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FUGRO WEST, INC.

FINAL REPORT EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING ANALYSES PARADIP REFINERY PROJECT ORISSA, INDIA

Prepared for:

INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

SEPTEMBER 2008

Project No. 3193.026

FUGRO WEST, INC.


1000 Broadway, Suite 440 Oakland, California 94607 Tel: (510) 268-0461 Fax: (510) 268-0137

September 26, 2008 Project No. 3193.026 Indian Oil Corporation Limited (Refineries Division) c/o Foster Wheeler Energy, Ltd. Shinfeld Park Reading RG2 9FW, United Kingdom Attention: Mr. Martin Dryden Subject:

Phase 2 Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering Analyses for Paradip Refinery Project, Orissa, India

Dear Mr. Dryden: Fugro team, comprising of Fugro Geoconsulting Limited (FGCLTD), Fugro Engineers, S.A./N.V. (FESA), Fugro West, Inc. (FWI), and Fugro India (FI) are providing engineering services to Foster Wheeler (FW) for the Indian Oil refining facility located in Paradip, Orissa, India. FWI is providing the geotechnical earthquake engineering services for the project. William Lettis and Associates, a Fugro company, assisted with the seismic source characterization for the seismic hazards analyses component of the project. Enclosed for your review is our report containing the results of Phase 2 analyses. We thank you for the opportunity to work on this project. Sincerely, FUGRO WEST, INC.

Priyanshu Singh, P.E. Project Engineer

James V. Hengesh, P.G. Principal Geologist

M. Jacob Chacko, P.E., G.E. Principal Engineer


PDS/MJC Copies Submitted: Addressee (pdf)

A member of the Fugro group of companies with offices throughout the world.

Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

CONTENTS Page 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Project Description 1.2 Scope and Organization 1.3 Limitations of this Study 2.0 3.0 REGIONAL TECTONIC SETTING 2.1 Introduction SEISMIC SOURCE MODEL 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Areal Source Zones 3.2.1 Indian Stable Continental Region 3.2.2 Oceanic Domain - Bay of Bengal 3.2.3 Plate Boundary Areal Source Zones 3.3 Line (Fault) Sources 3.4 Earthquake Recurrence and Activity Rates 3.4.1 Introduction 3.4.2 Seismicity Catalogs 3.4.3 Magnitude Probability Density Functions 3.4.4 Activity Parameters 4.0 PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC HAZARD ANALYSES 4.1 Project Location 4.2 Methodology 4.2.1 Mathematical Formulation 4.2.2 Empirical Attenuation Relationships 4.2.3 Epistemic Uncertainty 4.2.4 Hazard Deaggregation 4.2.5 Near-Source and Directivity Effects 4.2.6 Extending the Design Spectra to Long Periods 4.3 Definition of Design Level Events 4.4 Results 4.4.1 Horizontal Design Response Spectra 4.4.2 Hazard Deaggregation by Fault 4.4.3 Hazard Deaggregation by Magnitude and Distance 5.0 DEVELOPMENT OF DESIGN GROUND ACCELERATION TIME HISTORIES 5.1 Ground Motion Selection 5.2 Approach 5.2.1 Modification of Selected Seed Motions 5.2.2 Time-Domain Spectral Matching 5.2.3 Baseline Correction 6.0 SITE RESPONSE ANALYSES 6.1 Methodology 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-2 2-1 2-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-2 3-3 3-4 3-4 3-5 3-5 3-6 3-7 3-8 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-3 4-3 4-4 4-4 4-4 4-5 4-5 4-6 5-1 5-1 5-1 5-1 5-1 5-2 6-1 6-1

Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

CONTENTS (CONTINUED) 6.2 Subsurface Conditions 6.3 Idealized Soil Profiles 6.3.1 Static and Dynamic Soil Properties 6.3.2 Cyclic Shear Strain-Dependent Shear Modulus and Damping 6.4 Ground Motion Input Depth 6.5 Results 6.5.1 Acceleration Response Spectra 6.5.2 Profiles of Dynamic Parameters and Peak Ground Response 6.5.3 Design Response Spectra 6.5.4 Comparison with Indian Design Code and Phase 1 Results 6.6 modification factors for other damping ratios 6.7 Example Use of Design Spectra 7.0 LIQUEFACTION POTENTIAL AND CYCLIC DEGRADATION 7.1 Definition 7.2 Method of Evaluation 7.3 Subsurface Data 7.3.1 Boring SPT Data. 7.3.2 CPT Data. 7.4 Earthquake Ground Motion Assumed for Analyses 7.5 Identification of potentially liquefiable layers 7.6 Results 7.7 ground settlement Due to earthquake shaking 7.7.1 Liquefaction-Induced Settlement 7.7.2 Seismically-Induced Settlement of Dry Fill 8.0 REFERENCES TABLES Page Table 2-1. Main Segments of Himalayan Main Thrust Fault, Rupture Lengths, Estimated Magnitudes of Historical Ruptures, and Fault Slip Rates from Paleoseismic Trenching. ...2-2 Table 3-1. Summary of Source Parameters for Areal Sources..................................................3-2 Table 3-2. Summary of Source Parameters for Line Sources ...................................................3-5 Table 3-2a. Completeness Interval of Seismicity Catalog (Stable Continental Zones).............3-7 Table 3-2b. Completeness Interval of Seismicity Catalog (Extended Crust Zones) .................3-7 Table 3-3c. Completeness Interval of Seismicity Catalog (Active Plate Margin) ......................3-7 Table 4-1. Coordinates of Representative Location..................................................................4-1 Table 4.2. Horizontal Ground Motion Attenuation Relationships ..............................................4-2 Table 4-3. Horizontal Design Response Spectra......................................................................4-5 Table 5-1. Summary of Seed Motion Characteristics ...............................................................5-1 Table 6-1. Empirical Correlations for Shear Wave Velocity ......................................................6-4 Table 6-2. 5-Percent Damped Horizontal DBE Spectrum.........................................................6-7 Table 6-3. 5-Percent Damped Horizontal MCE Spectrum ........................................................6-8 6-1 6-2 6-3 6-5 6-5 6-5 6-5 6-6 6-6 6-8 6-8 6-9 7-1 7-1 7-1 7-1 7-2 7-2 7-2 7-2 7-3 7-4 7-4 7-5 8-1

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CONTENTS (CONTINUED) Table 3. Modification Factors to Obtain Spectra for Other Damping Ratios .............................6-9 FIGURES Figure Site Location Map ......................................................................................................................1-1 Regional Tectonic Setting and Historic Seismicity.....................................................................2-1 Seismotectonic Model................................................................................................................3-1 Seismic Source Zonation Around Project Site ...........................................................................3-2 "Hard Soil" Horizontal Spectra for Various Return Periods........................................................4-1 Horizontal Fault Contribution to Hazard Curves for PGA.........................................................4-2a Horizontal Fault Contribution to Hazard Curves for SA(0.2s) ..................................................4-2b Horizontal Fault Contribution to Hazard Curves for SA(1.0s) .................................................. 4.2c Horizontal Hazard Deaggregation by Distance and Magnitude for PGA 2475-Year Return Period .........................................................................................................4-3a Horizontal Hazard Deaggregation by Distance and Magnitude for SA(0.2s) 2475-Year Return Period .........................................................................................................4-3b Horizontal Hazard Deaggregation by Distance and Magnitude for SA(1.0s) 2475-Year Return Period ......................................................................................................... 4-3c Idealized Shear Wave Velocity Profile - Profile 1.....................................................................6-1a Idealized Shear Wave Velocity Profile - Profile 2.....................................................................6-1b Idealized Shear Wave Velocity Profile - Profile 3..................................................................... 6-1c Idealized Shear Wave Velocity Profile - Profile 4.....................................................................6-1d Strain-Dependent Shear Modulus and Damping Relationships for Site Response Analyses.......................................................................................................6-2 Time Histories for Best-Estimate Soil Properties Bokajan N34E Record, Profile 1, DBE .....6-3a Time Histories for Best-Estimate Soil Properties Bokajan N34E Record, Profile 1, MCE ....6-3b Profiles of Dynamic Parameters and Peak Ground Response, Profile 1 DBE......................6-4a Profiles of Dynamic Parameters and Peak Ground Response, Profile 2 DBE......................6-4b Profiles of Dynamic Parameters and Peak Ground Response, Profile 3 DBE...................... 6-4c Profiles of Dynamic Parameters and Peak Ground Response, Profile 4 DBE......................6-4d Profiles of Dynamic Parameters and Peak Ground Response, Profile 1 MCE .....................6-5a Profiles of Dynamic Parameters and Peak Ground Response, Profile 2 MCE .....................6-5b Profiles of Dynamic Parameters and Peak Ground Response, Profile 3 MCE ..................... 6-5c Profiles of Dynamic Parameters and Peak Ground Response, Profile 4 MCE .....................6-5d Development of Ground Surface Design Response Spectra DBE .......................................6-6a Development of Ground Surface Design Response Spectra MCE.......................................6-6b

