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Rheological properties of rice dough for making rice bread
Hema P. Sivaramakrishnan a, B. Senge b, P.K. Chattopadhyay
Post Harvest Technology Centre, Agricultural and Food Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721 302, India Zucker Institute, Institute for Food Technology I (Technical University, Berlin), Amrumer Strasse-32, Berlin 13353, Germany Received 25 May 2000; received in revised form 1 December 2002; accepted 24 May 2003
Abstract The rheological properties of two varieties of rice with Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) added as gluten substitute were studied using a farinograph and a rheometer and compared with wheat dough to ﬁnd its suitability for making rice bread. The water absorption and dough development time data were obtained from the farinogram. The tests conducted in the rheometer were oscillation measurements (frequency sweep from 0.1 to 20 Hz at 1% strain), shear measurement (shearing from 0.1 to 5 sÀ1 ) and creep tests with an instant loading of 50 Pa for 60 S. Baking tests were conducted with all the dough samples and the loaf volume and moisture loss of bread were measured. The farinogram showed that rice ﬂour supplemented with HPMC reached a consistency of 500 BU at a later time than that of standard wheat dough. The rheological measurements from the oscillation tests and creep tests showed that the rice dough with 1.5% and 3.0% HPMC had similar rheological properties to that of wheat ﬂour dough and was suitable for making rice bread. The long grain rice sample produced a rice bread with better crumb texture. Ó 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Rheology; Dough; Bread; Gluten substitute; Rice bread
1. Introduction A small segment of the world population suﬀers from dietary wheat intolerance. The responsible pathogenic factor has been traced to the gliadin fraction of gluten. The need for non-gluten, low sodium, or low protein breads could be satisﬁed by using rice ﬂour in yeast leavened breads. Rice has properties such as the absence of gluten, low levels of sodium, protein, fat and ﬁbre, and a high amount of easily digested carbohydrates, which are desirable for certain special diets. In countries where rice production is more suitable than wheat or corn because of climatic conditions, it is highly desirable to partially substitute rice ﬂour for wheat ﬂour in bread and bakery products. Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the leading food corps in South East Asia including India, and the production of rice in this part of the world is much higher than that of wheat. The milling of rice in India results in the production of broken grains, which is used usually for making tradi-
Corresponding author. Tel.: +91-3222-82288; fax: +91-322255303. E-mail address: email@example.com (P.K. Chattopadhyay). 0260-8774/$ - see front matter Ó 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/S0260-8774(03)00169-9
tional food like ÔidliÕ and ÔdosaÕ as well as for animal feed and for brewing. If it is possible to make consumer acceptable rice bread from these broken grains, it would not only utilize eﬀectively the broken grains to convert it to a value added product, but also would be a better alternative for gluten allergic patients. The manufacture of bread from rice without gluten presents considerable technological diﬃculty because gluten is the most important structure forming protein for making bread. Rotsch (1954) demonstrated that substances that swell in water could replace gluten in the dough. Jongh (1961) illustrated the principles of formation of bread structure from starch in the absence of gluten. The inﬂuence of glyceryl monostearate as a gluten substitute to pure wheat starch was studied by Jong, Slim, and Greve (1968). Kulp, Frank, and Thomas (1974) reported a basic formula to produce bread from pure wheat starch with additives and found that loaves of best quality were produced with the addition of xanthum gum. A yeast leavened rice bread formula was developed by Nishita, Roberts, Bean, and Kennedy (1976) and they found that certain hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose were the only useful gum type additives for making rice bread. Nishita and Bean (1979) studied the physicochemical properties of rice that aﬀect the bread
