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‘Perspective’ art piece by Trey Watkins When sitting on a couch from this vantage point, the blocks line up to form a message. The "A" block was only a few inches tall while an "E" block in the distance was 10 feet tall. Each day the blocks were rotated to form a new message. Bureau of Land Management Winnemucca Field Office 5100 East Winnemucca Blvd.
Winnemucca, Nevada 89445
Table of Contents
Introduction ……………………………………………………………………….. 3 Report Summary ………………...……………………………………………….. 4 1 Population Study…………....…………………………………...…………..…. 5 Stip 1 – Manage event growth 2 Trash Transects Study……………………………………..………………..…. 8 Stip 77 – Compliance inspections 3 Oil Drip Study ……………………...……………………….…………………...10 Stip 21 – Playa surface protection 4 Survey of Art on the Open Playa…………………………………..…………..12 Stips 18 & 19 – Authorized fires, pits & holes 5 Monitoring The Good, Bad & Ugly……………………………………………..23 Stip 27 & 52 - Unauthorized fires Stip 31 & 32 - Solid waste management Stip 55 & 56 - Public health & safety Stip 60 - Greywater 6 Hot Springs …………… …………...…………………..……….……………….34 Stip 23 – Cultural resources 7 Airport …………………………………………………………...………………..37 Stips 47, 49 thru 51 – Airport 8 Perimeter Fence Surveys………………………………………………………..39 Stip 32 – Perimeter fence 9 PPPP (Porta-Potty Placement Plan)…...………….…………………………...43 Stip 59 – Sanitation 10 Other Stipulations…………………………………………..…………………...45 Stip 7, 14, 34 & 35 - Postings & Signage Stip 30 - Fugitive dust Stip 33 - Solid waste management Stip 41 - Traffic management Stip 72 - Emergency procedures Monitoring Team………….………………………………………..……………… 46
INTRODUCTION The Burning Man event was first held on the Black Rock Desert in 1990 and has continued since annually. The combination art festival, social event, and an experiment in community living starts the Monday before Labor Day and runs for 8 days. Since 1990, the event participation has increased from a few hundred participants to over 48,000 participants in 2007. Burning Man is the largest permitted event on public lands. In November 2005, the BLM Winnemucca Field Office received a Special Recreation Permit application for the Burning Man 2006 - 2010 events. Upon receipt of such an application, the BLM is mandated to engage in an environmental assessment (EA) process designed to analyze the potential impacts of the proposed event. As part of that process, an external scoping period is conducted to solicit issues of concern from the public and cooperating agencies. Some of those identified issues include Event management • How will the attendance be counted and event growth managed? • How will impacts be monitored during and after the event? Playa surface protection • How much litter remains after the event? • To what contaminants is the playa exposed? • What impacts occur to the playa surface as a result of surface disturbance associated with the event? Public health • How is sewage handled? • What is the fate of wastewater from campsites within the city? The results of the EA process are reflected in the 79 stipulations attached to the 2007 permit. These are designed to provide for visitor safety and protection of resources on the public land.
REPORT SUMMARY This report documents the results and recommendations of the Stipulation Monitoring Team efforts at Burning Man 2007. 1 Study Population 2007 Results With over 48,000 participants, rapidly approaching 50,000 participant cap Baseline photos aided in post-event inspections No significant impact Recommended for 2008 Yes, with GIS analysis of population growth
Trash Transects Oil Drip
No, since previous years also showed no impact Yes
Art on the Open Playa
Burn pads effectively prevented scars but decomposed gravel itself needs to be contained to leave no trace at art projects and community burn barrels Provided real-time monitoring and record of monitoring team efforts for files
Monitoring The Good, Bad & Ugly Hot Springs
No significant impact
Minimal monitoring needed in 08 due to with limited spring access and Increased participant cooperation Increase coordination efforts within BLM and with BMan prior to event to eliminate potential safety issues Yes
Airport facilities and boundaries still unclear and portions remain outside public closure areas Trash on fence managed effectively but resulting dunes pose safety hazard on playa post-event and should be part of event cumulative impact Need to balance needs of participants with those of servicing crews Page 5
Porta Potty Placement
Yes, with GIS analysis to optimize placement of toilets
1. Population Study BLM Stipulation 1 states:
1. Black Rock City LLC (BRC) is required to manage its advance ticket sales in a manner to keep the maximum population of the event from increasing more than 6% above the 2006 peak population of 39,100. If during the event, it appears that on-site ticket sales are likely to result in a peak population that exceeds the 6% increase, BRC will promptly notify BLM of the projected event population and provide detailed contingency plans to handle the additional participants. As of Friday, July 27, 2007 ticket sales and historical trends indicate that the population of Black Rock City might be more than 6% of last year’s peak, triggering a need to implement more infrastructural resources. The prediction is for a peak population on Friday or Saturday of the event to be between 43,800 and 46,500 participants. This document outlines the contingency plan to address the increased population per the requirements of the stipulations.
