A high-rise is a tall building or structure




·Buildings between 75 feet and 491 feet (23 m to 150 m) high are considered high-rises. Buildings taller than 492 feet (150 m) are classified as skyscrapers. The materials used for the structural system of high-rise buildings are reinforced concrete and steel. Most American style skyscrapers have a steel frame, while residential tower blocks are usually constructed out of concrete. High-rise structures have certain features. The structures are high & lead to higher vertical loads and higher lateral loads (mainly due to wind stress) in comparison with lower buildings.

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Dead loads arise from the weigh to the individual construction elements and the finishing loads. Live loads are dependent on use depending on the number of stories; live loads can be reduced for load transfer and the dimensioning of vertical load-bearing elements.

· However, the reduction of the total live load on a construction element may not exceed 40%. Horizontal Loads
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Calculation of lateral loads should be carefully scrutinized. It generally arises from unexpected deflections, wind and earthquake loads

Unexpected Deflections
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It arises from imprecision in the manufacture of construction elements and larger components. Another cause is the uneven settling of the foundation at an inhomogeneous site. Any deflection produces additional lateral forces.

Wind Loads

tectonic. atmospheric. It travel through rock. where particle motion is parallel to the direction of wave propagation. Wind tunnel experiments are used to see the influence of the building?s shape on the wind load. Seismic Waves There are three basic types of seismic waves in solids: y y y y P-waves S-waves P-and/or S-waves. and artificial processes such as explosions. and provide an effective way to image both sources and structures deep within the Earth. This oscillation leads both to a perceptible lateral acceleration for occupants. y y Travel at the greatest velocity within solids and are therefore the first waves to appear on a seismogram. oceanic. studies of earthquake effects. ./Primary waves /P-waves.y y y High-rise buildings are susceptible to oscillation. Pressure waves. Earthquake Loads Definition y y y y y Seismology (from the Greek seismos= earthquake and logos= word) scientific study of earthquakes propagation of elastic waves through the Earth. P-waves are fundamentally pressure disturbances that propagate through a material by alternately compressing and expanding (dilating) the medium. It should not be viewed as statically equivalent loads. The ability of wind loads to bring a building to sway must also be kept in mind. and to a maximum lateral deflection. Earthquake y y Produce different types of seismic waves. such as tsunamis diverse seismic sources such as volcanic. The two basic kinds of surface waves (Raleigh and Love). but must be investigated under the aspect of sway behaviour.

y y Transverse waves that travel more slowly than P-waves and thus appear later than P-waves on a seismogram. Coupled wall structure 7. Hybrid structure Braced Frame y y y Braced frames are cantilevered vertical trusses resisting laterals loads primarily through the axial stiffness of the frame members. Generally regarded as an exclusively steel system because the diagonal are inevitably subjected to tension for or to the other directions of lateral loading. Rigid Frame Structure 3. Braced Frame 2. is recognized for multi-storey building in the low to mid height range. The effectiveness of the system. .Shear waves/secondary waves/S-waves. Shear wall structure 6. Framed tube structure 9. Infilled Frame Structure 4. as characterized by a high ratio of stiffness to material quantity. Shear waves do not exist in fluids such as air or water. Bundled tube structure 12. The trussed tube 10. Particle motion is perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation. Tube in tube or Hull core structure 11. Wall-frame structure 8. Core and Outriggers system 13. Type of High-Rise Structure 1. Flat Plate and Flat Slab Structure 5.

ACT Tower. stair. . Can be repetitive up the height of the building with obvious economy in design and fabrication. Himatsu Japan Rigid Frame Structure Consist of columns and girders joined by moment resistant connections.y Able to produce a laterally very stiff structure for a minimum of additional material. or typically rigid frames in combination with shear walls or braced bents. While rigid frame of a typical scale that serve alone to resist lateral loading have an economic height limit of about 25 stories.Diagonal connections are expensive to fabricate and erect. girders. but moment-resistant connections in steel tend to be costly. up to the very tallest. braced bent are usually incorporated internally along wall and partition lines. smaller scale rigid frames in the for of perimeter tube. and service shaft. and connection in the plane of the bents. Advantages:y y Girders only participate minimally in the lateral bracing action-Floor framing design is independent of its level in the structure. Ideally suited for reinforced concrete buildings because of the inherent rigidity of reinforced concrete joints. Lateral stiffness of a rigid frame bent depends on the bending stiffness of the columns. Disadvantages:Obstruct the internal planning and the locations of the windows and doors. for this reason. Also used for steel frame buildings. makes it an economical structural form for any height of buildings. especially around elevator. can be economic up top much greater heights.