and Hae (1997a.5). sÀ1 zero shear viscosity.38 H. to ﬁnd eﬀects of gums.5). carrageenan. 3. The rice was milled and the proximate analysis and particle size analysis were done as per AACC standards and is given in Table 1(b) and (c). long grain rice ﬂour with 1. The rheometer settings used in the study were rotational. 4. and soft eating equality of milled rice were found to be useful characteristics for predicting good bread making properties. For these tests the HPMC was hydrated at ﬁrst with the required amount of water. Pa angular frequency. Hz storage modulus. shearing tests and creep tests and compare them with those of pure wheat dough. 1997c) to examine the varietal variation in gelatinization in rice ﬂour and adaptability to rice bread processing. Pa loss modulus. 8 101) was used for the measurement of water absorption values and peak mixing time of the samples. (c) composite ﬂours with 50% addition of rice and wheat ﬂours and (d) rice ﬂour with 1. Sivaramakrishnan et al.5) HPMC. To ﬁnd all the rheological parameters from dynamic oscillatory tests. All the gum type additives studied (1– 4. Pa s apparent viscosity. PaÀ1 maximum viscoelastic compliance. A 20 g sample of dough was prepared using a mixer with a spiral blade. Model No. The present study was undertaken with the following objectives.5% (sgr + 4. creep and oscillatory (Paar Physica Universal Dynamic Spectrometer 200). long. The series of tests were then conducted with dough samples containing 50% wheat and 50% long grain rice ﬂour (comp-lg). which is usually used for dough mixing. The Brabender farinograph (Brabender. shear stress. Pa s inﬁnite viscosity. the water added was 38% of the dough weight and the mixing time was set as 5 min. PaÀ1 elastic part of compliance. kg m s2Àn ﬂow index t c _ c g0 g1 gPI s s0 x time.5) HPMC. lgrice. 2.P. two types.5% (lgr + 4.5% (lgr + 1.0) and 4. low gelatinization temperature. Pa yield point. Pa compliance. fats and gluten on the quality of rice bread and to examine the interrelation of physicochemical properties of milled rice and retrogradation of rice bread.0% (lgr + 3. s deformation shear rate.5% HPMC. Then the solution formed . The HMPC used in the study was SIGMA HPMC [9004-65-3] with a viscosity of 40–60 centipoise for 2% aqueous solution at 20 °C. To ﬁnd the water absorption and peak mixing time of doughs from the farinogram. (b) pure rice ﬂour (two rice varieties). Various studies were conducted by Mi. after heating the water to 50 °C and cooling. and 50% wheat and 50% short grain rice ﬂour (compsg). 3. xanthum gum and agar) resulted in successful formation of rice bread showing optimum volume expansion. PaÀ1 viscous part of compliance. comp-lg. 100% short grain rice ﬂour (sgrice). It seemed pertinent to investigate further the role of diﬀerent rheological parameters and to compare the viscoelastic characteristics of the rice dough with that of wheat dough for bread. 1. 1. To prepare dough samples of: (a) pure wheat ﬂout.0) and 4. From the titration curve obtained from the farinogram. Pa s shear stress. Since the physicochemical properties of rice ﬂour vary with variety of rice. comp-sg and sgrice. Then their properties were compared with that of dough made of pure wheat ﬂour (wht).5% of HPMC added.5%. sÀ1 characteristics. grain and short grain variety. were taken for the study. The study found that high amylose rice showed the best suitability to rice bread processing. 3. Low amylose content. PaÀ1 consistency factor. The gluten substitute taken in the study was hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HMPC). 1997b. To ﬁnd the increase in loaf volume and the moisture loss of the baked dough samples. 2. low amylograph viscosity of paste cooled to 50 °C. Materials and methods The wheat ﬂour (type 550) whose properties were known (Table 1(a)) and two rice samples were bought from the local market. short grain rice ﬂour with 1.0% and 4.0% (sgr + 3. amount of water to be added and the mixing time are obtained for 20 g of sample of wht. / Journal of Food Engineering 62 (2004) 37–45 Nomenclature BU f G0 G00 J Je Jv Jmax K n Brabender units frequency. Hyun. 3. The amylose content of milled rice was found to be closely (but negatively) associated with gel consistency and positively with springiness of rice bread. and 1.5% locust bean gum.0% each of gaur gum.5% (sgr + 1. 100% long grain rice ﬂour (lgrice). For the rest of the doughs of rice with added HPMC.