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CONTENTS (CONTINUED) Comparison of Design Spectrum with IS-1893 Code Spectrum DBE...................................6-7a Comparison of Design Spectrum with IS-1893 Code Spectrum DBE...................................6-7a PLATES Plate Site Plan and Cross Section Locations......................................................................................... 1 Key to Cross Sections................................................................................................................... 2 Cross-Section A-A' with Liquefaction Evaluation Results ............................................................. 3 Cross-Section B-B' with Liquefaction Evaluation Results ............................................................. 4 Cross-Section C-C' with Liquefaction Evaluation Results............................................................. 5 Cross-Section D-D' with Liquefaction Evaluation Results............................................................. 6 Cross-Section 1-1' with Liquefaction Evaluation Results .............................................................. 7 Cross-Section 2-2' with Liquefaction Evaluation Results .............................................................. 8 Cross-Section 3-3' with Liquefaction Evaluation Results .............................................................. 9 Cross-Section 4-4' with Liquefaction Evaluation Results ............................................................ 10 Cross-Section 5-5' with Liquefaction Evaluation Results ............................................................ 11 Cross-Section E-E'...................................................................................................................... 12

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1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 PROJECT DESCRIPTION

Indian Oil Corporation (IOCL) plans to develop approximately 2,240 acres of area for installing a refinery and petrochemical complex 5 km south of the port of Paradip in Orissa, India. Approximately 1,200 acres of this area has been elevated by placing fill. The project site is divided roughly in the middle by the Santra Creek. The refinery is planned to be located in the area south of the creek whereas the petrochemical complex will be located to the north. The site location is shown on Figure 1-1. 1.2 SCOPE AND ORGANIZATION

Fugros studies were conducted in two stages: 1) a preliminary (Phase 1) study based on available geotechnical data; and 2) a final (Phase 2) study that updates the findings from the preliminary study to incorporate site specific geotechnical data collected by Fugro India. As part of the preliminary study, Fugro developed site-specific design earthquake ground motion criteria (response spectra) for use in the preliminary design of the various proposed structures, and conducted preliminary liquefaction potential evaluations. This reports presents the findings from the final study, where our findings have been updated based on the new site specific geotechnical data. The Final Report is comprised of two parts. The geological setting, history of site development and current soil conditions as understood from the currently available data and documentation were described in Part 1. This Part 2 report summarizes the geotechnical earthquake engineering analyses including probabilistic seismic hazard analyses to estimate the severity of ground motions at the project site, evaluation of local site effects based on the subsurface information recently obtained by FI, as well as evaluation of liquefaction potential, its spatial extent and estimated resulting settlements. The approved scope of services included: Task 1 Development of Seismotectonic Model; Task 2 - Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment; Task 3 Development of Acceleration Time Histories; Task 4 Preliminary Site Response Analyses; Task 5 Preliminary Liquefaction Evaluation; and Task 6 Reporting. This Part 2 report is organized as follows. Following the introductory Section 1.0, Section 2.0 describes the regional geologic and seismotectonic setting in the project area. Based on this information, Section 3.0 summarizes the parameters of the seismotectonic model used in the seismic hazard analyses. The results of the probabilistic seismic hazard evaluation

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are presented in the form of design acceleration response spectra in Section 4.0. The development of acceleration time histories using spectral matching is presented in Section 5.0. Section 6.0 details the site response analyses performed for the project area. A discussion of liquefaction potential is presented in Section 7.0. 1.3 LIMITATIONS OF THIS STUDY

This report has been prepared solely to assist IOCL and its engineering team in developing geotechnical earthquake engineering recommendations that will be used for design of structures comprising the Paradip Refinery in Orissa, India. The results herein apply to the specific locations mentioned and are not applicable to other locations. In our opinion, the findings, conclusions, professional opinions, and recommendations presented herein were prepared in accordance with generally accepted geotechnical engineering practice of the project region. Seismic hazard analysis is a dynamic, rapidly evolving field of earthquake engineering. It is likely that the standard of practice in the project region for these services will evolve over the next few years. For example, research is ongoing to develop a new generation of attenuation relationships based on data from recent earthquakes. Similarly, researchers are reviewing geodetic and geologic information relative to the activity of the faults in the project region. Consequently, the results presented in this study should be reviewed if new data are available during the design of the project. Although information contained in this report may be of some use for other purposes, it may not contain sufficient information for other parties or uses. If any changes are made to the project as described in this report, the conclusions and recommendations in this report shall not be considered valid unless the changes are reviewed and the conclusions and recommendations of this report are modified or validated in writing by Fugro.

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2.0 REGIONAL TECTONIC SETTING 2.1 INTRODUCTION

The Paradip site is located along the northeast coast of India at the mouth of the Mahanadi River (Figure 1-1). This part of India, south of the Himalayan front is considered a stable continental region (Johnston et al., 1996) and has low rates of earthquake and tectonic activity. The tectonic framework of northern India is dominated by two main features: (1) the stable continental craton of Peninsular India; and (2) the collision where northern India and Asia converge along the Himalaya plate boundary zone (Figure 2-1). Plate tectonic models based on geological and geomorphological data, earthquake slip vectors, and Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) based plate velocities indicate that the Indian Plate is moving north relative to Asia at a rate of 203 mm/yr (Bilham et al., 2001). Most of this 203 mm/yr of convergence is accommodated in a zone of deformation 50-km wide along the southern edge of the Tibetan Plateau. However, several millimeters per year of convergence is accommodated by distributed localized zones of deformation within the Indian Plate, as demonstrated by the 2001 Mw 7.7 Bhuj, 1956 M6.0 Anjar, and ~M7.5 to 8 1819 Kutch earthquakes. The Kutch and Bhuj earthquakes both demonstrate that large magnitude earthquakes in India have been associated with reactivation of older areas of extended continental crust, or failed rift systems. The geological and tectonic development of India has a long history that extends back to Proterozoic time (>700 million years before present, Ma), and although the general geological history is known, details of the structural and stratigraphic evolution are incompletely understood. The lack of an integrated geological, seismological and geophysical model makes interpretation of the hazards associated with older tectonic structures difficult to assess. However, current models for tectonic development of the region indicate the important roles several primary lithospheric elements including: (1) Proterozoic structural trends such as the Aravalli-Delhi belt, (2) Mesozoic (245 to 66.4 Ma) Gondwana1 age rift structures that follow the continental margin, (3) failed rift systems such as the Mahanadi-Damodar and Godavari rifts; and (4) the current Himalayan collision. The northeastern coast of India has much lower rates of earthquake activity and tectonic deformation than does the northwest coast of India where the Bhuj and Kutch earthquakes occurred. The Kutch region appears to have continental affinity similar to extended continental crust, but may also express deformation related to the plate boundary system. The Himalayan main thrust fault, located along the primary Himalayan topographic front, accommodates almost half of the total relative plate motion between India and Asia and is a
1

Gondwana was the supercontinent that broke up in the Mesozoic to form India, Antarctica, Africa, Australia, and Madagascar.

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major seismic hazard. The main thrust fault produced seven large magnitude earthquakes (i.e. >M7.5 to 8.5) between 1505 and 1950 (Figure 2-1 and Table 2-1) and some researchers speculate that the fault zone is capable of producing earthquakes on the order of Mw 9. Current and ongoing paleoseismic research (Kumar et al., 2006) demonstrates that previous earthquakes have produced surface ground displacements of up to 20 meters, clearly indicating that these previous events had very large magnitudes. The Himalayan main thrust fault, although located greater than 600 km from the site, was included in the hazard analysis because these large magnitude earthquakes may contribute to the long period part of the site hazard spectrum. Table 2-1. Main Segments of Himalayan Main Thrust Fault, Rupture Lengths, Estimated Magnitudes of Historical Ruptures, and Fault Slip Rates from Paleoseismic Trenching.
Himalayan Main Thrust Segment 1) Nepalese Portion eastern central western Rupture 1950 unruptured 1934 Length 350 800 200 1350 2) Central seismic gap eastern 1505 600 8.2 ~6-18 (Kumar et al., 2006); >7-14 mm/yr (Wesnousky et al. (1999) Mw 8.4 8.1 21 1.5 (Lave and Avouac, 2000) Slip Rate (mm/yr)

central western

1803 unruptured

200 200 1000

7.5

3) NW Indian

eastern 1905 rupture to NE syntaxis

1905 includes 1555 rupture

100 500 600

7.7 1555 = 7.6

The Arakan Trench, although also located a great distance from the site, was similarly included in the hazard model. This is the northern extension of the Sumatran-Andaman subduction zone that accommodates relative motion between the Indian Ocean part of the Australian plate and the Sunda Block. The northern extension of the subduction zone could produce earthquake up to 8.5 to >9.0 and therefore has been included in our model.