Goal Census data is key. Stipulation 1 prescribes a Population Contingency Plan to ensure the event does not grow beyond the limits of being manageable. Reasons to closely monitor population and its growth during the event include 1. The population cap of 50,000 participants was stipulated in the Burning Man EA has been nearly reached this year and last. Limiting ticket sales at the gate may be one way to assure this stipulation is met in 2008. 2. Event attendance has increased every year. This year in anticipation of a greater population than 2006, BMan added 3 streets to accommodate growth. During the event, it was necessary to add even one more street named “Moop”. 3. In the past there have been concerns from BLM about the large number of individuals on the playa before the event gates officially open. BMan staff, members of the larger registered art projects, volunteers and other volunteers, are allowed in the event before Monday, August 27th. Participants are not allowed in the event before then. It is important to monitor the pre-event population to decide if the event should be expanded to a day earlier for a total of 9 days rather than current 8. 4. Large number of participants who do arrive before Monday present a safety and management issues since there is little room to accommodate them within the towns of Gerlach and Empire or along Hwy 447. While arriving early was highly discouraged on the Bman website, a designate parking area near the event entrance was created to house those awaiting the event start. Methodology For each block, the Team counted the number of vehicles in which participants could have transported to the event (art cars, golf carts etc did not count). Counts begin daily at approximately 1:00 pm - later during the dust storms, and took about 2 hours to complete. As the number of vehicles grew, representative blocks were counted and the population calculated accordingly. Page 6
Three years ago, studies showed that there was an average of 1.9 people per vehicle. The daily BRC population was calculated by multiplying 1.9 by the daily vehicle block counts. This year’s observations at the Greeter Station during event Influx and Exodus indicated that the average number of people per vehicle was perhaps as high as 2.4 people per vehicle. When this number is finalized, this value can be adjusted on the spreadsheets and final population numbers recalculated accordingly. Vehicles were not counted at the airport or on the open playa but BMan reported daily numbers for volunteers and airport numbers could be added to the BLM calculated population. A map portraying a typical day’s counts.
* There were no BMan reported numbers for first Sunday or Monday.
Population peaked Friday at 47,986 participants. Despite different census methods (BMan reports are based on noon ticket counts at the Gate) - BLM’s and BMan’s daily reported populations were close. The largest percent difference was when vehicle counts were the most challenging during Thursday’s dust storm. Recommendations Next year, the population may well peak over 50,000 and careful planning to manage this growth will continue to be essential. Continue block counts as the numbers have been consistently close those reached by BMan’s ticket-based count – except at a few critical days. Block counts also give BLM the ability to locate participants within the city. BLM’s block counts can be used to analyze density based on: 1) Block count per block acreage and 2) Block population per total city population. Distribution and density analysis can facilitate better planning for further growth. Analysis could be particularly useful for the PPP study – placement of Porta Potties.
2. Trash Transect Points BLM Stipulation 77 states:
77. Inspections of the event site in the fall after the event, will be coordinated by BLM using randomly placed transects on the site and a measurable cleaning standard. The inspecting party will intensively collect debris found on the ground within each transect. A follow-up spring inspection will be conducted only when deemed necessary by BLM. Post-Event Cleanup Standard: The average total surface area of debris collected from either the fall or spring transects will not exceed the equivalent of 1 square foot per acre from any inspection area.
Goal Photo-document potential trash transect locations to record for these areas during the event. This will facilitate post-event compliance inspections as outlined in Stipulations 75-79. Methodology Hawth’s tools in ArcGIS was used to generate random points through 4 zones in Black Rock City (Art, Residential, Walk-in Camping and Other). The Team navigated to the approximate location on the map and shot one photo facing Trego and a second in the opposite direction. The location of these photo points was recorded at the click of the shutter with the GPS-enabled Ricoh camera. It is these locations that will be used for later inspections.
Results 98 photos were captured at 49 transect locations. For each zone, the number of photos and transect locations were as indicated: Art – 21 photos at 10 transect locations Other - 22 photos at 11 transect locations Residential - 37 photos at 19 transect locations Walk-in Camping - 18 photos at 9 transect locations See TransectID_Photos.xls to view Transect ID on map and corresponding photo filenames. Below are AIMG0024_tag.jpg & 25_tag.jpg for Transect 66 located in the Residential Area.
Recommendations While there was more trash in 2007 than in 2006, the amount of trash was well below the allowed debris to pass compliance inspections. See report in BLM files for results of final inspection.
