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........S..A... Telephone: 262-754-4100 Telefax: 262-754-4175 A Member of the Diesel & Gas Turbine Publications Group PUBLICATION STAFF Tech Two Dedicated to Gas Compression Products and Applications Volume XVI: Issue VI FIELD EDITORS Ellen Hopkins .. present four critical items that are worth our concern... Telephone: 281-246-1484 Joe Kane GERMAN OFFICE Lisa Hochkofler............. “The Economy is Worse Than You Think. Mok.. Please address inquiries to: mgraesing@dieselpub............ Amanda J. Brent D. Kane Editor and Publisher .. Advertising Manager Niemöllerstr. But I have to say that he is a poor reader or my mind is so jumbled up that he can’t see a good picture................... Joseph M.. Regional Manager/Editor Linda Cameron. Canada HOUSTON OFFICE Patrick Crow....... Alyssa Loope Copy Editor ....... Neil Purslow ..... giving a boost to prices was the Department of Energy’s report that gas in storage was not as abundant as everyone thought it would be.. The Energy Department’s Energy Information Administration (EIA) said that the 83 billion Btu weekly injections in late May was some 10 billion Btu short of what was expected..... DJ Slater Field Editor/ Business Manager . A little over a week ago...... In any case..... The real value of the dollar fell some 7% over the past year...... electric power consumption.. Also............Carla D........... Naka-ku Yokohama....... U............. With all that is going on... Kowloon Building 555 Nathan Road Kowloon. as I scan various examples of the media.... By 2035...A. 9 73760 Ostfildern..Dawn M.. United Kingdom Telephone: +44 20 31 79 29 79 Telefax: +44 20 31 79 29 70 ITALIAN OFFICES Roberto Chellini....Brenda L. I noticed a couple of weeks ago that natural gas prices jumped to a 10-month high.COMPRESSOR CTTwo Founder ... The author of the article. I noticed a headline in The Wall Street Journal. I wonder how he does that........... until a coherent.... Bo Svensson Advertising Manager . it is still a fossil fuel and will lead to further global warming..S. I think the economy is worse than he thinks..... Roberto Chellini Managing Editor ... Marisa J..... Advertising Manager 40 Premier Avenue Ashbourne. #308 Spring.. is reading my mind. public............. according to IEA spokesmen........S..... U... it could account for a quarter of the global energy consumption.. 21a I ......... Alberta..” This is the title that gave me my own title....... Advertising Manager Gabriele Dinsel....A.. McNulty Circulation Manager .... his statement is not correct... Michael J. The main cause was the heat wave that covered the United States in late May. Ryan Graphic Artist . Haight Senior Editor . Natural gas accounts for about 25% of U.H..... Because substantial reserves are spread all over the world..... Branch Manager 51-16-301 Honmoku Sannotani. however..... let me pump up your spirits momentarily. He says that each dollar of extra deficit adds much less than that to the GDP... The economy will continue to suffer..S. Via Delle Forbici I-50133 Firenze... Burbach Graphic Artist ...... Now for the gloom. No explicit plan exists to deal with future budget deficits.. Associate Publisher 44..... Lemke Graphic Artist ..... U..... Derbyshire... Johnson Production Manager .......Sheila Lizdas PUBLICATION HEADQUARTERS 20855 Watertown Road.. Reprints of all articles published in CompressorTech are available....... Phillip Burnside Associate Publisher ... Kyle Kopplin Associate Editor ........ Michael J. Germany Telephone: +49 711 3416 74 0 Telefax: +49 711 3416 74 74 Things Are Not as Bad as You Think? I put the question mark there because — how do I know what you think? However... Branch Manager Rm 1405....... Managing Editor 15814 Champion Forest Drive. may the Lord hold you (and the IEA) in the hollow of His hand...38062 Arco...... So. Hong Kong Telephone: +852 3118 7930 Telefax : +852 3110 3572 Chairman of the Board .......S.. Ian Cameron Senior Editor ..... and the fact that many nuclear-fueled power plants were down for inspection and repair....S.. natural gas represents a great deal of energy security for countries dependent on energy imports from the volatile Middle East.. Texas 77379.......... Though natural gas is a clean-burning fuel. Geske Associate Editor . Christa L. Brezonick Regional Manager/Editor ...............A... WI 53186-1873...... Italy Telephone: +39 055 50 59 861 Telefax: +39 055 57 11 55 Roberta Prandi Via Fitta........Midland. Roberts Graphic Artist ... The IEA says that world consumption of this clean-burning fuel could rise by 50% in 24 years. favorable economic policy is established...... Italy Telephone: +39 0464 2430891 Telefax: +39 0464 244529 SCANDINAVIAN OFFICE Bo Svensson...Patrick Crow Senior Editor ..... however..... Osenga Senior Vice President. a CompressorTechTwo . I detect a blanket of doom pervading the thought process of the U.Russell Palmer President............. Michael J..Melissa C.............. The public is anxious about the possibility of a tax increase..... Feldstein does........... DE6 1LH.. Texas......Calgary......... Sweden Telephone: +46 70 2405369 Telefax: +46 122 14787 JAPANESE OFFICE Akiyoshi Ojima... The IEA — as 4 UNITED KINGDOM OFFICE Ian Cameron... Field Editor/Business Manager Dunderbacksvagen 20 612-46 Finspong. Brezonick MEMBER OF BPA WORLDWIDE® PRINTED IN THE U..... The International Energy Agency (IEA) predicts that natural gas is headed toward its golden age.. 231-0824 Japan Telephone: +81 45 624 3502 Telefax: +81 45 624 3503 CHINESE OFFICE S.... Suite 220 Waukesha...... Actions directed at bringing these items under control are doable. Martin Feldstein.com Tel: 262-754-4147 Fax: 262-754-4177 Two do many agencies ensconced in Europe — tends to throw a wet blanket over the trend by calling our attention to an emissions problem.D....
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.................com p.....O........................ 35 n TECHCorner — Understanding Rod Reversal in Reciprocating Compressors .................................... 68 n GE Energy Sees Synergies from Dresser Acquisition ... Periodicals postage paid at Waukesha..............com........... March............................. Canada.......................... 16 n A Visit to GE’s Qatar Service Center ................. 8 n Market Talk — IEA Foresees “Golden Age” for Natural Gas .............. May.................. WI 53186 and at additional mailing offices............... Return Undeliverable Canadian Addresses to: P....................... 78 n The Relevance of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards....... Niagra Falls....... Subscription rates are $85........................... 80 Follow compressortech2 on at www...................... 66 n Planning Ahead ... Waukesha.......................................... 32 p.............................. Part 3 .... U.............................................july 2011 n Volume XVI: Issue VI ................................ E-mail: slizdas@dieselpub...... August-September.............................................00 per copy worldwide..................compressortech2............................................. n Marketplace ................. April.............................S............................................. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to: Circulation Manager......................S....................................................................................... Waukesha............................. 20855 Watertown Road.... Copyright 2011 DIESEL & GAS TURBINE PUBLICATIONS...... 75 n Recent Orders ................................ 73 n Advertisers’ Index ............................. 11 n Product Information Center . CompressorTech Two July 2011 6 CompressorTechTwo .............. 22 n Wyoming College Delivers Stream of Gas Compressor Technicians ....................... 22 n Dateline ..... WI 531861873............. 10 n Regional Colleges Help Fulfill Demand for Compressor Professionals..................... No........... 60 n Natural Gas Optimism Slowly Returns to Western Canada............................ 6 — Published 10 issues/year (January-February.... 48 n CSI Employee’s Hobby Results in Mobile Simulator ........ 74 Member of......................... October..................................................00 per year/$10...... 64 n TECHCorner — Operating with Electronic Pre-Combustion Chamber Check Valves — a Case Study ................ ON L2E 6V2.................. 62 n Why Training is So Critical.......... 4 n Global Perspective — The Development of Shale Gas in Europe....................................................... No Gain ....A........ 16 n Fuel! Air! Timing! Spark! ............................................... 58 p................. ..... 77 n About the Business .. 12 p.................... 12 n The Rolls-Royce Mantra: No Train............... Canadian Publication Mail Agreement # 40035419............................................. 34 n Options for Training 2011 ... 32 n Industry News ...... 75 n Atlas Interactive Takes OPITO Training Worldwide ..... July................................................................. June........................A................................ November............ 32 n Changzhou Compressor Plant Ready for Business . COMPRESSORTECHTWO............. Suite 220.............................. 67 n Scheduled Downtime .......... 28 n Featured Products ...... 20855 Watertown Road........... 30 n Kobe Steel Buys into Wuxi Compressor Co............. 84 (ISSN 1085-2468) Volume 16.............. WI 53186-1873 U................. December) by Diesel & Gas Turbine Publications........................... Box 456...........
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The field is estimated to hold between 10. Poland and Bulgaria seem to be the only two European countries that will use shale gas to supplement natural gas in the near future. All this explains why the impact in a densely populated area such as all of Europe is much greater than in the Unites States where Mother Nature has placed shale deposits in less populated areas. Consequently. however. the development of the Novi Pazar field is strategically important. Advanced Resources International estimates these reserves at around 106 Tcf (3 x 1012 m3). respectively. mi. ExxonMobil has leased 1158 sq. However. ExxonMobil had passed along 49% of its concession shares to Total to reduce the risk. At the time of this writing. However. On one side. at a depth of 4000 ft. ExxonMobil received the Chelm and Werbkowice concessions located in the Lublin Basin in southeastern Poland. (495 km2) in the Clare Basin. with greater dependence on Russian natural gas imports. Russia is Bulgaria’s sole gas supplier. Associate Publisher While in the United States shale gas production has developed to the point of constituting a significant share of total national consumption. However. Bulgaria has recently awarded Chev- Roberto Chellini 8 ron a E300 million contract to explore the Novi Pazar shale gas field in northeastern Bulgaria. As these activities indicate shale gas as a mature energy source for Europe is still a very long way off and still has to be proved as a viable supplement to imports. Sweden was pioneering European shale gas research.0 Bcf (113. (1219 m). Considering the potential reserves. required to extract natural gas from shale. in Europe its exploration and production is still in its infancy. is the number of wells needed to extract shale gas. Enegi Oil was given an option over 191 sq. Careful monitoring of the potable water bed properties in the fraccing area is. For the time being. France — where a large share of energy demand is served by nuclear plants — is banning shale research. Further wells are to be drilled to determine the size of the field. Shell also has drilled the first wells for shale gas in the Makó Trough in Hungary. It may reach waters used for drinking or agricultural irrigation. Poland is believed to hold significant shale gas reserves. with respect to conventional natural gas. a local source of energy in spite of the abovementioned concerns. (3000 km2) in the Lower Saxon Basin of Germany. the development of shale gas could play a significant role in changing the country’s energy balance. gas was discovered in 2009.3 Tcf (300 x 109 and 1 x 1012 m3) of gas.3 x 106 m3) while consumption reached 113 Bcf (3. close to the coastal resort of Blackpool. Last February. amounted to 78% of Poland’s gas imports. are aiming to implement. Hydraulic fracturing (fraccing). However. mandatory. but the bill has yet to be approved by the Senate. development of shale reserves through fraccing is highly controversial. On the other side.6 Tcf and 35.’s Bowland shale deposit. while shale gas needs more wells from which it flows at very low pressure and in small volumes. declared that it is not a viable source and abandoned the operation. where OMV is working on a promising basin near Vienna. The extent of the gas field is not yet known. (1162 and 995 km2). As a result. Where fraccing water mixed with chemicals ends up is a big question mark. the risk is minimal because of the difference in depth between the high-pressure water injection and the aquifer of potable water. In 2008-2009.K.The DevelopmenT of Shale GaS in europe Environmental Concerns and Dependency on Russian Natural Gas Play a Contrasting Role in the Development of This Unconventional Gas Resource By Roberto Chellini. Natural gas flows from a conventional source at high pressure in great quantity from a limited number of wells. is a relatively new technique and is viewed with suspicion by environmentalists. Lancashire. These sources cover 449 and 384 sq. and this is enough to justify the concerns. The Polish government is determined to reduce its reliance on Russian gas that.mi. in western Ireland. Public protests most likely will not stop the process. but Shell. Production is anticipated in January 2012. A CompressorTechTwo . if possible.mi. Bulgaria’s conventional natural gas production in 2008 was just 4. the Eastern July 2011 countries. economic considerations connected with energy demand and local energy resources are playing an important role in favoring or delaying research for shale gas. Last May. Exploration is under way in Austria. in 2010. after evaluating the viability of the Alum Shale in southern Sweden. Another difference. the French National Assembly has already passed a bill that would ban the use of fraccing. the country was particularly hard hit by the supply disruptions that followed the Russia-Ukraine gas dispute in January 2009.2 x 109 m3) — making the country heavily dependent on imports. it is a temporary moratorium. In the U.
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6 Bcfd (1. It would provide tax credits to convert motor vehicles to natural gas. especially by developing nations. There is little doubt that the combination of horizontal drilling and massive hydraulic fracturing has given the United States — as well as the rest of the world — a shale gas resource potential that could meet global energy requirements for years to come. That assessment was based on the premise of an abundant supply of gas combined with competitive pricing. A Harold Lampe is principal of Energy Research Services of Tulsa. The deployment of capital depends on a return for investment. and unfortunately.S. Environmental Protection Agency is engaged in a comprehensive analysis of the impacts of hydraulic fracturing — an initiative that could lead to the introduction of new regulations. The high status of living that this country enjoys today has. while prudent. But if given market certainty. Energy Information Administration recently projected that U.8 x 109 m3/d) this year — despite a steady slowdown in gas drilling — due to the surge in shale gas output. His energy plan has gained some following on Capitol Hill and has been introduced as a bill in the House of Representatives.S.S. supported that theory. resulted from the collaboration between government and the private sector. It is critical that that our political leaders give the gas industry some level of certainty that will allow it the means to address the nation’s energy needs. The U. both in the july 2011 United States and in global markets. Obviously no energy solution will be perfect and there are underlying issues and risks that will need to be understood.IEA ForEsEEs “GoldEn AGE” For nAturAl GAs Will Environmental Attacks... especially heavy-duty trucks and fleet vehicles. U. Lacking this direction. but it really is not. energy independence. A major challenge to gas production continues to be the growing environmental concerns about the potential pollution of ground water from the hydraulic fracturing of oil. At the same time.and gas-bearing geologic zones. The ongoing hodgepodge of legislation is inefficient. Harold Lampe 10 CompressorTechTwo . Yet the United States remains mired in an ongoing debate over energy strategies. He can be reached at hlampe@hotmail. Whether we like it or not. there would be more gas use. in their growing effort to abate air pollution. in part. France recently declared a moratorium on hydraulic fracturing of shale formations due to watercontamination apprehensions.A. It is time that we establish another such effort to address the energy requirements of the future and provide certainty for the energy market participants. gas use would benefit from the backlash against nuclear energy caused by plant malfunctions in Japan. while decreasing atmospheric pollution. won’t alter the impacts of climate change. The Cornell study concluded that the carbon footprint associated with the production and transport of natural gas actually exceeded the footprint associated with coal usage. The U. Government Vacillations Undermine Industry Investments? By Harold Lampe The International Energy Agency (IEA) has envisioned that the world could be on the verge of “The Golden Age of Natural Gas.S. which provides a range of marketing services for the energy industry. natu- ral gas production will grow by 4. unproductive. Also. Public policy directly impacts what economic return can be assumed. continue to create marketplace uncertainty that ultimately could undermine the potential for natural gas use. And finally.S. Oklahoma. public policy and the private sector are joined at the hip. the market is unable — and more likely unwilling — to respond with capital funding. It is more apparent than ever that this country needs to establish an energy plan that will provide some level of certainty for the market. oil and gas billionaire T. the private sector can and will respond. A recent study by Cornell University of Ithaca. Boone Pickens is promoting natural gas as the key to U. It examined ways to make the campus a net-zero emitter of carbon emissions by 2050 through energy conservation and the use of alternative energy sources and carbon offsets. This may seem outside the scope of the normal market functioning. History has shown the success of these collaborations. U.5% to 64. New York.” A new IEA report said global natural gas use could jump more than 50% from 2010 levels by 2035 and overtake coal as the second-most-used fuel.S. Such debates. the gas industry has many challenges to overcome.com.A. Environmentalists maintain that shifting to natural gas from coal. To fulfill this potential.
reliability and customer-first service in gas compression cooling: Air-X-Changers.com Oct 3-5. Brown Convention Center. New Zealand Oil & Gas Exhibition & Conference .com. Visit our website: harscoaxc.Rio Centro.George R. Wyoming Gas Fair 2011 Snow King Center.Kovalchick Convention and Athletic Complex. Argentina Oil & Gas Expo 2011 . Norman.deepoffshoretechnology.compressortech2.com Aug 10-11. Web: www.de *Oct 25-27.Leonardo Hotel Cologne.A.A. U. Oklahoma.baghdadoilgas.com Oct 4-6..org Oct 11-13. U. Tel: (979) 8452924.com *Sept 14-16.ar Oct 11. U. 8. Texas. Tel: (724) 465-4700 Web: www.. New Orleans.org Sept 18-20.cpievent.. Tel: +54 11 43 22 5707. Rotterdam. Tel: +44 (0) 207 202 7690.edu/ Sept 13-15.lngsummit. Jackson Hole. China.. Tel: (337) 235-4055. Buenos Aires. Web: www.George R.S. Houston. U.com July 2011 Untitled-4 1 11 CompressorTechTwo 4/25/11 2:23:32 PM . Netherlands.org Oct 10-12.engr.gpaglobal. Gas Compression Conference . Brown Convention Center.La Rural.De Doelen Congress Centre.tamu. Texas.org Oct 2-5. Colorado. one name has been the Western Hemisphere’s benchmark for quality. Web: www.com see directlink At www. Fax: (979) 845-1835 *Sept 12-15.Henry B. OTC Brasil 2011 . Tel: (972) 6204026.Dubai International Convention and Exhibition Centre. Tel: +90 212 356 00 56 Web: www. Tel: +971 4 3355001.ou. Gonzalez Convention Center.A. U. Cologne. Web: www. Indonesia. Tel: (713) 9636256. Louisiana. Web: www.com Oct 17-20. For more than half a century. Tel: (713) 260-5209.Pine Forest Country Club. Denver. Iraq.A. the Middle East and beyond. there’s just one name to remember – just one company to call: 918-619-8000 (USA). Houston.org *Sept 12-15. U. Tel: (405) 325-3891. 2nd Annual Developing Unconventional Gas Eagle Ford Conference & Exhibition . U. Houston.. Argentina. we’re breaking new ground around the globe – in Australia.Baghdad International Fair Ground. Texas.A.S.org/events/apogce/2011 *Sept 27-29. Indiana. Tel: (281) 675-9046. E-mail: pdowney@southerngas. Wyoming.George R.Renaissance Hotel and Convention Center. Web: www. Web: www. wherever you may be. Today.pagasexpo. please visit our website at www. Brazil. wyogasfair.Jakarta Convention Center.Dateline For a complete listing of upcoming events. U. 2011 Gas Machinery Conference .A.edu/gascompressor *Oct 2-5. Tel: +60 3 2288 1233. Jakarta.com *Oct 10-13. Louisiana Gulf Oil & Gas Exposition (LAGCOE) .TSB Stadium.S.Hilton Riverside.S.. otcbrasil. Baghdad.A.houstongpa. Tel: +61 8 9443 3400. International Pump Users Symposium .A. New Plymouth. Web: www. ChemInnovations 2011 Conference & Expo .aog.com HAXC211517_Aust_HfPgI_AXC28025_CT2_JULY_newrigTechTwo is10:28 AM Page 1 *Indicates shows and conferences in which Compressor 4/25/11 participating.A. Email: bhaest@hartenergy.S. U. U. as Harsco Industrial Air-X-Changers. Web: www. Tel: +49 2267 6585-0.. Deep Offshore Technology International Conference & Exhibition . Tel: (918) 493-3872.outreach. Brown Convention Center.University of Oklahoma..com. Louisiana. U. Tel: (281) 491-5908 Web: www. Web: www.spe. Turbomachinery Symposium . Baghdad International Oil & Gas Conference & Exhibition ..nzoilandgasexpo. Texas.. Tennessee. Web: www. Arab Oil and Gas .au Sept. Web: www.S.turbolab. Tel: (307) 234-7147..S. ™ Insight onsite.com July 21.ogsonline. Texas.A. Houston. Rocky Mountain GPA Annual Meeting Denver Athletic Club. Tel: (979) 845-7417. United Arab Emirates. Tel: (214) 3585359. Nashville. Worldwide. Web: www.A. 8th International Seminar on Rotordynamics & Bearings . 6th Annual LNG Tech Global Summit 2011 . Pennsylvania.. Now more than ever.compressortech2.lagcoe. San Antonio.com Sept 20-22.S. Web: www. Houston GPA Annual Meeting .S. U. Lafayette. whatever your gas compression cooling needs may be.S.S. New Zealand.arla.A.S.Lafayette Cajundome & Convention Center. Asia Pacific Oil & Gas Conference & Exhibition . Rio de Janeiro. Pennsylvania Gas Expo 2011 . Germany.
followed by paid internships in the summer semester. coupled with the aging of the industry’s workforce.A. GCA has been involved in supporting the Okmulgee program since the mid1990s. U. Initially. teamwork.S. since the availability of trained compressor operators and maintenance personnel is critical to the industry. The program includes courses in natural gas engines. as a direct response to industry demand. associate degree program of study is completed in two calendar years. GCA has provided US$290. The GCA has partnered with regional colleges since 1992. including US$45. an industry organization made up of compressor rental fleet operators. Students attend classes on campus in the fall and spring semesters. “A unique quality of the members of the GCA is their ability to set aside their friendly competitiveness for the good of the natural gas industry and their individual companies. has created a growing need for trained gas compressor operators and maintenance technicians.A. while also displaying their programs to GCA members. has worked to promote and support the development of these programs. Panola College.A. Natural gas compression courses have been a part of the curriculum since 1979. GCA administrative manager. U. Member companies have also donated compressors. Texas. The most recent initiative involves the development and promotion of webbased courses and short. seminars for training personnel who are already in the workforce. complete packages. The six-semester. cut-away models and other equipment that the programs use for training. U. engines. compressor courses were taught in conjunction with other courses in the final semester of the generic diesel technology program. San Juan College and Western Wyoming Community College to meet and share ideas. Wyoming. Individuals from member companies July 2011 serve on college steering committees. work ethic. At its March 2011 Expo and Conference in Galveston.Students work on an Ajax compressor package at Western Wyoming Community College in Rock Springs.” said Alan Moore. Through 2010.S. problems and opportunities with each other as well as with the GCA Advisory Board. Graduating students An industry professional from MidCon Compression shows students in the Oklahoma State University program how to align a compressor to an engine.. on campus. 12 CompressorTechTwo . Longest running and most advanced of the group is the Natural Gas Compression program at the OSU Institute of Technology in Okmulgee.000 of financial and other support. In 2000. Their support of these college partnerships is further testament to their commitment to the future of the industry. Oklahoma.000 in 2010 alone. Maintenance Technicians By Norm Shade Significant growth of natural gas production in the United States in the last decade. The Gas Compressor Association (GCA). the GCA provided an opportunity for representatives from Oklahoma State University. and major equipment manufacturers and distributors. Regional Colleges Help FulFill DemanD FoR CompRessoR pRoFessionals GCA Supports Training of Compressor Operators. compressors. A number of educational institutions have responded to this need with the development of training programs. critical thinking and other important employability skills. packagers.S. help with curriculum development and serve as guest lecturers and trainers. instrumentation and controls as well as general education courses specifically designed to develop skills in communication. the Natural Gas Compression program was developed as a stand-alone program within the Heavy Equipment and Vehicle Institute.
