UNIVERSITY OF PANAMA COCLE UNIVERSITY BRANCH ARTS FACULTY ENGLISH SCHOOL

COURSE TITLE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

TOPIC: ANTON¶S SANITATION PROBLEMS ACCORDING TO ENGLISH STUDENTS FROM THIRD LEVEL- CRU COCLE

PROFESSOR: JOSEVEL BEITIA

PARTICIPANT¶S NAME: JAVIER GONZALEZ

KATHERINE VELÁSQUEZ 8-847-2119 AMILKAR ARROCHA SLADAÑA 2-723-1829

DEADLINE: MONDAY JULY 11, 2011.

INDEX Page I. Introduction A. Research Introduction 1. Statement of the Problem 2. Objectives of the Research 3. Statement of the Research Question 4. Statement of the Hypothesis 5. Research Background B. Plan of Research 1. Study/Experimental Design 2. Selection of the Cases/Participants (Sampling) 3. Setting 4. Data Collection Procedures and Instruments 5. Data Analysis C. Interpretation and Discussion of Data II. III. IV. Conclusion Attached Information Reference Work 3 4 5 6 6 6 7 8 9 9 10 10 11 22 23 25 31

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I.

INTRODUCTION

This work is meant to analyze Anton¶s sanitation problems. The heated debate about Anton¶s landfill site placement arouses interest on this area¶s current cleanliness. Researchers are interested in discovering the sanitation problem that highly affects this place population. At first sight, the rubbish disposal seems to be the number one problem leaving behind other common sanitation-related phenomena such as the sewage and abandoned lots dirtiness. With the aim of stating a reliable answer to this question, it has been designed a study over this problem. The research team has gathered information related to this situation through a thoughtful observation to the area under study. Anton people and officials share their points of view by means of a face-to-face interview and investigators have the opportunity to examine their hypothesis looking over current facts. As an outcome of this observation, researchers¶ conclusion is drawn based on the analysis of their on-field discoveries. The research plan as well as the study findings is presented in this work via graphics, pictures and annotations that give better insights upon this phenomenon.

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A. RESEARCH INTRODUCTION 4 .

Undoubtedly. garbage piles up in big quantities. Statement of the Problem An exponential increase in the touristic activities can be seen in Anton. the lack of organization and a well-thought-out plan by Anton officials has brought about accumulation of garbage and the existence of unclean lots that host all kinds of pest. These district sanitation problems happen for two main reasons. a coherent action by authorities is required. This is why. An educational program is urgently needed to make Anton people aware that real changes start from the inside-out. To make of this place a touristic destination. Second. Anton is facing serious sanitary problems such as garbage accumulation. there is a lack of involvement and consciousness by the community of Anton. the owners of properties do not care about cleaning their lots. First. unclean lots. Sadly. it is important to work on effective services to offer to tourist as well as excellent attention and accommodations. Most importantly. and shedding of sewage.1. is garbage the main problem? 5 . the place must be clean and organized. The inefficient and almost null application of laws has not decreased the problematic. the interest on Anton¶s sanitation has been awakened by the divisive decision of authorities to place a landfill site in El Jobo. These three phenomena are undoubtedly the most common and noticeable. Huge buildings are constructed near towns and more people choose to move to this district. But. the sewage filtration systems has collapsed because of being unable to manage such big amounts of rubbish. Easy tasks such as not throwing garbage in public places and taking responsibility over their property¶s cleanliness reflect the population belief in putting the blame on everybody else rather than themselves and their own actions.