3. Oil Drip Survey BLM Stipulation 21 states:
21. BRC will make educational materials available to participants prior to the event that explain the need to inspect vehicles and repair or modify those with drips of oil or other fluids. BRC will also train staff involved with greeting participants to identify vehicles likely to have an increased risk of oil or fluid drips, inspect suspect vehicles and take appropriate actions to minimize contamination from leaking vehicles. Black Rock LLC will advise the use of materials, such as cardboard, hazmat pads, or drip pans to minimize impacts.
Goal Determine if a significant amount of hazardous materials are leaking from vehicles and contaminating the playa. In previous years, this was a concern from the public and therefore addressed in Stipulation 21. When studied in 2006, no significant impacts were observed from vehicle leaks. Methodology in ArcGIS, Hawth’s tools was used to generate 65 random points throughout the Residential Zone. The Team navigated to these points, looked for the closest vehicle and recorded observations as below. One pair of volunteers used a Trimble GPS to navigate to these locations to update the location and record their observations electronically. Other groups simply navigated to the approximate location on the map, captured the actual location surveyed by GPS and recorded their observations on paper. Results
Results (continued) 96 vehicles were surveyed with only 5 leaks detected. This is not surprising given that only a minority of the vehicles were older. One of the larger leaks was from a generator. One of the intermediate-size leaks was actually 8 small spots. In all cases, the leaks were not contained but the participants agreed to do so to prevent any impact on additional impacts on the playa. Recommendations As in previous years, no significant impact was observed from vehicle leaks.
4. Art Projects BLM Stipulation 18 states:
Authorized Fires 18. Organizers of each “Art Burn” and BRC are responsible for implementing procedures for the complete cleanup of each burn site consistent with stipulation #76, including, but not limited to: a. Removal of ash. b. Removal of unburned material such as nails, screws, and glass. c. Grading and raking to eliminate burn scars.
BLM Stipulation 19 states:
Pits and Holes 19. BRC will limit excavation of pits and holes to those absolutely necessary for administration of the event. This includes holes and pits excavated by participants. All pits and holes will be backfilled, wetted and compacted by physical tamping to minimize post-event pit depressions.
Goal Photo document art projects on the open playa. In particular, record any projects requiring ongoing monitoring for potential burn scars, deep pits and other longterm effects on the playa surface in accordance with the Playa Surface Protection Stipulations 18 and 19. Methodology Each of 4 teams were assigned a quarter of the open playa and armed with a GPS-enabled camera with which art installations were photo-documented. Projects with potential for long-term impacts were earmarked for ongoing inspection. 3 major art projects – The Man, the Temple and the Oil Derrick (Crude Awakening) were recorded in greater detail using digital photos and Trimble GPS units before, during and after the event.
Results A. Art on the Open Playa Overall, there were few projects of major concern out on the open playa.
Clean-up efforts during the event for a project at 9:00 and the Esplanade.
B. The Man From the Burning Man website
The Burning Man will stand atop a structure that resembles green mountain peak. Nestled at its base will be the Green Man Pavilion, 30,000 square feet of shaded exhibition space for the display of interactive artistic, scientific and educational models, a “World’s Fair” of emerging technologies.
Pre-Event • The Man consisted on support made of large tree stumps and then covered by a ‘tent’ intended to represent a green (obviously Non-Nevada) mountain range • GPS showed footprint of burn pad to be about 2,400 square feet • 93 photos taken before, during and after the event
During the Event • The Man was burned somewhat prematurely. He was slightly toasted but after some rehab, he was ready for the event finale.
Photo - 9/5/2007
During Event Clean-up
During June 2008 inspection Visible orange-brown mark on playa from remaining gravel in various locations at Man site Debris at site included multiple, unburned pieces of bark as large as 4 x 2 inches A series of depressions were observed on the playa. Based on location, pattern and size, these were presumed to be from supports. These 8 -12 feet deep pits hit the water table when dug during event.
• • •
C. Temple of Forgiveness from the Burning Man website:
Temple of Forgiveness by David Best and Tim Dawson This year's temple features four grand entrance halls that converge onto a central altar. Above the altar the open tower projects to the sky, letting the energy flow dynamically through the structure. As you approach, you see the central tower rising above the flanking entrance halls; at the top are long curving beams that reflect the arc of the sky. Clad with intricately cut and layered wood, the Temple is a vehicle for remembrances and blessings, promises and forgiveness.