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3.0 SEISMIC SOURCE MODEL 3.1 INTRODUCTION

A seismic source model was developed for input to the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). The seismic source model includes parameters for the areal source zones, and fault sources. Areal source zones include regions of the relatively shallow crust that are inferred to have uniform style of faulting, earthquake magnitude, and recurrence characteristics, but where sufficient data are not available to model specific faults. Line sources represent specific active faults where data are sufficient to estimate magnitude and recurrence parameters. Figure 3-1 illustrates the seismic source model for all of the Indian subcontinent as well as the Indian-Eurasian collision zone. This model includes 51 areal sources zones and 12 line sources. Figure 3-2 shows the source zones within approximately 1,000 km of the project area. Circles with radii of 400, 600 and 800 km are provided on Figure 3-2 to illustrate the distances of the various sources from the site. With the exception of Line Source 1 and Zone 23, the sources of high seismicity, such as the Himalayan region, lie at a distance greater than 600 km from the project site. 3.2 AREAL SOURCE ZONES

The seismic source model for the region includes 51 areal source zones that characterize the shallow crust (Figure 3-1). As shown on Figure 3-2, 19 zones lie within approximately 800 km of the Paradip site, of which 12 zones are within 600 km of the site. The high activity regions of the Himalayas lie at a distance greater than 600 km from the project site and only contribute to the long period part of the hazard spectrum. Areal source zones represent regions with similar tectonic and seismological characteristics and are modeled as having uniform magnitude, recurrence, and style of faulting parameter values. Definition of the areal source zone parameters for input to the PSHA was based on examination of geomorphological characteristics, fault locations and kinematics, and historical seismicity. Parameter values were estimated for: (1) source location; (2) depth of earthquake occurrence; (3) style of faulting; and (4) maximum earthquake magnitude (Mmax) distribution and weights. The areal source zones around the project area model four main types of lithospheric regions. These include: (1) areas of stable continental crust, which are typically considered continental nuclei; (2) areas of extended continental crust that retain tectonic features associated with rifting and continental fragmentation; (3) areas where rifting had begun, but failed to result in significant continental fragmentation; and (4) active plate boundary zones. The site is located within an area of extended continental crust and has very low rates of seismic activity. The source zone parameters for each of these four main types of lithospheric regions that lie within 800 km of the project site are summarized in Table 3-1.

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Table 3-1. Summary of Source Parameters for Areal Sources


Source Zone No. Name Maximum Magnitude Distribution Mmax Weights for Mmax Mmin Activity Rate Parameters N(M> Mmin) b-value

Stable Continental Crust Zones 17 18 27 35 37 49 51 Satpura East Bundelkhand-East Bundelkhand-South Singhbhum Nucleus Bhandara-Singhbhum Bay of Bengal Eastern Ghats North - Interior 7.0, 7.2, 7.4 6.75, 7.0, 7.25 6.25, 6.5, 6.75 6.25, 6.5, 6.75 6.25, 6.5, 6.75 6.25, 6.5, 6.75 7.0, 7.25, 7.5 0.2, 0.6, 0.2 0.2, 0.6, 0.2 0.2, 0.6, 0.2 0.2, 0.6, 0.2 0.2, 0.6, 0.2 0.2, 0.6, 0.2 0.22, 0.67, 0.11 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 0.31 0.09 0.09 0.07 0.01 0.37 0.03 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.90

Extended Crust and Failed Rifts 24 25 26 34 36 41 42 Bangladesh Margin Bengal West Narmada Rift Bengal Margin Mahanadi-Damodar Eastern Ghats North Godavari 7.6, 7.8 6.75, 7.0, 7.25 7.25, 7.5, 7.75 7.0, 7.25, 7.5 6.8, 7.1, 7.5 7.0, 7.25, 7.5 6.8, 7.1, 7.5 0.6, 0.4 0.2, 0.6, 0.2 0.2, 0.6, 0.2 0.2, 0.6, 0.2 0.22, 0.67, 0.11 0.22, 0.67, 0.11 0.22, 0.67, 0.11 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 0.30 0.07 0.21 0.25 0.08 0.03 0.08 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80

Active Plate Boundary Zones 1 10 11 16 23 Myanmar Nepalese Central Nepalese West Shillong Arakan Margin 7.8, 8.0 7.25, 7.5, 7.75 7.25, 7.5, 7.75 7.25, 7.5, 7.75 6.75, 7.0, 7.25 0.6, 0.4 0.2, 0.6, 0.2 0.2, 0.6, 0.2 0.2, 0.6, 0.2 0.2, 0.6, 0.2 5.0 5.0 5.0 4.5 5.0 5.53 0.63 0.63 1.01 0.50 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95

3.2.1

Indian Stable Continental Region

Most of interior peninsular India comprises the SCR of the Indian plate (Figure 2-1). The SCR province is defined according to criteria set forth in EPRI (1988) and Johnston et al. (1994). The criteria include: (1) evidence for no tectonic activity younger than early Cretaceous (~100 Ma); (2) no deformed forelands or orogenic belts younger than Cretaceous (~65 Ma); (3) no anorogenic intrusions younger than Cretaceous; and (4), no rifting or significant extension younger than Paleogene (~35 Ma). The SCR of India is further divided into regions underlain by extended continental crust and failed rifts. According to Johnston et al. (1994), stable continental regions that are underlain by extended crust have greater seismogenic potential than those underlain by non-extended crust. Therefore, the Indian SCR is divided into three main types of source zones: (1) stable continental regions that consist of non-extended continental crust greater than 500 million years old (Upper Proterozoic or older); (2) areas underlain by extended continental crust; and (3) failed rift systems.

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The Indian SCR is disrupted by areas of extended continental crust along the east and west coasts and Bengal coastal margin, as well as by three failed rift systems. The areas of extended continental crust are represented by the Eastern and Western Ghats, respectively. The Ghats are characterized by significant topographic relief, normal faults, and higher rates of earthquake activity compared to the SCR zones (Figure 2-1). The failed rift systems include the Mahanadi-Damodar, Gadavari, and Narmada rifts systems (Figure 2-1, 3-1; and Table 3-1). The areas of extended crust and failed rift systems contain formerly active normal faults that may be reactivated as a result of the current regional compressive stress regime. The Indian SCR source zones are characterized by very low rates of seismic activity with only a few recorded events of magnitude > Mw 6. The areas of extended crust and failed rift systems have experienced earthquake up to approximately Mw 7.5 to 8; as seen by events in the Western Ghats, and the Kutch region. The assessment of maximum earthquake magnitude for the Indian SCR source zones is based on investigations of continental intraplate seismicity worldwide (e.g., Johnston et al., 1994; Gangopadhyay and Talwani, 2003). These studies show that most of the large earthquakes that have occurred in SCR provinces worldwide are associated with pre-existing structures, most commonly regions of extended crust associated with continental margins and failed rifts. Therefore, in establishing the maximum magnitude distributions for each source zone, we have attempted to show a relative increase in the hazard by assigning a lower magnitude distribution to the SCRs; a relatively higher magnitude distribution for the areas of extended continental crust; and the highest magnitude distribution to the areas underlain by failed rifts (Table 3-1). 3.2.2 Oceanic Domain - Bay of Bengal

The Bay of Bengal source zone represents a background source zone within ancient, non-extended oceanic crust of the eastern Indian plate. The Bay of Bengal is bound on the west by the Eastern Ghats and on the east by the Sumatran-Andaman-Arakan plate boundary. The Bay of Bengal region is characterized by a low level of seismic activity, which is typical of oceanic environments worldwide. There are no significant seismogenic structures within the Bay of Bengal in the site region. Studies of global seismicity associated with oceanic crust confirm that the vast majority of earthquakes occur at plate boundaries, either as spreading ridge or transform fault events (e.g., Bergman and Solomon, 1981; Okal, 1983). The seismicity of oceanic intraplate settings is characterized by very low rates of activity and small magnitudes. There have been fewer than 35 earthquakes in the oceanic intraplate environment having a magnitude greater than mb 5 (Okal, 1983). Nearly all of the larger earthquakes (M>6) recorded in an intraplate oceanic environment are located either near (<500 km) an active plate boundary, or in a region of extended crust (Okal, 1983). The one exception is the 1999 Mw8.1 earthquake located on the Antarctic plate southwest of Australia (Nettles et al., 1999). The location and mechanism of this earthquake was not consistent with regional stress conditions, and subsequent studies suggest glacial loading/unloading as a triggering mechanism for this event (Kreemer and Holt, 2000).