This phenomena affects the life of population bringing about illnesses. To determine the main factors that take part in Anton¶s sanitation problems. pest and decreasing economy. Objectives of the Research y y y y y y To find out the main sanitary problem in Anton. 6 . To confirm whether sanitary inspections and projects are executed or not. Statement of the Research Questions y y Which is the main sanitary problem in Anton? Which are the factors that take part in the happening of Anton¶s sanitation problems? y y y y What are the consequences of this phenomenon in people¶s lives? How often are sanitary inspections executed? Does El Jobo have sanitary problems? What are some solutions to these sanitary problems? 4. To establish possible solutions and ways to action against Anton¶s sanitary problems. To verify whether El Jobo community has sanitary problems. To recognize the most important consequences of this phenomena in people¶s lives. Statement of the Hypothesis Anton¶s main sanitary problem is garbage due to the lack of a convenient system for the treatment of waste disposals. 3.2.

The population according to the 2000 census was 44. El Chirú. The district covers a total area of 749 km². 7 . Research Background/Context Antón District is a district of Coclé Province in Panama. The capital lies at the city of Antón. Juan Díaz.039. Cabuya. El Valle. Río Hato.5. San Juan de Dios. El Retiro. Santa Rita and Caballero. The district is divided administratively into the following corregimientos: Antón (capital).

PLAN OF RESEARCH 8 .B.

groups. 2.1. The sample takes account of people from different ages. as well as the instruments used to gather information. The main characteristic of the sample is that of living in Anton. The sampling method is random as this type of technique offers a sample which fulfill the characteristics needed for the study.   . social status and sex. some consequences of this phenomenon. According to Hernández Sampiere (2003). communities and any other phenomenon which can be subject of an analysis. descriptive studies specify the properties. characteristics and important features of people. Study/Experimental Design This research study is descriptive because it describes some of the factors that have an impact in the occurrence of Anton¶s sanitation problems. It is representative since it stands for no less than 10%. Selection of cases/participants (sampling) The participants include all the inhabitants of Anton¶s district. The research plan includes the steps to collect data from people and the sampling approach. and the communities most affected.

(4) interpretation of data. (3) graphics design. This study has been developed upon a primary instrument: the interview. 4. 10 . Data collection procedures and instruments The instrument of a study is the mechanism used by the researcher to collect and record in data. This fact arouses the attention of investigators on this place sanitation. and (5) presentation of the results.3. (2) data totaling. The steps to be followed for the data analysis and presentation are (1) interview session. five of which are qualitative questions and seven are quantitative questions. The interview is composed of twelve questions. Setting Anton District is selected for undergoing this research because of the controversial placement of a landfill site in one of this district¶s communities.

indeed. Happening of sanitation problems in Anton N° Yes 25 No 0 Total 25 Analysis: According to the interview results. Happening of Sanitation Problems in Anton 0% Yes No 100% 11 . Data Analysis 1st Chart: Happening of sanitation problems in Anton according to population¶s opinion. Anton has sanitation problems. 100% of the interviewed people agree that.5. This is an indicator that this place can present healthy and environmental problems in the future.

Moreover. Main Sanitation Problem in Anton Garbage Accumulation Sewage Abandoned Lots Dirtiness Others Total N° 15 14 18 3 50 Analysis: According to the interview results. while 36% of the interviewed people strongly believe that the dirtiness of abandoned lots is the most important problem. whereas. 6% of the interviewed people think that problems such as clogged gutters. 30% of the interviewed people feel that trash accumulation is being the core difficulty. Main Sanitation Problem in Anton 6% 30% 36% Garbage Accumulation Sewage Unclean Lots 28% Others 12 . construction waste and the public market sanitation are main problems. 28% of the interviewed people consider that sewage is a major crisis.2nd Chart: Main sanitation problems in Anton according to population¶s opinion.

but also population are the core responsible. Responsible of Sanitation Problems 11% 50% Authorities 39% Population Private Corporations 13 . It is important to highlight that most of the interviewed people agree that not only authorities. while 11% of the interviewed people believe that private corporations are indeed responsible. The 39% considers that the population is the responsible. Responsible of Sanitation Problem Authorities Population Private Corporations Total N° 22 17 5 44 Analysis: According to the interview results.3rd Chart: Responsible of sanitation problems according to population¶s opinion. 50% of the interviewed people think that authorities have the main responsibility in the happening of Anton sanitation problems.