During Event • The temple was a wooden structure with a decomposed gravel burn pad • GPS showed the footprint of burn pad to be about 3,700 square feet • 62 photos taken before, during and after the event
During June 2008 inspection Visible orange-brown mark on playa from remaining gravel in various locations at Temple site and some debris Debris at site included some of metal used to anchor structure
D. Crude Awakening Oil Derrick from the Burning Man website:
by Dan Das Mann, Karen Cusolito, Black Rock FX, Pyrokinetics, Nate Smith, Mark Perez and MonkeyBoy Nine figurative steel sculptures, weighing 7 tons each and standing 30' tall, embody the faithful. In their various poses of worship from around the world, they bow down and reach forth to the Revered Oil Derrick, that icon of the religion which now stands above all others. The Derrick is a 90' tall wooden tower with stairs all the way to the sky. At any time, 200 people can amass on its upper platform while below, the nine faithful belch their fiery prayers from within and around their bodies. Each figure is bound by a participant-activated fire effect, created by Pyrokinetics. On Friday night at 10 pm, as the air raid siren wails and the battleship smoke generator pours forth its malevolent cloud, the Revered Oil Derrick will light up with a fire display like none before or ever after. A flame gusher will then explode from the center of the tower, creating 2.4 gigawatts of raw power in only one minute. You will bear witness to the largest flame cannon in history and the tower will fall.
During Event • The oil derrick itself was wood structure with significant metal braces and supports and a decomposed gravel burn pad. A large pipeline leading to the derrick was also a significant part of the installation. • GPS showed the footprint of burn pad about 3,700 square feet • 62 photos taken before, during and after the event
During June 2008 inspection Multiple visible orange-brown marks on the playa from remaining gravel at many locations throughout footprint of Derrick site Debris of all types of materials at site
E. Revisit - 2006 Uchronia project site After 2 year inspection, this project seems the greatest success given the projects size and scale in wood, nails and its associated inferno. The use of a burn pad consisting of fiberglass insulation and wallboard left no trace on the playa. Debris associated with the site was the same as any major art project or heavy use site. Recommendations Given the long-lasting orange-brown spots on the playa, suggest reconsidering the use of decomposed gravel for major art burns and community burn barrels. Suggest either 1) adding some type of containment such as a blanket or impermeable lining for the gravel, or 2) using insulation and wallboard as an alternative to decomposed gravel given that the 2006 Uchronia project did not leave visible traces on the desert surface.
5. Stipulation Monitoring aka. The Good, Bad & Ugly BLM Stipulations 27 & 62 state:
CAMPING AND RECREATION USES 27. Fires are prohibited except for authorized burn areas, authorized burn platforms, elevated fire receptacles, elevated barbecues and tiki torches. FIRES, PYROTECHNICS, AND FIREARMS 62. BRC/Burning Man shall abide by fire restriction orders, except for the following as officially approved by BRC in coordination with BLM: official art burns, fireworks events, and open fires within the Burning Man event area that are to be contained on supplied fire pans and fire barrels. Fires not contained by authorized raised platforms, fire pans, barbeques, or barrels are prohibited. The fire pans and fire resistant platforms or other protective materials designed to protect the playa surface can be used by event participants for spontaneous burns in the same manner as the fire pans or fire barrels after the initial art project has been burned.
BLM Stipulations 31& 32 state:
Solid Waste Management 31. BRC is responsible for all trash removal and cleanup. Trash will be transported to an appropriate landfill and deposited accordingly. 32. Permittee shall install a 360° event perimeter/boundary trash fence. Any accumulation of trash that appears to be spilling over the fence or passing through a fence break will be collected. Fence breaks will be repaired immediately upon discovery. Permittee shall construct the southwest and southeast flanks of the perimeter fence prior to installation of other facilities to safely direct vehicular traffic around the site.
BLM Stipulations 55 & 56 state:
Public Health & Safety 55. BRC will make the builders of any structures open to participants aware of applicable requirements for public safety. BRC will inspect structures and any structures that they judge are not safe for participants will be reconstructed to be made safe or closed. 56. BRC will make an effort to ensure that extension cords that cross main access roads or travel corridors are armored or buried to prevent damage and possible electrocution.
BLM Stipulation 60 states:
Sanitation 60e. Dumping wastewater (grey water or black water) on public lands directly from a vehicle, trailer, wash basin, shower stalls, bath tubs, barrels, pools, or a wastewater containment receptacle is prohibited.
Goal Survey the residential blocks for ‘Good, Bad and Ugly’ incidents of the above stipulations and monitor the above stipulations in real–time. In cases where for intervention was needed, maps and photos were passed onto the Black Rock or BLM Rangers. Methodology Each team was assigned 2 roads in the Residential Zone. They shot photos of good and bad examples and outright violations of stipulations including: personal and community burn barrels, shower and shade structure designs, evaporative coolers, wind power generators, illegal swimming pools, other potential hazards and anything else of particular interest. Two attributes could be entered via dropdown menus, captured on the shutter click and imported into GIS. Teams were to Page 24
record 1) the stipulation being monitored and 2) if the photo was a good or bad example, or stipulation violation. Due to poor instructions, the attributes weren’t always entered correctly The GIS Specialist made up for her faulty instructions by correcting most errors post-field. The map below shows how extensive the Team’s coverage was throughout the city and the wide range of stipulations monitored.