56 Protein (% d. / Journal of Food Engineering 62 (2004) 37–45 Table 1 (a) Sieve analysis of rice ﬂours. The ﬂowability (ﬂuidity) at the end of the applied load phase was obtained by the parameter.b.90 8. The dough sample was placed between the plates and the gap was adjusted to 2 mm and the edges were trimmed with a knife. The dough was rested between the plates for another 1 min before testing.8 >315 >250 >200 >160 15.1 to 20 Hz at 1% strain.b. Modeling of the resulting curve 2.) 14. ðPaÞ: c3 Applied load 0.1 12.9 Ash (% d.30 13. 3 3 4 5 1 2 Option Frequency sweep Shearing Constant shearing Shearing Creep phase Recovery phase slope are obtained for diﬀerent samples of dough.b.b.) 1.68 90.59 29. 2.40 2. All the measurements were done at 25 °C.47 51. x1 or x2 . ðin PaÞ: G0x1 ð1Þ ð2Þ G00 x2 Áx y For an individual material the coeﬃcients and G00 x2 are the storage and loss moduli.8 Moisture content (% d.H.) 82 Fat (% d. so that the residual stresses would relax. The compliance value J ¼ c=s can be calculated and the recovery value Je =Jmax is equivalent to the solid properties.1. 2. The mathematical forms of these equations are given below G0 ðxÞ ¼ G0x1 Á xx G ðxÞ ¼ 00 ðin PaÞ.b.2.54 0.) 1.1–20 Hz cðtÞ ¼ c0 ðtÞ sin xt _ c ¼ 1–5 sÀ1 _ c ¼ 5 sÀ1 _ c ¼ 5–1 sÀ1 s ¼ constant ¼ 50 Pa s¼0 Time (s) Open 20 10 20 60 180 Measuring points 20 10 5 10 10 150 Creep .1.1. Sivaramakrishnan et al. s Zero shear viscosity g0 ¼ . Casson and Herschell Bukley were applied to the shearing tests to ﬁnd the consistency index K. Oscillation measurements If the data of frequency sweeps for each material at diﬀerent concentration are plotted as G0 ðxÞ or G00 ðxÞ in a double logarithmic diagram. 2. (b) shear tests by shearing the samples at 5 sÀ1 and (c) creep tests by applying a constant stress of 50 Pa for 60 s on the sample and allowing the sample to recover the strain in 180 s after removal of load.10 7.88 1.84 32.1.) Panel (b) Wheat (type 550) Panel (c) Rice grain type Long Short 14.P.11 0. diﬀerent lines with equal Table 2 Measuring proﬁle for the dough samples in the rheometer Test type Oscillation Shear Interval no. respectively. Creep measurements During the creep recovery phase after the removal of load. the entire stored deformation energy is used up for the restoration process.1.93 59. (b) properties of wheat ﬂour (type 550) and (c) composition of rice ﬂours Panel (a) Sieve size (lm) 39 % Retained lgrice sgrice 11. After mixing the dough sample was allowed to rest for 30 min in covered bowls. using 50 mm parallel plates (MP 31).40 was allowed to rest for one hour for attaining equilibrium and room temperature. The tests conducted in the rheometer were: (a) dynamic oscillatory tests for a frequency sweep from 0. extrapolated to the values of the initial measuring frequency. The measurement proﬁle of all three measurement described above is given in Table 2.11 33. the ﬂow index n and the apparent viscosity gPI .3 Carbohydrate (% d.09 88.3.58 20. Shear measurements Two regression models.