-Only suitable for building up to 20 ± 30 storiesonly. or throughout the interior of the building with minimal constraint on the planning module. The frame may be architecturally exposed to express the grid like nature of the structure. The complex interactive behaviour of the infill in the frame. Because of the in-filled serve also as external walls or internal partitions. member proportions and materials cost become unreasonable for building higher than that. on the exterior. the system is an economical way of stiffening and strengthening the structure.Advantages:y y y May be place in or around the core. block work. . or sometimes steel. is infilled by panels of brickwork. and the rather random quality of masonry. The spacing of the columns in a moment resisting frame can match that required for gravity framing. WTC OSAKA JAPAN In-filled Frame Structure Most usual form of construction for tall buildings up to 30 stories in height Column and girder framing of reinforced concrete. has made it difficult to predict with accuracy the stiffness and strength of an in-filled frame. Fig. or cast-in-place concrete.

above which drop panels can be added to create a flat-slab structure for span of up to 38 ft (12m). is very economical in having a flat soffit requiring the most uncomplicated formwork and. Lateral resistance depends on the flexural stiffness of the components and their connections. Infilled Frame. Suitable for building up to 25 stories height. because of the soffit can be used as the ceiling. connected rigidly to supporting columns.Fig. in creating a minimum possible floor depth. stair and service shaft. Very high in plane stiffness and strength make them ideally suited for bracing tall building Act as vertical cantilevers in the form of separate planar walls. Economic for spans up to about 25 ft (8m). well suited to hotel and residential buildings where the floor-by floor repetitive planning allow the walls to be vertically continuous and where they serve simultaneously as excellent acoustic and fire insulators between rooms and apartments. which is essentially of reinforced concrete. Flat-Plate and Flat Slab Structure y y y y y y Is the simplest and most logical of all structural forms in that it consists of uniforms slabs. Particularly appropriate for hotel and apartment construction where ceiling space is not required and where the slab may serve directly as the ceiling. Minimum shrinkage restraint reinforcement . with the slab corresponding to the girder of the rigid frame. The system. and as non-planar assemblies of connected walls around elevator. Shear Wall Structure Concrete or masonry continuous vertical walls may serve both architecturally partitions and structurally to carry gravity and lateral loading.

Shear wall vertical movements will continue throughout the life of the building. are design as blade walls or as columns resisting shear and bending as required. Technology exists to pump and to place high-strength concrete at high elevation. The need for complex bolted or side-welded steel connections is avoided. This advantage where acceleration serviceability is critical limits state. But shear wall systems are usually stiff and cause a compensating increase in natural frequency. or for ultimate limits state design in earthquake-prone area. Well detail reinforce concrete will develop about twice as much damping as structural steel. y y y y y y y Tensile reinforcement for areas where tension stresses occur in walls when wind uplifts stresses exceeds gravity stresses. Individual shear walls. Problem associated with formwork systems: . High strength concrete has enable wall thickness to be minimized. Compressive reinforcement with confinement ties where high compressive forces require the walls is designed as columns. Action to be considered:y y y y y y Shear wall formed around elevator and service risers requires a concentration of opening at ground level where stresses are critical. Torsional and flexural rigidity is affected significantly by the number and the size of opening around the shear walls throughout the height of the building.where the wall stresses are low. An increase in mass will cause a decrease in natural frequency and hence will most likely produce an adverse affect of the acceleration response depending on the frequency range of the building. Construction time is generally slower than for a steel frame building. The additional weight of the vertical concrete elements as compared to steel will induce a cost penalty for the foundations. say at the edge of a tall building. hence maximizing rentable floor space. Fire rating for service and passenger elevator shafts is achieved by simply placing concrete of a determined thickness. which can be for a substantial portion of the wall.

