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# International Journal of Engineering and Information Technology Copyright© 2010 waves publishers IJEIT 2010, 2(2), 101-108

Vol 2 , No. 2 ISSN 0975-5292 (Print) ISSN 0976-0253 (Online)

**An Isolated Solar Power Generation using Boost Converter and Boost Inverter
**

Arun Kumar Vrema and S.C Kaushik are with the Centre For Energy Studies and Bhim Singh is with Electrical Engineering Department, Indian Institute Technology, Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016, INDIA (e-mail: arunverma59@gmail.com, bhimsinghr@ gmail.com, sckaushik@ces.iitd.ernet.in) Abstract – In this paper, a solar power generation is investigated as an isolated portable system using a boost converter and a single stage sine wave boost inverter. The proposed configuration boosts the low voltage of photovoltaic (PV) array using a dc-dc boost converter to charge the battery at 96V and to convert this battery voltage into high quality 230V rms ac voltage at 50Hz for feeding autonomous loads without any intermediate conversion stage and a filter. A maximum power point tracking (MPPT) scheme is proposed with series connection of a dc–dc converter input with a PV panel for high efficiency. This approach increases the efficiency of the energy conversion. The ac voltage total harmonic distortion (THD) obtained using this configuration is quite acceptable. The proposed power generation system has several desirable features such as low cost and compact size as number of switches used, are limited to four as against six switches used in classical two-stage inverters. The complete system is designed and modeled in MATLAB/ SIMULINK and simulated results are presented to demonstrate its satisfactory performance. Index Terms-- Boost converter, Boost inverter, Maximum power point tracking, Pulse-width modulation, solar photovoltaic, Total harmonic distortion.

Arun K. Verma, Bhim Singh and S.C Kaushik

I. INTRODUCTION

The ever-increasing demand for conventional energy sources like coal, natural gas and crude oil is driving society towards the research and development of alternate energy sources. Many renewable energy sources such as wind energy and solar photovoltaic (PV) are now well developed as the cost effective solution and are being widely used in many applications. These energy sources are preferred for being environmental friendly. PV energy has become one of the most promising sources of energy due to the fact that PV energy is free and sustainable. Besides this, PV is scalable from very small to very large and easy to integrate with existing power converters [1]. Generally solar power generation consists of a PV array, a dc-dc converter and an inverter. The classical inverter gives output voltage lower then the dc link voltage due to this the size of output transformer is increased thus the overall cost of the system increases and efficiency decreases. In this paper, a solar PV power generation system shown in Fig.1, for a standalone small residential load of 500 W is designed, modeled and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK. First the dc output voltage from the PV array is given to the boost dc-dc converter which boosts the output voltage of the PV array as well as it regulates its output voltage irrespective of the variation in solar radiation and temperature. This dc-dc converter is controlled with PWM control technique to charge the battery. A small and cheap capacitor can further smoothen

the PV current and voltage for the selection of the power MOSFETs and driver [2]. In most applications, the PV array acts as a power source to energize devices capable of storing electricity and/or a utility grid. However, the capacity of solar generation systems depends heavily on the presence of light. At night, a current could flow back into PV cells from the bus; however, reverse current must be avoided because it causes leakage loss, extensive damage, or could even cause a fire [3]. Blocking diode is effective to prevent reverse current flow. In the selection of blocking diodes, the boost converter topology shows significant advantages over the buck converter. In the boost converter topology, the freewheel diode serves as the blocking diode to avoid the reverse current. Irrespective of variation in solar radiation and temperature, the system should always track maximum power to make the system more efficient. This paper presents a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) scheme based on perturbation and observation (P&O) technique. As the photovoltaic being intermittent source of power, cannot meet load demand all the time of the year. The energy tracking storage is therefore, a desired feature to incorporate with renewable power system, particularly in standalone plant. It significantly improves the supply availability. Then the dc voltage available at terminals of the battery is fed to a dc- ac boost inverter. This inverter converts 96 V dc voltages in to 230 V rms which is readily available for residential loads without using any transformer. So by using this

Manuscript was presented in National Conference RACTEE 09 at SLIET Longowal, Punjab, India and recommended for publication in this journal by the review committee -101-

