1. Define multimedia and multimedia element? Explain it.

(10 Marks)
Multimedia is nothing but the processing and presenting of information in a more structured and understandable manner using more than one media such as text, graphics, animation, audio and video. Computer is an essential part in multimedia. All the elements in multimedia have to be in digital format. Elements of Multimedia Multimedia system consists of several elements such as sound, graphics, text, animation and video. Audio The word audio is slightly differing from sound. Audio consist of the sound we can hear Audio is one of the most successful elements of any multimedia presentation The impact of sound set the mood and establishes the ambience of a presentation Text Out of all of the elements, text has the most impact on the quality of the multimedia interaction. Generally, text provides the important information. Text acts as the keystone tying all of the other media elements together. It is well written text that makes a multimedia communication wonderful. Sound Sound is used to provide emphasis or highlight a transition from one page to another. Sound synchronized to screen display, enables teachers to present lots of information at once. This approach is used in a variety of ways, all based on visual display of a complex image paired with a spoken explanation (for example, art ² pictures are ¶glossed· by the voiceover; or math ² a proof fills the screen while the spoken explanation plays in the background). Sound used creatively, becomes a stimulus to the imagination; used inappropriately it becomes a hindrance or an annoyance. For instance, a script, some still images and a sound track, allow students to utilize their own power of imagination without being biased and influenced by the inappropriate use of video footage. A great advantage is that the sound file can be stopped and started very easily. Video The representation of information by using the visualization capabilities of video can be immediate and powerful. While this is not in doubt, it is the ability to choose how we view, and interact, with the content of digital video that provides new and exc iting possibilities for the use of digital video in education. There are many instances where students, studying particular processes, may find themselves faced with a scenario that seems highly complex when conveyed

and is not ¶overdone·. The object itself does not change. drawings. Standing commented that. Students can use object animation to illustrate a point ² imagine a battle map of Gettysburg where troop movement is represented by sliding arrows. visual rhythm. when combined with user input. whereas animations are based on drawings. while students are reading notes about a particular issue. for example. and especially imagination. Animation Animation is used to show changes in state over time. or recreate. or something pulled from the Internet. The use of video is appropriate to convey information about environments that can be either dangerous or too costly to consider. the operation of an engine·s crankshaft. There are two types of animation: Cell based and Object based. Such a reaction can provide a strong motivational incentive to choose and persist in a task. With a scanner. or by the use of diagrams and images.in purely text form. pictures from CD-ROM. dimension. Animations. in real life. Video can stimulate interest if it is relevant to the rest of the information on the page. . where real-life situations can be better understood via video. the drawings appear to move. a video showing a short clip of the author/teacher emphasizing the key points can be inserted at a key moment. alternatively. For example: video images used to demonstrate particular chemical reactions without exposing students to highly volatile chemicals. Object based animation (also called slide or path animation) simply moves an object across a screen. Animations are primarily used to demonstrate an idea or illustrate a concept. They can be photographs. it is unlikely that video can completely replace the face-to-face lecture: rather. or medical education. In such situations the representational qualities of video help in placing a theoretical concept into context. One of the most compelling justifications for video may be its dramatic ability to elicit an emotional response from an individual. enable students to view different versions of change over time depending on different variables. the video clips can be used to tell readers what to do next. Graphics Graphics provide the most creative possibilities for a learning session. graphs from a spreadsheet. hand-drawn work can be included. or to present information slowly to students so they have time to assimilate it in smaller chunks. When shown in rapid sequence. texture. The reason for this is that images make use of a massive range of cortical skills: color. line. Video can be used to give examples of phenomena or issues referred to in the text. Cell based animation consists of multiple drawings. each one a little different from the others. On the other hand. For example. video needs to be used to supplement textual information. ´the capacity of recognition memory for pictures is almost limitlessµ. Video is usually taken from life. form.

