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FIELD WELDING MANUAL

STATE OF VERMONT AGENCY OF TRANSPORTATION

CONSTRUCTION SECTION

April 2009

Construction Manual D-7 Field Welding Manual 2009

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE

INTRODUCTION SHOP WELDING DEFINITION FIELD WELDING DEFINITION VAOT WELDER CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS I. CERTIFICATION CATEGORIES A. B. C. II. STRUCTURAL PLATE AND SHAPES PIPE AND TUBING REINFORCING STEEL

3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 10 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

QUALIFICATION REQUIREMENTS A. B. C. STRUCTURAL PLATE AND SHAPES PIPE AND TUBING REINFORCING STEEL 1. INDIRECT BUTT SPLICE 2. DIRECT BUTT SPLICE

III.

ACCEPTANCE REQUIREMENTS A. B. C. STRUCTURAL PLATE AND SHAPES PIPE AND TUBING REINFORCING STEEL

QUALIFICATION TESTING CERTIFICATION DRAWINGS AND PROCEDURES ELECTRODES - PURCHASE AND USE PRE-HEAT TEMPERATURES BIBLIOGRAPHY ELECTRODE CERTIFICATION WELDER QUALIFICATION RECORD PREQUALIFIED WELD PROCEDURE BLANK FORM E-2 BLANK FORM E-1

Construction Manual D-7 Field Welding Manual 2009

INTRODUCTION

The 1995 and 2001 Standard Specifications for Construction (herein referred to as Vermont Agency of Transportation Specifications) requires field welding to be performed by welders having an AWS Certification designating that they are qualified for structural welding for the Vermont Agency of Transportation. The Green and White Mountains Section of the American Welding Society is responsible for qualifying welders and issuing American Welding Society (AWS) Certifications on behalf of the Vermont Agency of Transportation. All welding shall conform to the requirements of the Vermont Agency of Transportation Specifications, Subsection 506.10. This Manual defines the Agencys interpretation of Shop Welding and Field Welding, establishes requirements for Field Welding Certification, provides information for qualification requirements for field welding and identifies other basic requirements for field welding. The intent of this Manual is to: 1. Provide information to welders performing work on projects being constructed for the Vermont Agency of Transportation. 2. Provide information to Contractors for their assistance in completing work in conformance with the Vermont Agency of Transportation Contract requirements. 3. Provide information and guidelines to Vermont Agency of Transportation personnel supervising Contract work. Copies of this Manual may be obtained from: Construction Engineer Vermont Agency of Transportation 1 National Life Building, Drawer 33 Montpelier, VT 05633-5001 Telephone: (802) 828-2593

Construction Manual D-7 Field Welding Manual 2009

SHOP WELDING

DEFINITION Shop welding will be considered as any welding performed at, or under the supervision of an AISC Category Simple Steel Bridge Structures (Sbr) or Major Steel Bridges (Cbr) Plant, or a Plant approved by the Agency as defined in the Vermont Agency of Transportations Specifications, Subsection 506.03. Qualification requirements and the performance of each individual welder are the responsibility of the Plants Quality Control Management, as specified in Vermont Agency of Transportations Specifications, Subsection 506.06, and in conformance with the requirements of Subsection 506.10. It is not the intent of this Manual to address the requirements for Shop Welding.

Construction Manual D-7 Field Welding Manual 2009

FIELD WELDING
DEFINITION Field welding will be considered as any welding performed outside the supervision of Quality Control Management, as specified for Shop Welding. I. Field welds for Vermont Agency of Transportation work: Welding performed under the supervision of a Contractor, or Subcontractor, on material that will become an integral part of the finished work, or on any material used in a temporary status that will affect public safety shall be subject to the requirements herein. Field welding shall be done by the Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) process and must be performed by welders with a valid AWS certification issued by the responsible authority defined in the Introduction. Welds used to attach miscellaneous construction fixtures referred to in Subsection 506.10 are considered Temporary Welds by the AWS D1.5 code, Section 9.20, and must comply with the requirements herein. II. The integrity of any welding performed by, or for a Contractor on material that is for his use in performing project work, will not be attached to, or become an integral part of the final work, will not adversely affect public safety, and is not otherwise covered by Contract requirements, will be the full responsibility of the Contractor. Except for the requirements established herein, it is the Contractors responsibility to determine when a certified welder is necessary for work performed for his use. III. Application of shear connectors by an approved automatically timed process does not require welder certification. Operator qualification and application procedure approval are accepted in accordance with the requirements of AWS D1.5, Section 7.8. Attachment, or repair of shear connectors by the SMAW process will require a structural plate and shape category certification. IV. Questions concerning the responsibility or requirements for field welding should be addressed to the Agencys Welding Inspector at (802) 828-2621.

