtue, in Paradise.

(or

The field of merit and virtue, i. e. the triratna , to be cultivated by the fait ; it is one of the three fields for cultivating welfare .

The assembly of all merit and virtue, i. e. the Buddha; also a stpa as symbol of hi m.

kahina, ; the garment of merits, given to monks after their summer ret s; it symbolized five merits to which they had attained. Meritorious exercise, i. e. walking about intoning after duty.

Action, functioning, in practice and achievement. Achieving power; ability, power. uttara, North.

Uttaraail. One of the sects organized in the third century after the s described as north of q. v.

The northern school of the Chan (Zen) sect; from Bodhidharma to the fifth patriar h Hongren the school was undivided; from Huineng began the division of the southe n school, Shenxiu maintaining the northern; it was the southern school which prev ailed. The pupil's position in paying respect to his master, i. e. facing the north wher e the master sits. () Ursa major, the Northern Bushel with its seven stars. The hall for the worship of Ursa Major. The seven northern constellations from wei to their seven devas. Cf. .

xu are represented in the Ga

Northern Buddhism, i. e. Mahyna, in contrast with Southern Buddhism, Hnayna. The northern version of the Nirvana Sutra, in forty juan. The northern pillow, i. e. kyamuni, when dying, pillowed his head to the north, poi nting the way for the extension of his doctrine.

(or ) Uttarakuru, the northern of the four continents surrounding Sum

Valabh. Northern La. 'An ancient kingdom and city on the Eastern coast of Gujerat.' Eitel. The northern Tai, i. e. Wutai shan in Shansi, the northernmost of the Four famous Buddhist Mountains.

The northern collection or edition of 1,621 works first published in Peking by or der of Ch'eng Tsu (1403-1424), together with forty-one additional works, publish ed by Mizang after thirty years, labour beginning A. D. 1586. Later this edition was published in Japan 1678-1681 by Tetsugen. Uttaryaa. The northern ascension of the sun between the winter and summer solstices . The Bodhisattva Miaojian of Ursa Major. Half. Used as translit. for pan, pun. (or ) ; ; ();

Pcika, the third of the eight grea

Punaca or Pacasattra or Pacarra, an ancient province and city of Kashmir Half deva brahmans, a term for hungry ghosts. (); M015858 ; ; paasa, breadfruit; is incorrectly used for

'Half a character'; a letter of the alphabet. Hnayna is likened to half-word, Mahy to a complete word; hence is Hnayna.

Para-vsin; white-clothed, i. e. the white-clothed Guanyin; a

paaka, intp. as to change from time to time, a general term for eunuchs; see The half and the complete doctrines: i. e. Hnayna and Mahyna.

(or ) ; pacakhdanya, the five 'chewing' foods, not regular lowers, fruits; or stems, leaves, flowers, fruits, and the their triturations.

(or ) paca-bhojanya. The five regular articles of food: the ched rice (or cakes), fish, and flesh. Another account is rice, boiled wheat or pulse, parched grain, flesh, cakes. (or ) ; (); Panthaka, born on the road; a road; two brothers ther by a path who both became arhats. A deva who by devotion advances by leaps, escaping from one to thirteen of the si xteen heavens of form.

() A bodhisattva's form of sitting, different from the completely cross-legg a Buddha. pajara, a basket, or cage. Half a day's fast, i. e.. fasting all day but eating at night. To divine, prognosticate. A method of divination in the esoteric school by means of the Sanskrit letter 'a' .

'Tchaua' is the highly doubtful form given by Eitel, who describes it as the anci capital of Vrji, an ' ancient kingdom N. of the Ganges, S. E. of Nepaul'. Go, go away; gone, past; depart, leave; to remove, dismiss; the tone.

Go and come. Past, future, present.

The heretical sect which believed in the reality of past and future as well as t resent.

(or ) ; ; ikkara. 'A young Brahman stying with h ted as 'evil deeds'. Also ' a section of the Vinaya called ... consisting of a seri es of 100 regulations with reference to the conduct of novices'. Eitel. [169] To call, cry. To cry, wail, raurava, hence the fourth and fifth hot hells, v. To summon, call. To invite, especially the Buddhas or bodhisattvas to worship. The inviter, possibly etymologically connected with achvka; he is they e left of Majur in his group of the Garbhadhtu, and is supposed to invite all the li ving to enlightenment. A sentence, phrase, clause; also used for a place. Sentence by sentence, every word. padakya, perhaps prtipadika; an inflected word. Only; a final particle; translit. j. .

; ; ; ; ; (or ); J vir Cf. . May not, cannot; translit. ph.

; ; phlgunamsa, the twelfth month; M. W. says Februar

May, can, able. khan. A Turkish term for 'prince'. () A case for books or writings, likened to the shell of an egg (). khatun. A Turkish term for 'queen' or 'princess'. Ancient, antique, old; of old. Ancient and modern. idem .

A flat place, platform, plateau, terrace; an abbrev. for and for Tiantai, hence e Tiantai mountain; ; its 'school'; its disciples; ; its doctrine, o

The school of Tai-Heng, or Tai and Heng; Tai is Tiantai. i. e. Zhiyi its founder, Heng is the Hengyue monastery, i. e. a term for Huisi the teacher of Zhiyi.

dakia. The right hand, on the right, e. g. right hand. right turn. pradakia, turning or processing with the right shoulder towards an object of revere nce. catur. Four.

The four 'ones', or the unity contained (according to Tiantai) in the of the Lo Sutra; i. e. its teaching of one Vehicle; its sole bodhisattva procedure; it ll and only as bodhisattvas; its one ultimate truth of the reality of all existen ce. The twenty-eight chapters of the Lotus Sutra. The four times a day of going up to worship daybreak, noon, evening, and midnight.

The four unattainables, perpetual youth, no sickness, perennial life, no death. Th re is a work, the Catur-lbha-stra, tr. into Chinese under this title.

The four things of a Buddha which are beyond human conception: his world, eings, his ngas, and the bounds of his Buddha-realm.

The four that may not be treated lightly: a prince though young, a snake though sm ll, a fire though tiny, and above all a 'novice' though a beginner, for he may b ecome an arhat. Cf. 46.

The four to whom one does not entrust valuables the old, for death is nigh; the d ant, lest one has immediate need of them; the evil; or the strong; lest the tempt ation be too strong for the last two.

(or ) The four objects of unfailing purity (or faith), i. e. the three pre riratna) and the moral law. Four forms of asiddha or incomplete statement, part of the thirty-three fallacies in logic. That a thing is not born or not produced of itself, of another, of both, of neithe r; cf. . The four invisibles water to fish, wind (or air) to man, the nature (of things) to the deluded, and the 'void'to the enlightened, because he is in his own element, and the Void is beyond conception. [170]

The period of the Buddha's earthly life, styled the sacred period (or period of t e sage), is added to the three periods of correct Law; semblance of the Law; and cadence of the Law. The four necessaries of a monk clothing, victuals, bedding, medicine (or herbs). Another set is a dwelling, clothing, victuals, medicine.

The four offerings or provisions for a monk. There is a sutra, the , or v. .

Four methods of a bodhisattva's preparation for preaching the Law entry into medi ion: into wisdom; into complete moral self-control; and into clear discernment, or reasoning, .

The four Lords of the world, whose domains were supposed to stretch E., S., W., a nd N. of the Himlayas; E. the lord of men; S. of elephants; W. of jewels (o s things); N. of horses. . The goat, deer, and ox carts and the great white-bullock cart of the Lotus Sutra, see .

The world from four points of view: that of men in general its pleasures, thought sly; of rvakas and pratyekabuddhas as a burning house, uneasily; of bodhisattvas as an empty flower; of Buddhas as mind, all things being for (or of) intelligent min d.

The three gen, or founders of systems, together with Nirgranthajti; v.

The four wise men who sought escape from death: one in the mountains, another in t e ocean, another in the air, and a fourth in the market place all in vain.

The four abodes or states in the 3, i. e. (1) the devalokas, equivalents o morality, and goodness of heart; (2) the brahmalokas, equivalents of benevolence , pity, joy, and indifference; (3) the abode of rvakas, pratyekabuddhas, and bodhis attvas, equivalent of the samdhi of the immaterial realm, formless and still; (4) the Buddha-abode, the equivalent of the samdhis of the infinite. v. .

() The four states or conditions found in mortality; wherein are the delusions o sleading views and desires. They are (1) the delusions arising from seeing thing they seem, not as they really are. (2) the desires in the desire-realm. (3) es in the form-realm. (4) the desires in the formless realm. When the sta ce is added we have the five states. These five states condition all error, and ar e the ground in which spring the roots of the countless passions and delusions o f all mortal beings.

Four of the Five Dhyni-Buddhas. i.e. the four regional Buddhas; they are variously stated. The gives E. ; S. ; W. ; N. . The gives E. idem .

The four purposes of the Buddha's appearing, that the Buddha-knowledge might be d, proclaimed, understood, and entered; v. Lotus .

The four necessaries, or things on which the religious rely. (1) The four of as c practitioners rag clothing; begging for food; sitting under trees; purgatives a nd diuretics as moral and spiritual means; these are also termed . (2) The fou e dharma: i. e. the truth, which is eternal, rather than man, even its propagato r; the sutras of perfect meaning i. e. of the the truth of the 'middle' way; the m eaning, or spirit, not the letter; wisdom , i.e. Buddha-wisdom rather than mere k nowledge . There are other groups. Cf. . The first four of the four , , and the q. v. v..

The four right objects of faith and the five right modes of procedure; the bh and the Three Precious Ones are the four; the five are almsgiving, morality, pati ence, zeal (or progress), and meditation. The four viparyaya i. e. inverted or false beliefs in regard to , , , . There

groups: (1) the common belief in the four above, denied by the early Buddhist d octrine that all is impermanent, suffering, impersonal, and impure; (2) the fals e belief of the Hnayna school that nirvana is not a state of permanence, joy, pers onality, and purity. Hnayna refutes the common view in regard to the phenomenal li fe; bodhisattvism refutes both views. [171] yu-t'an-na, ? udna, the four dogmas: all is impermanent, all is suffering, there no ego, nirvana. The thirty-two marks of a Buddha.

catur-an.gabalakya; the four divisions of a cakravarti's troops elephant, hastikya; horse, avakya; chariot, rathakya; and foot, pattikya.

The Dharmalakana school divides the function of cognition into four, i. e. enomena, discriminating such phenomena, the power that discriminates, and r assurance of that power. Another group is: faith, liberty, action, and assura ce or realization. Extracts from the four-division Vinaya with verses, for use on days when e is recited; there are other works under a similar title. idem . The school which divides the cognition-mind into four parts, v. .

The four-division Vinaya or discipline of the Dharmagupta school, divided into fou r sections of 20, 15, 14, and 11 chuan. The Dharma-gupta-vinaya was tr. in A. D. 4 5 by Buddhayasas and Chu Fo-nien; the Dharmagupta-bhiku-karman w and there are numerous other works of this order.

The four kalpas, or epochs, of a world, that of formation and completion; ex or abiding; destruction; and annihilation, or the succeeding void. 12. The four powers for attaining enlightenment: independent personal power; power de rived from others; power of past good karma; and power arising from environment. v. . idem .

The four with victorious bodies, who were transformed independently of normal rebi rth; also styled bodies set free from all physical taint, thus attaining to Buddha hood. The four are the dragon daughter of the Lotus Sutra, who instantly became a male bodhisattva; and three others of the Huayan sutra, i. e. ; , and The q. v. whereby all beings may be saved. catvriat; forty.

(or ) Forty-one of the fifty-two bodhisattva stages (of development), i. e the and . For this and v. .

and . The service to the Master of Healing, when forty-nine lamps are y-nine monks engaged; seven of his images are used, seven of the lamps being pla ced before each image. The seven times seven days of funeral services; the forty-ninth day.

(or ) . The mai, or Pearl palace of forty-nine stories above The forty-two messengers, or angels of q. v. The forty-two stages, i. e. all above the of the fifty-two stages. The forty-two species of ignorance which, according to Tiantai, are to be cut iatim in the above forty-two stages.

The doctrine of the forty-two Siddham letters as given in the 76 and l meanings, independent of their use among the fourteen vowels and thirty-five c onsonants, i. e. forty-nine alphabetic signs. The forty-two are supposed by the 47 to be the root or basis of all letters; and each letter has its own specific va lue as a spiritual symbol; Tiantai associates each of them with one of the forty -two . The letters begin with and end with or .

The 'Sutra of Forty-two Sections' generally attributed to Kyapa Mtaga, v. v. , the first Indian monks to arrive officially in China. It was, however, proba bly first produced in China in the Chin dynasty. There are various editions and commentaries.

The 'forty bodhisattva positions' of the . They are classified into four group n initial stages, i. e. the minds of abandoning things of the world, of keeping the moral law, patience, zealous progress, dhyna, wisdom, resolve, guarding (the Law), joy, and spiritual baptism by the Buddha. These are associated with the . (2 ) Ten steps in the nourishment of perfection, i. e. minds of kindness, pity, joy, relinquishing, almsgiving, good discourse, benefiting, friendship, dhyna, wisdom. These are associated with the . (3) Ten 'diamond' steps of firmness, i. e. a mi f faith, remembrance, bestowing one's merits on others, understanding, uprighthe ss, no-retreat, Mahyna, formlessness, wisdom, indestructibility; these are associa ted with the . (4) The q. v.

The forty-eight demon satellites of rycalantha as subduer of demons,

The forty-eight years of service demanded by an old physician of his pupil in orde to acquire his skill likened to the slow and difficult methods of Hnayna and of ea rly Mahyna. [172]

The forty-eight vows of Amitbha that he would not enter into his final nirvana or aven, unless all beings shared it; the lists vary.

For forty and more years (the Buddha) was unable to unfold the full trut t gave it in the Lotus Sutra).

catu-parmara, the four attachments, i. e. desire, (unenlightened) views, (fakir) mo als, and ideas arising from the conception of the self. Also, the possible delus ions of the . Also, seeking fame in the four quarters.

The four terms, phrases, or four-line verses, e. g. The four terms of differe n, e. g. of all things into the existing; nonexisting; both; neither; or phenome nal, noumenal, both, neither. Also, double, single, both, neither; and other sim ilar applications. The four tenets held by various non-Buddhist schools: (1) the permanence of the eg o, i. e. that the ego of past lives is the ego of the present; (2) its impermane nce, i. e. that the present ego is of independent birth; (3) both permanent and impermanent, that the ego is permanent, the body impermanent; (4) neither perman

ent nor impermanent; that the body is impermanent but the ego not impermanent.

The swan-song of an arhat, who has attained to the perfect life: All rebirths ar nded, The noble life established, My work is accomplished. No further existence is mine.

The four-phrase classification that phenomena are self-caused, caused by oth, by neither; cf. . The four stages in Hnayna sanctity: srota-panna, sakdgmin, angmin and arhan. idem . The four 'tastes': the Tiantai definition of the four periods of the Buddha's tea ching preliminary to the fifth, i. e. that of the Lotus Sutra; cf. . The four commanders or leaders; see Lotus Sutra 15.

catu-kuala-mla, the four good roots, or sources from which spring good fruiy or d opment. In Hnayna they form the stage after as represented by the and ; e final stage of the as represented by the . There are also four similar stage cted with rvaka, pratyekabuddha, and Buddha, styled . The four of the ar he are the same, but are applied differently. The retains the same four terms onnects them with the four dhyna stages of the in its four first development

The four metaphors (of infinity, etc. ): the weight of all the mountains in pound ; the drops in the ocean; the atoms of dust in the earth; the extent of space idem .

The four Buddha-ketra, or realms, of Tiantai: (1) Realms where all classes evas, Buddhas, disciples, non-disciples; it has two divisions, the impure, e. g. this world, and the pure, e. g. the 'Western' pure-land. (2) Temporary realms, e the occupants have got rid of the evils of unenlightened views and thoughts, bu t still have to be reborn. (3) Realms of permanent reward and freedom, for tho have attained bodhisattva rank. (4) Realm of eternal rest and light (i. e. wisdom) and of eternal spirit (dharmakya), the abode of Buddhas; but in reality all the o thers are included in this, and are only separated for convenience, sake.

The four erroneous tenets; also ; ; ; there are two groups: I. The four of , or non-Buddhists, i. e. of Brahminism, concerning the law of cause and effect: (1) heretical theory of causation, e. g. creation by Mahesvara; (2) or dent of cause, e. g. creation without a cause, or spontaneous generation; (3) caus without effect, e. g. no future life as the result of this. (4) neither cause nor effect, e. g. that rewards and punishments are independent of morals. II. The fo ur erroneous tenets of insiders and outsiders, Buddhist and Brahman, also styled e four schools, as negated in the Mdhyamika stra: (1) outsiders, who do not accept ither the ren or fa ideas of kong; (2) insiders who hold the Abhidharma or Sarvst ivd tenet, which recognizes human impersonality, but not the unreality of thin also those who hold the Satyasiddhi tenet which discriminates the two meanings o f kong but not clearly; and also (4) those in Mahyna who hold the tenet of the rea lists. [173] The four Vajra-rulers of the four elements earth, water, fire, wind, and of the E., S. W., N. W,. and N. E.

The four firm or indestructible beliefs, in the Buddha, the law, the order, ommandments. The four stpas at the places of Buddha's birth, Kapilavastu; enlightenment, Magadh a: preaching, Benares; and parinirva, Kuinagara. Four more are located in the heave ns of the Travastrias gods, one each tor his hair, nails, begging bowl, and teeth, E., S., W., N., respectively.

() The four causes of falling from grace and final excommunication of a monk o adultery, stealing, killing, falsity; v. .

The four hours of the night , i. e. 7 to 3, and the eight hours of the day m. to 7 p. m.

mahbhta, ; . The four elements of which all things are made; or the four r arth, water, fire, and wind (or air); they represent , , , and solid, liquid, heat and motion; motion produces and maintains life. As active or formative forces t hey are styled () ; as passive or material objects they are ; but the putes the and recognizes only the .

The inharmonious working of the four elements in the body, which causes the 440 ai ments; cf. . The verse uttered by Zhao Fashi when facing death under the Yao Qin tury A. D.: 'No master have the four elements, Unreal are the five skandhas, When my head meets the white blade, Twill be but slicing the spring wind. ' The 'four elements' are the physical body.

The four famous 'hills' or monasteries in China: P'u-t'o, for Guanyin, elemen ; Wu-tai, Wen-shu, wind; O-mei, P'uhsien, fire; and Chiu-hua, Tizang, earth. see . The four deva-kings of the four quarters, guardians in a monastery. v. . The four monastic heads imperially appointed during, the Tang dynasty.

The four great disciples of the Buddha riputra, Mahmaudgalyyana, Subhti, and er group is Mahkyapa, Piola, Rhula, and ? Kauinya. The four great oceans in a world, around Sumeru, in which are the four great conti nents; cf. . The four great continents. See . idem . The four great rvakas, idem .

The four great Bodhisattvas of the Lotus Sutra, i. e. Maitreya, Majur, Avalokit nd Samantabhadra. Another list of previous Bodhisattvas is Viitacritra; Anan ddhacritra, and Supratihitacritra.

The guardian devas of the four quarters: south ; east ; north the Garbhadhtu. Four great sutras: Huayan; Nirvana; Mahratnakta, and

The four quarters or continents of the world. In the upper regions there are the four heavens of the four deva-kings; below are he people of the four continents.

() catur-mahrjas, or Lokaplas; the four deva-kings. Indra's external 'gen each on a side of Mount Meru, and who ward off from the world the attacks of ma licious spirits, or asuras, hence their name the four deva-kings, guardians of t orld. Their abode is the catur-maharja-kyikas; and their titles are: East s (his) kingdom; colour white; name Dhtarsatra. South Deva of increase and growth; lue; name Virhaka. West The broad-eyed (also ugly-eyed) deva (perhaps a form of Si ); red; name Virpka. North The deva who hears much and is well-versed; yellow; na airavaa, or Dhanada; he is a form of Kuvera, the god of wealth. These are the four giant temple guardians introduced as such to China by Amogha; cf. . catur-maharja-kyikas; the four heavens of the four deva-kings. ( or ) v. . A meditation method on the q. v.

ddhi-pda; the third group of the bodhi-pakikadharma; the fo aking the body independent of ordinary or natural law. The four steps are said t o be the four kinds of dhyna, but there are several definitions, e. g. cha desire (or intensive longing, or concentration); virya-ddhi-pda, energy (or intens ied effort); citta-ddhi-pda, memory (or intense holding on to the position reached mmsa-ddhi-pda., meditation (or survey, the state of dhyna). [174]

The four Indian 'clans' or castes brhmaa, katriya, vaiya, and dra, i. e. (1) pr 2) military and ruling, (3) farmers and traders, and (4) serfs; born respectivel y from the mouth, shoulders, flanks, and feet of Brahma. Four respect-inspiring forms of demeanour in walking, standing, sitting, lying. The four senior or prime months, i. e. the first of each season, first, fourth, se venth, and tenth.

() The four means of attaining to a happy contentment, by proper direction o s of the body; the words of the mouth; the thoughts of the mind; and the resolve (of the will) to preach to all the Lotus Sutra. The four dhyna heavens of form, and the four degrees of dhyna corresponding to them . v. .

The four kinds of inference in logic common, prejudged or opposing, insufficiently founded, arbitrary. Also, the four schools of thought I. According to Jingying t hey are (1) that everything exists, or has its own nature; e. g. Sarvstivda, in th 'lower' schools of Hnayna; (2) that everything has not a nature of its own; e. g. e a 'higher' Hnayna school, the Satyasiddhi; (3) that form has no reality, the doctrine of the void, 'lower' Mahyna; (4) revelation of reality, that all come from the bhtatathat, 'higher ' Mahyna. II. According to Tanyin of the monaste re (1) , i. e. all things are causally produced; (2) , i. e. thin . , denying the reality of form, this school fails to define reality; (4) , i. e. chool of the real, in contrast with the seeming. The schools of , , , and

likened by Zhangan of the Tiantai to th

A study or contemplation of the Dharmalakana sect, on the terms used, the things or phenomena, the nature of the things, their differentiation. Like four closing-in mountains are birth, age, sickness, and death; another group is age, sickness, death, and decay (, i. e. of wealth, honours, etc., or imperman ence).

Special study of or advancement in the four degrees, a method of the esoterics, fo merly extending over 800 or 1, 000 days, later contracted to 200. The four 'degr ees ' are , , , and , but the order varies.

The four universal vows of a Buddha or bodhisattva: to save all liv it; to put an end to all passions and delusions however numerous; hods and means without end; to become perfect in the supreme Buddha-law. The are considered as arising one by one out of the Four Noble Truths.

The four vinaya and the five stras. The four vinaya , or disciplinary regula the Sarvstivda version tr. in 61 chuan by Punyatara; Dharmagupta's version, chuan by Buddhayaas; Sghika version or Mahsghika version, tr. in 40 chuan, by ra; and Mahsaka version, tr. in 30 chuan by Buddhajva and others, also known as ikya-pacavargavinaya. The five stras are ; ; ; ; a

The four minutest forms or atoms perceptible to the four senses of sight, smell, taste, or touch; from these arise the four elements, from which arise the five wi doms, q. v. The four nirvana virtues, or values, according to the Mahyna Nirvana Sutra: (1) anence or eternity; (2) joy; (3) personality or the soul; (4) purity. These portant terms, while denied in the lower realms, are affirmed by the sutra in th e transcendental, or nirvana-realm. [175]

The joyful realm, or acme of the above four virtues, the nirvana realm, armakya of the Tathgata. The hearts of kindness, pity, joy, and indifference, idem .

copulation in the first and in the second devalokas, i. e. and heavens t is by embrace; in the fourth, by holding hands; in the fifth, by mutual smilin g; in the sixth by a mutual look.

The state of a saint, i. e. beyond, or oblivious of the four conditions of un fference, existence, non-existence. idem .

The four classes of 'prayer-beads', numbering 27, 54, 108, or 1, 080, styled , ower, middle, superior, and most superior.

(); smtyupasthna. The fourfold stage of mindfulness, thought, or me he five-fold procedure for quieting the mind. This fourfold method, or objectivity of thought, is for stimulating the mind in ethical wisdom. It consists of contem plating (1) the body as impure and utterly filthy; (2) sensation, or consciousne ss, as always resulting in suffering; (3) mind as impermanent, merely one sensat ion after another; (4) things in general as being dependent and without a nature of their own. The four negate the ideas of permanence, joy, personality, and pu rity , , , and , i. e. the four , but v. . They are further subdivided into ar and general, termed and , and there are further subdivisions.

The four kinds of conduct natural to a Bodhisattva, that arising from his native g oodness, his vow-nature, his compliant nature, i. e. to the six pramits, and his t ransforming nature, i. e. his powers of conversion or salvation.

The four enemies the passions-and-delusion mras, death mra, the five-skandhas mras nd the supreme mra-king. As the sands of four Ganges. see and omit the first.

The four siddhnta, v. . The Buddha taught by (1) mundane or ordinary modes of e ion; (2) individual treatment, adapting his teaching to the capacity of his hear ers; (3) diagnostic treatment of their moral diseases; and (4) the perfect and h ighest truth. idem . idem .

(or ) Four sources of affection: the giving or receiving of clothing, or food, ding, or independently of gifts.

(or ) The four apya, or evil destinies: the hells, as hungry ghosts, animals, s. The asuras are sometimes evil, sometimes good, hence the term 'three evil desti nies' excepts the asuras.

The four wicked bhikus who threw over the teaching of their Buddha Dazhuan is nirvana; these suffered in the deepest hells, came forth purified, but have n ot been able to attain perfection because of their past unbelief; v. . Also fou edient bhikus who through much purgation ultimately became the Buddhas of the fou r points of the compass, , , , and . The four kinds of wisdom received: (1) by birth, or nature; (2) by hearing, or be ing taught; (3) by thought; (4) by dhyna meditation. Four stages in moral development: that of release, or deliverance from the world on becoming a monk; that arising from the four meditations on the realms of form ; that above the stage of q. v.; that in which all moral evil is ended and delusi on ceases. idem . The four givings, i. e. of goods of the Truth, of courage (or fearlessness), and the giving up of the passions and delusions; cf. dna-pramit, .

() sm. A boundary, a separate dwelling, or dwellings (for monks and/or visitor

(or ) catu-sagraha-vastu; four all-embracing (bodhisattva) virtues: (1) others like, in order to lead them to love and receive the truth; (2) priyavacana , affctionate, speech, with the same purpose; (3) arthaktya, conduct proftable to others, with the same purpose; (4) samnrthat, co-operation with and adaptation of o eself to others, to lead them into the truth. [176] ; The four bodhisattvas in the Vajradhtu with the hook, the rope, whose office is to convert the living.

Four teachings, doctrines, or schools; five groups are given, whose titles are ab breviated to : (1) The four schools of Fayun of the Guangzhai les referred to in the burning house parable of the Lotus Sutra, i. e. rvaka, prat yekabuddha, bodhisattva, and the final or one vehicle teaching. (2) The Tiantai fo r are , , and , v. . (3) The group of Wnhyo of Haedong are ented by the ; and represented by the . (4) The group of who are misled and mislead; of rvakas and pratyekabuddhas who know only the pheno menal bhtatathat; of novitiate bodhisattvas who know only the noumenal bhtatathat; a nd of fully developed bodhisattvas, who know both. (5) Ngrjuna's division of the n into dealing with existence, or reality, cf. the ; the Void, cf. ; cf. .

Now a Shingon term; the are the Tiantai four schools of open or exote e are the Shingon esoteric teaching in which the three body, mouth, and mind ha pecial functions.

The Tiantai four main doctrinal divisions as above and its three kinds of meditati n.

Tiantai's doctrine of the four developments of the Buddha's own teaching, v. above and the five periods of the same, v. . A work of Zhiyi of Tiantai. Four stages, as given in the , , i. e. , , , and q. v.

The four quarters of the compass; a square, square; the E. is ruled by Indra, S. by Yama, W. by Varua, and N. by Vairamaa; the N. E. is ruled by Ina, S. E. by . by Nirti, and the N. W. by Varua.

The four Buddhas of the four regions E. the world of abundant fragrance whe Akobhya; S. of pleasure, Ratnaketu; W. of restfulness, or joyful comf N. of lotus adornment, ? Amoghasiddhi, or kyamuni. The four 'generals' or guardians of the Law, of the four directions: N. , 00 followers and twenty-eight companies of demons and spirits. Cf. . Four benefactions, i. e. pen, ink, sutras, preaching.

catvra sry the four suns, i. e. Avaghoa, Devabodhisattva, Ngrjuna, and Kumra a). Four Shingon emblems, aids to Yoga-possession by a Buddha or bodhisattva; they ar e , , , , a hook, a cord, a lock, and a bell; the hook for summoning, the cord for eading, the lock for firmly holding, and the bell for the resultant joy. Also, t he four Veda stras.

A mountain range in Ningbo prefecture where the are clearly seen, i. e. sun, mo stars, and constellations. Zhili of the Sung dynasty is known as the honoured Siming and his school as the Siming school in the direct line of Tiantai. In Japa n Mt. Hiei is known by this title, through Dengyo the founder of the Japanese T ai School.

The four forms of wisdom of a Buddha according to the Dharmalakana school: (1) at mirror wisdom of Akobhya; (2) the universal wisdom of Ratnaketu; (3) serving wisdom of Amitbha; (4) the perfecting wisdom of Amoghasiddhi. There are v ous other groups.

Four wisdom symbols of the Shingon cult: or mahjna-mudr, t heir symbols and manual signs; dharma-jna-mudr, the magic formula of each;

the emblems of their specific functions. The praise hymns of the four 'wisdoms ', v. . ha, the fourth month. The eighth of the fourth moon, the Buddha's birthday.

The four functioning forms, i. e. birth, stay, change, and extinction; [177]

The four books of Tiantai on meditation , i. e. ; ; ; an

The four fundamental states birth, stay, change, and extinction (or death), v.

The four phala, i. e. fruitions, or rewards srota-panna-phala, sakradgmi-phala, a hala, arhat-phala, i. e. four grades of saintship; see ; , , and . applied to four grades of ramaas yellow and blue flower ramaas, lotus ramaas, meek , and ultra-meek ramaas.

When the Buddha died, of the eight la trees surrounding him four are said to hav hered while four continued in full leaf a sign that the four doctrines of sufferi ng, the void, impermanence, and impersonality were to perish and those of p ce, joy, personality, and purity, the transcendent bodhisattva doctrines, were t o flourish. (or ) idem . The noble state of unlimited , , , love, pity, joy, and indifference.

Four ways of attaining arhatship, idem , except that the last of the four is on (of others).

The four Brahmacrins who resolved to escape death each on mountain, sea, in the air , or the: market place, and yet failed; v. . The four prjika sins resulting in excommunication, v. .

The four desires or passions: sexual love; sexual beauty or attractiveness; f lust.

sayakpraha, v. ; the four right effortsto put an end to existing evil ; bring good into existence; develop existing good; ; are similar but the thir is the conservation of the good. v. . Four poisonous snakes (in a basket), e. g. the four elements, earth, water, fire, and air, of which a man is formed.

The four rivers Ganges, Sindhu (Indus), Vku (Oxus), and Trm, all reputed to arise of a lake, Anavatapta, in Tibet.

An abbreviation for . The four female attendants on Vairocana in the Vajra from him, each of them a 'mother' of one of the four Buddhas of the four quarter s; v. , etc.

; , The four prjikas, or grievous sins of monks or nuns: (1 or bestiality; (2) adattdna, stealing; (3) vadhahia killing; (4) uttaramanuyadharma-p

rlapa, false speaking.

There are several groups of four dharma: (1) the teaching of the Buddha); it iples, or meaning; its practice; its fruits or rewards. (2) Another group relates to bodhisattvas, their never losing the bodhi-mind, or the wisdom attained, or p erseverance in progress, or the monastic forest life (rayaka). (3) Also faith, d nment, performance, and assurance. (4) The Pure-land 'True' sect of Japan has a division: , i. e. the ; the practice of the seventeenth of Amitbha's vo ghteenth; and proof of the eleventh. The most important work of Shinran, the foun der of the sect, is these four, i. e. . (5) A 'Lotus ' division of is the answ question of Puxian (Samantabhadra) how the Lotus is to be possessed after the B uddha's demise, i. e. by thought (or protection) of the Buddhas; the cultivation of virtue; entry into correct dhyna; and having a mind to save all creatures.

idem #4; the three vows are the seventeenth, eighteenth, and eleventh of Amit The four imperishables the correctly receptive heart, the diamond, the relics of uddha, and the palace of the devas of light and sound, bhasvras. The seal or impression of the four dogmas, suffering, impermanence, non-ego, nirva na, see . idem .

The alpha and omega in four laws or dogmas that nothing is permanent, that all th s involve suffering, that there is no personality, and that nirvana is eternal re st. The Buddha' s gift of the four laws or dogmas, that all things are impermanent, th at all (sentient) existence is suffering, that there is no (essential) personali ty, that all form (or matter) returns to the void.

The four dharma-realms of the Huayan School: (1) the phenomenal real tion; (2) noumenal with unity; (3) both noumenal and phenomenal a phenomena are also interdependent. [178]

catur-dvpa; the four inhabited continents of every universe; they are situated S., E., W., and N. of the central mountain Sumeru; S. is Jambudvpa ; E. Prva-videha ra-godnya ; and N. Uttarakuru . The four oceans around Mount Sumeru; cf. . Honorific title of the monk Jingtuo of the Sui dynasty.

The four currents (that carry the unthinking along): i. e. the illusions of seein g things as they seem, not as they really are; desires; existence, life; ignoran e, or an unenlightened condition.

The 'pure' dhyna, i. e. one of the three dhynas; this dhyna is in four parts

(or ) Eight stanzas in the , two each on impermanence, suffe ity; the whole four sets embodying the impermanence of all things.

() The four kinds of fearlessness, or courage, of which there are two groups earlessness arises from his omniscience; perfection of character; overcoming opp osition; and ending of suffering. Bodhisattva-fearlessness arises from powers of memory; of moral diagnosis and application of the remedy; of ratiocination; and of solving doubts. v. 48 and 5.

(or or ). pratisavid, the four unhindered or unlimited bodhisatt , or reasoning, i. e. in dharma, the letter of the law; artha, its meaning; ? ni rukti, in any language, or form of expression; pratibhna, in eloquence, or pleasur e in speaking, or argument. idem , .

catvri apramni; the four immeasurables, or infinite Buddha-states of mind, als he four equalities, or universals, and noble acts or characteristics; i. e. four o f the twelve dhynas: boundless kindness, maitr, or bestowing of joy or happin ess pity, karu, to save from suffering; boundless joy, mudit, on seeing others from suffering; limitless indifference, upek, i. e. rising above these emotions giving up all things, e. g. distinctions of friend and enemy, love and hate, etc . The esoteric sect has a special definition of its own, connecting each of the four with ; ; ; or .

The four delusions in reference to the ego: ignorance in regard to the ego; to the ego idea; self-esteem, egotism, pride; self-seeking, or desire, both the l tter arising from belief in the ego. Also . The four furnaces, or altars of the esoteric cult, each differing in shape: earth , square; water, round; fire, triangular; wind, half-moon shape.

() catur-mahrja-kyiks, the four heavens of the four deva-kings, i. e. the lo six heavens of desire; v. . The and tryastrias, Indra's heaven. (2) orms with

catur-yoni, the four forms of birth: (1) or jaryuja, viviparous, as with mammal aaja, oviparous, as with birds; (3) or sasvedaja, moisture, or and fishes; (4) aupapduka, metamorphic, as with moths from the chrysalis, or devas, or in the hells, or the first beings in a newly evolved world.