This was a tough elastic dough with a limited blending value and limited machinability. The two parameters analyzed were the increase in height of the loaf after baking and the moisture loss in the bread. The rice ﬂour particles went inside the gap between mixing bowl and mixer blade of the farinograph resulting in an increased torque towards the end of the measurement. 1.40 H. In the case of doughs with rice ﬂour and added HPMC. sugar (4. Baking tests The ingredients for the rice bread for the baking tests were ﬂour (55%). salt (1. Results and discussions 3. but it took more time to reach the consistency of 500 BU. yeast (1.5%). At peak consistency.5%). The moisture loss is a measure of the water absorbing capacity of the bread.1. In Fig.0%). At the peak consistency.P. 3. A dough of 170 g was made by mixing all these ingredients.0%) and HPMC. The width of the farinogram curve was a measure of the doughÕs cohesiveness and elasticity. Sivaramakrishnan et al. Farinograph measurements The farinograph gives a measure of dough consistency during its formation. The 500 BU consistency attained remained constant throughout the measuring time. The water absorption value was 58% and peak development time was 2 min for pure wheat ﬂour.5%). 1. The standard farinogram curve for pure rice ﬂour dough had similar water absorption as that of the wheat dough (57. This was poor dough for baking with relaxing stretchable properties and with limited machinability. It was measured by deducting the weight of the bread from the initial weight of the dough before fermentation. wheat dough and the width remained more or less constant showing no appreciable change in the cohesiveness and elasticity. The consistency increased with measuring time as opposed to the standard characteristic of wheat dough where it should decrease. . pure rice and composite ﬂours are given. only the titration curves could be obtained from Fig. The dough was then proofed for 30 min at 27 °C and then baked for 30 min at 220 °C.2. the standard farinogram curve obtained for pure wheat. Similar properties were seen for composite ﬂours with both rice varieties. (b) composite ﬂour dough and (c) pure rice ﬂour. / Journal of Food Engineering 62 (2004) 37–45 2. The standard farinogram for: (a) pure wheat. For the composite ﬂour the water absorption value was lower (56%) than for pure wheat ﬂour. the standard wheat dough had maximum cohesiveness and elasiticity and then reduced with increase in mixing time. water (38. The baked bread was allowed to cool for 30 min. The diﬀerence in height between the dough before fermentation and the bread after baking indicated the loaf volume change of the baked bread.
5 G'' sgr + 3.5 G'' 1 Frequency.0 G'' sgr + 1. Pa 1. Pa 1.00E + 05 1.0 G' sgr + 3. The moduli were higher for composite ﬂour than that for standard wheat ﬂour.00E + 04 wht G' wht G'' sgrice G' sgrice G'' comp-sg G' comp-sg G'' 1. / Journal of Food Engineering 62 (2004) 37–45 41 the farinograph. 2. with 4. which showed that the dough was more elastic than viscous. Pa Moduli G' and G''.H. the dough was elastic. Oscillation The variation of G0 and G00 with frequency sweep from 20 to 0. there was no signiﬁcant change in the value of moduli with change in frequency. Sivaramakrishnan et al.5 G' sgr + 1.00E + 03 0.00E + 03 0.5% HPMC resulted in dough which reached a 500 BU consistency at a later time of 9–10 min.0 G'' lgr + 1.5 G' lgr + 4.3 to 15 Hz. The width of the curve showed too high a cohesiveness. Pa 1. So a system with a deﬁnable structure was not formed in the case of rice ﬂour and there were repulsive forces existing between the starch granules due to the absence of a binding agent.2.1 Hz for pure wheat.0 G' lgr + 3.1 1 Frequency.3 Hz. In all the cases shown in Fig. 3. Fig. composite ﬂour and pure rice is shown in Fig.1. Rheometer measurements 3.5 G'' 0. For the pure rice dough. 3.5 G'' lgr + 3. 3 shows the moduli for pure wheat and rice dough with HPMC.00E + 04 wht G' wht G'' comp-lg G' comp-lg G'' lgrice G' lgrice G'' 1. Hz 10 100 wht G' wht G'' sgr + 4.5% HPMC added. This resulted in under mixing. due to the absence of a binding agent.1 1 Frequency. The variation of moduli: (a) with frequency for pure wheat and long grain rice ﬂour and (b) for pure wheat and short grain rice ﬂour. the value of G0 was more than G00 . Hz wht G' wht G'' lgr + 4. The moduli variation for: (a) pure wheat and long grain rice with HPMC and (b) pure wheat and short grain rice with HPMC.00E + 04 1. 2. there was no signiﬁcant water absorption. The starch granules in the dough act as ﬁller that reinforces the gluten and produce strong bonds to given 1. Hz 10 100 1. Hz 10 100 Moduli G' and G''. Fig.5 G' sgr + 4.00E + 05 Moduli G' and G''. . In rice. The value of moduli increased with an increase in frequency for pure wheat ﬂour dough as well as for composite ﬂour dough. It was seen from the farinogram that rice with 4. in the lower frequency range up 0. The rice being tougher showed more solid properties that wheat. the dough was viscous and after that the dough exhibited again 1.00E + 04 1. For both Rice varieties.P.5 G' lgr + 1. This increase might be attributed to the diﬀerence between interaction of starch–gluten in composite ﬂour and the interaction in pure wheat dough.00E + 03 0. 2.00E + 03 10 100 (b) (b) Fig.2. The pure rice dough also had higher moduli than pure wheat dough. then from 0.00E + 05 higher modulus.1 (a) (a) 1.00E + 05 Moduli G' and G''.1 1 Frequency.