Ciénega Vieja. 36% of the interviewed people think that the center of Anton is the most affected community. 15% of the participants believe that El Ciruelito is highly impacted. over 8% who considers that El Jobo is being more affected.4th Chart: Most affected communities by sanitation problems according to population¶s opinion. El Bajo and Anton (The whole of it) El Jobo Total N° 9 6 2 14 1 3 59 Analysis: According to the interview results. whereas 23% consider that Las Guabas community is being hardly affected. Pozo Rico. Most Affected Communities Las Guabas El Ciruelito Rio Hato The center of Anton Barriada El Mirador. El Bajo and Anton (The whole of it) are the most affected. Ciénega Vieja. Pozo Rico. 5% of the interviewed people think that Rio Hato community is being importantly impacted while 2% and 3% of the pool participants believe that Barriada El Mirador. Most Affected Communities 2% 2% 3% 3% 3% 36% The center of Anton Las Guabas El Ciruelito El Jobo Rio Hato 15% Barriada El Mirador 23% Pozo Rico Ciénega Vieja El Bajo Anton (The whole of it) 5% 8% 14 .

Consequences of Sanitation Problems Illnesses Bad Pollution Appearance N° Odors N° N° N° 10 9 6 3 ----15 25 7 1 17 4 1 11 ----3 --2 2 Pest N° Garbage Accumulation Sewage Abandoned Lots Dirtiness Total Robbery N° ----1 1 Analysis: According the interview results. and in relation to garbage accumulation. Finally. 15 . 15% believes that illnesses are an important effect while 10% believes that bad odors are negative outcomes over 5% who thinks that pollution would be a serious consequence. 17% of the interviewed participants think that pest is a major consequence. each of them ranking 1%. Besides. Illnesses. people mention other consequences such as appearance and robbery. 25% of the interviewed participants consider that pest is a big effect of unclean lots. bad odors and robbery are given 1% each and a bad appearance is given 3% on the rank. 12% of the people states that illnesses are troubled effects of the shedding of sewage whereas 7% say that bad odors would be an unwanted outcome.5th Chart: Consequences of sanitation problems according to population¶s opinion. Additionally.

Consequences of Sanitation Problems Pest Illnesses Bad Odors Pollution 15 Appearance Robbery 10 9 7 6 4 3 1 1 2 1 1 1 Garbage Accumulation Sewage Unclean Lots Others 16 .

68% of the interviewed people think that economy in Anton can be affected by sanitation problems. economic incomes. Impact in Anton Economic Growth Yes No Total N° 17 8 25 Analysis: According to interview results.6th Chart: Impact in Anton economic growth according to population¶s opinion. 32% of the interviewed participants consider that economy would not be affected at all. sewage and abandoned lots would definitely affect tourism. Impact in Anton Economic Growth 32% Yes 68% No 17 . On the other hand. and investment. This 68% strongly believes that trash accumulation.

7th Chart: Occurrence of sanitation projects in Anton according to population¶s opinion. trash and educational programs. In contrast. Occurrence of Sanitation Projects in Anton N° Yes 13 No 12 Total 25 Analysis: According to the interview results. This percentage of the participants might not know of the programs being developed or the programs do not seem to solve their necessities. 48% of the participants say that any sanitation project is developed. These range from fumigation. 52% of the interviewed people say that sanitation projects are executed in Anton. Occurrence of Sanitation Projects in Anton 48% 52% Yes No 18 .

40% of the participants assure to not know about El Jobo¶s current sanitation yet they affirm this place is not the best option for the landfill site.8th Chart: Occurrence of sanitation problems in El Jobo according to population¶s opinion. Occurrence of Sanitation Problems in El Jobo 16% 40% Yes No 44% Don't know 19 . Occurrence of Sanitation Problems in El Jobo N° Yes 4 No 11 Don¶t know 10 Total 25 Analysis: According to the interview results. while 44% says that there are no sanitation problems in this place. 16% of the interviewed people say that there are sanitation problems in El Jobo. It is important to draw attention to the fact that most of the participants have never visited El Jobo at the moment of the interview. On the other hand.