3 as. Fig.38 * 10-23 /K) and q is the charge on an electron. By connecting solar cell in series a solar PV module is formed. 6 it is observed that for each curve of solar irradiation. (2).5 shows the IV characteristic at different value of solar radiations and different values of solar temperature. SOLAR CELL CHARACTERISTICS A solar PV cell consists of the semiconductor material which converts solar radiation into the dc current using the photovoltaic effect. The boost inverter [4. K is the Boltzman constant (1. respectively. it is necessary to track the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) condition of the solar array regardless the load voltage. Fig. Fig. are parallel and series resistances associated to the PV module. Fig. dP/dV =0 (3) Eq. and this module has 36 cells P=V[npp{IPVID(eq(V/nss+RsI/npp)/AKT(V/nss+RSI/npp)/RP}] (2) The maximum power condition can be described as.ac conversion is achieved without using a step-up transformer. Factor A is called an ideal factor. 3 shows that the operating point at which the solar generator can deliver maximum power for a given radiation intensity is near the bend of characteristic. (2) with the condition given in Eqn. which depends on the module temperature. Other two important points of this curve are the opencircuit voltage Voc and the short-circuit current Isc. and ID is the reverse saturation current. RP and RS. The power developed from PV array is given as. The voltage in an open circuit represents the maximum voltage (Voc) given by the panel to a zero current (without load). (1) models the I-V curve of the PV module and a multiplication of both magnitudes gives the supplied power as given in Eqn.Arun Kumar Verma and Etal. which determines the deviation of the characteristics of an ideal p–n junction. (3). Fig. The MPPT is calculated solving Eqn. the proposed solar PV power generation system consists of five modules in parallel and three modules in series. IPV represents the current (photo-current) generated by solar radiation.4 respectively. From Figs. A simplified expression describes the relationship between voltage (V) and current (I) given by an electrical equivalent circuit PV module shown in Figs. 2(2).3 changes depending on the incident irradiance and the cell temperature. there is a specific voltage for which the array operates at proper maximum power point. For desired output voltage and current. . I=[npp{IPV-ID(eq(V/nss+RsI/npp)/AKT-1)(V/nss+RSI/npp)/RP}] (1) where nPP and nSS parameters represent the number of cells connected in parallel and in series.102 - . Each curve presents a maximum power point (MPP) which gives the required maximum power for an optimum use of the module.2.2 Electrical equivalent circuit of photovoltaic module The typical voltage versus current and voltage versus power curves are shown in Fig.3 and Fig. This is the optimum voltage for the operation of the solar array [6]. Detailed analysis is presented in subsequent sections. 5] is used in this PV power generation with a storage battery and such wide dc. The most important qualities of a solar cell are described by the I–V characteristic. while the short circuit current (Isc) represents maximum removable current of the module. inductive. It is possible to notice that the solar array behaves as a current source left at (MPP). modeled and simulated with resistive. Considering that most of the loads supplied by PV system operate with constant voltage.6 shows the P-V characteristic at different values of solar radiations and at different values of solar temperature. Three points of the curve are of particular interest open circuit voltage (Voc) short circuit current (Isc) and maximum power point (MPP). and it considers that the voltage source behaviour right at MPP. I is the output current of solar array and V is the output voltage of solar array. IJEIT 2010.101-108 technique it reduces the cost of the overall system as well as an increased efficiency. This PV power generation system is designed.1 Proposed Solar power generation system . This curve shown in Fig. 5. II. nonlinear loads and single phase induction motor load. This arrangement is called solar array.

MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING In order to track maximum power irrespective of the variation in solar radiation and temperature. and it a relatively simple method. The value of an inductor for the boost converter is given by as. and a much higher rms current would flow through the filter capacitor due to this reason a large value of the inductor and filter capacitor is required than those of buck converter[8]. (4) the value of duty cycle (D) is varies between 0. it is called boost converter. I-V Characteristics with different radiation and temperature Here a series connection of a dc–dc converter output with a photovoltaic panel is proposed for high efficiency.6 P-V Characteristics at different radiation and temperature III. In the boost converter the average output current is less then the average inductor current. The duty cycle of a boost converter is given by as. Duty cycle (D) = 1-(Vin/Vo) (4) where Vin is input voltage of the boost converter which is the output of PV array. The design parameters of the boost converter are given below. the perturbation and observation method is utilized. 7 shows the flow chart of the algorithm. Where P is the output power and V is the output voltage of PV array. It measures the PV array characteristics. The advantages of this method is that a previous knowledge is not required of the PV generator characteristic. It is an iterative method of obtaining MPPT. From Eqn. and then perturbs the operating point of the PV generator to encounter the change direction.8 shows the boost converter used in this system. The switching frequency (Fsw) of converter is 50 kHz and output current ripple (Δil) and voltage ripples (Δv) are considered 10% and Fig.103 - .33-0. It is implemented by using a diode and a MOSFET. IV. The maximum power point is reached when dPPV/dVPV =0.4 P-V Fig.Arun Kumar Verma and Etal. 2(2).101-108 the input voltage. IJEIT 2010. As the power-voltage relationship of a typical PV module is not linear therefore the maximum power point can always be tracked if condition dP/dV =0 is met for any solar radiation or temperature [7]. which is constant at 96 Volts. Since the output voltage is higher than 5% respectively. For this analysis the Vin is varying between 58-64 Volts and Vo is the output voltage of boost converter. Each panel is connected in series to a dc–dc converter. Fig. Fig. .5.39. DESIGN OF BOOST CONVERTER Fig.3 I-V characteristic of solar array Characteristics of solar array Fig.

voltage is compared using a comparator to a repetitive sequence wave of switching frequency. The PWM control is provided in order to regulate the output voltage of the boost converter. an input to the boost converter (vin).11 which shows the simulation results of a dc-dc boost converter with variation in solar radiation and temperature at radiation of 400W/m2 and temperature of 250c.12 mH. 250c and 1000w/m2) and shown in Fig.104 - . In this figure. 10 Output of the boost converter with solar array and battery at standard conditions .e.10. The value of inductance (L) from Eqn. The value of this ΔV is taken 10% and value of output current (Io) is considered as 5. The dc-dc converter is responsible for the regulation of the output voltage at peak power point while also providing a constant voltage for charging a battery. The MATLAB/SIMULINK models of proposed boost converter with its control scheme are given in Fig.Vin = Vpv is output voltage from PV array. The advantages of both P-controller and I controller are combined in this PI controller. (5) is 2. For this analysis the value of Δi1 is considered 5%and Fsw is switching frequency and the value of Fsw is used 50 kHz.2 A.one is proportional to voltage error signal and other proportional to integral of error signal. e(t) is then voltage error signal between boost converter output voltage and reference voltage and Ti=integral time. (6) is calculated as 343µF. A. OutputcapacitanceC2=IOD/(ΔVFsw) (6) where Io is the output current and ΔV output voltage ripple. output voltage (vo).5 V to 96 V. IJEIT 2010. The value of output capacitor (C2) from Eqn. The output of the solar array is connected to a dc. This converter boosts the voltage of solar array from 63. Then this error Fig. Integral action reduces or eliminates the steady state error.dc boost converter. inductor current (il) and corresponding voltage across capacitor (vc) and diode (vd) are shown under stranded temperature and radiation conditions (i. Δi1 is output current ripple. The proportional action increases the loop gain and makes the system less sensitive to the parameter variation of system parameters. In order to generate gating pulse for the MOSFET the error voltage between reference value and converter output voltage is given to PI (proportional integral) controller.101-108 Inductance L = VpvD/ (2ΔilFsw) (5) where D is duty cycle. the value of output current (io). The output of the PI controller is as u(t)α{e(t)+∫e(t)dt} (7) u(t)=kpe(t)+(kp/ti)∫e(t)dt (8) where.9.9 MATLAB based simulation model for proposed boost converter with solar array and storage battery The results of this boost dc-dc converter are shown in Fig.Arun Kumar Verma and Etal. Then ON/OFF pulse generates which controls the dc-dc converter [9]. Kp = proportional gain. Proportional Integral Voltage Controller The proportional plus integral controller produces an output signal consisting of two terms . 2(2). The output capacitor for a boost converter is given by as. Fig.