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The Bay of Bengal source zone is part of the passive plate located away from any active plate boundaries. Therefore we consider a range of maximum magnitudes between Mw 6.25 and Mw 6.75, with a preferred maximum earthquake magnitude of Mw 6.5 (Table 3-1). Earthquake recurrence in areal source zones is modeled using a truncated exponential magnitude distribution. The recurrence relationships are based on the magnitude frequency distribution for events occurring within the volume of crust defined by the areal source zone boundary and extending from the surface to 40 km depth. For the hazard computation, these events are assigned to a depth range of 10 to 40 km. Deeper activity is recorded along the plate boundary, and those zones are modeled accordingly with a greater depth range. 3.2.3 Plate Boundary Areal Source Zones

In addition to the SCR and oceanic areal source zones described above, the seismic source model also includes areal source zones that encompass parts of the crust within the active zone of plate boundary deformation (Table 3-1). Of the 19 areal source zones that are within about 800 km of the Paradip site, five are areas of active plate boundary deformation. These include Zones 1 and 23 along the northern extension of the Sumatra-Andaman-Arakan subduction zone (Myanmar continental margin), Zones 10 and 11, which lie north of the Himalayan main thrust, and Zone 16, which encompasses the Shilong Plateau. All of these zones are characterized by reverse and strike-slip faulting and have experienced large magnitude historical earthquakes. 3.3 LINE (FAULT) SOURCES

Fault or line sources represent individual faults for which data are sufficient to determine location, maximum earthquake magnitudes distributions and slip rate estimates. Twelve faults have been included in our seismic source model (Figure 3-1). The faults included in the model have been recognized for many years. However, because of the tectonic complexity and remoteness of the Arakan plate boundary and the Himalayan front, studies presenting definitive data on fault location, style of faulting, fault slip rates and earthquake recurrence models are limited. Therefore, we have developed an idealized model that reflects our assessment of the broad scale tectonic features around the site. Input parameters for line sources include: (1) source location; (2) dip, dip direction, and maximum depth; (3) style of faulting; (4) maximum earthquake magnitude distribution and weights; and (5) slip rate distributions and associated earthquake recurrence intervals. The area vs. magnitude, and subsurface rupture length vs. magnitude relations (all earthquake types) developed by Wells and Coppersmith (1994) were used in estimating the maximum earthquake magnitude distributions for the fault sources. Maximum magnitude distributions and weights for the line sources were developed by considering minimum and maximum fault length estimates, minimum and maximum fault area estimates, and empirical relationships for both length and area. The resulting magnitude distribution is then compared with the historical seismicity and tectonic setting of a particular fault to develop a final weighted maximum earthquake magnitude distribution.

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Fault slip rates and earthquake recurrence intervals were estimated based on published geodetic or fault slip rate data (i.e. Lave and Avouac, 2000; Kumar et al., 2006). The data presented in these papers are fairly consistent in their estimation of fault slip rates and show 6 to 21 mm/yr contraction across the Himalayan main thrust fault. Because the Himalayan main thrust fault is a major interplate collision zone, we compute the effective slip rate in the same manner as we would for an oceanic-continent collision. The approach is described below and was used for both the Arakan subduction zone and the Himalayan main thrust fault. Slip rates along the main thrust fault were estimated taking into consideration the overall plate motion rate, plate-normal component of motion, and amount of seismic coupling or seismic efficiency along the plate interface. Plate motion rates were derived from published vectors determined by local GPS geodic networks and global plate motion models (e.g., NUVEL 1-A). The plate-normal component of the relative horizontal plate-motion vector was used to estimate the slip rate on the plate interface. This reflects the general assumption that only the platenormal component accumulates strain to be released in great earthquakes, while the plate margin parallel component of motion is partitioned onto other shallow crustal sources. We assume that the additional off fault seismicity is taken into account in our areal source zones. The slip rate on the plate interface also was corrected to account for the observation that only a fraction of the measured relative plate motion goes into producing the elastic strain energy that is released by earthquakes. The proportion of strain accumulated on the plate interface relative to the total possible strain is described by the seismic coupling coefficient. We estimated seismic coupling coefficients for the Arakan trench subduction zone of about 0.2 to 0.67, and estimated a coupling coefficient of 0.8 for the Himalayan main thrust fault. The seismic coupling coefficient is a significant source of uncertainty in our final slip rate values. The parameters for the fault sources within 800 km of the site are presented in Table 3-2. Table 3-2. Summary of Source Parameters for Line Sources
Source Line No. F1 F2 F5 F6 Name Arakan Trench South Arakan Trench North Himalayan Frontal Thrust Nepal Central Himalayan Frontal Thrust Nepal West Maximum Magnitude Distribution Mmax 8.17, 8.53, 8.94 7.98, 8.29, 8.54 8.40, 8.79, 9.13 8.40, 8.62, 8.86 Weight 0.22, 0.67, 0.11 0.20, 0.60, 0.20 0.22, 0.67, 0.11 0.22, 0.67, 0.11 Slip Rate Distribution Slip Rate 11.02, 12.51, 14.00 1.74, 2.90, 4.64 6.40, 7.39, 8.87 12.27, 13.26, 14.26 Weight 0.20 0.6 0.20 0.20 0.6 0.20 0.20 0.6 0.20 0.20 0.6 0.20

3.4 3.4.1

EARTHQUAKE RECURRENCE AND ACTIVITY RATES Introduction

Differing earthquake recurrence models were used to characterize the various shallow crustal areal and planar sources in the seismotectonic model.

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The activity of the areal shallow crustal source zones were modeled by fitting Gutenberg-Richter exponential curves to the historical seismicity data. The activity of the planar fault sources was modeled by means of the fault slip rate in conjunction with the pure characteristic magnitude model. This was intended to model the large magnitude, characteristic-type events generated on these faults. 3.4.2 Seismicity Catalogs

A composite seismicity catalog covering the period between 1341 A.D. to 2007 and the area between 2-36N and 64-96E was compiled from various catalogs. After the catalogs were merged, duplicate events were identified and removed. As a result of merging the catalogs, several events with conflicting magnitudes were encountered. An automated system was used to remove duplicate events, provided by different sources, from the catalog. The program looks for similarities in time, location, and magnitude to score successive events as duplicates. Fore and aftershocks were removed using the program CLUSTER2000 (USGS, 2004). CLUSTER2000 recognizes clusters in space-time in an earthquake catalog. It is intended for use in removing aftershocks or "declustering" the catalog. The methods used are described in Reasenberg (1985). The final catalog includes 5867 earthquakes ranging from M 3.0 to 8.7. Figure 2-1 shows the historical seismicity in the project region. The various seismotectonic features are also shown for reference. These earthquakes are only the mainshock events that remain from declustering the initial catalog. An evaluation of catalog completeness for different magnitudes was conducted. The estimated completeness intervals as a function of magnitude are shown in Tables 3-3a, 3-3b and 3-3c for stable continental, extended crust, and active plate margin regions, respectively. In computing the annual frequency of earthquakes using the entire data set, the completeness intervals reported in Tables 3-3a through 3-3c were adopted. However, annual frequency computations were also made using data recorded after 1973. The post-1973 catalog was considered complete for the lower range of magnitudes, although it is likely incomplete for large magnitudes. Nevertheless a constant time interval was used to estimate annual rates of seismicity from the post-1973 data.

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Table 3-2a. Completeness Interval of Seismicity Catalog (Stable Continental Zones)


Magnitude Range 4.5 5.0 5.0 5.5 5.5 6.0 6.0 6.5 6.5 7.0 7.0 7.5 7.5 8.0 Time 18 30 42 78 81 >103 >103

Table 3-2b. Completeness Interval of Seismicity Catalog (Extended Crust Zones)


Magnitude Range 4.5 5.0 5.0 5.5 5.5 6.0 6.0 6.5 6.5 7.0 7.0 7.5 7.5 8.0 8.0 8.5 Time 28 43 76 76 81 90 140 189

Table 3-3c. Completeness Interval of Seismicity Catalog (Active Plate Margin)


Magnitude Range 4.5 5.0 5.0 5.5 5.5 6.0 6.0 6.5 6.5 7.0 7.0 7.5 7.5 8.0 8.0 8.5 Time 43 43 58 88 97 >99 >99 >99

3.4.3

Magnitude Probability Density Functions

The relative distribution of magnitudes for each seismic source was modeled using one of two magnitude probability density functions. The truncated exponential model was used for all areal crustal sources because it has been shown to satisfactorily model the seismicity in such sources.