2 362.5% HPMC (both varieties).75 )190. 3. The highest value of elastic and loss modulus was obtained for pure short grain rice ﬂour dough.6 0. When comparing the composite ﬂours form both rice varieties.2. Sivaramakrishnan et al.3. The diﬀerence between the coeﬃcients became negligible at higher concentrations of HPMC.16 318.2. From that theory of ﬂow.3 0. For the standard wheat dough. Moduli equivalent to that for pure standard wheat dough were obtained only for rice with 1.54 996. pure rice ﬂours and rice ﬂour with 1. Also there was an increase in the exponent values with increase in HPMC concentration. The shear stress was also the smallest for this sample. The short grain rice variety with a higher starch content had higher exponent values than the long grain rice variety. the non-recoverable displacement in the recovery phase was constant within the measuring time.5% HPMC. but for the composite ﬂour with short grain rice. This was even true for composite ﬂour. The result of the creep curve analysis for both creep phase and the recovery phase is given in Table 4. For the rice ﬂour doughs with added HPMC. the Table 3 Results of shearing tests on pure wheat and composite ﬂour doughs Models and their equations pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ _ Casson s ¼ s0 þ gPI Á c _ Herschell Bulkley s ¼ s0 þ K Á cn Variables s0 (Pa) gPI (Pa s) s0 (Pa) K (kg mÀ1 sÀð2ÀnÞ ) n rice ﬂour with 1. There was a considerable variation in the creep behaviour between the two composite ﬂours. Except for the composite ﬂour with short grain rice. which showed that with increased concentration of HPMC. was very high for both pure rice samples. which depicted the shear thinning behavior.4016 comp-sg 228. rheological properties of the additive were more dominant that those of the other ﬂour components. which resulted in high ﬂowability. 4.42 H. Creep tests The diﬀerent creep curves for all the samples are shown in Fig. this equation shows the frequency of the dynamic modulus in which the exponents X and Y are the slope of the linear portion of the curve and the moduli G0x1 and G00 are the ﬂow coeﬃcients.0% HPMC addition. The exponents could x2 be considered as a co-ordination number.5% and 3. the starch granules were free to move independently of each other. pure wheat. Here there were two crossover points.5956 comp-lg 461.79 56. The diﬀerent parameters analyzed by the two regression models are given in Table 3. Shear measurements The shear tests could only be done on three dough samples. also X ¼ Y .5% HPMC. This co-ordination number is in agreement with the coordination of structural units. no shearing was imparted to the dough. which gave the ﬂowability of the material at the end of applied load.28 607. The consistency decreased for composite ﬂours. the frequency dependence increased. Flowability was high for 3% addition of HPMC when compared with the other two concen- wht 672. since the ﬂour water system was not continuous due to the absence of a suitable additive. The dynamic data on reconstituted dough implies that the exponent increases with increase in starch content.510 . This showed that at higher HPMC addition. For 1. The higher the value for the exponent the higher was the dependence of structure on strain. 3. which considered the structure that gave the rheological behavior. / Journal of Food Engineering 62 (2004) 37–45 elastic properties. The modulus G00 was greater than G0x1 for both rice varieties added x with 4. From the data of ﬂow coeﬃcients and exponents.46 246.P. and two composite ﬂours. this displacement decreased indeﬁnitely with time.5–3. (1) and (2).95 1370. signiﬁcant diﬀerence was found between G0x1 and G00 . The exponent values were small for pure rice ﬂour dough and indicate its frequency independent structure. the short grain variety had a modulus value near to standard wheat dough. The zero shear viscosity g0 . In the case of pure rice ﬂour doughs.58 0. This might be due to the transition of the dough from an elastic to a viscous phase at high frequencies. This was true with composite x2 ﬂours. which required a high force for shearing.38 2049. towards lower frequencies the modulus values were closer to that of the standard wheat dough. The instantaneously recovered elastic strain just after the removal of load was high for the pure wheat dough.0% addition of HPMC showed similar rheological properties to that of standard wheat dough. The addition of HPMC resulted in a very sticky and cohesive dough.2. In an aqueous suspension like a ﬂour––water system. the moment required for shearing of the dough was more than the maximum moment limit in the rheometer. The creep deformation and the recovery for the composite ﬂour with short grain rice were almost similar to that of pure wheat dough. The result of this oscillation test could be analyzed systematically by Eqs. with less consistency for composite ﬂour with short grain rice ﬂour. The value of ﬂow index ÔnÕ was less than 1.