On the contrary. each two months and each month. each month. 32% of the participants assure that inspections come about twice a year while 12% declares that inspections never happen. It can be inferred that this service might not be as effective as expected given that the frequency to which it happens is lower to the majority of the population. Frequency of Sanitation-Related Inspections in Anton 20% 36% 12% Once a year Twice a year Never 32% Others 20 . 36% of the interviewed people say that inspections occur once a year.9th Chart: Frequency of sanitation-related inspections in Anton according to population¶s opinion. 20% of the interviewed people say that inspections occur whenever asked. Frequency of Sanitation-Related Inspections in Anton N° Once a year 9 Twice a year 8 Never 3 Others 5 Total 25 Analysis: According to the interview results. six times a year.

9% of the interviewed people consider that more frequent inspections is a good alternative and the left 6% says they do not know of a way to improve the situation. ranking 18%. 21% thinks that the execution of educational and social programs is the best solution while the exercising of laws is considered to be the best solution against this phenomenon.10th Chart: Recommendations to solve sanitation-related problems in Anton according to population¶s opinion. Moreover. Recommendations to Solve Sanitation-Related Problems in Anton N° Inspections 3 Laws 6 More Efficient Services 8 Population Involvement 8 Projects 7 Don¶t know 2 Total 34 Analysis: 46% of the interviewed participants believe that the best solution for the sanitation problems is the involvement of the population and more efficient services by Anton¶s officials. Recomendations to Solve Sanitation-Related Problems in Anton 6% 21% 9% 18% Inspections Laws More Efficient Services 23% 23% Population Involvement Projects Don't Know 21 .

The research team openly agrees with these results given that the observations conducted in the area of study match the conclusion. Yet they also argue that a lack of social responsibility by the inhabitants is having a big impact. but they powerfully stated that this community was not the best place for the rubbish dump (Even though. This fact can be confirmed by the research team since most of the interviewed participants did not know about El Jobo¶s current situation. Most of the interviewed people think that local authorities are the responsible of these phenomena. the majority of Anton inhabitants agree that this place. The accumulation of garbage ranks second in the top list followed by the shedding of sewage. but they believe that these efforts must be accompanied of a well-organized teaching campaign for the population. in spite of conventional beliefs. they had ever been to this place). Investigators have not found any evidence of garbage accumulation or shedding of sewages to support the results. INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION OF THE DATA According to the data collected. It is important to note that people acknowledge the authorities attempts to decrease the problematic.C. Anton¶s main sanitary problem is not garbage but unclean lots. Furthermore. But. citizens strongly believe that these phenomena originate healthy-related consequences. Anton inhabitants also suggest officials to establish a wider range of the zones to be inspected as they think the extent to which sanitation is supervised seems to be inadequate. indeed. social incidents such as robbery and an economic cost for investment. 22 . has sanitary problems.

As a secondary topic.II. In fact. This statement refutes our hypothesis which stated the garbage accumulation as the main and most noticeable problem of Anton district. The unclean lots¶ problem happens due to the population¶s lack of involvement in the situation of the district. the authorities make certain that they have taken into account different studies to guarantee the viability of the project in order that nobody gets injured. On the other hand. CONCLUSION After analyzing all the data collected in the research and taking into account the results obtained from such investigation we can conclude that Anton does have sanitation problems being the unclean lots the main one. we have the project of the landfill in El Jobo town. we can say that the authorities are not really involved with the possible solutions to these problems even though they say they are implementing new strategies to make people clean their lots. they allege that the implementation of the 23 . Meanwhile. much of the population do not know about this topic but they assure that it is not a good idea to implement such project in that community. We state this since we could observe many unclean lots during our research and all of this places were in the main streets of Anton and near the schools which should be the cleanest places because they are the most frequently visited. Despite it is a controversial theme. Also. because the owners of most of those lands do not care about the consequences that uncleanliness can produce to the community and even to themselves.