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A pure characteristic model was used for the planar fault sources to model the occurrence of large earthquake events. Events of smaller magnitudes were accommodated within the surrounding areal source zones. A qualitative comparison of the probability density function and cumulative probability density for the three models are shown on Figures 3-3a and 3-3b. For this comparison, a characteristic magnitude of 7.75 was assumed. This magnitude was also used as the maximum magnitude in the Truncated Exponential model. The characteristic model was assumed to have a normal distribution with maximum and minimum magnitudes of +/-0.1 units about the characteristic magnitude and a standard deviation of 0.4. As show on Figure 3-3a, the pure characteristic model has the highest probability density around the characteristic magnitude while zero density is assigned to smaller magnitudes. The differences in the probability density between the two models translate to significantly difference recurrence relationships. Figure 3-3b shows the annual recurrence predicted using the three models in combination with a slip rate of 1.0 mm/year, a fault area of 100,000 km2 and a b-value of 1.0. The truncated exponential model has the highest rate for M>4.5 because of the small mean moment per earthquake. Conversely, the pure characteristic model predicts the most frequent recurrence of the characteristic magnitude earthquake. 3.4.4 Activity Parameters

3.4.4.1 Crustal Areal Sources The activity rate and the slope of the truncated exponential model were estimated by regressing the Gutenberg-Richter (1954) relationship on the historical seismicity data. The model estimates the annual number of earthquakes larger than a given magnitude as: Log N = a - b M where: N = a= b= cumulative number of earthquakes with magnitude greater or equal to M; log of the rate of earthquakes above magnitude 0; and the slope of the semilog plot.

The activity parameters were obtained independently for three main tectonic regions in this seismotectonic model as discussed: (1) the active plate collision area that encompasses the Indian subcontinent from the north, (2) the stable continental region that is representative of majority of the subcontinent, and (3) the areas of extended crust and failed rifts. Estimates of the slopes of the Gutenberg-Richter relationship (i.e., b-values) were obtained for each region by simultaneous regression on data from all sources within a similar seismic environment. Based on these regressions, the following b-values were estimated: (1) 0.90 for areas within the stable continental crust areas, (2) 0.80 for zones within the extended crust areas, and (3) 0.95 for zones within the plate collision boundary. The activity rate for each areal source was estimated through regression performed for each individual source with the b-values mentioned above. The regressions based on the full historical record

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using the completeness intervals presented in Tables 3-2a through 3-2c are shown in Figures 34a through 3-4c. 3.4.4.2 Planar Fault Sources The relative distribution of magnitudes on the planar fault sources was described using a pure characteristic model. The activity of the fault was represented by its slip rate.

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10

Probability Density Function

0.1

0.01

Truncated Exponential, Mmax= 7.75 Characteristic, Mchar= 7.75

0.001 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 Magnitude

MAGNITUDE PROBABILITY DENSITY FUNCTIONS Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India FIGURE 3-3a

Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

10

Truncated Exponential, Mmax= 7.75 Characteristic, Mchar= 7.75

Annual Number of Earthquakes with M>m

0.1

0.01

0.001 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 Magnitude

ANNUAL RECURRENCE PREDICTED BY DIFFERENT MAGNITUDE PDF MODELS Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India FIGURE 3-3b

Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

100 Recorded Seismicity after 1909 (Running Time Interval) Idealized Model (b = 0.90)

Annual Number of Earthquakes with M > m

10

0.1

0.01

0.001 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5 8.5

Magnitude

GUTENBERG-RICHTER FIT TO HISTORICAL SEISMICITY DATA STABLE CONTINENTAL ZONES Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India FIGURE 3-4a

Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

100 Recorded Seismicity after 1909 (Running Time Interval) Idealized Model (b = 0.80)

Annual Number of Earthquakes with M > m

10

0.1

0.01

0.001 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5 8.5

Magnitude

GUTENBERG-RICHTER FIT TO HISTORICAL SEISMICITY DATA EXTENDED CRUST ZONES Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India FIGURE 3-4b

Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

10000 Recorded Seismicity after 1909 (Running Time Interval) 1000 Idealized Model (b = 0.95)

Annual Number of Earthquakes with M > m

100

10

0.1

0.01

0.001 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5 8.5

Magnitude

GUTENBERG-RICHTER FIT TO HISTORICAL SEISMICITY DATA ACTIVE PLATE MARGIN ZONES Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India FIGURE 3-4c

Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

4.0 PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC HAZARD ANALYSES 4.1 PROJECT LOCATION

For the purpose of this study, site-specific design response spectra were developed for a representative location within the project area. The geographical coordinates of the location used for the seismic hazard analyses are tabulated in Table 4-1. Table 4-1. Coordinates of Representative Location
Latitude (degrees) 20.2529 WGS 84 - World Geodetic System Longitude (degrees) 86.5962

4.2 4.2.1

METHODOLOGY Mathematical Formulation

Probabilistic seismic hazard analyses (PSHA) were carried out using the computer program HAZ35 (Abrahamson, 2005). Computation of the seismic hazard involves the combination of uncertainties in earthquake size, location, frequency, and resulting ground motions. The estimated annual rate at which the ground motion, A, will exceed a particular value, a, is computed by (Cornell, 1968):

[ A a]
where;

P[ A a m, r ] f M ( m ) f R ( r ) dm dr

P[ A a m, r ] is the probability of the ground motion, A, exceeding the threshold value, a, given
the earthquake magnitude and distance from the fault, and fM(m) and fR(r) are probability density functions describing magnitude and distance. The computation of this integral is carried out numerically. By assuming that earthquake occurrence can be modeled as a Poisson process, the probability of exceedance in a specified exposure period (typically corresponding to the useful life of a project) may be estimated as follows (Yegian, 1979):

P[ A

a, t ]

[ (a )t ]

where; P[A>a,t] is the conditional probability of an earthquake's acceleration (A) exceeding a specified acceleration (a) during a time interval (t) given that an earthquake will occur, and (a) is the mean annual rate of exceedance of the specified acceleration level.

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4.2.2

Empirical Attenuation Relationships

The attenuation of seismic waves from a seismogenic source were modeled using empirical attenuation functions. These empirical functions should model the type of rupture mechanism as well as the regional geology to properly estimate site-specific strong ground motion. The project site lies at the edge of the stable continental region of the Indian subcontinent and the extended crustal region. For this study the assumption was made that shallow crustal earthquakes in and around the Paradip Refinery site are similar to comparable events in the relatively stable areas of the Eastern United States. Additionally, selection of attenuation relationships reflected the presence of the project site within an extended crust environment. For the stable continental regions, two equally weighted attenuation relationships were used; Atkinson and Boore (1997) and Toro et al. (1997). For the extended crust areas, the attenuation relationship developed by Toro et al. (1997) for the extended crust environment of the gulf crustal regions was used in conjunction with the Eastern Continental relationships mentioned above. The Toro et al. (1997) gulf relationship was given a weight of 0.50 while the other relationships were given weights of 0.25 each. The various attenuation relationships and their respective weights are presented in Table 4-2. Table 4.2. Horizontal Ground Motion Attenuation Relationships
Seismic Source All Seismic Sources except Extended Crust Sources Attenuation Equation Atkinson and Boore (1997) Toro et al. (1997) Eastern and Continental US Atkinson and Boore (1997) Toro et al. (1997) Eastern and Continental US Toro et al. (1997) Gulf Crustal Region Weight 0.5 0.5 0.25 0.25 0.5

Extended Crust Zones

The subsurface information at the project site is available to a maximum depth of 30 meters. Based on our understanding of the regional geology in the project area, competent bedrock is anticipated to be present at significant depths from the ground surface. Therefore, results were developed for a hard soil horizon, with an average shear wave velocity in the upper 30 meters (VS,30) of 500 m/s. Atkinson and Boore (1997) have developed attenuation relationship for soils with VS,30 of 500 m/s as well as for competent bedrock. However, the Toro et al. (1997) relationships were developed only for bedrock. Therefore, spectral amplification factors were obtained by comparing the Atkinson and Boore (1997) bedrock and hard soil results, and were subsequently applied to the results from the Toro et al. relationships in order to obtain equivalent results applicable at the hard soil horizon.