Construction Manual D-7 Field Welding Manual 2009

Vermont Agency of Transportation Welder Certification Requirements


I. CERTIFICATION CATEGORIES The Vermont Agency of Transportation has established requirements for certification in three basic categories: structural plate and shapes, pipe and tubing, and reinforcing steel. Certification in the structural plate and shape category will qualify a welder to perform the majority of any field welding requirements. Certification in the pipe and tubing or reinforcing steel category will have limited application. Applicable Welding Codes shall apply: ANSI/AWS D1.1 Structural Welding Code - Steel (Pipe and Tube) ANSI/AWS D1.2 Structural Welding Code - Aluminum ANSI/AWS D1.3 Structural Welding Code - Sheet Steel ANSI/AWS D1.4 Structural Welding Code - Reinforcing Steel ANSI/AWS D1.5 Bridge Welding Code - Structural Bridge Steel A. STRUCTURAL PLATE AND SHAPES: (AWS D1.5 Structural Bridge Steel) Qualifies a welder to perform general field welding required, or permitted, by the Contract. Certification in this category is required for welding structural components or attachments, H pile or sheet pile splices, pile tip reinforcement, temporary bridges, shear connectors by other than the automatically timed stud welding process, attaching bearing devices, construction fixtures attached to a component of the structure and miscellaneous construction fixtures. B. PIPE AND TUBING: (AWS D1.1 Steel Pipe and Tube) Qualifies a welder to perform field welding for circular, rectangular, or square pipe, or tubular steel sections specified, or permitted, by the Contract. Certification in this category is required for butt splicing of metal shells for cast-in-place concrete piling and other pipe or tubular sections specified , or permitted, to be field welded. C. REINFORCING STEEL: (AWS D1.4 Reinforcing Steel) Qualifies a welder to perform an indirect butt splice or direct butt splice connection of stress carrying reinforcing steel when specified or permitted by the Contract. Certification in the reinforcing steel category will be required for welded splices on rehabilitation or repair work when the Contract permits or requires a welded connection. Welded connections will rarely be specified or permitted on new construction.

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Construction Manual D-7 Field Welding Manual 2009

II.

QUALIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR VERMONT AGENCY OF TRANSPORTATION CERTIFICATION Qualification requirements for field welding referred to in Subsection 506.10(d) and (e) are: A. CERTIFICATION FOR: STRUCTURAL PLATE AND SHAPES (AWS D1.5) 1. Tests shall be performed for an unlimited thickness groove weld, AWS D1.5, Section 5, Qualifications. The positions for the test shall be vertical (3G) and overhead (4G). Vertical welds shall be welded in the vertical up direction. The tests shall be performed using base metal required for qualification listed in AWS D1.5, Section 5.4, Base Metal. The SMAW process shall be used for the test, using a 5/32 E 7018 electrode for M-270 Grade 36 steel, or a 5/32 E 8018-C3 electrode for M-270 Grade 50 W steel.

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3.

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NOTE: New structural steel designations will go into effect for any project let to Contract after January 2, 1990. The changes are as follows: OLD AASHTO AND ASTM M183, A36 M223, Gr. 50; A572, Gr. 50 M222, A588 a. NEW AASHTO AND ASTM M270 Gr. 36; A709 Gr. 36 M270 Gr. 50; A709 Gr. 50 M270 Gr. 50W; A709 Gr. 50W

Wherever the phrases ASTM A36 or AASHTO M183 are found, they shall be read as, and shall mean, AASHTO M270, Grade 36. Wherever the phrases ASTM A588 or AASHTO M222 are found, they shall be read as, and shall mean, AASHTO M270, Grade 50W.

b.

B. CERTIFICATE FOR: PIPE OR TUBING (AWS D1.1) 1. Test shall be performed using a 6 diameter pipe in accordance with AWS D1.1 Table 4.2. Minimum qualification requirements are for butt joint with backing conforming to figure 4.25 (Qualification with backing does not qualify welder to weld without backing). Optional qualification may be for butt joint without backing conforming to figure 4.24 (Qualification without backing qualifies welder to weld with backing). 5

2.