a healthier and nicer lifestyle. So. As we can see the sanitation problems in Anton are not being solved currently and it is a people¶s responsibility to apply the ways that will give a better look to the community and mainly.project will bring an economical impact in the population since they will need manpower and use recycling processes that will lead the population to have other ways to earn money. This problem is happening due to a lack of population¶s participation in the cleanliness of the town and an impartial judgment from the authorities with the owners of such lots. 24 .omission of laws and cleanliness lack of the inhabitants. our final hypothesis would be that the facing sanitation problems being the unclean lots the primary. and an authorities¶ obligation to firmly punish the .

III. 3. once they have acquired the land they forget about it and that is why we have a lot of unclean and abandoned places. Anton and Juan Hombron even though they have big touristic attractions. Who do you think is the responsible of this problem? A: I think the population is the responsible because those are private properties and they should take care of that. y Interview Sample Attached Information Interview to Lic. In your opinion. unfortunately there are many problems in Anton. nevertheless. do you think there are sanitation problems in Anton? A: Yes. I think the most common problem is the quantity of unclean lots due to the fact many people is interested in buying real states in our district. Which are the main consequences of these sanitary problems? A: The most noticeable consequences of the unclean lots are the proliferation of mosquitoes and other plagues. Ruiz. 2. 5. which are the most affected communities? A: I would say that the most affected communities are: Rio Hato. Anton¶s Major Assistant. 25 . junk accumulation and scraps. 1. Esteban Ruiz. Which problem do you consider is the most common? A: Well. Mr. 4.

Actually. The landfill project have had a very careful environmental impact study and it will be based on building up a giant garbage pool. 7. we apply fines to the people that do not take care of their lots or do not throw the garbage properly. In El Jobo community. we have a project in which the Municipality sends people to clean lots and try to find the owner of those lots. 8. we have several projects such as the ³Hormiguitas´ and the garbage recollection. the implementation of recycling methods and the 26 . As a major project we have the landfill project in El Jobo. and it is especially affected in the tourism. Does Anton district has sanitary projects? Could you mention some of those projects? A: Yes it does. do they face any sanitary problem currently? Wouldn¶t be the implementation of the landfill in that community a trigger for the start of epidemies or sicknesses in that community? A: The landfill project in El Jobo has been taken through many viability studies in order to make the community know that it is a safe project and that it won¶t damage anybody in the community. In addition. The inhabitants of this town agree with the project. however other people outside the community are those who oppose. Do you consider that the economical development of the district is being affected because of this sanitation problem and how is it affected? A: Yes. In Rio Hato we have the problem that the rubbish dump is close to the big Hotels in which the tourism activity is being done and that give a bad appearance of the place. Also.6.

As a matter of fact. we may highlight that the suggested location for the construction of this landfill is a municipal property which once was otorged to Salomon Ponce Aguilera High School. the Anton¶s municipality is working in different ways along with the Health Ministry giving trainings to the mayors and implying fines to the people who do not clean their properties. but as they did not made use of such land it came back to the municipality as it is stated in the laws. What would you recommend to solve the sanitation problems in Anton? A: In fact. Other strategy is to place on sale signposts in the abandoned lots to make the owner appear and fine him or her. 9. 27 .use of trenches all around the pools.

y Interview to Lic. Esteban Ruiz (Mayor¶s Assistant) 28 .

y On-area Observation 29 .

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31 .IV. Interviews made to Anton¶s inhabitants. Reference Work y y y http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ant%C3%B3n_District Interview made to Anton¶s Mayor Assistant: Esteban Ruiz.

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