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4.2.3

Epistemic Uncertainty

The PSHA presented in this study was carried out using a decision tree approach. This approach is usually followed to take into consideration uncertainty within the scientific community with respect to parameters that are used in the seismic hazard analyses. Such parameters may be the maximum magnitude on a fault, the long-term slip rate, the median ground motion given an earthquake scenario, and the magnitude probability density function. In the current study, epistemic uncertainty was considered with respect to the following parameters: The empirical attenuation relationship. Three and two empirical relationships were considered for the extended crust and other zones, respectively. The relationships were weighted as presented in Table 4-2. The maximum magnitude on the areal and the planar fault sources. Three different maximum magnitudes were considered for each zone. The magnitudes were weighted according to the relative confidence in their potential occurrence. The slip rate on the planar fault sources. Similar to the case of the maximum magnitude, three different slip rates were considered for the planar fault sources. These were weighted according to the relative confidence in the estimates. 4.2.4 Hazard Deaggregation

Hazard deaggregation was performed to estimate the contribution of different magnitude events at different distances to the overall hazard. This procedure involves taking the derivative of the total seismic hazard with respect to magnitude and distance to calculate the fractional contribution of selected magnitude-distance bins to the total hazard at a specified hazard level. These results are useful in identifying which seismogenic sources are the primary contributors to the probabilistically estimated hazard, and what magnitude earthquakes associated with these sources are producing the strong ground shaking. In this report, the results of the deaggregation are displayed as three-dimensional bar charts showing the relationship of magnitude and distance with hazard contribution. These plots are useful for understanding hazard contribution, but may not indicate the specific source when there are multiple sources at the same distance. In addition to the magnitude and distance deaggregation, the results were also deaggregated by fault to evaluate the relative contribution of the different seismic sources adjacent to the site. 4.2.5 Near-Source and Directivity Effects

The design spectra were developed for the random horizontal component without modification for near-source effects. Significant near-source effects, resulting from the constructive interference of seismic waves due to directivity, are not expected to be present at the location of the project because of the large distance (i.e., larger than 300 km) of the nearest planar source (i.e., Line 1 fault) from the site.

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4.2.6

Extending the Design Spectra to Long Periods

Due to the scarcity of well-recorded long-period ground motions, empirical attenuation relationships used for this project have traditionally been developed for structural periods up to 2 seconds. As a result, the design spectra from probabilistic seismic hazard analyses are well defined up to periods of approximately 2 seconds. For the proposed tanks being considered for this project, the sloshing periods may be longer. Consequently, design data were extended to longer structural periods than those for which empirical attenuation relationships are available. A well-established methodology to extend a design spectrum to longer periods is not available in the literature. However, there appears to be consensus among the scientific community (e.g., Silva and Abrahamson, 1992; NEHRP, 2003) that in the absence of data at long periods design response spectra can be extended based on a constant spectral velocity assumption for the intermediate periods and a constant spectral displacement assumption for long periods. For design purposes the corner period, marking the transition between constant spectral velocity and constant spectral displacement is a function of the earthquake magnitude and has been tabulated by NEHRP (2003). For this study, the corner period was estimated to be approximately 6 to 8 seconds for various return period events, corresponding to contributing magnitudes ranging from 7.0 to 8.0. Between structural periods of 8 and 10 seconds, the target spectra were extended based on an assumption of constant spectral displacement. Between structural periods of 2 and 8 seconds the target spectra were interpolated using a smooth curve on a tripartite plot. 4.3 DEFINITION OF DESIGN LEVEL EVENTS

Based on the information from Foster Wheeler, the various facilities for the Paradip Refinery project will be designed in accordance with the Indian Standard IS 1893 (Part 4), Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures. According to IS 1893, two levels of design ground motions are developed: 1. DBE (Design Basis Earthquake) and 2. MCE (Maximum Considered Earthquake). The DBE is defined per IS 1893 as an event with 5 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years (i.e., a return period of 475 years). The MCE is defined as an event with 2 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years (i.e., a return period of 2,475 years). Additionally, hard soil ground motions were with a 1 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years (i.e., a return period of 4,975 years) were also estimated per the request of Foster Wheeler. 4.4 RESULTS

Results from the seismic hazard analyses are presented in terms of design response spectra for horizontal and vertical ground motions. As described in Section 4.2.2, the results are based on attenuation relationships for a hard soil site classification, i.e., shear wave velocity on the order of 500 meters per second.

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4.4.1

Horizontal Design Response Spectra

Figure 4-1 shows the 5 percent-damped acceleration response spectra for the DBE, MCE and 4,975-year return period events. The MCE spectrum coincides with the 2,475-year return period event. The DBE spectrum coincides with the 475-year return period event. The spectra are computed for a generic hard soil boundary with an average shear wave velocity in the upper 30 meters of about 500 m/s or greater. The design spectral ordinates for the horizontal spectra are listed in Table 4-3. Table 4-3. Horizontal Design Response Spectra
Period (s) 0.01 0.03 0.05 0.07 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.75 1 1.5 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 DBE (475-yr return period) (g) 0.080 0.080 0.168 0.189 0.214 0.209 0.198 0.156 0.110 0.075 0.060 0.042 0.034 0.019 0.012 0.008 0.006 0.005 0.003 0.003 0.002 MCE (2,475-yr return period) (g) 0.174 0.174 0.388 0.437 0.496 0.481 0.452 0.359 0.256 0.177 0.140 0.093 0.071 0.039 0.025 0.017 0.012 0.009 0.007 0.005 0.004 4,975-yr return period event (g) 0.232 0.232 0.523 0.589 0.673 0.650 0.608 0.493 0.358 0.251 0.199 0.131 0.099 0.061 0.042 0.030 0.023 0.018 0.014 0.011 0.009

4.4.2

Hazard Deaggregation by Fault

Figures 4-2a, 4-2b and 4-2c present hazard curves for the PGA, and spectral accelerations at the periods of 0.2 second, [SA(0.2s)], and 1 second [SA(1.0s)], respectively. These hazard curves are obtained from the Atkinson and Boore (1997) hard soil relationship. The hazard curves illustrate the variation in ground motion hazard as a function of the level of

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hazard (inverse of the return period). Also shown are the hazard contributions from each of the seismic sources considered in this study. The largest contributions to the short period hazard are from Areal Source Zone 25 Bengal West zone (underlying the site location) and Zone 36 Mahanadi Damodar Zone, that lies adjacent to the site. At long structural periods, significant hazard contributions are also estimated for Line Source 1 Arakan Trench South. 4.4.3 Hazard Deaggregation by Magnitude and Distance

Figures 4-3a, 43b and 4-3c present the deaggregation of the hazard with respect to magnitude and distance for PGA, SA(0.2s) and SA(1.0s) for horizontal motion. These deaggregation results are obtained from the results for the Atkinson and Boore (1997) hard soil relationship. The deaggregation was performed for return period of 2,475 years, representative of the MCE event. At short structural periods, the majority of the hazard is from small to intermediate magnitude earthquakes (i.e., 4.5 to 7.0), at short to intermediate distances from the project site (i.e., 10 to 100 km). These events are representative of activity within Source Zones 25 and 36. At long periods, a second hazard mode is observed in the deaggregations, with majority of hazard contributions coming from major earthquakes (greater than magnitude 7.5) occurring at distances greater than 300 km. These are representative of events occurring on Line Source 1.

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0.8 475 Year Return Period (DBE) 0.7 2475 Year Return Period (MCE) 4975 Year Return Period 0.6

0.5 Acceleration (g)

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0 0.01

0.1 Period (s)

10

"HARD SOIL" HORIZONTAL SPECTRA FOR VARIOUS RETURN PERIODS Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India FIGURE 4-1

Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

10

Annual Rate of Exceedance

475Year

10

2475Year

4975Year

10

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

ZONE 4 TETHYAN HIMALAYA EAST III Acceleration (g) ZONE 37 BHANDARASINGHBHUM ZONE 26 NARMADA RIFT ZONE 51 EASTERN GHATS NORTH INTERI ZONE 49 BAY OF BENGAL ZONE 34 BENGAL MARGIN ZONE 35 SINGHBHUM NUCLEUS ZONE 41 EASTERN GHATS NORTH ZONE 36 MAHANADIDAMODAR ZONE 25 BENGAL WEST WT TOTAL EVENTS/YR

HORIZONTAL FAULT CONTRIBUTION TO HAZARD CURVES FOR PGA Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India FIGURE 4-2a

Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

10

Annual Rate of Exceedance

475Year

10

2475Year

4975Year

10

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

ZONE 51 EASTERN GHATS NORTH INTERI Acceleration (g) LINE 1 ARAKAN TRENCH SOUTH I LINE 1 ARAKAN TRENCH SOUTH II LINE 1 ARAKAN TRENCH SOUTH III ZONE 49 BAY OF BENGAL ZONE 35 SINGHBHUM NUCLEUS ZONE 34 BENGAL MARGIN ZONE 41 EASTERN GHATS NORTH ZONE 36 MAHANADIDAMODAR ZONE 25 BENGAL WEST WT TOTAL EVENTS/YR

HORIZONTAL FAULT CONTRIBUTION TO HAZARD CURVES FOR SA(0.2S) Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India FIGURE 4-2b

Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

10

Annual Rate of Exceedance

475Year

10

2475Year

4975Year

10

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08 0.1 0.12 ZONE 26 NARMADA RIFT Acceleration (g)

0.14

0.16

0.18

0.2

ZONE 35 SINGHBHUM NUCLEUS ZONE 41 EASTERN GHATS NORTH ZONE 24 BENGLADESH MARGIN ZONE 36 MAHANADIDAMODAR LINE 1 ARAKAN TRENCH SOUTH I LINE 1 ARAKAN TRENCH SOUTH II ZONE 34 BENGAL MARGIN LINE 1 ARAKAN TRENCH SOUTH III ZONE 25 BENGAL WEST WT TOTAL EVENTS/YR