Output of boost converter with solar array under variation in solar radiation and temperature Fig. The load is differentially connected across these converters with respect to ground. In this Thevenin’s equivalent model of the battery [10. In this inverter topology. 11] where Rs is the equivalent resistance (external + internal) of parallel/series combination of a battery. V1 is the voltage across capacitor C1 and Vin is the input voltage to boost inverter.01Ώ. the resistance Rb is large and the typical value of Rb for this battery is used 10kΏ. as a result one gets differential ac voltage V1-V2 across the load. Fig.12.Arun Kumar Verma and Etal. This boost inverter achieves dc-ac conversion by connecting the load differentially across two dc-dc converters and modulating the dc-dc converter output voltage sinusoidaly. Since the self discharging current of a battery is small. represents self discharging of the battery. 15]. The calculated value of Cb for this battery from Eqn. DESIGN OF STORAGE BATTERY solar energy is not available all the time.14. 12. as shown in Fig.6 V-101.101-108 V. Therefore in order to meet the demand of the load at the time when there is no sun an energy storage system is designed so that the additional generated power with the increased in solar radiation is stored into the battery as shown in Fig. 14. Since the battery is an energy storage unit.105 - . which is usually a small value. 2(2). In this model a sliding mode control scheme is used for the control of . For this analysis Rs=0. IJEIT 2010. (9) is calculated as Cb=9615. The value of capacitance is Cb=(kWh*3600*1000)/{0. its energy is represented in kWh when a capacitor is used to model the battery unit. V1/Vin=1/(1-D) (10) where D is duty cycle. the most important of which is that it can naturally generate an ac output voltage from a lower dc input voltage in a single power stage. 13]. The boost dc-ac inverter exhibits several advantages. Rb in parallel with Cb.12 schematic diagram of battery VI. VO=V1-V2={Vin/(1-D)}-{Vin/D} (11) VO/Vin=(2D-1)/{(1-D)} (12) The MATLAB/SIMULINK model of the boost inverter is given in Fig.38 F. As two converters are 1800 out of phase the output voltage is given as. ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BOOST INVERTER The boost inverter consists of two individual dcdc boost converters. The conduction mode is given as. The parallel circuit of Rb and Cb is used to describe the stored energy and voltage during charging or discharging. both individual converters are driven by two 1800 phase-shifted dc-biased sinusoidal references whose differential output is an ac output voltage [12.13. Voltage V1 is the output of converter A and V2 is the output of converter B. which is presented and analysed in [14].5(Vocmax2-Vocmin2)} (9) where Vocmax is the maximum voltage at the terminals of the battery when it is fully charged and Vocmin is the minimum voltage at the terminals of the battery when it is fully discharged. and with the variation in the voltage of order of 85.6 V. Here the battery is considered of having 500W for 8 Hrs peaking capacity. Basic working principle is illustrated in Fig.11. The reduced number of switches that are required (only four) and the quality of the output voltage sine wave are additional advantages reported in the literature [4.1. The idea of controlling the phase shift between two boost dcdc converters in order to achieve a dc-ac inverter is also provided by the theory of phasemodulated inverters.