Internet video-conferencing. Internet gaming. The user can control what is seen and when it will be seen. The end user simply watches what is delivered without being able to choose among options. video. Explain about categories of multimedia. each audio sample or video frame has a timestamp associated with it. (10 Marks) Linear and nonlinear Multimedia may be broadly divided into linear and non-linear categories. For example. animation. audio and video that are time-based. etc. it can be broadly classified into interactive multimedia and streaming media. multimedia applications typically have the real-time constraint.. . Interactive multimedia applications include Internet telephony. in accordance with their associated timestamp. there is no ability for the end user to control when elements are to be delivered. text. Non-Interactive Multimedia: A multimedia project in which text. Real time Real time Multimedia: Real-time multimedia refers to applications in which multimedia data has to be delivered and rendered in real time. Multimedia is a term that describes multiple forms of information. media data has to be delivered and rendered in real time. Non linear content offers user interactivity to control progress as used with a computer game or used in self-paced computer based training. The best examples are continuous media such as animation. However. i. Multimedia presentations can be live or recorded.. sound and moving video come to the end user without any opportunity for interactivity. representing its presentation time. A recorded presentation may allow interactivity via a navigation system. Internet collaboration.e. graphics. Interactive and non-interactive Interactive Multimedia: When the multimedia user is allowed to control what elements are to be delivered and when they are to be delivered. including audio.2. i. video is typically rendered at 30 frames per second to give the viewers the illusion of smooth motion. Hypermedia is an example of non -linear content. images. Linear active content progresses without any navigation control for the viewer such as a cinema presentation. Nonlinear Multimedia: When the end user is given navigational control to wander through multimedia content at will. Some multimedia projects are like television in that they present material in a linear fashion from beginning to end. Conventional "television" is essentially "linear multimedia" (although switching channels could be said to involve interactivity). graphics. Multimedia data has to be presented in a continuous fashion.e. As a result. A live multimedia presentation may allow interactivity via an interaction with the presenter or performer. Linear Multimedia: A non-interactive form of multimedia in which a project starts at a beginning and runs through to the end. etc.

ake sure your cables that carry high-frequency analog signals are properly shielded to block out any E noise. nternet videoconferencing.Analog signal is continuously variable. n the other hand. n low voltage signals. E noise on the signal. it is constantly bombarded by electromagnetic waves. nternet collaboration that combines video. or example. as well as the wiring in your house. This is because digital signals are either on or off. §¦ ¤¦ © ¥¤ $    % # ©  ! © ¤£ ¢ £ ¢¡   ! ' ' &  ltimedia as ecome  !   ( .Digital signal are based on 's and 1's.6 Volts and interpret it as its original 5 Volts. distributed simulation. including nternet telephony. digital device will take the 4. . large number of distributed multimedia applications have been  an indispensable feature on the nternet. and would incorrectly read the voltage as 4. multimedia messaging.The primary disadvantage of an analog signal is noise. entertainment and gaming. . "  transmit higher uality video/audio than its cheaper counterparts. (10 Marks There has always been debates on whether high uality cables and more expensive!) will this uestion is dependent on whether the signal is analog or digital. nimation. E can reduce 5 Volts to 4. s an analog or digital signal travels down a cable.Most computer used such as the P work using digital signals. Expl in in b i f bout An lo nd i it l Si n l.Sound waves are a continuous wave and as such are analog in the real world. radio.Digital signal is discrete. ables that carry digital signals should still be shielded. 3.Analog signal required lesser bandwidth capacity than digital capacity. Electromagnetic nterference E cable has proper shielding. igital Signal: 1.created.6 Volts. an analog signal would not do any conversion. but high quality shielding is not as important as in analog signal cables for cable lengths under 1 feet only). ) comes from many sources including over-the-air television. 5.Analog signal are continuous. this usually means 5 Volts on) or Volts off). Unless a waves hitting a cable can generate a small current to produce The diagram above shows how noise will affect analog signals far more than digital signals. etc. nalog ignal: 1. There is no affect by the small change in noise voltage from E . 5. 2. 4. 4.Digital signal required greater bandwidth capacity than analog signals. audio and video clips become increasingly bout 75% of the answer to ¨ £ £ Today. 2. and cell phone signals. ©   !        % © ©  " !    ! "  popular on the nternet. nternet TV. distance learning. on demand streaming or broadc asting.6 Volts.Noise is much easier to filter out of a digital signal. audio and whiteboard. advanc of digital dia and networking tec nologies.