Results & Recommendations Hundreds of photos were taken for real-time monitoring of the event as well as documentation afterwards. In most cases, examples of the ‘bad’ and small violations were easily brought into compliance through communication between the participants and the Monitoring Team. A few violations, were photo-documented, mapped and reinspected. When intervention was needed, a BRC grid map marking the violation location and photos of the violation watermarked with date, time and location were sent to the daily 4:00 meeting. These materials were passed on to the Black Rock Rangers for intervention as needed. Only in the cases of the large water slide and a pornography screen (both BMan-originated rules), was intervention required at the level of BLM Law Enforcement. All maps and photos that are contained in the Remonitored_During_Event folder were resolved during the event. CAMPING AND RECREATIONAL USES
Stips 27 & 62 – Unauthorized Fire
In the past event, DPW placed intricately designed oil drums with piles of wood to serve as communal gathering sites for heat and company. There were less of these this year. Instead more fire barrels appeared within individual camps. The team photo-documented the variety of burn barrels designs and ensured the barrels were elevated above the playa surface. Piles of wood or other objects indicating a potential conflagration that could scar the playa or burn down BRC were marked. Fortunately, none appeared to pose a threat to participants or the playa surface. During the June 2008 inspection, the site of the burn barrel in below, right photo was re-inspected. While bits of debris were found in the camp, no lasting scar detected from the barrel was seen.
The community_burn_barrels folder contains a photos of the barrels to show how they are elevated off the playa, the amount of use they received during the event and the decomposed granite used to protect the playa. During the June 2008 inspection, the burn barrel pictured below was navigated to by GPS. Within a few hundred yards, the telling large, orange spot left from the gravel made it easy to identify the exact location. Given the long-lasting orange-brown spots on the playa, it is recommended the use of decomposed gravel for major art burns and community burn barrels be discontinued.
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
Stip 31 & 32 – Solid Waste Management
Most violations were seen during Exodus as trash of all types was left on the playa and in participants’ camps. The trash_violations folder contains many pictures of trash left on the playa. On the brighter side, a few photos were shot of entire camps scouring their area for debris. AS seen below, a few camps cordoned off large areas for the week’s sum of trash.
PUBLIC HEALTH & SAFETY
Stips 55 & 56
The BMan web site explicitly prohibits pools. Three pools were shut down with little incident. Only in the case was any real resistance met. The Black Rock Rangers were rudely told that the slide had been there 4 years already and that they lacked authority to do anything about it. When the camp demanded to hear from BLM directly, they got exactly that. Mark Pirtle, the Special Agent in Charge, called on their camp and the well-hidden slide was then shut down. There are photos of the same slide from the 2006 Monitoring Team’s efforts.
This photo was taken near the Trego crossing. This track is easy to see far from the playa edge and appears to be a crossing. This is NOT a crossing. During this year’s event, at least 2 cars became high-centered on the railroad tracks. One car was hit by the train despite attempts by law enforcement to alert the railroad, the other car was removed before the train arrived. Many web sites, including those of the BLM and the majority of Black Rock Desert user groups - warn about the dangers of crossing the tracks. Yet, people still try to drive directly across the tracks rather than at an established crossing. Besides educating the public, it is hard to suggest other methods to prevent stupidity. During the June 2008 inspection, it was noticed that UPRR placed bright and shiny new stop signs at this and all other crossing on the railroad crossing signs from the Black Rock to Winnemucca.
It is unclear how this much water got on the road but it definitely is a safety hazard.
Stip 60 – Greywater
The majority of greywater violations were faulty shower designs that leaked despite efforts to contain the water. These photos are representative of the many ingenious shower designs and the few evaporative coolers that were recorded.
GOOD EVAPORATIVE COOLER GOOD UGLY RESOLVED DURING EVENT
Miscellaneous Observations This theatre was located on the Esplanade. The regular pornography shows violated Burning Man’s pornography rules. BLM Law Enforcement ensured the screen was hidden from the open view and back into compliance.
While the fire barrel was nice in appearance, however, ‘Leave No Trace’ graphics allowed embers to escape.
An innovative laundry-style shade structure and the lazier answer –an office trailer rented for the event. This was in a participant’s camp near the walk-in area and not part of the event organizer’s facilities.