(13) and (14) in (12) one gets. and voltage THD at various loads. even for large supply and load variations. L2. 1=IL1-ILref (14) 2=V1-Vref (15) By substituting Eqns. (15) is fed to hysteresis loop. The detailed results are given in Fig. IJEIT 2010.V1)=K1(IL1-ILref)+K2(V1-Vref) (16) The system behaviour is completely determined by coefficients K1and K2. The THD of the voltage is shown in Fig. 50Hz output to feed different typesofloads. VII. Under variable load condition. a sliding mode control is used to control the boost inverter.15. A.106 - . Performance of Boost Inverter under Inductive Load . 2(2).18.Arun Kumar Verma and Etal. The main purpose of the controllers A and B is to make possible the capacitors voltages V1 and V2 to follow sinusoidal reference accurately.15 Control scheme of the boost dc-ac boost inverter where K1 and K2 are the gains and 1 and2 are feedback current and voltage error respectively. Fig. power switches S1-S4. The dc link voltage of 96V from a storage battery is converted to a 230V rms. non linear type loads and single phase induction motor load are considered for the investigation as an isolated operation of solar photovoltaic system with the proposed system. single phase. The simulation results are discussed in terms of output voltage. The simulation of the complete system is carried out in the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. freewheeling diodes D1-D4 and load resistance RL. The voltages across C1 and C2 current across inductor L1and L2 are shown Fig. output current. 16]. the sliding surface equation in state space is expressed by linear combination of state variable error is as S(IL1. 50Hz residential load. This dc-ac boost inverter is designed for a power of 500W.101-108 the boost converters. B. Resistive (R).16. For a desirable response of output voltage. input inductors L1and L2. Performance Resistive Load of Boost Inverter at Fig. The signal obtained in Eq. which generates the pulse to control semiconductor device. as the load varies the value of output current change accordingly and compensates for the change in the load without affecting the output voltage profile. Control Technique for Boost Inverter For the purpose of optimizing the dynamics.V1) = K11 + K22 = 0 (13) The performances of the boost inverter at resistive load are shown in Fig. The main advantage of this control scheme is its robustness for plant parameter variation which leads to steady state response in an ideal case [15.13 Basic principle of the boost dc-ac inverter Fig.99% which is quite reasonable.14 MATLAB/SIMULINK model for boost dc-ac inverter A. transfer capacitors C2 and C2. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The optimum component values of L1. C1 and C2 obtained from the design and fine tuned based on simulation results. inductive.16 The voltage THD calculated on this load are only 0.17. 230V. The typical sliding mode control scheme is shown in Fig. S(IL1. The boost dcac converter includes dc link voltage Vin. which must be selected to satisfy existence and ensure stability and fast response.

2. 23.Voc=96V D. Voltage /temperature coefficient(V/K) Kv= 80e-3.015. resistance and capacitance. motor speed (W). of Boost Inverter when Single Induction Motor is connected as Load Phase When a single phase induction motor is connected as the load to this solar power generation system. auxiliary winding current (Ia). a nonlinear load is shown which consists of a diode rectifier. Fsw=30 KHz.056. Simulation results on different loads are well within acceptable range. Performence of dc-ac boost inverter variable load D=0. Moreover corresponding harmonics in the motor current is also shown in Fig. 2(2).Fsw=50 kHz C.1. Parameters For Dc-dc Boost Converter Fig. Nominal array open circuit voltage(V)Vocn =21. K1=0.92%. The Parameter For Solar Panel Fig. Array voltage @maximum power point(V)Vmp= 17. The output power of solar PV power generation system is used to feed a single phase residential load at 230 V. The THD in motor current is 4.24.19.338.101-108 These results have been shown in Fig. Array current @maximum power point(A)Imp=3. C.81%. Where corresponding main winding current (Im). L1=L2=700µH. the behavior of this load is given in Fig.18.4% the value of R is 86 Ώ and the value of D. Number of series cell=36 B.Ki= 0.24.20.107 - . IJEIT 2010. 230V Fig19.21.5. The THD of the output voltage in this case is 0.01Ώ. Parameters For Storage Battery Rb=10kΏ. Parameters For Dc-ac Boost Inverter C1=C2=200µF. P=500W.KP=0. The boost inverter used here has economical as well as technical advantages over conventional voltage source inverter. K2=0. CONCLUSION This solar power generation scheme has been found economical and efficient conversion system for converting the output dc voltage from PV array in to ac 230V rms.427-0.1.Current /temperature coefficient(A/K)Ki=. Order of harmonic for inductive load . Nominal short circuit current(A)Iscn =3. VIII. and the developed torque (Te) are presented. 50Hz.003.16 Performance of dc-ac boost inverter. APPENDICES A. Performance Nonlinear Load of Boost Inverter under In Fig.The current THD is calculated about 51.8.Rs=0.Arun Kumar Verma and Etal. The results with this load have been shown in Fig.

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Punjab. India and recommended for publication in this journal by the review committee -101- . ISSN 0975-5292 ISSN 0976-0253 Manuscript was presented in National Conference RACTEE 09 at SLIET Longowal. 2(2). No.International Journal of Engineering and Information Technology 2 Copyright© 2010 waves publishers (Print) IJEIT 2010. 101-108 (Online) Vol 2 .