Texas.S.S.and two-day courses include topics such as reading measurement tools. Panola College’s Petroleum Technology Program has developed with the increased demand for compressor technicians for the Barnett.S.S. Wyoming. where they have the opportunity to apply their knowledge while working with professionals in oil and gas. pipeline. and students are offered a chance to foster future employment opportunities. At the completion of the Certification II. U. Traditionally serving the midcontinent natural gas production area of the south-central United States. has been active since the fall of 2002. work with a sponsoring company in the field.. specifically related to the natural gas industry.A. precision measuring. troubleshoot and operate compression packages in their areas of responsibility. Students train in a classroom/shop setting. U. 13 CompressorTechTwo . shaft alignment and oil analysis interpretation.. students learn the mechanical and technical aspects of compression technology. The newest program supported by GCA is the Natural Gas Compression Technology curriculum at Western Wyoming Community College (WWCC) in Rock Springs. repair and maintain compression equipment through a combination of lecture and handson training in compression theory. processing. U. It has graduated more than 60 students so far. Advisory council members also provide internships that give students vital experience in work habits and skill-building. The San Juan program uses an advisory council to stay abreast of changing industry standards.A student at San Juan College’s School of Energy works on an engine at the training facility in Farmington. or at the Shelby Regional Training Center at Center. Forty-one students are enrolled in the program. natural gas production. Instructors improve the curriculum based on industry feedback. Upon completion of the two-year program.S. government rules and corporate needs. These one.S. Training is also received in related industrial technology continued on page 14 Natural Gas Compression students practice setting the valve lash on a gas engine in the training lab on campus in Okmulgee. using multimeters. The compressor program accepts up to 16 students each semester.A. with 11 scheduled to graduate this year. Woodward and other shale plays. They also can transfer to a university to work toward a Bachelor of Science degree.A. it is designed to prepare students for employment in the natural gas compression industry (see related story on page 30). compressor mechanics. July 2011 Upon request. The GCA was instrumental in getting this program started to help meet the need for compressor technicians for conventional and coalbed methane gas compression in the Four Corners area of the southwestern United States. A two-semester certificate program and a four-semester AAS degree program are offered.A. basic engine theory. alignment. The Okmulgee campus has 67 students enrolled and 31 are scheduled to graduate in August. basic electrical theory. Students acquire the ability to troubleshoot. overview of the gas industry. gas compressor and rental fleet companies. In two semesters. vibration analysis. New Mexico. Oklahoma. San Juan Natural Gas Compression instructors also provide advanced training courses to industry employees. Haynesville and other nearby gas plays. operating. rotary compressor rebuild. electric motors. Fayetteville. oil analysis. gas engine mechanics. U. New Mexico.A. The four-semester program is offered at the Panola campus in Carthage. The Natural Gas Compression program at San Juan College’s School of Energy in Farmington. the program has grown significantly in recent years to serve the demand for compressor technicians working in the Barnett. Panola’s flexible program is designed so that at the end of every semester. U. Created at the request of Wyoming companies. emissions. students participate in a summer internship. Students follow a curriculum created in cooperation with representatives from the petroleum industry and receive handson technical training. U. compressor valve operation. pneumatics. It is designed to provide technically oriented entry-level students with the basic knowledge of gas compression equipment and the skills required to efficiently and safely maintain. balancing and safety. compressor skid components. students receive a certificate verifying completion of necessary requirements. are awarded an Associate in Applied Science (AAS) degree. Fayetteville. Texas. Students then may choose to enter the workforce or continue to earn additional certifications toward a degree. and return to the shop to complete the program. students receive either a Certificate of Completion or an AAS degree.A.
Questar Corp. Its well-equipped training facility has six engines and seven compressors including a Caterpillar 3306/GE-Gemini H302 3-stage package. Questar.. Texas TRYCECO. Stewart & Stevenson. GCA and the Gas Processors Association also offer scholarships. Anadarko Petroleum Corp. Email training@ceconet. load. shutdown and troubleshoot running equipment in a controlled environment. Williams Companies and Exterran offer WWCC students internships and scholarships. which has campuses at Zanesville and Cambridge. The Ohio Board of Regents recently approved the two-year program. In addition. (Bottom) An OSU Institute of Technology Natural Gas Compression instructor demonstrates a compressor package training panel. a GE-Gemini H302 fourstage compressor.1 to 20. U.com july 2011 CECO. a Capstone C30 turbo-generator. From classroom training to custom workbooks. visit tryceco. the GCA Education Committee is advising the initiation of a Natural Gas Engineering Technology Program at Zane State College. the Superior 6G510 sits on a skid with a Superior reciprocating compressor so students can perform dial indicator and laser coupling alignments. a COMPRESSOR & ENGINE TRAINING Gas Industry Training for the 21st Century Industry standards are constantly changing.A. Henry Production and GE.. competency and advanced levels – all designed to fit your company’s specific training needs. This equipment was donated by companies that include Anadarko.com/training. an Ajax DCP-60. One-year certificate or twoyear degree programs are offered. CECO wants to simplify your training experience. a Waukesha 7042 gas engine.com to schedule your courses today! Houston. two Superior 6G510s with a Superior reciprocating compressor and three Sullair screw compressors. To learn more. courses. The three-stage Cat/GE package is fully installed to run on a 30 to 300 psi (2.S. The WWCC program began in the fall of 2007 and had seven graduates in 2010.7 bar) nitrogen closed loop.com 800-TRY-CECO see directlink At www.indd 1 14 CompressorTechTwo 6/23/11 8:50 AM . This unique installation allows students to start-up. Graduates will receive an AAS degree. CECO prepares courses for entry-level.compressortech2. which is due to begin in the fall of 2011.(Top) Students reassemble a small compressor at the training facility at the San Juan College School of Energy. and keeping your key people educated is a tough job. Due to the growing demand for compressor operators and maintenance technicians in the eastern United States. Ohio.
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in previous years when customers had larger budgets and were less concerned about the number of their people traveling. Within the energy sector of the U. RB211. marine and aerospace. Almost gone are the days when july 2011 cash-rich conglomerates would deploy their staff around the world for classroom-headquartered training courses with little regard to the cost. “The training scenario has changed significantly over the past few years.” continued on page 18 CompressorTechTwo . gearboxes or advanced control systems. Rolls-Royce Energy.headquartered company. faceto-face instruction to personnel who will work on equipment such as compressors. England. In 2010. AC generators and water pumps. the trainers have 175 years of Rolls-Royce experience. Olympus and Proteus. By their nature. Driven equipment training focuses on both Rolls-Royce and non-RollsRoyce pipeline and barrel compressors. Accompanying this recruitment campaign. Trainers often must travel extensively to give on-site. The energy business has undergone significant expansion in the last year and been restructured into five customer-focused regions.) The courses can be customized depending on the customer’s package and are classroom and/or workshop based with simulator support if needed.Rolls-Royce training is not limited to classroom work. THE ROLLS-ROYCE MANTRA: NO TRAIN. Eighty percent of our training is delivered on-site. power stations or gas compression plants are usually in remote areas. operation and first line maintenance. FT110. will travel” for the tutors. the systems covered are FT100. FT55. Most training courses conclude with individual exams.” said Tom Doyle. That often means it’s a case of “have laptop. principal technical trainer. Oil and gas companies demand much greater value for their money from those supplying the 16 learning packages. Between them. “We used to do a lot more classroom-based training at the Rolls-Royce facility in Ansty. and also fuel control. Today they are much choosier and want the training to be more costeffective and local to them.K. gas turbines. The Rolls-Royce power engineering sets supported by the trainers are primarily the Avon. Today the world of training has changed dramatically. (Rolls-Royce also has the capability to support its fleet of legacy units: Spey. there are eight full-time trainers and three support staff. FT125 and FT125 upgrade and include familiarization. Rolls-Royce is one of the more experienced training providers with a large department spread over a variety of locations worldwide and provides tutoring in its three key business areas — energy. internal product training has become a key focus to the organization. Trent and 501 industrial packages with training focusing on familiarization. operation and faultfinding. NO GAIN Training Sector Undergoes Major Adjustments as Economic Times Change By Ian Cameron A combination of economic austerity matched with changes in the way new technology can deliver information more effectively has had a dramatic impact on the world of training — not least in the oil and gas industries and power generation. For electronic controls. a total of 627 delivery days were recorded — training 590 Rolls-Royce staff and 1151 customer personnel.
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. Rolls-Royce is now involved in its largest ever internal staff training program. “An accountant may be involved in an issue with a customer relating to a component. “It may become desirable for customers’ staff to do some basic E-learning arranged by us before they attend our courses. Rolls-Royce has also developed relationships with several universities around the world to provide input into student courses. and Russia’s Sakhalin Island. so he or she needs to be aware of what is involved and the importance and value of the part under discussion. added. Doyle said. It is undertaking large recruitment in line with its global position to support in service activities.compressortech2. july 2011 18 CompressorTechTwo . It is not just dedicating training to technical engineering staff. Dean Blazye. U. Blazye said. the courses last from two to five days and are targeted at people with diverse levels of technical knowledge including maintenance staff. Alesund. Argentina. Once Rolls-Royce personnel have access to the site.” Blazye said.A. Alaska.” Doyle said. on-site repairs and borescoping. and a newly opened facility in Singapore. but that means that a five-day course can be carried out on-site in four days. They need to know what they look like. hu- man relations specialists and finance personnel.” Rolls-Royce has also invested in significantly developing its online Elearning packages aimed initially at providing a suite of learning packages for Rolls-Royce students. for maintenance staff the extra training will include tutoring on relevant aspects such as faultfinding.S. what they are called and what they do. U..A. They all typically undergo a common five-day “foundation course” followed by extra days of training that is individually tailored to a person’s job. “For example. the company said. For external training to customer staff. or from Rockwell if it’s about controls. so we have developed blended training which is delivered partly on line and partly classroom based. Rolls-Royce’s customer and training manager. Norway.K. “It is important that our people know what various components make up our packages — especially the larger items. “But we also pay a lot of attention to making sure that whoever we use for training has the ability to get their students to engage with them and learn — pure technical knowledge needs to be backed up with good teaching skills. That means time on the road for the Rolls-Royce trainers. We also have good relationships with Dresser-Rand and often work with them on large training programs. a see directlink At www. but with the intention of eventually rolling out the service for customers’ staff.” he said. “Some training contracts for customers can be very specific and more extensive than five days — for example we have just been dealing with a customer. oil analysis.” Blaze said the service is currently only available for Rolls-Royce staff. if we need to incorporate training on dry gas seals.Hands-on training is part of the process. who required 33 consecutive weeks training — which we can provide. The company also brings in external tutors if specialized training is needed. Our staff can also book training courses online themselves. so that all of the people in the class have the same basic level of knowledge when they start. Indiana. A customer trial in the marine business is under way through a plan that may be expanded to a wider base of customers.” In recent years. Indianapolis. Courses have been offered recently as far afield as Siberia.com Training is personalized as much as possible. technicians and managers.” He added. there is a large amount of educational material on there for them backed up by good graphics and video material from on-site situations. Australia. The traveling logistics are eased slightly by the fact that Rolls-Royce has corporate training centers with bases in Derby and Bristol. but the company is working on developing a portal so that customers can get access for training. But training within the energy/compressor sector is not restricted to external customers. U. “The ability for people to come to classrooms is not always there. often at the request of a customer near to the university who plans to recruit graduates. but also for people working in administrative roles such as secretaries. Brazil. administrators.S. we bring in a specialist tutor from John Crane. For example.
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Established in 1946, Andover Coils LLC is a major manufacturer of high-voltage ignition coils for automotive, large industrial engines, motorcycles, aircraft and small stationary engines.
Fuel! Air! Timing! SpArk!
Ignition Coil Design Affects Spark-Ignited Engine Performance
Ignition in spark-ignited internal combustion engines requires four major components: fuel, air, timing and spark. Fuel and air have been managed primarily through mechanical systems that are familiar and widely understood. Even the development of electromechanical air-fuel ratio controllers has not changed their basic nature because, in the end, they function as mechanical components. Timing and spark, on the other hand, are provided electrically and are generally not as well understood even among experienced technicians. Several familiar manufacturers supply the ignition control boxes used to control engine timing, but there are only a few manufacturers that specialize in one of the engine’s key components, which is the ignition coil that supplies the highvoltage energy necessary to create a dependable ignition spark. In 1946, Andover Coils LLC was founded in Lafayette, Indiana, U.S.A.,
where it began manufacturing highvoltage ignition coils for automotive, large industrial engines, motorcycles, aircraft and small stationary engines. The company also manufactured magnetic contactors and transformers for medical X-ray equipment. Ten years later, in 1956, the company developed proprietary epoxy resin formulations to meet the extreme requirements of advancing high voltage in industrial engine and other applications. The company became the sole supplier of coils for one of the industry’s leading industrial ignition system manufacturers in the 1960s and continues to produce aftermarket coils for all industrial engine ignition applications. The company was purchased in 2007 by Kurt Walterhouse and Mike Coyle, a pair of experienced engineers who have committed themselves to the development and production of highquality products for the coil and transformer industry.
There are two types of ignition systems that may be found in a typical industrial engine. Capacitive Discharge (CD) systems operate on electrical energy generated by a stator and magnets attached to the engine crankshaft. As that energy accumulates, it is stored in a capacitor inside the control box. At the correct time, the control box releases a measured amount of low-voltage energy into the ignition coil. In an inductive ignition system, the electrical energy is generally drawn from a battery. At the correct time, the control box allows low-voltage energy to flow from the battery through the coil and then switches the current off. For both types of systems, the ignition coil contains a magnetic core, a primary winding and a secondary winding. The ignition coil transforms the low-voltage energy into highvoltage energy. The transformed energy must be of sufficient voltage to continued on page 24
QualitY CatalYsts sinCE 1950 BloomEr, Wi 715-568-2882 • GillEttE, WY 715-933-2641
Catalyst Emissions EduCation Program
A scheduled series from Catalytic Combustion’s “Catalyst 101” What is in your catalysts? The loading and ratios can vary greatly from one catalyst manufacturer to another, and many don’t share that information. Whether this is a good policy or not is for you to decide, but either way, it does have an impact on performance. How these decisions affect you Consider this example as how it all works: You have two catalysts of the same size, cell pattern and precious metal ratio installed in two identical engines. One catalyst has a loading of 25 g/ft3 and the other is at 50 g/ft3. Initially they both may reach the needed control efficiencies, but what happens as ash begins to build up on the catalyst’s face or if cell openings get bent over? During manufacturing, the precious metals were distributed into the pores of the washcoat and on its surface all along the walls of the cells, where they are found in the form of metal crystals containing a few atoms to several hundred atoms. Thus a heavier loaded catalyst will have many more crystals along the walls of each cell than the more lightly loaded catalyst. As cells are blocked off, it retains a greater opportunity for the pollutants to be converted. This durability translates into the heavier loaded catalyst lasting longer before it requires either washing or replacing.
Distribution of platinum crystals on catalyst surface as revealed by X-ray mapping
A Handbook for the User
Part 5 – Precious Metals and More
The development of catalytic converters for cars teaches us that the precious metals platinum, palladium and rhodium outperform other catalytically active elements in performance and durability, and offer a wide range of versatility for controlling engine exhaust pollutants. Which ones to use? For 3-way catalysts used in rich burn engines, rhodium is used for NOx control while platinum and palladium function for converting carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons. So a typical 3-way catalyst is composed of platinum or palladium, in combination with rhodium. An oxidation catalyst for lean burn engines will often be a combination of platinum and palladium, since CO and hydrocarbons (including hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), i.e. formaldehyde) are what is required. The choices made also take into account the susceptibility of the each metal to poisoning, and their interaction with the washcoat and its role in the chemical reaction. What is the loading? At the low end of the spectrum is having the minimum amount of metal needed to get the reaction going. On the opposite extreme is the point where adding more metal does not improve performance. In between lies the optimized loading that gives the conversion efficiencies required for an acceptable lifespan. Performance is also affected by the amounts of the metals in the coating relative to each other. A complete coating description will give you the total metal loading and the ratio between the metals.
So how do you evaluate what you are getting? The best answer is to ask the catalyst vendor what the loading is. Given the volatility in the global precious metals market, lighter loadings or ratios using lower priced metals are strategies used to keep prices down but may not necessarily be the best solution for performance or longevity. Price versus frequency of replacement, in conjunction with the expense of additional elements, plus the costs of labor time and lost production during the change out, must all be considered when evaluating catalyst purchases. So is making sure your engines comply with regulations, as fines and/ or shut-downs can make a lower price an expensive alternative to quality.
For your catalyst questions, contact:
John W. Robinson Jr., V.P. Catalyst Group email@example.com 715-568-2882 Ext. 127 • Fax: 715-568-2884
IN THE NEXT ISSUE …
SEE DIRECTLINK AT WWW.COMPRESSORTECH2.COM
“The Mystery of Catalyst Sizing”
Photo A. The bobbin wound coil secondary windings shown at 140x magnification illustrate windings surrounding one another with little effective insulation between them.
jump the gap of the spark plug located inside the engine cylinder. The basic design principles of the ignition coil are the same regardless of whether it is intended for use on an engine equipped with a CD or inductive ignition system. Implementation of those principles — final configuration — varies only slightly for optimal performance in each type of ignition system and for each brand of control box. Inside the coil, the primary winding consists of a few turns of largediameter wire. The secondary winding contains many turns and uses a much smaller-diameter wire. Faraday’s Law dictates that the voltage gain, or stepup, within the coil is approximately the ratio of the number of turns contained by each winding. Typical designs involve 80 to 100 secondary windings to each primary winding. For users of industrial ignition coils, performance and longevity are of paramount importance because a coil failure takes down the engine and results in downtime and the consequent loss of productivity and expense of unscheduled maintenance. If a coil is not operating properly, it can result in increased engine exhaust emissions. Andover said the importance of that potential increase in emissions can’t be overestimated in today’s regulatory environment and the real potential punitive fines for an operator running bad coils. It is clear that superior ignition coil performance and longevity can substantially reduce costs. According to Andover, typical ignition coil failures in the field generally fall into one of two categories: low-voltage output or loss of electrical continuity. Low-voltage output can often be traced to the quality of the low voltage or current provided from the control
box, or to flashover within the secondary winding of the coil. Flashover occurs when the insulation within the secondary winding assembly allows the high voltage to jump from one spot to another in the secondary winding. Flashover results in some number of turns being skipped, which reduces the effective ratio of primary to secondary winding turns. Loss of electrical continuity could occur if the connections between the primary or secondary windings to the outside of the coil break loose, or if the small gauge wires in the secondary winding burn through because of excessive heat build-up within the coil. Andover said its customers often report that their Andover ignition coils maintain voltage output more reliably and deliver a longer lifespan than coils from other manufacturers regardless of
the brand of ignition control box being used. To find out what distinguished its own coils from others, Andover undertook a comparative analysis of available coils. The company suspected that each product’s insulation properties would be a major factor, as proper insulation of the secondary coil windings is critical for ignition coil performance and longevity. Wires used for secondary coils have a thin layer of insulation that must conform to industry standards, but Andover said that every insulation specification allows a small number of pinholes to be present in the insulation. Andover ignition coils are constructed with additional insulation in the form of their proprietary epoxy formulation to withstand the high voltage present in the winding during operation. Quality epoxy insulation also serves to dissipate heat and protect the coil windings against shock and vibration, according to the company. For the comparison, Andover chose coils from three different coil manufacturers at random and sliced each in half with a water jet cutter. The wires within a secondary coil have a diameter smaller than a human hair, so Andover contacted a local resource, the Birck Nanotechnology Center at Purdue University, to help examine the windings with a Hirox KH-7700 Digital Microscope System, which recorded 3-D image, and 2-D measurements. The first coil dissected was a bobbin model, a design that is well known in the industry. It utilizes a plastic bobbin around which the secondary coil is wound. As can be seen in photo A, which was taken at 140x magnification, the bobbin bundles multiple windings into segments. The wire-wrapped continued on page 26
Photo B. At 140x magnification, this paper wound secondary coil shows minimal and inconsistent insulation between windings.