Miscellaneous Observations Green Burning Man Diesel-Powered Generators Vs. Solar or Wind Power
6. Hot Springs BLM Stipulation 23 states:
Cultural Resources 23. BRC personnel will discourage travel, including travel by aircraft, to other historical, cultural, recreational or geographical resources in the Black Rock Desert area during the event. BRC will discourage participant use of hot springs for the purpose of bathing, or extracting mud or water.
Goal Ensure hot springs are in good condition and patrols are present. Methodology Team members traveled to the hot springs to photo-document the condition of the springs area and check that Earth Guardian patrols were present.
Results The condition of the springs was good and patrols were present when photodocumented during event. Dune damage by vehicles and OHVs at Coyote Springs and all dunes on the playa edges is a year-round problem from all users. During the event, Justin Robbins and Dave Ingram lead a team to build a fence and post signs at Coyote Springs. Photos of this are included in the files for documentation, however, it is not meant to imply the damage is to be attributed to the BMan event.
During June 2008 inspection Fencing and postings seem to be protecting the dunes from further damage. On the two dunes with fences, there no evidence of recent driving across the dunes. A dune without a fence looks like it was driven across a few times by one user. Recommendations With tight patrols of the event perimeter and a general understanding by participants that use of the springs is not allowed, it is possible that the Earth Guardians spring patrols may no longer be necessary as was in the past.
7. Airport Placement BLM Stipulations 47 & 49-51 state:
AIRPORT / AIRCRAFT MANAGEMENT 47. An aircraft runway will be located outside the BRC boundaries with a taxiway leading to a separate pilot camping and parking area, as identified in the Burning Man Operating Plan. 49b.The runway will be marked to make it visible to pilots and also to alert surface traffic to avoid it. The marking will be removed at event completion. 49c Signs with reflectors will be installed at prominent or strategic locations around the event airport to forewarn playa travelers of safety hazards. 49d. Aviation windsocks are to be placed at each end of the runway to provide pilots with a visual reference of wind speed and direction, and to alert other recreational users on the 1. playa of an operational runway. 49d. The windsocks are to be removed at event completion. 49e. Numbers and threshold markings at both ends of the runway will indicate compass bearing and help define the runway boundaries. These numbers will be painted on the playa surface using a biodegradable agricultural colorant exhibiting properties that will allow it to naturally degrade and disappear when exposed to sunlight. 50. A helipad will be designated and marked for emergency use. 51. Ultra-light aircraft take off/landing areas will be designated in the area to the southeast of the airport camp.
Goal & Methodology In 2006, the airport runway was discovered to be outside of the Public Closure Area. This could potentially endanger public safety. This year airport features including the runway, camping area etc were located by GPS and once combined with other GIS data, was determined to be again outside the Public Closure Area. Results
Results (continued) The airport runway is outside of the Public Closure Area. The challenges in laying out the runway and other airport facilities stem from 1) The closure areas are in part are defined by legal descriptions which are not visible landmarks that can be seen “on the ground,” making it hard for the airport users, public and law enforcement to ascertain these boundaries, 2) The closure areas are in part defined by playa tracks. The tracks represented on the closure maps are older GIS data. GPS data from 2006 shows the track locations have drifted over time, 3) The airport and runway are dangerously close the Coyote- Springs/3-Mile track which is open to the public. 4) The airport is not laid out before the event begins so BLM cannot make this determination until it is too late to coordinate with BMan on the exact airport location 5) BMan lacks the GIS data on the BLM closure maps to lay out the runway and other airport structures. During the June 2008 inspection, no trace of airport structures or runways was seen on the playa surface. Recommendations Suggest moving the Site A & B city sites slightly towards Hwy 34 and/or expanding closure area and defining the closure areas by more identifiable boundaries. BLM and BMan should coordinate closely on the runway location when designating closure areas and laying out the airport on site before the event start and certainly before planes start arriving.
8. Perimeter Fence Surveys BLM Stipulation 32 states:
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 32. Permittee shall install a 360° event perimeter/boundary trash fence. Any accumulation of trash that appears to be spilling over the fence or passing through a fence break will be collected. Fence breaks will be repaired immediately upon discovery. Permittee shall construct the southwest and southeast flanks of the perimeter fence prior to installation of other facilities to safely direct vehicular traffic around the site.