Construction Manual D-7 Field Welding Manual 2009

3.

The minimum position for the test shall be the 6G (inclined fixed) position. Vertical portions of the weld shall be welded in the vertical up direction. The test may be taken with pipe or tubular material conforming to ASTM A500 grade B. The group designation of electrode shall be F4. A 5/32 E7018 electrode and SMAW process shall be used for the test. When a butt joint weld test section is performed without a backing strip, a 1/8 E7010 electrode may be used for the first root pass. The test will include exam questions relating to the welders ability to properly select and use materials and equipment.

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5.

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C. CERTIFICATION FOR: REINFORCING STEEL (AWS D1.4) These test procedures will qualify a welder for welding bar sizes No. 4 through No. 8. Qualification and acceptance requirements for bar sizes No. 9 and larger will be specified on a project-to-project basis. Welder qualification will be for either: 1. Indirect Butt Splice Flare Groove Weld Test: Test specimens will be Direct lap, double flare V-groove weld. Unless otherwise specified, this test establishes the minimum requirement for welding reinforcing steel.

REQUIREMENTS Test to be performed in accordance with AWS D1.4-98 modified as follows: a. The test positions for each set of specimens shall be vertical (3G) and overhead (4G). Vertical portions of the weld shall be welded in the Vertical up direction. b. The group designation for electrode shall be F4. A 5/32 E 9018 electrode and SMAW process shall be used for the test. c. Three test specimens for each test position (3G and 4G) shall be prepared by lap slicing two No. 5 ASTM A615 Grade 60 reinforcing steel bars in a direct lap splice (Double flare V-groove weld) AWS D1.4 Figure 3.7. d. The test will include exam questions relating to the welders ability to properly select and use materials and equipment. OR

2.

6 Direct Butt Splice Groove Weld Test.


Construction Manual D-7 Field Welding Manual 2009

REQUIREMENTS
Test to be performed in accordance with AWS D1.4-98 modified as follows:

a. The test positions for each set of specimens shall be vertical (3G) and overhead (4G). b. The group designation for electrode shall be F4. 5/32 electrode and SMAW process shall be used for the test. E9018

c. Three test specimens for each test position (3G and 4G) shall be prepared by direct butt splicing to No. 5 ASTM A615 Grade 60 reinforcing steel bars in accordance with AWS D 1.4 Figure 3.5, detail C: Single V-groove weld with split pipe backing. Test bars shall be 12 inches in length. d. The test will include exam questions relating to the welders ability to properly select and use materials and equipment. III. ACCEPTANCE REQUIREMENTS Acceptance requirements for specimens tested for certification shall conform to the provisions of the applicable codes and Vermont Agency of Transportation Specifications, Subsection 506.10(e)2. Tests required for each certification category are: A. STRUCTURAL PLATES AND SHAPES: (AWS D1.5) SECTION 5, PART B Visual Inspection Side Bend Test or Optional Radiographic Examination B. PIPE OR TUBING: (AWS D1.1) SECTION 4, PART C Visual Inspection Side Bend Test Radiographic or ultrasonic Examination C. REINFORCING STEEL: (AWS 1.4) SECTION 6, PART 3 1. Indirect Butt Splice One macroetch test Two full section tension tests

Construction Manual D-7 Field Welding Manual 2009

2. Direct Butt Splice One macrotech test Two full section tension tests QUALIFICATION TESTING The welding process, group designations, positions, test plate thickness, materials and acceptance requirements have been selected to conform with Vermont Agency of Transportation Specifications and conditions that should insure general all-purpose welder capability. AASHTO Specifications require electrodes to be of the low hydrogen classification; therefore, the E7018, E8018 C3, and E9018 electrodes have been specified to represent materials and positions a welder would expect to encounter in the field Arrangements for welder qualification tests shall be made with the Green and White Mountain Section AWS. The program coordinators for this purpose are: Program Coordinator Ray Henderson II 26 Spring Street Swanton, VT 05488 Telephone: (802) 868-3332 Business: (802) 862-8664 AWS Chapter Secretary Ernie Plumb 295 Pettengill Road Andover, VT 05143 Telephone: (802) 875-3458

Unless other arrangements are made, welder qualification tests are normally scheduled for the last Saturday of each month and are given at the Rutland Area Vocational-Technical Center, Rutland, Vermont. CERTIFICATION If a welding test is satisfactorily passed, the welder will be issued an AWS weld qualification test record and certification card indicating that they have satisfactorily completed the Vermont Agency of Transportation qualification requirements for welding in one or more of the following categories. A. Structural plate and shapes B. Pipe and tubing C. Reinforcing Steel Indirect butt splice Direct butt splice Certifications will expire five years from their date of issue. Certificate renewal will require re-examination in accordance with the current requirements for initial qualifications.