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bobbin is set into a housing that is then filled with epoxy to provide extra insulation. Andover examined one of its own paper wound coils. Therefore. is not optimal in others. The bobbin coil design is common in the automotive industry because it involves low manufacturing costs in terms of materials and labor. The second coil dissected was a paper wound model. While a paper wound coil tends to offer superior insulation for the secondary windings than a bobbin coil does. while an excellent choice for this product.compressortech2.compressortech2. Andover said the extra insulation is a primary reason users report excellent performance and longevity in the field. a see directlink At www.com 26 CompressorTechTwo . the potential coil output voltage drop will not be as great. consistent spacing is critical for best performance. applying a conformal coating to the circuit or using a different epoxy formulation. while Andover has developed several options that work well with embedded electronic circuits. This Andover paper wound coil at 140x magnification shows thick. Finally. thereby increasing the likelihood of flashover within the secondary winding. which can happen due to vacuum process variations or by long usage. evenly distributed insulation between winding layers. the design uses paper to separate and space each layer of the secondary coil winding. Andover said while an increasing number of bobbin coils are being offered to the market. thus delivering outstanding heat dissipation characteristics.com Universal. If the adhesion is poor. a smaller number of windings comprise each paper coil layer. Rather than having a high number of windings bundled into few segments as in a bobbin coil.indd 1 6/23/11 11:54 AM maximizing insulation in between. thereby see directlink At www. As shown by photo B. Andover said the particular epoxy formulation used on the test coil. the design may not be the best choice in demanding industrial environments. Andover said while the paper coil design is intended to space each layer of wire far apart from the other. In the coil shown in the illustration. the wire and paper assembly is impregnated with an epoxy formulation while in a vacuum chamber. After the winding process is completed. also taken at 140x magnification. The company also credits the proprietary epoxy formulations it tailors to each coil’s intended application for its performance. voltage breakdown occurs through the interface between bobbin and winding.Photo C. For example. in the event of a flashover within a layer of a paper coil. and thus provide a great deal of insulation. the secondary coil wire layers are spaced much farther apart and more consistently than those of the other paper coil. Bobbin wound coils can exhibit poor adhesion of the insulating material to the plastic material of the bobbin. As can be seen by photo C. taken at 140x magnification. Options that would work well with embedded electronic circuits include separating the components from the epoxy with a cover. The magnified view shows that the windings within each segment are surrounded by one another on multiple sides and with very little insulating material in between. the epoxy formulation impregnates the paper and fills all spaces throughout the windings. the spacing between rows in this example appears to be inconsistent. this formulation would not be appropriate for such use because it is not optimized to accommodate the different thermal expansion rates of the materials comprising the circuit.
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COM Voith Turbo Inc.COMPRESSORTECH2. which has wide ports to resist liquids.com Hoerbiger. While known for its presence in the compressor market. is now available from the company.HOERBIGER valves are the Engineer's best friend.COM july 2011 28 CompressorTechTwo . The brochure also lists the valve’s specification. the company also provides natural gas processing products. www. SEE DIRECTLINK AT WWW. along with diagrams and technical data. a new coupling designed to adapt fan speeds to temperature conditions. SEE DIRECTLINK AT WWW. CO2 processing systems and production modules. a spring plate to resist permanent deformation and a MT cushion plate.COMPRESSORTECH2. Its standard packages include standard screw. The company has three standard compressor packages as well as custom packages in the 5 to 5000 hp (3.COMPRESSORTECH2. as well as refrigeration systems. which is rated for speeds as high as 2800 rpm. standard reciprocating and standard vane compressor units. The brochure lists the features of the CP valve.indd 1 Product Information Center CompressorTechTwo CP Valves TurboCool Coupling 2/15/11 11:48:40 AM Compressor Packages Production And Processing Services Compass Compression has created a brochure on its compressor packages.hoerbiger. SEE DIRECTLINK AT WWW.COM A brochure on the oil and natural gas production and processing services at Enerflex Energy Systems Inc. The literature contains a list of benefits with the coupling. according to the company. SEE DIRECTLINK AT WWW. has published literature on TurboCool.7 to 3728 kW) range.COMPRESSORTECH2.COM Hoerbiger has published a brochure on its CP valve. Over 100 years of engineering know-how and expertise have led to our latest innovation: the CP valve.
COM continued on page 57 july 2011 29 CompressorTechTwo The new CP valve for small pocket. Canada. The brochure also contains a section on hyper compressors and the company’s history.or enginedriven screw or reciprocating compressors. SEE DIRECTLINK AT WWW. which are suited for medium to large horsepower applications or panel retrofits. Inc. such as blowers. centrifuges.COM Lionoil. fans. as well as the dimensions of each coupling in the series. a manufacturer of centralized and automatic lubrication systems. . which include three-axis vibration measuring and its digital signal processor. high speed compression. motors and pumps. characteristics and descriptions of the couplings and a list of technical data.indd 2 Product Information Center CompressorTechTwo Automatic Lubrication Systems Compressor Controls 2/15/11 11:48:50 AM Vibration Sensor Vulastik L Couplings Boss Packaging Inc. located in Calgary.COMPRESSORTECH2. SEE DIRECTLINK AT WWW. SEE DIRECTLINK AT WWW. and its suitable applications.. has published a brochure on its three types of automatic lubrication systems for reciprocating compressors.COMPRESSORTECH2. has published data sheets on its GX. The controls.COM Kilowatts Design Co. has published a document on the BossPac Bluebox vibration sensor. contain nonproprietary hardware and software and have userfriendly operating screens. SEE DIRECTLINK AT WWW.COMPRESSORTECH2.COMPRESSORTECH2. The brochure contains a summary of the series.COMPRESSORTECH2. Included are the 3-D vibration sensor’s specifications and features.COM Hoerbiger. Alberta.COM A product brochure about the Vulastik L series of couplings is now available from Vulkan Couplings. GM and GC series of controls for electric.SEE DIRECTLINK AT WWW.
which allows students to complete their degree studies while they work. Students learn the physics and math of the compression process along with the precise measuring and rigging procedures required by the equipment. centrifugal and screw machines. Wyoming. U. Wyoming College Delivers stream of gas Compressor teChniCians Western Wyoming Community College Program Stresses Hands-On Instruction By Neil Purslow Western Wyoming Community College (WWCC) in Rock Springs. Students completing the two-year program can apply their college credits toward a four-year Bachelor of Science degree at a number of U. Topics include horsepower. as well as know what the equipment does. These courses. troubleshoot. To simulate the operation of a compressor package (see July 2010. An added feature in the second technology course is the GE Energy Waukesha Gas Engines factory-certified Gas Engine Technology (GET) course. Two working control panels have been installed on the system. and educates gas industry employees who want to expand their knowledge.” 30 Uriarte said. The final technology course involves the operation and maintenance of compressors. students actually align an engine and compressor that july 2011 are mounted on a skid. coolers. This. Most university programs are offered online. along with completion of the NGCT program. Through the NGCT curriculum. The course also covers other drivers. The second course is dedicated to drivers. and covers the complete operation of a compressor package. “We believe it is important that technicians working in the industry understand how to operate. as well as the other courses in the NGCT program.and four-stroke cycle theory and engine configurations are addressed. As part of their studies. along with the troubleshooting of equipment and process operations.” said Joe Uriarte. The NGCT program offers two levels of studies. By using both panels.Students spend half of their time working on equipment. pre-ignition. the college has developed a working compression system that uses a closed-loop process. students receive the content they need to complete both the NGCT and GET courses. students learn common operating processes such as controlled start-ups and shutdowns. an older Murphy panel and an Altronic digital panel with air-fuel ratio (AFR) control. “For instance. Two. The college offers a Natural Gas Compression Technology (NGCT) program that prepares students for a career in the gas compression industry. “That is why the three core technology courses for compression are mandatory in both the one. CompressorTechTwo . a one-year certificate and a two-year Associate of Applied Science (AAS) degree. The first technology course introduces natural gas compressors and the various drivers that are used in the industry. Through the use of six lasers from four different manufacturers and other specialized alignment equipment. students learn how older-style units differ from newer digital panels.and twoyear programs. repair and maintain gas compression equipment. and engine timing. including the operating theory of reciprocating. This includes scrubbers. along with emission theory and its control and measurement. COMPRESSORTechTwo). in the equipment alignment course. The primary goal of the program is to train workers for the local gas industry. can be taken individually — students do not have to be enrolled in either program to benefit. students receive certification from GE Energy Waukesha Gas Engines. Safe work practices are extensively covered in all technology courses. our program offers opportunities for learners to apply the theoretical concepts they learn in the classroom to real-life situations. “To reinforce the skills that students need to be successful in the natural gas compression industry.-based universities.” he said. Topics include detonation. Upon successful completion of the GET exam. students show their proficiency by applying the theory they learned in the classroom to the physical equipment.A.S. enhances their prospects for employment. pulsation bottles.” he said. compression technology instructor at WWCC.S. lean and rich burning. control panels — everything that is mounted on a package.. PSVs. with a focus on the operation and maintenance of natural gas internal combustion engines. such as electric motors. is in an area that contains numerous natural gas wells.
Most of the equipment in the lab is older and has experienced some type of failure. pressure-volume curves. “Students spend a considerable amount of time tearing down and re-assembling equipment in these two courses. WWCC plans to expand the NGCT program by offering additional certification courses such as the GE Energy Waukesha Gas Engines VHP Engine Technology and VGF Technology courses. “This provides a great teaching aid for us. for students to work on.” he said. industry-experienced faculty.” Uriarte said. and readily available campus housing. a see directlink at www. a local service company. Ajax. a meter run.wy. Most of the course is spent on reciprocating compression.compressortech2. It contains two receivers. It awards them toolboxes upon graduation. The program has six engines and eight compressors. Courses two and three are divided between the classroom and lab. Colorado. However. The closed-loop compression system is the only working equipment in the lab. Exterran. along with a Capstone C30 turbogenerator. “We have Waukesha. More information on the program is available at www.” Uriarte said. Most of the engines and compressors have been donated by companies.wwcc. Caterpillar and Superior engines. manifold and cooler that compress nitrogen from 30 to 300 psi (2.indd 1 CompressorTechTwo 2/15/11 9:50:45 AM . discharge temperature and multistage compression.compressortech2. The Murphy and Altronic control panels are mounted on this system. capacity control. supports students with scholarships and paid internships.com see directlink at www.” he added. small class sizes. Packing.S. cylinder lubrication and compressor valves are covered. which is why it can no longer be used in the field.” Uriarte said. Sullair and july 2011 Ingersoll Rand compressors. “To develop a well-rounded graduate.A.com 31 Exline. We incorporate these failures into the troubleshooting portion of the program and show students firsthand what can happen under certain operating conditions.7 bar).. we cover all the different types of equipment that are used in the industry. rod load/reversal. competitive tuition for both inand out-of-state students.Hands-on training is a mainstay of the Western Wyoming Community College compression technology lab. U. It also is offering suppliers and manufacturers the use of college facilities for training. Uriarte said Ignition Systems and Controls of Denver. “The mix of reciprocating and screw compressors with accompanying drivers mounted on skids provides students with the opportunity to experience the fundamentals of natural gas compression. the ability to offer hands-on training is limited to what we can buy through our fundraising activities and what we receive as donations from industry. donated the Murphy and Altronic control panels and helped install the equipment on the simulation system.1 to 20.edu/ academics/compressiontech. Uriarte said the NGCT program offers students better prospects for employment. since recips are the most commonly used compressors in the area. hands-on training with industry-specific equipment and tools. Superior. and GE/ Gemini.
Kobe Steel will supply Wuxi with its technology for process gas compressors (screw.compressortech2. Sunnen said. after reaching agreement with parent company Wuxi Victor Group Co. This was Kobelco (China) Holdings’ first investment after starting operations in April. the United States and China. which is designed to provide secure lockout for all types and sizes of manual valves. (0.compressortech2. july 2011 Kobe Steel said its investment in Wuxi Compressor will enable the two parent companies to expand their process compressor businesses centered on oil refineries. Jiangsu Province. compared to 2010 levels. and its universal compatibility eliminates the need for maintaining an inventory of assorted lockout products for each type of valve on-site.52 to 27. It is also designed for optimum performance with Sunnen ANR275 tooling and abrasives. Kobe Steel has 44.76 mm) is needed to oversize deeply scratched bores. farming and forestry equipment.compressortech2.24 kW) AC gear motor powers the spindle at 20 to 300 rpm./min (1. while the servodriven stroking system has a speed range of 5 to 90 ft.. which is Kobe Steel’s China headquarters. Japanese Firm Expects to Double its Sales in Chinese Compression Market By Ian Cameron Netherlocks has released the NL-H Hybrid Lock. Ltd.5% share in Wuxi Compressor. The all-electric machine eliminates the noise.com The new all-electric HTA hone from Sunnen Product Co. a see directlink At www.com 32 CompressorTechTwo . Netherlocks said. An electronically controlled 3 hp (2. Kobe said it expects its Chinese sales will double by 2015. The technology transfer will enable Wuxi Compressor to make compressor systems in China from locally procured parts and market them through Wuxi’s sales network.3% and other investors hold 4. or the manufacture of gas flow meter tubes and repair of actuators for construction. see directlink At www. Wuxi Compressor was privatized in 1992 and had 716 employees at the end of 2010. mining. Established as a state-run enterprise in 1955. Ltd.Featured Products CompreSSorTechTwo universal locking Device Wuxi Compressor will make this Kobe GTB-KS19MNB screw compressor in China.030 in. The acquisition was made through Kobelco (China) Holdings Co.. centrifugal and reciprocating). Ltd. The HTA hone is designed for resurfacing and repair work where light-duty stock removal up to 0.4 m/min). has acquired a 44. The Japanese steelmaker said its investment will help it meet rising demand for process gas.com HTA Honing System Kobe Steel Ltd. see directlink At www. Kobe Steel buyS into Wuxi CompreSSor Co. based in Wuxi. Kobe Steel currently makes nonstandard and standard compressors in Japan. extruder barrels and die-casting shot tubes. valve adjustments and performance variability inherent to hydraulic systems. leaks. The NL-H is made from corrosion-resistant 316 stainless steel for operation in harsh environments.3% equity share in Wuxi Compressor Co.2%. in which sales to China have been low. Wuxi Victor Group now has a 51. The unit secures to the valve with a padlock to ensure the valve cannot be operated. The purchase price was not disclosed. such as in offshore or chemical applications. the company said. The NL-H can secure valves in every position. The universal NL-H uses a flexible steel cable to immobilize a valve’s handwheel or lever. China. nonstandard compressors in China. brings increased part capacity and stroker torque to applications such as bore resurfacing of hydraulic cylinders. petrochemical plants and liquefied natural gas applications in the energy and chemical fields. sold with matching coolants and gauging as part of the machine package.
Innovation and Quality: Industrial Spark Plugs from BERU Systems.com. Made in Germany Industry Proven Think industrial gas engines – think BERU industrial spark plugs.COM . In the field of industrial applications we have more than 20 years of experience – and we offer a broad range of spark plugs to sophisticated customers all over the world. More information at ++49 7141 132-728 or technology@borgwarner. biogas or natural gas: BERU Systems ensures high performance. high reliability and high cost effectiveness in all gas engines. Since 1912 BERU has stood for innovative ignition technologies made in Germany.COMPRESSORTECH2.beru.com SEE DIRECTLINK AT WWW. Whether digester. www.
After detection of the missing competences.ft. chemical and petrochemical industries. China. in 2010.000 m2) of halls plus the office block. in a ceremony on May 18. etc. The German company has invested E34 million in the project to provide turbomachinery to the rapidly expanding Chinese steel. Also. the Chinese market accounted for 12% of its E15 billion turnover. as well as MAN’s Systems Automation and MAN PrimeServ. (20. MAN plant. The MAN turbocharger division. but no practical experience. The Chinese shipbuilding industry is the world’s largest. and they must be given the proper tools for growth within the company. Eighty percent of the Chinese vessels with a two-stroke propulsion system feature MAN-designed diesel engines while 30% of the four-stroke propulsion systems are of MAN design. workers have to be acquainted with the main international standards (ISO. Isothermal compressors. now in Shanghai. refinery.000 sq. july 2011 MAN’s Changzhou plant. The target is to gradually increase workers’ capabilities so that after repetition of the same project 10 times. API. and.000 sq. The Chinese education system gives young people a good theoretical basis. MAN has a relationship with China that dates to the end of the 19th century. (180 km) from Shanghai on the road to Nanjing. MAN Diesel & Turbo‘s oil and gas and process industries divisions exported 42% of their production to China in 2010. will be the strategic hub for the MAN power engineering business in China. about 110 mi.ft.(Left) Seen from above. Therefore. It will allow compressor testing with an electric motor or a steam turbine drive with powers up to the double-digit megawatt range. Plans are to increase this percentage by localizing the production of compressors and steam turbines in China to cover the demand of the rapidly expanding economy. In the turbomachinery sector. Chinese workers are very talented and ambitious. will move its turbocharger production and service to Changzhou. head of the Changzhou. China. The Changzhou plant is built on an 800. (Above) This is the assembly stand for isothermal compressors. mainly A recent discussion with Dr.) as the base of quality production. air separation. The shop has six computer numerical control machining centers and three more have been ordered. according to Wilderer. the worker will reach the requested quality and productivity standards. A compressor testing facility is being built and will be operational in early 2012. DIN. A personnel training in Changzhou 34 CompressorTechTwo . To qualify these workers and meet company expectations is a real challenge. natural gas. an Isothermal compressor lower casing with rotor in place. the workers have to be trained individually to perform a specific job. similar to the share they supplied the European market. The local manpower market offers many possibilities to talented workers looking for future growth. Jiangsu Province. MAN is directly present in China in several locations and has granted 20 licenses to Chinese shipyards for the construction of its twoand four-stroke diesel engines.000 m2) site and has 215. This training is performed by specialized European MAN personnel for each individual worker. Changzhou Compressor plant ready for Business MAN Completes Second Expansion of Chinese Plant By Roberto Chellini MAN Diesel & Turbo inaugurated the second phase of its compressor production plant at Changzhou. (75. the sister company Renk (in which MAN SE holds a majority stake) will start to produce bearings at Changzhou. with a 45% share of the vessels contracted globally. Martin Wilderer. highlighted ways in which the company trains the local turbomachinery production personnel.
half of an isothermal compressor casing is in the foreground with its rotor in the back. To supply this marketplace is our task.qxp 2/4/10 9:34 AM Page 1 (Left) On the Changzhou floor. Jenske said. We will see and invest according to the local market demand. The construction began in January 2007 and concluded in November 2008. “The Changzhou plant is intended to produce local-to-local goods and thus is very much tied to the Chinese economy. These compressors have a casing that incorporates the inter stage and aftercoolers placed at the discharge of each radial impeller. Hans-Otto Jeske.” Jeske said. If the Chinese economic growth of the past five years continues at the same level. said the latest plant expansion builds on the original Changzhou facility. ‘or Ivo-Ivo-Ivo‚’ as the Chinese say. The gas-to-liquids and coal-to-liquids businesses and the chemical and petrochemical industries are going to grow and will require a great number of turbomachines. plant. Our policy is to grow step-by-step.compressortech2. This casing. are in great demand in China. They were the products that prompted MAN’s investment in the Changzhou plant. as expected. “Now we have to fill in the halls with orders. made out of welded steel. so it was the first component to be made in China. rotor and diaphragm bundle is — for the time being — made at the Zurich. We intend to maintain a strategic position in the Chinese market.BGservices.com see directlink at www. (Right) A MAN axial/radial compressor rotor is in the front and an isothermal compressor rotor in the background. Switzerland. The compressor.compressortech2. used for oxygen production in steel plants. the CEO of MAN Diesel & Turbo. not only in the steel and air separation industry. a see directlink at www. Industrial-type steam turbines will be the next product to be made and assembled at Changzhou.com july 2011 35 CompressorTechTwo . the present staff of 240 will grow to 400 in 2012. Those turbines are used as mechanical compressor drivers and building them in Changzhou will allow MAN to supply the Chinese steel and air separation industries with complete compressor trains. is bulky and expensive to transport.
Technical sessions cover both the fundamentals of compressor performance and how to model a variety of new and legacy reciprocating compressors. The four courses are as follows: Course 1 is a two-hour class that consists of safe use and operation of bolting equipment. unit performance reviews across entire operating maps. U.com. Alltite The Alltite Training Institute has four bolting-specific training courses available to industry professionals. but the sum of those arguments cannot outweigh the virtues of a smart manager employed by a smart company that considers ongoing training fundamental to its success. Girard. not end it. Sept 12-15. aciservicesinc. Courses are targeted to operators.. Ohio. All graduates receive a certificate and a hard-hat sticker. It results in lower downtime and higher productivity. Compiled and edited by Phil Burnside The possible number of reasons not to participate in continuing career training is large enough that only in the form of scientific notation would it have any meaning at all. CompressorTechTwo . eh? But those who deal daily with gases of any kind should understand that it’s not just the product they handle that is a fluid humming with Brownian motion and forever adapting to its surroundings. Course 2 is a four-hour class that includes the first course. gas analyses. can be boring (even frightening). more efficient talent on the ground. Girard. effective report generation and more. A prerequisite for participation includes completion of Altronic’s Introductory Service School or suitable industry or product experience Advanced Ignition and Instrumentation School. is inconvenient. and includes testing and certification. allows employees to network with competitors and gain a broader understanding of the current job market. gas control and procurement workers. can challenge one’s routine methods. journeyman status referred to an objective reached in the past.S. Ohio. U.A. Topics include unit geometry. Focusing on digital ignition systems. participating in training can imply a lack of confidence or even competence. The objective today must be to continue the quest wherever it may lead. It increases margins. Course 3 is an eight-hour course that serves as an expanded version of course 2. plus two hours of bolting theory education. training costs money. Altronic. It helps keep companies and the people who work for them more engaged and more competitive. Today’s journeyman seeks no endpoint. It is deal for midlevel and senior sales and service personnel. Likewise. HOERBIGER Engine Solutions The Science of Compliance™ ACI Services Inc. affects work schedules and availability of staff.“Learning is like rowing upstream: not to advance is to drop back. Course 4 is a two-day training session on the pending Appendix A to ASME PCC-1. reminds one of past school days. Call Scott Hamilton at 1-800-498-6721 for more information. puts pressure on wage scales. automation. Kansas. training for its eRCM reciprocating compressor perform– ance software. U. Advancing technology never stops to rest and the employee determined to keep pace with change on its own terms is the closest thing to an indispensible asset that any employer can desire. Altronic. is inconvenient. Compressor Control Panel Operation and Troubleshooting School for Technical Personnel. The classes are available on-site and in Alltite’s training facility in Wichita. Oct. can uncover personal weaknesses and can seem like punishment. this course is ideal for midlevel and senior sales and service personnel. 11-14. It used to be that a journeyman was someone who had completed the trek and mastered a clearly defined realm of knowledge and skill.S. can quickly become technically senile and of little value. load step sequencing. Graduates of this course become Alltite-certified bolting assemblers. unit staging. Oct. fuel control. Training is worthwhile because it results in smarter. go to www. safety-shutdown and monitoring instrumentation. incorporation of measured data into unit tuning.” — Chinese Saying. ACI Services Inc. Cambridge.S. Ohio. an employee who stubbornly evades ongoing learning begins to atrophy. is a waste of time. Best avoid all that. Advanced Engine and Compressor Control System School. is not applicable to the real world and is damn hard work. Training takes one from one’s job.A.A. sweat and money on training. in today’s environment. For more information. This course focuses on air-fuel ratio controls. That description also applies to the constantly shifting flow of technology and the resulting need for those who work with it to update and refresh their own skills on a continuous basis. For employers.. provides July 2011 36 Altronic Altronic will be offering offers its central distributors and dealers a number of Service Schools 2011. 17-20. introduces unfamiliar ideas and protocols. In that sense. compressor controls and engine starting systems. engineers. Managers who refuse to support meaningful training may be managers who will abruptly find themselves transitioning to the exciting world of freelance consulting. PLC algorithm formation. There are plenty of reasons to avoid investing time. Why bother? For employees. ACI’s technical training facility accommodates up to 20 attendees and also offers on-site software training services worldwide.