Goal To ensure and document that the accumulated trash along the fence lines was disposed of in a timely manner. Methodology Regular patrols were made by BLM staff of the perimeter fence for accumulated debris and the presence of trash patrols. Results During the event, impressively wide and deep sand dunes formed along the fences downwind. These dunes had the potential to bury a significant amount of trash. After the fence was taken down, the amount of playa dust deposited (in these dunes were up to 18” high and 100’s of yards long). This clearly altered the ‘playa-scape’ and present a public safety hazard for those driving across the playa with the assumption that it is uniformly flat and suitable for high speed travel. This no longer seems to be the case through the Burning Man site and other areas of the playa. During the Event
June 2008 inspection The entire perimeter fence was driven. The northern most point along the perimeter fence towards Trego was defined by marked changes in the playa surface. The driver was able to track the location of the perimeter fence by following defined series of dunes on the left and right side of the truck. There was also a well- defined point where the fence nears Coyotes Springs and turns back south. The trace disappeared about a fifth of the way south towards to the next fence corner. Another large series of dunes appeared from the fence corner nearest Bman/BLM ICS and proceeded north. Those dunes followed the main track and the perimeter fence. On other sides of the fence, there was no evidence of the fence. This pattern corresponds with expectations given that prevailing winds originate in the south, and deposit dust on the north side of Black Rock City. These dunes are unlike former dunes on the playa which were a series of washboard bumps and/or larger, smooth speed bumps. The shape of these dunes resemble small mountain ranges with peaks and valleys. They are a potential hazard for those hitting these dunes unexpectedly, especially at high speeds. Below are the photographs taken to show this disturbance of the playa surface. Fence corner by ICS
Northern-most fence corner headed toward Trego
Left: Shape of dunes unlike previous washboard dunes or large flat oval rises Below: Note significant lines of dunes both left and right of traveled tracks
Recommendations While BMan bladed these dunes after the event in order to reduce their height, their presence is still clearly detectable and in need of further monitoring. Questions to be investigated are: Will the accumulated material be sufficiently dispersed over time? Or will these dunes ‘solidify’ into the ‘Mother’ of all ‘playa serpents?’ The dunes should be studied more closely as part of the cumulative impact for the Burning Man event and the amount of use the event attracts to the playa during other periods each year.
9. PPPP – Porta Potty Placement Plan BLM Stipulations 59 states:
SANITATION 59. BRC will coordinate with NV State Health Division, and the toilet contractor(s) to provide the proper number of toilets and hand sanitizers for the peak anticipated population and adequate resources for toilet pumping and maintenance consistent with the requirements of the health department. The following additional requirements apply: a. A contingency plan for additional toilets will be in place in case the anticipated population exceeds estimates. b. A minimum of two toilets each will be located in the communities of Gerlach and Empire to reduce impacts on local sewer systems. Toilet locations will be coordinated with the communities involved. c. Banks of toilets will be placed in the Art area and will be prominently identified at night. d. Banks of toilets will be placed at regular intervals along the exit road during the peak exodus periods.
Goal Minimize ‘playa puddles’ (particularly the many found every morning near the Esplanade) to create a more sanitary and pleasant environment. Methodology During the Monitoring Team’s survey of the city they made note of any unsanitary toilets (none found), puddles (many!) and the number of rented porta-potties participants installed in their own camps. The potties folder contains photos of these as an attempt to capture how often participants rented a porta-potty for their own camp. Results & Recommendations Outside of BRC, there needs to be better placement of potties in Gerlach. During the beginning of the event, the potties at the Visitor Contact Trailer are: 1) beyond Gerlach, participants are stopping in local establishments exclusively to use the facilities not knowing there are potties at the VCT, 2) during Influx, the potties are on the opposite side of the road from traffic and difficult to access particularly in a continuous line of traffic, 3) a larger bank of potties with more regular servicing is needed during both Influx and Exodus. Inside BRC, consider a placement plan to balance both the needs of the participants in locating facilities and the needs of the pump truck staff for efficient access routes throughout the city. Potty locations based on the BMan event map were screen-digitized to a shapefile. This can be used to analyze the minimum, maximum and average distances to the potties and assist in future planning. For the participants’ convenience, suggest adding the potty locations to the small BMan-distributed postcard BRC maps. The pictured large dance-saloon camp just happened to be down the block from a bank of potties but if not, it could be have been a concern. Suggest placing potties within large rave camps and other areas attracting many participants. Alternatively, through Burning Man’s theme camp registration process camps, camps expecting large numbers of visitors could preferentially be located banks. Page 44
The photo on the left shows only part of this large Saloon Rave camp. This camp happened to be located just down the road from a bank of PortaPotties provided by the event. It is suggested that large camps be encouraged or required to bring in toilets for to accommodate their many guests.
The photo below is a testament to the level of awareness amongst the participants of the need to Leave No Trace. While monitoring the event, a participant flagged down a BLM golf cart to report that while attempting to service the RV, the tank leaked all over everything. They were looking for advice on how to best deal with the yuck…and were worried that their camp would otherwise get a ding from the authorities.
10. Other The below stipulations were met this year but not photo-documented. These same stipulations were photo-documented extensively in 2006. Should more detail be needed please refer to the 2006 Stipulation Monitoring Report or contact a lead member of the BLM.
