SRI LANKA

Causes of the CONFLICT.
Sri Lanka government passed the Ceylon Citizenship Act (1948) Only to those who were either born in Sri Lanka Or those whose forefathers were born there. Indian Tamils were stateless. Indian Tamils did not have basic rights (education, jobs, housing, voting) Indian Tamils still continued to work in tear plantations. They contributed significantly to the economy.
AID FROM OTHER COUNTRY.

• Citizenship Rights

India held discussions with Sri Lanka. Agreed to allow a certain number if Indian Tamils to return to India. The rest were to be granted citizenship. In 2003: Grant of Citizenship to Persons of Indian Origin Bill. To any person of Indian origin had permanently lived in Sri Lanka since 1964. Or was descended from someone who had permanently stayed in Sri Lanka.

In 1956, Sinhala was declared as the country’s official language. Sinhala was used as the language of administration in Sri Lanka. Tamils in government service were given 3years to learn or be dismissed! Tamils were upset, it was difficult for them to find jobs/ be promoted.
EFFECT.

• ‘Sinhala Only’ Policy

Rioting occurred between the Sinhala language supporters and Tamils. In 1957, Sri Lankan government and Tamil leader signed a pact: (a) make Tamil the language of a national minority (b) allow its use as a language of administration only in the northern/eastern parts of Sri Lanka.
AID GIVEN

Sri Lankan Constitution granted greater recognition to Tamil language

After 1970, university admission was not based on merit & examinations

• University Admission Criteria

The dialogue failed. Admission was no longer based on academic results. Sinhalese also showed their hostility towards the Tamils. In July 1983 riots. . Sinhalese peasants were transferred from the densely populated southwestern & central areas to Tamil areas. It sent its foreign ministers to Sri Lanka. Tamils were not happy: . 4. FOREIGN INTERVENTION The Sinhalese-Tamil conflict attracted the attention of INDIA. (did not ask for separation or use violence) 3. • Political Consequence ARMED CONFLICT The policies made the Tamils feel discriminated.were not in English. The Tamils of Sri Lanka made peaceful demands that they should be treated fairly. Tamil students had to score higher marks than the Sinhalese students. • Resettlement Consequences of CONFLICT. 2. Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). asked for separation & be called Tamil Eelam. 1976. 5. Resorted to violence. A fixed number of places un the university were reserved for the Sinhalese. Some Tamil youths formed a militant group. Did not benefit the English-educated Tamils. It is to provide land for the landless Sinhalese peasants to live on & to cultivate padi. Early 1950s. 1. It has troubled the country for more than 20 years and cost 60 000 lives.It was overcrowded as Buddhist monks & Sri Lanka Army also occupies their lands. asked that Tamil areas be recognized as a federation within the country. Government rejected the idea. Resettling of poor Sinhalese peasants in 1950s. There were series of riots between 1981 – 1984 The armed conflict led a war between Tamil Tigers and Sri Lanka government. the Federal Party. Tamil United Liberation Front. India played the role of a mediator.

There were limited funds to develop amenities & facilities such as transport & housing. It resulted to loss of jobs & a fall in earnings. • Social Consequence SRI LANKA TAMILS DRIVEN OUT OF THEIR HOMELAND Caused large-scale displacement beyond its borders. • Economic Consequence UNEMPLOYMENT Thousands of factory workers. LOST OF INVESTMENTS FROM OTHER COUNTRIES Foreign Investments are needed if the economy of a country is to grow. the self-employed & plantation workers lost their jobs. Sri Lanka agreed to sign a peace accord with India. many Tamils had to flee from their homes when the army moved to Jaffna to on the LTTE. Most of them were Sinhalese who took part in vandalizing. July 1987. Indian troops took control of them by force. The Indian Air Force violated the Sri Lankan airspace by dropping food to Jaffna. . In October. looting etc. the Tamil Tigers failed to fully surrender their weapons. Tourist arrivals steadily decreased after the riots. Sri Lanka Navy turned back the aid. thousands of Tamils fled to the South India. Early 1990s. In 1995. In 1983 riots. FALL IN THE NUMBER OF TOURISTS Tourism in Sri Lanka was seriously affected. High Security Zones by Sri Lankan Army was set up to keep The LTTE away. India sent 20 ships to Jaffna and provide food & petroleum products.3July 1987.