connected at the floor levels by beam or stiff slabs. In general it is difficult to achieve a good finish from slip-form formwork systems. . it occasionally been constructed of heavy steel plate. Besides using concrete construction. because of the fabrication and erection on site of the moving formwork systems Time will be lost at the levels where wall are terminated or decrease in thickness. or trios. which separate the apartments.y y y y A significant time lag will occur between footing construction and wall construction. The effect of the shear-resistant connecting members is to cause the sets of wall to behave in their partly as a composite cantilever. in the style of massive vertical plate or box girders. bending about the common centroidal axis of the walls. Shear wall Structure Coupled Wall Structure y y y Consist of two or more shear walls in the same plane. alignment of the shear walls are within tolerance. Suited for residential construction where lateral-load resistant cross walls. of shear walls between which there are corridor or window openings. or almost the same plane. as part of steel frame structure. and hence rendering or some other type of finishing may be necessary. consist of in-plane coupled pairs. Regular survey check must be undertaken to ensure that the vertical and twist alignment of the shear walls are within tolerance.

the shear of the frame can be made approximately uniform over the height.Coupled shear walled structure Wall-Frame Structure y y y The walls and frame interact horizontally. to produce stiffer and stronger structure. Wall frame structure . Carefully tuned structure. Although the wall-frame structure is usually perceived as a concrete structural form. The interacting wall-frame combination is appropriate for the building in the 40 ±60 story range. well beyond that of rigid frames or shear walls alone. especially at the top. a steel counterpart using braced frames and steel rigid frames offers similar benefits of horizontal interaction. allowing the floor framing to be repetitive. The braced frames behave with an overall flexural tendency to interact with the shear mode of the rigid frames. with shear wall and concrete frames.

the perimeter frame aligned in the direction of loading acts as the ³webs´ of the massive tube of the cantilever. New Zealand. Gravity loading is shared between the tube and interior column or walls. and those normal to the direction of the loading act as the ³flanges´.Majestic building. Spandrel beam depths for normal office or residential occupancy application are typically 600 mm to 1200 mm. where all welding is performed in the shop in a horizontal position. The lateral resistant of the framed-tube structures is provided by very stiff moment-resistant frames that form a ³tube´ around the perimeter of the building. Wellington. The formation of fabricated tree elements.5 m on center maximum. The tube form was developed originally for building of rectangular plan.5 m to 4. has made the steel frame tube system more practical and efficient. The frames consist of 6-12 ft (2-4m) between centers. exterior columns spacing should be in order of 1. Frame tube in structural steel requires welding of the beam-column joint to develop rigidity and continuity. Suitable for reinforced concrete and steel construction and has been used for building ranging from 40 to more than 100 stories. the tube externally evident form is regarded with mixed enthusiasm. and probably it?s most efficient use in that shape. Depending on the height and dimensions of the building. joined by deep spandrel girders. and thus such system were economically inviable. New York are examples whereby the structuralist notion of a punched wall tube with extremely close exterior . some praise the logic of clearly expressed structure while other criticizes the grid like façade as small-windowed and uninterestingly repetitious. The basic inefficiency of the frame system for reinforced concrete buildings of more than 15 stories resulted in member proportions of prohibitive size and structural material cost premium. When lateral loading acts. The 110 story World Trade Center twin towers. Aesthetically.

Interconnect all exterior columns to form a rigid box. which can resist lateral shears by axial in its members rather than through flexure. The Trussed tube: y y y y The trussed tube system represents a classic solution for a tube uniquely suited to the qualities and character of structural steel. Introducing a minimum number of diagonals on each façade and making the diagonal intersect at the same point at the corner column.columns is architecturally exploited to express visually the inherent verticality of the high rise building. but also interact with the trusses on the perpendicular . The system is tubular in that the fascia diagonals not only form a truss in the plane.

The outer framed tube and the inner core interact horizontally as the shear and flexural components of a wall-frame structure. The Hull and core act jointly in resisting both gravity and lateral loading. Relatively broad column spacing can resulted large clear spaces for windows. the ³Hull. The façade digitalisation serves to equalize the gravity loads of the exterior columns that give a significant impact on the exterior architecture. This creates the x form between corner columns on each façade. with the benefit of increased lateral stiffness. a particular characteristic of steel buildings. Tube-in-Tube or Hull Core Structure y y y y This variation of the framed tube consists of an outer frame tube.y y faces to affect the tubular behaviour. . The structural tube usually adopts a highly dominant role because of its much greater structural depth.´ together with an internal elevator and service core.

.Bundled-Tube structures y y The concept allows for wider column spacing in the tubular walls than would be possible with only the exterior frame tube form. The spacing which make it possible to place interior frame lines without seriously compromising interior space planning.