A pratyekabuddha method of obtaining release, by intensive effort, at the shortest in four rebirths, at the longest in a hundred kalpas. The four fields for cultivating happiness animals; the poor; parents, etc.; the r eligion. The four realms, idem earth, water, fire, and air. The four are the substance and upholders of all things.

The four ailments, or mistaken ways of seeking perfection: 'works' or effort; ez-faire; cessation of all mental operation; annihilaon (of all desire). Four hundred.

The 404 ailments of the body; each of the four elements earth, water, fire, and w is responsible for 101; there are 202 fevers, or hot humours caused by earth an d fire; and 202 chills or cold humours caused by water and wind; v. 65. [179]

The 400 disciplinary laws of a bodhisattva, referred to in the but without de

The four avasth, or states of all phenomena, i. e. birth, being, change (i. , and death; also . There are several groups, e. g. birth, age, disease, d e Awakening of Faith referring to the initiation, continuation, change, and cess

ation of the laya-vijna. Also The ideas: (1) that there is an ego; (2) that man ferent from other organisms; (3) that all the living are produced by the skandha s; (4) that life is limited to the organism. Also dealing differently with the fou last headings ; ; ; and .

() The four noble truths, v. () , i. e. , , , pain, its loca cure. The four powers of sight of bodhisattvas, a Buddha has a fifth power; v. . The four who know the workings of one's mind for good or evil heaven, earth, one's intimates, and oneself. idem .

() The four dhyna heavens, (), i. e. the division of the eightee as: the disciple attains to one of these heavens according to the dhyna he observ es: (1) The first region, 'as large as one whole universe' comprises the three hea vens, Brahma-priadya, Brahma-purohita, and Mahbrahma, , , and ; the inhabi t gustatory or olfactory organs, not needing food, but possess the other four of the six organs. (2) The second region, equal to 'a small chiliocosmos' , comp he three heavens, according to Eitel, 'Parttbha, Aprambha, and bhsvara, ' i. e. ght, infinite light, and utmost light purity; the inhabitants have ceased to the five physical organs, possessing only the organ of mind. (3) The third region , equal to 'a middling chiliocosmos ', comprises three heavens; Eitel gives them as Parttaubha, Apramaubha, and ubhaktsna, i. e. minor purity, infinite pur purity; the inhabitants still have the organ of mind and are receptive of great joy. (4) The fourth region, equal to a great chiliocosmos, , comprises the rem nine brahmalokas, namely, Puyaprasava, Anabhraka, Bhatphala, Asajisattva, Avha, Atapa , Suda, Sudarana, and Akaniha (Eitel). The Chinese titles are felicitous birth, ss, large fruitage, no vexations, atapa is no heat, suda is beautiful is beautiful appearing, two others are the end of form, and the heaven a but it is difficult to trace avha and akaniha; the inhabitants of this fourth regi on still have mind. The number of the dhyna heavens differs; the Sarvstivdins say 1 6, the or Sutra school 17, and the Sthavir school 18. Eitel points out that the fi rst dhyna has one world with one moon, one mem, four continents, and six devaloka s; the second dhyna has 1, 000 times the worlds of the first; the third has 1, 00 0 times the worlds of the second; the fourth dhyna has 1, 000 times those of the third. Within a kalpa of destruction the first is destroyed fifty-six times by fi re, the second seven by water, the third once by wind, the fourth 'corresponding to a state of absolute indifference' remains 'untouched' by all the other evolu tions; when 'fate () comes to an end then the fourth dhyna may come to an end too, but not sooner'.

The four dhynas on the form-realms and the eight concentrations, i. e. four on th orm-realms and four on the formless. realms.

The four dhyna-concentrations which lead to the four dhyna heavenly regions, see a ve. Four kinds; where phrases containing the are not found here, they may occur direc t, e. g. . The four samaya, i. e. the four prjikas killing, stealing, carnality, lying. The four kinds of faith given in the Awakening of Faith, i. e. (1) in the q. he teacher of all Buddhas and fount of all action; (2) in Buddha, or the Buddhas ; (3) in the Dharma; and (4) in the Sarogha.

The four deadly sins, i. e. the four prjikas killing, stealing, carnality, ly

; The four kinds of altar-worship of the esoteric sect for (1) f and others; (2) seeking good fortune; (3) seeking the love and protection of B uddhas; (4) subduing enemies.

Four kinds of rebirth dependent on present deeds: from obscurity and poverty to be reborn in the same condition; from obscurity and poverty to be reborn in light a nd honour; from light and honour to be reborn in obscurity and poverty; from lig ht and honour to be reborn in the heavens. [180] v. . The four kinds of dhra q. v.

The four grades of earnest doers, who follow the bodhisattva discipline and attain to the , , , and .

The four kinds of examination, a method of repentance as a way to get rid of any s n: study the cause of the sin, which lies in ignorance, or lack of clear underst anding, e. g. moth and fame; study its inevitable effect, its karma; study onese lf, introspection; and study the Tathgata in his perfect character, and saving po wer.

(or) catur-rpya brahmalokas; also and see . The four immateri above the eighteen brahmalokas: (1) knantyyatana, also termed the st ndless space; (2) vijnanntyyatana, of boundless knowledge; (3) kica onexistence; (4) naivasanjnasajnyatana, also styled the state king (which may resemble a state of intuition). Existence in the first state las ts 20, 000 great kalpas, increasing respectively to 40, 000, 60, 000 and 80, 000 in the other three.

The last four of the twelve dhynas; the auto-hypnotic, or ecstatic entry i states represented by the four dhyna heavens, i. e. supra. In the first, the min d becomes void and vast like space; in the second, the powers of perception and understanding are unlimited; in the third, the discriminative powers of mind are subdued; in the fourth, the realm of consciousness or knowledge) without though t is reached, e. g. intuitive wisdom. These four are considered both as states o f dhyna, and as heavens into which one who practices these forms of dhyna may be b orn. A verse from the Zhuangyan lun Health is the best wealth, Contentment the best riches, Friendship the best relationship, Nirvana the best joy.

The four virtues which a Buddha out of his infinite heart manifests equally to al l; also called q. w. They are: maitr, karu, mudit, upek, i. e. kindne fference, or protection. Another group is , i. e. that all Buddhas have the s le or titles; speak the same language; proclaim the same truth; and have each th e threefold body, or trikya. A third group is all things are equally included in t he bhtatathat; the mind-nature being universal, its field of action is universal; e way or method is also universal; therefore the mercy (of the Buddhas) is univer sal for all.

The four Mahynas, i. e. the four great schools: (1) Huayan or Avatasaka; ( ) Zhenyan, Shingon, or esoteric; (4) Chan, Zen, or intuitive school. Another grou p is the , , , and .

The four monastic annual periods beginning of summer, end of summer, winter solst ice, and the new year.

A summary of the Linji school, an offshoot of the Chan, in reference to subject objective, both, neither. The four knots, or bonds, sayojana, which hinder free development; they are likene d to the q. v. four things that becloud, i. e. rain clouds, resembling desire; du st-storms, hate; smoke, ignorance; and asuras, gain. The four ideas to be got rid of in order to obtain the 'mean' or ultimate reality , according to the : they are that things exist, do not exist, both, neither. The four half points of the compass, N. E., N. W., S. E., S. W. The four bandhana, or bonds are (1) desire, resentment, heretical morality, egois m; or (2) desire, possession (or existence), ignorance, and unenlightened views. The four films, or things that becloud, i. e. rain-clouds; dust-storms; smoke; an d asuras, i. e. eclipses of sun and moon; emblematic of desire, hate, ignorance, and pride; cf. .

The four kinds of holy men rvakas, pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, and Buddhas. Also the four chief disciples of Kumrajva, i. e. Daosheng, Sengzhao, Daorong, [181]

The four holy ways wearing rags from dust-heaps, begging for food, sitting under tr ees, and entire withdrawal from the world. The meaning is similar in ; ; and The four holy or noble truths, idem . The four-armed svastika, or thunderbolt.

The four self-raidings, or self-injuries in youth not to study from morn till nigh t; in advancing years not to cease sexual intercourse; wealthy and not being cha ritable; not accepting the Buddha's teaching.

The four sovereign powers: the moral law; supernatural powers; knowledge; m. The four good physicians, or medicines; idem .

The four (divine) flowers mandra, mahmandra, majaka, and mahmajaka. Also, p , and kumuda or white, blue, red, and yellow lotuses.

The pleasure grounds outside Sudarana, the heavenly city of Indra: E. C the park of chariots; S. Parakavana, the war park; W. Mirakvana, intp. a e all desires are fulfilled; N. Nandanavana, the park of all delights. Also . The four miseries, or sufferings birth, age, disease, and death.

The four bodhisattvas Avalokitevara, Maitreya, Samantabhadra, and Majur. Also, chief bodhisattvas in the Garbhadhtu. There are also the of the Lotus Sutra, n d .

The sixteen assemblies, or addresses in the four places where the compl is said to have been delivered. To inquire (or worship at) the four places for lighting incense at a monastery.

see .

idem . The Fanyimingyi under this heading gives the parable of a man who fled fr he two bewildering forms of life and death, and climbed down a rope (of life) , in to the well of impermanence , where two mice, night and day, gnawed the rattan rop e; on the four sides four snakes sought to poison him, i. e. the or four elements of his physical nature); below were three dragons breathing fire and trying to sei ze him. On looking up he saw that two elephants (darkness and light) had come to the mouth of the well; he was in despair, when a bee flew by and dropped some h oney (the five desires ) into his mouth, which he ate and entirely forgot his peri l.

The four varga (groups, or orders), i. e. bhiku, bhiku, upsaka and upsik, monks ale and female devotees. Another group, according to Tiantai's commentary on the Lotus, is the assembly which, through riputra, stirred the Buddha to begin his Lo s Sutra sermons; the pivotal assembly, those who were responsive to him; the ion assembly, those like Majur, etc., who reflected on, or drew out the Buddha's te aching; and those who only profited in having seen and heard a Buddha, and therefo re whose enlightenment is delayed to a future life. The four disciplinary processes: enlightenment; good deeds; wisdom; and worship. To meditate upon the implications or disciplines of pain, unreality, impermanence, and the non-ego. The four ynas or vehicles, idem . idem .

The four most important chapters of the Lotus Sutra, i. e. ; ; , ion; the Nichiren sect makes the second and the fourth. The four bodhisattvas associated with the five dhyni-buddhas in the Vajradhtu.

The 'four intelligences, or apprehensions' of the Awakening of Faith , q. v., vi . [182]

(or ) The Buddha's for methods of dealing with questions: direct answer, discrimin ting answer, questioning in return, and silence.

The four great scholars (among the 500 arhats) who made the Vibh-stra, a critic ntary on the Abhidharma. Their names are Vasumitra, Ghoa, Dharmatrta, and

Four famous stras: (1) Pryamla-strak by Ngrjuna, four juan; (2) n; (3) Dvdaanikya(-mukha)-stra by Ngrjuna, one juan; (4) Mahpraj ng the Sui dynasty the followers of these four stras formed the .

catvri-rya-satyni; ; . The four dogmas, or noble truths, the primary an ines of kyamuni, said to approximate to the form of medical diagnosis. They are pa in or 'suffering, its cause, its ending, the way thereto; that existence is suff ering, that human passion (tah, desire) is the cause of continued suffering, that by the destruction of human passion existence may be brought to an end; that by a life of holiness the destruction of human passion may be attained'. Childers. The four are , (or ), , and , i. e. dukha , samudaya , nirodha (1) 'that 'misery' is a necessary attribute of sentient existence'; (2) that 'th e 'accumulation' of misery is caused by the passions'; (3) that 'the 'extinction ' of passion is possible; (4) mrga is 'the doctrine of the 'path' that leads to t

he extinction of passion'. (1) suffering is the lot of the six states of existenc e; (2) is the aggregation (or exacerbation) of suffering by reason of the passio ns; (3) is nirvana, the extinction of desire and its consequences, and the leavi ng of the sufferings of mortality as void and extinct; (4) is the way of such ex tinction, i. e. the eightfold correct way. The first two are considered to be rela ted to this life, the last two to a life outside or apart from the world. The four are described as the fundamental doctrines first preached to his five former as cetic companions. Those who accepted these truths were in the stage of rvaka. Ther e is much dispute as to the meaning of 'extinction' as to whether it means extin ction of suffering, of passion, or of existence. The Nirvana Sutra 18 says that whoever accepts the four dogmas will put an end to births and deaths w cessity mean the termination of existence but that of continued transmigration. v. .

The sutra of the four dogmas, tr. by An Shih Kao, one juan. Durgati; the rections or destinations: the hells, hungry ghosts, animals, asuras; v. .

The four kya, or 'bodies'. The Lakvatra-stra gives ; ; and and third sabhogakya, and the fourth dharmakya. The gives ; ; d third , and the fourth . The Tiantai School gives ; ; , and . The ivisions of the . See .

The four vehicles of the Lotus Sutra , i. e. goat, deer, bullock, and great lock carts.

The Lotus School, which adds to the tryna, or Three Vehicles, a fourth which inclu s the other three, viz. the q. v.

The four yokes, or fetters, i. e. desire, possessions and existence, (unenlig ed or non-Buddhist) views, ignorance.

The four wheels or circles: (1) the four on which the earth rests, wind (or a ter, metal, and space. (2) Four images with wheels, yellow associated with metal or gold, white with water, red with fire, and black with wind. (3) The four dhyn i-buddhas, Akobhya; Ratnasabhava; Amitbha; Amoghasiddhi. (4) Als silver, copper, iron, of the cakravartin kings. The four kinds of cakravartin kings.

The four grades: (1) bhiku, bhiku, upsaka, upsik, i. e. monks, nuns, male and f ciples, v. ; (2) men, devas, ngas, and ghosts . idem .

The Dao or road means the nirvana road; the 'four' are rather modes of progress, or stages in it: (1) discipline or effort, i. e. progress from the and s of the , i. e. morality, meditation, and understanding; (2) uninterrupted pro o the stage in which all delusion is banished; (3) liberaton, or freedom, reaching the state of assurance or proof and knowledge of the truth; and (4) surpassing pr ogress in dhyni-wisdom. Those four stages are also associated with those of srota -panna, sakdgmin, angmin, and arhat. [183]

saindhava, rock-salt, but intp. as salt, water, a utensil, and a horse, the fou cessaries, i. e. water for washing, salt for food, a vessel to contain it, and a horse for progress; also called .

() The four stages of a thought: not yet arisen, its initiation, its realization s passing away, styled , , , and .

idem . The four classes, e. g. srota-panna, sakdgmin, angmin, and arhat. v. . v. .

The four sutras of the Pure Land sect, according to Cien, i. e. the ;

; ; The four divisions of disciples bhiku, bhiku, upsaka, a ale devotees.

() The four grave prohibitions, or sins, prjikas: killing, stealing, ca lso four of the esoteric sect, i. e. discarding the truth, discarding the bodhimind, being mean or selfish in regard to the supreme law, injuring the living. The four prjikas for monks and eight for nuns.

The Garbhadhtu maala of one central and three surrounding courts. Th bed as the sacred host of the four courts. The four mahrjas, v. . The four heavy stone begging-bowls offered to kyamuni by the four devas, which he m iraculously combined into one and used as if ordinary material. The four guardians, v. .

The four resemblances between a mirror and the bhtatathat in the Awakening of Faith . The bhtatathat, like the mirror, is independent of all beings, reveals all objec , is not hindered by objects, and serves all beings.

The four doors, schools of thought, or theories: is the phenomenal world real, or unreal, or both, or neither ? According to the Tiantai school each of the four schools in discussing these four questions emphasizes one of them, i. e. that i real unreal, both, neither; v. and , and each of the four schools. In olism the are four stages of initiation, development, enlightenment, and nirvana, and are associated with E., S., W., and N.; with the four seasons; with warmth, heat, coolness and cold, etc.

The four distresses observed during his wanderings by the Buddha when a prince bi , age, disease, death.

The four Agamas , or divisions of the Hnayna scriptures: drghgama al; madhyamgamas, metaphysical; sayuktgamas, general, on dhyna, trance, e , numerically arranged subjects.

(or ) The four Hnayna steps for attaining Buddhahood, i. e. the myriad d asakhyeya kalpas; the continually good karma of a hundred great kalpas; in the f inal body the cutting off of the illusions of the lower eight states; and the ta king of one's seat on the bodhi-plot for final enlightenment, and the cutting of f of the thirty-four forms of delusive thought. The four female attendants on Vairocana in the Vajradhtu , , , and , () v. (). The four-faced Vairocana, his dharmakya of Wisdom. () The four Vedas.

Four kinds of horses, likened to four classes of monks: those that respond to the shadow of the whip, its lightest touch, its mild application, and those who nee d the spur to bite the bone. [184]

The four short divisions of time: a wink; a snap of the fingers; a lava, 20 fin snaps; and kaa, said to be 20 lava; but a lava is 'the sixtieth of a twinkling' (M. W. ) and a kaa an instant.

The four kinds of food, i. e. or for the body and its senses; or f or thought; and for wisdom, i. e. the of Hnayna and the of Mahyna, of wh i. e. layavijna, is the chief. The four times for food, i. e. of the devas at dawn, of all Buddhas at noon, of an imals in the evening, and of demons and ghosts at night. The four fast days, i. e. at the quarters of the moon new, full 8th, and 23rd.

bhya. Outside, external; opposite to within, inner, e. g. inner witness, or rea ation and external manifestation, function, or use. The mendicant monk who seeks self-control by external means, e. g. abstinence fro m food, as contrasted with the who seeks it by spiritual methods. The external objects of the six internal senses. Outside outsiders, those of other cults. Study of outside, or non-Buddhist doctrines. An external Ego, e. g. a Creator or ruler of the world, such as Siva. ; ; External doctrines; rules or tenets non-Buddhist, or heretical. The sea that surrounds the four world-continents. Unmoved by externals, none of the senses stirred.

External appearance or conduct; what is manifested without; externally. The a hair, teeth, nails, etc. External protection, or aid, e. g. food and clothing for monks and nuns, contrast ed with the internal aid of the Buddha's teaching. Sexual thoughts towards others than one's own wife, or husband.

Outside doctrines; non-Buddhist; heresy, heretics; the Trthyas or Trthikas; there a re many groups of these: that of the two devas and three sages, i. e. the Viuite e Mahevarites (or ivaites), and the followers of Kapila, Ulka, and abha. Another grou p of four is given as Kapila, Ulka, Nirgrantha-putra (Jainas), and Jt (Jainas). A gr oup of six, known as the six heretical masters, is Praa-Kyapa, Maskari-Golpu ra, Ajita-Keakambala, Kakuda-Ktyyana, and Nirgrantha-Jtputra; there are also two othe groupings of six, one of them indicative of their various forms of asceticism a nd self-torture. There are also groups of 13, 1, 20, 30, 95, and 96 heretics, or forms of non-Buddhist doctrine, the 95 being divided into 11 classes, beginning with the Sakhy philosophy and ending with that of no-cause, or existence as accid ental.

The external twenty devas in the Vajradhtu group, whose names, many of them doubt , are given as Nryaa, Kumra, Vajragoa, Brahm, akra, ditya, Candra, Vajramha, ? Mus ala, ? Rakalevat, Vyu, Vajravsin, Agni, Vairavaa, Vajrkua, Yama, Vajrjaya, Vinya . The last of the thirteen courts in the Garbhadhtu group. To lose, opp. of ; to err.

(or ) iumra, 'child-killing, the Gangetic porpoise, delphinus gangeticu crocodile, which is the kumbhra . To lose the train of thought, or meditation; a wandering mind; loss of memory.

rava, a constellation identified with the Ox, or 9th Chinese constellation, in Ar and Sagittarius. The middle, medial: to solicit; ample, vast. (); ; ; (or ) (or ) Agulimlya, nes as a chaplet. One who had assassinated 999, and was about to assassinate his mother for the thousandth, is said to have been then converted by the Buddha. A slave ; . Male and female slaves.

To stop; a nun; near; translit. ni. When used for a nun it is an abbrev. for bhik The nun's altar; a convent or nunnery. An abbess. A nun. A nunnery, or convent. The rules for nuns, numbering 341, to which seven more were added making 348, com monly called the 500 rules. A female bhiku, i. e. a nun. A nun teacher; effeminate.

The Mistress of the nuns, Gautami, i. e. Mahprjapat, the foster-mother of kyamu

(or ) nirarbuda, ' bursting tumours ', the second naraka of the e niyama, restraint, vow; determination, resolve; a degree of Bodhisattva progress, i. e. never turning back. [185] (or ) nidana; M043724 A thing to sit or lie on, a mat .

? niyati, or niyant tr. as to restrain, hold, also as deeply enter her term for to desire, covet. nikahaka, a kind of yaka, throatless.

nirodha, tr. as extinction, annihilation, cessation, the third of the four nobl uths, cf. . Sugatacetana, a disciple who slighted kyamuni in his former incarnation of se, but who afterwards attained through him to Buddhahood.

nyag-rodha, the down-growing tree, Ficus Indica, or banyan; high and wide-spreadin g, leaves like persimmon-leaves, fruit called to-lo used as a cough-medicine; als o intp. the willow, probably from its drooping characteristic; the 'bastard banya ', ficus pyrifolia, takes its place as ficus religiosa in China. Also written; nidhi (praidhna); also ; The Sanskrit is doubtful. The intp. is vow, or ment of resolves, or aims. A scavenger.

nirmarati, devas who 'delight in transformations', i. e. or they occupy the fifth, where life lasts for 8, 000 years. nirodha, restraint, suppression, cessation, annihilation, tr. by extinction, the hird of the four dogmas ; with the breaking of the chain of karma there is left no further bond to reincarnation. Used in Anuprva-nirodha, or 'successive terminaons ', i. e. nine successive stages of dhyna. Cf. .

Nimindhara, or Nemidhara maintaining the circle, i. e. the outermost rin concentric ranges of a world, the the mountains that hold the land. Also the name of a sea fish whose head is supposed to resemble this mountain. Upaniad, v. . Nepala, Nepal, anciently corresponding to that part of Nepal which lies east of th e Kathmandu. Eitel.

nirgrantha, ; (); , freed from all ties, a naked mendicant, tr. by rom all ties, wander naked, and cover themselves with ashes. Mahvra, one of this s ect, called Jti after his family, and also Nirgrantha-jtiputra, was a His doctrines were determinist, everything being fated, and no religious practic es could change one's lot. bhiku-khaa, a division of the Vinaya, containing the rules for nuns. Nirgrantha-putra, idem Jti. nila, dark blue or green. nila-udumbara, v. . nlavajra, the blue vajra, or thunderbolt. idem . (or ) nlotpala, the blue lotus. Nlapia, 'the blue collection' of annals and royal edicts, mentioned in .

Defined as an atom, the smallest possible particle; but its extended form of paniad, esoteric doctrine, the secret sense of the sutras.

Naisargika-pryacittika, intp. by and , the sin in the former case bein ssion and restoration being made, in the latter being not forgiven because of re

fusal to confess and restore. Cf. . nivsana, an inner garment. v. . ? nikala, the name of a tree, but nikala means iter alia seedless, barren. () Nairajan, ; (or ) The Nljan that flows past Gaya, [186]

nidna, a band, bond, link, primary cause. I. The twelve causes or links in f existence: (1) jar-maraa old age and death. (2) jti (re) birth. (3) bhava e e. (4) updna laying hold of, grasping. (5) t love, thirst, desire. (6) vedana g, perceiving, sensation. (7) spara touch, contact, feeling. (8) a-yatana, the nses. (9) nma-rpa name and form, individuality (of things). (10) vijna the si f perception, awareness or discernment. (11) saskra action, moral conduct. (12) av idy unenlightenment, 'ignorance which mistakes the illusory phenomena of this worl d for realities. ' Eitel. These twelve links are stated also in Hnayna in reverse order, beginning with avidy and ending with jar-maraa. The Fanyimingyi says the who le series arises from ignorance, and if this can be got rid of the whole process of births and deaths (or reincarnations) comes to an end. II. Applied to the purp ose and occasion of writing sutras, nidna means (1) those written because of a re quest or query; (2) because certain precepts were violated; (3) because of certa in events.

nidna-mtk, two of the twelve divisions of the sutras, one dealing with the er with previous incarnations. Skilful, clever. is q. v. v. . Great; translit. ko, hau, go. Great benefit. gomaya, cow-dung.

Kaumb, (Pali) Kosambi, Vatsa-pattana. Also written (or , or ); ana in 'Central India', described as 6, 000 li in circuit, soil rich, with a fam ous capital, in which the 5 says there was a great image of the Buddha. Eitel says : It was 'one of the most ancient cities of India, identified by some with Kasia near Kurrah (Lat. 25 41 N., Long. 81 27 E. ), by others with the village of Kos am on the Jumna 30 miles above Aulahabad'. It is identified with Kosam. The left hand. Zuoxi, the eighth Tiantai patriarch, named Xuanlang . A market, a fair, an open place for public assembly. Jetaka, or Sadvahana. A king of southern Kosala, patron of Ngrjuna. Cloth, to spread; translit. pu, po, pau. pti-agada, purgatives.

prik, a kind of cake. Praa-Kyapa, v. . Also Purna of the v. . pausa, the 10th month in India. Potala, v. and . Prva-videha, or Videha. ( );

; One o

Prabhadra, one of the eight yaka generals.

Puyopya, or Nad. A monk of Central India, said to have brought over 1, 5 Mahyna and Hnayna schools to China A. D. 655. In 656 he was sent to Pulo Condore d in the China Sea for some strange medicine. Tr. three works, one lost by A. D. 730. A Shingon meditation on the Sanskrit letter 'a' and others, written on the devotee 's own body.

ptan, ; (or or ) a female demon poisoning or the cause o stinking hungry demon, and the most successful of demons. To publish, or spread abroad the doctrine.

dna ; the sixth pramit, almsgiving, i. e. of goods, or the doctrine, with resul nefits now and also hereafter in the forms of reincarnation, as neglect or refus al will produce the opposite consequences. The two kinds of dna are the pure, or ullied charity, which looks for no reward here but only hereafter; and the sulli ed almsgiving whose object is personal benefit. The three kinds of dna are goods, the doctrine, and courage, or fearlessness. The four kinds are pens to write th e sutras, ink, the sutras themselves, and preaching. The five kinds are giving t o those who have come from a distance, those who are going to a distance, the si ck, the hungry, those wise in the doctrine. The seven kinds are giving to visito rs, travellers, the sick, their nurses, monasteries, endowments for the sustenan ce of monks or nuns, and clothing and food according to season. The eight kinds are giving to those who come for aid, giving for fear (of evil), return for kind ness received, anticipating gifts in return, continuing the parental example of giving, giving in hope of rebirth in a particular heaven, in hope of an honoured name, for the adornment of the heart and life. 18. [187] pupa, a flower .

poadha, upavasatha, upoana; (or ); Pali: uposatha; fasting, a fa al of vows, intp. by or or , meaning abiding in retreat for spiritual refresh here are other similar terms, e. g. ; ; also which the Vinaya uses nya, is self-examination and public confession during the fast. It is also an old Indian fast. Buddha's monks should meet at the new and fall moons and read the Prtimoka sutra for their moral edification, also disciples at home should observe the six fast days and the eight commands. The fast days are the 15th and 29th or 3 0th of the moon. is a term for the lay observance of the first eight commandments on fast days, and it is used as a name for those commands.

Pu-tai Ho-shang (J.: Hotei Osho) Cloth-bag monk, an erratic monk Changtingz the tenth century, noted, inter alia, for his shoulder bag. Often depicted, esp

ecially in Japanese art, as a jovial, corpulent monk, scantily clad and surround ed by children.

purua, ; man, mankind, a man, Man as Nraya the soul and origin of t he Soul, Supreme Being, God, see M. W.; intp. as and man, and an adult man, also by master or educated man, 'explained by , literally the spiritual self. A metaphy ical term; the spirit which together with nature ( svabhva), through the successive modifications () of gua ( attributes or qualities), or the active principles ( ces all forms of existence (). ' Eitel. Puruapura; the ancient capital of Gandhara, the modern Peshawar. Potala, the monastery of the Dalai Lama in Lhasa; v. . Even, level, tranquil; ordinary. Ordinary, usual, common. Throughout life; all one's life. sama; samat. Level, even, everywhere the same, universal, without partiality; it e specially refers to the Buddha in his universal; impartial, and equal attitude t owards all beings. Universal power, or omnipotence, i. e. to save all beings, a title of a Buddha.

'Universal great wisdom', the declaration by the ancient Buddha in the Lotus Sutra that all would obtain the Buddha-wisdom. An impartial mind, 'no respecter of persons, ' not loving one and hating another. The universal nature, i. e. the bhtatathat q. v. samatjna. The wisdom of rising above such distinctions as I and Thou, meum and being rid of the ego idea, and wisdom in regard to all things equally and unive rsally, cf. . The esoteric school also call it the and Ratnasabhava wisdom. One of two schools founded by Yin Fashi early in the Tang dynasty. samatajna, wisdom of universality or sameness, v. supra. The universal or impartial truth that all become Buddha, . Universalized dharmakya, a stage in Bodhisattva development above the eighth, i. above the . Yama, the impartial or just judge and awarder. But the name is also applied to one of the Ten Rulers of the Underworld, distinct from Yama. Also, name of the foun der of the katriya caste, to which the kyas belonged.

The meaning of universal, i. e. that the q. v. is equally and everywhere in all ngs. A Buddha's universal and impartial perception, his absolute intuition above the la ws of differentiation.

One of the three Tiantai meditations, the phenomenal being blended with the nou l or universal. The term is also used for meditation on the universal, or absolut e.

A one-coloured robe of seven pieces. Vast, great; to enlarge, spread abroad; e. g. ; ; ; widely to proclaim th. Hung-jen noted monk. Hung-fa, noted monk.

vast or universal vows of a Buddha, or Bodhisattva, especially Amitbha's forty vows. Not; no; do not. idem Prva-Videha.

(or ) ; pudgala; Pali, puggala M. W. says 'handsome', 'having , personal identity' Keith uses 'person'; 'personality'. Eitel. 'a general term for all human beings as subject to metempsychosis. A philosophical term denoting personality. ' It is tr. by man and all the living; later by those who go o peated reincarnations, but whether this means the individual soul in its rebirth s is not clear. [188]

Puyadara, auspicious mirror, interpreted as mirror of the law; name of a man.

Prvaaila, 'the eastern mountain behind which the sun is supposed to rise. ' M. W eastern mountain, name of a monastery east of Dhnyakataka (Amaravati), the One of the subdivisions of the Mahsghika school. puphara flower-plucker flower-eater, name of a yaka. idem .

Vatsarja. King Vatsa, idem Udayana, v. . The is another name for the

or or v or ; puya; 'the sixth (or in later times the eighth) Nakshatr , also called Tishya. ' M. W. . It is the group Cancer , t e 23r of t e C inese y-ei t stellar mansions. Name of an ancient Bu a. i em .

Puyamitra, descendant of Asoka and enemy of Buddhism; possibly a mistake for

Puyamitra, the fourth successor of King Aoka; asking what he should do to perpet his name, he was told that Aoka had erected 84, 000 shrines and he might become f amous by destroying them, which he is said to have done, v. 25. Also see .

Vji, or Savaji. An ancient kingdom north of the Ganges, S. E. of Nepal, the s, called Savaji, were noted for their heretical proclivities. Eitel. Prva-Videha, or Videha, the continent east of Sumeru, idem .

Either devapupa, or bhpad, the latter being jasmiunm zambae; both are inte a-flowers. Puyatara, a ramaa of Kubha (Kabul), who came to China and in 404 a-vinaya. 'One of the twenty-four deva-rya () worshipped in China. ' Eitel.

Certainly, necessary, must. Certainly, assuredly; tr. of avaivartika, intp. as never receding, or ways progressing, and certainly reaching nirvana.

pthagjana, interpreted as , , and ; pthak is separately, individua ole term means born an ordinary man; the common people. piaka, a basket, receptacle, thesaurus, hence the Tripiaka . Certainly will, certainly arrive at. Grieved, distressed.

tryastrias, ; ; the heavens of the thirty-three devas, of Indra; it is the Svarga of Hindu mythology, situated on Meru with thirty-two deva-cities, eight on each side; a central city is Sudarana, or Amarvat, where I , with 1, 000 heads and eyes and four arms, lives in his palace called ; (or anta, and 'revels in numberless sensual pleasures together with his wife' ac and w ith 119, 000 concubines. 'There he receives the monthly reports of the' four Mahrj as as to the good and evil in the world. 'The whole myth may have an astronomica l' or meteorological background, e. g. the number thirty-three indicating the 'e ight Vasus, eleven Rudras, twelve dityas, and two Avins of Vedic mythology. ' Eite l. Cf. . wu, mou; nourishing; the fifth of the ten 'stems'. The Fanyimingyi describes this as , perhaps Parthia is meant. A misprint for ; dra, the caste of farmers and slaves. To beat, strike, make, do; used for many kinds of such action. To make offerings. To wrap up or carry a bundle, i. e. a wandering monk. To squat, sit down cross-legged. To knock all into one, bring things together, or into order. To beat the board, or wooden block, e.g. as an announcement, or intimation. A monk's sleeping garment. To make inquiries. To beat the silencer, or beat for silence. To eat rice, or a meal. Dawn. The new moon and full moon, or first, and fifteenth of the moon. A wandering monk, who stays for a night. A monastery at which a wandering monk stays. Not yet; the future; 1-3 p. m.

The karma of past life not yet fulfilled.

angata; that which has not come, or will come; the future, e. g. a future ves; also the future tense, one of the , i. e. , , past, present, future. A monk who has not yet formally pledged himself to all the commandments. A half-opened lotus, such as one of the forms of Guanyin holds in the hand. A half-opened lotus, such as one of the forms of Guanyin holds in the hand. [189] ; adbhuta; never yet been, non-such, rare, marvellous. Adbhutadharma-paryya, one of the twelve divisions of the sutras . A Sung translation of the Ajtaatru-kaukyavinodana.

Having no enemy, tr. of the name of Ajtaatru . There is a sutra of this na his murder of his father Bimbisra. Not yet arrived, or reached. ? arbuda, 100 (or 10) millions.

The unrevealed truth, the Truth only revealed by the Buddha in his final Ma e. Radical, fundamental, original, principal, one's own; the Buddha himself, contra sted with chi, traces left by him among men to educate them; also a volume of a book. The first samaya-sign to be made in worship, the forming of the hands after the er of a lotus.

The original status of no rebirth, i. e. every man has a naturally pure heart, whi h is independent of the bonds of mortality. itivttaka; ityukta; one of the twelve classes of sutras, in which the Buddha tells of the deeds of his disciples and others in previous lives, cf. . His original second (in the house), the wife of a monk, before he retired from th e world. The Buddha-nature within oneself; the original Buddha.

Coming from the root, originally, fundamentally, from, or before, the very be . All things being of Buddha become Buddha. So from the beginning, interpreted as .

Originally not a thing existing, or before anything existed a subject of medita That all things come from the Void, or Absolute, the . In the beginning; originally.

The life-star of an individual, i. e. the particular star of the seven stars of Ur sa Major which is dominant in the year of birth; is the constellation, or star-gro up, under which he is born; is the year of birth, i. e. the year of his birth-star

Temple for worship of the emperor's birth-star, for the protection of the imperial family and the state.