com. Calgary.S.. using a combination of video animations. group discussion and hands-on training designed to improve staff performance.A. edition of API 618 has new. including Superior engines and compressors. 2011. subsystem failures (cause and effect) and troubleshooting. Alberta. International Training Session (New For 2011).de. Presented by both on-linear Time Domain Altronic Controls and Altronic personnel. facilities in Houston. Sessions last three to four hours each. To register online. maintenance and troubleshooting. group discussions and hands-on training. and Salina. and TSI turbochargers. oil requirements. Germany. For the current schedule and registration information. Seminars are interesting and informative. Malaysia.S. shaking forces.org/ compressor-station-vibration). Webinars are also available. Premier and Progressive Equipment) Cameron Cameron offers free workshops throughout the year in two.. provides technical screw and reciprocating compression sessions. Covering namics and pulsation andtechnologies. service center and technical support locations or at the customer’s plant. fixed and tilting pad geometries). history. and monitoring and optimizing compressors. reconditioning. foundation design and monitoring solutions since 1967. Souer Company Training Center.S. The free workshops are offered throughout the year in two. Classes cover installation. engines.THE 5 TH EDITION equipment as well as the company’s process systems and centrifugal compression equipment. Oct. thrust.com/ cs or call the Learning Center at 1-713-354-1296.com. analysis. operations and rotating equipment specialists. modeling of of operating considering unbalances). Texas. and response. 17–20. thisNschool focuses pulsation analysis software is approprion C compressor operation and troubleshootingthnecessary gas to meet 5 edition superior accuracy of ate mechanical vibration end devices. fluid-film bearings (journal. visit www. conical bearings.c-a-m. This course offers an in-depth training session for the entire Altronic and GTI Bi-Fuel product range. Participants learn the inner workings of Cameron reciprocating compression July 2011 37 The CPI Lubrication Group provides hands-on training classes. U. Compressor Products International (CPI) Compressor Products International (CPI) offers a range of training programs from its manufacturing. For more information. Thailand. torsional vibrations (simulation of complete drivelines in rotating machinery). engineering consultants.A. and a workshop on software applications and discussing practical case studies. Topics include pulsation and vibration in reciprocating compressors. operation. Training includes free technical support tools for compressor packagers. It is ideal for beginner (including controls and requirements to middynamic pressure drop) analysis level field or support personnel. will be hosting its sixth international seminar at the Leonardo-Hotel in Cologne. more stringent requirements rotordyThe 5 Germany. Compass Compression Services Ltd. Compass Compression Services Ltd. are recognized by APEGGA and qualify for Professional Engineer Development Hours. Kuala Lumpur. U. Phitsanulok. compressor monitoring and component development. Cameron group offers free workshops that include classroom lecture. The CPI training programs encompass product design. th Field proven scrubber modeling using proprietary techniques Beta’s data mining software enables easy interpretation across a wide range of operating conditions Beta Machinery Analysis Providing pulsation (acoustical) analysis.. Beta also offers customized seminars at customers’ offices.com or visiting www. a manufacturer of engineered natural gas compression packages. the company said. mechanical vibration solutions. Wipperfuerth. case studies and theory. U. U. El Paso and ACI Services (Visit http://www. rod reversals and volumetric efficiencies. skid. com or visit www.S. application. main components. Ajax and Cooper-Bessemer integral gas engine compressors. An example of that collaborative effort would be a Compressor Station Vibration course. and maintenance. Beta conducts technical seminars in Houston. Training programs can also be customized for specific customer requirements and are available in a number of languages. For more information. conditions. technical support and design on its divider block and pump to point lubrication systems.to five-day sessions that include classroom lectures.A. turbines.com. torsional vibration analysis. structural and foundation design for reciprocating compressors. offered by industry experts at GMRC.gmrc.c-p-i. minimize downtime. CPI Lubrication Group (formerly CC Technology. visit www. continued on page 38 CompressorTechTwo . ARLA ARLA Maschinentechnik. Garland. compression package subsystems. Find out more online at www. Ariel. Participants learn the inner workings of Cameron reciprocating compression equipment.to five-day sessions at Cameron’s U.A. and China and collaborates with credible organizations such as the GMRC and Unistrategic to reach a wider audience.compasscompression. Oklahoma. betamachinery. Oklahoma City. August 2011.arla. July 25-29. studies. mechanical overview. The reciprocating compression session also covers rod load.S. Altronic Controls. Texas. motors and other production assets. The technical sessions cover topics including. Canada. contact mjohnson@compasscompression. contact CPI by emailing info@c-p-i. Kansas. or call 1-800-561-2382. applications. with impacts of API 618 5th Edition. Texas. Beta Machinery. structural dynamics.and complete range bearings. subtopics for the seminar for bearings mechanical vibration analysis including include lateral vibrations (stabilityforced responseshaft dynamics dynamic pressure drop. Custom on-site training with curriculum structured to meet specific needs is also available. reduce overall operating costs and promote a safer operation. P&ID design and review.
maintenance and troubleshooting of the systems from the oil supply to the injection check valves on the compressor. the group has invited students to join workshops in Germany. In the past. and extended equipment life. maintenance and engineering personnel. contact a local Cummins distributor. We have an established business relationship with DuPont Sustainable Solutions (formerly Coastal Training Technologies Corp. 04 AM Cummins Inc. turbomachinery and control systems that are designed for a wide range of client operation. Call 1-800-7809798 or e-mail bgesinghaus@detection. hands-on training classes.) to deliver these courses via the web. Detechtion Technology Detechtion’s compressor schools provide a broad base of understanding of reciprocating and rotary screw compressors. Our instructors are experts in compressor operations and optimization and high-quality training professionals. current and obsolete.elliott-turbo.detechtion. Cummins-certified training is offered at central training facilities in the United States and Singapore.to advanced-level student. Page 1 available. as well as those who have many years’ experience looking to build a deeper understanding of compressor fundamentals. students will see presentations about such topics as pulsation and other subjects in order to introduce the students to several topics regarding reciprocating compressor technology.com. It delivers the Dresser-Rand interactive online courses via the DuPont eLearning Suite. Poland. reduced operating and maintenance costs.K. open registration and clienthosted regional classes. The Students’ Workshop Spring 2012 will take place in Normandy. The schools are appropriate for both those new to compression.com. For more information regarding course content and training schedules.com. The Training Solutions practice of DuPont Sustainable Solutions is recognized as a global leader in blended learning solutions. Cummins provides training for natural gas engines for the gas compression market as well as many other markets the company serves. Cummins offers a wide variety of technical training courses for customers. The format of the lube class is hands-on.com. Designed for the intermediate. shop or in the field. Participation costs the student nothing at all. During the workshop. these courses incorporate learning interactivities that will enhance knowledge retention. Elliott training provides the knowledge and confidence that result in a safer work environment. For information about Elliott Technical Training. France. lube systems and controls. the European Forum for Reciprocating Compressors (EFRC) offers a Students’ Workshop. call 1-724-600-8521 or visit http://www. com/new/service_train. Elliott offers seminars throughout the year at its training facilities in the United States and Switzerland and at customer sites worldwide. which can be found at www. Register at www. Elliott instructors with engineering and service experience regularly train operators. operation and maintenance of lubrication systems. Their team is available around the world for on-site. field supervisors and engineers since 1998. steam turbines. engineers and instrumentation personnel in the proper operation and maintenance of Elliott equipment. and a half-day (five-hour) rotary screw compressor school.” said one area supervisor. Austria. Up to 30 students from different universities. today’s employees can only thrive by continually seeking to learn new technology and new skills. as well as at select distributor locations. We offer a full-day (eight-hour) reciprocating compressor school. hands-on training. Netherlands and U. Dresser-Rand Dresser-Rand offers effective instructor-led training programs for reciprocating compressors. Detechtion has trained over 4000 operators. CompressorTechTwo . faculties and countries are invited to attend the workshop. mechanics. I have never attended a compressor training course that even comes close to yours. expanders. For a 10% discount mention Promo Code: CT2111. centrifugal and axial compressors. Web-based training courses covering steam turbines and reciprocating and centrifugal compressors are also July 2011 38 European Forum for Reciprocating Compressors Every two years. offering real-time experience and the opportunity for students to handle and inspect actual parts. Switzerland. Italy.The CPI Lubrication team of instructors has over 70 years of combined knowledge and hands-on field experience for design. Whether it takes place in a classroom. For more information. contact CPI Lubrication Group by phone at 1-800-664-4033 or by e-mailing lube-systems@c-p-i. Elliott Group Elliott training programs range from basic operation to engineer-level topics for rotating equipment including steam turbines. from numerous manufacturers. as the invitation includes provisions for complimentary accommodation and travelling expenses. mechanics.cumminsoilandgas. “In 20-plus years of working in the natural gas industry.html. Program offerings include machinery-specific training. Divider Block Lubrication System and Pump to Point training classes cover installation.
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com. which offers the unique opportunity to gain in-depth knowledge of this specialized GE equipment.com July 2011 ACI.org/intro-gas-turbines-compressors continued on page 44 see directlink At www. Programs cover four disciplines: leadership. at the Hyatt Tech Center.GE imagination at work GE Oil & Gas . GE imagination at work GE Oil & Gas University Headquartered in Florence. Since its founding in 2005. http://www. UAE. 2011.compressortech2. Qatar. They include: Introduction to Gas Turbines and Centrifugal Gas Compressors. acquire skills to help you work safer and smarter. Denver. 158 students have been trained from 28 different countries and 65 companies. energy. rotating machinery and oil and gas processes. Apart from expanding knowledge.ser@ge. rotating machinery and oil and gas processes. Colorado. students in these programs improve their communication skills by interacting with people of different cultures and management styles. These courses can be conducted at the customer’s site. and keep up with the latest industry regulations. Additional new. or in one of our Training Facilities located throughout the world working closer to our customers. including start-up of an LM2500 gas generator installed in a dedicated test cell. Aug. the GE Oil & Gas Uni- GMRC Gas Machinery Research Council (GMRC) workshops and conferences provide professionals of all levels the opportunity to gain knowledge that can be used immediately.ge. and 37 in Doha. seven-week program included core modules for leadership skills. We continue to expand our local footprint through several other training facilities.S.Technical Training GE Oil & Gas provides a comprehensive portfolio of technical training courses either standard or fully customized for a wide range of products and technologies.com/oilandgas or email training. 23–24. The tailored. For more information. visit www. U. as well as one in Australia currently under construction. localized courses in Qatar and Abu Dhabi are planned for 2011.A. As part of our offering there is also an innovative handson training for aeroderivative technologies. Italy. Florence. including new training centers in Algeria and Qatar already in operation. A secondary program provides concentrated courses at customer sites — most recently with 57 students in Abu Dhabi.indd 1 40 CompressorTechTwo 6/21/11 11:01 AM . A two-day seminar for gas turbine and gas compressor users who are interested in acquiring an understanding of basic gas turbine and gas compressor working principles. experience and investing in their careers. in our Florence Learning Center.gmrc. Italy. versity offers a six-month-long course to junior oil and gas engineers.
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2011. at Panhandle Energy in Houston. Scheduled and custom classes offered in GCS’ Florida training facility with state-of-the-art Wi-Fi and multiple computer hookups. with an emphasis on the operation. or at a customer’s location. Details of this training can be accessed at www. 1. For more information. The courses cover the design aspects of the products. maintenance. hands-on training courses designed for all levels of expertise in a casual. personalized. For a complete training schedule. plus a vendor exhibit with over 100 companies showcasing the latest equipment. at the Hyatt Tech Center in Denver. from Sept. U. presented by the industry’s leading subject matter experts. (GCS). chemical and natural gas processing industry.com. maintenance. 22–24. Hoerbiger Hoerbiger offers training on its HydroCOM and RecipCOM products at its plant in Vienna. 2–5. New Mexico. tailored to specific requirements. Registration is now open for August and October 2011 Ipsen U classes.com/training. and thermal processing and furnace maintenance training. Aug. Governor Control Systems Inc. The company is offering early registration discounts this year only. Visit http://www. 2011. technology and services. specify. From basics to the most advanced applications. visit www. 7-8. Educational sessions and networking opportunities are valuable for design engineers. troubleshooting and repair of Woodward and Schaller products and includes demos in a closed-loop environment. 30–31. for Woodward 723 control and Sept. Balancing.gmrc. in a small class size to promote one-on-one interaction and personalized attention. All seminars will be held at the Marriott Pyramid North conference center in Albuquerque.Kluthe@ludeca.ipsenusa. assess and align reciprocating compressors. Machine Dynamics Machine Dynamics Inc. Ipsen Inc.gmrc.A. as well as the system installation and service-related issues. aftermarket support. in Nashville. 2011. President and Principal Instructor Victor Wowk.htm. everything is covered in-depth.govconsys. at MaryAnn. which include Basic Vibration Analysis. 2011.S. com/training or contact Mary Ann Kluthe.org or http://www. Hoerbiger’s customers typically come from the refining. Subjects range from basic governing and mechanical governors to advanced digital controls. visit www. and are scheduled throughout the year at the training center or can be scheduled onsite at customers’ facilities. NEAC CompressorTechTwo . Aug. Our training program is designed to provide an understanding of product operation. They also offer courses for other measurement applications such as bore alignment. U. 24-25.com for more information.org/gmc-conference-2011 Contact Patrick Downey or LaRhonda Mays (firstname.lastname@example.org or 1-972-620-4014) or visit www. Most classes are available in English and Spanish. training coordinator. After sufficient experience and an accumulation of proof and checks. technical papers and technology updates. for Woodward 505 control. and Alignment. Ipsen U offers practical. With more than 60 years of thermal processing expertise. U. http:// www. Oct. The HydroCOM is a stepless capacity control system for reciprocating compressors. straightness and leveling. Special Spanish classes scheduled July 26-28. 2011. energy and cost-efficient products supported by manufacturing and service locations worldwide. July 2011 44 NEAC For several years. Provides attendees with the knowledge and tools to better identify. http://www. NEAC Compressor Service has applied laser technology in parallel with traditional methods to measure.ludeca. Cost & Reliability. and testing of gas compression machinery. 2011.com or 1-305-591-8935.gmrc. Governor Control Systems Woodward and Schaller authorized training facility. technicians and others.org/factors-compressor-station-design Compressor Station Vibration and The Impact on Performance. and provides information on how to design a new compressor station or evaluate the design of an existing compressor station. Thermal processing equipment company Ipsen Inc. offers practical and theoretical classes. upgrades. 6-8. will conduct three public seminars. Nov. 19-21.org/gmrc-training.A. P. taught by experts.machinedyn.gmrc. Oct. all with dedicated laser alignment. For more information. Provides engineers and design professionals practical information on how to design and integrate the various parts of a compressor station into an effective and efficient system. address and resolve vibration issues affecting reciprocating compressors. 24-hour service. http://www. Machine Dynamics Inc.Factors in Compressor Station Design. facility engineers.E.org/compressor-station-vibration GMRC Gas Machinery Conference. Texas. Includes short courses. or by calling 1-505-884-9005.com.gmrc. Ipsen manufactures reliable. 2011. Custom classes are also available at customers’ site. open-forum atmosphere that encourages attendees to ask questions on specific equipment and processes.S. while the RecipCOM is a machinery protection and online monitoring system for reciprocating compressors. flatness. 2011. retrofits.A.S. is a professional engineering firm offering services and training in machinery vibration analysis based on McGraw-Hill textbooks by MDI’s Founder. Ludeca Ludeca offers hands-on courses. vibration analysis and balancing systems. visit www. condition monitoring and balancing. Tennessee. Sept. Austria.hoerbiger. Training courses are offered in English and Spanish. offers regularly scheduled courses as well as on-site classes designed to build and refresh knowledge of thermal processing equipment. Continuing Education Units and Professional Development Hours are offered. Ludeca’s training center features large classrooms equipped with the very latest in interactive audio-visual training systems and training simulators for machinery alignment.
detechtion. NEAC can provide professional training for personnel interested in obtaining those skills. Depending on the situation.neac. the transmitter and detector define a laser beam reference line that is utilized to perform accurate checks of relative positions along that optical axis.com www. natural gas industry.” – Area Supervisor – Area Supervisor SEE DIRECTLINK AT WWW. continued on page 46 In 20+ years of In 20+ years of working in the working in the natural gas industry. From engines and compressors to electronic controls. the curriculum is focused around hands-on instruction.COM Powerful Compressor Training Schools Powerful Compressor Training Schools www. • support from the leading natural gas compression producers and suppliers.decided two and one-half years ago to incorporate laser technology into its core competence. at an open crankcase in the recently extended NEAC Training Center.” close to yours. NEAC offers 2-D or 3-D laser equipment.de. The rectangularity of parts can be verified. For upcoming courses and registration forms. which is a relative measurement tool. The equipment is highly technical and is manufactured with tight tolerances in the range of a few microns. The classroom and lab learning is then reinforced during internships offered primarily by Gas Processor Association (GPA) member companies who may also provide scholarships or other means of educational assistance.COMPRESSORTECH2. OSUIT also provides incumbent worker training for companies who need to upgrade the skills of their workforce.com For a 10% discount mention Promo Code: CT2112 For a 10% discount mention Promo Code: CT2112 . Oklahoma State University Institute of Technology Oklahoma State University Institute of Technology boasts one of the industry’s leading natural gas compression programs featuring: • faculty with solid industry experience. The Gas Compressor Association (GCA) also provides scholarships and program support. There is nearly a 100% job placement rate among students who have earned an AAS Degree in Natural Gas Compression from OSU Institute of Technology. In a 2-D system. NEAC’s laser equipment was exhibited at the international NEA Compressor Day in May 2011 in Uebach-Palenberg. Qualified students may also receive out-of-state tuition waivers to help make learning affordable. visit the “Training” page at www. They are also able to effectively communicate technically both verbally and in writing and understand accepted business practices so they can advance in position as opportunities develop. Graduates are prepared to understand new systems and components as they are introduced. Laser applications require education and practical exercise prior to the work in the field.detechtion. and • paid internships that strengthen learning and pave the way for employment. 3-D laser technology consists of a tracker system that can scan objects and create true digital models. Germany. for troubleshooting or for frame removal in the run of a foundation revamp. Students are welcome from across the country because the university offers residence hall living. I have never attended I have never attended a compressor a compressor training course training course that even comes that even comes close to yours. End users and other customers expressed vital interest in the technology. as can surface planarity. It can be successfully utilized as part of a major equipment revision. Courses are available either on campus or at the company’s location. In contrast to the 2-D laser.
analysis and optimization courses as well as courses on their flagship product. hot or cold weather issues. SSE instructors are engineers who. Rowan & Assoc. MDT training addresses three primary areas: Analysis Interpretation: Helps non-analyst personnel understand and utilize analysis reports. Standard or tailor-made courses are offered at SSE premises or at customer’s site with the aid of educational tools and simulators. valve design. while improving knowledge of machinery design and operation. engineers successfully overcome the challenges of performance. The company also provides a free. innovation. While there are general course outlines that cover axial. on top of their academic credentials. Training is an essential element of control solutions and service packages. analysis.. turbines. is an innovative engineering company providing software products. Contact sales@tfhudgins. contact Roy Achemire at 1-918-2934724 or visit the website at www. 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To learn more about our courses. radial. drive down maintenance costs and maximize production. schedules and registration can be found at the customer services technical training section of www. or from the technical training registrar at training_tech@ solarturbines. Hudgins Machinery Diagnostics and Training (MDT) T.. The curriculum provides continuing education for plant maintenance and process personnel in all disciplines. For more information on these offerings. SoftInWay Inc. such as design review. California.F.edu. Hudgins MDT training center in Houston. 1-858-715-2070. Solar Turbines Inc. engineers and technicians. and special topical breakout sessions are often scheduled. engineers. The course covers foundation design for dynamically loaded foundations. hands-on training equipment combined with proven learning techniques.A. multidisciplinary optimization and retrofitting of axial. two-hour training course for engineers and operators based on the American Concrete Institute Committee 351.S. such as compressors.rlrowan.com. skid equipment and wind-loaded tower foundations. labor and equipment planning. offers free training for pipeline and refinery owners. Complete information about course overviews.com or visit www. Texas. grouting and anchoring of skid-mounted equipment. All aspects are covered. The company’s worldwide technical training programs will enable students to improve equipment performance and reliability. regional locations or at a customer site. concrete curing.com for information. They are taught by senior engineers with extensive experience in designing and operating turbomachinery worldwide. in a classroom and for larger groups on the client site. 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L. pumps. Robt. senior technical managers. Inc. Robt. material storage and conditioning. Analytical Training: Provides hardware and software training for personnel needing in-depth knowledge of engine and compressor analysis. call Charlie Rowan at 1-713-681-5811 or e-mail Charlie@RLRowan. such as high-speed separable compressors. Inc. rotating or reciprocating equipment. mixing and placing epoxy or cement grouts. pumps. Courses are available at the San Diego. capacity control and material options. regional locations or customer sites. e-mail us at info@softinway. technical training center. Remote learning with video-conferencing or other communication systems is also provided. compressors and rotating equipment. time-to-market and development costs. software development. etc. SoftInWay Inc. Hudgins MDT offers training in diagnostics and optimization of engines.com/EDU. foundation preparation. counterrotating and mixed-flow configurations of the flow path of turbines and compressors. 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. Compression loading tends to make the piston rod bend. In 2001. inertial and dynamic loads that can be borne by the crankshaft. Gajjar founded Hasu Gajjar & Associates Inc. Oct. contact the author at his e-mail address: HASUGAJJAR@aol. operations manager. Mechanics of Principal Moving Parts The forces acting on the principal moving parts of a recipHasu Gajjar is a graduate mechanical engineer with a BE – Mechanical Engineering from University of Bombay. for providing Ariel PowerPoint presentation slides. as an analytical engineer. Rod load specifications tell the compressor package operator the limits of static. GE Oil & Gas.Understanding rod reversal in reciprocating compressors By Hasu Gajjar Editor’s Note: The following article is based on a technical paper presented at the 2010 Gas Machinery Conference. sales manager. and is determined by multiplying the differences between the inlet and discharge pressures by the piston’s face area. The author wishes to acknowledge. the load-carrying capacity of a compressor frame involves power and rod loading. The combined effect of static and inertia loads is referred to as dynamic rod load. but the inertia. Introduction Every compressor has speed and load-carrying limitations. Dresser-Rand. insight to Ariel sizing program and encouraging me to do this paper.com. frame. product manager. Dresser-Rand.) . director and finally vice president of Technical Services for major gas compression companies. The gas pressure forces are the principal forces. Dwayne A. Cameron Compression Systems. Gas Pressure Forces The gas being compressed exerts its pressure against the piston and acts along the axis of the cylinder. for the next 22 years. Hickman. Double-Acting Cylinder In the case of double-acting pistons. He is also a member of ASME and SPE. an algebraic sum of the loads on head end and crank end of the piston must be taken. for technical information on Cooper product lines. U. Bruce Chrisman. bolting and bearing surfaces. and Mike Honea. director – software development. manager – Ajax. as illustrated in Figure 1. continued on page 50 Figure 1. product development engineer. Cameron Compression Systems. Then. with many thanks and much gratitude. piston rod and bearings during the compression cycle. vice president of technical services. for providing technical information on Ajax product line. If the piston is double-acting. Primarily. two static load factors exist: compression load and tension load. he served as manager. followed by work at Chicago Pneumatic. Dresser-Rand. The total load exerted is found by a simple multiplication of the pressure times the piston area. connecting rod. ACI Services.. Compression load is the calculated load on the piston rod as the piston moves toward the head end of the cylinder. Compression rod load. for providing technical information with D-R sizing program. The gas pressure and inertia forces of the reciprocating parts result in a net force on the piston.A. Static rod load is the force exerted on the piston. will be addressed in this article. Dave Pearsall. dynamic and centrifugal forces become considerable at higher speeds. for providing technical details about D-R sizing program and D-R packaging standards. Ed Frazzini. Inertia load also becomes important at very high speeds with little or no pressure differential. which resolves itself from the turning effort. 2010. on the crankshaft. July 2011 48 rocating compressor are: gas pressure forces. CompressorTechTwo (Image courtesy of Ariel Corp. an MS – Mechanical Engineering from Stanford University and an MBA from Clarion State University. for providing technical information with C-A-M Compass Sizing program.. Arizona. or torque. an engineering consulting company providing international and domestic natural gas compression technical services for end users. piston rod. Kyle Sembera. David Smoot. for providing information on GE high-speed reciprocating compressors. Ariel Corp. static load calculation is sufficient when sizing a compressor unless quite large pistons at maximum speed and/or low compression ratios are involved. manager – compressor and valve NPD. dynamic forces of the reciprocating parts and centrifugal forces of the rotating parts. All forces. 4-6. for providing technical operational input on D-R product lines. the many individuals who have contributed to this presentation: Kyle S.S. For additional information or answers to questions. where he was a natural gas compressor design engineer for 11 years. gas compressor manufacturers and packagers. The net result is a force along the connecting rod. Kriss McDonald. inertia forces of the reciprocating parts. He began his career in 1967 with Rotoflow Corp. This knowledge and how it is applied can make the difference between downtime and runtime. Travis Sixel. for providing technical information on various compressor manufacturers. technical service manager. except centrifugal forces. Smith. assisting with the preparation of the material. Phoenix. In general.