HORIZONTAL FAULT CONTRIBUTION TO HAZARD CURVES FOR SA(1.0S) Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India FIGURE 4-2c

Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 05 510 1020 2030 3050 5075 75100 100300 >300 Distance (km)

Fractional Contribution

>8.5 88.5 7.58 77.5 6.57 66.5 5.56 55.5 4.55 Magnitude

HORIZONTAL HAZARD DEAGGREGATION BY DISTANCE AND MAGNITUDE FOR PGA 2475-YEAR RETURN PERIOD Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India FIGURE 4-3a

Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 05 510 1020 2030 3050 5075 75100 100300 >300 Distance (km)

Fractional Contribution

>8.5 88.5 7.58 77.5 6.57 66.5 5.56 55.5 4.55 Magnitude

HORIZONTAL HAZARD DEAGGREGATION BY DISTANCE AND MAGNITUDE FOR SA(0.2S) 2475-YEAR RETURN PERIOD Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India FIGURE 4-3b

Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 05 510 1020 2030 3050 5075 75100 100300 >300 Distance (km)

Fractional Contribution

>8.5 88.5 7.58 77.5 6.57 66.5 5.56 55.5 4.55 Magnitude

HORIZONTAL HAZARD DEAGGREGATION BY DISTANCE AND MAGNITUDE FOR SA(1.0S) 2475-YEAR RETURN PERIOD Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India FIGURE 4-3c

Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

5.0 DEVELOPMENT OF DESIGN GROUND ACCELERATION TIME HISTORIES 5.1 GROUND MOTION SELECTION

Three sets of accelerograms were selected and matched to the DBE and MCE design spectra for hard soil conditions (Vs ~ 500 m/s). As described in Section 4, the majority of the hazard at short periods comes from small to intermediate magnitude events (i.e., 5.0 to 7.0) occurring at relatively short distances from the site (10 to 30 km), whereas the hazard at longer periods comes from distant earthquakes with large magnitudes. In general there are no good time history recordings around the project area. The main considerations while selecting the time histories were: (1) design earthquake parameters (magnitude and distance) resulting from the deaggregation analyses, and (2) the overall shape of the response spectra relative to the target spectrum. Table 5-1 summarizes the relevant parameters of the selected seed time histories. The seed motions were downloaded from the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research (PEER) Center strong motion database website (http://peer.berkeley.edu/smcat/) as well as from the Consortium of Organizations for Strong Motion Observation Systems (COSMOS) website (http://www.cosmos-eq.org/). Table 5-1. Summary of Seed Motion Characteristics
Set 1 2 3 Earthquake 1988 NE-India, India 1979 Imperial Valley, USA 1980 Mammoth Lakes, USA Magnitude 7.2 6.5 6.3 Distance (km) 189.9 15.5 9.0 Recording Station BokajanEl Centro Array 1 Convict Creek Designation N34E S56E H-E01140 H-E01230 I-CVK90 I-CVK180

5.2 5.2.1

APPROACH Modification of Selected Seed Motions

Design acceleration time histories were generated for this project by spectrally matching recorded acceleration time histories to the design spectra. A time-domain spectral matching procedure was used to better preserve the characteristics of the seed time histories. The procedure usually involves the following steps: Spectral matching of the resampled, rotated motions to the design spectra; and Baseline correction of the spectrally matched motions. 5.2.2 Time-Domain Spectral Matching

A time-domain spectral matching procedure was adopted for this project. Time-domain spectral matching adds finite wavelets in the time domain to decrease the spectral deficiencies

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between the seed motion and the target spectra. The result is a realistic looking time history that preserves the seed motion characteristics while generally achieving a close match with the target frequency spectra at all spectral ordinates. The time-domain spectral matching was accomplished using the computer code RSPMATCH written by Abrahamson (2003), which generally follows the algorithm as set forth by Lilhanand and Tseng (1988). As stated above, this code calculates the spectral differences between a response spectrum and a target spectrum, and then adds wavelets in the time domain to alter the frequency content to reduce the differences. The quality of the results are measured by the tolerance to which the matched motions converge toward the target spectrum, and how well the matched motions compare to the original motions in the time domain. In particular, the matched displacement and velocity time histories should look reasonable and reflect some of the predominant characteristics of the original motions. 5.2.3 Baseline Correction

A final baseline correction was necessary to remove any permanent offset imposed on the time history through the spectral matching procedure. This baseline correction was carried out by fitting an nth order polynomial (where n = 4 to 10) to the displacement time history. The second derivative of this polynomial is then subtracted from the acceleration time history. These matched and baseline corrected time histories were used for the site response analyses, which are described in the following section.

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6.0 SITE RESPONSE ANALYSES 6.1 METHODOLOGY

Site response analyses were conducted to assist with the development of the nearsurface design response spectra for the project. Site response analyses were conducted for the DBE and MCE design levels. Site response analyses for the 5,000 year return period event are considered out of scope and were not conducted. Free-field site response analyses were performed using the computer program SHAKE (Schnabel et al., 1972), as modified by Idriss and Sun (1992). The program models the soil profile as a one-dimensional column consisting of horizontally layered strata overlying a uniform half-space. SHAKE uses an equivalent-linear model to simulate the nonlinear hysteretic behavior of soil. The analysis takes a specified acceleration time history and propagates it up to the surface layers using a frequency-domain solution. 6.2 SUBSURFACE CONDITIONS

Based on the recently completed subsurface exploration program by FI, there is variation in the subsurface conditions across the project site. In order to develop the idealized soil profiles for site-response analyses, the site conditions were evaluated. Details of soil explorations and the subsurface conditions are presented in the accompanying report by FGCLTD. This section presents a brief description of the stratigraphy based on the recent borings, CPTs and downhole shear wave velocity measurements. A total of ten cross-sections showing generalized stratigraphy at the project site were developed. Plate 1 shows the locations of the cross-section lines along with a key to the symbols used on the cross sections is provided on Plate 2. The cross-sections are presented on Plates 2 through 11. Cross-Section Lines 1-1 through 55 were developed in the roughly north-south direction. Lines A-A through D-D were developed roughly parallel to the Santra Creek. The last cross-section, Line E-E, was developed to show the subsurface conditions at greater depths, obtained from the three deep borings conducted at the site. The following primary strata used for site response analyses were identified at the project site: Sand Fill The sand fill has been placed over most of the site to raise the site grades. Particularly, fill has been placed to cover most of the site south of the Santra Creek, as well as a roughly rectangular area in the northwestern part of the site, immediately north of the Santra Creek. The CPTs and borings conducted by FI indicate that the fill consists mainly of sand, with relatively low fines contents. The sands appear to be generally medium dense to dense. Unit 1 A primarily soft clay layer that ranges in thickness from roughly 1 to greater than 5 meters in some areas. The clay layer appears to be consistently thicker along the Santra Creek. Unit 1b Underneath the clayey Unit 1a, a layer of interlayered firm to stiff clay and loose to medium dense sand layer appears to be present throughout the site. The

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clay layers within this stratum generally appear to be of similar consistency as the clay within Unit 1a. Therefore, Units 1a and 1b appear to have similar geologic age and depositional environments. However, the consistency of the soils within Unit 1b is significantly variable across the site. The layer appears to be a transition zone between Unit 1a (primarily clay and Unit 2 (primarily sand, described below). Unit 1b was identified during our Phase 1 report, and was reported as Unit 2a. The current CPT and boring data shows this layer to consist of highly interlayered sand and clay. Unit 1 b varies in thickness from roughly 2 meters to greater than 6 meters in the southweastern part of the site. Generally, significantly deeper deposits of Unit 1b were identified towards the southeastern side of the project. That area is relatively close to the shoreline along the Bay of Bengal. Unit 2 Unit 2 consists primarily of medium dense to dense, clayey to relatively clean sands. The unit appears to be present across the entire site, with relatively similar consistency, with the exception of the southeastern side of the site. The unit appears to be significantly interlayered with stiff clay in that region. In the southeastern area of the site, Unit 2 appears to be largely of similar consistency to Unit 1b. Unit 3 A stiff to very stiff clay layer is present underneath Unit 2. The layer is significantly interlayered with clayey sand deposits. There are significant variations in the clay consistency. In most areas of the site, there appears to be two distinct clay deposits present at the site, with the deeper deposits having higher shear strengths than to the shallower deposits. Therefore, the unit has been divided into two sublayers Units 3a and 3b. In some areas, only the stiff Unit 3a or very stiff 3b clays were encountered in the subsurface explorations, and that is shown on the cross-sections. In the southeastern region of the site, the consistency of the clay appears to be relatively low compared to the rest of the site. In that region, the layer appears to have similar overconsolidation ratios as the clays within Units 1a, 1b and 2. Units 4 through 6 Unit 3 is underlain by alternating layers of dense to very dense sand and very stiff to very hard clays. These alternating layers are identified as Units 4 through 6. Unit 6 is typically present at deeper depths and consists of alternating layers of hard clays and very dense sands. Most of the explorations were extended to completion Elevations of -30 to -40 m. The soil profiles at deeper depths are based on the soils encountered in the three deep borings (BH01 through BH03). Those deeper layers are shown on Plate 11, Cross-Section E-E. 6.3 IDEALIZED SOIL PROFILES