Native place, natural position, original body; also the ; ; or fundam odiment of a Buddha or bodhisattva, as distinct from his temporal manifestation.

The uncreated dharmakya of Vairocana is eternal and the source of all things and al l virtue.

? satyadevat, . The original honoured one; the most honoured of all Buddh ief object of worship in a group; the specific Buddha, etc., being served. Native hill; a monk's original or proper monastery; this (or that) monastery; als o . The original Master or Teacher. kyamuni.

updhyya an original teacher, or founder; a title of Amitbha. Orig substantive form. The original heart, or mind; one's own heart. The spirit one possesses by nature; hence, the Buddha-nature; the Buddha-nature w ithin; one's own nature. The root or origin of delusion; also ; . idem puarka, v. . mlagrantha; the original text, or a quotation from it. The fundamental doctrine, i. e. of the One Vehicle as declared in the Lotus Sutra , also . The original light, or potential enlightenment, that is in all beings; also ; cf. The original time, the period when Sakyamumi obtained enlightenment; at that time . [190] The foundation books of any school; a book. Originally or fundamentally existing; primal existence; the source and substance of all phenomena; also the present life; also the eighth , i. e. laya-vijna.

The means that original dharma is complete in each individual, the athat dharma-nature, being complete without lack; the means the development riginal mind in the individual, whether saint or common man, to the realization of Buddha-virtue; , , . A division of the Dharmalakana school . Root and twigs, root and branch, first and last, beginning and end, etc.

upadea: mtk: the original 'mother' or matrix; the original sutra, or work. () Primal purity.

Jtaka sutras ; stories of the Buddha's previous incarnations, one of the twel s of sutras. The stories told in the Jtaka tales. v. . The origin or cause of any phenomenon.

The root of action: the method or motive of attainment; (his) own deeds, e. g. th e doings of a Buddha or bodhisattva. () A sutra of this title.

praghaa, full pitcher, 'one of the sixty-five mystic figures said to be traceab very footprint (rpada) of Buddha. ' Eitel.

Original bodhi, i. e. 'enlightenment', awareness, knowledge, or wisdom, as contra sted with initial knowledge, that is 'enlightenment a priori is contrasted with e nlightenment a posteriori'. Suzuki, Awakening of Faith, P. 62. The reference is to universal mind , which is conceived as pure and intelligent, with as acti gence. It is considered as the Buddha-dharmakya, or as it might perhaps be termed , the fundamental mind. Nevertheless in action from the first it was influenced by its antithesis ignorance, the opposite of awareness, or true knowledge. See here are two kinds of , one which is unconditioned, and never sullied by ignorance and delusion, the other which is conditioned and subject to ignorance. In origi nal enlightenment is implied potential enlightenment in each being. The , i. e. bhtatathat, is the corpus, or embodiment; the is the ligence; the former is the or fundamental truth, the latter is the , i. e. the kn owledge or wisdom of it; together they form the whole embodiment of the buddha-d harmakya. Original substance, the substance itself; any real object of the senses. samaya; the original covenant or vow made by every Buddha and Bodhisattva.

The fundamental vijna, one of the eighteen names of the laya-vijna, the root of a ings. oneself; it also means the inner self. The original Buddha or Bodhisattva and his varied manifestations for saving all eings, e. g. Guanyin with thirty-three forms. Also .

A division of the Lotus Sutra into two parts, the being the first fourteen ch the the following fourteen chapters; the first half is related to the Buddha's e arthly life and previous teaching; the second half to the final revelation of th e Buddha as eternal and the Bodhisattva doctrines. v. .

The especial honoured one of the Nichiren sect, Svdi-devat, the Supreme Being, w maala is considered as the symbol of the Buddha as infinite, eternal, universal. T he Nichiren sect has a meditation on the universality of the Buddha and the unity n the diversity of all his phenomena, the whole truth being embodied in the Lotu s Sutra, and in its title of five words, Wonderful-Law Lotus-Flower Sutra, which considered to be the embodiment of the eternal, universal Buddha. Their repetit

ion preceded by Namah ! is equivalent to the of other Buddhists.

prvapraidhna. The original vow, or vows, of a Buddha or bodhisattva, e. g. the fort -eight of Amitbha, the twelve of , etc. The great way of the one reality of Amitbha's vows, i. e. that of calling on and trusting to his strength and not one's own. [191] The higher (Buddha) manifesting himself in lower form, e. g. as a bodhisattva. Branch, twig; end; dust; not; translit, ma, va, ba; cf. . On the last, at last, finally. The third and last period of a Buddha-kalpa; the first is the first 500 years of correct doctrine, the second is the 1, 000 years of semblance law, or approximat ion to the doctrine, and the third a myriad years of its decline and end. Also .

mrga; track, path, way, the way; the fourth of the four dogmas , i. e. , known , (or ), the eight holy or correct ways, or gates out of suffering into described as the cause of liberation, bodhi as its result. mrgairas, M. W. says November-December; the Chinese say from he 16th of the 9th to the 15th of the 10th.

(or ) (or ); Maskari Golputra, one of the six Tr ne in previous lives, and the Lakvatra Sutra says he taught total annihilation at t he end of this life.

mallik, ; (1) jasminum zambac, M. W., which suggests the , i. e. the C cording to Eitel it is the narrowleaved nyctanthes (with globular berries ); the flower, now called kastr (musk) because of its odour. By the Fanyimingyi it is s the chaplet flower, as its flowers may be formed into a chaplet. (2) A concoctio n of various fruits mixed with water offered in worship.

The wife of Prasenajit, king of Koala, so called because she wove or wore jasmine aplets, or came from a jasmine garden, etc.

Mlyar, said to be a daughter of the last and queen in Ayodhy, capital of Koal maraa, dying, mortal, death. Buddha transformed into (palm-) branches or leaves; the transformation of the Bud dha in the shape of the sutras. matsara, grudging, stingy, greedy. One of the divisions of the Sarvstivd school, said to be the q. v.

manojasvara , lovely sounds, music; a king of the gandharvas, In

mnua, manuya; (or ); (or ); ; ? (or ?, or Subsidiary buildings of a monastery.

mai ; a jewel, a crystal, a pearl, symbol of purity, therefore of Buddha and of h doctrine. It is used in o-mai -padmi-h.

The Manichean religion, first mentioned in Chinese literature by Xuanzang in his M emoirs, between A. D. 630 and 640. The first Manichean missionary from Daqin reac hed China in 694. In 732, an imperial edict declared the religion of Mani a perv erse doctrine, falsely taking the name of Buddhism. It continued, however, to fl ourish in parts of China, especially Fukien, even to the end of the Ming dynasty . Chinese writers have often confused it with Mazdeism . mati ; devotion, discernment, understanding, tr. by wisdom. Matisiha, the lion of intelligence, an honorific title.

madhka ; ; M. W. bassia lavtifolia, tr. as a fine or pleasant fruit. vandana, worship, reverence. marman; a vital part, or mortal spot. Bali, an asura king.

The last of the three periods , , and ; that of degeneration and extinction of t uddha-law.

Madhyntika, (); , ; ; ; or a is o whom he handed down the Buddha's doctrine. He is reputed to have been sent to convert Kashmir, the other, akavsa, to convert which is probably Cen is understood as China. Another account makes the latter a disciple of the form er. Eitel says that by his magic power he transported a sculptor to the Tuita hea vens to obtain a correct image of Maitreya. [192] Madhyadea, the central kingdom, i. e. Central India.

Manorhita, or Manoratha, tr. by , an Indian prince who became the disciple a or of Vasubandhu, reputed author of the Vibh stra and the twenty-second patri malla ; a term for inhabitants of Kuinagara and Pv.

The sutra of the king of this name, whose road was blocked by a rock, which his pe ple were unable to remove, but which the Buddha removed easily by his miraculous powers. marakata, the emerald.

Malaya, 'the western Ghats in the Deccan (these mountains abound in sandal trees); the country that lies to the east of the Malaya range, Malabar. ' M, W. Eitel g ives Malaka, i. e. Malaya, as 'an ancient kingdom of Southern India, the coast o abar, about A. D. 600 a noted haunt of the Nirgrantha sect'. It is also identifi ed with rbhoja, which is given as the Malay peninsula; but v. Ma marica, pepper. Markaa-hrada; the Apes' Pool, near Vail.

madana; (or ); a fruit called the intoxicating fruit .

man; manas; intp. by mind, the (active) mind. Eitel says: 'The sixth of the chad na, the mental faculty which constitutes man as an intelligent and moral being. ' The is defined by the 4 as the seventh of the , namely , which means uring, or calculating. It is the active mind, or activity of mind, but is also u

sed for the mind itself. madya, intoxicating liquor, intoxicating. The two characters are also given as a translation of ? madhya, and mean 100, 000. This is intp. as not. in the mean or middle way. Balin ; strong, strengthening.

Right, correct; just, exact chief, principal; the first month. Exactly middle; midday. The sutras on which any sect specially relies.

The three periods of correct law, semblance law, and decadence, or finality; cf.

samyagjva, the fifth of the , right livelihood, right life; 'abstaining from a e forbidden modes of living. ' The true or direct cause, as compared with a contr butory cause. v. Mahsak. The direct retribution of the individual's previous existence, such as being born as a man, etc. Also . Correct scholar, bodhisattva. sayak-samdhi, right abstraction or concentration, so that the mind becomes vacant a nd receptive, the eighth of the ; 'right concentration, in the shape of the Four Me ditations.' Keith.

Concentration upon the eighteenth vow of Amitbha and the Western Paradise, in repea ting the name of Amitbha.

sayak-sabuddha ; omniscience, completely enlightened, the universal know , hence he is the ocean of omniscience. Also ; . The day of decease. [193]

samyak-smti, right remembrance, the seventh of the ; 'right mindfullness, the l on the body and the spirit in such a way as to remain ardent, self-possessed an d mindful, having overcome both hankering and dejection. ' Keith.

samyak-sakalpa, right thought and intent, the second of the , 'right aspirati s renunciation, benevolence and kindness. ' Keith. Correct day, the day of a funeral. samyag-jna; correct knowledge; sage-like, or saint-like knowledge. samyakkarmnta, right action, purity of body, avoiding all wrong, the fourth of the ; 'right action, abstaining from taking life, or what is not given, or from carnal indulgence. ' Keith. The correct doctrine of the Buddha, whose period was to last 500, some say 1, 000 years, be followed by the semblance period of 1, 000 years, and then by the of decay and termination, lasting 10, 000 years. The is also known as .

He on whom the Truth depends, a term for a Buddha. The Tathgata who clearly understands the true law, i. e. Guanyin, who attained hood in the past. The torch of truth, i. e. Buddhism. The earliest translation of the Lotus Sutra in 10 juan by Dharmaraka, A. D. 286, ll in existence. Just at such and such an hour.

idem . Correct and straight; it is also referred to the One Vehicle teaching of Tiantai. The straight way which has cast aside expediency.

samyagvyyma, right effort, zeal, or progress, unintermitting perseverance, the six of the ; 'right effort, to suppress the rising of evil states, to eradicate those which have arisen, to stimulate good states, and to perfect those which have com e into being. ' Keith. idem . samyagbuddhi, or -bodhi; the perfect universal wisdom of a Buddha. Right deeds, or action, opposite of . is an abbreviation of .

Sambodhi. the wisdom or omniscience of Buddha.

samyag-di, right views, understanding the four noble truths; the first of the dge of the four noble truths. ' Keith.

samyag-vk, right speech; the third of the ; 'abstaining from lying, slander, ab nd idle talk. ' Keith.

Samatya, Samitya (); the school of correct measures, or correct evaluation years after the Nirvana it is said that from the Vtsputry school four divisions were formed, of which this was the third. mt, a mother.

The 'mother-lord', or mother, as contrasted with and , lord and mother, king and ueen, in the maala of Vajradhtu and Garbhadhtu; Vairocana, being the source of all t hings, has no 'mnother'as progenitor, and is the or lord of the maala; the other fo ur dhyni-buddhas have 'mothers' called , who are supposed to arise from the paramit as; thus, Akobhya has for mother; Ratnasabhava has for mother; Amitb siddhi has for mother.

mtk; a text, as distinguished from its commentary; an original text; the A matgrma, the community of mothers, womankind. (or ) mta-manuya; a human corpse. (or ) ; ; mudr, a seal, stamp, sign, manual sign.

A manual sign of assurance, hence felicitous. idem , i. e. Buddha. Ice; chaste.

(or ) ; Pigala, name of the son of Hariti, the mother of demo a saint holding a child. Pigala, as a beloved son, in her left arm. The sutra of his name was tr. by Amoghavajra, middle of the eighth century. [194] Perpetual, eternal, everlasting (like the unceasing flow of water). Eternity; the everlasting aeon.

Eternal life; immortality; nirvana is defined as not being born, i. e. not reborn and therefore not dying; is also perpetual life; the Amitbha cult says in the P Land. To offend against, break (as a law). To offend against or break the moral or ceremonial laws (of Buddhism). To break the weightier laws. Dark, sombre, black; abstruse, obscure, deep, profound; hence it is used to indi cate Daoism, and was afterwards adopted by the Buddhists. Xuanyi, a commentator of the Dharmalakana school during the Tang dynasty.

Xuanzang, whose name is written variously e. g. Hsan Chuang, Hien-tsang, Hiouen Tsa ng, Yan Tsang, Yen Chwang; the famous pilgrim to India, whose surname was Chen and personal name Wei; a native of Henan, A. D. 600-664 (Giles). It is said that he entered a monastery at 13 years of age and in 618 with his elder brother, who h ad preceded him in becoming a monk, went to Chang-an , the capital, where in 622 h e was fully ordained. Finding that China possessed only half of the Buddhist cla ssics, he took his staff, bound his feet, and on foot braved the perils of the d eserts and mountains of Central Asia. The date of his setting out is uncertain ( 629 or 627), but the year of his arrival in India is given as 633: after visitin g and studying in many parts of India, he returned home, reaching the capital in 645, was received with honour and presented his collection of 657 works, 'besid es many images and pictures, and one hundred and fifty relics, 'to the Court. Ta izong, the emperor, gave him the Hongfu monastery in which to work. He presented t he manuscript of his famous Record of Western Countries in 646 and completed it t now stands by 648. The emperor Gaozong called him to Court in 653 and gave him the Cien monastery in which to work, a monastery which ever after was associated with him; in 657 he removed him to the Yuhua Gong and made that palace a monastery . He translated seventy-five works in 1335 juan. In India he received the titles of Mahynadeva and Mokadeva; he was also known as Tripia n his 65th year. The profound principles, or propositions, i. e. Buddhism.

Deep, or abstruse response; also Xuanying, the author in the Tang dynasty of the e. a Buddhist dictionary in 25 juan, not considered very reliable. Xuanjing, a monk, d. 606, noted for his preaching, and for his many changes of ga rments, as Hengyue was noted for wearing one garment all his days.

Xuanchang, a famous Shensi monk, who was invited to be tutor of the heir-apparent , A. D. 445, but refused, died 484. Xuanlang, a Chekiang monk of the Tang dynasty, died 854, at 83 years of age, note d for his influence on his disciples and for having remained in one room for ove r thirty years: also called Huiming and Zuoqi. The , a Tiantai commentary an the contents and meaning of the Lotus Sutra, and critical commentary on the text. Xuansha, a famous Fukien monk who had over 800 disciples, died A. D. 908; his chi ef subjects were the fundamental ailments of men blindness, deafness, and dumbnes s. The black-robed sect of monks. Xuanyuan, an influential Shensi monk who lived through the persecution of Buddhis m in the Northern Zhou dynasty into the Sui and Tang dynasties. Xuanfan, a Tang monk and editor, said to be a contemporary of Xuanzang, some say his disciple.

The deep meaning; the meaning of the profound; it refers chiefly to the Tiantai m ethod of teaching which was to proceed from a general explanation of the content and meaning of the various great sutras to a discussion of the deeper meaning. the method was: (1) explanation of the terms; (2) defintion of the substance; (3) aking clear the principles; (4) discussing their application; (5) discriminating he doctrine. v. also . [195]

Hsan-chio, a Wenchow monk, also named Ming-tao, who had a large following; he is id to have attained to enlightenment in one night, hence is known as . An abbreviation of . The profound doctrine, Buddhism. An abbreviation of . An Indian, the patron of an Indian monk Dharmapla, author of the . After atron gave the MS. to Xuanzang.

The profound school, i. e. Buddhism. Also that of the Huayan (Kegon) which has a ivision of or , indicating the ten metaphysical propositions, or lines of th these there are two or more versions. Hsan-kao, a famous Shensi monk, influential politically, later killed by order of the emperor Wu Ti, circa 400. Jade, a gem; jade-like, precious; you, your. A famous jade Buddha recovered while digging a well in Khotan, 3 to 4 feet high. Pliable jade, i. e. beef.

The two schools of the Jade-fountain and Jade-flower. i. e. Tiantai and e latter with Hsan-tsang as founder in China. Y-ch'an was the name of the monastery in Tang-yang Hsien, An-lu Fu, Hupeh, where Chih-i, the founder of the T'ien-t'ai

School, lived; Y-hua, where Hsan-tsang lived. The Jade ring in one of the right hands of the 'thousand-hand' Guanyin. The name of the woman to whom the sutra is addressed.

The palace 'Yuhuagong', transformed into a temple for Xuanzang to work in, wher tr. the Mahprajpramit-stra, 600 juan, etc. Cf. .

The r or white curl between the Buddha's eyebrows, from which he sent forth hi f light illuminating all worlds. Gourd, melon, etc. Melon rind. Tiles, pottery. An earthen vessel, i. e. the rvaka method, and a golden vessel, the bodhisattva d. The Buddha in a previous incarnation as a potter. An earthenware begging bowl. Sweet, agreeable, willing; kansu.

Dgahldan, the monastery of the yellow sect 30 miles north-east of Lhasa , built by Tso-kha-pa. Kanjur, one of the two divisions of the Tibetan canon, consisting of 180 juan, eac h juan of 1, 000 leaves; a load for ten yaks.

(, ); ; Kamboja, one of the 'sixteen great countries of India', n men.

Sugar-cane, symbol of many things. A tr. of Ikvku, one of the surnames of kyamuni, om a legend that one of his ancestors was born from a sugar-cane.

; King of the sugar-cane; Ikvku Virhaka, said to be one of the an ame is claimed by others.

(or ) (or ) amta, sweet dew, ambrosia, the nectar of immorta of the gods. Four kinds of ambrosia are mentioned green, yellow, red, and white, all coming from 'edible trees' and known as sudh, or soma. , or The ambrosial truth, or rain, i. e. the Buddha truth. The method of the ambrosial truth.

The nectar of nirvana, the entrance is the , and nirvana is the or . amta, intp. in its implication of immortality is a name of Amitbha, and connected th him are the , , (or ), , etc.

amtakualin, one of the five Ming Wang, who has three forms,

amtodana. The king whose name was 'ambrosia-rice ', a prince of Magadha, uddha and Bhadrika, and paternal uncle of kyamuni.

The ambrosial drum, the Buddha-truth.

jti ; life; utpda means coming forth, birth, production; means beget, bear, bir ebirth, born, begin, produce, life, the living. One of the twelve nidnas, ; birth es place in four forms, catur yoni, v. , in each case causing: a sentient being to enter one of the six gati, or paths of transmigration. [196] Birth, stay, change (or decay), death.

Buddha alive; a living Buddha; also , i. e. all the living, and , i. e. Buddh ; ; The living and the Buddha are one, i. e. all are the y are all of the same substance: all are Buddha, and of the same dharmakya, or spi ritual nature; all are of the same infinity. The indestructibility of the living and the Buddha; they neither increase nor e, being the absolute.

The living and the Buddha are but temporary names, borrowed or derived for tempora indication.

Natural and similar, i. e. gold and silver, gold being the natural and perfect me al and colour; silver being next, though it will tarnish; the two are also calle d and , i. e. the proper natural (unchanging) colour, and the tarnishable.

aupapduka; one of the four forms of birth, i. e. by transformation, without pare ge, and in full maturity; thus do bodhisattvas come from the Tuita heaven; the dh yni-buddhas and bodhisattvas are also of such miraculous origin.

The physical body of Buddha and his transformation body capable of any form; the n rmakya in its two forms of and .

To be born is not to be born, not to be born is to be born an instance of f contraries. It is an accepted doctrine of the praj teaching and the ultimate doct rine of the Mdhyamika school. Birth, creation, life, each is but a temporary term, in common statement it is called birth, in truth it is not birth; in the relativ it is birth, in the absolute non-birth. Life's retribution, i. e. the deeds done in this life produce their results in th e next reincarnation. The heavens where those living in this world can be reborn, i. e. from that of th e to the ; v. . common or ordinary patience, i. e. of the masses. The second Bodhisattva on the right of the Bodhisattva of Space liga; aga-jta; the male organ, penis. One of the four forms of existence, cf. .

in the Ga

sasra: birth and death: rebirth and redeath; life and death; , ; ev nsmigrations; the round of mortality. There are two, three, four, seven, and twe lve kinds of ; the two are the various karmaic transmigrations, and ble transformation life in the Pure Land. Among the twelve are final separation from mortality of the arhat, with no remains of it causing return; one final deat

h and no rebirth of the angmin; the seven advancing rebirths of the srota-panna; do wn to the births-cum-deaths of hungry ghosts. Mortality is nirvana, but there are varying definitions of q. v.

The garden of life-and-death. This mortal world in which the unenlightened find th eir satisfaction. The ocean of mortality, mortal life, sasra, or transmigrations.

The shore of mortal life; as is its flow; its quagmire; its abys pment in cloud. Release from the bonds of births-and-deaths, nirvana.

The wheel of births-and-deaths, the round of mortality. The long night of births-and-deaths. The region of births-and-deaths, as compared with that of nirvana. The living and things, i. e. , men and things, the self and things; the those with emotions, i. e. the living; and those without, i. e. insentient things .

The physical body and the spiritual body of the Buddha: the nirmakya and dharma The ford of life, or mortality. utpdanirodha. Birth and death, production and annihilation; all life, all phenomen a, have birth and death, beginning and end; the Mdhyamika school deny this in the absolute, but recognize it in the relative.

Coming into existence and ceasing to exist, past and future, are merely relative t rms and not true in reality; they are the first two antitheses in the Mdhyamika-str , the other two antitheses being unity and difference, impermanence and permanence [197] Birth and rebirth (without end). The three regions of the constant round of rebirth. Born blind. Empty at birth, i. e. , void of a permanent ego. Stories of the previous incarnations of the Buddha and his disciples, tr. by Dhar mapla, 5 juan, third century A. D.

Birth, age, sickness, death, the four afflictions that are the lot of every m five are the above four and misery, or suffering.

Four great disciples of Kumrajva, the Indian Buddhajva or Tao-sheng and th se Seng-chao, Tao-jung, and Seng-jui. jta-rpa; gold, v. . Birth and what arises from it; cause of an act; the beginning and rise.

The four forms of birth and the six forms of transmigration. The physical body; also that of a Buddha in contrast with his dharmakya; also a hisattva's body when born into any mortal form. The worship paid to Buddha-relics, . The way or lot of those born, i. e. of mortality. The mind or intelligence of the living; a living intelligent being; a living soul .

Offerings made before a meal of a small portion of food hosts and all the living; cf. Nirvana Sutra 16, and Vinaya 31. A board on which the offerings are placed. The bowl in which offerings are contained. To use, to employ; use, function.

Great in function, the universal activity of the bhtatathat; v. ; and cf. orm and function. Function or activity ceasing; i. e. matter (or the body ) does not cease to exist, but only its varying functions or activities. A field, fields; a place, or state, for the cultivation of meritorious or other deeds; cf. . () A patch-robe, its patches resembling the rectangular divisions of fields.

From; by: a cause, motive; to allow, let; translit. yo, yu; e. g. ;

; (or ) ; (or or ) Yojana; described as anciently a r 30, or 16 li; 8 kroas , one being the distance at which a bull's bellow can be heard ; M. W. says 4 kroas or about 9 English miles, or nearly 30 Chinese li. Scale, mail; the first of the ten 'celestial stems '. A digital or manual sign, indicating mail and helmet. A picture, formerly shaped like a horse, of a god or a Buddha, now a picture of a horse. To draw out, stretch, extend, expand; notify, report: quote. candra, the moon; also the name of an elder. ; Sindhu, Indus, Sindh, v. . The river Hirayavat, v. ; otherwise said to be the Nairajan .

() ; yai-vana, grove of staves, said to have grown from the red the Buddha and which he threw away because the more he measured the higher t he Buddha grew. ? sindra, the trick of the illusionist who disappears in the air and reappears. White, pure, clear; make clear, inform.

(or ) japtidvity karma-vcan; to discuss with and explain to the body or work to be undertaken; is to consult with them on matters of grave moment and o tain their complete assent. [198] To tell the Buddha.

(or ) The white umbrella or canopy over the head of Buddha, indicating him rti, or wheel-king. Pure reward, or the reward of a good life. A clear heart or conscience.

() Robbing with bare hands and without leaving a trace, as is fighting with s, and is killing with bare hands. uklapaka ; the bright, i. e. first half of the month, as contrasted with the or latter half.

The informing baton or hammer, calling attention to a plaint, or for silence to g ve information. White candana, or white sandal-wood.

The curl between kyamuni's eyebrows; from it, in the Mahyna sutras, he sends out a y of light which reveals all worlds; it is used as a synonym of the Buddha, e. g . (all that a monk has is) a gift from the White-curled One. White-river town, Isfijab, 'in Turkestan, situated on a small tributary of the Jax artes in Lat. 38 30 N., Long 65 E. ' Eitel. A white ox. a hornless white ox: a horse. To lay a true information. The White Lily Society, set up near the end of the Yuan dynasty, announcing the co ming of Maitreya, the opening of his white lily, and the day of salvation at han d. It developed into a revolution which influenced the expulsion of the Mongols and establishment of the Ming dynasty. Under the Qing dynasty it was resurrected under a variety of names, and caused various uprisings. The Sung vegetarian school of Mao Tzu-yuan. (); puarka, the white lotus. The lotus throne in the first court of the Garbhadhtu.

() ; ; A society formed early in the fourth century A. D. by iterati, swore to a life of purity before the image of Amitbha, and planted white lotuses in symbol. An account of seven of its succeeding patriarchs is given in the 26; as also of eighteen of its worthies.

White clothing, said to be that of Brahmans and other people, hence it and are te ms for the common people. It is a name also for Guanyin.

(or ) ; ; Paravsin, the white-robed form of Guan The six-tusked white elephant which bore the Buddha on his descent from the Tuita heaven into Maya's womb, through her side. Every Buddha descends in similar fash ion. The immaculate path, i. e. the immaculate conception (of Buddha). To speak praises to the Buddha. (); The white-foot monk, a disciple of Kumrajva. () Buddhist school formed in the White Cloud monastery during the Sung dynasty; followers were known as the White Cloud vegetarians.

uklodana-rja, a prince of Kapilavastu, second son of Sihahanu, father of Tiya a , and Nandika . Eitel.

The White Horse Temple recorded as given to the Indian monks, Mtaga and Gobharaa, are reputed to have been fetched from India to China in A. D. 64. The temple wa s in Honan, in Lo-yang thc capital; it was west of the ancient city, cast of the later city. According to tradition, originating at the end of the second centur y A. D., the White Horse Temple was so called because of the white horse which c arried the sutras they brought.

The White Heron Lake in Rjagha, the scene of kyamuni's reputed delivery of part Mahprajpramit-stra juan 593-600, the last of the '16 assemblies' of this su also called the . [199] white and dark, e. g. good and evil deeds, or karma.

light and dark uposatha, the observances of the waxing and waning moon, cf. .

Leather, skin, hide. (or ) The body, lit. 'skin and shell leaking'. Clothing of hides or skins; a name for a monk's garments, implying their roughnes s and simplicity. Skin bag, i. e. the body. caku, the eye; the organ of vision; the head or chief; translit. ma, mu. mukha, mouth, opening. mukta, release, free, released; mukta, a pearl, jewels in general. Abbrev. for Itivttaka, biographical stories. Intp. as mukti, release, emancipation n.

, or as the knowledge or experience

(or or ) ; ; ; (or ) ; ; of this name, near Gay, where kyamuni sat absorbed for seven days after his enligh tenment, protected by this nga-king. The power of the eye to discern trifling differences; quick discernment.

; (or ); (or ) ; (or

ten chief disciples of kyamuni, specially noted for miraculous powers; formerly an ascetic, he agreed with riputra that whichever first found the truth would reveal it to the other. riputra found the Buddha and brought Maudgalyyana to him; the for mer is placed on the Buddha's right, the latter on his left. He is also known as Kolita, and when reborn as Buddha his title is to be Tamla-patra-candana-gandha. In China Mahsthmaprapta is accounted a canonization of Maudgalyyana. Several centur ies afterwards there were two other great leaders of the Buddhist church bearing the same name, v. Eitel. mudgara; a hammer, mallet, mace. Eye and foot, knowledge and practice; eyes in the feet. Akapda, founder of the Nyaya, or logical school of philosophers. M. W. An arrow; to take as oath; a marshal; ordure. Arrow and rock are two incompatibles, for an arrow cannot pierce a rock. Stone, rock. A painting of a rock: though the water of the water-color rapidly disappears, the painting remains. Even rock meeting hard treatment will split.

Sutras cut in stone in A. D. 829 in the Ch'ung-hsan temple, Soochow, where P up a tablet. They consist of 69, 550 words of the , 27, 092 of the , 5,287 of the ,020 of the , 1,800 of the , 6,990 of the , 3, 150 of the , A barren woman; a woman incompetent for sexual intercourse. Son of a barren woman, an impossibility. The pomegranate, symbol of many children because of its seeds; a symbol held in t he hand of Hariti, the deva-mother of demons, converted by the Buddha. Tinder; lighted tinder, i. e. of but momentary existence. The hill with the stone sutras, which are said to have been carved in the Sui dyna sty in grottoes on Pai Tai Shan, west of Cho-chou in Shun-t'ienfu, Chihli. Stone honey; a toffee, made of sugar, or sugar and cream (or butter). The four heavy stone begging bowls handed by the four devas to the Buddha on his enlightenment, which he miraculously received one piled on the other. To indicate, notify, proclaim. To point out and instruct. to indicate the way of nirvana. A proclamation; to notify. Growing grain. Ho-Shan, a monastery in Chi-chou, and its abbot who died A. D. 960. Set up, establish, stand, stand up.

The learned monk who occupies the chief seat to edify the body of monks. repa, or repha, a 'low' garment, a loin-cloth. To establish a 'school', sect, or church. To set up a school and start a sect. To set up, or state a proposition; to make a law, or rule. To state and confute a proposition. To state a syllogism with its proposition, reason, and example. 6. SIX STROKES Also; moreover.

Both reality and unreality (or, relative and absolute, phenomenal and non-phenom ), a term for the middle school; Mdhyamika. Interlock, intersect; crossed; mutual; friendship; to hand over, pay. To hand over, entrust to. To hand over charge of a hall, or monastery. A tripod of three rushes or canes an illustration of the mutuality of cause and ect, each cane depending on the other at the point of intersection. [200] A curtain festooned with jewels, resembling hanging dewdrops. To hand over and check (as in the case of an inventory). Skill; ; . An actor.

The metamorphic dev on the head of iva, perhaps the moon which is the usual figu iva's head. A rank of five. Wuguan Wang, the fourth of the ten rulers of Hades.

Bear, endure, let; office; it is used to connote laisser-faire; one of the , as lies laisser-aller; it is intp. by let things follow their own course, or by natu rally, without intervention. Look up, respectful; lying with the face upward, opposite of ; translit. n as in aga, cf. , . To look up to the hill; Yang-shan, name of a noted monk. A half-moon on its back, i. e. , a sign in the esoteric sect. Desist, give up; resign; divorce; blessing, favour.

Lit. 'Desist from butchering, 'said to be the earliest Han term for , , etc., The says that the King of Vail killed King (or the non-butchering ki en gods, over 10 feet in height, and put them in the Sweet-spring palace; they req uired no sacrifices of bulls or rams, but only worship of incense, so the king o rdered that they should be served after their national method. Prostrate; humble; suffer, bear; ambush; dog-days; hatch; it is used for control , under control, e. g. as delusion; is contrasted with it as complete extirpatio n, so that no delusive thought arises. The first of the five forms of submission, self-control, or patience. To bury, hide away. The Vedas, v. .

Buddhamitra, of northern India, the ninth patriarch, a vaiya by birth (third cast author of the Pancadvara-dhyna-sutramahartha-dharma; he was styled Mah-dh To cut down, chastise; a go-between; to make a display; translit. va. varga, tr. by a class, division, group.

Varana, 'a mountainous province of Kapi with city of the same name, probably the c ntry south-east of Wauneh in Lat. 3230 N., Long. 6925 E. ' Eitel. Perhaps Bannu, v . Levi, J. Asiatique, xi, v, p. 73. Also v. . Vadi or Vati. 'An ancient little kingdom and city on the Oxus, the modern Betik, Lat. 397 N., Long. 6310 E. ' Eitel.

vajra. ; (or or ) (or ); ; (or ); estern scholars as a sun symbol. It is one of the saptaratna, seven precious thi ngs; the sceptre of Indra as god of thunder and lightning, with which he slays t he enemies of Buddhism; the sceptre of the exorcist; the symbol of the all conqu ering power of Buddha. (or ) Vajradhara, the bearer of the vajra.

vajrajvla, i. e. flame, tr. as the scintillation of the diamond, the lig Varanga, name of a spirit, or god; a name of Viu as beautiful. Valabh. Modern Wl. 'An ancient kingdom and city on the eastern coast of Gujerat. tel. Known also as northern Lata. Vasumitra, v. .

(or ) ; Vasubandhu, v. . Vanavsin, one of the sixteen arhats. vara, rain; name of a noted Sakhy leader, Varsaganya. Vajraputra, one of the sixteen arhats.

He, she, it; that; translit. i, ai, ; cf. , and ; for the long the double char s and are sometimes used.

refers to the Sanskrit sign (?) as neither across nor upright, being of triangular shape, and indicating neither unity nor difference, before nor after. The Nirvan

a Sutra applies the three parts to dharmakya, praj and vimoka, all three y to complete nirvana. It is also associated with the three eyes of iva. When con sidered across they represent fire, when upright, water. At a later period the t hree were joined (?) in writing. ikai, or ikaa, defined as a magic mode of reading another's thoughts.

() I-wu(-lu), the modern Hami, so called during the Han dynasty. Later it was kn as I-wu Chn and I-chou. v. Serindia, P. 1147. aieya(s); also (or ) ); (or

or M003885 ) ;

(or M065770) aieyajagha. The eighth of the thirty-two characteristic signs of , knees like those of a royal stag. [201]

ik, an arrow, dart, elephant's eyeball; igiri, a high hill at Rjagha, v. tc.

(or or ) ityuktas, so said, or reported; itivttakam, so oc sing out of events; intp. as q. v. personal events, or Jtaka stories, one of the t welve classes of Buddhist literature, i. e. biographical narratives.

(or ) rypaaka, also eunuchs, or impotent save when

IIa, master, lord. is used for q. v., but na, possessing, is in lity, and may be Iinapura, v. infra .

Iidhara. A chain of mountains, being the second of the seven concentric ing Sumeru; defined as holding the axis, or axle, also as the axletree, or control. It is made of the seven precious things, and its sea, 42, 000 yojanas wide, is filled with fragrant flowers.