Video format d.wma)/active streaming format (.mp3 .asf).pcm Mpeg Audio Mpeg Audio Layer 3 Microsoft Apple Computer Real Network Characteristics Small bit in size 8 it encoded 6 bit encoding High quality than Au Support on windows Wav Comparable Sound quality 8 (or) 6 bit Samplings.Qt . Text Format Audio Formats The most common audio format is wave file (.aiff.au .u-Law .ra.4. .ram Codec .wav .pcm .aac) .aiif Mp (. The Format types are also represented by the file extension. Audio Format Au Wav Aiff Mpeg Mp3 Windows media Audio Quick time Real Audio Extension . Real Audio and mp3.wma . (15 Marks) a. Common streaming audio format included windows media Audio (. c. Quick time.wav). Audio Format Image Format b. mpeg layer 3(mp3) and aiff (audio interchange file format. Codec determines the way the audio file is compressed and stored. Good sound quality Good Sound quality than mp Design with (DRM) Digital Right Manager Support both streaming audio and streaming video Support both streaming audio/ video 0 ) ) 0 . List out different kind of Multimedia File Formats . .

Video Format avi MP G MOV ASF (Advance System Format) wmv (Window Media Audio) RM (Real Media) 5 3 6 3 6 3 MP G (Moving Picture expert Group) Characteristics ncompressed result High quality video Larger files Support on windows ntire file must be downloaded before being played Better quality Video Storage rate is . Requires Apple Quick Time Movie Player Run on MAC Platform (OS). Depend on Comparison it can provide a very high video clip. Include Many Features of MP G . Produce full Motion Video with relatively small size.avi (Audio Video Interleave). Movies involve audio and video.8/min MP G is used to make a one hour VCD movie. 5 2 4 3 3 1 2 3 3 .mpeg (Moving picture expert group) and quick time. Audio/Video Content can be compressed with a wide variety of codecs. Require window Media Player to be installed in client. . Very high Compression. but at a cost of quality. Requires real networks real player to play the contents. New Features include extended VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). Quick time files consumes almost 0kb/s of video encoding or about Mb/m. MP G and other related standards.Video Formats Common video formats are . some common streaming video formats include Xing MP G video. The file sizes are very large. Relatively large files.

To present tourist information about a hotel.Image File Format Image File Format BMP(Bit Map Images) GIF (Graphical Interchange Format) JP G (Join Photograph xpert Group) JP G 000 PCX (Personal Computer xchange) TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) TIFF (LZW) (Lempel-Zlv-Weic) PNG (Portable Network Graphics) Major Features bits (or) 6. contact details etc. Developed to achieve a better image quality in a smaller file. Only one third of a display should be filled with text. Not Compressed. Conventional upper and lower case text should be used for the presentation since reading is faster compared to all upper case text. a clear reasonably large font should be used. "You are now contacting with Paul Andrews" rather than "Connection to Multipoint Control nit". 6. The number of abbreviations used in an application should be kept to a minimum. the public. (or) 8 bits. Million Colors. for example. It is recommended that text of 6 point is preferred if it is to be usable by people with visual impairments. services available. point text is the practical minimum point or higher for screens of poorer to adopt for PC based screens. Image Format that normally saves 8. Gray Scale 8 or 6 bits. Not widely supported in web browsers. with the use of resolution than a normal desktop PC If the users do not have their vision corrected for VD use e. sers will also be put off by the 8 7 9 8 9 79 A7 9 8bits Palette (or) 9 @ @ 8 9 9 9 8 9 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 6 Colors. They should be used only when the abbreviation is routinely used and where the shorter words lead to a reduction of information density. and should be made as understandable as possible e. Internally used in windows. prices. Sentences should be short and concise and not be split over pages. Proportional spacing and ragged lines also minimizes unpleasant visual effects. but should consider how to present text in an acceptable way and supplementing it with other media. green and blue Produces relatively small file sizes. The length of text lines should be no longer than around 60 characters to achieve optimal reading speed. Technical expressions should be used only where the user is familiar with them from their daily routine. Text Format Text is the most widely used and flexible means of presenting information on screen and conveying ideas. Million Colors (RGB).g. where the eyesight of its users will vary display of large amounts of text and will find it hard to scan. The designer should not necessarily try to replace textual elements with pictures or sound. bit total for red. B B 7 B B . Line art (bi-level) bit. For a public system.g. All upper case can be used if a text item has to attract attention as in warnings and alarm messages. Abbreviations should be used in a consistent way throughout an entire C C C considerably. information should be presented concisely under clear separate headings such as location. RGB (or) 8bits indexed color to 8 bits. bits (or) 6.

nstructional Designer 7. er Q P 6. Multimedia Designer/Creative Designer . An explanation of the abbreviations used in the system should be readily available to the user through on-line help facilities or at least through written documentation. Producer dia Produ tion t am and th ir work. Co-ordinate the team P 9. Define the scope of the project 2. Discuss with the client . Computer . Audio Video Specialist eb Master Programmer Projec WUVUT S 1. Subject Matter Expert 4. Search for the financial resources 4. Search for equipment 5. Explain about Multi 1. Search for facilities 6. (15 Marks 2.multimedia application. 5. Script riter raphics Artist Project Manager Subject Matter Expert Instructional Designer A/V Techinician Graphic Artist G E E F ED I H R X . Programmer 5.

