Oncologist | Nephrology | Diseases And Disorders

ONCOLOGIST A physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

A clinical oncologist is usually trained in one of the three primary disciplines of oncology:

•Medical oncology -- the treatment of cancer with medicine, including chemotherapy. •Surgical oncology -- the surgical aspects of cancer including biopsy, staging, and surgical resection of malignancies) •Radiation oncology -- the treatment of cancer with therapeutic radiation. Once a cancer diagnosis is made, it is the oncologist's role to explain the cancer diagnosis and meaning of the disease stage to the patient; discuss various treatment options; recommend the best course of treatment; deliver optimal care; and improve quality of life both through curative therapy and palliative care with pain and symptom management. NEPHROLOGY Concerns the diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases, including electrolyte disturbances and hypertension, and the care of those requiring renal replacement therapy, including dialysis and renal transplant patients. Many diseases affecting the kidney are systemic disorders not limited to the organ itself, and may require special treatment. Examples include acquired conditions such as systemic vasculitides (e.g. ANCA vasculitis) and autoimmune diseases (e.g., lupus), as well as congenital or genetic conditions such as polycystic kidney disease. Training a nephrologist is a physician who has been trained in the diagnosis and management of kidney disease, by regulating blood pressure, regulating electrolytes, balancing fluids in the body, and administering dialysis. Nephrologists treat many different kidney disorders including acid-base disorders, electrolyte disorders, nephrolithiasis (kidney stones), hypertension (high blood pressure), acute kidney disease and endstage renal disease. Nephrology is a subspecialty of internal medicine. In the United States, after medical school nephrologists complete a three year residency in internal medicine followed by a two year (or longer) fellowship in nephrology.Knowledge of internal medicine is required to obtain certification. To become a nephrologist requires many years of school and training.

. the physician must fulfill the requirements for education and training in nephrology in order to qualify to take the board's examination. To be approved. then he or she can become a nephrology specialist. nephrologists also need two to three years of training in an ACGME or AOA accredited fellowship in nephrology.Nephrologists also must be approved by the board. Typically. If a physician passes the examination.

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