() Iiria-parvata, or Hiraya-parvata. An ancient kingdom noted for a vo al, the present Monghir, Lat. 25 16 N., Long. 8626 E. Eitel. igiri, , name of a mountain in Magadha; M. W.

Airvaa; ; (or ); ; () q. v.; ? (or ra; name of a park (i. e. Lumbin, where the Buddha is said to have been born). Ervat, Airvat, Irvat, the river Ravi, also abbrev. to Vati.

(); (or ); ; and many other fo also a meaning of Airvaa and Airvata. A nga-guardian of a sea or lake, who had pluck ed a herb wrongfully in a previous incarnation, been made into a naga and now be gged the Buddha that he might be reborn in a higher sphere. Another version is t hat he pulled up a tree, which stuck to his head and grew there, hence his name. One form is , which may have an association with Indra's elephant.

() Iina; (or ); v. 'one of the older names of Siva-Rudra of iva, ' M. W. Mahevara; the deva of the sixth desire-heaven; head of the extern al Vajra-hall of the Vajradhtu group; Siva with his three fierce eyes and tusks. IIn, wife of iva, Durg.

Ivara (1) King, sovereign; Siva and others; intp. by self-existing, to Guanyin and other popular deities. (2) A ramaa of the West, learned in the Tri piaka, who inter alia translated A. D. 426 Samyuktbhidharma-hdaya-stra, lost since A.

D. 730. (3) A bhiku of India, commentator on attributed to Ngrjuna, tr. by D , A. D. 590-616. upsaka, a lay member of the Buddhist Church, v. .

airvaa, ervaa, and other forms, v. supra; name of a tree with beautiful flowe seous scent which spreads its odour for 40 li; typifying the passions and delusio ns. IInapura. An ancient kingdom in Burma. Eitel. Cf. . A title of a Tathgata, intp. as the supreme deva-king. An omen; a million. The perpetual aeon of millions of years, the kalpa beyond numbers. Fore, before, former, first; precede. A previous life, or world. One who has preceded (me) in understanding, or achievement. ; sainika, senika, martial, a commander; a class of non-Buddhists, perhaps it may be connected with raiya, reika. Karma from a previous life. The rising sun first shines on the highest mountains. Senior, sir, teacher, master, Mr.; a previous life. Of earlier, or senior rank or achievement.

() Saindhava, interpreted as salt, a cup, water, and a horse; born or produced i hdh, or near the Indus; also a minister of state in personal attendance on the k ing. A man of renown, wealth, and wisdom. [202] prabha, light, brightness, splendour, to illuminate. idem .

Kuang-chai, name of the temple where Fa-yun early in the sixth century wrote his ommentary on the Lotus Sutra, which is known as the ; became his epithet. He mad division of four yna from the Burning House parable, the goat cart representing t he rvaka, the deer cart the pratyekabuddha, the ox-cart the Hnayna bodhisattva, and the great white ox-cart the Mahyna bodhisattva; a division adopted by T'ien-t'ai.

Two noted monks of T'zu-en monastery under the Tang dynasty, P'u-kuang and e first the author of , the second of a commentary on the same stra, each in 3 prabha-maala; the halo and throne (of a Buddha); also . Avabhsa, the kingdom of light and virtue, or glorious virtue, in which Mahkyapa be reborn as a Buddha under the name of Ramiprabhsa.

v. last entry. The glory land, or Paradise of Amitbha. The fire altar. Jyotiprabh, the great illustrious Brahman, whose Buddha-realm 'is to contribute Bodhisattvas for that of Amitbha'. Eitel.

(or ). Guangming si, temple and title of Shandao, a noted monk aozong. The shining hill, or monastery, a name for the abode of Guanyin, said to be in Ind ia, and called Potala. The temple of the bright or shining heart; the seat of Vairocana, the sun Buddha, n the Vajradhtu maala.

One of the twenty-five bodhisattvas who, with Amitbha, welcomes to Paradise the dyi ng who call on Buddha.

A dhra by whose repetition the brightness or glory of Buddha may be obtained, a retribution of sin be averted. The r, or curl between the Buddha's eyebrows whence streams light that reveals all orlds, one of the thirty-two characteristics of a Buddha.

Vairocana-rami-prati-maita-dhvaja; 'a Bodhisattva, disciple of kyamuni, who er life Vimaladatt. ' Eitel.

The royal Buddha of shining fames, or flaming brightness, Amitbha, with reference his virtues. The auspicious ray sent from between the Buddha's eyebrows before a revelation. The bright-eyed (or wide-eyed) daughter, a former incarnation of Kitigarbha.

Guang the general supervisor, i. e. the monk Huiguang, sixth century, who resigne the high office of and tr. the .

Jlinprabhakumra, ; one of the eight attendants on Majur; h one of the five q. v. The above-mentioned in 30 juan by Puguang, v. . The honoured one descends, i. e. the Buddha or bodhisattva who is worshipped desc ends.

bhsvara, light and sound, or light-sound heavens, also styled , the heaven ght and purity, i. e. the third of the second dhyna heavens, in which the inhabit ants converse by light instead of words; they recreate the universe from the hel ls up to and including the first dhyna heavens after it has been destroyed by fir e during he final series of cataclysms; but they gradually diminish in power and are reborn in lower states. The three heavens of the second dhyna are , , and bhsvara-vimna, the bhsvara palace, idem. All, whole, complete.

or Fully ordained by receiving all the commandments. The legs completely crossed as in a completely seated image. All altogether, both, same, in common.

sdhraa; both indeterminate, i. e. one of the six indeterminates in Logic, 'when a sis and its contradiction are both supported by equally valid reasons, ' e. g. ' that sound is not eternal, because it is a product, ' 'that it is eternal, becau se it is audible. ' Keith. [203] The ten stages which rvakas, pratyekabuddhas, and bodhisattvas have in common.

; jvajva, or jvajva, a bird said to have two heads on one body, i. ffering, but the karma one. Collective retribution; reward or punishment of the community, or in common, for the deeds of the community, or even of the individual in their effects on the com munity. That which all Buddhist schools have in common. The totality of truth, or virtue, common to all sages, is found in the Buddha.

smnya. Totality, generality, the whole; in common, as contrasted with individua or component parts. Delusion arising from observing things as a whole, or apart from their relationshi ps.

The interpretation of the Prajpramit that advanced and ordinary students have in n, as contrasted with its deeper meaning, or only understood by Bodhisattvas. What is commonly admitted, a term in logic. Again, a second time, also . Ice, chaste. pigala, tawny; tr. as azure, grey. To divide, decide; decidedly; cut off, execute. Decided, defined, and made clear. Fixed and settled, determined. Deciding and choosing; that which decides and gives reason, i. e. the truth of th e saints, or Buddhism. To resolve doubts, doubts solved: definite. Inferior, vicious. Inferior wisdom, harmful wisdom.

sauvastika, ; also styled rvatsa, lucky sign, Viu's breast-curl o cirrhus. Used as a fancy form of or ; and is also written in a form said to rese

mble a curl. It is the 4th of the auspicious signs in the footprint of Buddha, a nd is a mystic diagram of great antiquity. To be distinguished from svastika, the crampons of which turn to the right. Perilous. A perilous citadel, i. e. the body.

mudr; seal, sign, symbol, emblem, proof, assurance, approve; also ; ; . Man dicative of various ideas, e. g. each finger represents one of the five primary elements, earth, water, fire, air, and space, beginning with the little finger; the left hand represents stillness, or meditation, the right hand discernment or wisdom; they have also many other indications. Also, the various symbols of the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, e. g. the thunderbolt; cf. . A Buddha made of incense and burnt, a symbolical Buddha.

An esoteric method of seeking spirit-aid by printing a Buddha on paper, or forming his image on sand, or in the air, and performing specified rites. Illumination from the symbol on a Buddha's or Bodhisattva's breast. Assuredly can, i. e. recognition of ability, or suitability. idem India. The territory of India.

; ; ; Indu (meaning 'moon' in Sanskrit), Hindu, Sindhu; see also he Tang dynasty its territory is described as extending over 90, 000 li in circu it, being bounded on three sides by the sea; north it rested on the Snow mountai ns , i. e. Himlayas; wide at the north, narrowing to the south, shaped like a halfmoon; it contained over seventy kingdoms, was extremely hot, well watered and da mp; from the centre eastwards to China was 58, 000 li; and the same distance sout hwards to , westwards to , and northwards to .

Indian Buddhism, which began in Magadha, now Bihar, under kyamuni, the date of w nirvana was circa 486 B. C. v. and . ajali; the two hands with palms and fingers together the 'mother' of all manual sig ns. Approval of a course of action.

At one and the same time, like printing (which is synchronous, not like writing wh ch is word by word). Indra; a thousand quinquillions. mahendra; ten times the amount of an indra . Each, every. each kind, every sort. To spit, excrete, put forth. Female and male seminal fluids which blend for conception. To entrust; translit. t or .

Something rigid, an obstruction. To eat; to stutter. ? ktya; a low or common fellow.

M03296 v. Hirayavat, Hiraya, Ajitavat, the river near which kyamun Gunduck (Gandak), flowing south of Kuinagara city. [204] Towards, to go towards, facing, heretofore. To trace backwards, as from the later to the earlier, primary, the earliest or fi rst; upwards. Downwards; to trace downwards, i. e. forwards, 'from root to branches.' pratideanya sin to be confessed before the assembly. Bring together, unite, unison, in accord. ; To bring the ten fingers or two palms together; a monk's salutation. to put the hands together and fold the fingers. United, or common altar, or altars, as distinguished from separate altars. (); ; or siria, the acacia sirisa. The closing note of a chant or song; bring to an end. In accordance with need; suitable. A closed lotus-flower. Together, with; mutual; same. samnrthat, working together (with and for others); one of the . ; Of the same class, or order. FeIlow-students, those who learn or study together.

; The first two of these terms are intp. as the guardian deva, or spiri , i. e. born or produced simultaneously with the person he protects; the last is the deva who has the same name as the one he protects. To hear the same (words) but understand. differently. Those who are practising religion together.

Of the same body, or nature, as water and wave, but means fellow-feeling and c on, looking on all sympathetically as of the same nature as oneself. idem . nman (or ); a name, a term; noted, famous.

Name unreal; one of the ; names are not in themselves realities. Fame and gain. Different in name but of the same meaning. Name and description, name. A monk in name but not in reality. A nominal bodhisattva. One of an age to be a monk, i. e. 20 years of age and over. Of notable virtue.

A name, or descriptive title. Name and appearance; everything has a name, e. g. sound, or has appearance, i. e. the visible, v. ; both are unreal and give rise to delusion. The name under which Subhti will be reborn as Buddha. A register of names. Name and meaning; the meaning of a name, or term.

Connotation; name and meaning not apart, or differing, they are inseparable or ide tical, the name having equality with the meaning, e. g. a Buddha, or the terms o f a dhra. or is an abbreviation for the Fanyimingyi dictionary. yaas, renown, fame. A monk of renown and of years.

nmarpa, name-form, or name and form, one of the twelve nidnas. In Brahminical tradi ion it served 'to denote spirit and matter', 'the concrete individual', Keith; i n Buddhism it is intp. as the five skandhas or aggregates, i, e. a 'body', , , , vedana, saj, karman, and vijna being the 'name' and rupa the 'form'; the firstfour are mental and the last material. Rupa is described as the minutest partic le of matter, that which has resistance; the embryonic body or foetus is a nmarpa, something that can be named. A name, or title, especially that of Amitbha. A name and robe, i. e. a monk. A word-group, a term of more than one word.

Name and embodiment; the identity of name and substance, as in the dhra of the esot ric sects; somewhat similar to q. v. r; auspicious, lucky, fortunate; translit. k, ke, ku, g. gdhra, a vulture. One of the honourable ones in the Vajradhtu group.

(or or ); ; kty; a demon, or class of demons, yaka and human;

mon. is explained by bought as (a serf or slave). Auspicious, lucky, fortunate. A lucky day and propitious star. kumbhas, demons of monstrous form, idem . The auspicious river, the Ganges, because in it the heretics say they can wash aw ay their sins. ; ? keyra, a bracelet (worn on the upper arm). Auspicious, fortunate, tr. of the name of Lakm, the goddess of fortune. See next, a lso and .

; Mahr, identified with Lakm, name 'of the goddess of fortune er mythology identified with r and regarded as the wife of Viu or Nryaa', she sprang om the ocean with a lotus in her hand, whence she is also called Padm, and is con nected in other ways with the lotus. M. W. There is some confusion between this goddess and Guanyin, possibly through the attribution of Hindu ideas of Lakm to Gu anyin.

The auspicious fruit, a pomegranate, held by Hrit as the bestower of childr The auspicious sea-cloud; tr. as r-vatsa, the breast mark of Viu, but defined astika, which is the symbol on a Buddha's breast.

(or ); . kua, auspicious grass used at religious ceremonials, poa cynosur

Kugrapura, 'ancient residence of the kings of Magadha, surrounded b outh of Behar. It was deserted under Bimbisara, who built 'New Radjagrha'6 miles farther to the west. ' Eitel. The distance given is somewhat incorrect, but v. . [205] kta idem dukta; one of the grave sins. Kekaya, a noted monk of the Liu-Sung dynasty. To turn, revolve, return. Interchange, intermutation. To turn the light inwards on oneself, concern oneself with one's own duty.

pariman. To turn towards; to turn something from one person or thing to anothe sference of merit); the term is intp. by turn towards; it is used for works of su pererogation, or rather, it means the bestowing on another, or others, of merits acquired by oneself, especially the merits acquired by a bodhisattva or Buddha for the salvation of all, e. g. the bestowing of his merits by Amitbha on all the living. There are other kinds, such as the turning of acquired merit to attain further progress in bodhi, or nirvana. to turn (from) practice to theory; oneself to another; To turn from cause to effect. to turn from this yond this world, from the worldly to the unworldly. To turn from Hnayna to Mahyna.

To turn the mind from evil to good, to repent. Commandments bestowed on the converted, or repentant. To turn and apprehend; be converted. To return, or acknowledge a courtesy or gift. Payment by a donor of sums already expended at his request by a monastery. To turn from other things to Buddhism. hetu: a cause: because: a reason: to follow, it follows, that which produces a r esult or effect. is a primary cause in comparison with pratyaya which is an envi ronmental or secondary cause. In the ten causes and ten effects, adultery results n the iron bed, the copper pillar, and the eight hot hells; covetousness in the cold hells; and so on, as shown in the . Translit. in, yin. Cf. . Followers of Buddha who have not yet attained Buddhahood, but are still Producers of karma and reincarnation. The causative position, i. e. that of a Buddhist, for he has accepted a cause, or enlightenment, that produces a changed outlook. The practice of Buddhism as the 'cause' of Buddhahood.

( ) Reason and authority; i. e. two of the five , v. and , the latte tements, therefore authoritative, of the Scriptures. Cause, as contrasted with effect . The causes (that give rise to a Buddha's Buddhahood) may, in a measure, is, such part as is humanly manifested; but the full result is beyond descriptio n. The causal force, or cause, contrasted with environmental, or secondary forces.

The fourteen possible errors or fallacies in the reason in a syllogism. (The example in logic must be) of the same order as the reason. The cause perfect and the effect complete, i. e. the practice of Buddhism. The causal ground, fundamental cause; the state of practising the Buddha-religion which leads to the or resulting Buddhahood. aieya, black antelope, v. .

Hetuvidya, , the science of cause, logical reasoning, logic, with its syllogis hod of the proposition, the reason, the example. The creation of this school of logic is attributed to Akapda, probably a name for the philosopher Gautama (not kyam uni). The or Hetu-vidy-stra is one of the pacavidya-stras, a treatise e , or the nature of truth and error.

Nyyapravea; a treatise on logic by Sakarasvmin, follower of Dign , on which there are numerous commentaries and works. Nyya-dvratarka-stra, a treatise by Dignga, tr. by Yijing, 1 juan.

The Garbhadhtu maala, which is also east and , or cause, as contrasted w

, which is west and , or effect. [206] Cause and effect; every cause has its effect, as every effect arises from a cause .

Cause and effect in the moral realm have their corresponding relations, the denial of which destroys all moral responsibility. A sect of 'heretics' who denied cause and effect both in regard to creation and ls. The work, or operation, of cause, or causes, i. e. the co-operation of direct and indirect causes, of primary and environmental causes. Cause; cause and origin. hetu-viruddha; in a syllogism the example not accordant with the reason.

Causation; one of the three forms or characteristics of the layavijna, the characte of the origin of all things. hetupratyaya. Cause; causes; hetu, is primary cause, pratyaya, secondary cause, r causes, e. g. a seed is , rain, dew, farmer, etc., are . The twelve nidnas are 'the concatenation of cause and effect in the whole range of existence'. Dependent on cause, or the cause or causes on which anything depends. Causally-produced. A meditation on the nidnas.

The power in a cause to transform itself into an effect a cause that is also an ef fect, e. g. a seed. Cause, action, effect; e. g. seed, germination, fruit. idem . The way, or principle, of causation. (or ) Indra as General (guarding the shrine of Bhaiajya). Indraceta, Indra's attendants, or slaves.

Indradhvaja, a Buddha-incarnation of the seventh son of the Buddha Mahbhij

Indra, ; ; ; ; ; ; ; originally a god of the atm mbol is the vajra, or thunderbolt, hence he is the ; he became 'lord of the gods of the sky', 'regent of the east quarter', 'popularly chief after Brahm, Viu, and iva, '(M.W.); in Buddhism he represents the secular power, and is inferior to a Budd hist saint. Cf. and .

; ; Indraailaguh; explained by Indra mall isolated peaks located near Nland, where on the south crag of the west peak i s a rock cave, broad but not high, which kyamuni frequently visited. Indra is said to have written forty-two questions on stone, to which the Buddha replied.

; . Probably Indra-hasta, Indra's hand, 'a kind of med

a kind of citron ? ? Indravadana, or ? Indrabhavana. A 'name for India proper',; Eitel.

() Indranla-(mukt). Indra's blue (or green) stone, which suggest . ); but according to M. W. Indranla is a sapphire; mukt is a pearl.

Tr. as Indra's city, or Indra's banner, but the latter is Indraketu; ? Indravat At, in, on, present. In the world, while alive here. In and of the world, unenlightened; in a lay condition. In every place. At home, a layman or woman, not , i. e. not leaving home as a monk or nun.

The two grades of commandments observed by the lay, one the five, the other the ei ht, v. and ; these are the Hnayna rules; the of Mahyna are the ten One who while remaining at home observes the whole of a monk's or nun's rules. The Tsai-li secret society, an offshoot of the White Lily Society, was founded in Shantung at the beginning of the Ch'ing dynasty; the title 'in the li, ' indicat ing that the society associated itself with all three religions, Confucianism, T aoism, and Buddhism; its followers set up no images, burnt no incense, neither s moked nor drank, and were vegetarian.

In bonds, i. e. the ' the bhtatathat in limitations, e. g. relative, v. th.

pthiv, the earth, ground; bhmi, the earth, place, situation; talima, lained by earth, ground; capable of producing; that on which things rely. It o the spiritual rank, position, or character attained by a Bodhisattva as a resu lt of remaining and developing in a given state in order to attain this rank; v. ; and . [207] on the ground; above the ground; used for the stages above the initial stage dhisattva's development. Annexes, or subsidiary buildings in the grounds of a monastery.

() Earth-immortals, or gen, one of the classes of is; i. e. bhdeva = Brahman Position, place, state. The stages of a Bodhisattva before the . Earthquake; the earth shaken, one of the signs of Buddha-power. Earth-dust: as dust of earth (in number): atoms of the earth element. A square altar used by the esoteric cult.

Earth as one of the four elements, earth, water, fire, and air wind); to these space (Skt. ka) is added to make the five elements; vijna

o make the six elements; and darana, views, concepts, or reasonings to make the s even elements. The esoteric sect use the five fingers, beginning with the little finger, to symbolize the five elements.

The earth-dev, Pthiv, one of the four with thunderbolts in the Vajradhtu group; al CF. the earth-dev in the Garbhadhtu group. Cf. .

Divkara, tr. as Jih-chao, a ramaa from Central India, A. D. 676-688, tr. o nineteen works, introduced an alphabet of forty-two letters or characters. (or ) Devadatta, v. . Indra's heaven on the top of Sumeru, below the heavens in space.

Dhtika, originally Dhtaka, an ancient monk, whose name is tr. by Yu-k'uei, as hy.

(or or ) The youth who controls earthly possessions, the fourth o ers of Majur in the Garbhadhtu group. To spring forth, or burst from the earth, a chapter in the Lotus Sutra.

naraka, (or ) ; niraya ; explained by joyless; disgusting, arth-prison; the shades, or departments of darkness. Earth-prison is generally in tp. as hell or the hells; it may also be termed purgatory; one of the six gati o r ways of transmigration. The hells are divided into three classes: I. Central, or radical, consisting of (1) The eight hot hells. These were the original hells o primitive Buddhism, and are supposed to be located umder the southern continent Jambudvpa , 500 yojanas below the surface. (a) or Sajva, rebirth, where s of suffering a cold wind blows over the soul and returns it to this life as it was before, hence the name . (b) Kaslastra, where the sufferer is bound with bla chains and chopped or sawn asunder. (c) ; ; Saghta, where are multitudes of of torture, or the falling of mountains upon the sufferer. (d) ; ; Raurava, he ailing. (e) ; ; Mahraurava, hell of great wailing. (f) ; Tapana, h . (g) ; ; Pratpana, hell of molten lead. (h) ; ; ; and are reborn to suffer without interval. (2) The eight cold hells . (a) the cold causes blisters. (b) Nirarbuda, colder still causing the blisters to burs . (c) ; Atata, where this is the only possible sound from frozen lips. (d) pa, where it is so cold that only this sound can be uttered. (e) Hhdhara or Huhuva where only this sound can be uttered. (f) ; (or ) Utpala, or (or s frozen like blue lotus buds. (g) Padma, where the skin is frozen and bursts open like red lotus buds. (h) Mahpadma, ditto like great red lotus buds. Somewhat d nt names are also given. Cf. 8; 16; 11. II. The secondary hells are ca or each of its four sides, opening from each such door are four adjacent hells, i all sixteen; thus with the original eight there are 136. A list of eighteen hel ls is given in the . III. A third class is called the () Lokntarika ountains, deserts, below the earth and above it. Eitel says in regard to the eig ht hot hells that they range 'one beneath the other in tiers which begin at a de pth of 11,900 yojanas and reach to a depth of 40,000 yojanas'. The cold hells ar e under 'the two Tchahavlas and range shaft-like one below the other, but so that this shaft is gradually widening to the fourth hell and then narrowing itself a gain so that the first and last hell have the shortest, those in the centre the longest diameter'. 'Every universe has the same number of hells, ' but 'the nort hern continent has no hell whatever, the two continents east and west of Meru ha ve only small Lokntarika hells... whilst all the other hells are required for the inhabitants of the southern continent '. It may be noted that the purpose of th ese hells is definitely punitive, as well as purgatorial. Yama is the judge and ruler, assisted by eighteen officers and a host of demons, who order or administ er the various degrees of torture. 'His sister performs the same duties with reg ard to female criminals, ' and it may be mentioned that the Chinese have added t

he Lake of the bloody bath, or 'placenta tank' for women who die in childbirth. Re lease from the hells is in the power of the monks by tantric means. [208]

The immediate transformation of one in hell mto a deva because he had in a previou life known of the merit and power of the Huayen sutra. or The hell-gati, br destiny of reincarnation in the hells. drgha, long; also ?. The realm of earth, one of the four elements, v. . The earth dev, Pthiv also styled firm and secure; cf. . Earth-seed, or atoms of the element. dravya, substance, thing, object.

tiibha, titi.lambha, 'a particular high mountain, ' M. W. 1,000 quadrillions; a d to be 10,000 quadrillions.

Ti-tsang, J. Jiz, Kitigarbha, ; Earth-store, Earth-treasury, or Earthwomb. oup of eight Dhvani- Bodhisattvas. With hints of a feminine origin, he is now th e guardian of the earth. Though associated with Yama as overlord, and with the d ead and the hells, his role is that of saviour. Depicted with the alarum staff w ith its six rings, he is accredited with power over the hells and is devoted to the saving of all creatures between the nirvana of kyamuni and the advent of Maitr eya the fifth century he has been especially considered as the deliverer from th e hells. His central place in China is at Chiu-hua-shan, forty li south-west of Ch'ing-yang in Anhui. In Japan he is also the protector of travellers by land an d his image accordingly appears on the roads; bereaved parents put stones by his images to seek his aid in relieving the labours of their dead in the task of pi ling stones on the banks of the Buddhist Styx; he also helps women in labour. He is described as holding a place between the gods and men on the one hand and th e hells on the other for saving all in distress; some say he is an incarnation o f Yama. At dawn he sits immobile on the earth and meditates on the myriads of it s beings . When represented as a monk, it may be through the influence of a Korea n monk who is considered to be his incarnation, and who came to China in 653 and died in 728 at the age of 99 after residing at Chiu-hua-shan for seventy-five y ears: his body, not decaying, is said to have been gilded over and became an obj ect of worship. Many have confused part of Korea with Siam. There are other devel pments of Ti-tsang, such as the Six Ti-tsang, i. e. severally converting or transf orming those in the hells, pretas, animals, asuras, men, and the devas; these si x Ti-tsang have different images and symbols. Ti-tsang has also six messengers : Ya ma for transforming those in hell; the pearl-holder for pretas; the strong one o r animals; the devof mercy for asuras; the dev of the treasure for human beings; o ne who has charge of the heavens for the devas. There is also the Yanming Ti-tsang who controls length of days and who is approached, as also may be P'u-hsien, fo r that Purpose; his two assistants are the Supervisors of good and evil and . Unde another form, as Ti-tsang is chiefly associated with the esoteric cult. The benef ts derived from his worship are many, some say ten, others say twenty-eight. His vows are contained in the . There is also the tr. by Xuan y, which probably influenced the spread of the Ti-tsang cult. [209] idem .

The earth-wheel, one of the five circles, i. e. space, wind, water, earth, and ab ve them fire: the five 'wheels' or umbrellas shown on the top of certain stpas or pagodas. The earth altar is four-cornered and used by the esoteric sect.

?Drgha-bhavana-saghrma. A monastery near Khotan , with a statue dr ansported itself' thither from Karashahr . Eitel. bahu: bhri. Many; all; translit. ta.

tath; in such a manner, like, so, true; it is tr. by which has the same meani t is also said to mean extinction, or nirvana. v. .

() (, ) Prabhtaratna, abundant treasures, or many jewels. The Anc a, who appears in his stpa to hear the Buddha preach the Lotus doctrine, by his p resence revealing, inter alia, that nirvana is not annihilation, and that the Lo tus doctrine is the Buddha-gospel; v. Lotus Sutra .

tagaraka, ; putchuck, aplotaxis auriculata, or tabernaemontana coronaria, t nd its fragrant powder; also (or , or ). Tamralipti, or Tamraliptt; the modern Tumluk in the estuary of the Hugli; also

Tamlapattra-candana-gandha; a Buddha-incarnation of the 11th son of Mahbhi W. of our universe; also the name of the Buddha- incarnation of Mahmaudgalyyana. Many births, or productions; many reincarnations.

tr, in the sense of starry, or scintillation; Tla, for the fan-palm; Tara, from 'to pass over', a ferry, etc. Tr, starry, piercing, the eye, the pupil; the last two a re both Sanskrit and Chinese definitions; it is a term applied to certain female deities and has been adopted especially by Tibetan Buddhism for certain devs of the Tantric school. The origin of the term is also ascribed to tar meaning 'to c ross', i. e. she who aids to cross the sea of mortality. Getty, 19-27. The Chine se derivation is the eye; the tara devs; either as akti or independent, are little known outside Lamaism. Tla is the palmyra, or fan-palm, whose leaves are used fo r writing and known as Pei-to, pattra. The tree is described as 70 or 80 feet hig h, with fruit like yellow rice-seeds; the borassus eabelliformis; a measure of 7 0 feet. Taras, from to cross over, also means a ferry, and a bank, or the other shore. Also . Tryastrias, v. .

; ; The tla tree, its edible fruit resembling the pomegranate, i iting, their palm-shaped parts being made into fans.

Tr Bodhisattva, as a form of Guanyin, is said to have been produced from the eye uanyin. bahu-sruta; learned, one who has heard much. The chief among the Buddha's hearers: nanda. wealthy ghosts. Many desires. Many-footed, e. g. centipedes.

tathgata, (); (or ); (or ssiah, but means one who has arrived according to the norm, one who has attained he goal of enlightenment). It is also intp. as Ju-ch', he who so goes, his coming and going being both according to the Buddha-norm. It is the highest of a Buddh a's titles.

tamlapattra, cassia, 'the leaf of the xanthochymus pictorius, the leaf of t ssia, ' M. W. The Malobathrum of Pliny. Also called betony, bishopwort, or thyme; also copper-leaf. Many bodies, or forms: many-bodied. kin, having long hair, intp. as many locks (of hair), name of a rkas, v. .

(); etc. Trailokyavijaya, one of the Ming Wang, the term bei g defeater (of evil) in the three spheres. [210] An imperial concubine; as implying production, or giving birth, it is used by th e esoteric cult for samaya and dhra. Good, well; to like, be fond of, love. Good at shining, a mirror. Love of life; love of the living. A good appearance, omen, or sign.

(or ) A bird with a beautiful note, the kokila, or kalavika, some say Karanda mithy; false, untrue, erroneous, wild. False tenets, holding on to false views. False environment; the unreal world. the unreal and unclean world. A wrong, false, or misleading mind. False or misleading thoughts. Erroneous thinking. The spread of lies, or false ideas. bhrnti, going astray, error. The unreality of one's environment; also, the causes of erroneous ideas.

False views (of reality), taking the seeming as real. False words, or talk; lies.

The commandment against lying. either as slander, or false boasting, or deception ; for this the gives ten evil results on reincarnation: (1) stinking breath; (2) g ood spirits avoid him, as also do men; (3) none believes him even when telling t he truth; (4) wise men never admit him to their deliberations: etc.

Clouds of falsity, i. e. delusion.

tath ; (or ), so, thus, in such manner, like, as. It is used in the sense ute, the nya, which is the reality of all Buddhas; hence ru is the le of things, the ultimate reality; it is the nature of all things, hence it conno es faxing which is the ultimate of reality, or the absolute, and therefore timate reality. The ultimate nature of all things being ru, the one undivided sa me, it also connotes li, the principle or theory behind all things, and this li universal law, being the truth or ultimate reality; ru is termed bhtatathat, l so, or suchness, or reality, the ultimate or the all, i. e. the yiru. In regard to ju as li the Praj-pramit puarka makes it the zhong, neither matter nor It is also used in the ordinary sense of so, like, as (cf yath). as an illusion, or illusory. as if transformed. like smoke. like a cloud. like a dream. like lightning. like a dream. like a bubble. like a shadow. like an echo.

tathgata, q. v.; defined as he who comes as do all other Buddhas; enru or absolute way of cause and effect, and attained to perfect wisdom; or as the absolute come; one of the highest titles of a Buddha. It is the Buddha in hi s nirmakya, i. e. his 'transformation' or corporeal manifestation descended on eart h. The two kinds of Tathgata are (1) the Tathgata in bonds, i. e. limited and subje ct to the delusions and sufferings of life, and (2) unlimited and free from them. There are numerous sutras and stras bearing this title of rulai. tathgata-yna, the Tathgata vehicle, or means of salvation. tathgata-dta, or tathgata-preya; a Tathgata apostle sent to do his work.

According to the Nirvana Sutra, at the Tathgata's nirvana he sent forth h onderful light which finally returned into his mouth. The state or condition of a Tathgata. The abode of the Tathgata, i. e. mercy, or pity. The Tathgata is eternal, always abiding.

The seventh Bodhisattva to the right of kyamuni in the Garbha or sympathy of the Tathgata. There are other bodhisattvas in charge of other Tat hgata forms or qualities in the same group. Tathgata, Worshipful, Omniscient-three titles of a Buddha.

The Tathgata day, which is without beginning or end and has no limit of past , or future. Chapters in the Lotus Sutra on Tathgata powers and eternity. The play of the Tathgata, i. e. the exercise of his manifold powers.

tathgata-garbha, the Tathgata womb or store, defined as (1) the zhenru, q. v. midst of the delusion of passions and desires; (2) sutras of the Buddha's utterin g. The first especially refers to the zhenru as the source of all things: whethe r compatibles or incompatibles, whether forces of purity or impurity, good or ba d, all created things are in the Tathgatagarbha, which is the womb that gives bir th to them all. The second is the storehouse of the Buddha's teaching. idem .

The natures of all the living are the nature of the Tathgata; for which v. the tathgata-kya, Buddha-body. The court of Vairocana Tathgata in the Garbhadhtu group. 'so-gone', i. e. into Nirvana; v. and .

The zhenru or absolute; also the absolute in differentiation, or in the relative. The and are the realm, or 'substance', and the wisdom or law of the absolute. [211]

Real, reality, according to reality ( yathbhtam); true; the zhenru, or bhtatat which it is also used; the universal undifferentiated, i. e. , or the primary esse ce out of which the phenomenal arises; is this essence in its purity; is th in its differentiation. Knowledge of reality, i. e. of all things whether whole or divided, universal or p articular, as distinguished from their seeming; Buddha-omniscience. The knower of reality, a Buddha. To know and see the reality of all things as does the Buddha. To know one's heart in reality.

At will; according to desire; a ceremonial emblem, originally a short sword; tr. of Manoratha successor of Vasubandhu as 22nd patriarch and of Mahddhiprpta, a aruas.

cintmai, a fabulous gem, the philosopher's stone, the talisman-pearl capable of re onding to every wish, said to be obtained from the dragon-king of the sea, or th e head of the great fish, Makara, or the relics of a Buddha. It is also called ( The talismanic vase.

The talismanic wheel, as in the case of Guanyin with the wheel, holding t er hand symbolizing a response to every prayer, also styled the Vajra-bodhisattva ith six hands, one holding the pearl, or gem, another the wheel, etc. There are several stras, etc., under these titles, associated with Guanyin. ddhipda, magical psychic power of ubiquity, idem .

ddhi, magic power exempting the body from physical limitations, v. and . evam; thus, so; so it is; so let it be; such and such; (as)... so. Most of the str as open with the phrase or Thus have I heard, i. e. from the Buddha. According to the Law, according to rule.

Punished according to law, i. e. dukita, the punishments due to law-breakin nuns. A title of the Buddha, the Master who taught according to the truth, or fundamenta l law. True words, right discourse. To keep, maintain, preserve. (); To preserve one's life, to preserve alive. To keep to (wrong) views.

akara, ; ; a letter, character; akara is also used for a vowel, especial as distinguished from the other vowels; a word, words. Word-form and word-meaning, differentiated by the esoteric sect for its own ends, eing considered the alpha and root of all sounds and words; the among esoteric B uddhists is the bja, or seed-word possessing power through the object with which i t is associated. The wheel, rotation, or interchange of words for esoteric purposes, especially th e five Sanskrit signs adopted for the five elements, earth, water, fire, air, sp ace.

The Sanskrit alphabet of 42, 47, or 50 letters, the 'Siddham' consisting of 35 onants and 12 vowels. The deals with the alphabet in 1 juan. The is an a f .