Provide contents . ducational strategies . Integrate the Multimedia elements into a web page b c Y c c Y c Y Y Y Y ` ` a . Recording Audio . Work with animation . Work and create buttons . Create and maintain the website . Photo collections Audio Vide Expert 1. diting Audio 3. 3D objects 3. Search for contents Graphic artist 1. diting Video Instructional Designer 1. Doing research by reading books 3. ducational Practices Programmers 1.Subject Matter Expert 1. Doing Research by interviewing . . Writes program code lines (or) scripts using the authoring tools. Create the attractive background . Combine the multimedia elements Web Master 1. Create logos 6.

A link on a web page. Files play either in a media specific player that opens in a new window or a viewer that is type control panel. Real Player Flash Player Have speakers or headphones connected to the computer b. rewind and fast-forward media clips using a VCR d web page can then contain a link with a RL that points to that media. synchronized graphics or animation. Handle the inquiries and feed 6. c. When users click a media . Audio (just sound) video (sound with moving images) b. e. illustrated audio. video and other media files are specially formatted and placed on a streaming server.3. video and other multimedia elements that visitors to your website will be able to listen to or view immediately without having to download the file to their own computer. What is needed to use streaming media? People who want to add streaming media to their web sites will need to: Have access to a streaming server Have knowledge of what type of media they want to use Have knowledge of what specific format they want that media in Have special production software for creating media files that create the media in the format they have chosen People who want to hear/view media files will need to have a plug-in or player installed as part of their web browser like: a. the contents of the media file begins to flow across the internet in a gradual and continuous stream from the server to the user·s browser. Streaming Media typically consist of audio only. (10 Marks) Streaming media is a technology that enables you to include audio. Illustrated audio (sound with slides like PowerPoint) d embedded into the web page. c. Win Amp There are three primary ways that you can stream content material: a. How does streaming media work? Audio. video with audio or any combination of audio. What is streaming media? Explain it. Windows Media Player d. sers can pause. video.

Windows Media Player 7. (20 Marks) A multimedia program must go through multimedia production phases. Back to top There are several different types of streaming technologies that you can choose from. If your course requirements dictate that your users must see what are happening (a surgical technique for example) then you would choose video as the preferred model. The six phases involved can be categorized into 3 main stages. . PHASES IN MULTIMEDIA PRODUCTION There are six phases involved in the production of a multimedia project.Which way you choose will depend on the needs of your course and the capabilities of your users. c. Multimedia developers have to plan a series of phases to produce multimedia application. Explain the different phases involved in Multimedia Production. The most popular formats that DoIT supports are: a. QuickTime Flash b. you may decide that audio or illustrated audio will be more effective for your user group. If most of your users will be accessing your presentation over a modem connection.

Publishing Phase Finally. The Implementation Phase refers to the process of converting the design plan into a multimedia program . selected users will use an Evaluation Form to try out the program and give feedback. the multimedia developer will design a Flow Chart and Storyboard. This phase is known as the Design Phase. when the multimedia program is completed. the programmer will fix the program. EXTENSION : PROTOTYPE Many multimedia production companies try to shorten the production phase. Post-production is a process after producing the multimedia project.Pre-production is the process before producing the multimedia project. the multimedia developers interview the clients to find out their needs and write the Problem Statement and a Proposal. e . Testing Phase The multimedia developers will use a Checklist to test the multimedia program. it will be published to CD. If there are any errors. OVERVIEW OF THE PHASES Analysis Phase During the Analysis Phase. This is the phase where the multimedia program is produced. the multimedia developers will start Implementation Phase. Evaluation Phase In the valuation Phase. Design Phase Based on the needs of target users. Production is the process of producing the multimedia project. Implementation Phase Once the Storyboard is confirmed. One of the ways is to use a prototype.