GENERAL Stip 7. The permittee shall post a copy of the Special Recreation Permit (Form 2930-1) and permit stipulations in plain view at Center Camp FEDERAL CLOSURES Stip 14. BRC shall comply with all permit requirements and conditions as identified in the permit issued and as authorized for any given year and with all applicable supplemental regulations (i.e. closure orders, fire restrictions, etc.) in effect during the event. FUGITIVE DUST Stip 30b. Fugitive dust suppression efforts on roads will be performed at a minimum of once daily by watering to keep fugitive road dust at a minimum during event operation and during and after event closure. 30d. Water trucks used for dust control will carry prominent signs stating 'Non-Potable Water--Avoid Contact" as required by state regulations. Signs must remain visible at all times. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Stip 33. The following areas of special concern will be patrolled by the Burning Man staff for cleanup of event-related trash: County Road 34 from the “8-Mile” entrance to State Route (SR) 447, SR 447 from the intersection with County Road 34 to Wadsworth and from Gerlach to the California state line, and SR 446 from Nixon to SR 445 near Sutcliffe. SIGNAGE Stip 34. BRC shall provide and post signs, as determined by the authorized officer. All signs manufactured by BRC for use on state or county roads will be made to standards comparable to NDOT regulations. Stip 35. The following items will be in place no later than 5 days prior to the event: DOT regulated, reflective signs will be placed along County Rd 34 warning participants that the entrance is just ahead. A large lighted sign posted at the event entrance on County Rd 34 that clearly identifies the entrance. At the gate, signs prominently identifying the entrance and contains the following: “The possession and use of personal fireworks or sale of fireworks is prohibited” and “Possession of firearms is prohibited.” Orange trash fences, construction cones, signs or other structures should be placed on the closed roads that lead into the city. Signs should say that the road is closed and provide alternate access information. Signs identifying the public closure area should be posted appropriately around the perimeter of the event to warn nonparticipants of how to legally travel around the event perimeter. Signs to provide the public with information concerning closures and available playa access points during the event should be located along County Road 34 to the north and south of the event. Maps depicting public closures should be located at all public playa entrances Signs depicting the route to the event access/exit and the access/exit turnoff on County Road 34. Caution signs will be placed along County Road 34 in both directions out from the event access and at other prominent or strategic locations around the event to forewarn travelers of traffic safety hazards and the event ahead. TRAFFIC CONTROL Stip 41a.BRC shall coordinate with the Nevada Department of Transportation for traffic control at County Road 34 entrances/exits to BRC, the “Y” intersection of State Road 447 and County Road 34, and the towns of Gerlach and Empire during heavy traffic periods (prior to, during exit and after the event) to keep traffic moving steadily. Permittee shall apply for a permit from the NDOT to conduct flagging operations as necessary. Stip 72. BRC shall provide a minimum of two structural/brush-type fire engines, National Wildfire Coordinating Group (NWCG) type 3-6. Engines and staff must meet NWCG or NWSA (National Wildfire Suppression Association) standards for personnel and equipment. These fire engines will be strategically placed within BRC as determined necessary by the BRC fire contracto
STAFF Roger Farschon NCA Ecologist & Incident Commander BLM Surprise FO Joey Carmosino Outdoor Recreation Planner & Logistics Lead NCA & BLM Winnemucca FO Justin Robbins NCA Park Ranger BLM Winnemucca FO Laura M. Levy GIS Specialist formerly BLM Winnemucca FO
VOLUNTEERS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Charmaine Murray, BTCV, Edinborough, Scotland Christopher Polley, BTCV, Guildford, England Dion Battersby, BTCV, London, England Louise Hart, BTCV, Bridgewater, England Michael Playfair, BTCV, Norfolk, England Richard Green, BTCV, Bristol, England Tom Lally, BTCV, London, England Tom Sharples, BCTV, Yorkshire, England Holly Palmer, NOS, Winnemucca, NV Seth Ames, NOS, Winnemucca, NV Dave Ingram, NOS, Leeds, England Stephanie Lefevre, NOS, Winnemucca, NV Angie Dykema, Friends of Nevada Wilderness, Reno, NV Pat Bruce, Friends of Nevada Wilderness, Reno, NV Jon Fleck, Friends of Nevada Wilderness, Reno, NV Adriane Zacnanidis, Friends of Nevada Wilderness, Las Vegas, NV Dave Book, Friends of Black Rock High Rock, Reno, NV Sydney Booz, Surprise BLM Office, Cedarville, CA Mike, Surprise BLM Office, Cedarville, CA
……………TIL NEXT YEAR!
Report prepared by Integrated Mapping Strategies Laura M. Levy 4847 Jones Lane Winnemucca, NV 89445 firstname.lastname@example.org 775-313-1983