The 12 or 14 Sanskrit vowels, as contrasted with the 35 or 36 consonants, which a e radical or limited or fixed letters. Residential part of a palace, or mansion; a residence. Keep, guard, observe. The guardian, or caretaker, of a monastery. To keep the law. To guard, protect. or The deva gate-guardian of a temple. Peace, tranquil, quiet, pacify; to put, place; where ? how? To put down. A place for putting things down, e. g. baggage; a resting place, a place to stay a t.

To give a religious name to a beginner. Andarab, a country through which Xuanzang passed, north of Kapi, v. .

To tranquillize the land, or a plot of land, by freeing it from harmful influences .

Tranquil dwelling. var, vars, or varvasna. A retreat during the three months of an rainy season, and also, say some, in the depth of winter. During the rains it was 'difficult to move without injuring insect life'. But the object was for st udy and meditation. In Tokhara the retreat is said to have been in winter, from the middle of the 12th to the middle of the 3rd moon; in India from the middle o f the 5th to the 8th, or the 6th to the 9th moons; usually from rvaa, Chinese 5th m oon, to Avayuja, Chinese 8th moon; but the 16th of the 4th to the 15th of the 7th moon has been the common period in China and Japan. The two annual periods are sometimes called and sitting or resting for the summer and for the end of the ye r. The period is divided into three sections, former, middle, and latter, each o f a month. [212] Ara, one of the twelve attendants of Bhaiajya. Anlin, a noted monk circa A. D. 500. To quiet the heart, or mind; be at rest. To rest.

() Parthia, modern Persia, from which several monks came to China in the la nasty, such as An Shigao, Anxuan, Tan Wudi, An Faqin, Anqing Persian incense, or benzoin.

Settled or firm resolve on wisdom; established wisdom; tr. of Sthiramati, o ti, one of the ten great exponents of the Vijaptimtratsiddhi stra, a native of India. () Sumeru, v, . Happy; ease (of body) and joy (of heart) .

or Amitbha's Happy Land in the western region, which is his domain; it is a ure Land of Tranquil Nourishment. To enter into dhyna meditation. Body and mind at rest. To set up, establish, stand firm.

Supratihita-critra; a Bodhisattva in the Lotus Sutra who rose up out of the earth greet kyamuni. (or or or ) An Indian eye medicine, said to be Ajana. Two noted monks of the Chin dynasty, i. e. Dao-an and Huiyuan.

; () npna, expiration and inspiration, a method of breat es of concentration; the is a treatise on the subject.

(or ) (or , ); (or ) antarvsaka, also explained by qun which means a skirt. This inner garment is said to be wor n against desire, the middle one against hate, and the outer one against ignoran ce and delusion. It is described as the present-day a jacket or vest.

vihra, or ; saghrma ; an official hall, a temple, adopted by Budd other names are given to it, e. g. ; ; ; ; ; ; ; th 32 chambers, 8 tla trees in height, with a garden, park and bathing tank attac hed; it ought to have promenades for peripatetic meditation and to be richly fur nished with stores of clothes, food, bedsteads, mattresses, medicines and all cr eature comforts.' Eitel. Monastery grounds and buildings, a monastery. A year, years. Anniversary of a death, and the ceremonies associated with it. The (number of) years since receiving the commandments. The year-star of an individual.

To receive the full commandments, i. e. be fully ordained at the regulation age of 20. The end of a year, also a year. A young Brahman. Style, shape, fashion, kind. , v. . ik; learning, study.

() ikam, a female neophyte who from 18 to 20 years of age studies the o adultery, stealing, killing, lying, alcoholic liquor, not eating at unregulate d hours.

ikkra, intp. as study, or should study or be studied, also as duktam, ba e law. The form meaning is suggestive of a female preceptor. Busy, bustling. Bustling about and absorbed in the six paths of transmigration.

(or ); ; Mmak, or Mmukh, tr. as the mot he is represented in the Garbhadhtu maala. See under seven strokes. The hour from 7-9 p. m.; translit. , u.

; (or or) dra, the fourth or servile caste, whose duty is to uddhacandra, pure moon, name of one of the ten authorities on q. v. ubhakarasiha. Propitious lion, i. e. auspicious and heroic; fearless.

v. . ukra; the planet Venus.

udhyant; clean or pure. It may be an epithet of vk 'voice' in the musical sense tural diatonic melody'. uka, a parrot; an epithet of the Buddha. uklapaka, the waxing period of the moon, 1st to 15th. To carry on the palm, entrust to.

The deva-king who bears a pagoda on his palm, one of the four mahrjas, i. e. That to which birth is entrusted, as a womb, or a lotus in Paradise. A womb; conception. An almsbowl; to carry it. To receive; collect, gather; withdraw. To collect paper money, i. e. receive contributions. To collect the bones, or relics, after cremation. [213] Early; morning. The early morning assembly. Name of a demon. A decade, a period of ten days. The ten days, account in a monastery. Purport, will; good. The purport, aim, or objective. To trail, drag. Yaivana, v. . Bent, crooked, humpbacked; to oppress; ballads.

The city of hunchback women, said to be Kanykubja, an ancient kingdom and capital o f Central India, 'Canouge Lat. 27 3 N., Long. 79 50 E.' Eitel. The legend in the R ord of Western Lands is that ninety-nine of King Brahmadatta's daughters were th us deformed by the i Mahvka whom they refused to marry. ; ; M043560 A bent chair used in monasteries. Kadant, or Mlkadant, name of a rkas.

bhva: that which exists, the existing, existence; to have, possess, be. It is def ined as (1) the opposite of wu and kong the non-existent; (2) one of the twelve

nidnas, existence; the condition which, considered as cause, produces effect; (3) effect, the consequence of cause; (4) anything that can be relied upon in the v isible or invisible realm. It means any state which lies between birth and death , or beginning and end. There are numerous categories 3, 4, 7, 9, 18, 25, and 29. The are the trailokya, i. e. , and the realms of desire, of form, an ll of them realms of mortality; another three are the present body and mind, or e xistence, the future ditto, the intermediate ditto. Other definitions give the di ferent forms or modes of existence. A bodhisattva who has reached the stage of and is above the state of being, or existing, i. e. as conceivable by human minds. Things that have an owner. To have affairs, functioning, phenomenal, idem .

Functioning, effective; phenomenal, the processes resulting from the law of karma later came into use. The sixth sense of mental discrimination manas, as contrasted with the other five senses, sight, hearing, etc., each of which deals only with its own perceptions, and is . Discrimination, another name for the laya-vijna. Ujjayanta, a mountain and monastery in Surra on the peninsula of Gujerat. Eitel. The perceived, perceptive, perception. aika; in Hnayna those in the first three stages of training as arhats, the fourth last stage being those beyond the need of further teaching or study. There are e ighteen grades of aika. pratigha, sapratigha; resistance, opposition, whatever is capable of offering res istance, an object; material; opposing, opposite. That which is dependent on material things. i. e. the body. A woman of Brahman family in Benares, who became a convert and is the questioner o f the Buddha in the rmat-brhma-paripcch . 'To have the nature, 'i. e. to be a Buddhist, have the bodhi-mind, in contrast wi th the absence of this mind, i. e. the icchanti, or unconverted.

sattva, in the sense of any sentient being; the term was formerly tr. all th g, which includes the vegetable kingdom, while limits the meaning to those endowe d with consciousness. The nine abodes, or states of conscious beings, v. . Among the number, or in the category, of conscious beings. Sentience gives rise to pity, or to have feeling causes pity.

To have thoughts, or desires, opp. . mati; matimant; possessing mind, intelligent; a tr. of manuya, man, a rational bei ng. The name of the eldest son of Candra-srya-pradpa.

Updhyya, in India a teacher especially of the Vedgas, a term adopte

radually applied to all monks. The Chinese form is , q. v. [214] To have a hand, or hands. hastin, possessing a hand. i. e. a trunk; an elephant. To have a branch; also the category of bhva, one of the twelve nidnas, v. . The realistic school as ayna teaching of the chool of Harivarman; (2) the hina by Xuanzang, opposed to

opposed to the teaching of unreality; especially (1) the Abhidharmakoa school of Vasubandhu, opposed to the Sat Mahyna Dharma-lakana school, also called the , the Mdhyamika school of Ngrjuna.

Mental activity, the mind being able to climb, or reach anywhere, in contrast with the non-mental activities, which are . manuya, an intelligent being, possessing wisdom, cf. . The body with its five senses.

A thing that exists, not like 'the horns of a hare', which are non-existent thing . Also in logic the subject in contrast with the predicate. e. g. 'sound' is the or thing, 'is eternal' the or law stated. The sea of existence, i. e. of mortality, or births-and-deaths. The mortal stream of existence with its karma and delusion. Cf. . srava, means 'outflow, discharge'; 'distress, pain, affliction'; it is intp. by , the passions, distress, trouble, which in turn is intp. as delusion. Whatever has klea, i. e. distress or trouble, is ; all things are of this nature, hence it m eans whatever is in the stream of births-and-deaths, and also means mortal life or births-and-deaths, i. e. mortality as contrasted with , which is nirva. (or ) The world, or worlds, of distress and illusion.

(or) Good (or evil) done in a mortal body is rewarded accordingly in the c nother mortal body. A purifying stage which, for certain types, precedes entry into the Pure Land. (or ) The way of mortal sasra, in contrast with that of nirva.

bhvbhva. Existence or nonexistence, being or non-being; these two opposite view ions, or theories are the basis of all erroneous views, etc. The two extremes of being or non-being.

Both views are erroneous in the opinion of upholders of the , the Mdhyamika s e and .

Active, creative, productive, functioning, causative, phenomenal, the processes r esulting from the laws of karma, v. ; opposite of passive, inert, inactive, non-ca sative, laisser-faire. It is defined by to make, and associated with saskta. The th ree active things are material, or things which have form, mental and nor the other. The four forms of activity are coming into existence, abid and extinction; they are also spoken of as three, the two middle terms being tre ated as having like meaning. The result or effect of action.

Activity implies impermanency. The mortal sasra life of births and deaths, contrasted with effortless transformation such as that of the Bodhisattva. The unreality of the phenomenal.

The permutations of activity, or phenomena, in arising, abiding, change, and extin tion. The realm of existence. To have form, whatever has form, whether ideal or real. Action through faith in the idea, e. g. of the Pure Land; the acts which produce s uch results. The first twelve years of the Buddha's teaching, when he treated the phenomenal as real; v. . v. and Sarvstivda. Phenomenal and noumenal; the manifold forms of things exist, but things, being co nstructed of elements, have no per se reality.

The phenomenal and the noumenal are identical, the phenomenal expresses the noumen l and the noumenon contains the phenomenon. The three terms, phenomenal, noumenal, and the link or mean, v. and .

The Dharmalakaa school divides the Buddha's teaching into three periods ght (1) the unreality of the ego, as shown in the gamas, etc.; (2) the unreality o f the dharmas, as in the Prajpramit, etc.; and (3) the middle or uniting way, as i he Sandhinimocana-stra, etc., the last being the foundation text of this school. [215] The bond of existence, or mortal life. Those who have the cause, link, or connection, i. e. are influenced by and respon sive to the Buddha. Existence ? non-existence ? Material ? immaterial ? i. e. uncertainty, a wavering ind.

(or ) The manifested activities of the body, mouth, and mind (or will th their unmanifested activities.

The visible, but it is used also in the sense of the erroneous view that things r eally exist. Another meaning is the realm of form, as contrasted with the invisib e, or with the formless realms.

The intp. of things as real, or material, opposite of the intp. of them as unreal or immaterial. Perceptive beings, similar to sentient beings. bhavarga, the desire for existence, which is the cause of existence; 19.

The wheel of existence, the round of mortality, of births-and-deaths. The one extreme of 'existence', the opposite extreme being 'non-existence'.

; Sarvstivda; the school of the reality of all phenomena, one of the id to have been formed, about 300 years after the Nirva, out of the Sthavira; late r it subdivided into five, Dharmagupt, Mlasarvstivd, Kayapy, Mahsak, and th . Its scriptures are known as the ; ; ; ; (

Limited, finite; opposite of measureless, boundless, infinite. That which measurement is called coarse, i. e. palpable, that which is without form and me asurement is called fine, i. e. impalpable. Interrupted, not continuous, not intermingled, opposite of .

Having souls, sentient beings, similar to ; possessing magical or spiritual powers

() Akaniha, the highest heaven of form, the ninth and last of the fou

In the region of (akaniha) there still exist the possibilities of delusion bo eory (or views) and practice, arising from the taking of the seeming for the rea l. Something more; those who have remainder to fulfil, e. g. of karma incomplete; ex tra, additional.

One of the four lands, or realms, the to which, according to Mahyna, ar decease; cf. .

() Incomplete nirva. Hnayna holds that the arhat after his la s into nirva, while alive here he is in the state of sopdhiea-nirva, limited, or mod ed, nirva, as contrasted with nirupadhiea-nirva. Mahyna holds that when th rnation is ended the state is that of incomplete nirva; when the effect is en the eternal Buddha-body has been obtained, then there is complete nirv y that in the Hnayna 'remainderless' nirva for the arhat there are still remai usion, karma, and suffering, and it is therefore ; in Mahyna these remai tc., are ended. Something further to say, incomplete explanation.

Masters, or exponents, in addition to the chief or recognized authorities; also sp oken of as ; ; ; ; hence refers to other than the recognized, or A thing, form, dharma, anything of ideal or real form; embodied things, bodies; v arying list of 75, 84, and 100 are given. [216] Red, vermilion. caura, a thief, robber. caur, robber-grass or herb, name of a plant. Defined as , i. e. cvara, or ragged clothes. Second, secondary; a turn, next. In turn, one after another.

Connected or consequent causes; continuous conditional or accessory cause.

This, here. This world, or life. Narratives in regard to the present life, part of the miscellaneous piaka. Clearness of hearing in this world, i. e. the organ of sound fitted to hear the ha-gospel and the transcendental. This shore, the present life. maraa; ; mta ; to die, death; dead; also cyuti. Dead and gone (or lost). The (sharp) sword of death. The hill of death. 'Dead corpse, 'e. g. a wicked monk. The sea of mortality. Yama, as lord of death and hell. Death and life, mortality, transmigration; v. . The appearance of death; signs at death indicating the person's good or evil karm a. Die! monk; dead monk! a term of abuse to, or in regard to, a monk. The misery, or pain, of death, one of the Four Sufferings. The robber death. The gate, or border of death, leading from one incarnation to another. The spirit of one who is dead, a ghost. The destroying wind in the final destruction of the world. v. Seven Strokes. Stagnant water, impure; but it is explained as a torrent, impermanent; translit. o and u, and h. hd, hdaya, the heart, core, mind, soul. Sweat; vast.

(or or ); hd, hdaya, the heart, core, mind, soul; probably a Impure; to defile. To defile a household, i. e. by deeming it ungrateful or being dissatisfied with its gifts.

To taint; taint. A shameless monk who defiles his religion. A river; the River, the Yangtsze. The River and Sky monastery on Golden Island, Chinkiang, Kiangsu. Kiangsi and Hunan, where and whence the Chan (Zen) or Intuitive movement had its early spread, the title being applied to followers of this cult. A title of Mazu, who was a noted monk in Kiangsi, died 788. River- or Nad-kyapa, one of the three Kyapa brothers: v. . Ash; lime; hot or fiery as ashes. An image of ashes or lime made and worshipped seven times a day by a woman whose marriage is hindered by unpropitious circumstances.

Sect of the Limestone hill dwellers, one of the twenty Hnayna schools; ? the Gok s, v. . Ascetics who cover themselves with ashes, or burn their flesh. A river of lava or fire, reducing all to ashes.

Destruction of the body and annihilation of the mind for the attainment of nirv To put ashes on the head and dust on the face. To low (as an ox); overpass; barley; a grain vessel; weevil; eye-pupil; translit . mu, ma.

muhrta, the thirtieth part of an ahortra, a day-and-night, i. e. forty-eight min a brief space of time, moment; also (wrongly) a firm mind. mahoraga, boa-demons, v. .

(or or ) (); ( ); ; or musragalva d mother of pearl; it is one of the sapta ratna q. v.

(), ; ; () muni; mahmuni; vimuni. A sage, saint, as retired, secluded, silent, solitary, i. e. withdrawn from the world. See also . Munir, name of a monk from northern India in the Liu Song period (5th cent. ). The monk-king, a title of the Buddha. mucilinda, v. and . mardala, or mdaga, a kind of drum described as having three faces. sata; a hundred, all. One out of a hundred; or every one of a hundred, i. e. all. (or ) To know or perceive nothing, insensible (to surroundings).

A hundred fathoms of 10 feet each, 1, 0O0 feet; the name of a noted Tang abbot of

izhangshan, the monastery of this name in Hongzhou. [217]

The 128 delusions of views and thoughts; also called v. 100 kos. The king of all light universally shining, i. e. Vairocana. 108. ; 108 beads on a rosary. The 108 honourable ones in the Vajradhtu. The 108 passions and delusions, also called the 108 karmaic bonds. The 108 tolls of the monastery bell at dawn and dusk. Of 100 who call on the Buddha 100 will be saved, all will live. All the (good) tastes, or flavours. The stra of the 100 parables, tr. by Guavddhi, late fifth century; also .

The 140 special, or uncommon, characteristics of a Buddha i. e. ; Where all things meet, i. e. the head, the place of centralization; it is applied also to the Buddha as the centre of all wisdom.

Lord of the hundred commentaries, title of Kuiji of the Ci-en monaster s work as a commentator; also .

The hundred divisions of all mental qualities and their agents, of the School; al o known as the five groups of the 100 modes or 'things': (1) the eight perc r forms of consciousness; (2) the fifty-one mental ideas; (3) the five physic ns and their six modes of sense, e. g. ear and sound; (4) twenty-four indefinites, or unconditioned elements; (5) six inactive or metaphysical concepts.

The door to the knowledge of universal phenomena, one of the first stages of Bodhi attva progress. () was tr. by Xuanzang in 1 juan. The realm of the hundred qualities, i. e. the phenomenal realm; the ten stages fro m Hades to Buddha, each has ten or qualities which make up the hundred; cf. .

The ten realms each of ten divisions, so called by the Tiantai school, i. e. of h ells, ghosts, animals, asuras, men, devas, rvakas, pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, and Buddhas. Each of the hundred has ten qualities, making in all the thousand qua ities of the hundred realms; this 1, 000 being multiplied by the three of past, present, future, there are 3, 000; to behold these 3, 000 in an instant is calle d () and the sphere envisaged is the . An earthenware lantern, i. e. with many eyes or holes. A monk's robe made of patches. The hundred blessings, every kind of happiness.

To repeat Amitbha's name a million times (ensures rebirth in his Paradise; for a se ven days' unbroken repetition Paradise may be gained). ikkaraya, what all monks and nuns learn, the offence against which is dukta,

atastra. One of the 'three stras' of the Mdhyamika school, so called becaus verses, each of 32 words; attributed to Deva Bodhisattva, it was written in Sans krit by Vasubandhu and tr. by Kumrajva, but the versions differ. There is also the Catuataka [Catuatakastrakarika], an expansion of the above. veu, bamboo.

( or); ; Veuvana, 'bamboo-grove,' a park called Karaave oup of ascetics, later given by him to kyamuni (Eitel), but another version says b y the elder Karaa, who built there a vihra for him.

li, rice, i. e. hulled rice. The word lihas been wrongly used for arra, relics, an r both words has been used. Keeper of the stores. maireya, 'a kind of intoxicating drink (extracted from the blossoms of Lythrum fru cticosum with sugar, etc. ).' M. W. [218] avi, a sheep, goat, ram. The minute speck of dust that can rest on the tip of a sheep's hair. An abbreviation for karma, from the radicals of the two words. A ram's horn is used for the passions and delusions of life.

The inferior, or rvaka, form of Buddhism, v. Lotus Stra, in the parable of the g house. jar; old, old age.

jarmaraa, decrepitude and death; one of the twelve nidnas, a primary dogma of Buddh sm that decrepitude and death are the natural products of the maturity of the fi ve skandhas. An old awl, an experienced and incisive teacher. An old woman; my 'old woman', i. e. my wife. Laozi, or Laocius, the accepted founder of the Daoists. The theory that his soul went to India and was reborn as the Buddha is found in the History of the Qi dyna sty . sthavira, an old man, virtuous elder. An old pestle, or drumstick, a baldheaded old man, or monk. One of the four sufferings, that of old age.

rotra, the ear, one of the six organs of sense, hence is one of the twelve e of the twelve .

rotrendriya, the organ of hearing. Secret rules whispered in the ear, an esoteric practice. rotravijna. Ear-perception, ear-discernment. An ear-ring. msa. Flesh. ; hdaya; the physical heart. To cremate oneself alive as a lamp or as incense for Buddha. msacakus. Eye of flesh, the physical eye. Flesh-coloured, red. The physical body. One who becomes a bodhisattva in the physical body, in the present life. msabhakaa, meat-eating. ; ; ; ; ua. One of the thirty-two marks hair on the crown of a Buddha, in later ages represented as a fleshly excrescen ce on the skull itself; interpreted as coiffure of flesh. In China it is low and large at the base, sometimes with a tonsure on top of the protuberance.

sva, svayam; the self, one' s own, personal; of itself, naturally, of course; al so, from (i. e. from the self as central). is used as the opposite of another, o ther's, etc., e. g. (in) one's own strength as contrasted with the strength of an ther, especially in the power to save of a Buddha or Bodhisattva. It is also use d in the sense of tman the self, or the soul.

As one does one receives, every man receives the reward of his deeds, creating his own karma, . Inner witness. tmahitam, self-profit; beneficial to oneself.

'Self-profit profit others', i. e. the essential nature and work of a bodhisattva, to benefit himself and benefit others, or himself press forward in the Buddhist life in order to carry others forward. Hnayna is considered to be self-advancement , self-salvation by works or discipline; Bodhisattva Buddhism as saving oneself in order to save others, or making progress and helping others to progress, bodh isattvism being essentially altruistic.

The third of the four buddhaketra or Buddha-domains, that in which there is compl response to his teaching and powers; v. . One of the two kinds of sabhogakya, for his own enjoyment; cf. . The dharma-delights a Buddha enjoys in the state.

vara , ; can, king, master, sovereign, independent, royal; intp. as free fro e; also, the mind free from delusion; in the Avatasaka Stra it translates vasit. Th ere are several groups of this independence, or sovereignty 2, 4, 5, 8, and 10, e

. g. the 2 are that a bodhisattva has sovereign knowledge and sovereign power; t he others are categories of a bodhisattva's sovereign powers. For the eight powe rs v. .

(or) varadeva, a title of iva, king of the devas, also known as Ma e also applied to Guanyin and others.

ivaites, who ascribed creation and destruction to iva, and that all things for dy, space his head, sun and moon his eyes, earth his body, rivers and seas his u rine, mountains his fces, wind his life, fire his heat, and all living things the vermin on his body. This sect is also known as the . iva is represented with ei ms, three eyes, sitting on a bull.

is also a title of Vairocana; and, as Surevara, is the name of a mythical king, con temporary of the mythical ikhin Buddha. svacitta, self-mind, one's own mind. Own nature; of (its) own nature. As an intp. of pradhna (and resembling ) in the philosophy it is 'prakti, the Originant, primary or original matter or rather th e primary germ out of which all material appearances are evolved, the first evol ver or source of the material world (hence in a general acceptation 'nature' or rather 'matter' as opposed to purusha, or 'spirit')'. M. W. As svabhva, it is 'own state, essential or inherent property, innate or peculiar disposition, natural s tate or constitution, nature'. M. W. The self-substance, self-nature, or unchang ing character of anything. [219]

The triratna, each with its own characteristic, Buddha being wisdom ; the Law co tness ; and the Order purity . The ten natural moral laws, i. e. which are natural to man, apart from the Buddha' s commands; also .

pravrana, to follow one's own bent, the modern term being ; it means the end of r raint, i. e. following the period of retreat. The last day of the annual retreat. Self-love, cause of all pursuit or seeking, which in turn causes all suffering. A ll Buddhas put away self-love and all pursuit, or seeking, such elimination bein g nirva.

To harm oneself and harm others, to harm oneself is to harm others, etc.; opposite of . To commit suicide; for a monk to commit suicide is said to be against the rules.

svayabh, also ; self-existing, the self-existent; Brahm, Viu, and others s 'self-so', so of itself, natural, of course, spontaneous. It also means uncaus ed existence, certain sects of heretics denying Buddhist cause and effect and hold ng that things happen spontaneously. Intuitive mercy possessed by a bodhisattva, untaught and without causal nexus.

Enlightenment by the inner light, independent of external teaching; to become Budd a by one's own power, e. g. kyamuni who is called . svayabhuva. Similar to , independent attainment of Buddhahood.

The intuitive or inborn wisdom of a Buddha, untaught to him and outside the causal nexus. A Buddha's spiritual or absolute body, his dharmakya; also, those who are born adise, i. e. who are spontaneously and independently produced there. Self-produced, or naturally existing; also an intp. of bhta produced; existing, l; also demons born by transformation in contrast to the yaka who are born from ents.

svalakaa; individuality, particular, personal, as contrasted with general or co

To discipline, or perform, oneself and (or in order to) convert or transform other . v. .

A mind independent of externals, pure thought, capable of enlightenment from withi .

The uncaused omniscience of Vairocana; it is also called () and

To make the vows and undertake the commandments oneself (before the image of a Bud ha), i. e. self-ordination when unable to obtain ordination from the ordained.

A manifest contradiction, one of the nine fallacies of a proposition, svrtha-viru a, e. g. 'my mother is barren.'

The rvaka method of salvation by personal discipline, or 'works'; selfng the commandments; self-purification by emptying the mind; self-release by the ttainment of gnosis, or wisdom. The witness within, inner assurance.

or The assembly of all the Buddha and bodhisattva embodiments in the Va pratytmryajna, personal apprehension of Buddha-truth.

A title of Vairocana, his dharmakya of self-assurance, or realization, from which i ssues his retinue of proclaimers of the truth. One's own body is Buddha. Cause and effect of the same order. Reach, arrive at; utmost, perfect. The perfect man, i. e. kyamuni. With the utmost mind, or a perfect mind. Complete or perfect teaching. The utmost principle, the fundamental law. [220] Perfect truth. The second patriarch of the Huayan (Kegon) school Zhiyan.

Perfect words, words of complete explanation. Cna, China. cnn, the peach-tree, said to have been imported into India from China. [M001173] Cnapati, Lord (from) China, said in the Record of Western Lands to appointed by the Han rulers; a country so-called because the son of Fan Weizhi of Hexi dwelt (and reigned) there. Eitel says, 'A small kingdom in the north-west o f India (near Lahore) the inhabitants of which asserted (A. D. 640) that their f irst kings had come from China.'

Cnarjaputra, 'son of the China king,' intp. by Prince of Han, which e for a pear-tree, said to have been imported from China in the Han dynasty; v. 4. Tiya, an ancient Buddha. The father of riputra. A son of uklodana. jihv, ; the tongue. the organ of taste. tongue-perception; v. ; . The broad, long tongue of a Buddha, one of the thirty-two physical signs.

Tongue-unconsumed, a term for Kumrajva; on his cremation his tongue is said to hav remained unconsumed.

rpa, outward appearance, form, colour, matter, thing; the desirable, especially f eminine attraction. It is defined as that which has resistance; or which changes and disappears, i. e. the phenomenal; also as , and colour and quality, form or he measurable, and mode or action. There are divisions of two, i. e. inner and o uter, as the organs and objects of sense; also colour and form; of three, i. e. the visible object, e. g. colour, the invisible object, e. g. sound, the invisib le and immaterial; of eleven, i. e. the five organs and five objects of sense an d the immaterial object; of fourteen, the five organs and five objects of sense and the four elements, earth, water, fire, air. rpa is one of the six bhya-yatana, the ; also one of the five skandhas, , i. e. the . Keith refers to rpa as 'mat m or matter which is underived (no-utpd) and which is derived (utpd)', the underived or independent being the tangible; the derived or dependent being the senses, e . g. of hearing; most of their objects, e. g. sound; the qualities or faculties of feminity, masculinity, vitality; intimation by act and speech, space; qualiti es of matter, e. g. buoyancy and physical nutriment.

The entrances, or places, where the organs and objects of physical sense meet, te in all; cf. . Also, one of the twelve nidnas.

Physical light, as contrasted with light of the mind; every Buddha has both, e. g his halo. Material objects. The flavour of sexual attraction, love of women. The quality of form, colour, or sexual attraction, one of the . Atoms of things, of form, or colour. Matter and mind, the material and immaterial.

Material existence. Sexual desire, or passion. The material as a bubble, or a flame; impermanent.

rpadhtu, or rpvacara, or rpaloka, any material world, or world of form; it especi refers to the second of the Trailokya , the brahmalokas above the devalokas, compr ising sixteen or seventeen or eighteen 'Heavens of Form', divided into four dhyna s, in which life lasts from one-fourth of a mahkalpa to 16,000 mahkalpas, and the average stature is from one-half a yojana to 16,000 yojanas. The inhabitants are above the desire for sex or food. The rpadhtu, with variants, are given as The f dhyna heavens: Brahmapriadya, Brahmapurohita or Brahmakyika, Mah s: Parttbha, Aprambha, bhsvara. The third dhyna heave ns: Anabhraka, Puyaprasava, Bhatphala, Asajisattva, The material, material appearance, or external manifestation, the visible. A Buddha's material or visible world. [221] Akaniha, the highest of the material heavens.

Heretics who denied material existence (and consequently sought self-control, or n rvana). Visible objects, the realm of vision, or form. The visible and audible. The concealing, or misleading, character of the visible or material, the seeming concealing reality. The skandha of rpa, or that which has form, v. . idem . idem , . idem .

rpakya. The physical body, as contrasted with the dharmakya, the immaterial, s l, or immortal body. Insect, reptile; any creeping thing; animal, man as of the animal kingdom. Blood. To wash out blood with blood, from one sin to fall into another. Written with (one's own) blood. The pool, or lake, of blood in one of the hells. The sea of blood, i.e. the hells and lower incarnations. The sutra describing the blood bath for women in Hades; it is a Chinese invention and is called by Eitel "the placenta tank, which consists of an immense pool of blood, and from this hell, it is said, no release is possible"; but there are ce remonies for release from it.

The arteries and veins, linked, closely connected. The gati or destiny of rebirth as an animal. Go; act; do; perform; action; conduct; functioning; the deed; whatever is done b y mind, mouth, or body, i.e. in thought, word, or deed. It is used for ayana, go ing, road, course; a march, a division of time equal to six months; also for saskr a, form, operation, perfecting, as one of the twelve nidnas, similar to karma, ac tion, work, deed, especially moral action, cf. . To go begging, or asking for alms; also ; . A traveller, wayfarer; a follower of Buddha; a disciple. Walking, standing, sitting, lying-in every state.

The making of offerings, to go to make offerings. Act and faith, doing and believing, acting out one's belief. To perform the proper duties, especially of monks and nuns. To go and convert; also . To go to the privy; the privy to which one goes, metaphor of the human body as fi lthy. To do good; deeds that are good; to offer up deeds of goodness. The common acts of daily life-sitting, eating, thinking, etc. The virtue of performance, or discipline; to perform virtuous deeds.

To carry out the vinaya discipline; the vinaya. Deed and result; the inevitable sequence of act and its effect. That which is done, the activities of thought, word, or deed; moral action; karma . Trees in rows, avenues of trees. mtk, ; the "mother of karma", i.e. the Abhidharma-piaka, which shows that karma, one act producing another. [222]

Xingman, a monk of the Folung monastery, about whom little is known, but who is redited with supplying Dengy of Japan with Tiantai scriptures in the latter part of the eighth century. The saskraskandha, the fourth of the five skandhas. v. . Activity; performance; mental activity. To cast lots, divine (length of life). An abbot's attendant; also crin, performing the duties of a disciple. () A wandering monk.

The suffering inevitably consequent on action. To offer flowers. The fourth of the five skandhas, saskra, action which inevitably passes on its effe cts. The requirements for action; to do that which is most important. Action and proof; knowledge or assurance derived from doing; practice of religiou s discipline and the resulting enlightenment. To take an image (of Buddha) in procession; it was a custom observed on Buddha's birthday according to the . As works are the feet (so wisdom is the eye). To walk in the way, follow the Buddha-truth; to make procession round an image, e specially of the Buddha, with the right shoulder towards it. To rain, or produce rain; Varkra, name of a minister of king Bimbisra. Action and vow; act and vow, resolve or intention; to act out one's vows; to vow. To offer incense.

Clothes, especially a monk's robes which are of two kinds, the compulsory three garments of five, seven, or nine pieces; and the permissive clothing for the man ual work of the monastery, etc. The or three garments are (1) antarvsas, an ment; the five-piece cassock; (2) uttarsaga, outer garment, the seven-pie ) saghti, assembly cassock of from nine to twenty-five pieces. The permissive cl g is of ten kinds. The robe, throne, and abode of the Tathgata, see Lotus Sutra . The robe and the Buddha-truth. The pearl in the garment, i.e. a man starving yet possessed of a priceless pearl n his garment, of which he was unaware; v. Lotus Sutra . The Vajradeva in the Vajradhtu group who guards the placenta and the unborn child; his colour is black and he holds a bow and arrow.

The vow of Amitbha that all the devas and men in his realm shall instantly have ver beautiful clothing they wish. A towel, cloth, wrapper, or mantle. Cassock and almsbowl. The umbilical cord.

pacima, ; west; it is largely used in the limited sense of Kashmir in such term e west, or western regions; but it is also much used for the western heavens of Amitbha; is India, the western .

The Lord of the West, Amitbha, who is also the lord of the cult, or sovereign of the western paradise.

A name for India, cf. . sainika, military. The light of the western paradise. ketra, land, region, country. Biographies of famous pilgrims, fifty-six in number, with four added; it is

; Records of Western countries, by the Tang dynasty pilgrim Xu 8. There was a previous by Yancong of the Sui dynasty.

Avaraail the second subdivision of the Mahsaghika school. A monaste hana-kaaka, said to have been built 600 B.C., deserted A.D. 600.

The western group, i.e. teaching monks stood on the west of the abbot, while thos engaged in practical affairs stood on the east; this was in imitation of the Co urt practice in regard to civil and military officials. [223]

The west, especially Amitbha's Western Pure Land. , Sukhvti or Paradise e guide and welcomer .

Ximing, name of Daoxuan of the Tang who founded the Southern Hill school, and als of Yuance, both of whom were from the monastery of Western Enlightenment estab ed by Gaozong (650-684) at Chang'an, the capital.

The "western" maala is that of the Vajradhtu, as the "eastern" is of the Garbha Xihe, a name for Daochuo of the Tang dynasty. The western cleanser, the privy, situated on the west of a monastery.

(or ) The western continent of a world, Godnya, v. , or Apara tle-giving," where cattle are the medium of exchange, possibly referring to the "pecuniary" barter of the north-west. Tibet. Tibetan Buddhism. Tibetan Lamaism. Going west; practices of the Amitbha cult, leading to salvation in the Western Par adise. 7. SEVEN STROKES Guess, estimate. To estimate the value of a deceased monk's personal possessions. to auction a deceased monk's personal possessions to the other monks.

Companion, associate; translit. pan, ban, van, cf. Associate or accompanying monk . To watch with the spirit of a departed monk the night before the cremation.

v. vandana. (or ) v. Paravsin. vicra, Investigation, consideration, search for truth; to spy; wait on. To let down, lower.