There are many more companies which have specialized in entertainment sector you may explore the list of such companies on the net. Virtual reality will have a tremendous impact on on-job training sector. remote control Applications. in this case is an educational game. users can help to decide suitable designs of the multimedia project. A simple example. Our example is flight simulator which creates a real-life imaging. Entertainment The entertainment industry has used this technology the most to create real life like Games. All these business communications are required to be structured such that a formal level of content structure exists in the communication. This is done so that the new design can be tested and changed before the stage of actual production. Several developers have used graphics. is virtual reality. which in addition to play provide some sort of learning component. The children can enjoy these experiences. for example. Edutainment dutainment is nothing but educational entertainment. and reports for investors Can be presented in multimedia form. The special technologies such as virtual reality have made these games just like experiences of real life. Today. Business Communications Multimedia is a very powerful tool for enhancing the quality of business Communications. Microsoft has produced many such CD. virtual reality is primarily used in applications in entertainment Industry but is going to be very useful tool for performing simulative. animation of multimedia to create variety of games. product promotions. may be the tool of Tomorrow. are available. Knowledge Adventure etc. fly aircraft play any musical instrument. the child can paint the pictures. Many multimedia games are now available on computers. they can drive cars of different variety. Multimedia productions are also using creation of many movies where the multimedia components are mixed with real life pictures to create powerful entertainment atmosphere. which is having tremendous potential and fall under the broad preview of multimedia. The advancement of technology has opened up newer fields for the Application development. By using a prototype. Focus on education are now available.based multimedia such as Sierra. The business communications such as employee related communications.Prototype means a standard or model example. In the following sections we will present a broad categorization of multimedia Applications. (10 Marks) With the advancement of technology many applications are evident for the multimedia Technology. in addition to playing rhymes. The latest in this series is a package. sound. which provide a lot of detailed information to lads. increase reduce size of various objects etc. Other common business application involving multimedia f . One such fields. which teaches about the computer using games playing. play golf etc. which plays various rhymes for little kids. Similarly many other edutainment packages. A prototype is a basic model of a new multimedia program that is to be developed. Many computer games with. 8. Explain the various application of Multimedia. customer information.

Keyboard Stations allow the user. whereas.requires Access to database of multimedia information about a company. usually an employee. In academies. making kiosks perfect for applications such as navigational guides and Product information displays. where Interaction with potential customers is preferred. They allow the user direct and active control over the information being given. Sequential presentations are perfect for in-store window displays. The multimedia Technology of today can easily support this application as natural language enquiry Systems do exist for making queries. or in other areas where direct user access is either not available or not desired. to step through the presentation with a customer. in Business it is the effective transfer of information which might be essential for the survival of a business. They combine the strengths of speed and accessibility with sight and sound to create not only an effective means of information Dissemination. This application is meant for academia and business both. that is. It works in or like a slide show than a movie. Because this type of presentati n waits for o the operator. a continuously playing sequential Presentation can be used to capture attention and get viewers engaged in conversation with sales representatives about job particulars.term training to the workers in a business houses gives lot of flexibility in providing I training. This type operates just like a regular video. Multimedia is one of the best ways to provide short. They make wonderful navigational guides also. but also a memorable and fun to use method great for all ages and levels of computer experience. giving visual backups to the verbal information that the speaker is bestowing. Touch screen presentations are gaining in popularity. At trade shows. it allows the customer to ask as many questions as they need to without having the presentation run ahead. A noncontinuous sequential Presentation has applications such as corporate training and initial product Demonstration where you don t need to have the same information playing over and Over again. the transfer of information in such a fashion that it facilitates the retention. . . Knowledge Transfer This kind of application involves transmission of a piece of information with the Maximum impact. Multimedia based teaching is gaining momentum as powerful teaching aids are quite common. but which one would work best for the suggested application depends on how the multimedia is used. Some of the presentation types are: 1. Public Access i h g . The options available for business presentation are varied. the knowledge transfer is used as the building block. They are fun to use and allow the user direct control over the information they receive. 3. It can also be programmed to work like a touch screen kiosk without the cost of the touch screen. Keyboard Interactive Station Interactive Touch screen Kiosk Sequential Playback Continuous Loop Playback Interactive kiosks are probably one of the most versatile of the multimedia tools currently available. It operates unattended and can be updated with new information as needed.

p a sight seminary may have the glimpse of places he has R L selected for visiting. sing . One such application may be the tourist information system. where a person who wants to go for Multimedia Many such applications may be developed providing a repository of information.Public Access is an area of application where many multimedia applications will soon be available.

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