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Tension load is normally less than the compression load because the area of the piston is reduced by the area occupied by the piston rod. Figures 7 and 8. the reciprocating parts would be the piston. When the same piston is at bottom dead center. Tension rod load.Tension load is the calculated load on the piston as the piston moves toward the crank end of the cylinder. the reciprocating inertia force of any given crank. both sides of the piston see the suction pressure. But when the piston is at bottom dead center. At this point. the pressure on the head end side of the piston is at the discharge pressure. The effective gas load is in compression. When the piston is at bottom dead center. The portion of the connecting rod. the head end side of the piston sees the suction pressure while the crank end sees the discharge pressure. crosshead pin and a portion of the connecting rod. Tension load tends to stretch the piston rod as shown in Figure 2. Single-acting crank end loading — static rod load. suction valves are removed from the head end and the crank end of the compressor does the work. which is assumed to reciprocate. is determined by weighing the crosshead end of the connecting rod when the rod is supported in a horizontal position on knife edges located in the center line of the bearings. the effective gas force is in compression. the static gas load will be in compression throughout the cycle (Figures 5 and 6). The crank end of the piston sees the suction pressure as the suction valves have just closed in the crank end. Because the head end area of the piston is larger than the crank end area. The effective gas load at this point is in compression. crosshead assembly. the effective gas force will be in compression. Since the head end area of the piston is larger than the crank end area. This type of rod load decreases faster than the speed decreases. Normally. At this point the effective gas load is in tension.) Figure 2. it is difficult to add clearance. This is a force versus crank angle diagram and has continued on page 52 CompressorTechTwo . Figures 3 and 4. In this option. The head end of the piston sees the discharge pressure. both sides of the piston see the suction pressure. During single-acting head end operation. When the piston is at top dead center. the effective gas load changes from compression to tension throughout the cycle (Figures 3 and 4). Inertia Rod Load The inertia rod load is proportional to the square of compression speed. With this loading option. Single-Acting Head End Loading This loading option is an easy option for capacity control. the head end side of the piston sees the suction pressure. Single-acting head end loading — static rod load. but tension will be higher than compression (Figures 7 and 8). When the piston is at top dead center. Look in more detail at the gas load when a compressor is double-acting. (Image courtesy of Ariel Corp. Double-acting loading — static rod load. july 2011 50 Inertia Forces of Reciprocating Parts In double-acting compressors. the static gas load will be in compression and tension. (A-1). Single-Acting Crank End Loading This loading option is also a capacity control option. Since force is equal to mass times acceleration. Dynamic Force Diagram When analyzing forces in a compressor. and we will refer to them in our reversal section. When the piston is at top dead center. These three loading options are important. constructing a dynamic force or piston load diagram is usually convenient. while the crank end sees the suction pressure. During single-acting crank end operation. suction valves are removed from the crank end and the head end of the compressor is doing the work. while the crank end sees the discharge pressure. Figures 5 and 6. piston rod. one-third of the connecting rod is reciprocating weight. angle or piston position is calculated using Eq. In this option. gas has been released from the head end discharge valve and the suction valves are closed.
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Figure 10a. Net piston load can be determined and plotted. and it will be necessary to convert the volume scale to crank angles. inertia load and combined rod load. Internal rod load. When working with double-acting pistons. The same result can be obtained by combining the crank end and head end indicator diagrams first (see Figure 9). Lube oil cooler (thermostatic valve supplied by packager) 5. Holes drilled into side of frame 10. The crosshead bushing and the crosshead shoes are the last points of lubrication. The crosshead bushing lubrication is extremely important.(Image courtesy of Gemini Compressors. Oil gallery end block (under pump) 7. 13 and 14 show the lubrication system of a reciprocating compressor. Forces acting toward the crankshaft are usually plotted as positive and vice versa. crank pin bearings and crosshead bushings. (Image Courtesy of Dresser-Rand Co. External oil tubes to the crossheads continued on page 54 CompressorTechTwo (Image courtesy of Gemini Compressors. The combined effect of static and inertia load is referred to as the dynamic rod load (see Figure 10).) Lubrication in Reciprocating Compressors Lubrication in reciprocating compressors is of utmost importance. the static load calculation is sufficient when sizing a compressor. P-V diagram inertia rod load. then from the crank pin bearing through a rifle-drilled hole in the connecting rod to the crosshead bushing.) a length equal to one compression cycle. Internal gas load. Internal load. Figures 11. unless quite large pistons are at maximum speed and/ or low compression ratios are involved. Reciprocating inertia forces are calculated with Eq. Oil gallery tube 8. The oil flows through these points in sequence — from the main bearing through a passage in the crankshaft to the crank pin bearing. Strainer with 40 mesh screen 3. Figure 9. The net force acting along the cylinder axis is the algebraic summation of the gas pressure and inertia force. Pump (gear type) 4. 12. Holes drilled into oil gallery tube to lubricate main bearings 9. Indicator diagrams are plotted on a pressure volume scale. Oil filter (Spin-on 5 micron or Nugent 1 micron) 6. . (A-1) and plotted.) Figure 10b. Gas pressure forces are plotted from an indicator diagram. Figure 10. In general. Oil sump (capacity ranges from 2. The compressor frame has three major points of lubrication requirement — main bearings. July 2011 52 A Typical Frame Lubrication System The primary components of the frame lubrication system include: 1. plot a gas load curve for the crank end and also one for the head end.5 gallons for the JGP to 210 gallons for the JGV/6) 2. Inertia load also becomes important at very high speeds with little or no pressure differential.
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in single-acting head end loading. 12. Lubrication in reciprocating compressors. Crosshead Bearing Load The net piston force is exerted in a direction along the cylinder axis. the other acting along the axis of the connecting rod. the dynamic piston rod load is in compression most of the time through the cycle. 13 and 14. 16 and 17. The heat causes the seizing of the pin with the crosshead continued on page 56 CompressorTechTwo (Images courtesy of Ariel Corp. Let us look at the dynamic piston load in double-acting cylinders. in single-acting crank end loading. This lack of change of direction of the dynamic piston rod load starves the crosshead bushing for oil and heat is generated between the crosshead bushing and the crosshead pin. On the contrary. Judging the crosshead pin bearing load from the algebraic sum of the gas pressure and inertia load is customary. (Images courtesy of Ajax-Cameron Compression Systems. The load on the crosshead pin bearing depends on the gas pressure in the cylinder and the inertia force of the reciprocating parts.) .) Figures 11 (previous page). Both of these forces — gas pressure and inertia force — act along the cylinder axis. direction of loading along the cylinder axis changes.tion allows clearance between the crosshead bushing and the crosshead pin in the area of the point of lubrication. This kind of loading blocks the crosshead bushing lubrication as shown in Figures 15. but the load on the pin bearing is always in the direction of the connecting rod center line. Similarly. The effective dynamic piston rod load changes direction from compression to tension. 16 and 17. This change in direcjuly 2011 54 Figures 15. The angularity of the connecting rod causes the net force to be divided into components — one producing crosshead side thrust against the guides.
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. London. (1967).S. resulting in catastrophic failure. England (1962). A Text-book for Engineering Studies.bushing. third edition.. Crosshead pin under nonreversal loading. and Marks. Conclusion This lack of change of direction is also referred to as lack of reversal in reciprocating compressors. Theodore. The Theory of Machines. Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers. The gas load and inertia load play important roles in dynamic loading and in reversal. The English Language Book Society and Longmans Green & Co. Lionel S. Compressor manufacturers have their own minimum requirements for this reversal. 56 Figures 19 and 20. 19 and 20. july 2011 CompressorTechTwo . Thomas. Connecting rod bushing under nonreversal loading.A. A Figure 18. seventh edition. New York. Ltd. Baumeister. it is critical to check this lack of reversal. New York. U. Section 14-44. References Beven. as shown in Figures 18. Therefore. Equation A-1 In reference to above formulae. Checking with the compressor manufacturer is essential as to which end of the cylinder you can safely overload and the minimum and maximum speeds at which the compressor will run safely. 100. McGraw-Hill Book Company.
The brochure comes with a section on the Triton’s capabilities. The brochure includes a diagram of the coupling’s anatomy. fabrication.COMPRESSORTECH2. Officina Meccanica di Mara G. Technical data is also provided in the brochure.COM Coupling Corporation of America has released a brochure on its vertical clamp coupling.COMPRESSORTECH2. VDP and Sanborn. The pamphlet provides details of each available service and a list of the company’s core values. KG has released a brochure on its Triton I oil mist detection system for diesel engines. as well as its system components. which eliminates all keys and “clam shells” while allowing the user to change the shaft position and the amount of pump rotor lift. Those services consist of consulting.COM FlenderGraffen.COMPRESSORTECH2. a compressor consulting company.Product Information Center CompressorTechTwo Components A La Carte Tailor-Made Services Vertical Clamp Coupling Oil Mist Detection System MFC NET has created a brochure on the group’s capabilities as well as the components they manufacture.r. Lincoln Crankshaft & Machine. such as being pipeless and suction free. Czech Precision Forge. has published a pamphlet that emphasizes the company’s four primary services to customers. data and a list of ideal applications.COM SCFM. engineering and field services.COM Heinzmann GmbH & Co.indd 1 6/16/11 10:52 AM . SEE DIRECTLINK AT WWW. dimensions and engineering. such as crankshafts and counterweights. SEE DIRECTLINK AT WWW. according to the pamphlet.l.. SEE DIRECTLINK AT WWW. Mario & C. SEE DIRECTLINK AT WWW.COMPRESSORTECH2. S. MFC NET is made up of Centro Alesatura. according to the company. The collaboration provides ready to assemble components.COMPRESSORTECH2.COM continued on page 79 SEE DIRECTLINK AT WWW.
Also.A laptop is used to change the engine simulator operation. and tried to build it on his own over a six-year period. This helps ensure students are unafraid to try different solutions in the field because in my class they have become comfortable with engines. which can cause the energy content of the gas to vary. Hobbie said there are always variables that must be checked on all makes of engines that operate many thousands of hours in the field.S. a Compressor Systems Inc. exhaust and water temperatures.” he said.” He said students learn other useful information.” Hobbie said the mobile unit allows him to go to CSI students rather than require them to travel to a central location for one of his classes. The simulajuly 2011 tor uses the same transformers. He said. 58 CompressorTechTwo . Stony Goad and Keith Kunkel at the Adem A3 Simulator. has modified Caterpillar’s Adem A3 natural gas engine control system into a portable teaching tool that simulates actual field operating conditions.” he said. The major difference is that CSI’s portable Adem A3 simulator is easily transported in the back of a pickup truck to different classroom locations. “Because it is a complete functioning system. Keith Kunkel. Texas. That means he can ‘bug the system’ with problems that duplicate what actually occurs in the field. magnetic pick-ups for timing and other sensors used on actual engines in the field. The simulator requires various inputs in order to do its job. and students learn such processes as measuring the voltage to the ECM and determining the engine jacket water coolant temperature. CSI employees Daniel Luna. that associated gas has some oil in it. The entire class is hands-on. The Adem A3 (pronounced like the name Adam) is actually an engine simulator designed to troubleshoot variables in natural gas used in the field as fuel.” Among the “defects” built into the Adem A3 simulator are replications of faulty wiring and components requiring the use of Caterpillar’s Electronic Technician software program and troubleshooting using “trouble codes. and it functions on all 3500 and 3600 series natural gas engines that CSI receives from Caterpillar. (CSI) technical training manager. U. “Hobbie takes the Adem A3 simulator anywhere and sets it up on two tabletops.” Hobbie further explained that the Adem A3 Simulator is a live system. Hobbie had thought about this transportable system. It offers a unique experience for the members of the class — a perspective they can’t get with a PowerPoint presentation. Among the variables this portable device can troubleshoot are oil pressure. Left to right. for example.. engine speed and fuel (or air-fuel ratio). oversees 145 compressors and five field technicians. spark plugs. engine speed.” Hobbie said. I’ve engineered problems such that students have to use their troubleshooting manual to figure out the answers. which is the computer/brain of the engine that regulates ignition. It has an oil pressure sensor and an electronic control module (ECM). “I’ve built in a lot of intricacies that students wouldn’t otherwise know about. along with voltage and wiring.A. CSI field service supervisor in Weatherford. we can simulate actual events so students will see with the Adem A3 various issues that they might also encounter in the field. CSI agreed to procure the necessary parts and allowed Hobbie to build the tool at home and focus on this project. “I’m able to flip a switch in the back of the Adem A3 to create various problems in the system. “That provides a more realistic ‘systems approach’ to learning rather than just focusing on teaching about individual components. The Adem A3 teaching device is a fully functioning system with all the inputs and outputs working identically as they would on a natural gas engine operating in the field. CSI EmployEE’S Hobby RESultS In mobIlE SImulatoR Device Helps Technicians Troubleshoot Caterpillar Natural Gas Engines By Ellen Hopkins Gary Hobbie. “CSI thought enough of my ability to also give me the opportunity to teach. During the summer of 2010.
red.A. “Over the years. troubleshoot different parts and learn ‘by doing’ exactly which values change. One company used a 3600 model for training. As a supervisor. checking and measuring various inputs.” Goad added that obviously some of the knowledge learned with the training system won’t be used by every technician every day. “They basically just explained how to look at things if we had a problem in the field.” Kunkel said.” explained Daniel Luna. exhaust temperature and various other engine status indicators. Texas TRYCECO. Hobbie built the Adem A3 replica with the same wire colors that Caterpillar uses for their engines. some problems might occur only once every three to six months.S. and when we compare that to the book we see right away what the reading should be. including: Valve Plates & Discs Rod Packing Piston Rings Rider Bands Bearings Bushings Valve Poppets Valve Springs Hydraulic Pushrods & Lifters Channel & Spring Sets Pistons & Piston Rods Cylinder Liners Gaskets Email TRYCECO@ceconet. and the use of a semi-trailer truck for transport to training locations.com for price and delivery! Houston. I’ve had opportunities to see what others are using. Stony Goad. duplicating what technicians would see in the field. “Gary has put tremendous time and effort into designing and teaching. U. In other words. “They also pay more attention if the system not only works well but looks good. For others. Ingersoll-Rand.” Hobbie added.” All of the classes Hobbie has taught with this simulator have been for CSI technicians.com 800-TRY-CECO see directlink at www. and we looked at blueprints.” “The best way I’ve found to get students to learn is to make the various natural gas engine conditions respond to the students’ input. it may take two or three readings to completely understand the book. U. We want students to be confident enough to use tools properly and to trust the results of tests they run. but Gary broke it down by components and made sense of it all. “A Caterpillar engine seems overwhelming at first. “But we know just how to begin july 2011 fixing each problem. said that over the years he has taken several Adem A3 classes taught by distributors that were not hands-on. This has helped in the field because every situation is different and timing varies. “We’re always getting up and down. “I sure don’t have problems with students falling asleep in my class.” Hobbie said. “Students shouldn’t question that what they learn is exactly what they need to know. know where to hook up the meter. The screen in the upper right displays water.compressortech2. Kunkel said some people read a book or service manual and absorb it right away.compressortech2. There’s a difference between practicing what they learned and trusting it.” he continued.A. He believes that when people can actually put their hands on the simulator to operate it.com Your Single Source Supplier for Compressor & Engine Parts For Dresser-Clark.” The wiring schematics Hobbie uses in training are color-coded.. Kansas. white and green. too. I sometimes experience that in my employees. An alternative to a trainer like this one would require a company to spend tens of thousands of dollars purchasing an engine and load bank. a CSI field service technician in Quinton. Most primary wire colors are black.” Hobbie said.com 59 CECO. most of them absorb the knowledge quicker. so Hobbie’s hands-on class is perfect for them.” Goad said. or to learn it as fast as we did using hands-on.” A see directlink at www. but it was not an active system like our 3500 model. “But Gary’s class was different because we could simulate startup. “It just hung on the wall and didn’t react to changing conditions. It could take years for someone to learn as much about engines as we did with the simulator. Oklahoma. the engine responded to whatever we did. a CSI field service technician in Independence.S. Cooper and Worthington k R CECO keeps a large inventory of high-quality parts for immediate shipment. “We’ve gone through the wiring.The two smaller boxes are the fuel and throttle actuators.indd 1 CompressorTechTwo 5/17/11 11:38:26 AM . which class participants say is a tremendous help in troubleshooting.
ft. Qatar. (70 km) from Doha. facility near Ras Laffan Industrial City.5 T/yr) LNG train installed at QatarGas. (500 m2) office area has also space for training of in-house and customer personnel. Qatar. — also provides field service capabilities to all customers in Qatar. 60 CompressorTechTwo .ft. The main pieces of equipment seen during our visit to the shop were five MS5002 gas turbines from a 5. The leased area of 376. should demand increase in future years as anticipated. The center provides the primary repair scope of a newly established joint venture between GE Oil & Gas and Al Shaheen Holding -– a wholly owned subsidiary of Qatar Petroleum.000 sq. This JV — Al Shaheen GE Service Co.ft. in 2007 GE Oil & Gas opened a large service shop in an industrial park near Ras Laffan Industrial City.0 tpy (4. Although the primary scope of this facility is to serve the maintenance needs of the turbocompressor units installed at the liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant of QatarGas in Ras Laffan. a july 2011 rotor from a 3MCL Pignone centrifugal compressor and several components from GE gas turbines installed in Kuwait. 43 mi.300 sq.000 m2) hosts 32. (3000 m2) of buildings where the workshop and offices are located. Investments so far total around US$70 million. but the size of the leased land will enable GE to build additional service shop and storage space.A rotor is balanced at the Al Shaheen GE Service Co. The 5400 sq. (35. the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. The line of five MS5002 gas turbines Nozzle segments are inserted in a plasma-coating furnace. it also complements other GE repair facilities in the region. A Visit to GE’s QAtAr sErVicE cEntEr Shop Maintains Turbocompressors for Ras Laffan LNG Plant By Roberto Chellini In order to provide its customers with on-site maintenance and service.
ft. 61 CompressorTechTwo . According to QatarGas. The company said for the time being.6 tpy (7. A An employee operates a horizontal lathe. Tamimi Co. When necessary. the company recently announced the grand opening of its GE Energy Manufacturing Technology Center in Dammam.000 m2) will serve as High Technology Service. Italy. any plant stoppage entails a loss of LNG production in excess of several million dollars per day. center. Ras Laffan deploys four LNG trains using MS 5002 gas turbines. GE has authorized an investment to equip the shop with all necessary tools to repair the nozzles in-house. The conventional period of time required to perform on-site maintenance of this equipment averages between a few days to over a month.8 T/yr) LNG mega train. one thermal barrier (plasma) coating furnace. it would be necessary to build a new hall. (10. larger than the present ones and provided with adequate crane capacity. so the dismantling and replacement job on-site is performed during the spring. the local personnel can call on specialists at GE’s Oil & Gas headquarters in Florence. For example. and the next train undergoing maintenance will be fitted with the upgraded units in a four-year cycle. Its intention is to invest an additional US$150 million for its new energy equipment manufacturing hub. Should this idea be finalized and the MS9001E undergo a major overhaul. as part of its fiveyear preventive maintenance contract with QatarGas. weather conditions in Qatar do not allow plant maintenance in the open. The turbines are dismantled and serviced in the shop. GE began offering training in the office space of the main building. Mohammed Alwan. a metallurgic lab as well as a set of welding stations and machine tools. including tailored courses held for customer personnel and relevant to a specific job. QatarGas has purchased a set of spare gas turbines from GE Oil & Gas for a complete LNG train so as to shorten plant downtime for general maintenance. In fact. general manager of the Al Shaheen GE JV. The Qatar project is only one of a number that GE has enthusiastically pursued in the Middle East. due to the size. Manufacture and Training Hub. Presently. A Mark VI gas turbine control panel will be available to simulate machine control during plant operation. maintenance has been restricted to GE’s product line. but in the future it may provide maintenance for machines from other makers. However. Saudi Arabia. The 108. The only gas turbine parts not refurbished in the shop are the fuel nozzles and the buckets. the wider Middle East region. The buckets will continue to be repaired at Gulf Turbine Services in Abu Dhabi and in Florence. depending on customer demand. The project. in which GE will have invested US$250 million. during the summer months and put aside in clean storage until the next spring. thus the reduction of over two weeks of this stoppage justifies the investment in a spare train.A metallurgical technician performs tests at the Al Shaheen GE Service Co. which will remain the main repair center. GE stores the turbines in the shop or in the warehouse inside containers filled with nitrogen. one at a time. This benefits the customer because it takes 30 days to do the work on-site. completely assembled after major overhaul was particularly impressive. one vacuum furnace. and will serve Saudi Arabia. During the summer. This rotation system has proved so july 2011 successful that QatarGas and GE are discussing the possibility of extending it to the four 8. Technicians and engineers are available on short notice to visit the plant and advise customers upon request. explained that the replacement of complete heavy-duty turbine modules can take 15 to 16 days. two nondestructive testing work stations. the service shop is equipped with two 44 ton (40 tonne) traveling cranes. GE said its goal is to provide customers with speedy and qualified assistance. but has been performed in as little as 14 days. is a joint venture with Ali A. All personnel hired to work in the shop will undergo safety and operative training before starting in their new jobs. Europe and Africa.000 sq. In June. a low-speed rotor balancing machine.