(or ) Tiladhka, Tiladaka, or Tilakya. "A monastery, three ydjanas west e modern village of Thelari near Gay." Eitel. He, she, it; other; i.e. ; translit. tha, e.g. in sthna , sthman. Position, seat, throne. One of the q.v. three kinds of never receding. The board, or record of official position. Translit. ha, hai, a, ra, he, cf. and . What? How? How does it thus happen? Haimaka, a king at the beginning of a kalpa, by name. haria, a deer. Rhula, name of kyamuni's son, also of an asura. Haya, the horse-head form of Guanyin. Hayagrva, Horse-neck, a form of Viu, name of a mingwang.

Only.

Only non-existence, or immateriality, a term used by Tiantai to denote the orthod ox Hnayna system. denotes the intermediate system between the Hnayna and th daa, a staff, club. Appearance of, seeming as, like, as; than. A syllogism assuming e.g. that a vase or garment is real, and not made up of certa in elements. A fallacious proposition; containing any one of the nine fallacies connected with the thesis, or pratij, of the syllogism. A fallacious counter-proposition; containing one of the thirty-three fallacies con nected with the thesis (pratij ), reason (hetu ), or example (udharaa ). Translit. kha, also khya, ga, gha, khu, khi; cf. , , , , , , ; it is used pace, empty. Skt. kha inter alia means "sky", "ether". khaga, a rhinoceros.

khr, a measure (or hamper) of grain; khrka, equal to a khr.

khaaka; a manual sign, wrists together, fingers half-closed; M. W. says "the half-c losed hand; the doubled fist of wrestlers or boxers".

khav, a bed, couch, cot; a long, narrow bed.

(); ; ; (or or or ); ; or wood; also by bare, unwooded. Its sea is covered with scented flowers, and in it are four islands. It is also a tree of the Acacia order. khri, or khr. A , i.e. bushel, or measure of about ten ; v. ; .

( ); Kharohi, tr. by "Ass's lips"; name of an ancient i, perh f all the northerners," said to have been introduced by him, consisting of seven ty-two characters.

Kashgar, a country in E. Turkestan, east of the Pamirs, S. of Tianshan; the older name, after the name of its capital, is sometimes given as or rkrtati

khra; said to be a , the tenth of a; also Khara, the name of ai. For Kharo [224] , or , etc.; v. .

Kharakaha; kings of demons, kings of asuras present when Buddha preached the Lot tra; also described as rumbling like thunder, or stirring up the waves of the oc ean.

kha, ha, ra, va, a, the five roots, or seed-tones of the five elements, spa fire, water, earth respectively. (or ); khdanya, to be chewed; edible; a food; defined as edibles not on meals. sthiti. To abide, dwell, stay, stop, settle. birth, existence, death.

Abiding place, one of the ten stages, resting and developing places or abodes of the bodhisattva, which is entered after the stage of belief has been passed; v. ; ; vivartasiddhakalpa; the abiding or existing kalpa; the kalpa of human existence; v. . Dwelling-place; abiding place in the Truth, i.e. the acquirement by faith of a se lf believing in the dharma and producing its fruits. Fixed, certain, firmly settled.

A bodhisattva firmly fixed, or abiding in certainty. After a bodhisattva has compl ted three great asakhyeyakalpas he has still one hundred great kalpas to complete . This period is called abiding in fixity or firmness, divided into six kinds: c ertainty of being born in a good gati, in a noble family, with a good body, a ma n, knowing the abiding places of his transmigrations, knowing the abiding charac ter of his good works. To dwell and control; the abbot of a monastery; resident superintendent; to maint ain, or firmly hold to (faith in the Buddha, etc.). For v. . Abiding in the fruit; e.g. rvakas and pratyekabuddhas who rest satisfied in their a ttainments and do not strive for Buddhahood; they are known as or.

sthiti; abiding, being, the state of existence, one of the four characteristics o f all beings and things, i.e. birth, existence, change (or decay), death (or ces sation). To make, do, act, be; arise. To become or be a Buddha; to cut off illusion, attain complete enlightenment, and end the stage of bodhisattva discipline.

To do the works of Buddha; perform Buddhist ceremonies. To do good, e.g. worshi estow alms, etc. Leader, founder, head of sect, a term used by the Chan (Zen) or Intuitive school. To do evil. cittotpda; to have the thought arise, be aroused, beget the resolve, etc.

Obedience to the commandments, external fulfillment of them; also called , in cont ast with , the inner grace; moral action in contrast with inner moral characte

Active keeping of the commandments, active law in contrast with passive, such killing, not stealing, etc. v. . () The call to order in the assembly. Karma produced, i.e. by the action of body, words, and thought, which educe the k ernel of the next rebirth. Karma, which results from action, i.e. the "deeds" of body or mouth; to perform c eremonies. To receive ceremonial ordination as a monk. () One of the three kinds of monastic confession and repentance. The place of assembly for ceremonial purposes. Transgression, sin by action, active sin. Function, activity, act. To pay one's respect by worship; to make an obeisance. kart; a doer, he who does things, hence the tman, ego, or person within; the active element, or principle; one of the sixteen non-Buddhist definitions of the soul. Also kraa, a cause, maker, creator, deity. The accusation of sin made against particular monks by the virtuous monk who pres ides at the pravraa gathering on the last day of the summer's rest. To make a vow to benefit self and others, and to fulfil the vow so as to be born i n the Pure Land of Amitbha. The third of the five doors or ways of entering the P ure Land. ( ) How? What? What are you doing?

Interchanged with q.v.; translit. ga, gha, ka, khya, g and in one case for ha. Gamini, a king whom the Buddha is said to have addressed, v. sutra of this name.

idem Lokavit. Abbrev. for sagh, robe. Abbrev. for bhagavan, see . Bhagavaddharma. A Western Indian monk who tr. a work on . Gavpati. Lord of cattle, name of an arhat; v. . Kapilavastu, v. .

Abbrev. for tgara putchuk, incense.

Klaka, a yaka who smote riputra on the head while in meditation, without his p it. ghra, smell; scent. (1) Khardya, the mountain where Buddha is supposed to have tiered the , ng; other names for it are , (or). (2) A bodhisattva stage attained ; Gay. (1) A city of Magadha, Buddhagay (north-west of present Gaya), near became Buddha. (2) Gaja, an elephant. (3) Gajaira, Elephant's Head Mountain; two e mentioned, one near "Vulture Peak", one near the Bo-tree. (4) kya, the body. (or) Gayata (? Jayata), the eighteenth Indian patriarch, who laboured

Gaykyapa, a brother of Mahkyapa, originally a fire-worshipper, one of the el disciples of Buddha, to become Samantaprabhsa Buddha. [225] Abbrev. for saghi, robe; v. .

; saghrma or saghgra. (1) The park of a monastery. (2) A monastery, een guardian spirits of a monastery. grantha, a treatise, section, verse; the scriptures of the Sikhs. gacchati, goes, progresses. gana, ghana; close, solid, thick.

(or ) gaganaprekaa, beholding the sky, or looking into space Kadeva, i.e. ryadeva, fifteenth patriarch, disciple of Ngrjuna, v. . A name of Ngrjuna.

(1) gtha song; gth, a metrical narrative or hymn, with moral purport, descr nerally composed of thirty-two characters, and called a detached stanza, distingui shed from geya, which repeats the ideas of preceding prose passages. (2) agada as adjective healthy; as noun antidote. (3) gata, arrived at, fallen into, or "in a state".

Buddha, from budh to "be aware of", "conceive", "observe", "wake"; also ; ; eans "completely conscious, enlightened", and came to mean the enlightener. he C hinese translation is to perceive, aware, awake; and gnosis, knowledge. There is

an Eternal Buddha, see e.g. the Lotus Sutra, cap. 16, and multitudes of Buddhas , but the personality of a Supreme Buddha, an di-Buddha, is not defined. Buddha i s in and through all things, and some schools are definitely Pan-Buddhist in the pantheistic sense. In the triratna commonly known as , while kyamuni Buddha i rst "person" of the Trinity, his Law the second, and the Order the third, all th ree by some are accounted as manifestations of the All-Buddha. As kyamuni, the tit le indicates him as the last of the line of Buddhas who have appeared in this wo rld, Maitreya is to be the next. As such he is the one who has achieved enlighte nment, having discovered the essential evil of existence (some say mundane exist ence, others all existence), and the way of deliverance from the constant round of reincarnations; this way is through the moral life into nirvana, by means of self-abnegation, the monastic life, and meditation. By this method a Buddha, or enlightened one, himself obtains Supreme Enlightenment, or Omniscience, and acco rding to Mhyanism leads all beings into the same enlightenment. He sees things not as they seem in their phenomenal but in their noumenal aspects, as they really are. The term is also applied to those who understand the chain of causality (tw elve nidnas) and have attained enlightenment surpassing that of the arhat. Four t ypes of the Buddha are referred to: (1) the Buddha of the Tripiaka who attained enli ghtenment on the bare ground under the bodhi-tree; (2) the Buddha on the deva robe under the bodhi-tree of the seven precious things; (3) the Buddha on the great pr ecious Lotus throne under the Lotus realm bodhi-tree; and (4) the Buddha on the th rone of Space in the realm of eternal rest and glory where he is Vairocana. The Hnayna only admits the existence of one Buddha at a time; Mahyna claims the existenc e of many Buddhas at one and the same time, as many Buddhas as there are Buddhauniverses, which are infinite in number. Buddha-age; especially the age when Buddha was on earth. Buddha, the World-honoured, or honoured of the worlds, a tr. of bhagavat, revered. A Buddha-realm, divided into two categories, the pure and the impure, i.e. the pas sionless and passion worlds. The Buddha conveyance or vehicle, Buddhism as the vehicle of salvation for all be ings; the doctrine of the Huayan (Kegon) School that all may become Buddha, which is called the One Vehicle, the followers of this school calling it the complete r perfect doctrine; this doctrine is also styled in the Lotus Sutra the One Buddha -Vehicle. The rules and commandments conveying beings to salvation. Buddha's affairs, the work of transforming all beings; or of doing Buddha-work, e .g. prayers and worship. Prvavideha, v. , etc.

The five surnames of Buddha before he became enlightened: Gautama, a branch of a clan; Ikvku, one of Buddha's ancestors; Sryavaa, of the sun race; ? dha's clan. This last is generally used in China. The state of Buddhahood. A messenger of the Tathgata. An offering to Buddha. [226] Buddha's image, or pratim. There is a statement that in the fifth century A.D. the images in China were of Indian features, thick lips, high nose, long eyes, full

jaws, etc., but that after the Tang the form became "more effeminate". The light of Buddha, spiritual enlightenment; halo, glory. Articles used on an altar in worship of Buddha.

The ten perfect bodies or characteristics of Buddha: (1) Bodhi-body in poss complete enlightenment. (2) Vow-body, i.e. the vow to be born in and from the Tuit a heaven. (3) nirmakya, Buddha incarnate as a man. (4) Buddha who still occu elics or what he has left behind on earth and thus upholds the dharma. (5) sabh endowed with an idealized body with all Buddha marks and merits. (6) or Power, embracing all with his heart of mercy. (7) or At will body, appearing accor wish or need. (8) or samdhi body, or body of blessed virtue. (9) or nature embraces all wisdom. (10) dharmakya, the absolute Buddha, or essence of al l life. Buddha and the common people are one, i.e. all are of Buddha-nature. buddhaketra. Buddha realm, land or country; see also , . The term Mahyna it is the spiritual realm acquired by one who reaches perfect enlightenment , where he instructs all beings born there, preparing them for enlightenment. In the schools where Mahyna adopted an di-Buddha, these realms or Buddha-fields inter penetrated each other, since they were coexistent with the universe. There are t wo classes of Buddhaketra: (1) in the Vairocana Schools, regarded as the regions of progress for the righteous after death; (2) in the Amitbha Schools, regarded a s the Pure Land; v. McGovern, A Manual of Buddhist Philosophy, pp. 70-2. Buddha-seal, the sign of assurance, see . Buddha's nda, or roar, Buddha's preaching compared to a lion's roar, i.e. authorit ative. Buddhaghoa, the famous commentator and writer of the Hnayna School and of the Pali anon. He was "born near the Bo Tree, at Buddha Gay, and came to Ceylon about A.D. 430". "Almost all the commentaries now existing (in Pali) are ascribed to him". Rhys Davids. Buddha-cause, that which leads to Buddhahood, i.e. the merit of planting roots of goodness. buddhaketra. The country of the Buddha's birth. A country being transformed by a B uddha, also one already transformed; v. and . Faxian's Record of Buddhist countries. Buddhaveda, i.e. the Tripiaka, the Veda of Buddhism.

or or Fotuzheng, an Indian monk who came to Luoyang about A.D. 310, al for his magic; his name Buddhacinga, or (Eitel) Buddhochinga, is doubtful; he is also called Buddhasiha.

buddhaketra. ; ; ; ; The land or realm of a Buddha. Th dha-realm in process of transformation, or transformed. A spiritual Buddha-realm . The Tiantai Sect evolved the idea of four spheres: (1) Where common beings and nts dwell together, divided into (a) a realm where all beings are subject to tra nsmigration and (b) the Pure Land. (2) or The sphere where beings are sti higher forms of transmigration, the abode of Hnayna saints, i.e. srota-panna ; sa ngmin ; arhat . (3) Final unlimited reward, the Bodhisattva realm. ity and enlightenment reign, Buddha-parinirva.

buddha-bhmi. The Buddha stage, being the tenth stage of the or intermediate school , when the bodhisattva has arrived at the point of highest enlightenment and is just about to become a Buddha. Bodhila, a native of Kashmir and follower of the Mhsaghika school, author of the The (spiritual) region of Buddhas. [227] Buddha's life, or age. While he only lived to eighty as a man, in his sabhogakya he is without end, eternal; cf. Lotus Sutra, , where Buddha is declared to be eternal . Buddha as Heaven; Buddha and the devas. () Prvavideha; ; ( ); mi-lunar in shape, its people having faces of similar shape. idem Vtsputry.

; ;

Son of Buddha; a bodhisattva; a believer in Buddhism, for every believer is becom ing Buddha; a term also applied to all beings, because all are of Buddha-nature. There is a division of three kinds: external sons, who have not yet believed; se ondary sons, Hnaynists; true sons, Mahynists. Buddhism; principles of the Buddha Law, or dharma. The school or family of Buddhism; the Pure Land, where is the family of Buddha. A lso all Buddhists from the srota-panna stage upwards. See .

, , Buddha, Dharma, Sagha, i.e. Buddha, the Law, the Order; these are the thr , or precious ones, the Buddhist Trinity; v. . Disciples of Buddha, whether monks or laymen. buddhachy; the shadow of Buddha, formerly exhibited in various places in India, vis ible only to those "of pure mind".

After having attained Buddhahood still to continue the work of blessing and saving other beings; also Buxian, or Samantabhadra, as continuing the Buddha's work. Buddha-virtue, his perfect life, perfect fruit, and perfect mercy in releasing al l beings from misery. The mind of Buddha, the spiritually enlightened heart. A heart of mercy; a heart abiding in the real, not the seeming; detached from good and evil and other such contrasts. The seal of the Buddha heart or mind, the stamp of the universal Buddha-heart in e very one; the seal on a Buddha's heart, or breast; the svastika. The Son of Heaven of the Buddha-heart, a name given to Wudi of the Liang dynasty, .D. 502-549. The sect of the Buddha-heart, i.e. the Chan (Zen) or Intuitive sect of Bodhidharma , holding that each individual has direct access to Buddha through meditation.

buddhat. The Buddha-nature, i.e. gnosis, enlightenment; potential bodhi remains in every gati, i.e. all have the capacity for enlightenment; for the Buddha-nature remains in all as wheat-nature remains in all wheat. This nature takes two form s: noumenal, in the absolute sense, unproduced and immortal, and phenomenal, in action. While every one possesses the Buddha-nature, it requires to be cultivate d in order to produce its ripe fruit.

The Buddha-nature does not receive punishment in the hells, because it is voi rm, or spiritual and above the formal or material, only things with form can ent er the hells. The eternity of the Buddha-nature, also of Buddha as immortal and immutable. The moral law which arises out of the Buddha-nature in all beings; also which reve als or evolves the Buddha-nature. The Buddha-nature, the absolute, as eternally existent, i.e. the bhtatathat. Buddha-wisdom.

Buddhacarita-kvya Sutra; a poetic narrative of the life of kyamuni by Avagho maraka A.D. 414-421. The moral commandments of the Buddha; also, the laws of reality observed by all B uddhas.

Buddha's caitya, or stpa, v. . A Buddhist reliquary, or pagoda, where relics of uddha, arra, were kept; a stpa was a tower for relics; such towers are of vary pe; originally sepulchres, then mere cenotaphs, they have become symbols of Budd hism. Buddha's teaching; Buddhism, v. . [228] Buddha's sana or orders, i.e. his teaching. The Buddha-sun which drives away the darkness of ignorance; the day of Buddha. anuttara-samyak-sambodhi, Buddha-wisdom, i.e. supreme, universal gnosis, awarenes s or intelligence; sarvajat, omniscience. The Buddha-moon, Buddha being mirrored in the human heart like the moon in pure w ater. Also a meaning similar to . Buddhacarita; a life of kyamuni, tr. by Jnagupta, A.D. 587. buddhapala; the Buddha fruit, the state of Buddhahood; the fruition of arhatship, arahattvapala.

Urddhasthna, ? rdvasthna, Vardhasthna, or Vjisthna, "an ancient kingdom, Vardaks, the Ortospana of Ptolemy, the region about Cabool (Lat. 3432 N., Long. 6855 E. )." Eitel. Purushapura, v. .

Prvaail, or Eastern Hill; one of the five divisions of the Mhsaghika school ast of Dhanakaaka, i.e. Amarvat, on the R. Godavery.

bodhidruma; the Bodhi-tree under which kyamuni obtained enlightenment or became

ha, Ficus religiosa. buddha-dna, Buddha-giving contrasted with Mra-giving; Buddha-charity as the motive of giving, or preaching, and of self-sacrifice, or self-immolation.

The Buddhist joy-day, the 15th of the 7th month, the last day of the summer retrea .

(1) The mother of the Buddha, Mahmy, My, or Mtk. (2) His aunt who was his 3) The Dharma or Law which produced him. (4) The praj-pramit, mother or begetter of all Buddhas. (5) Other "Buddha-mothers", e.g. ; , etc. Cf. .

The samdhi, meditation, or trance by means of which the Buddhas, past, present, uture, become incarnate. buddhadharma; the Dharma or Law preached by the Buddha, the principles underlying these teachings, the truth attained by him, its embodiment in his being. Buddhi sm. Buddha, Dharma, Sagha, i.e. the Buddhist Trinity.

The life or extent of a period of Buddhism, i.e. as long as his commandments preva l. The storehouse of Buddha-law, the bhtatathat as the source of all things. Buddha's ocean, the realm of Buddha boundless as the sea.

() Buddha's nirvana; it is interpreted as the extinction of suffering, or delusi and as transport across the bitter sea of mortality, v. . Unhindered, infinite Buddha-wisdom.

The identity of all Buddhas, and of their methods and purposes of enlightenment. O e of the three identities, of all Buddhas, of all minds, and of all beings. Buddha's birthday, the 4th month, 8th day, or 2nd month, 8th day, the former havin g preference for celebration of his birthday in China. Buddha field, in which the planting and cultivation of the Buddhist virtues ensur e a rich harvest, especially the Buddha as an object of worship and the Order fo r almsgiving. The Buddha realm, the state of Buddhahood, one of the ten realms, which consist o f the six gati together with the realms of Buddhas, bodhisattvas, pratyeka-buddh as, and rvakas; also a Buddha-land; also the Buddha's country; cf. . The eye of Buddha, the enlightened one who sees all and is omniscient.

A term of the esoteric cult for the source or mother of all wisdom, also called [229] The penetrative power of Buddha's wisdom, or vision. The Buddha and other founders of cults; Buddhist patriarchs; two of the records c oncerning them are the and the ( ). The seed of Buddhahood; bodhisattva seeds which, sown in the heart of man, produc e the Buddha fruit, enlightenment.

Those of the Buddha-clan, Buddhists. A degree of samdhi in which the Buddhas appear to the meditator. Buddhist canonical literature; also Buddha's image and sutras, with special refer ence to those purporting to have been introduced under Han Mingdi; sutras probab ly existed in China before that reign, but evidence is lacking. The first work, generally attributed to Mingdi's reign, is known as The Sutra of Forty-two Secti ons but Maspero in B.E.F.E.O. ascribes it to the second century A.D. The Buddhist last day of the old year, i.e. of the summer retreat. A Buddhist temple.

Buddha's arra. Relics or ashes left after Buddha's cremation, literally Buddha's b y. The Nirvana Sutra or Mahparinirva Sutra. Buddha thesaurus, the sutras of the Buddha's preaching, etc., also all the teachi ng of Buddha. The correct views, or doctrines, of the Buddha; Buddha doctrines. Buddha's prediction, his foretelling of the future of his disciples.

Buddha's preaching; the Buddha said. Buddha's utterance of the sutras. There are over 150 sutras of which the titles begin with these two words, e.g. Aparimit , tr. by Saghavarman A.D. 252. The words, or sayings, of Buddha. The bhtatathat, as the mind or storehouse of Buddha's words.

Buddha's relic; any trace of Buddha, e.g. the imprint of his foot in stone before he entered nirvana. buddhakya, a general term for the trikya, or threefold embodiment of Buddha. There are numerous categories or forms of the buddhakya. The way of Buddha, leading to Buddhahood; intp. as bodhi, enlightenment, gnosis. The groups in which Buddha appears in the Garbhadhtu and Vajradhtu respectively. v. There are numerous monks from India and Central Asia bearing this as part of t heir names. Buddhajva, who arrived in China from Kashmir or Kabul, A.D. 423.

Buddhasiha, a disciple of Asaga, probably fifth century A.D., about whose esoter actices, lofty talents, and final disappearance a lengthy account is given in th e Fan Yi Ming Yi ; it is also a title of q.v. () Buddhatrta of Kashmir or Kabul, was a translator about 650. Buddhanta, of Central India, translator of some ten works from 525-539. Buddhadeva.

Buddhavaca.

Buddhagupta, "a Buddhistic king of Magadha, son and successor of akrditya," Eite

Buddhapla, came from Kabul to China 676; also Buddhaplita, a disciple of Ngrju under of the . Buddhamitra, the ninth patriarch.

Buddhabhadra, of Kapilavastu, came to China circa 408, introduced an alphabet of ty-two characters and composed numerous works; also name of a disciple of Dharma koa, whom Xuanzang met in India, 630-640. Buddhayaas, of Kashmir or Kabul, tr. four works, 408-412. Buddhanandi, of Kmarpa, descendant of the Gautama family and eighth patriarch. Buddhadsa, of Hayamukha author of the .

Buddhavanagiri, 'a mountain near Rjagha famous for its rock caverns, in one of mumi lived for a time.' Eitel. [230] Name of a peak at the southwest corner of Tiantai; also a name for Zhiyi q.v.

kyamuni in the third court of the Garbhadhtu is represented as the in meditat versal Wise Sovereign. The q.v. Five Buddhas are on his left representing his Wisdo m. The three on his right are called , , and ; in all th The characteristic sign on a Buddha's head, short curls, topknot, or una. sittapatroa-dhra; the white-umbrella dhra in the .

buddhoa; the skull or cranial protuberance on the Buddha's head; one of his char stic marks. The vow of Buddha to save all beings. Used in certain names for Buddha. Buddhajva. Buddhasena. Buddhagupta. ? Buddhya. Buddhayaas, known as the 'red-beard Vibh.' Buddhabhadra. A bone of the Buddha, especially the bone against whose reception by the emperor Xianzong the famous protest of Hanyu was made in 819. Avoid; remit. A monk whose attendance at the daily assembly is excused for other duties.

aa; a rabbit; also a hare. The hare in the moon, hence is the moon or ain. The speck of dust that can rest on the point of a hare's down, one-seventh of that on a sheep's hair.

aa-via; aa-ga; a rabbit's horns, i.e. the non-existent; all phenomena are as bbit's horns. Cold. Cold and warm. Cold swill, a name for cold dough-strings. The cold river St, v. . Smelt, melt; fascinating; translit. for ya in akaya. Yajurveda, one of the four Vedas. Cut, excise; translit. s, . Sadhinirmocana-stra, name of the sutra. Described as a fabulous world of the past whose name is given as ailya, but this oubtful. (or ); Sajaya-Vairputra, or Sajayin Vairaputra, one schools, whose doctrine was that pain and suffering would end in due course, li ke unwinding a ball of silk, hence there was no need of seeking the 'Way'. Divide, judge, decide. Division of the Buddha's teaching, e.g. that of Tiantai, into the five periods an d eight teachings, that of Huayan into five teachings, etc. To divide and explain sutras; to arrange in order, analyse the Buddha's teaching. pau, tka; sharp, keen, clever; profitable, beneficial; gain, advantage; interest.

To benefit or profit men, idem parahita; the bodhisattva-mind is to impro r the purpose of improving or benefiting others; the Buddha-mind is with single mi d to help others, pure altruism; is the extension of this idea to all the living, which of course is not limited to men or this earthly life; is also used with the same meaning, being the living. The sharp or clever envoy, i.e. the chief illusion of regarding the ego and its e xperiences and ideas as real, one of the five chief illusions.

A sharp sword, used figuratively for Amitbha, and Majur, indicating wisdom, discri ation, or power over evil. Keen intelligence, wisdom, discrimination; pava. Sharpness, cleverness, intelligence, natural powers, endowment; possessed of powe rs of the paca-indryni (faith, etc.) or the five sense-organs, v. . Blessing and joy; the blessing being for the future life, the joy for the present ; or aid (for salvation) and the joy of it.

To bless and give joy to the living, or sentient, the work of a bodhisattva.

; ; Revata; Raivata. (1) A Brahman hermit; one of the disciples amanta-prabhsa. (2) President of the second synod, a native of Skya. (3) A contempora ry of Aoka, mentioned in connection with the third synod. Cf. Eitel.

Benefit, aid, to bless; hence the wonder of Buddha's blessing, in opening the m of all to enter the Buddha-enlightenment.

sagraha-vastu, the drawing of all beings to Buddhism through blessing them by deed, word, and will; one of the q.v. Sharp and keen discrimination, or ratiocination, one of the seven characteristics of the bodhisattva. To nourish oneself by gain; gain; avarice. The bond of selfish greed, one of the two bonds, gain and fame. [231] Separate, divide, part from, other, different, differentiate, special.

Veana, , name of a deva; the second term suggests Viu, and Veu might be the intp. suits both, for Veana means surrounding, enclosing, and Viu, pervade, enco mpass.

Secondary texts or authorities, in contrast with the principal texts of a school. Separately handed down; oral tradition; to pass on the teaching from mind to mind without writing, as in the Chan (Zen) or Intuitional school. Also . antara-kalpas, small or intermediate kalpas, v. .

The of the , i. e. the Separatist or Differentiating school, is the of t school; i.e. when the Bodhisattva reaches the stage of the , he has reached the e of the perfect nature and observance according to the or Perfect school. The and schools, q. v. and . Different realms, regions, states, or conditions.

vibhvan; the ideas, or mental states, which arise according to the various objec conditions toward which the mind is directed, e.g. if toward a pleasing object, then desire arises. Differentiated rewards according to previous deeds, i.e. the differing conditions of people in this life resulting from their previous lives. To intone the name of a special Buddha.

Delusions arising from differentiation, mistaking the seeming for the real; these delusions according to the are gradually eradicated by the Bodhisattva during his first stage.

The 'different' teaching of the . Both the Huayan school and the Lotus school ar unded on the or One Vehicle idea; the Lotus school asserts that the Three Vehicle s are really the One Vehicle; the Huayan school that the One Vehicle differs fro m the Three Vehicles; hence the Lotus school is called the unitary, while the Huay n school is the Differentiating school.

To call upon Buddha at special times. When the ordinary religious practices are in ffective the Pure Land sect call upon Buddha for a period of one to seven days, or ten to ninety days. Also . Differentiated karma (the cause of different resultant conditions); cf. .

The li is the bhtatathat, which one school says is different in operati asserts that it is the same, for all things are the chen-ju . viea; differentiation; difference, one of the of the Huayan school. The three views of the in regard to the absolute, the phenomenal, the medial te ideas. For a monk schismatically or perversely to separate himself in religious duties f rom his fellow-monks is called dukta, an offence or wickedness, v. . Unenlightened, or heterodox, views.

Another name for the commandments, which liberate by the avoidance of evil. Also

Special deference paid by singling out or inviting one member of the community; w hich procedure is against monastic rules.

Special vows, as the forty-eight of Amitbha, or the twelve of Yao Shih Fo (Bha as contrasted with general vows taken by all Bodhisattvas. Toil; translit. k, gh. () Kapphia, v. . Ghoira, v. . Gop, i. e. Yaodhar, wife of kyamuni, v. .

Help, aid, assist; auxiliary. To assist in singing, or intoning. Auxiliary karma, i.e. deeds or works, e.g. reciting the sutras about the Pure Lan d, worship, praise, and offering, as additional to direct karma , i.e. faith in Am itbha, expressed by constant thought of him and calling on his name. [232] Auxiliary means, e.g. of meditation; auxiliary discipline; any aid to faith or vi rtue. A kalpa, aeon, age; also translit. ka; 'a fabulous period of time, a day of Brah m or 1, 000 Yugas, a period of four hundred and thirty-two million years of morta ls, measuring the duration of the world; (a month of Brahm is supposed to contain thirty such kalpas; according to the Mahbhrata twelve months of Brahm constitute h is year, and one hundred such years his lifetime; fifty years of Brahm are suppos ed to have elapsed... ).' M. W. An aeon of incalculable time, therefore called a great time-node. v. . The beginning of the kalpa of formation; the kalpa of creation; also . khadira v. .

kaparda, a shell, cowrie, small coin.

v. and or , for both of which it is used. (or arkand.

or or ) Kapotana, or Kebudhana; an ancient kingdom, th

karpra, camphor, described as dragon-brain scent. Kapittha. (1) An ancient kingdom of Central India, also called Sakya. (2) Vji who ill-treated the Buddhists of his time, was reborn as a fish, and was fina lly converted, by kyamuni, Eitel. idem.

() kapila; also ; (or ) The meaning is 'brown', but it is chi founder of the classical Skhya' philosophy and the school of that name. ; A deva, or demon, called Kapila, or Kumbhra, or Kubera. (or ) Kapilavastu, ; ; (or amuni's life, according to legend; about 100 miles due north of Benares, north-w est of present Gorakhpur; referred to in . Said to be Kashmir. The flood in the kalpa of destruction, v. . )

kalpa; also; ; v. . Aeon, age. The period of time between the creation and r of a world or universe; also the kalpas of formation, existence, destruction, an d non-existence, which four as a complete period are called mahkalpa . Each great k alpa is subdivided into four asakhyeya-kalpas ( i.e. numberless, incalculable): (1 alpa of destruction savarta; (2)kalpa of utter annihilation, or empty kalpa ; s siddha; (3) kalpa of formation vivarta; (4) kalpa of existence vivartasiddha; or hey may be taken in the order . Each of the four kalpas is subdivided into twenty a tara-kalpas, or small kalpas, so that a mahkalpa consists of eighty small kalpas. Each small kalpa is divided into a period of increase and decrease; the increase period is ruled over by the four cakravarts in succession, i.e. the four ages of iron, copper, silver, gold, during which the length of human life increases by one year every century to 84,000 years, and the length of the human body to 8,40 0 feet. Then comes the kalpa of decrease divided into periods of the three woes, pestilence, war, famine, during which the length of human life is gradually red uced to ten years and the human body to 1 foot in height. There are other distin ctions of the kalpas. A small kalpa is represented as 16,800,000 years, a kalpa as 336,000,000 years, and a mahkalpa as 1,334,000,000 years. There are many ways of illustrating the length of a kalpa, e.g. pass a soft cloth over a solid rock 40 li in size once in a hundred years, when finally the rock has been thus worn away a kalpa will not yet have passed; or a city of 40 li, filled with mustard s eeds, one being removed every century till all have gone, a kalpa will not yet h ave passed. Cf. . (or or or ); ; () krpsa is cotton, Gossypium n tree. kapla, a bowl, skull; the drinking bowl of iva, a skull filled with blood. kalpataru A tree in Indra's garden bearing fruit according to the seasons. [233]

kapla, a skull; also krpsa, see. Yama, as ruler of time, . The ocean of kalpas, i.e. their great number. The impure or turbid kalpa, when the age of life is decreasing and all kinds of d iseases afflict men. The fire in the kalpa of destruction; also ; ; v. . kalpa-ash, the ashes after the fire kalpa of destruction. The calamity of fire, wind, and water, during the kalpa of destruction. kalpa-flames, idem . idem. idem . v. .

Kapphia; also ; (or , or ); or Kampilla, ; whose m the constellation Scorpio; he is said to have understood astronomy and been kin g of Southern Koala; he became a disciple of kyamuni and is to be reborn as Samanta prabhsa Buddha.

? kalpa-kalpyati, perhaps connected with klp, intp. as (or ) in . aaja. Egg-born, one of the four ways of coming into existence, v. . Decline, reject; but, yet.

To leave his perfect life to enter into the round of births and deaths, as a Bodhi attva does. To inform; plead; accuse. To inform by offering incense. To suck up, inhale. Exhale and inhale. Chant, hum, mutter. To intone, repeat. To blow; puff, praise. To blow out a light, a blown-out light. Name of a sharp sword, or Excalibur, that would sever a falling feather; to blow hair or fur. To blow the conch of the Law, the Buddha's preaching.

M020011 Translit. for h, which is interpreted as the bodhi, or omniscience, of all Buddhas. The lowing of oxen. Hkra, Puxian Samantabhadra in his minatory aspect against demons. Raurava; also ; . The wailing hells, the fourth of the eight hot hells, where ates cry aloud on account of pain. Prince, noble, ideal man or woman; translit. kun. ; ; (or ) kua, kuik, a pitcher, waterpot; washbowl.

(or ) kua, a hole in the ground for the fire at the fire altar: the homa or fire r. To bark (as a dog); translit. ve, vi, vai; cf. ; ; ; . Vaieika, v. . vairya, lapis lazuli. ; Vairocana v. . Vairavaa, v. . vairambha, v. . vimalacitra, v. . Veana, v. . () vairya, lapis lazuli.

(or ); vaiya; the third of the four Indian castes, that of agriculture an

(or ); Vaikha; the second Indian month, from 15th of 2nd to 16th of 3 (or ) Vail, v. . Veda, v. . To hold in the mouth: cherish: restrain.