Construction Manual D-7 Field Welding Manual 2009

The Agency may require requalification of any welder or welding operator whose work appears to be below code requirements (Re: AWS D1.5, Section 6.4). Should a welder fail a requalification test, his/her current certification will automatically be revoked.

Construction Manual D-7 Field Welding Manual 2009

DRAWINGS AND PROCEDURES Prior to performing any field welding defined herein for Vermont Agency of Transportation work, the contractor will be responsible for submitting for approval applicable details and welding procedures in conformance with Subsections 105.03 and 506.04 of the Vermont Agency of Transportation Specifications. Project plans, specifications and approved welding details or procedures shall be made available by the Contractor to the welder performing the work. Sample procedure Specification forms are included for: Electrode Certification of Conformance - Form E-a, Page 12 Welder Qualification Test Record - Form E-4, Page 13 Prequalified Weld Procedure - Form E-2, Page 14 Blank forms are included for: Pre-qualified Weld Procedure - Form E-2, Page 15 Non-qualified Weld Procedure - Form E-1, Page 16

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Construction Manual D-7 Field Welding Manual 2009

ELECTRODES: PURCHASE AND USE Electrodes shall be purchased and arrive on the project in hermetically sealed containers. Should the seal be broken, the package shall be rejected. Once the seal is broken, the electrodes shall be stored in an oven at 250 F (120 C). Field welding will not be permitted without an acceptable oven available on the project site. Permissible atmospheric exposure time, once an electrode is removed from its hermetically sealed container is: four hours for E70 electrodes; two hours for E80 electrodes; and one hour for E90 electrodes. Exposure for periods exceeding these limits will require the electrodes to be redried for two hours at 450 F to 550 F prior to reuse. After the drying process, electrodes will be subject to the same allowable exposure times specified above once removed from an oven. Electrodes may be dried only once. After the second allowable exposure time, they shall not be used for Vermont Agency of Transportation work. A Welding electrode certificate of conformance issued by the electrode manufacturer will be required for structural welding of main members (defined in Subsection 714.01) or for other structural connections specified in the Contract. SUGGESTED ELECTRODES: * ASTM A588 base metal * ASTM A36 base metal ASTM A615 reinforcing steel Miscellaneous Construction Fixtures - use E8018 C3 - use E7018 - use E9018 - use E7014

Other electrodes are permissible with prior approval of the Engineer. See AWS D1.5, Table 4.1 or 4.3. * See Page 5 for new designations. TEMPERATURE RESTRICTIONS: Welding will not be permitted when the ambient temperature is below 0 F. PRE-HEAT TEMPERATURES: If the ambient or base metal temperature is less than the specified minimums, the base metal temperature of the materials to be joined shall be pre-heated with an approved propane or natural gas heater to the minimum pre-heat temperature specified. Pre-heat requirements are applicable to all field welding, including tack welds and miscellaneous construction fixtures.

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Construction Manual D-7 Field Welding Manual 2009

Oxy-Acetylene or MAPP gas torch equipment shall not be used for pre-heating. Material Thickness (Thicker piece controls) Less than 3/4" 3/4 - 1 1/2" 1 9/16 - 2 1/2" Greater than 2 1/2" BIBLIOGRAPHY The following is a bibliography of documents that are applicable to work involving welding performed for the Vermont Agency of Transportation. 1. The Special Provisions and General Special Provisions of the Contract under which the work is being performed. 2. Vermont Agency of Transportation Standards Specification for Construction - 1995 or 2001. NOTE: Subsection 506.10 - Welding 3. AWS D1.1-98 - Structural Welding Code - Steel 4. AWS D1.4-98 - Structural Welding Code - Reinforcing Steel. 5. AWS D1.5-2001 - Bridge Welding Code. Minimum Pre-heat Temperatures 50 F 70 F 150 F 225 F

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Construction Manual D-7 Field Welding Manual 2009