700 higher than its original estimate. Even though the focus for oil and gas exploration has shifted. as well as oil plays. with the number indicating how many carbon molecules are in that component. Market demand for natural gas products is changing in Alberta. At Alberta. The onslaught of shale gas and the resulting reduction in prices because of oversupply may have closed the door for some conventional natural gas opportunities. This was the highest opening auction in at least 15 years and was more than three times the Ca$46 million spent at the same auction the previous year. Given that prices are currently strong for oil and natural gas liquids (NGLs). it is easy to see why producers are interested in oil plays. C2. these components are known as hydrocarbon liquids or NGLs. Similarly. producers spent Ca$155 million on conventional licenses and leases. And that trend continues. For example. which continues to be the center of oil and gas drilling in Canada. land sales continue to be a key indicator of future drilling activity. a different market value. The auctions show that a number of producing companies are moving away from dry natural gas opportunities. Each of the NGL components has a different use. butane and pentanes. such as ethane. a major Alberta manufacturer has had to import ethane from outside Alberta for the first time since the plant was built in the 1970s. with Ca$775 million spent through April of this year. it is an understandable strategy. And with strong prices and a supply shortage forecast for some NGL products. Currently. NGLs are often referred to as C1. considerable value can be realized. where poor natural gas prices and a surplus of supply have caused land sales to slide. With oil projected to average more than US$100/barrel during 2011. in the petrochemical industry. C3 and so on. Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Alberta. as well as other longer-chained hydrocarbons. When gas is produced. coupled with continued low prices for natural gas. methane is C1 and contains one car62 bon molecule. So what does this change in drilling focus mean to Western Canada? The natural gas that is burned in homes and industrial applications is a dry sweet gas that consists primarily of methane.4 billion — to the Alberta government in 2010. When condensate is used for this purpose. Alberta. Propane (C3) is sold as winter heating fuel. As a group. Alberta’s gain has been partially offset by a 15% drop in drilling in British Columbia Canada. It continued a trend that saw the highest payout ever — Ca$2. They are instead pursuing gas resource plays that are rich in associated hydrocarbon liquids. Canada. a CompressorTechTwo . will see the lion’s share of the increase. Canada essentially will stay the same. Pentanes plus (C5+) is often called condensate and is mixed with bitumen in Western Canada to reduce viscosity so that the bitumen will flow through pipelines. it is understandable that producers want to shift their focus to gas opportunities that are rich in hydrocarbon liquids. propane.Natural gas liquids are removed from gas streams at extraction facilities (“straddle plants”) such as this one near Cochrane. If significantly large quantities of these components are in the produced gas. Ethane (C2) is used almost exclusively by the petrochemical industry in Alberta to produce ethylene. Canada first drilling rights auction in 2011. while butane (C4) is sold to refineries for gasoline blending. Natural Gas Optimism slOwly returNs tO westerN CaNada Positive Events Indicate a Rebound in Conventional Gas Production By Neil Purslow The year started with a bang. it can also contain other hydrocarbon components. a limited supply has meant that condensate is often priced at a premium to light oil. and hence. One change is the increase in bitumen production and the resulting need for more diluent to ship the bitumen to upgraders and refineries for processing. The Petroleum Services Association of Canada (PSAC) revised its forecast in April to 12. it is referred to as diluent.950 holes july 2011 drilled for the year. but it has opened the door for others. Drilling in Western Canada is up this year from 2010.
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piston-scavenged engines to high-speed. electronic governors. The Environmental Protection Agency’s RACT. July 2011 turbocharged engines with NSCR. oxidation and even SCR post-combustion catalytic emission reduction devices. no wonder training is on the lips of management at almost every layer in every part of the country. maintenance and analysis. JJJJ and ZZZZ have transformed power across the country from slow-speed. 64 CompressorTechTwo . In fact. he insists that training is the keystone of the industry — it holds up all the other parts. Mechanical fuel injection is rapidly being upgraded by electronic and hydraulic high-pressure fuel injection. He received his BS degree in Engineering from Kennedy Western University. a major portion of which is devoted to training industry technicians and engineers in the latest developments in the technology of compressor systems operation. This Waukesha VHP series 4 gas engine is typical of modern compressor drivers and illustrates the complexity of components faced by gas plant technicians. Why Training is so CriTiCal This Isn’t Grandpa’s Gas Company Any More — Welcome to the 21st Century By Randy Anderson The natural gas industry continues on the path of change. Continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) in some states includes NOx. Pressures and temperatures recorded for years on handwritten logs have been displaced by SCADA systems that monitor a plethora of information not even recognized just 20 years ago. two-stroke-cycle. and ultimately became senior engineer for Plant Operations and Maintenance at Panhandle Eastern. and an amazing array of state-of-theart control systems are no longer the exception to the rule. Anderson has over 30 years of experience in the natural gas engine and compressor industry. new gas in new fields. And that’s just some of the latest technology. an equipment analyst and a technician. low gas prices. He has managed and implemented numerous innovative preventive maintenance and equipment analysis programs. With Anderson’s practical experience as a member of a maintenance crew. A person could buy a standard spark plug for an engine in 1990 for less than US$5. BACT. He is considered one of the top mechanical trainers in the gas industry on engine and compressor operation. MACT. He is one of foremost proponents of training. not to mention the increased use of electric motor-driven and turbinedriven compression. an operator. CO and O2 in exhaust systems real-time. Ignition systems. while Fast Fourier Infrared Mass Spectroscopy or other equally complex systems are required to monitor hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) that have to be measured in concentrations as small as one part per billion. Combine that with an aging workforce. and an ever-increasing market. He began his career at Panhandle Eastern Pipeline in 1974 as a casual laborer. FERC Order 636 was a monumental paradigm shift from regulated gas transmission to the current model of open access transportation. Texas Eastern and Trunkline Gas Pipelines. diagnostics and maintenance. he is noted for his ability to relate with people from every area of gas transmission.Randy Anderson has over 30 years’ experience in the gas pipeline industry. Anderson is experienced in maintenance and performance analysis and training. four-stroke. Randy Anderson was the previous owner of ACTT prior to its acquisition by CECO in August 1999.
I conducted some training in the gathering fields of Wyoming. Different companies are in different phases of this progression.S. public awareness. Policies on ladders. but were unwilling to provide funding. slowly these parties began to recognize the need for improving training. In hard budget times. And we wonder why training is so critical. Today. have largely replaced the integral engine-compressor configuration. some of the industry leaders recognized that management support was mandatory.COM . • Some progress was finally made and companies began to initiate training programs but wanted to limit the scope of project in either dollars or people that were to be involved. from: • No comprehension of training needs or “If it isn’t broke. supervisory and worker philosophies have changed.COMPRESSORTECH2. pipeline integrity. fire extinguishers and critical fasteners are just a few that come to mind. signage. Midstream and smaller companies oftentimes don’t have the personnel or assets to accomplish some of these goals internally. at least at some locations. Many of the smaller gathering companies didn’t exist 10 years ago. scaffolds. U. • Then. OSHA has had a profound impact as well. without a comprehensive search on Google. such as this Ariel multistage unit driven by a gas engine. vehicle safety.Separable compressors. line crossings. don’t fix it. Technicians need to have intimate knowledge of this type of machinery. PPE. Recently. a single spark plug can cost in excess of US$135. hoists.” • Then. “Every time I finish sending new employees to the Caterpillar schools or other OEM classes. bringing independent organization and responsibilities into a whole or a complete package. This isn’t grandpa’s gas company any more — welcome to the 21st century. Management. slings. handling hazardous materials. • And finally.A. Upper management became willing to delegate authority and make all the parties involved responsible for their own training needs.. training became an integral part of the system. where a supervisor complained. and a majority of their workforce has less than five years’ seniority. training was the first thing to go. hand tools. some other company offers them continued on page 66 SEE DIRECTLINK AT WWW.
led to this amazing statement: “And we haven’t experienced a catastrophic unscheduled outage in several years.. who has several years of compressor T. seals. companies need to recognize training is the keystone to success. transportation lubricants. metalworking. gas compressor technology and electrical devices and controls among others. we have experts. if the plane’s engine fails. all of which require training programs. southeast regional sales manager. handling a wide range of customer service and technical resource roles within the company. Rickner has taken on the role of a lubrication application expert. My belief is training is the keystone of our industry — it holds up all the other parts. rebuilding heads. Just over half way to their goal of US$5 million.A. We have people with good general knowledge. US$3 an hour more and they leave. gears. and lubrication programs. married with amazing policies and procedures.” This. Along with managing sales and marketing duties within his territory. lubricant analysis. have changed their companies forever. pneumatics. Certified lubrication specialists have extensive knowledge of lubrication fundamentals and best practices in lubrication maintenance in industrial settings.000 sq. storage. The program also includes courses such as technical writing. lubricant manufacturing. to meet changing technology.COMPRESSORTECH2. U. I haven’t looked at any industry statistics. computer literacy and business ethics allowing graduates to receive an Associate in Applied Science Dejuly 2011 gree and add value to their position in the company. The PROS Company The PROS Co. CLS-accredited individuals must have at least three years of experience in the field of lubrication and pass an exam covering the following subjects: lubrication fundamentals.. Can’t we say the same thing about an accident at a compressor station? The future of the gas industry is in flux. to comply with increasingly stringent environmental laws and to improve profitability. the goal is to increase enrollment to near 120. handling and application of lubricants. crankshafts. fluid conditioning. And they have directly impacted our bottom line. Ledbetter. A SEE DIRECTLINK AT WWW. turbochargers. dates back to 2000. has hired Terry “TL” Ledbetter as its new professional sales engineer. The curriculum includes classes in advanced natural gas engine technology. CompressorTechTwo . in conjunction with continuous and comprehensive training. Now you might say. although individual courses have been offered since 1979. has been accredited as a certified lubrication specialist (CLS) by the Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers (STLE). One director made the following statement: “We’re different than a lot of our competition. The new facility would attract and prepare more technicians to enter the industry.S. classroom. hands-on or onthe-job training. Texas. ultrachem’s jonathan Rickner Accredited As ClS Ultrachem Inc. “Well I guess you could not train them and keep them!” Doesn’t this say that training makes employees more valuable not just to your competition but to you as well? One other aspect of training is safety. Ledbetter experience. With approximately 70 students currently in the program. announced that Jona66 than Rickner. Rickner has developed his knowledge and skills in the lubricant industry. a rebuilder of screw compressors and gear boxes. Ultrachem said.” Someone commented in the back of the room.edu. more effective policies and procedures. they also have expertise. Can you imagine a doctor reading an instruction manual as he or she prepares to remove your appendix? You’re not allowed to change a spark plug in an aircraft engine without an A&P license. To ensure a safe workplace. bearings. fluid power.A large number of integral engine compressors are still in operation on major pipelines and process plants. The program. the plane crashes and people die. Texas and Oklahoma Panhandles. They may specialize in alignment. according to Ultrachem. but untrained people can and do change plugs on a natural gas engine. the university expressed appreciation for the industry support shown to date. solvents and cleaners. They have been subjected to constant upgrading in components and control systems.osuit. (2790 m2) facility to better accommodate current and future students.ft. problem solving. and the Permian Basin in the United States. We have experts. airfuel ratio controls or emissions. two of my clients have given personal testimony of how new. which is sponsored by the Gas Processors Association (GPA). Poor procedures and inadequate training have been contributing factors in most of those incidents. In the past six months. For more information about the program. contact Roy Achemire at 918-293-4724 or visit the website at www.” There are more qualified people who can speak to the effectiveness of online. will cover Western Kansas and Oklahoma.COM Industry News CompressorTechTwo Oklahoma State university Institute of Technology The university reports that the Natural Gas Compression Program at the Oklahoma State University Institute of Technology now has so many students enrolled in its specialized program that it is raising funds to construct a 30. of Lubbock. monitoring and reducing consumption of lubricants. but as a consultant I am investigating more and more catastrophic failures and conducting more and more accident investigations. In his five years with Ultrachem. Graduates are also prepared to understand new systems and components as they are introduced and have the skills necessary to advance in position as opportunities develop. We don’t have generalists.
ch. New features include an interactive distribution map. has revamped its website. The website. the Pump Users Symposium has been held early in the year and the Turbomachinery Symposium in September or early October. The conference offers participants the opportunity to learn current diagnos67 CompressorTechTwo . but the quality of the information presented at the Wyoming Gas Fair in Jackson. GSA contracts and branded product offerings. 2011 in Houston. streamlined access to product technical information and an updated press center for industry-related releases. previously served as the company’s international market manager. 27-29 at OU’s College of Continuing Education in Norman. 2011. on Sept. has helped to elevate its status as a key industry event. T. BOA’s products cover a wide range of applications. however. Brown Convention Center in Houston.. to add a bit of Latin zest.Industry News CompressorTechTwo BOA AG Revamps Website Planning Ahead CompressorTechTwo Coming in August/September The COMPRESSORTechTwo staff has begun compiling your August-September issue. Did you know that COMPRESSORTechTwo is available electronically in a quarterly Spanish edition? This year marks a major change in our annual events tour.S. Liaboe Hotstart Inc. it will cover two subjects of critical concern to the gas machinery sector.A. 14-15. Much of the content of our August-September issue will be directly related to the machinery featured at those important events. German and Italian. once again at the Snow King Resort.and fourth-quarter events.. BOA AG. www.S. boa. who joined the company in 2001. tutorials. U. the Turbomachinery Laboratory at Texas A&M University has scheduled both events to run concurrently Sept.S. The symposia will include lectures. U. who’s been with Hotstart since 2002. case studies. discussion groups and short courses. with controls and instrumentation as the brains. It also features two dozen exhibitors showing compression industry products and services. Sponsors say that all 120 exhibition booths have been reserved. The 15th annual program and show will be held Sept. a Swiss specialist in flexible elements. july 2011 Gas Compression Conference The University of Oklahoma (OU) is the site of one of the longest running compression industry events. tic and repair techniques on equipment. Judge. which include specialty products for the racing and performance industry. Our supersized August-September issue will feature numerous stories and technical articles on those subjects. has named Terry Judge as its chief executive officer. Champion Brands Turbomachinery/Pump users Symposia Exhibits at the combined 40th annual Turbomachinery Symposium/27th annual Pump Users Symposium will flood the floor of the George R. and we hope you will pause at our booth for a chat. Texas. Liaboe. U. Judge T. for users. Historically. we’re throwing in some articles on South American compression.A. The university claims the event is the only compression industry meeting organized by users. The Turbomachinery Symposium’s advisory committee consists of leaders in the rotating equipment and power generation community. Both events are sponsored by Texas A&M University’s Turbomachinery Laboratory.S. In 2011. a Champion Brands. who retired in March after 23 years with the company. components and systems. Oklahoma. He replaces Rick Robinson. Turbomachinery could be characterized as the heart of the industry. effective March 18.A. metal bellows and plastic hoses. Hotstart Inc. And. previously served as the company’s director of sales and marketing. French. 1215. manufacturing. But that’s not really unusual. and presents the company’s portfolio of flexible metal hoses in stainless steel. The 55th Gas Compressor Conference is scheduled Sept. as well as exhibits of services and full-sized equipment. Wyoming. is available in English. distribution. Texas. expansion joints in stainless steel or rubber. Wyoming Gas Fair The towering Grand Teton Mountains and spectacular vistas may bring fall tourists and early sunsets to Jackson Hole. com. U. COMPRESSORTechTwo editors and other staff will attend all of the following important third. and expansion joints and bellows. LLC has launched its new corporate website at www. private label capabilities.A. The event also will feature about 20 talks by industry and state officials.championbrands. Trond Liaboe will assume Judge’s former position as director of sales and marketing. 12-15. Besides encompassing two calendar months. The website also provides detailed content about the company’s products.
in practice.. the hot gases that are discharged into the main chamber light off even the leanest mixture. However. This solution brought with it another problem for operating personnel. McCoy. and James McCoy Jr.. Jr. Link was responsible for the collection and analysis of 50 units in the Lone Star Gas system as the company analyst. With consistent light-off in the pre-chamber. He holds four U. and thus ignite the main chamber. pre-combustion chambers were employed. this excess air led to unstable combustion and in order to restore stable combustion. July 2011 68 offer engines that produced lower levels of undesirable emissions. U. as the pressure in the fuel supply is normally high enough to open the check valve. Texas. The small chamber is fueled while the pressure in the cylinder is low and as the pressure in the cylinder (and pre-chamber) exceeds the supply pressure. Marlan was a senior research engineer at Southwest Research Institute and a senior engineer at Schlumberger. he was responsible for leading a team of compressor specialists and provided technical services and support to operations through training and troubleshooting. U. Large-bore gas internal combustion engines used in the gas pipeline industry have a long history of reliable service. This can cause the pre-chamber to either be over. resulting in the loss of the ignition source for that cylinder. where he spent the last five years as a combustion engineer on the company’s Clean Air Team. The problem here is when starting the engine. The ensuing hot combustion gases do not heat up the fuel supply line and cause exhaust gases to interfere with the fueling of the pre-chamber. James J. This works great in theory. Phoenix. Texas. the ball/wafer/poppet closes the valve.A.or underfueled. Starting in the 1970s. in 1965. thus lowering NOx. However. PE Editor’s Note: The following is from a paper presented at the 2010 Gas Machinery Conference.Operating with electrOnic pre-cOmbustiOn chamber check ValVes — a case study Electronic Pre-Combustion Chambers Offer Major Solution to Unscheduled Downtime and Excessive Parts Replacement By David Link. From the beginning. For the last five years he has been with Hoerbiger Engineering Services. operations and diagnostics. Link has 26 years in the gas industry. the mechanical check valve has a tendency to accumulate moisture or contamination and can stick either in the open or closed position. In other words. pre-combustion chambers have been fueled by a small gas line that operated through a mechanical check valve. He received his MS in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Houston and MBA from Rice University. His career has spanned some 30 years in the Gas Pipeline Industry. PE. When the process of the operation of the mechanical check valve is examined closely. Houston. His career began with 20 years at Tennessee Gas Pipeline. Low NOx and unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust are the result. He has an associate’s degree in Industrial Electronics. facilities upgrades and efficiency enhancements. This can lead to unorthodox (and possibly unsafe) maintenance practice such as tapping the check valve with a wrench while trying to start the engine. mainly on combustion modifications for improved performance and emissions on large-bore gas engines. He is an active member of the Gas Machinery Research Council (GMRC). consulting and testing of new technologies to improve the reliability of the storage and compression units.A. larger turbochargers were employed to produce air in excess of the air needed for combustion. and has more than 15 years of experience in the oil and gas industry. The pre-chamber fuel supply pressure is set so the engine runs properly at normal load and speed. the air manifold CompressorTechTwo . Arizona. PE.A. we can see why these issues occur.. Tennessee. patents. He is responsible for leading a team that operates and maintains natural gas compressor stations and storage facilities in an effort to provide reliable transmission. U. Texas. Memphis. Before joining Atmos Energy. mainly NOx and unburned hydrocarbons. He is responsible for engine and compression diagnostics. McCoy is an Associate member of the Internal Combustion Engine Division of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). This problem usually manifests itself when trying to start the engine. in 1968 and 1985. working in construction. This will result in a cold cylinder and the resulting overload of other cylinders. Houston. The excess air served as a heat sink to keep combustion temperatures down. received his BS degree in Mechanical Engineering from Christian Brothers University. Prior to his current role.S.. the check valve closes. respectively. Marlan Jarzombek. Jarzombek has a degree in Mechanical Engineering and is a Registered Professional Engineer in Texas. Prior to his current role.S.S. He is an active member of the Gas Machinery Research Council (GMRC) and serves on the GMRC Engine Analyzer and Reliability Workshop Committee of which he is currently the chairman. as the engine operates and is then shut down for operational reasons. U. serves on the GMRC Project Supervisory Committee (PSC) and is also a member of ASME. In order to accomplish this goal.S. This isolates the fuel supply from the high pressure in the pre-chamber during compression and combustion. training.A. engine manufacturers began to David Link is a compressor specialist in the Storage and Compression Group at Atmos Energy in Dallas. Marlan Jarzombek is a manager of Storage and Compression Operations at Atmos Energy. He is a member of the Atmos Storage and Compression Technical Staff that addresses problem issues related to the operation and maintenance of the Atmos compression system. as the compression pressure in the main chamber/pre-chamber rises above the supply pressure.S. injection and withdrawal service for gas control. A pre-combustion chamber is simply a small chamber where a rich (near stoichiometric) mixture is maintained so the spark plug is sure to light off the mixture.
and the check valve opens earlier and closes later. since the pressure in the check valve supply has to be high enough to open the valve.axh. If this occurs. This rich main chamber air-fuel mixture is pushed up into the pre-chamber. when the engine is operating with a high air manifold pressure. which is tied to the position of each cylinder. Claremore.compressortech2. Even if the pre-chamber check valve does open. This has a tendency to supply too much fuel to the pre-chamber. On the other hand. and close early. & NO2 or SO2 • CO Dilution Pump For Auto-Range Measurements Up To 50.com IDEAL ANALYZER TO MEASURE ENGINE EMISSIONS E Instruments provides the latest technology in handheld instrumentation with the New E4400 analyzer that is ideal for emissions monitoring including quarterly tests as well as tuning and maintenance of rich and lean burning gas & diesel engines.” which can lead to sticking. particularly if the ball/wafer/poppet is stuck in other pre-chambers.compressortech2. CO.com TechTwo Compressor .com see directlink At www. The valve will open late. 401 East Lowry. NO. Furthermore. Oklahoma 74017 (918) 283-9200 Fax (918) 283-9229 www. Continuing to Lead The Industry with 286. this rich combustion in the pre-chamber will tend to be “sooty.000 ppm • Field Replaceable & Pre-Calibrated Sensors • Internal Non-Thermal Impact Printer • Long Lasting Rechargeable Lithium Ion Battery • PC Software Package With USB Cable Figure 2. E4400 features include: • Up to FOUR Gas Sensors: O2. at a time when there is a very rich mixture in the main chamber. Typical four-stroke pre-chamber/main chamber arrangement.com see directlink At www. the opposite effect occurs. The controller for the electronic valve can be programmed to admit the exact amount of fuel for whatever condition the engine may be operating in at the time. it could be impossible for the engine to start. a misfire could occur in the pre-chamber because of insufficient fuel. causing the prechamber to be under-fueled. The actuation is achieved with a positive electronic signal that is triggered by monitoring the position of the flywheel. The controller varies fuel by varying continued on page 70 july 2011 69 E Instruments International Phone: 215-750-1212 www.pressure is usually at a very low level.000 SF of Manufacturing Facilities on 38 Acres AXH air-coolers Figure 1. Typical pre-combustion chamber and mechanical check valve. The Solution The electronic pre-combustion chamber check valve does not rely on a small pressure differential to actuate the check valve.E-Inst.