A Tiantai term for the which was midway between or interrelated with Hnayna a All beings possessing feeling, sentience. Living beings, all beings possessing life, especially sentient life. In the closed lotus flower, i.e. those who await the opening of the flower for re birth in Paradise. All sentient beings. A place, locality; a temple, place of assembly, etc. [234]

Equal, in balance, all; used for kun. Kunti, (a) said to be a devoted disciple of riputra; (b) one of the attendants on M ajur. niad; niaa; sit; rest; situated. given as nidana, an article for sitting on, said to be a cloth, or mat. To accomplish one's labour by prolonged sitting, as did Bodhidharma. The evening meditation at a monastery (preceding instruction by the abbot). A sitting room, the assembly room of the monks. var; the retreat or rest during the summer rains. A certificate of "retreat" given to a wandering monk. To sit in dhyna, i.e. abstract meditation, fixed abstraction, contemplation; its i ntroduction to China is attributed to Bodhidharma (though it came earlier), and its extension to Tiantai. The monks' assembly room. Another term for dhyna contemplation. Squeeze, clip, nip; lined. Name of a monastery and monk in Lizhou under the Tang dynasty. A singing-girl, courtesan. Female musicians and performers. An imp; to bewitch; magical. The power to change miraculously into trees and animals; v. .

su, sat, maju, skma. Wonderful, beautiful, mystic, supernatural, profound, subtle, mysterious. su means good, excellent, surpassing, beautiful, fine, easy. sat mea ns existing, real, good. maju means beautiful, lovely, charming. Intp. in Chinese as beyond thought or discussion; special, outstanding; incomparable; d. The profound medium (madhya); the universal life essence, the absolute, the bhtata that which expresses the unity of all things, i.e. the doctrine held by Tiantai a s distinguished from the which holds the madhya doctrine but emphasizes the dicho tomy of the transcendental and phenomenal. The profound meaning of phenomena of Tiantai, that they are the bhtatathat (e.g. wa ter and wave) as distinguished from the view; cf. . Varaprabha, Wonderful Light, an ancient incarnation of Majur. Sryarami, the 930th Buddha of the present kalpa. The classics of the wonderful dharma, i.e. Mahyna.

Wonderful and auspicious, the meaning of Majur, for maju and for r; v.

The realm of profound joy, the country of Vimalakrti , who is stated to h emporary of kyamuni; v. 12. The heaven full of wonderful joy, idem Tuita, v. .

The princess of wonderful goodness, name of Guanyin as third daughter of King yan. The profound cause, the discipline of the bodhisattva, i.e. chastity, and the six pramits, etc., as producing the Buddha-fruit. The wonderful land; a Buddha's reward-land; especially the Western Paradise of Am itbha. Profound principles; the Lotus school. Ruciraketu. Name of a Bodhisattva.

dhvajgrakeyra, "the ring on the top of a standard," a degree of ecstatic medit ntioned in the Lotus Sutra. c.

Wonderful virtue, title of Majur; also an intp. of the meaning of Kapilavastu, v.

The mind or heart wonderful and profound beyond human thought. According to Tiant ai the limited this to the mind of the Buddha, while the universalized it to e the unenlightened heart of all men.

Mnavaka, i.e. kyamuni in a previous incarnation as disciple of Dpakara The miraculous response, or self-manifestation of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. [235] Admirable, profound teaching; i.e. that of the Lotus Sutra. Profoundly enlightened heart or mind, i.e. the knowledge of the finality of the s tream of reincarnation. The wonderful Buddha-wisdom. The absolute reality, the incomprehensible entity, as contrasted with the superfi cial reality of phenomena; supernatural existence. Wonderful fruit, i.e. bodhi or enlightenment and nirvana. Wonderful music (in the Pure Land). Miao-yo, the sixth Tiantai patriarch. saddharma, () The wonderful law or truth (of the Lotus Sutra). The One Vehicle of the wonderful dharma, or perfect Mahyna.

The hall of wonderful dharma, situated in the south-west corner of the Tryas n, v. , where the thirty-three devas discuss whether affairs are according to law or truth or the contrary. The palace of the wonderful Law, in which the Buddha ever dwells. The lamp of the wonderful Law shining into the darkness of ignorance.

The bark or boat of wonderful dharma, capable of transporting men over the sea of life into nirvana. idem. The treasury of the wonderful dharma. The wheel of the wonderful Law, Buddha's doctrine regarded as great cakra or wheel .

The wonderful truth as found in the Lotus Sutra. the One Vehicle Sutra; which d to contain Buddha's complete truth as compared with his previous or , i.e or expedient teaching, but both are included in this perfect truth. The sutra i s the Saddhamapuarka or () , also known as om Sanskrit into Chinese, the most popular being by Kumrajva. It was the special c lassic of the Tiantai school, which is sometimes known as the Lotus school, and i t profoundly influenced Buddhist doctrine in China, Japan, and Tibet. The commen taries and treatises on it are very numerous; two by Chih-i of the Tiantai school being the and the . asat, the mystery of non-existence.

Wonderful and profound; an abbreviation for the Tiantai commentary on th

The profound nature of the bhtatathat, the totality, or fundamental nature, of a ings.

Subhu-kumra, the Bodhisattva of the wonderful arm; there is a sutra of this name

surpa, . The wonderful form or body, i.e. of a Buddha's sabhogakya and his Bu

Surpakya Tathgata (Akobhya, the Buddha of the East), who is thus addressed w s are made to the hungry spirits.

() ubhavyha, the king who is the subject and title of the twenty-seventh c Lotus Sutra. He is also reputed to be the father of Guanyin. The wonderful lotus, symbol of the pure wisdom of Buddha, unsullied in the midst o f the impurity of the world. The profound act by which a good karma is produced, e.g. faith; v. .

The beautiful sight, i.e. Ursa Major, or the Bodhisattva who rules there, styled ), though some say kyamuni, others Guanyin, others Bhaiajya, others the se His image is that of a youth in golden armour. The wonderful enlightenment of Mahyna, or self-enlightenment to enlighten others. The stage of wonderful enlightenment, Buddhahood. The profound, enlightened nature, that of Buddha, one of the . The wonderful system of the three Tiantai meditations; v. , . The storehouse of miraculous words, mantras, dhra, or magic spells of Shingon. Subhadra, A monk referred to in the Records of Western Lands. [236]

The wonderful destiny or metempsychosis, i.e. that of Mahyna. The wonderful vehicles (mentioned in the Lotus Sutra). The wonderful door of dharma; nirvana; the six Tiantai methods leading through me ditation to enlightenment and the state of nirvana.

Wonderful sound. (1) Gadgadasvara, (or ) a Bodhisattva, master of sev amdhi, residing in Vairocanarami-pratimaita, whose name heads chap. 24 of the Lotus Sutra. (2) Sughoa, a sister of Guanyin; also a Buddha like Varua controlling the w aters , the 743rd Buddha of the present kalpa. (3) Ghoa, an arhat, famous for , who "restored the eyesight of Dharmavivardhana by washing his eyes with the te ars of people who were moved by his eloquence." Eitel.

Universal wonderful sound, Manoja-abdbhigarjita, the kalpa of nanda as Buddha.

() Sarasvat, the wife or female energy of Brahm. Also called ( dess of eloquence, learning, and music, bestower of the Sanskrit language and le tters, and the bestower of riches; also the river goddess. Sometimes considered as masculine. Honoured among the seven gods of luck, and often represented as mo unted on a dragon or a serpent. The wonderful-voice bird, the kalavika. The mountain of marvelous appearance, i.e. Sumeru. () The wonderful high mountain, Sumeru; the king of mountains. Filial, obedient. A filial son. Mourning clothes for parents. Obedient. Po; plants shooting; a comet. Bhagai. A city south of Khotan, formerly famous for a statue exhibiting all the th irty-two lakanas or marks on the body of Buddha. Vast, spacious.

Hung-chih, posthumous name of a monk of Tiant'ung monastery, Ningpo, early in the twelfth century. The Sung dynasty, A.D. 960-1280.

Sutras of the Hnayna and Mahyna admitted into the canon during the N g (A.D. 960-1127 and 1127-1280) and Yuan (A.D. 1280-1368) dynasties. B.N., 782-1 081.

The third of the ten rulers of Hades, who presides over the Klastra, the hell of b ck ropes. Tail: end. vibh, to shine, illuminate, tr, by , a name for the Shingon sect because of to dispel the darkness of delusion.

virpka, epithet for the three-eyed deva, iva. See also . Virhaka idem , one of the four maharja-devas. Urine, urinate. A urinating ghost; a term of abuse. A urinal. Rare, seldom, few; to hope for. Rare and extraordinary. ; Giving in hope of heaven, or bliss; one of the . Rare, extraordinary, uncommon, few. There are few, a sad exclamation, indicating that those who accept Buddha's teachi ng are few, or that those who do evil and repent, or give favours and remember f avours, etc., are few. adbhutadharma; supernatural things, prodigies, miracles, a section of the twelve classical books. Ghosts that hope for sacrificial offerings (from their descendants). The river Nairajan, v. .

The dictionary compiled by Hsi-lin of the Tang dynasty, supplementing the i. Sound and meaning accord with Hui-lin, and terms used in translations made su bsequent to that work are added. Seriatim; preface, introduction; the opening phrase of a sutra, "Thus have I hea rd;" an opening phrase leading up to a subject. The introduction by Chih-i to the Lotus Sutra. Introductions are divided into , , nd , the first relating to the reason for the book; the second to its method; and the third to its subsequent history. Younger brother. Disciple, disciples. Form, figure, appearance, the body. pratim, an image or likeness (of Buddha). The body, comparable to a mountain. Form, appearance. The desire awakened on seeing a beautiful form, one of the six desires. [237]

sasthnarpa, the characteristics of form long, short, square, round, high, low, str ht, crooked. It is also associated with rpvacara as personal appearance, and as a class of gods in the realm of form.

Will, resolve, ; ; also data, records. Glad, joyful; quick, sharp. Joyful.

The quick-eyed king, Sudhra, or highly intelligent, who could see through a wall 40 li away, yet who took out his eyes to give as alms; v. 6. Delight, joy. Avoid, tabu, dread; hate, jealous.

The tabu day, i.e. the anniversary of the death of a parent or prince, when all t oughts are directed to him, and other things avoided.

knti, (or ); patience, endurance, (a) in adverse circumstances, (b) in the re state. There are groups of two, three, four, five, six, ten, and fourteen, indic ating various forms of patience, equanimity, repression, forbearance, endurance, constancy, or "perseverance of the saints," both in mundane and spiritual thing s.

The stage of patience ensures that there will be no falling into the lower paths transmigration. The patient i, or immortal of patience, i.e. the Buddha. The stage of patience.

The discipline of patience, in the four Hnayna disciplines; also in the Mah The patient and good; or patient in doing good. The place of patience or endurance, this world. The stage of patience, i.e. of enlightenment separating from the chain of transmi gration.

Patience and wisdom. In the Hnayna, patience is cause, wisdom effect; in Mahyna, t two are merged, though patience precedes wisdom. Patience in its depth and expanse compared to water.

() The method or stage of patience, the sixth of the seven stages of the Hnayn attainment of arhatship, or sainthood: also the third of the four roots of good ness. The patience pramit, v. .

sah, or sahloka, or sahlokadhtu. The universe of persons subject to transmigration he universe of endurance. Patiently to harmonize, i.e. the patient heart tempers and subdues anger and hatr ed.

(or ) knti pramit; patience, especially bearing insult an d of the six pramits . Its guardian Bodhisattva is the third on the left in the hall of space in the Garbhadhtu.

kntyi; the i who patiently suffered insult, i.e. kyamuni, in a former life, lation to convert Kalirja. The stage of patience. Two kinds are distinguished, patience which endures (1) ins ults originating in men, such as hatred, or abuse, (2) distresses arising from n atural causes such as heat, cold, age, sickness, etc.

The patient prince, of Vra (Benares), who gave a piece of his flesh to heal h ents, which was efficacious because he had never given way to anger. The robe of patience, a patient heart which, like a garment, wards off all outward sin. A general name for the kaya, monk's robe. () Patience as armour, protecting against evils; also the kaya, monk's robe. Complete, finish, perfect, become. To become Buddha, as a Bodhisattva does on reaching supreme perfect bodhi. To become Buddha and obtain deliverance (from the round of mortality).

vivarta kalpa, one of the four kalpas, consisting of twenty small kalpas during w hich worlds and the beings on them are formed. The others are: vivarta-siddha kal pa, kalpa of abiding, or existence, sun and moon rise, sexes are differentiated, heroes arise, four castes are formed, social life evolves. savarta kalpa, that of destruction, consisting of sixty-four small kalpas when fire, water, and wind de stroy everything except the fourth dhyna. savarta-siddha kalpa, i.e. of annihilatio n. v. .

Vidya-matriddhi stra, in 10 juan, being Vasubandhu's in 30 juan reduced b o by others, to 10. There are works on it by various authors.

Completely true, or reliable, perfect truth, an abbreviation for, ,

Satyasiddhi sect (Jap. Jjitsu-sh), based upon the Satyasiddhi stra of Harivarman tr. by Kumrajva. In China it was a branch of the San Lun sect. It was a Hnayna var ion of the nya doctrine. The term is defined as perfectly establishing the real me aning of the sutras. tr. as above is in 16 juan; there are other works on it. siddhi: accomplishment, fulfillment, completion, to bring to perfection.

To transform all beings by developing their Buddha-nature and causing them to obta n enlightenment. The ripe; those who attain; those in whom the good nature, immanent in all the liv ing, completes their salvation. [238] To attain to perfect enlightenment, become Buddha.

To attain to natural enlightenment as all may do by beholding eternal truth w heir own hearts. ; The first group in the nine Vajradhtu groups. To attain the Way, or become enlightened, e.g. the Buddha under the bodhi tree.

The annual commemoration of the Buddha's enlightenment on the 8th day of the 12 onth.

I, my, mine; the ego, the master of the body, compared to the ruler of a country . Composed of the five skandhas and hence not a permanent entity. It is used for tman, the self, personality. Buddhism takes as a fundamental dogma , i.e. no , no rmanent ego, only recognizing a temporal or functional ego. The erroneous idea o f a permanent self continued in reincarnation is the source of all illusion. But the Nirvana Sutra definitely asserts a permanent ego in the transcendental worl d, above the range of reincarnation; and the trend of Mahyna supports such permane nce; v. . My body; myself; my affair.

The four ejects of the ego in the Diamond Sutra: (1) the illusion that in the kandhas there is a real ego; (2) that this ego is a man, and different from being s of the other paths; (3) that all beings have an ego born of the five skandhas; ( 4) that the ego has age, i.e. a determined or fated period of existence. The illusion of an ego, one of the four inverted or upside-down ideas.

namna; the pride of thinking myself not much inferior to those who far surpass me. ne of the q.v. adhimna; the pride of thinking oneself superior to equals. One of the . tma-grha; holding to the concept of the ego; also . The ego as the abode (of all suffering). Power or virtue of the ego, the ego being defined as sovereign, master, free; v.

Ego ignorance, holding to the illusion of the reality of the ego. The thought that the ego has reality. Self-love; the love of or attachment to the ego, arising with the eighth vijna. abhimna, tma-mada. Egoism exalting self and depreciating others; self-intoxication, pride. I and mine: the self and its possessions.

; Mine, personal, subjective; personal conditions, possessions, or anythi the self. The mind that thinks it is owner of things. The incorrect view that anything is really mine, for all things are but temporal c ombinations. The illusion that the ego has real existence. Self (or the ego), and things.

The school that regards the ego and things as real; the Vtsputrya scho

The ego pramit in the four based on the Nirvana Sutra in which the transcendenta is , i.e. has a real and permanent nature; the four are permanency, joy, pers ity, purity.

Ego-infatuation, confused by the belief in the reality of the ego.

Egoism, the concept of the ego as real. Anyone who believes in, , , ttva, v. .

(); Illusion of the concept of the reality of the ego, man being compo and disintegrated when these are dissolved. The Hnayna doctrine of impersonality in the absolute, that in truth there is no this position abrogates moral responsibility, cf. . [239] mntimna; the pride of thinking oneself equal to those who surpass us. One of the

The erroneous doctrine that the ego, or self, composed of the temporary five skan has, is a reality and permanent. The attachment to doctrines or statements about the ego. One of the . The illusion that the ego is real; also the incorrect view that the nirvana-ego is non-ego. One of the .

la, . Precept, command, prohibition, discipline, rule; morality. It is applied to e five, eight, ten, 250, and other commandments. The five are: (1) not to kill; (2 ) not to steal; (3) not to commit adultery; (4) not to speak falsely; (5) not to drink wine. These are the commands for lay disciples; those who observe them will be reborn in the human realm. The Sarvstivdins did not sanction the observan ce of a limited selection from them as did the Satyasiddhi school. Each of the fiv e precepts has five guardian spirits, in all twenty-five, . The eight for lay d s are the above five together with Nos. 7, 8, and 9 of the following; the ten co mmands for the ordained, monks and nuns, are the above five with the following: (6) not to use adornments of flowers, nor perfumes; (7) not to perform as an act or, juggler, acrobat, or go to watch and hear them; (8) not to sit on elevated, broad, and large divans (or beds); (9) not to eat except in regulation hours; (1 0) not to possess money, gold or silver, or precious things. The full commands for a monk number 250, those for a nun are 348, commonly called 500. la is also the fi rst of the , i.e. a condition above all moral error. The Sutra of Brahma's Net has he following after the first five: (6) not to speak of the sins of those in orde rs; (7) not to vaunt self and depreciate others; (8) not to be avaricious; (9) n ot to be angry; (10) not to slander the triratna. The power derived from observing the commandments, enabling one who observes the five commandments to be reborn among men, and one who observes the ten positive commands to be born among devas, or as a king. Clinging to the commandments of heterodox teachers, e.g. those of ultra-asceticis m, one of the four attachments, catu-parmara. The delusion resulting from clinging to heterodox commandments. Clinging to heterodox ascetic views; one of the five darana . The different groupings or subjects of the commandments, or discipline; i.e. the 5, 10, 250. etc. The good root of keeping the commandments, from which springs the power for one w ho keeps the five to be reborn as a man; or for one who keeps the ten to be rebo rn in the heavens, or as a king.

A utensil fit to receive the rules, i.e. one who is not debarred from entering th e order, as is a eunuch, slave, minor, etc. The source of defiling the commandments, i.e. woman. The place where monks are given the commandments.

The altar at which the commandments are received by the novice; the is the Ma r.

The study of the rules or discipline; one of the three departments , the other two being meditation and philosophy. Discipline, meditation, wisdom; discipline wards off bodily evil, meditation calms mental disturbance, wisdom gets rid of delusion and proves truth. The teacher of the discipline, or of the commandments (to the novice); also . The five virtues of the teacher of the discipline: obedience to the rules, twenty ears as monk, ability to explain the vinaya, meditation, ability to explain the abhidharma. la and vinaya. The rules. The Vinaya Piaka, the second main division of the Buddhist canon. The power of the discipline.

[240] Patience acquired by the observance of the discipline; the first of the ten knti. Zealous for the discipline rather than for knowledge, e.g. Hnayna.

One who is zealous for knowledge rather than the discipline, e.g. Vimalakrti One who emphasizes both precepts and meditative insight, the Bodhisattva. One who is indifferent to both meditative insight and moral discipline. The Prtimoka q.v. is the latter half of the . Moral precepts, the second of the six pramits.

Upli, a dra, disciple of kyamuni, famous for his knowledge of the Vinaya; v. The rules are pure and purify like the waters of the ocean. ; Certificate of ordination of a monk. The commandments, or rules, are like pure white pearls, adorning the wearer. The commandments or rules in their various forms; also the commandments as expres sions for restraining evil, etc. Prohibitions arising out of the fundamental rules; by-laws.

v. . The "commandments' knee," i.e. the right knee bent as when receiving the commandm ents. The number of years a monk has been ordained. is the name of an offering made at the end of the year in ancient times. Also; ; . The Vinaya Piaka; the collection of rules. labhadra, see . The rut or way of the commandments; the rules. The way or method of the commandments or rules: obedience to the commandments as a way of salvation. The perfume of the commandments, or rules, i.e. their pervading influence.

The embodiment of the commandments in the heart of the recipient. v. ; also the ba is, or body, of the commandments. A magician, trickster, conjurer. An order of a court, rescript; a contract, lease; to comment, criticize. v; the Indian lute. To shake. dhta; stirring up to duty; discipline. v. . To snap, break; decide; compound; fold. To subdue the evil and receive the good; cf. .

(or ) Caritra, "A port on the south-east frontier of Ua (Orissa) w de was carried on with Ceylon." Eitel. (or ) Cakoka, i.e. Karghalik in Turkestan. A broken stone, i.e. irreparable. The snapped-off reed on which Bodhidharma is said to have crossed the Yangtsze fr om Nanking. To cast, throw into, surrender, tender. T'ou-tzu, name of a hill and monastery at Shu-chou and of

I-ch'ing its noted

To avail oneself of an opportunity; to surrender oneself to the principles of the Buddha in the search for perfect enlightenment. To cast oneself into an abyss (hoping for eternal life). To cast, or offer flowers in worship. To cast away, or surrender, one's body, or oneself. Curb, repress; or.

The third of the five periods of Buddha's teaching, as held by the Nirvana sect of China , during which the is attributed to him. To suppress, e. g. suppress evil deeds.

The suppression or universal reception of evil beings; pity demands the latter cou se. Aid, support, uphold.

The external organs, i.e. of sight, etc., which aid the senses; is also writt g fleeting, vacuous, these external things having an illusory existence; the rea l organs, or indriya, are the or which evolve the ideas. [241]

() The teaching which supports the rules and speaks of the eternal, i. e 'Supporting commentary', another name for the Nirva Stra, because according it is an amplification of the Lotus Sutra. Bodhisattva, idem . To change, correct. To change one's cult, school of thought, or religion. To repent and reform. To change; a night watch; again; the more. Medicines that should be taken between dawn and the first watch, of which eight a re named, v. 5. Plum. mravana, the wild-plum (or mango) grove, see . To tie reeds together in order to make them stand up, illustration of the interde pendence of things and principles.

Yaivana, ; the forest in which a Brahman tried to measure Buddha's height wi bamboo pole, but the more he measured the higher the body became; another part of the legend is that the forest grew from the bamboo which he left behind in ch agrin. Stop, prevent; azalea. To shut the mouth, render speechless. turuka olibanum, Indian incense, resin, gum used for incense. It is said to resemb le peach resin and to grow in Aali. Its leaves resemble the pear's and produce pe pper; it is said to flourish in the sands of Central Asia and its gum to flow ou t on to the sands. ; q. v. dhta, discipline (to shake off sin, etc. ). dta, a messenger; dt, a female messenger.

Dhruvpau, a king of Valabh, son-in-law of laditya.

() pada; step, pace. v. Buddha. or ; A form of Samantabhadra as a vajra-king.

Each, every. v. Maitreya. maitrmanas, of kindly mind, tr. by merciful. Draw water; emulate, eager. The round of reincarnations is like the waterwheel at the well ever revolving up a nd down. To bathe; translit. mu, mo. is one of the former incarnations of kyamuni. To sink; heavy. Sunk in the gloom of reincarnations and ignorance. agaru, or aguru, sandal incense. () aguru, the tree and incense of that name. To sink into emptiness, or uselessness. Wet, wash, enrich.

(or ) The rock, or mountain, Ptla, on the bottom of the ocean, just above th tory, which absorbs the water and thus keeps the sea from increasing and overflo wing. is the ocean which contains this rock, or mountain. Filthy, impure. klea; contamination of attachment to the pleasures of sense, to h eretical views, to moral and ascetic practices regarded as adequate to salvation , to the belief in the self, all which cause misery. Sunk, gone; not; translit. m, mu, mo, mau, ma, bu, v, etc. No inter-relation. moha, delusion, bewilderment, infatuation, tr. by foolishness; cf. . Derived from mtyu, death; one of Yama's or rjas. No nose to lay hold of; no lead, no bases. Buddha, v. . mdu, soft, pliant, weak. vrata, temporary chastity, or observance.

mydi, illusion-views, intp. by egoism, the false doctrine that there

Tasteless, valueless, useless, e. g. the discussion of the colour of milk by blind people. (or ) v. () Maudgalaputra, or Maudgalyyana. buddha, v. . To seek, beseech, pray. The pain which results from not receiving what one seeks, from disappointed hope, r unrewarded effort. One of the eight sorrows.

The Qiuming (fame-seeking) bodhisattva, v. Lotus Sutra, a name of Maitreya in a pr vious life. Also, Yaaskma, 'A disciple of Varaprabh noted for his boundless ambitio n and utter want of memory.' Eitel. Seeking nirva, i. e. the disciple who accepts the ten commandments. gua, a quality, characteristic, or virtue, e. g. sound, taste, etc. [242] Guavddhi,

, an Indian monk who came to China 492-5, tr. three works, d. 502.

Guavarman, tr. , a prince of Kubh (Cashmere), who refused the throne, wand ached China, tr. ten works, two of which were lost by A. D. 730. Born in 367, he died in Nanjing in A. D. 431. He taught that truth is within, not without, and that the truth (dharma) is of oneself, not of another. The centre of his work is placed in Yangzhou. It is said that he started the order of nuns in China, v. i-ming-yi.

Guabhadra, tr. . (1) A follower of the Mahsak in Kapi. (2) A Brhmaa Chinese some seventy-eight works A. D. 435-443; b. 394, d. 468.

bluk. Sand; sands, e. g. of Ganges , implying countless; translit. s, , . Cf. Kalpas countless as the sands of Ganges. sa-vara; the sexennial assembly.

rmaera, ; ; The male religious novice, who has t explained by one who ceases from evil and does works of mercy, or lives altruistic lly; a zealous man; one who seeks rest; one who seeks the peace of nir e recognized according to age, i. e. 7 to 13 years old, old enough to 'drive away crows'; 14 to 19, called able to respond to or follow the doctrine; 20 to 70.

() rmaerik . A female religious novice who has taken a vow to ob a zealous woman, devoted.

The ten commandments taken by the rmaerik: not to kill living beings, not to s to lie or speak evil, not to have sexual intercourse, not to use perfumes or de corate oneself with flowers, not to occupy high beds, not to sing or dance, not to possess wealth, not to eat out of regulation hours, not to drink wine. The ten commandments of the rmaera; v. . Mind like sand in its countless functionings. Samatya, one of the eighteen Hnayna sects.

svh, hail! v. . Worlds as numerous as the sands of Ganges.

sla, or la, the Sl or al tree; the teak tree; the Shorea (or Valeria) Robust n general. slarja, a title of the Buddha.

(or ); ? raa (said to be a son of King Udayana) who became a monk. The twin trees in the grove in which kyamuni entered nirva. 'Charaka, a monastery in Kapia.' Eitel. sah, ; the world around us, the present world. Also svh, see above. agarika, one of the eighteen Hnayna sects.

ramaa. ; ; ; ; ; ; (1) Ascetics of all ki erhaps identical also with the Tungusian Saman or Shaman.' Eitel. (2) Buddhist m onks 'who 'have left their families and quitted the passions', the Semnoi of the Greeks'. Eitel. Explained by toilful achievement, diligent quieting (of the mind and the passions), purity of mind, poverty. 'He must keep well the Truth, guard w ll every uprising (of desire), be uncontaminated by outward attractions, be merc iful to all and impure to none, be not elated to joy nor harrowed by distress, a nd able to bear whatever may come.' The Sanskrit root is ram, to make effort; exe rt oneself, do austerities. The fruit, or rebirth, resulting from the practices of the ramaa. The national superintendent or archbishop over the Order appointed under the Wei d ynasty. A gaol, fold, pen; secure, firm. A firm barrier, a place shut tight, type of the deluded mind. Pen, pit, or fold (for animals) and cage (for birds). Deranged, mad, wild. Saved out of terror into the next life; however distressed by thoughts of hell as he result of past evil life, ten repetitions, or even one, of the name of Amitbha ensures entry into his Paradise. Foolish wisdom; clever but without calm meditation. A mad dog. [243] musc volitantes, dancing flowers before the eyes. A mad elephant, such is the deluded mind. Male. Male and female.

The male organ.

A particle of finality, pronounced yi, used in hd, the heart; the essence of a t g. Bald. ; A monk; a nun, sometimes used as a term of abuse. The two patriarchs Shenxiu and Huineng, q. v. Private, secret, selfish, illicit. A monk's private seal, which should resemble a skull as reminder of the brevity o f life. Vasitha, v. .

svabhva, 'own state, essential or inherent property, innate or peculiar disposition , natural state or constitution nature' (M. W.), intp. as or .

; ; ; St. Described as the 'cold' river; one of the four great rive vatpta or Anavadata Lake in Tibet. One account makes it 'an eastern outflux' which subsequently becomes the Yellow River. It is also said to issue from the west. A gain, 'the Ganges flows eastward, the Indus south, Vatsch (Oxus) west, St north.' Vatsch = Vku. 'According to Xuanzang, however, it is the northern outflux of the S irikol [Sarikkol] Lake (Lat. 3820N., Long. 74E.) now called Yarkand daria, which fl ows into Lake Lop, thence underneath the desert of Gobi, and reappears as the so urce of the Huanghe.' Eitel. According to Richard, the Huanghe 'rises a little a bove two neighbouring lakes of Khchara (Charingnor) and Khnora (Oring-nor). Both are connected by a channel and are situated at an elevation of 14,000 feet. It may perhaps be at first confounded with Djaghing-gol, a river 110 miles long, wh ich flows from the south and empties into the channel joining the two lakes'.

To go to the bottom of; inquire into; end, fundamental, supreme. v. for Kumbh v. for Kuingra. kukkua, a cock, or fowl.

Examine exhaustively; utmost, final, at the end, a tr. of uttar, upper, superior, hence ultimate, supreme. The fundamental, ultimate, or supreme Buddha, who has complete comprehension of tr uth; Buddha in his supreme reality.

The supreme class or stage, i. e. that of Buddhahood. The Mahyna groups the variou stages in the attainment of Buddhahood into five, of which this is the highest. The stage of complete comprehension of truth, being the sixth stage of the Tiantai School, v. . The supreme joy, i. e. nirva. The supreme dharmakya, the highest conception of Buddha as the absolute. Supreme enlightenment, that of Buddha; one of the four kinds of enlightenment in t he Awakening of Faith. hasta, forearm, the 16,000th part of a yojana; it varies from 1ft. 4in. to 1ft.

8in. in length. Good, virtuous, beneficial. A good, or auspicious, day. Rynin, founder of the Japanese school. Liangben, the Tang monk who assisted Amogha in the translation of the Ren Wang . The field of blessedness, cultivated by offerings to Buddha, the Law, and the Orde r. The dragon palace in which Ngrjuna recited the Huayan jing.

darana, ; also di; seeing, discerning, judgment, views, opinions; it is thin ing, discriminating, selecting truth, including the whole process of deducing co nclusions from premises. It is commonly used in the sense of wrong or heterodox views or theories, i. e. or , especially such as viewing the seeming as real and t e ego as real. There are groups of two, four, five, seven, ten and sixty-two kin ds of .

Beholding Buddha; to see Buddha. Hnayna sees only the nirmakya or body of incarna Mahyna sees the spiritual body, or body in bliss, the sabhogakya. Views and practice; heterodoxy; cf. . The stage of insight, or discernment of reality, the fourth of the ten stages of progress toward Buddhahood, agreeing with the of Hnayna. Visibility (or perceptibility) as one of the seven elements of the universe. [244] To behold the Buddha-nature within oneself, a common saying of the Chan (Zen) or Intuitive School.

Views and thoughts, in general illusory or misleading views and thoughts; tly to the visible world, but also to views derived therefrom, e. g. the ego, wi th the consequent illusion; to the mental and moral world also with its illusion . The three delusions which hinder the three axioms are , , and q. v inds and the Mahyna 112 of , of 10 and 16 respectively. views and desires, e. g. the illusion that the ego is a reality and the consequen t desires and passions; the two are the root of all suffering. The wisdom of right views, arising from dhyna meditation. Seeing correctly; said to be the name of a disciple of the Buddha who doubted a f uture life, to whom the Buddha is said to have delivered the contents of the . The poison of wrong views. The illusion of viewing the seeming as real, v. . di-kaya. Corruption of doctrinal views, one of the five final corruptions. The service on the third day when the deceased goes to see King Yama.

The state or condition of visibility, which according to the Awakening of Faith ses from motion, hence is also called . To behold truth, or ultimate reality. The bond of heterodox views, which fastens the individual to the chain of transmi gration, one of the nine attachments; v. . The net of heterodox views, or doctrines. The bond of the illusion of heterodox opinions, i. e. of mistaking the seeming fo r the real, which binds men and robs them of freedom: v. . Clinging to heterodox views, one of the four ; or as , one of the q. v. The trials of delusion and suffering from holding to heterodox doctrines; one of t he ten sufferings or messengers.

diparmara: to hold heterodox doctrines and be obsessed with the sense of the se Seeing and hearing, i. e. beholding Buddha with the eyes and hearing his truth wi th the ears. The state of wrong views, i. e. the state of transmigration, because wrong views give rise to it, or maintain it. The realization of correct views, i. e. the Hnayna stage of one who has entered the stream of holy living; the Mahyna stage after the first Bodhisattva stage. Wrangling on behalf of heterodox views; striving to prove them. The way or stage of beholding the truth (of no reincarnation), i. e. that of the rv aka and the first stage of the Bodhisattva. The second stage is cultivating the t ruth; the third completely comprehending the truth without further study. The obstruction of heterodox views to enlightenment. The visible and invisible; phenomenal and noumenal. To see things upside down; to regard illusion as reality. vina ; a horn, a trumpet: also a corner, an angle; to contend. Perverted doctrines and wrong thoughts, which weigh down a monk as a pack on an a nimal. Words, speech; to speak. Word-dependence, i. e. that which can be expressed in words. [245] Sentences. Words as explaining meaning; explanation. beyond explanation. The teaching of Buddha as embodied in words.

Words and deeds. Words, speech, verbal expression.

Set out in words, i. e. a syllogism. A gully. gu-wa-wa, the cry of a ghost, made in proof of its existence to one who had writte n a treatise on the non-existence of ghosts. ma, ; Legumes, beans, peas, lentils, etc.

Masra Saghrma, Lentil Monastery, 'an ancient vihra about 200 li southeast of Mo tel.

dukha, trouble, suffering, pain, defined by harassed, distressed. The first of t four dogmas, or 'Noble Truths' is that all life is involved, through impermanence , in distress. There are many kinds of q. v. akha a shell, cowry, conch; valuables, riches; a large trumpet sounded to call the assembly together. conch and bell.

(); pattra; palm leaves from-the borassus flabelliformis, used for The scriptures written on palm leaves. pratyeka, v. . pattra tablets, stras written on them. kaya , red, hot; south; naked. A tree used for incense.

The 'drops' of red and white, i. e. female and male sperm which unite in conceptio . The red-eye, i. e. a turtle. () The red flesh (lump), the heart.

Chagayana. 'An ancient province and city of Tukhra, the present Chaganian in Lat. 21 N' Long. 6921 E.' Eitel. The red-moustached (or bearded) Vibh, a name for Buddhayaas. The red demons of purgatory, one with the head of a bull, another with that of a horse, etc. To walk, go. To travel by sea. Foot, leg; enough, full. 'Eyes in his feet,' name of Akapda Gotama, to whom is ascribed the beginning of log ic; his work is seen 'in five books of aphorisms on the Nyya.' Keith.

kya; tanu; deha. The body; the self. The sense of touch, one of the six senses.

