This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Session 2 – Explosion Protection Fundamentals
The Explosion Triangle
In order to have an explosion, all three legs of the triangle need to be present... Our objective is to remove one or more of the legs of the triangle when we apply electrical equipment in a potentially hazardous flammable atmosphere...
All the protection concepts that are currently used in the world today address one or more legs of this triangle
Sources of Ignition in Hazardous Areas Electrical Sparks mA in 10V. If the motor is excessively overloaded and the thermal overload device i Batteries their terminals are short -circuited. The voltage level has an influence on how incendive a spark will be. Replacement of batterie . Current of the order of 1000A can be enerated equipment may only allow their use in hazardous areas if powered by low -power batteries. Flammable gases and vapors Hot Surfaces e the surface temperature of the motor.
. which can produce sparks capable of igniting a flammable gas or vap Radio Frequency The energy transmitted by a mobile phone if used in a Zone 1 area. Power tools unle Lightning installation. and hot surfaces locally at the point of contact by the abrasive wheel.Sources of Ignition in Hazardous Areas Friction producing incendive sparks. could produce a spark of sufficient energy to ignite the petrol vapor. but flammable gases or vapors can be ignited by harged to earth by the normal metal construction of Impact e of ignition. could be picked up by the metalwork in the area. known as thermite action. which acting as a aerial.
Bonding and earthing of aircraft or tankers during refueling prevents the buildup of electros Excerpt from Maintenance Information on EEx e GRP enclosure "Static Hazard Glass Reinforced Polyester has a surface resistance of 10E9 ohms.Sources of Ignition in Hazardous Areas Static Electricity cleaning equipment. ass reinforced. They can present a hazard from static electricity and should only be cleaned with a damp cloth. Ohms They do not present a hazard from . identified with the suffix "C" have a surface resistance of between 10E6 and 10E9 .
the effect of the energy source "light" as a potential ignition source in explosive atmospheres Chemical eacton R i chemical reactions can and does create sinificant ls that have different y explosive Ultrasound ctly to ultrasound.Sources of Ignition in Hazardous Optical Radiation Areas The use of optical fibres in particular opens up many fields of application. Electrical hazards are also present and should be considered especially where any liquids are in . This technique offers in fact numerous . advantages however.
must be given consideration. .
Just like your automobile. the mixture needs to be in the proper range for an explosion to occur. Sources of Ignition in Hazardous Areas Upper and Lower Flammable Limits for flammable gases and vaors e 2% -10% range while Acetylene and Hydrogen have much larger ranges.. hence one reason they are grouped ver ..
tendency to disperse potentially ignite container or to an arc.te d i as ar Specific Density of Flammable gases and i and there is little tendency for these gases to sink or move around. ering the types and gases that are typically going to be seen in the environment due to dispersion. . ration gases to air: Density Some gases are generally denser than air (propane) and have a tendency to creep ethane. hydrogen) and have aover long distances andunless contained by awhen exposed structure.
000ths of the volume of the room or greater. This does not mean that the entire room would be classified as a hazardous area.mm or more of ignitable dust evenly distributed over an entire area is General Rules of Thumb in considered sufficient enough to create determining hazardous area essel containing the material. Example of proper ventilation of a contained room with heavier than air mixtures. much smaller volumes of gas should be considered as hazardous due to rupture fr of 10 liters of explosive gases in a confined room is always considered to be a hazardous area irrespective of the size of A simple calculation is that if the volume of hazardous gas is 1/10. a potential for explosion can occur. . but possibly only a part.
Temperature Identification Codes Example of Temperature increasing factors in Ex terminal boxes .
90% of the flammable gases and vapors seen in the oil and gas industry. if you can produce a product that is rated at T3 or better...Temperature Identification Numbers Gas Grouping In general. . surface temperature of 200?C or cooler) you will cover approx. (max.
Elevated ambient temperatures can effect the T identification numer l ons to check with the manufacture to determine suitabilit y of the product bein g used or considered.that ?C will never exceed 85 ?C. .