. Core and Outrigger Systems y Outrigger serve to reduce the overturning moment in the core that would otherwise act as a pure cantilever. and to transfer the reduced moment to columns outside the core by the way of tensioncompression coupled. which take advantage of the increase moment arm between these columns.y The ability to modulate the cells vertically can create a powerful vocabulary for a variety of dynamic shapes therefore offers great latitude in architectural planning of a tall building.

This moment is created by the force couple at the exterior columns to which the outrigger connect.y y It also serves to reduce the critical connection where the mast is stepped to the keel beam. For rectangular buildings. It can potentially increase the effective depth of the structural system from the core only to almost the complete building. outriggers can engage the middle columns on the long faces of the building under the application of wind loads in . concrete. The elimination from consideration of foundation systems which might have been nsiderably less expensive. Time-consuming and costly rock sockets for caisson systems along with the need to develop reinforcement throughout the complete caisson depth. resulting in economies. Expensive and intensive field work connection at the interface between core and the foundation. The exterior column spacing is not driven by structural considerations and can easily mesh with aesthetic and functional considerations. such as pile. In high-rise building this same benefit is realized by a reduction of the base core over-turning moments and the associated reduction in the potential core uplift forces. or composite construction. In the foundations system. this core and outrigger system can lead to the need for the following: y y y y y The addition of expensive and labour-intensive rock anchors to an otherwise ³simple´ foundation alternative such as spread footing. Core overturning moments and their associated induced deformation can be reduced through the ³reverse´ moment applied to the core at each outrigger intersection. Greatly enlarged mat dimensions and depth solely to resist overturning forces. Exterior framing can consist of ³simple´ beam and column framing without the need for rigid-frame-type connections. This connection can become particularly troublesome when one considers the difference in construction tolerances between foundations and core structure. Advantages: y y y y y y The outrigger systems may be formed in any combination of steel. solely for their inability to resist significant uplift. Significant reduction and possibly the complete elimination of uplift and net tension forces throughout the column and the foundation systems.

Hybrid Structure Combination of two or even more of basic structural forms either by direct combination or by adopting different forms in different parts of the structure. have a negative impact on the erection process. the repetitive nature of the structural framing and the reduction in member sizes generally result in a learning curve which can speed the process along.the more critical direction. Avoid adding additional outrigger levels for borderline force or deflection control. If possible. its lack of Torsional stiffness requires . Skewing and offsetting outriggers in order to mesh with the functional layout of the floor space. outrigger systems can efficiently incorporate almost every gravity column into lateral load resisting system. avoid outriggers locations or design constraints that will require ³backtracking´ in the construction process to install or connect the outrigger. if not approached properly. As a typical building erection proceeds. Disadvantages The most significant drawback with use of outrigger systems is their potential interference with occupiable and rentable space. In some cases. This obstacle can be minimized or in some cases eliminate by incorporation of any of the following approaches: y y y y y Locating outrigger in mechanical and interstitial levels Locating outriggers in the natural sloping lines of the building profile Incorporating multilevel single diagonal outriggers to minimize the member?s interference on any single level. Another potential drawback is the impact the outrigger installation can have on the erection process. Such a need can be minimized if issues such as creep and differential shortening are carefully studied during the design process to minimize their impact. In core-alone and tubular systems. these columns which carry significant gravity load are either not incorporated or under utilized. The incorporation of intermediate outriggers in concrete construction or large variation in dead-load column stresses between the core and the exterior can in some cases result in the need to ³backtrack´. Several steps can be taken to minimize this possibility Provide clear and concise erection guidelines in the contract documents so that the erector can anticipate the constraint and limitation that the installation will impose. The incorporation of a outrigger at intermediate or upper levels can. This systems provide in-plane stiffness. leading to significant economies.

Hybrid structures are likely to be the rule rather than the exception for future very tall buildings. . consist of stiffness and damping capabilities of large concrete elements are combined with the lightness and constructability of steel frame exhibits significantly lower creep and shrinkage and is therefore more readily accommodated in a hybrid frame. Highstrength concrete.that additional measures be taken. which resulted in one bay vertical exterior bracing and a number of level of perimeter Vierendeel ³bandages´ ± perhaps one of the best examples of the art of structural engineering. whether to create acceptable dynamic characteristics or to accommodate the complex shapes demanded by modern architecture.

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