The three commandments dealing with the body, prohibiting taking of life, thef astity; the four dealing with the mouth, against lying, exaggeration, abuse, and ambiguous talk; the three belonging to the mind, covetousness, malice, and unbe lief. The glory shining from the person of a Buddha, or Bodhisattva; a halo. Body and life; bodily life. The body, as a utensil, i. e. containing all the twelve parts, skin. flesh, blood , hair, etc. Body, and environment. The body is the direct fruit of the previous life; the env ironment is the indirect fruit of the previous life. The body as the citadel of the mind.

ddhividhi-jna. Also , ; the power to transfer oneself to various regi hange the body at will. The body as the throne of Buddha. Body and mind, the direct fruit of the previous life. The body is rpa, the first s kandha; mind embraces the other four, consciousness, perception, action, and kno wledge; v. . kyendriya; the organ of touch, one of the six senses. The karma operating in the body; the body as representing the fruit of action in previous existence. One of the three karmas, the other two referring to speech a nd thought. Sindhu, Scinde, v. . The hairs on Buddha's body curled upwards, one of the thirty-two marks. The body as a lamp, burnt in offering to a Buddha, e. g. the Medicine King in the Lotus Sutra. The body regarded as a field which produces good and evil fruit in future existen ce. [246] Bodily form; the body. The lotus in the body, i. e. the heart, or eight-leaved lotus in all beings; it r epresents also the Garbhadhtu, which is the matrix of the material world out of w hich all beings come.

satkyadi; the illusion that the body, or self, is real and not simply a compound o he five skandhas; one of the five wrong views .

kya-vijna. Cognition of the objects of touch, one of the five forms of cognition; v .

The body as the vehicle which, according with previous karma, carries one into th e paths of transmigration. The power to transfer the body through space at will, one of the marks of the Bud dha. The numberless bodies of Buddhas, hovering like clouds over men; the numberless f orms which the Buddhas take to protect and save men, resembling clouds; the numb erless saints compared to clouds. A cart, wheeled conveyance. chy, shade, shadow. Chandaka, the driver of kyamuni when he left his home. The name of a cave, said to be atapara, or Saptaparaguh. The hub of a cart; applied to large drops (of rain). Name of a spirit. The Indus; Sindh; idem .

sindhupra (? sindhuvra), incense or perfume, from a fragrant plant said to gro banks (pra) of the Indus (Sindhu). Hour; time; the celestial bodies.

jina, victorious, applied to a Buddha, a saint, etc.; forms part of the names of trta; Jinaputra; Jinabandhu; three Indian monks in China, the first an seventh century. Wander about, patrol, inspect. To patrol, or circumambulate the hall. To inspect all the buildings of a monastery. To patrol and receive any complaints. To patrol as night-watchman. Guarding against fire. To walk about with a metal staff, i. e. to teach. The ancient state of Bin, south-west Shanxi; translit. p, e. g. in Pramaitryaputra iada , etc. Deflected, erroneous, heterodox, depraved; the opposite of ; also erroneously use d for . Heterodoxy; perverted views or opinions.

() Heterodox or improper ways of obtaining a living on the part of a monk, e. g. doing work with his hands, by astrology, his wits, flattery, magic, etc. Begging , or seeking alms, was the orthodox way of obtaining a living.

The heterodox way of preaching or teaching, for the purpose of making a living.

Heterodox tenets and attachment to them. Adultery. A mountain of error or heterodox ideas; such ideas as great as a mountain.

() The accumulation (of suffering) to be endured in purgatory by one of hete re; one of the three accumulations . mithymna ; perverse or evil pride, doing evil for self-advancement; to hold to hete rodox views and not to reverence the triratna. Heterodox fanning, i. e. to influence people by false doctrines. jhpita, being erroneously used to represent the syllable pi, v. . Heterodoxy, false doctrines or methods. Depraved and selfish desires, lust. The net of heterodoxy, or falsity. The accumulation of misery produced by false views, one of the . [247] Erroneous ways, the ninety-six heretical ways; the disciplines of non-Buddhist se cts. The phenomenal bhtatathat, from which arises the accumulation of misery. Heterodox views, not recognizing the doctrine of moral karma, one of the five het erodox opinions and ten evils . The Hnayna, the Vehicle of perverted views. The thickets of heterodoxy. Heterodox ways, or doctrines. Clouds of falsity or heterodoxy, which cover over the Buddha-nature in the heart. Evil demons and spirits, mras. mras and heretics. Where ? How ? What ? That. Translit. na, ne, no, nya; cf. , , . nda, a river.

nga. Snake, dragon, elephant. It is tr. by dragon and by elephant. (1) As drago t represents the chief of the scaly reptiles; it can disappear or be manifest, i ncrease or decrease, lengthen or shrink; in spring it mounts in the sky and in w inter enters the earth. The dragon is of many kinds. Dragons are regarded as ben eficent, bringing the rains and guarding the heavens (again Draco); they control rivers and lakes, and hibernate in the deep. nga and mahnga are titles of a Buddha , (also of those freed from reincarnation) because of his powers, or because lik e the dragon he soars above earthly desires and ties. One of his former reincarn

ations was a powerful poisonous dragon which, out of pity, permitted itself to b e skinned alive and its flesh eaten by worms. (2) A race of serpent-worshippers.

(or ) Ngrjuna, the dragon-arjuna tree, or ngakroana, intp of the 'four suns' and reputed founder of Mahyna (but see for Avaghoa), native of S outh India, the fourteenth patriarch; he is said to have cut off his head as an offering. 'He probably flourished in the latter half of the second century A. D. ' Eliot, v. . He founded the Mdhyamika or School, generally considered as advocatin g doctrines of negation or nihilism, but his aim seems to have been a reality be yond the limitations of positive and negative, the identification of contraries in a higher synthesis, e. g. birth and death, existence and non-existence, etern al and non-eternal; v. .

Ngasena . The instructor of the king in the Milindapaha, v. (

() nrikela, nrikera, The coco-nut. Nrikeladvpa is described a south of Ceylon, inhabited by dwarfs 3 feet high, who have human bodies with bea ks like birds, and live upon coco-nuts'. Eitel.

Naa, said to be the eldest son of Vairavaa, and represented with three faces, eight arms, a powerful demon-king. angmin, v. . () nava; navamlik. Variegated or mixed flowers. Aniruddha, v. .

nad, river, torrent; name of Punyopya, , a noted monk of Central In Nadkyapa, brother of Mahkyapa, to become Samantaprabhsa Buddha.

( ) Nagara; Nagarahra. 'An ancient kingdom and city on the southe about 30 miles west of Jellalabad (Lat. 3428 N., Long. 7030 E. ). The Nagara of P tolemy.' Eitel. nman (or ). A name .

Nland, a famous monastery 7 miles north of Rjagha, built by the king akrditya. tp. as 'Unwearying benefactor', a title attributed to the nga which dwelt in the la ke mra there. The village is identified in Eitel as Baragong, i. e. Vihragrma. For Nland excavations see Archological Survey Reports, and cf. Xuanzang's account.

nayuta, (or ); (or ) a numeral, 100,000, or one million, or te [248] Naa; cf.

; a dancer or actor ; or perhaps narya, manly, strong, one definitio

(); Nryaa, 'son of Nara or the original man, patronymic of the p living being, author of the Purusha hymn,' M. W. He is also identified with Brah m, Viu, or Ka; intp. by the originator of human life; firm and stable; r; and vajra; the term is used adjectivally with the meaning of manly and strong. Nryaa is represented with three faces, of greenish-yellow colour, right hand with a wheel, riding a garua-bird.

Nryaa-deva, idem Nryaa. His akti or female energy is shown in th (or) Naramnava, a young Brahman, a descendant of Manu.

nara-nari union of the male and female natures. ? nardhra, a flower, tr. carried about for its scent.

naya; leading, conduct, politic, prudent, method; intp. by right principle; co ance, i. e. mode of progress; and way, or method. Nya is a name of Jt, v. Nrgrantha.

naraka, 'hell, the place of torment,... the lower regions' (M. W. ), intp. by q nma, namo, idem q. v. nrca, an arrow, intp. a pointed implement.

() Narendrayaas, a monk of Udyna, north-west India; sixth century A. bha, Srya-garbha, and other stras. nlaya-maala, the non-layamaala, or the bodhi-site or seat, which ndent of place, and entirely pure. nabhi; navel, nave of a wheel. nma, namo, idem . A village, neighbourhood, third of an English mile; translit. r and ; perhaps als o for l and l. Ward of, protect, beware; to counter. To counter, or solve difficulties, especially difficult questions. (idem ) Warders or patrols in Hades. vna, weaving, sewing: tr. as a tailoress. 8. EIGHT STROKES

Milk, which in its five forms illustrates the Tiantai five periods of the Buddha' teaching.

The flavour of fresh milk, to which the Buddha's teaching in the Huayan jing is pared. Resinous wood (for homa, or fire sacrifice). The eye able to distinguish milk from water; as the goose drinks the milk and reje cts the water, so the student should distinguish orthodox from heterodox teachin g.

Tiantai compares the Avatasavka-stra to milk, from which come all its other p kunduruka, boswellia thurifera, both the plant and its resin.

artha ( being an error for ); affair, concern, matter; action, practice; phen to serve. It is 'practice' or the thing, affair, matter, in contrast with theory , or the underlying principle. Salvation by observing the five commandments, the ten good deeds, etc. Teaching dealing with phenomena. The characterization by Tiantai of the Tripiaka o

r Hnayna teaching as within the three realms of desire, form, and formlessness; he 'different teaching' as outside or superior to those realms; the one dealt he activities of time and sense, the other transcended these but was still invol ved in the transient; the was initial Mahyna incompletely developed. The phenomenal world, phenomenal existence. v. . The Buddha-nature in practice, cf. , which is the Buddha-nature in principle, nce, or the truth itself. Phenomenal fire, v. fire as an element; also, fire-worship. [249] Practice and theory; phenomenon and noumenon, activity and principle, or the abso lute; phenomena ever change, the underlying principle, being absolute, neither c hanges nor acts, it is the q. v. also v. . For () v. . The three thousand phenomenal activities and three thousand principles, a term of he Tiantai School. v. .

Phenomenon, affair, practice. The practices of the esoterics are called as cont ed with their open teaching called . A mystic, or monk in meditation, yet busy with affairs: an epithet of reproach. Discussion of phenomena in contrast with . Phenomenal activities. According to Tiantai there are 3,000 underlying factors or principles giving rise to the 3,000 phenomenal activities. Traces of the deeds or life of an individual; biography.

Phenomenal hindrances to entry into nirva, such as desire, etc.; are noumenal h nces, such as false doctrine, etc. Haste, urgency. Leather sandals. Second, inferior; used in translit. as 'a', e. g. rya. Offer up; enjoy. The hall of offerings, an ancestral hall. Attend; wait on; attendant. An attendant, e. g. as nanda was to the Buddha; assistants in general, e. g. the i ncense-assistant in a temple. To send; cause; a messenger; a pursuer, molester, lictor, disturber, troubler, i ntp. as klea, affliction, distress, worldly cares, vexations, and as consequent re incarnation. There are categories of 10, 16, 98, 112, and 128 such troublers, e. g. desire, hate, stupor, pride, doubt, erroneous views, etc., leading to painfu l results in future rebirths, for they are karma-messengers executing its purpos e. Also q. v.

pj; to offer (in worship), to honour; also to supply; evidence. To offer to Buddha. Offerings, i. e. flowers, unguents; water, incense, food, light. The devas who serve Indra. To offer; the monk who serves at the great altar. The Tang dynasty register, or census of monks and nuns, supplied to the governmen t every three years. The cloud of Bodhisattvas who serve the Tathgata. To make offerings of whatever nourishes, e. g. food, goods, incense, lamps, scrip tures, the doctrine, etc., any offering for body or mind. gama; gam-; gata. Come, the coming, future. Future world, or rebirth. To come in response to an invitation; to answer prayer (by a miracle). The fruit or condition of the next rebirth, regarded as the result of the present . Future rebirth; the future life. The coming of Buddhas to meet the dying believer and bid welcome to the Pure Land ; the three special welcomers are Amitbha, Avalokitevara, and Mahsthmaprpta. To depend, rely on; dependent, conditioned; accord with. Dependent on or trusting to someone or something else; trusting on another, not o n self or 'works.'

() Not having an independent nature, not a nature of its own, but constitute nts.

One of the dependent on constructive elements and without a nature of its own The mind in a dependent state, that of the Buddha in incarnation.

The unreality of dependent or conditioned things, e. g. the body, or self, illustr ted in ten comparisons: foam, bubble, flame, plantain, illusion, dream, shadow, echo, cloud, lightning; v. 2. Dependent and perfect, i. e. the dependent or conditioned nature, and the perfect nature of the unconditioned bhtatathat. The ground on which one relies; the body, on which sight, hearing, etc., depend; the degree of samdhi attained; cf. . v. . To rely on, depend on. idem v. .

To depend and rest upon.

The profundity on which all things depend, i. e. the bhtatathat; also the Buddha , The crya, or master of a junior monk.

The two forms of karma resulting from one's past; being the resultant person, the dependent condition or environment, e. g. country, family, possessions, etc .

To rely upon the dharma, or truth itself, and not upon (the false interpretation ) men. A board to lean against when in meditation.

The bhtatathat in its expressible form, as distinguished from it as inexpre The body on which one depends, or on which its parts depend, cf. . [250] The magical powers which depend upon drugs, spells, etc., v. . Two, a couple, both; an ounce, or tael. The Two Fascicle Sutra, i. e. the .

() The contaminated and uncontaminated bhtatathat, or Buddha-nature, v. Faith.

The two temporary vehicles, rvaka and pratyekabuddha, as contrasted with the comp te Bodhisattva doctrine of Mahyna.

The 'two rivers', Nairajan, v. , where Buddha attained enlightenment, and Hirayav ee , where he entered Nirva. The two wings of and meditation and wisdom. The two recording spirits, one at each shoulder, v. and . v. . Double tongue. One of the ten forms of evil conduct . The two talents, or rewards from previous incarnations, inner, i. e. bodily or pe rsonal conditions, and external, i. e. wealth or poverty, etc. The most honoured among men and devas (lit. among two-footed beings), a title of t he Buddha. The two feet are compared to the commandments and meditation, blessin g and wisdom, relative and absolute teaching (i. e. Hnayna and Mahyna), meditation a nd action. Two sections, or classes.

maala of the two sections, i. e. dual powers of the two Japanese groups symbol e Vajradhtu and Garbhadhtu v. and . The two rats (or black and white mice), night and day. Canon, rule; allusion; to take charge of; mortgage.

(or); The one who takes charge of visitors in a monastery. The verger who indicates the order of sitting, etc. Summary of the essentials of a sutra, or canonical book. A dictionary, phrase-book. All; complete; to present; implements; translit. gh.

(or ) or Ghoira, a wealthy householder of Kaumb, who gave kyamuni . ? yumant. Having long life, a term by which monk, a pupil or a youth may be address ed. idem . The 'expedient' method of giving the whole rules by stages. The second of the bodhisattva ten stages in which all the rules are kept.

One of the three abhieka or baptisms of the . A ceremonial sprinkling of th monarch at his investiture with water from the seas and rivers (in his domain). It is a mode also employed in the investiture of certain high officials of Buddh ism. Completely bound, all men are in bondage to illusion. To discuss completely, state fully.

Gautama, v. . All, complete.

The complete rules or commandments 250 for the monk, 500 (actually 348) for the nun .

The forty-fourth of Amitbha's forty-eight vows, that all universally should acq is virtue. A box, receptacle; to enfold: a letter. Agreeing like a box and lid. Cut, carve, engrave; oppress; a quarter of an hour, instant. To engrave the canon. Arrive, reach, to. pramit, cf. ; to reach the other shore, i. e. nirva. At the end, when the end is reached. Restrain, govern; regulations; mourning.

(or ); caitya, a tumulus, mausoleum, monastery, temple, spire, flagstaff sacred place or thing, idem (or ), cf. .

Jetavany, a Hnayna sect. (or ) caitya-vandana, to pay reverence to, or worship a stpa, image, etc. Caitra, the spring month in which the full moon is in this constellation, i. e. Vi rgo or ; M. W. gives it as March-April, in China it is the first month of spring from the 16th of the first moon to the 15th of the second. Also idem caitya. , The restraints, or rules i. e. of the Vinaya.

The way or method of discipline, contrasted with the , i. e. of teaching, both met ods used by the Buddha, hence called . cha; translit. k.

; ketra, land, fields, country, place; also a universe consisting of three t arge chiliocosms; also, a spire, or flagstaff on a pagoda, a monastery but this interprets caitya, cf. . Other forms are (or or ); . Lands, countless as the dust.

(); katriya. The second, or warrior and ruling caste; Chinese render i royal caste; the caste from which the Buddha came forth and therefore from which all Buddhas () spring. kema, a residence, dwelling, abode, land, property; idem and . Land and sea. The flagpole of a monastery, surmounted by a gilt ball or pearl, sy mbolical of Buddhism; inferentially a monastery with its land. Also , (or ). kaa. An indefinite space of time, a moment, an instant; the shortest measure of tim e, as kalpa is the longest; it is defined as a thought; but according to another definition 60 kaa equal one finger-snap, 90 a thought , 4,500 a minute; there are o ther definitions. In each kaa 900 persons are born and die. [251] The moments past, present, future.

Not a moment is permanent, but passes through the stages of birth, stay, change, d ath. All things are in continuous flow, born and destroyed every instant. To cut cloth for clothes; beginning, first. The first of the three divisions of the night. The initial stage on the road to enlightenment. The first of the ten stages, or resting-places, of the bodhisattva. is the restin g-place or stage for a particular course of development; is the position or rank attained by the spiritual characteristics achieved in this place. The first of the three asakhyeya or incalculable kalpas. The initial kaa, initial consciousness, i. e. the eighth or laya-vijna, from s consciousness.

The first of the ten bodhisattva stages to perfect enlightenment and nirva. The initial resolve or mind of the novice. The first of the three divisions of the day, beginning, middle, end . The first watch of the night.

A term of the Dharmalakana school, the first of the three periods of the Bud ching, in which he overcame the ideas of heterodox teachers that the ego is real , and preached the four noble truths and the five skandhas, etc. The initial fruit, or achievement, the stage of srota-panna, illusion being discar ded and the stream of enlightenment entered.

The aiming at the stage of srota-panna. The other stages of Hnayna are sakdgmi nd arhat. The first of the ten stages toward Buddhahood, that of joy.

The initial determination to seek enlightenment; about which the Jin dynasty Huay n jing says: at this very moment the novice enters into the status of perf ment; but other schools dispute the point.

The first of the four dhyna heavens, corresponding to the first stage of dhyna med ation. devas in the realms of form, who have purged themselves from all sexuality.

The first dhyna, the first degree of dhyna-meditation, which produces rebirth in t first dhyna heaven.

The initiator of change, or mutation, i. e. the laya-vijna, so called because the er vijnas are derived from it. Lofty, tall erect. Tall or erect staves, i. e. their place, a monastery. Low, inferior; translit. p, pi, v, vy, m.

() The pride of regarding self as little inferior to those who far surpass one; on of the . Prasenajit, v. . pit, a kind of hungry demon. pippala, the bodhidruma, v. . Vimalka, the pure-eyed, described as of Kabul, expositor of the , teacher arashahr; came to China A. D. 406, tr. two works.

mlecchas, border people, hence outside the borders of Buddhism, non-Buddhist. A father's younger brother; translit. i, u. () iumra, a crocodile. (or M003764) () uka, a parrot.

ukla, or ukra, white, silvery; the waxing half of the moon, or month; one of the as terisms, 'the twenty-fourth of the astronomical Yogas, ' M. W.; associated with Venus. updna. To grasp, hold on to, held by, be attached to, love; used as indicating bot h love or desire and the vexing passions and illusions. It is one of the twelve n idnas or the grasping at or holding on to self-existence and things. Easy, facile, loose talk or explanations. The state of holding to the illusions of life as realities. To hold repentance before the mind until the sign of Buddha's presence annihilates the sin. The producing seed is called , that which it gives, or produces, is called . To grasp, hold on to, or be held by any thing or idea. The skandhas which give rise to grasping or desire, which in turn produces the sk andhas. v. . To receive, be, bear; intp. of vedana, 'perception,' 'knowledge obtained by the senses, feeling, sensation.' M. W. It is defined as mental reaction to the objec t, but in general it means receptivity, or sensation; the two forms of sensation of physical and mental objects are indicated. It is one of the five skandhas; a s one of the twelve nidnas it indicates the incipient stage of sensation in the e mbryo. To receive the entire commandments, as does a fully ordained monk or nun.

The four immaterial skandhas vedan, saj, saskra, vijna, i. e. feeling, id onsciousness. To receive, or accept, the commandments, or rules; a disciple; the beginner recei ves the first five, the monk, nun, and the earnest laity proceed to the receptio n of eight, the fully ordained accepts the ten. The term is also applied by the esoteric sects to the reception of their rules on admission. To receive and retain, or hold on to, or keep (the Buddha's teaching). Duties of the receiver of the rules; also to receive the results or karma of one' s deeds. To receive, or add, a year to his monastic age, on the conclusion of the summer's retreat. [252] Received for use.

The sabhogakya v. trikya, i. e. the functioning glorious body, f bliss; for the spiritual benefit of others. The realm of the sabhogakya. A recipient (e. g. of the rules). The illusory view that the ego will receive rew ard or punishment in a future life, one of the sixteen false views.

vedan, sensation, one of the five skandhas. ; To receive from a Buddha predestination (to become a Buddha); the prophecy dhisattva's future Buddhahood. To receive the rules and follow them out . To gape; translit. kha. Translit. tha. turuka, olibanum, incense; also the name of an Indo-Scythian or Turkish race. Call; breathe out. The raurava or fourth hot hell.

(or ) Hutuktu, a chief Lama of Mongolian Buddhism, who is repeatedly reinc homa, an oblation by fire.

Himatala . 'An ancient kingdom ruled in A. D. 43 by a descendant of the ky ably the region south of Kundoot and Issar north of Hindukush near the principal source of the Oxus.' Eitel. 3. he, ko. Breathe out, yawn, scold; ha, laughter; used for and . yatana, an organ of sense, v. .

(or ) (or ) Hrit, the demon-mother; also Harita, Haridr, tawny, yello (or ) haka; gold, thorn-apple.

Hahava, or Ababa, the fourth of the eight cold hells, in which the sufferers can o nly utter this sound.. Aaa the third of the eight cold hells, in which the sufferers can only utter this und. The eleventh of the twenty rules for monks, dealing with rebuke and punishment of wrongdoer. da. Call; stutter; translit. ta. (or ) tadyath, i. e. , as or what is said or meant, it means, i. e.,

tatkaa, 'the 2250th part of an hour.' Eitel. .

Talekn, 'an ancient kingdom on the frontiers of Persia,' its modem town is Talikhan

Takal, 'ancient kingdom and city, the Taxila of the Greeks, the regio in Lat. 3548 N., Long. 72 44 E.' Eitel.

(or ); Tmralipti (or t), the modem Tamluk near the mouth of the ipal emporium for the trade with Ceylon and China'. Eitel. Talas, or Taras; '(1) an ancient city in Turkestan 150 li west of Ming bulak (acco rding to Xuanzang). (2) A river which rises on the mountains west of Lake Issiko ul and flows into a large lake to the north-west.' Eitel.

Termed, or Tirmez, or Tirmidh. 'An ancient kingdom and city on the Oxus in Lat. 3 7 5 N., Long. 67 6 E.' Eitel. rasa. Taste, flavour; the sense of taste. One of the six sensations. Taste-dust, one of the six 'particles' which form the material or medium of sensa tion.

The taste-desire, hankering after the pleasures of food, etc.; the bond of such d sire. Taste, flavour; the taste of Buddha-truth or tasting the doctrine.

dhra ; mantra; an incantation, spell, oath, curse; also a vow with penalties fo re. Mystical, or magical, formulae employed in Yoga. In Lamaism they consist of sets of Tibetan words connected with Sanskrit syllables. In a wider sense dhra is a treatise with mystical meaning, or explaining it.

; (or ) An incantation for raising the vetla or corpse-de erson. The heart of a spell, or vow. One of the four piakas, the thesaurus of dhras. Sorcery, the sorcerer's arts. Vows, prayers, or formulas uttered in behalf of donors, or of the dead; especiall y at the All Souls Day's offerings to the seven generations of ancestors. Every word and deed of a bodhisattva should be a dhra. jvita . Life, vital, length of life, fate, decree. The light of a life, i. e. soon gone.

jvajvaka; jvajva, a bird with two heads, a sweet songster; or The precious possession of life. A root, or basis for life, or reincarnation, the nexus of Hnayna between two life-p eriods, accepted by Mahyna as nominal but not real. Life and honour, i. e. perils to life and perils to noble character.

One of the , turbidity or decay of the vital principle, reducing the length of lif . Life's end; nearing the end. The living being; the one possessing life; life. The rope of life (gnawed by the two rats, i. e. night and day). A ramaa who makes the commandments, meditation, and knowledge his very life, as did. Life's hardships; the distress of living. [253]

Around, on every side, complete.

(or ) Kudrapanthaka; little (or mean) path. Twin brothers were born o d uddhipanthaka, Purity-path, the other born soon after and called as above, intp . small road, and successor by the road. The elder was clever, the younger stupid not even remembering his name, but became one of the earliest disciples of Budd ha, and finally an arhat. The records are uncertain and confusing. Also ; The first anniversary of a death, when anniversary masses are said. The anniversary of Buddha's birthday.

(); c; a topknot left on the head of an ordinand when he receives the co locks are later taken off by his teacher as a sign of his complete devotion. Universal, everywhere, on every side.

The universal dharmadhtu; the universe as an expression of the dharmakya; the un e; cf. . Cund, said to be the same as . ?Kudra, said to be the same as supra. Harmony, peace; to blend, mix; with, unite with; respond, rhyme. Harmonious and compliant. To blend, unite.

(); ; vykaraa, grammar, analysis, change of form; intp. as the future felicity and realm of a disciple, hence Kauinya is known as Vykaraa-Kauiny .

; (or ); ; ; ; ; ; vandana. Obeisance, pro To blend, unite, be of one mind, harmonize. (); () A sagha , a monastery. A monastery where all are of one mind as the sea is of one taste.

A general term for a monk. It is said to be derived from Khotan in the form of or or ) which might be a translit. of vandya (Tibetan and Khotani ban-de), 'reverend. ' Later it took the form of or . The use , others generally . The San its interpretation is updhyya, a 'sub-teacher' of the Vedas, inferior to an cr is intp. as strong in producing (knowledge), or in begetting strength in his disc iples; also by a discerner of sin from not-sin, or the sinful from the not-sin has been used as a synonym for a teacher of doctrine, in distinction from a teac er of the vinaya, also from a teacher of the Intuitive school. vajra.

Vajrapi, the Bodhisattva holding the sceptre or thunderbol demon king and protector of Buddhism. Khotan, Kustana, cf. . Vsuki, lord of ngas, name of a 'dragon-king', with nine heads, hydra-headed; also

() Vasumitra. A distinction is made (probably in error) between Vasumitra, n libertine and for his beauty, and Vasumitra q. v., a converted profligate who be president of the synod under Kanika. A pill compounded of many kinds of incense typifying that in the one Buddha-truth lies all truth. Drop, droop, let down, pass down; regard. To make an announcement. Traces, vestiges; manifestations or incarnations of Buddhas and bodhisattvas in t heir work of saving the living. Night; translit ya. yathvat, suitably, exactly, solid, really.

; ; yaka, (1) demons in the earth, or in the air, or in the lower heaven ignant, and violent, and devourers (of human flesh). (2) The , the eight attendants of Kuvera, or Vairavaa, the god of wealth; those on earth bestow wealth, those in the empyrean houses and carriages, those in the lower heavens guard the moat an d gates of the heavenly city. There is another set of sixteen. The names of all are given in 3. See also for raka and for ktya. yaka-ktya are credited f both yaka and ktya. Yama, 'originally the Aryan god of the dead, living in a heaven above the world, the regent of the South; but Brahminism transferred his abode to hell. Both view s have been retained by Buddhism.' Eitel. Yama in Indian mythology is ruler over the dead and judge in the hells, is 'grim in aspect, green in colour, clothed i n red, riding on a buffalo, and holding a club in one hand and noose in the othe r': he has two four-eyed watch-dogs. M. W. The usual form is q. v.

Yamadeva; the third devaloka, which is also called or , intp. as o mes, or seasons, are always good. Yamaloka, the realm of Yama, the third devaloka. Yajurveda, 'the sacrificial Veda' of the Brahmans; the liturgy associated with Br ahminical sacrificial services. To receive respectfully; honoured by, have the honour to, be favoured by, serve, offer. To carry out orders. , To make offerings. To obey and do (the Buddha's teaching). Remedy, alternative, how ? what ? a yellow plum. idem niraya, hell. The inevitable river in purgatory to be crossed by all. [254] The bridge in one of the hells, from which certain sinners always fall.

Rudhirhra, name of a yaka. carya, adbhuta; wonderful, rare, extraordinary; odd. Beautiful, or wonderful beyond compare.

Wonderful, rare, special, the three incomparable kinds of power to convert al s, Buddha-wisdom, and Buddha-power to attract and save all beings. Extraordinary, uncommon, rare. To run; translit. pun and p. puyal, almshouse or asylum for sick and poor.

() puarka, the white lotus, v. or ; also the last of the eight great c Pura-vardhana, an ancient kingdom and city in Bengal.

pupanga, the flowering dragon-tree under which Maitreya is said to have attained e ightenment. To throw down, depute; really; crooked; the end. To die, said of a monk. Jealous, envious.

irypaaka. Impotent except when aroused by jealousy, one of the five classes of ' s'. Paternal aunt, husband's sister, a nun; to tolerate; however; leave. , kua grass, grass of good omen for divination. Ku-tsang, formerly a city in Liangchow, Kansu, and an important centre for commun ication with Tibet. Beginning, first, initial; thereupon. An initiator; a Bodhisattva who stimulates beings to enlightenment.

According to Tiantai, the preliminary teaching of the Mahyna, made by the Avatasaka (Kegon) School; also called ; it discussed the nature of all phenomena as in the held to the immateriality of all things, but did not teach that all beings have the Buddha-nature. Beginning and end, first and last. A beginner.

The initial functioning of mind or intelligence as a process of 'becoming', arisi ng from which is Mind or Intelligence, self-contained, unsullied, and considered as universal, the source of all enlightenment. The 'initial intelligence' or enl ightenment arises from the inner influence of the Mind and from external teachin g. In the 'original intelligence' are the four values adopted and made transcend ent by the Nirva-stra, viz. , , , Perpetuity, joy, personality, and purity; the acquired through the process of enlightenment. Cf. Awakening of Faith.

Eldest, first; Mencius; rude. The eight violent fellows, a general term for plotters, ruffians, and those who wr ite books opposed to the truth. The Meng family dame, said to have been born under the Han dynasty, and to have be come a Buddhist; later deified as the bestower of the drug of forgetfulness, or ob livion of the past, on the spirits of the dead. Orphan, solitary. An isolated hill; a monastery in Kiangsu and name of one of its monks. () Lokntarika, solitary hells situated in space, or the wilds, etc.

(); ; ; Jetavana, the seven-story abode and park presented to k it from the prince Jeta. It was a favourite resort of the Buddha, and 'most of the stras (authentic and suppositious) date from this spot'. Eitel. is also a term for an orphanage, asylum, etc. A fruit syrup. Self-arranging, the Hnayna method of salvation by individual effort. Official, public. In danger from the law; official oppression. To fix, settle. samdhi. 'Composing the mind'; 'intent contemplation'; 'perfect ab sorption of thought into the one object of meditation.' M. W. Abstract meditatio n, the mind fixed in one direction, or field. (1) scattered or general meditation (in the world of desire). (2) abstract meditation (in the realms of form and bey ond form). It is also one of the five attributes of the dharmakya , i. e. an intern al state of imperturbability or tranquility, exempt from all external sensations , ; cf. . Fellow-meditators; fellow-monks.

(1) Dpakara ; , to whom kyamuni offered five lotuses when the latter w and was thereupon designated as a coming Buddha. He is called the twenty-fourth predecessor of kyamuni. He appears whenever a Buddha preaches the Lotus Sutra. (2 ) Crystal, or some other bright stone. To determine, adjudge, settle. [255]

samdhibala. The power of abstract or ecstatic meditation, ability to overcome all disturbing thoughts, the fourth of the five bla ; described also as powers of min ontrol. One of the q. v. Determined period of life; fate. The female figures representing meditation in the maalas; male is wisdom, female is meditation. Learning through meditation, one of the three forms of learning .

A mind fixed in meditation. A fixed mind samdhi, i. e. fixed on the Pure Land and its glories. Patience and perseverance in meditation.

Fixed nature; settled mind. A classification of 'five kinds of nature' is made he , the first two being the , i. e. rvakas and pratyekabuddhas, whose mind rhatship, and not on Buddhahood. The is the second dhyna heaven of form, in whi occupants abide in surpassing meditation or trance, which produces mental joy. Meditation and wisdom, two of the six pramits; likened to the two hands, the left m editation, the right wisdom. A settled, or a wandering mind; the mind organized by meditation, or disorganized by distraction. The first is characteristic of the saint and sage, the second o f the common untutored man. The fixed heart may or may not belong to the realm o f transmigration; the distracted heart has the distinctions of good, bad, or ind ifferent.

Both a definite subject for meditation and an undefined field are considered as va uable. Meditation and wisdom. samdhndriya. Meditation as the root of all virtue, being the fourth of the five ind riya . Fixed karma, rebirth determined by the good or bad actions of the past. Also, the work of meditation with its result.

Even the determined fate can be changed (by the power of Buddhas and bodhisattva Calm waters; quieting the waters of the heart (and so beholding the Buddha, as th e moon is reflected in still water). Fixity, determined, determination, settled, unchanging, nirva. The appearance of me ditation. The enlightenment of meditation, the sixth of the sapta bodhyaga q. v.

The dharmakya of meditation, one of the five forms of the Buddha-dharmakya.

Ancestors, ancestral; clan; class, category. kind; school, sect; siddhnta, summar y, main doctrine, syllogism, proposition, conclusion, realization. Sects are of two kinds: (1) those founded on principles having historic continuity, as the tw enty sects of the Hnayna, the thirteen sects of China, and the fourteen sects of J apan: (2) those arising from an individual interpretation of the general teachin g of Buddhism, as the sub-sects founded by Yongming (d. 975), , , , culiar interpretation of one of the recognized sects, as the Jdo-shinsh found by ran-shnin. There are also divisions of five, six, and ten, which have reference t o specific doctrinal differences. Cf. . The vehicle of a sect, i. e. its essential tenets. The basic principles of a sect; its origin or cause of existence. The rules or ritual of a sect.

That on which a sect depends, v. . The master workman of a sect who founded its doctrines. Proposition, reason, example, the three parts of a syllogism. [256] The study or teaching of a sect.

Sumatikrti (Tib. Tso-kha-pa), the reformer of the Tibetan church, founder of the Y low Sect ( ); according to the b. A. D. 1417 at Hsining, Kansu. His sect was strict discipline, as opposed to the lax practices of the Red sect, which permi tted marriage of monks, sorcery, etc. He is considered to be an incarnation of M ajur; others say of Amitbha. Zongmi, one of the five patriarchs of the Huayan (Avatasaka) sect, d. 841. The main thesis, or ideas, e. g. of a text. Ultimate or fundamental principles.

, The thesis of a syllogism consisting of two terms, each of which has five differ nt names: subject; its differentiation; that which acts; the action; ifferentiated; that which differentiates; first statement; following stateme on which the syllogism depends, both for subject and predicate.

Sects (of Buddhism). In India, according to Chinese accounts, the two schools of Hnayna became divided into twenty sects. Mahyna had two main schools, the Mdhyamika, ascribed to Ngrjuna and ryadeva about the second century A. D., and the Yogcrya, ascr ibed to Asaga and Vasubandhu in the fourth century A. D. In China thirteen sects were founded: (1) Abhidharma or Koa sect, representing Hn