“Pulled and cleaned #3 and #4 PCC check valves and restarted. which in turn.9 bar]). started the engine and had to replace them all again the next day after just one start. This results in consistent light-off of the pre-chamber. identical engine. where several emerging technologies were described. these stiction issues cause the check valves to remain closed or close improperly. these mechanical check valves are replaced and rebuilt multiple times throughout the year. detonation and failed starts. As often occurs. temp alarm on #2 unit. Operational Issues Operational problems often occur with mechanical precombustion chamber check valves. Since the supply pressure to the electronic valve is always constant (usually at around 100 psi [6.” More than 60 similar reports were noted for this one engine in the past year alone. where mechanical check valves all too often cause operational and maintenance headaches. #4 cylinder dropping out (pecking on PCC check valve throughout the night to keep engines running). For some engines. The goal is to operate with as low a coefficient of variation as possible. At this particular station. Cost of rebuilt check valve is approximately US$300. on average. These problems eventually result in unplanned downtime for cleaning or replacement.. lost manhours or the gas lost on failed start-attempts.” “Unit 2 down @2:43 am. company personnel presented the information to management about the benefits of the electronic pre-combustion chamber check valve. In order to have a comparative study to evaluate this technology. mechanical poppet-style check valves were being used in the precombustion chambers. sticking or failed check valve will cause misfires. After attending a presentation by Greg Beshouri on work being done for PRCI. the operators replaced all the PCC check valves one day.” “Cylinder #8 deviation. A decision was then made to try them on an engine as a test bed. The list goes on and on . In another example. Operational Solution Because of the often reported mechanical pre-combustion chamber check valve issues that repeatedly resurface and impact operations. A malfunctioning. Control module (SDM) . one of the units at a station experienced 22 failed starts in one month and 14 the prior month. when running with pre-combustion chambers. These figures do not include the dollars associated with unit downtime. downtime associated with cleaning and/or replacing mechanical check valves must be factored into the cost as well. One of the more difficult challenges has been to keep the mechanical pre-combustion chamber check valves functioning as when new. and are all susceptible to “stiction” issues. as well.the pulse-width of the signal that tells the valve how long to stay open. Economics As noted by the operator’s reports. the valve is able to precisely fuel each pre-chamber.. as this leads to lower strain on the engine. one new check valve is replaced per pre-combustion chamber per year and two rebuilds are performed per pre-combustion chamber per year. but certainly issues that occur often in operating engines in this service. this can amount to approximately US$30. The units were originally built in 1988. The excerpts below were a few that were taken from the daily logs at a natural gas storage facility that depict the typical problems encountered. #4 cylinder cold ó replaced PCC check @ 3:30am. Both engines are Dresser-Rand 612-KVSRA units used for injection service with similar maintenance and operating histories. then down again. the operating company decided to implement a solution. The notes below were written by on-site personnel (station operators). operate with coefficients of variation (average deviation of peak pressure divided by average peak pressure) in the <10% range. Failed mechanical check valve. it costs approximately US$1200 (assuming US$4/Mcf) for gas lost through the starters per failed start and subsequent blow-down. Many engines.” “Unit 2. electronic PCCs were installed on one engine.” “Cleaned all 16 PCC check valves. The section that follows details some of the specific operational problems with these mechanical check valves that have been observed and documented by compressor station operators. while new mechanical poppet-style check valves were installed on an adjacent. electronic check valve (ePCC) and typical HMIs. Figure 4. For some engines. Ultrasonically cleaned PCC check valve. results in consistent combustion in the main chamber. Many of these failed starts are attributed july 2011 70 to pre-combustion chamber check valve problems. These are generally of wafer. CompressorTechTwo . This could be from “liquids. Changed PCC and plugs on cylinders #7 and #8 on unit #2 and adjust fuel on #8 cylinder. In one instance. In addition to the downtime associated with failed starts. operating in the same service. which has a pronounced effect on increased costs associated with operating and maintaining these engines. The wear and tear on the starters caused by increased number of start-attempts should be considered in the cost to the operating company. Cost of a new mechanical check valve is approximately US$800. For this particular engine. ball or poppet-style design.” “soot” or any number of other causes. Figure 3.000 per year in parts alone. These units are 2850 hp (2125 kW) each and operate at 360 rpm maximum speed.
tapping and grinding on ferrous and non ferrous material up to 30. july 2011 71 see directlink At www.HahnMfg. Drilling Grinding Tapping Production Prototypes Give us a call at 216-391-9300 or visit our website at www. Results As noted in the Operational Issues section of this paper. Peak pressure spread on mechanical check valve installed on Unit 2. and they were minor “commissioning” issues).ellwoodcrankshaftgroup.391. These were electronic glitches that were easily identified and corrected.com TechTwo Compressor .com Your reliable partner for machined compressor parts.000 lbs. and continues to deliver excellent performance. 5332 Hamilton Avenue Cleaveland.9300 Figure 7. Precision Boring Milling Figure 6. PA.compressortech2. USA 16148 1-800-247-1326 or 724-347-0250 ecgsales@elwd. It should be noted that this was the first commercial installation of the HES ePCC. milling. continued on page 72 We Manufacture and Remanufacture the World’s Largest Crankshafts Ellwood Crankshaft Group Irvine. and has been in operation now for 15 months. PA.com precision boring. there were numerous problems identified with the mechanical precombustion chamber check valves during the test period (more than 60 issues!). The KVSRA engine that utilized the electronic pre-combustion chamber check valves experienced very few issues (only two.Figure 5. drilling.compressortech2. Ohio 44114 Tel: 216. Peak pressure spread with ePCC installed on Unit 1. USA 16329 Hermitage.com www. ePCC installed on a Dresser KVSRA engine.com see directlink At www.
and distribution module. engine analyst for commissioning. save on fuel and reduce maintenance expenses. The typical operation supply pressure for the ePCC is 100 psi (6. conduit for wiring power module.9 bar) (typically). one programmed SDM. But fuel system modification will add substantial time. Figure 8. but there are several systems in the field that have been in operation for nearly three years without valve issues. 5. This study verifies other studies1 that have shown how consistent combustion in the pre-chamber leads to more consistent combustion in the main chamber. over a wide range of air-fuel ratios. What types of adjustments are required by operators? No adjustments after commissioning are required unless the mode of operation changes from the normal ranges provided at commissioning. What is the typical length of an ePCC installation? A typical installation takes three days and commissioning takes one.” Greg Beshouri. and training for operating company personnel. 6. Returning valves every three years for testing is recommended. Figure 9. as well as installing conduit on engine (unless specified otherwise by operating company). drilled flywheel for speed pickup and reset pin in flywheel. to this study and for his encouragement and support of this emerging technology. SDM and distribution. improve in-cylinder mixing and peak pressure control.9 bar). labor for installing components on engine. flywheel position could be picked up from gear mounted on flywheel. 24 volt power supply. 3. What does the scope of installation involve? The scope of installation involves the following: operatJuly 2011 72 Follow compressortech2 on www.ing company will provide power to 24 volt power supply. Both the ePCC valves and the SDM come with a two-year warranty. commissioning and operations.indd 1 . 4. Conclusion In addition to eliminating many operational and maintenance activity headaches that occur with mechanical-style pre-combustion chamber check valves. commissioning of ePCCs on engine. 1. 7. the operating company can increase engine reliability and integrity. power and distribution module. Div II. What maintenance is involved with the new system? How often do electronic solenoid check valves require replacement? There is no maintenance required on the valves. The data from this study has shown that ePCCs can replace mechanical-style check valves and eliminate sticking issues. The ePCCs contribute to precise control of the amount of fuel injected into the engine’s precombustion chambers. Expected longevity of the system? ePCC valves have a two-year warranty. fuel manifold for ePCCs. “Combustion Sensing in Pre-combustion Chambers Using IonSense. space to mount SDM. Peak pressure spread with ePCC at higher load. Editor’s Note: The authors wish to acknowledge the contributions of Bharat Trivedi. The authors also wish to acknowledge all of the Atmos Bethel Storage Facility personnel for their support on the project during installation. presented at the 2008 Gas Machinery Conference. Describe the typical optimum fuel supply pressure required. fuel pressure dependent on PCC chamber volume (larger volume means greater pressure). one or two ePCCs per cylinder. and conduit on engine to route cable to each ePCC. A Addendum Common questions operating companies ask concerning ePCCs: 1. HES will provide: depending on written scope. the ePCCs also address and solve other issues. 2. fuel for ePCCs supplied to ePCC manifold at 100 psi (6. vice president of Atmos’ Storage and Compression group. which results in greater combustion stability and a smoother-running engine. Tabular data from Units 1 and 2.compressortech2. By implementing this technology. Classification of installed hardware? Installed hardware is rated at a Class I. AETC and Matthias Huschenbett.com CompressorTechTwo 10/1/10 2:39:01 PM CT Twitter_RSS halfvert.
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Use this form or go to www................................... Servicing and Overhauling Engines & Compressors 99 62 40 41 63 65 (Please Check One) COMPRESSOR Tech Manufacturing Compressors Manufacturing or Packaging Compression Sets and Systems Manufacturing Natural Gas or Dual-Fuel Engines Manufacturing Gas & Steam Turbine Engines and Gas Expanders Manufacturing Industrial Power Transmission Products & Compressor Components.........23 CECO.com • Phone: +1 262-754-4121 • Fax: +1 262-754-4175 Address: 20855 Watertown Road..........net)................................................63 ARIEL ...................................42-43 Catalytic Combustion Corporation .................53 MOTORTECH GmbH .............................7 Rottler Manufacturing ................ .............................. Inc......... Suite 220 • Waukesha...........
.net www. gears.Marketplace — CompressorTechTwo COMPRESSORTechTwo MARKETPLACE Help Wanted.. 2011 ARLA Maschinentechnik GmbH. Please contact Christa Johnson for more information. UNITED STATES ENERGY CORPORATION (714) 871-8185 • (714) 871-9229 FAX WWW. TX 77346 P: 832-515-5464 or Qmc@qmc. Layout production services are also available.. Rates are only for “non-display” type classified advertising. to Simulate Vibrations in Drive Systems • torsional and lateral vibration analysis • rotordynamics & bearing analysis (fluid-film) • considering complete drivelines with motors. One inch minimum. rent or sell used equipment and promote your company and products to the industry.. gas and process business every month in COMPRESSORTechTwo Marketplace Classified Advertising Section. DIV 1&2. Payment must accompany order. Contact Reprint Manager for information.com ARLA Engineering Service APlus-QMC “What do YOU want to solve today?” •Process system evaluation •Compressor/driver control systems simulation Arla.net APlus-QMC 262-754-4145 • cjohnson@dieselpub.. The Marketplace is a cost-effective way to look for new people. Company “Business Cards” Reach nearly 13.7) Int’l Seminar ROTOR DYNAMICS & BEARINGS Cologne. Germany: October 17-20. answering inquiries. trade show distribution and many other sales development activities.QMC.000 principals in the oil. Mary Graesing • mgraesing@dieselpub. CA 92801 EXPLOSION PROOF July 2011 75 CompressorTechTwo ..USENERGYCORPORATION. compressors. Products & Components. Engine Parts. GROUP D . Humble. Classified advertising is non-commissionable.indd 1Dynamic Process Simulation 5/25/11 9:51:01 AM 6007 Silent Oaks Dr. engines. GERMANY Internet: www. Used Equipment..COM 1600 MISSILE WAY. ANAHEIM. These reprints can be produced to your specifications in one or multi-color formats on selected paper in standard 8 x 10 1/2 or DIN A4 sizes.arla-online.com Phone: 262-754-4147 • Fax: 262-754-4177 AC&DC ENGINE STARTING SYSTEMS • STARTER MOTORS • ALTERNATORS • SWITCHES • CLASS I. Energy Corp 1k x 1" 713-702-4029 3/11/03 •Revamps 11:06 AM Custom Reprints Available Articles in COMPRESSORTechTwo can be reprinted at a very reasonable cost and used for effective direct mail purposes. couplings • steady-state and time-transient simulation • simulation software (ARMD 5.. No charge for typesetting.S.com U.
Dresser Waukesha was merged into GE Energy as part of the parent GE company’s US$3 billion acquisition of Dresser Inc. GE Energy’s Gas Engines said the merged operations also leave it well positioned to capitalize on the emerging megatrend around abundant and cleanerburning natural gas. that the oil industry needed an engine that was powerful. Rich-/Lean-Burn Technology Strengths Natural gas-fired Model WOK engines powered the drawworks and supply pump on this oil rig. The company expects to combine the core strengths of Jenbacher technology — fuel flexibility and high efficiency — with the Dresser Waukesha technology innovations in low emissions and reliability to develop more solutions for petrochemical. GE Energy delivers one-fourth of the world’s electricity and has positioned itself as a leader in clean technology innovation. GE Energy’s Gas Engines said Dresser Waukesha’s technological expertise matched well with its own capability to grow business on a global scale — especially in emerging regions like Latin America and the Middle East where Dresser Waukesha’s technology can play a role in oil and gas production. At the time. In the early 1920s. It can also benefit shale gas developments that are yielding record-breaking supplies of natural gas —the main energy alternative for curbing greenhouse gas emissions and the prime fuel for flexible. These corporate stories began to dovetail after Waukesha entered the burgeoning — yet inefficient — oil and gas industry early in the 20th century.” said Rafael Santana. Since then. GE and the former Dresser businesses traveled separate but somewhat parallel paths for more than a century before their February merger. the gas engine company most recently known as Dresser Waukesha developed and implemented pioneering oil and gas technologies. mining and manufacturing customers. and Waukesha’s technology expertise will help us to better serve our customers. driller Louis Pearce told James DeLong.” when oil and electricity replaced steam power. GE Energy Waukesha’s VHP Series Four rich-burn engines can produce more power on the hottest field gases. dependable and portable. DeLong sold him two Waukesha engines. specialized on internal combustion engines for vehicles. clunky steam engines powered drilling rigs. That core business created the basis for it to become an integral part of GE Energy Gas Engines. GE said the combination of Dresser Waukesha and GE Energy positions it to better serve customers’ needs to burn cleaner.” he said.” he said. GE said compression and mechanical drive technologies and applications using Dresser Waukesha gas engine technology will give the Jenbacher gas engine portfolio an entrée into the small-scale compression sectors in oil and gas. Both companies got their start during the “Second Industrial Revolution. a Waukesha sales representative. president and CEO. Waukesha’s Model WOK engines— painted a distinctive orange with black blocks — were a common source of stationary power in American oil fields. lower-carbon fuels. president of Waukesha gas engines.GE EnErGy SEES SynErGiES from DrESSEr AcquiSition Plans to Build on Gas Engine Power Gen.” said Brian White. oil and gas industry experience and investments in rich. It noted that there are logical synergies between GE’s Jenbacher gas engine expertise.. last February. The coal and water to operate the engines had to be transported to remote and often arid drilling sites. For most of its 105-year history. In 1924. “It’s exciting for us at Waukesha to be part of GE’s commitment to solving the world’s biggest energy challenges. GE predicted that combining the Jenbacher and Dresser Waukesha brands within its newly integrated gas engines division will deepen GE’s penetration of the global gas engines segment and boost the pace and quality of lowemission technology developments. when Pearce organized the Portable Rotary Rig Co. a see directlink At www. at high altitudes and in remote locations. Historically. GE founder Thomas Edison focused his company on electric power while the Waukesha Motor Co.compressortech2. “Today. gas engines. efficient power generation. By the 1930s. “The Waukesha compression and power generation engines for the oil and gas industry are a natural fit for GE’s july 2011 76 energy business.and lean-burn technologies. “The synergy resulting from the combination of GE’s global scale and resources. global research capabilities and financial resources. and Dresser Waukesha’s gas engine. Waukesha engines have built a reputation as reliable.com CompressorTechTwo . durable workhorses for the global oil industry.
Bergermeer Gas Storage will provide the Northwest European gas market with 145 Bcf (4. which will be shipped to China. valued at more than US$5 million.2 tons (80 tonnes). Installation is scheduled after the first quarter of 2012. drilling and tapping on large parts.1 x 109 m³) of seasonal storage. production ramp-up support and long-term technical support. respectively. U. boring. The Laby has a labyrinth sealing system on the piston and piston rod gland that allows oil-free and contactfree compression for minimum wear and tear. providing emission-free operation. The orders include an array of MAG machine tools. Wuhan City. president and CEO.indd 1 CompressorTechTwo 6/3/11 9:32:26 AM . The order includes a total of six compressors. consists of a tandem compressor arrangement. Ohio. TAQA received the final statutory approvals and permits to construct and operate the facility in May. flow up to 6500 scfm (11. according to MAN Diesel & Turbo. In addition. engineering services. European Plants 110 electric motor-driven compressor trains for pipeline projects vital to energy supply in China and Asia. One of MAG’s newest products.S. The machines will be produced at MAG manufacturing plants in North America and Europe. Italy. Bergermeer Gas Storage operations will start in 2013 with full commercial operations in 2014.000 Nm³/hr) and shaft power up to 3000 hp (2200 kW).. as well as for the first West-to-East Pipeline (WEPPI). the company said. capable of a full 6. The project includes tooling. (2 m) reach inside parts with a ramsupported spindle. from customers in the energy and heavy construction equipment sectors in Europe and China. engineering and support services.com SoftInWay. to deliver six Laby compressors for its petrochemical complex. PJSC (TAQA) for the delivery of compression technology for Bergermeer Gas Storage in Alkmaar. valued at more than US$26 million. emissions to the atmosphere. GE will supply six gas turbine-driven compressor trains and nine electric motor-driven compressors to PetroChina for the Eastern portion of the second Westto-East Pipeline (WEPPII). A MAG IAS has received two new orders.” said Claudi Santiago. MAN to Bring MotorCompressors to the Netherlands MAN Diesel & Turbo Schweiz AG received a multimillion-euro contract from Abu Dhabi National Energy Co. GE has supplied compression equipment and turbine technology for WEPPII. The second order. as a result.A. and Florence. skid-mounted highfrequency motor-compressor systems. are expected between the second half of this year and the third quarter of 2012. The compression equipment for the latest WEPPII contracts will include PCL compressors driven by GE PGT25+ gas turbines. 77 see directlink At www. Hubei Province. the company said. PetroChina is the owner and developer of the WEPPII project. making the Laby suitable for polypropylene production and low-temperature ethylene boil-off gas applications. Six Laby Compressors Ordered from Burckhardt Compression GE Supplying More Equipment for WEPPII Project GE Oil & Gas compression technology has again been selected to help support one of China’s energy infrastructure projects. The machine tool is designed for “heavy metal” milling. with a weight of more than 88. Each 13 MW motor-compressor unit. The scope of supply consists of six fully integrated. vertical and horizontal turning centers and machining centers for a new plant in Europe.000 m³/hr). A 12-machine order for more than US$21 million from an energy sector customer includes horizontal boring mills. Netherlands. nearly doubling the Netherlands’ total storage capacity. GE Oil & Gas. In two contracts totaling nearly US$100 million. which runs through 13 provinces and autonomous regions. The PGT25+ gas turbines will be manufactured in Cincinnati. tooling. with two for ethylene BOG compression within the recondensing cycle and two for propane compression within the refrigeration cycle. four compressors will be used for ethylene liquefaction. Since 2005. generating a flow of 19 MMcfh (540.. Two compressors will be used for propylene compression — one as an off-gas compressor (JPP process) and one as a recycle gas compressor (ST process). the company said. “GE’s expanding installed base includes more than 120 gas turbine and july 2011 Burckhardt Compression has received two orders from Sinopec Wuhan Co. as well as precision multi-axis contouring.compressortech2. Delivery of those compressors will take place in the fourth quarter of this year and the first quarter of 2012. The compressors in Florence. the FTR 3500 floor-type HBM is a versatile machine. with contract wins totaling US$700 million.Recent Orders MAG Supplying Equipment to North American. The Bergermeer Gas Storage project will create an open access gas storage facility in Europe.56 ft. The order also includes MAG tooling and support services. The compressor has a discharge pressure up to 4350 psi (300 bar). The complete rotating assembly levitates in magnetic bearings and is installed in a hermetically sealed housing. China. eliminating the need for shaft seals and. includes two MAG FTR 3500 horizontal boring mills (HBM) to be installed at a customer’s new facility in China for production of large construction equipment components.
asset integrity. The training uses Atlas’ Fast Track diagnostic tool. safety and environment (HSE) must be the number-one priority for oil companies. based on incorrect assessment responses. as it is the foundation of safe. This ensures an ultimate pass mark of 100%. Scotland. The U. to provide the latter’s Minimum Industry Safety Training (MIST) standards to more than 48. “The offshore industry operates in some of the harshest. Atlas. “This is a groundbreaking initiative in terms of the importance the industry is placing on health and safety. they struggle when it comes to measuring workforce competence. Atlas Chief Executive John Rowley said. multinational oil companies and contractors to assess their safety skills needs.” Doig said although many employers have HSE systems. OPITO’s CEO. It will be delivered via the Internet and will be tailored to meet each nation’s workforce.A. group provides guidance on workforce skills development.K. A see directlink at www.AtlAs InterActIve tAkes OPItO trAInIng WOrldWIde More Than 1. has been awarded a contract to develop and deliver standardized safety training to the global oil and gas industry. Fast Track uses a process that rebuilds the course each time. David Doig. OPITO has worked with governments. Health. Atlas Interactive Ltd.000 oil industry personnel in more than 600 companies across 35 nations. national oil firms. plant.” He added. working at heights and mechanical lifting. U. emergency response and occupational standards.K. He said that compliance has been the driver for HSE policy and performance. Atlas and OPITO have developed an international version of MIST. Atlas said it has reduced 14 hours of classroom-based content to about two hours of e-learning content. but a competence-driven approach to managing HSE performance is needed. most hostile 78 and therefore hazardous environments for workers anywhere in the world. Time is saved by delivering only the training that is needed. based in Aberdeen. Atlas has provided e-learning training to more than 350. Since the course can be taken anywhere. oil and gas workers.compressortech2.5 million exploration and production workers over the next two years.com CompressorTechTwo . qualifications and quality assurance of training delivery.. The training program will be launched in the Middle East in July and then will be rolled out in 30 nations across Asia and Africa. “The delivery and content of basic safety training varies dramatically from region to region and lacks consistency across the industry.” The international MIST course contains up to nine modules. the use July 2011 of hazardous substances. Since April 2009.” he said.5 Million E&P Workers May Be Schooled in Offshore Safety Standard Safety training is emphasized at refineries. which Atlas will make available to more than 1. language and geographic needs. there are no travel expenses. Since its founding in 1995. Texas. “The challenge is to see the development of a safe and skilled workforce as an investment rather than a cost to the business. Oil and gas workers should have confidence that their colleagues share the same level of safety training. Rowley said. such as this Texas City. which assesses a learner’s knowledge gaps under timebound conditions and tailors the content of the course to the learner’s personal knowledge gaps. has worked with the Offshore Petroleum Industry Training Organization (OPITO) of the U.000 U. Under a new contract.S. said.K. They include risk assessment. effective and efficient operations.