165 4.5 lgr + 3.21 65.2 66.025 43 wht lgr + 4.5 0.79 34. But at higher concentrations.67 66.023 sgr + 4.5 Jmax 10À5 PaÀ1 47.07 31. the starch granules were made to adhere to one another.21 4.009 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 0.013 0. s 200 250 300 Fig. which reduced the ﬂowability.741 3.28 41.0 lgr + 1.5 lgr + 3.13 3.018 Deformation 0.3442 54.074 Zero shear viscosity g0 105 Pa s 3.311 4. the ﬂowability of two rice varieties was more . pure rice and composite ﬂours. Table 4 Result of creep tests: creep phase and creep recovery phase Parameter Creep phase Max.79 63.88 66.5 sgr + 4.426 4.873 Creep recovery phase Max. creep compliance Symbol Dimension wht comp-lg lgrice lgr + 1.855 Relative elastic part of Jmax Je =Jmax % 64. their mobility changed.12 33.029 (b) 0. At 3% HPMC addition.36 6. (b) pure wheat and long grain rice with HPMC and (c) pure wheat and short grain rice ﬂour with HPMC. 4.901 7.805 1.008 0.45 tration of HPMC.059 39.024 Deformation 0. the dough was very rigid and there were no gas introduction into the starch granules.5 sgr + 1.72 58. s (c) wht 0.352 28.564 27.P.0 sgr + 4.79 34.005 0.395 4.H. When the force by which the particles attract each other had attained a certain mag- nitude. / Journal of Food Engineering 62 (2004) 37–45 0. a more or less changeable cell structure resulted.01 Deformation 0. Such a condition resulted in higher ﬂowability for 3% addition of HPMC.993 5.73 36.80 33.675 17. Be the addition of HPMC.327 44.161 8.21 36.93 67.0 lgr + 4.015 0.97 48.43 47.040 5. s 200 250 300 Time.69 7. Creep analysis curves for: (a) pure wheat.02 0.014 0.07 32.5 comp-sg sgrice sgr + 1. viscoelastic compliance Jm 10À5 PaÀ1 16.787 26.5 sgr + 3.5 (a) wht comp-lg lgrice sgrice comp-sg 0.33 33.708 7.165 5.003 0 50 100 150 Time.283 67.03 51. Sivaramakrishnan et al.238 1.004 0 50 100 150 Time.328 7. and the system as a whole had more space to entrap more water.829 6. the system became plastic.81 6.55 Relative viscous part of Jmax Jv =Jmax % 35.019 0.27 63.21 65.