Temperature Identification Numbers Gas Grouping Relevant EN/IEC standards for Hazardous Locations h same ensty .
. Gas Dust ...Cateor Hazardous Area Classification.
Gas Grouping for EEx 'd' enclosures .
. ...Cateor Hazardous Area Classification.
.Relevant IEC standards for Dust Hazardous Locations b d ramacay.
The principal differences in EN 61241 0:2006 are listed below. - . shafts and rods). Type B has specific requirements for joints (plain.Dust Protection by Enclosure Updates (Ex tD) EN 50281 1 1:1998 will be withdrawn as a harmonised status under the ATEX Directive from the 1st of October 2008. EN 61241 0 is general requirements that requires either 61241 1 to be used to acquire tD certification. EN 61241 0 will be merged into EN 60079 0 Additional testing for category 3 products particularly for non metallic materials Increased requirements for batteries in line with gas standards in the EN 60079 series Thermal tests under specified dust layers required if the layer exceeds 50mm Introduction of ‘practice A’ (similar to existing method) and ‘practice B’ (a new approach) A is principally the same as the old standard max surface temp is determined with 5 mm of dust and end users need to de rate it by 75K.5 mm layer of dust and a 25K offset is to be appe li d i n ins t allation. minor differences are not listed. B determines the temp using a 12. ultimately. gasketed. The meoeterm ining dus t ngress th d of d i is by a hea t cyc ling tes t. To determine dust ingress by EN 60529. spigot.
Relevant IEC standards for Dust Hazardous Locations .
Temperature assessment has been re written to address the influences of ambient temperature. operation. intrinsically safe systems (IEC 60079 25). Zone 0 apparatus (IEC 60079 . a new clause was added detailing the minimum information to be prepared. and maintenance was considered critical to the safe application of equipment in explosive atmospheres. but is what SHOULD be used when equipment does not comply with the specific types of protection. Clarification of the status of symbol “s” It has been clarified in a note that “s” is not a recognized type of protection. internal sources of heat. All the “general” requirements have been moved from IEC 60079 15 to IEC 60079 0 and adjusted as necessary).Updates on standards Hazardous Locations The 4th edition of IEC 60079 0 was published in May of 2004. and external sources of heating or cooling Relative thermal index (RTI) added as an alternative to thermal index (TI) Impact test revised to specify drop height in lieu of energy Clarification of application of 5 K and 10 K temperature margins to type tested samples Clarification of number of samples and order of tests for non metallic materials Clarification of the order of protection concept marking (alphabetical) Addition of a clause on instructions (As the installation.) Some“ t ti ” requremens sac - . Significant changes to the standard are as follows effective in 2008: - New type of protection “n” introduced (The standard for Type “n” was previously a “stand alone” standard that did not function as a sub part of IEC 60079 0. Apparatus standards for caplights (IEC 62013 1). 26) and trace heating (IEC 62086 1) introduced. This is not currently harmonised but ‘can’ be considered ‘state of the art’. but does present equivalent safety.
Relevant IEC standards for Dust Hazardous i Locations t transerre f d from IEC 60079 26 - .
Harmonization of ATEX & IECEx update .
IIB and IIC areas True .Harmonization of ATEX & IECEx update Properties of Hazardous Flammable Materials All Electrical sparks are capable of igniting a gas/air mixture False The glass surface of a light bulb will prevent ignition of gas/air mixture False Any concentration of flammable gas in air maybe ignited False Acetylene has the widest flammable limit range True Apparatus marked Gas Group II can be used in Gas Group IIA.
Properties of Hazardous Flammable Materials • All flammable vapors will rise in the atmosphereFalse False True Apparatus marked IIA can be used in a IIC hazardous area False A Zone 2 area indicates that a flammable atmosphere can occur during normal operating conditions The probability and duration of a gas leak in a hazardous area is indicated by the Zone Generally. apparatus with a T3 temperature rating can be used False in place of apparatus rated T4 .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.