The turbine is available in the two-shaft configuration for mechanical drive and will soon be launched in the single-shaft version for power generation applications. Valerus is a worldwide company specializing in integrated oil and natural gas handling equipment. as well as the reduction of CO2 emissions.COMPRESSORTECH2.COMPRESSORTECH2. The company specializes in oil and gas production packages and modularized processing plants. Ariel and GE.COM Aavolyn Corp. It can also create reports and calculations for all the motors in a facility. SEE DIRECTLINK AT WWW. SEE DIRECTLINK AT WWW.COM july 2011 79 CompressorTechTwo . operations and services. The results enable employees to identify and make changes to facilities within the their organization. SEE DIRECTLINK AT WWW. pressurebalanced unit design packing. Rockwell said. Those products include pressure-balanced piston rings.COMPRESSORTECH2. gas.COMPRESSORTECH2.COM ABB has published a fourpage. such as damage resistance on the Manley compressor valves and the commonality of parts for the Moppet compressor valves. The analyzer also incorporates rugged enclosures. has released a newsletter on its products designed for upgrading pipeline compressors. The company has a network of global alliances and partnerships with OEMs like Waukesha. SEE DIRECTLINK AT WWW. SEE DIRECTLINK AT WWW. gas compression and power generation packages. has released an energy savings calculator application for BlackBerry smartphone devices.COM Cook Compression has published literature on its Moppet and Manley compressor valves. SEE DIRECTLINK AT WWW.COM Rockwell Automation has developed a free online tool that gives manufacturers a complete analysis of its current water. The application calculates savings gained for using WEB variable frequency devices or electric motors. The tool uses a 20-minute online assessment to generate a realtime report outlining a facility’s WAGES management baseline. SEE DIRECTLINK AT WWW. fabricated coolant cups and piston rider ring conversions. The newsletter also provides information on DuPont Telfon PTFE Fluoropolymer resin.COM MAN Diesel & Turbo has published a brochure on its new 6 MW class gas turbine.COMPRESSORTECH2.COMPRESSORTECH2. The turbine features a high efficiency and a low emissions combustion system. The brochure states that the analyzer fits harsh applications in industries such as hydrocarbon processing and power generation. waste oil processing. Caterpillar.COM Propak Pamphlet 6 MW Gas Turbine Aftermarket Services Compressor Valves Propak has published a pamphlet highlighting the company’s capabilities. SEE DIRECTLINK AT WWW.COMPRESSORTECH2.COM Valerus has released a brochure on its aftermarket services.COMPRESSORTECH2.Product Information Center CompressorTechTwo Energy Savings Calculator App Oxygen Analyzer Rockwell Online Tool Pipeline Compressor Upgrades WEG Electric Corp. self-diagnostic electronics and automatic calibration. electric and steam (WAGES) management performance. oil rings. air. color brochure about its own Endura AZ20 analyzer. Its product line includes hydrocarbon liquids recovery systems. a product Aayolyn uses to produce seals. The literature details both valves’ designs and capabilities. designed for measuring oxygen concentration in combustion gases.
She has worked on projects for a variety of industries. Some examples of this include reasonably available control technology (RACT). the standards set by this rule also play an NAAQS-related role through emission limitations placed on CO (as a HAP surrogate) for both sparkignited (SI). These various control technology standards range from the least restrictive RACT requirements. Air permitting regulations vary from state to state. Enviromental Protection Agency (EPA) and the states use to mitigate emissions is the establishment of fuel restrictions — something also heavily relied upon in the realm of mobile source emissions management. in the June issue. continued with updates on the other CAPs. but her career emphasis has focused on the natural gas industry. RACT and LAER are generally triggered by proposed RICE installations in ozone non-attainment areas at facilities classified as minor and major. She has over 17 years of experience in the field of regulatory air quality compliance and environmental information system development. U.S. maintenance areas or areas contributing to ambient impacts within non-attainment areas. NAAQS compliance demonstrations. compressor stations. PaRT 3 Where the Rubber Meets the NAAQS Road for Stationary Engines By Jill Powell Editor’s Note: Part 1 of this series in the May 2011 issue of COMPRESSORTechTwo presented a primer on the federal National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) along with a regulatory update on the Criteria Air Pollutant (CAP) of most significant concern to the oil and gas industry — eight-hour ozone. Although gas-fired engines may be required under a condition of their permit to run on pipeline-quality natural gas.Another measure that U. July 2011 The Relevancy of NAAQS to RICEspecific Regulatory Requirements Emission Standards . She holds a Bachelor’s degree in Physics (with an emphasis on atmospheric physics) from the University of Colorado at Boulder. Although the recently amended National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Subpart ZZZZ rule for stationary RICE comes under the umbrella of hazardous air pollutant (HAP) mitigation. and a version of BACT is also incorporated into some state construction permitting programs such as in Wyoming. mining and steel production. control technology requirements. which call for the application of the best emissions-reducing technology available without regard to cost. to the most restrictive LAER requirements. State and federal air quality regulatory programs employ several different strategies in pursuit of their goal to attain and maintain the NAAQS. Control Technology Requirements .The Relevance of The naTional ambienT aiR QualiTy STandaRdS. Dispersion modeling may be a prerequisite for obtaining a major source construction permit as a means of dem- CompressorTechTwo . The sample report shows an applicability determination assessing the federal RICE rules and the relevant limits that apply to a selected fourstroke lean-burn (4SLB) engine operated at a major source of HAPs. Part 2. air-permitting rules and fuel restrictions. 80 BACT requirements were originally introduced as part of the federal Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) pre-construction permitting program for major sources and major modifications in attainment areas. specified emissions control technology may also be required for stationary engines as a means of attaining or maintaining NAAQS compliance. gathering. surface coating operations. lean-burn and compression-ignited (CI) engines and on formaldehyde as a HAP for rich burns. respectively.In addition to RICE emission standards. which achieve an incremental step in emissions control while taking into account economic feasibility.NAAQS compliance demonstrations by facility or emission source are among the strategies used by agencies to ensure continued protection of ambient air quality.Emission standards for criteria air pollutants (CAPs) for RICE are established through federal rules like Subpart IIII and JJJJ of the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and state rules that typically target nonemergency engines located in ozone non-attainment areas. but many common threads are found between those programs. This final installment in the series discusses NAAQS-driven pollutant mitigation strategies that translate into stationary engine compliance requirements.S. BACT falls somewhere between the two and is based on a top-down approach that allows permittees to consider factors such as economic feasibility relative to industry averages and the availability of candidate technology. gas processing plants. including petroleum refineries. including CO and NO2 and their impact on reciprocating internal combustion engine (RICE) owners and operators. An example of an emission standards summary was generated by the step2compliance RICE Rule Tool in Figure 1. processing and transmission sectors. These include the promulgation of emission standards. NAAQS Compliance Demonstrations . All of those efforts can potentially affect the degree of emissions control and operational constraints on stationary sources such as reciprocating internal combustion engines (RICE). a firm offering emissions compliance tools and services to assist the energy industry with air quality compliance and data management. Jill Powell is air compliance director at step2compliance. which often contains a lower fraction of VOCs than field gas.A. Formaldehyde is also a volatile organic compound (VOC) and a precursor to ozone formation. numerical fuel restrictions such as sulfur content limits generally result in greater gains from an emissions mitigation perspective. Fuel Restrictions . including the production. best available control technology (BACT) and lowest achievable emission rate (LAER).
such as Texas. CO and VOCs to 1. current eight-hour ozone non-attainment areas across the United States based on the 80 ppb standard were compared with projected nonattainment areas based on a tighter 75 ppb standard.struction approval permit is the vehicle by which these emission limits are established for the proposed engine along with other conditions ensuring the demonstration of compliance through monitoring. map in Figure 2 shows counties projected to violate a primary eight-hour ozone standard of 60 to 70 ppb by the year 2020. already constrain states to require that new or modified major sources meet certain criteria for emission reductions via control technology and other restrictions. 2. Historically. However. RICE Installations in New Ozone Nonattainment Areas . Construction and operating permit programs administered by the states constitute the enforcement vehicles through which all of the abovelisted NAAQS compliance measures are collected and addressed either through the permit application process or via conditions set forth within the issued permit.0 and 0. is rising. however. RICE Rule Applicability Service. the number of affected counties doubled. Regulatory Programs Directly Affecting Stationary Engines Air quality regulatory programs specific to stationary RICE include New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Subparts IIII and JJJJ. Individual state rules that set forth other RICE emissions-related requirements in addition to the federal ones are normally part of an ozone or NOx control program that applies to facilities in non-attainment areas or areas contributing to non-attainment. if the engine is over 100 hp (73. (Courtesy of step2compliance. either by rule or by policy.The final strategy for meeting NAAQS that we will consider is air permitting. such as stationary RICE. Federal air permitting july 2011 rules. Under this scenario. In that case.In Part 2 of this series. as pointed out earlier.S.) onstrating compliance with the NAAQS for pollutant emissions above threshold quantities. New Source Review and others.0. that exercise has been considered overkill for projects involving minor sources. that apply to new and reconstructed stationary equipment. recordkeeping and/or reporting. The con81 CompressorTechTwo . That trend especially seems to target those anticipated to potentially violate the new one-hour NO2 standard. but for HAPs rather than CAPs. require that NAAQS compliance be demonstrated for a proposed (nonmajor) stationary engine through a simplified screening methodology based on facility emissions and property line distance. The primary goal of the NESHAP program is also the establishment of emission standards. However.5 kW). Some states. An example of this mechanism is the proposed relocation of a gas-fired lean-burn engine from out of state to a facility within Colorado. The bigpicture objective of the federal NSPS rules is to establish emission standards for CAPs by source category. Examples of NAAQS-Driven Emissions Compliance Issues Affecting RICE Better understanding of how NAAQS ultimately drives changes to state and federal emission regulations allows us to consider some examples of air compliance issues that could affect RICE in 2011 and beyond. If an owner or operator is planning to concontinued on page 82 Figure 1. The U. The revised ozone standard to be finalized by August 2011 is anticipated to fall within an even tighter range of 60 to 70 ppb. as a condition for claiming a permit by rule (PBR) authorization. the owner/operator must comply with the state ozone control regulations limiting NOx. respectively. This example of an emission standards summary report was taken from an applicability determination made for a four-stroke lean-burn gas-fired engine operated at a major source of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). the frequency of states requiring ambient impact screening for new minor source projects as well. NESHAP Subpart ZZZZ and those state rules addressing emissions control in NAAQS non-attainment and maintenance areas.7 g/hp-hr. the NESHAP Subpart ZZZZ RICE rule indirectly lends assistance in the effort of attaining NAAQS compliance. since CO is defined as a surrogate for formaldehyde (the HAP of greatest concern for engines) and formaldehyde (as a VOC) as an ozone precursor. Air Permitting . such as PSD.
we feel that it would be inappropriate to implement the onehour NOx standard in such a manner and recommend that compliance demonstrations for the one-hour NO2 NAAQS be based on emission scenarios that can logically be assumed to be relatively continuous …” EPA is essentially advocating a common-sense approach to NAAQS compliance demonstrations. a major concern was how emergency generators would fare in locations near property boundaries or major roadways. some gray areas existed with respect to modeling of intermittent emission sources for the demonstration of NAAQS compliance.” EPA said “… we are concerned that assuming continuous operations for intermittent emissions would effectively impose an additional level of stringency beyond that intended by the level of the standard itself. it is possible that compliance with these standards will be sufficient depending on factors such as the engine’s manufacture date. such as the PSD/Title V Tailoring Rule. As a result. a modeling analysis could be based on assuming continuous operation at the average hourly rate.Figure 2. Until March 2011. the door has been opened to allow the modeling of these impacts based on average hourly rates. If the units are already found to be subject to one of the federal emission standards (NSPS or NESHAP). which is good news for facilities such as emergency generators that operate occasionally. In the guidance memo entitled.com CompressorTechTwo . operators will be better equipped to prepare for unexpected hurdles involving engine installations. However. although normally a nonnegotiable prerequisite for mandating emissions control and permitting requirements. “Additional Clarification Regarding Application of Appendix W Modeling Guidance for the One-Hour NO2 Najuly 2011 tional Ambient Air Quality Standard. “For example. engines operated as emergency or standby units have a much better chance of avoiding additional mitigation costs that could result from this new NAAQS. struct or modify stationary RICE in any of these areas. This map shows counties in the United States that can be expected to exceed the eight-hour ozone standard of 60 to 70 ppb by 2020. the maximum hourly rate times 500/8760. Emergency Generators and the One-Hour NO2 Standard . EPA further said. Rather than basing dispersion modeling data input on the maximum hourly emissions rate.When the one-hour NO2 standard was promulgated in 2010. has not prevented EPA from moving forward with other rules that RICE operators need to be aware of. However. i. It is worth noting that the absence of NAAQS for greenhouse gases (GHGs).compressortech2..” Demonstrating compliance with the one-hour NO2 standard may present challenges for stationary RICE in con82 tinuous service located a bit too close to the facility’s property boundary. go through the air permitting process without having to perform the direct NAAQS compliance demonstrations that may be required for major source pre-construction through permitting programs. when the EPA issued additional clarification on modeling guidance for this new standard. By closely following the status of these ever-changing criteria pollutant standards. the evolving NAAQS for criteria pollutants represent a hidden yet formidable driving force behind myriad air quality regulations affecting RICE owners and operators in the future. facility HAP status and horsepower rating. there is a high probability that the proposed engines will have to achieve further NOx and VOC emission reductions after 2012-13. if a proposed permit includes a limit of 500 hours per year or less for an emergency generator. The limiting factor for NAAQS compliance demonstrations on post-2012 construction projects may be the one-hour NO2 standard rather than eight-hour ozone for low-stack and close-fenceline scenarios. Many stationary engines. both gasfired and diesel. A see directlink at www.e.
innovation and quality products that use highly evolved materials to provide optimum performance in a diverse range of operations. While today’s compressor packing rings are offered in a range of new sophisticated materials. SEE DIRECTLINK AT WWW.W. from a simple tar rope to today’s sophisticated tangent cut design and developments with modern materials have opened the door for innovations and problem solving in the most demanding of applications. More than 100 years of heritage evolving solutions around your world In 1899.COM .continuing a tradition of innovation and quality still being used today The packing ring has evolved over the years.c-p-i. The France tangent cut packing ring design eliminated a variety of piston rod sealing problems and paved the way for the development of higher pressure compressors. this original France design remains an industry standard.COMPRESSORTECH2.com want to find out more? scan this QR code with your smartphone for further information from the CPI website. A. This single event not only ushered in a new era of compressor sealing but also laid the foundation upon which the company known today as Compressor Products International was built. CPI packing rings represent a combined heritage of over 100 years of experience. www. France patented the tangent cut packing ring design.com email: info@c-p-i.
The company makes polyaryletherketones (PAEK) for high-end materials and process technology. on June 1 after receiving the approval of its shareholders and Canadian regulatory officials. Purchase price was US$148 million. fuel and lube oil analysis. has acquired Holroyd Instruments Ltd. It recently was awarded a US$80 million contract to provide main reduction gears for the U. for US$200 million. CPI has a sales office in Beijing. which makes acoustic emission technology. It will be merged into Timken’s industrial services business.. The new center will supplement similar centers in Shanghai.” Philadelphia Gear is based in King of Prussia. U. … CarDInal Gas storaGe … monroe Gas storaGe … vICtrex Polymer solutIons … toromont InDustrIes … enerflex Compressor Products International (CPI) has expanded its operations in China with the opening of a 300. Ohio. “Philadelphia Gear is an excellent fit with Timken.A. Established in 2008. U. (27. has entered into an agreement with Caterpillar Inc.. CPI said the Shanghai.S.000 sq. The newly named Kittiwake Holroyd will supply acoustic emission instruments for the early detection of problems related to monitoring the condition of rotating machinery. To fulfill the new contact. president of Timken’s Process Industries segment. which will be completed by the end of the year. GE will build a dedicated 600. Philadelphia Gear provides gear drives. to evaluate direct-injection. Caterpillar and Westport will share expenses on a program to be completed next year to demonstrate the integration of their respective directinjection. to serve that nation’s power generation and oil and gas sectors. (14 km) from Rio de Janeiro. which could be doubled through expansion of the existing facility and development of the option.K. (55. It also has installed gas turbines with the capacity to generate more than 1700 MW of electricity. and has 220 employees. and manufacturing/reconditioning services for the company’s core production lines. Kittiwake specializes in machinery monitoring..pdf 1 10/1/10 2:42:43 PM .A.5 mi. 8. Timken Co. natural-gas technologies for large engine applications. Meanwhile. Westport Innovations Inc.A. Westport focuses on alternative-fuel.K. according to the company. The office will include a training facility and a technology showcase. Pennsylvania.com CompressorTechTwo RSS_Twitter. low emission transportation technologies that allow engines to operate on fuels such as compressed natural gas.. which include compressor valves. U. Cardinal Gas Storage Partners LLC 84 has acquired Monroe Gas Storage Co. China. It will strengthen our presence precisely in the areas we’ve targeted. emissions monitoring and water testing. is acquiring Philadelphia Gear Corp. The initial staff will include commercial and technical engineers. China. Navy. A Follow compressortech2 on www. (Petrobras). packing cases. GE Energy has opened an office in Ashgabat. facility will support its Asian customer base with technical sales support. said. its natural gas compression business. a wholly owned subsidiary of High Sierra Energy LP and other shareholders. Chris Coughlin. It has interconnects with Tennessee Gas Pipeline and Texas Eastern Pipeline. Cardinal is a joint venture between Redbird Gas Storage LLC and funds controlled by Energy Capital Partners LLC. GE has provided water purification and oil and gas technology services in Turkmenistan. a bearings manufacturer based in Canton. naturalgas fuel system technologies for possible use on Caterpillar’s large engines.ft. Kittiwake Developments Ltd. Holroyd is based in Matlock. In March... GE Oil & Gas said its Wellstream business has been awarded a long-term. Turkmenistan.compressortech2. Canada. Japan. LLC as well as an option to develop to an adjacent depleted natural gas reservoir formerly owned by High Sierra Monroe LLC. completed the spin-off of Enerflex Ltd. US$90 milJuly 2011 lion Wellstream facility in Niterói. The work is valued at more than US$200 million. flexible pipe and subsea equipment logistics services contract by Petróleo Brasileiro S. GE completed its US$1..ft. replacement products and services for markets including energy and infrastructure.S. Monroe has operated in northeast Mississippi since 2009 and has 12 Bcf (340 x 106 m3) of working gas capacity. Toromont Industries Ltd. and lubrication products and systems.000 m2). It is based in Vancouver. and in Lancashire. China.K. of Littlehampton.K. It is a division of Victrex Plc of Thornton Cleveleys. Arcadia Gas Storage LLC and Cadeville Gas Storage LLC. Victrex Polymer Solutions is building a technical center in Tokyo. In addition to the Shanghai location. which designs and makes flexible oil and gas pipeline products for the subsea production industry. U. piston and rider rings. U. British Columbia. hydrogen and biofuels.870 m2) facility that includes a workshop with a variety of machining capabilities. U.About the Business CPI … WestPort InnovatIons … CaterPIllar … Ge oIl & Gas … Petrobras … Ge enerGy … KIttIWaKe DeveloPments … HolroyD Instruments … tImKen … PHIlaDelPHIa Gear CorP.S. packing and wiper rings. liquefied natural gas.3 billion acquisition of Wellstream. It also owns Perryville Gas Storage LLC.000 sq.
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