9 23. there was considerable expansion. an increase in starch content decreased this ﬂowability. Jmax had a maximum value for long grain rice with 1. Sivaramakrishnan et al.0 lgr + 4. For the three percentage additions of HPMC.5 sgr + 3. But for the doughs with HPMC. All other parameters like water content.04 18. i. 3. the ﬂowability (zero shear viscosity) value of rice ﬂour with 3. The maximum creep compliance.7 Moisture loss (weight of water lost) (g) 18. In Fig.8 2. 4(c).4 2. the texture was very dull with uneven grain sizes. the viscous part constituted approximately 60–65% irrespective of the type of the rice. At 3% HPMC addition. In the creep recovery phase. Baking tests The height diﬀerence between the loaf before and after baking and the moisture loss which occurred during baking for all the dough samples are shown in Table 5.P.16 25 20.3 0.0% HPMC addition resulted in good bread dough with better crumb.3. For the pure rice bread. The oscillation measurements showed that the moduli values of rice ﬂour added with 1.5% HPMC addition was not easy since this combination produced a very sticky mass. the percentage of HPMC added had a considerable eﬀect on the amount of starch and protein in the ﬂour.53 or less same.29 18. The moisture loss was found to be less for 3% HPMC addition than any other concentration.0% exhibited similar creep characteristics that of standard wheat ﬂour dough. At 4. The crust was very hard and there was no deﬁnable structure at all. this showed that there was not water absorption due to the absence of a deﬁnable structure.73 21. A soft crumb was obtained with an even small grain distribution for 3% HPMC addition. The creep analysis data showed that .1 2.7 19. / Journal of Food Engineering 62 (2004) 37–45 Table 5 Volume expansion and moisture loss of breads Bread type Increase in height after baking (cm) 4. but the grain size was less than that of wheat bread. no particular ﬂavor or taste of the added chemical could be distinguished. the viscosity for the composite ﬂour was less due to the less content of gluten in it.5% and 3.0% HPMC were similar to wheat dough for both rice varieties. but for long grain rice. The pure rice dough had the least volume expansion and as HPMC was added.5% HPMC.5 lgr + 3. wht comp-lg lgrice lgr + 1. This high viscous characteristic was imparted by the HPMC solution added.8 2. the height is found to decrease because the dough showed a tendency to ﬂow out of the pan due to very high expansion. approximately 65% elastic recovery could be seen for pure wheat ﬂours and pure rice ﬂours. Long grain rice with 3. The grains per cm2 (number of holes on the bread per cm2 ) were very less for the composite ﬂour bread since the grain sizes were large and the grains were nonuniform.5% HPMC. So.1 2. For the pure bread.8 1. Also for short grain rice. there was no appreciable diﬀerence in the creep characteristics of the three short grain rice ﬂour doughs with diﬀerent HPMC additions. Summary Farinogram measurements on rice dough could not provide all the necessary information on the rheological properties. as expected. At higher concentrations of HPMC.7 24. the rheological characteristics of the dough depicted properties of the additive rather than that of the dough. The bread dried at a very fast rate. these considerable diﬀerences in ﬂowability of the doughs with diﬀerent concentrations of HPMC showed that there was a signiﬁcant inﬂuence from the starch and protein of the rice ﬂour. The diﬀerence in ﬂowability for the rice doughs with all other parameters remaining constant proved that there was considerable inﬂuence of components such as protein and starch as well as their interactions with the gluten substitute. The crust color was less for breads with HPMC than wheat bread. The farinogram showed that rice ﬂour added with HPMC reached a consistency of 500 BU at a later time than that of standard wheat dough. Mixing of the dough with 3% and 4.9 1.0% HPMC addition was similar to that of the ﬂowability of the wheat dough.4 2. there was a high moisture loss. Shear tests could only be done to pure wheat ﬂour and composite ﬂours and. 4.44 H. mixing time.15 19.0 2.5% and 3. All breads made were compared with pure wheat bread. the dough system had become too rigid to incorporate gases.96 17. a sticky mass resulted during mixing. Pure rice ﬂour dough had a lower Jmax . From the creep curves. Only the trend of the curve could be obtained for rice with added HPMC.5 For the rice ﬂour doughs with 1. But there was a considerable diﬀerence in the case of long grain rice ﬂour.e. this parameter increased with HPMC concentration.0 sgr + 4. The ﬂowability as a time dependent parameter decreased with increase in the concentration with HPMC.5 comp-sg sgrice sgr + 1. The same relative proportions of elastic and viscous part was seen for composite ﬂour with short grain rice.5% additions of HPMC. temperature and rest time being constant. Only the long grain rice added with HPMC with concentration between 1. it decreased.
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