In order to capture the variability of the subsurface conditions within the project area, four idealized soil profiles were developed for site response analyses: Profile 1 indicative of subsurface conditions across most of the project site, and represents typical thicknesses of various strata, excluding areas close to Santra Creek where thicker deposits of softer / looser Units 1a and 1b are present.;

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Profile 2 represents areas with relatively thick loose to medium dense sand deposits (Unit 1b) close to Santra Creek and towards the southeastern side of the site; Profile 3 consists of a relatively stiff profile and represents the areas with relatively thin deposits of Units 1a and 1b; and Profile 4 represents areas close to Santra creek with thicker deposits of relatively soft clays (Unit 1a) near the surface. 6.3.1 Static and Dynamic Soil Properties

The idealized soil profiles were developed based on the information from the CPTs, soil borings, laboratory testing, and in-situ measurements of shear wave velocities. Based on the review of the data, the following representative explorations were selected to develop the idealized shear wave velocity profiles: Profile 1 - CPT-44 and in-situ measurements at Crosshole CH-01; Profile 2 CPT-62 and CH-10; Profile 2 CPT-70; and Profile 4 CPT-90 and CH-08. In addition to the variation in the soil conditions, the potential for variation of properties of the soils within each profile was also considered. Accordingly, the following three variations in the idealized shear wave velocity of each profile were also evaluated: (1) best-estimate conditions for each profile (as described above), (2) lower velocity profile (representing a softer site), developed by reducing the idealized velocities by 20 percent, and (3) higher velocity (representing a stiffer site) for each profile, developed by increasing the velocities by 15 percent. A number of empirical correlations were used to estimate either the small-strain shear modulus, Gmax, or Vs. The empirical correlations that were considered are summarized in the following table.

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Table 6-1. Empirical Correlations for Shear Wave Velocity


Reference Mayne and Rix (1993) Stiffness Parameter Gmax Soil Type Clay Correlated Parameters Cone tip resistance corrected for pore pressure effects, qt Effective vertical stress, 'vo Void ratio, e Undrained shear strength, Su Gmax = 99.5(Pa)
0.305

Correlations (qt)
0.695

/e

-1.13

where Gmax and qt are in kilopascals (kPa), and Pa is atmospheric pressure in kPa.

Dickenson (1994)

Vs

Clay

Vs = 18(Su)

0.475

where Su is in pounds per square foot (psf) and Vs is in ft/sec. Gmax = [625/(e )](Pa* 'm) OCR
1.3 0.5 k

Jamiolkowski et al. (1991)

Gmax

Clay

Void ratio, e Overconsolidation ratio (OCR) Mean effective stress, 'm Soil plasticity, PI Cone tip resistance, qc Effective vertical stress, 'vo Mean effective confining stress, 'co

where k is a function of PI and Pa is atmospheric pressure in units consistent with 'm. Gmax = 1634(qc)
0.25

Rix and Stokoe (1991) Seed and Idriss (1970)

Gmax

Quartz Sands Quartz Sands

( 'vo)
0.5

0.375

where Gmax, qc and 'vo are in kPa. Gmax = 1000 K2 ( 'co)

Gmax

where K2 is a stiffness parameter that depends on the sand density and ranges from ~35 for very loose sands to ~75 for very dense sands and from 80 to 180 for dense gravels. Vs = 77.4(qc1N)
0.178

Andrus et al. (2001)

Vs

Sands

Normalized cone tip resistance, qc1N Age scaling factor (ASF)

ASF

where ASF = 1.41 for Pleistocene soil.

The small-strain shear modulus, Gmax, can be calculated as a function of total mass density, tot, and shear wave velocity, Vs, as: Gmax =
tot

Vs2

Since the total mass density profile can be estimated with reasonable accuracy, profiles of shear wave velocity or small-strain shear modulus can essentially be used interchangeably. Profiles of shear wave velocity were developed and input into SHAKE, a one-dimensional, frequency domain, dynamic site response program. Figures 6-1a though 6-1d show the best-estimate (median) shear wave velocity profile for Profiles 1 through 4. Also shown are lower and higher shear wave velocity variations for each profile that were used to model the potential for variations in the soil strengths. As shown on Figures 6-1a and 6-1c, the measured shear wave velocities are relatively low compared to the values predicted from the CPT data, particularly within Unit 2. A parametric study was conducted by varying the relatively densities to determine if those low shear wave velocities represent relative loose / soft soils or limitations of the in situ data. Based on the parametric study, some of those low shear wave velocity values are likely not representative of the soils present at the site. Relatively high tip resistances from CPTs and blow counts from borings indicate the presence of dense deposits. The in situ shear wave

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velocity measurements within Unit 2 and shallower deposits suggest relative densities of less than 30 percent, and are therefore considered not representative of the actual soil conditions. The four best-estimate profiles, along with the upper and lower-bound stiffness variations likely capture the variations in subsurface conditions adequately. 6.3.2 Cyclic Shear Strain-Dependent Shear Modulus and Damping

In the absence of shear modulus reduction and damping data from dynamic laboratory tests, generic curves were selected to model the reduction in shear modulus and increase in damping ratio with increasing cyclic shear strain. In general, the sand strata were modeled using the depth-dependent relationships suggested by Pyke et al. (1995); and the clay strata were modeled using the relationships suggested by Vucetic and Dobry (1991). Figure 6-2 shows the shear modulus reduction and damping relationships used for various strata. 6.4 GROUND MOTION INPUT DEPTH

Since the selected motions were processed and modified to be compatible with a target spectrum that was developed for hard soil sites, these motions were defined as "outcrop" hard soil motions and were input at a depth below which the shear wave velocity is estimated to be on the order of 500 m/s. The deep borings show the presence of very dense sand at a depth of roughly 65 meters below the ground surface. The estimated average shear wave velocity within 30 meters below that depth (Vs,30) is on the order of 500 m/s. Therefore, an input depth of 65 meters was selected for all profiles. 6.5 RESULTS

The results of the site-response analyses are presented in the following sections in terms of acceleration response spectra at different locations along the soil column, profiles of strain-dependent dynamic parameters, and peak ground response. A summary of the site response analysis results is presented in the following sections. 6.5.1 Acceleration Response Spectra

Analyses were conducted using the low, high, and best-estimate shear wave velocities for all Profiles 1 through 4. Further, the analyses were conducted for both DBE and MCE levels using three sets of input motions. Therefore, a total of 72 site response analyses were conducted for each design level, consisting of (1) 4 idealized soil profiles, (2) 3 variations of soil stiffness within each profile, and (3) 3 sets of time histories, each consisting of 2 components. Typical results from the site response analyses are shown on Figures 6-3a and 6-3b for Profile 1 for DBE and MCE, respectively. Response spectra were calculated at: (1) ground surface, (2) at bottom of Unit 1b, (3) bottom of Unit 4, and 4) the bottom of the soil column at 65 meters, where the input motions were applied. The results are shown for the best-estimate shear wave velocity profile for one component (i.e. N34E) of the Bokajan earthquake recording. The figures present the 5-percent damped acceleration response spectra results and the 6-5

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corresponding acceleration time histories at the four depths mentioned above. The time histories shown at the input depth corresponds to the "within" motion calculated by SHAKE. As shown on the figures, site response analyses show significant amplification of all periods up to approximately 2 seconds. That amplification is largely associated with the presence of relatively soft clay and loose to medium dense sands at the site. 6.5.2 Profiles of Dynamic Parameters and Peak Ground Response

Profiles of normalized (to the small strain value) shear modulus, damping ratio, peak shear strain, and peak acceleration with depth were calculated for the 72 cases analyzed. Figures 6-4a through 6-4d show the results for the DBE for the 4 idealized profiles from each of those cases as well as the upper and lower bounds from all analyses for each profile. Peak shear strain values from the best-estimate profile is also shown as the solid red line. Similar results for the MCE are presented on Figures 6-5a through 6-5d. As seen from these figures, there is a significant amplification of the peak ground accelerations within the Fill as well as Units 1a and 1b. 6.5.3 Design Response Spectra

The design response spectra for the DBE and MCE events were developed from a statistical evaluation of the site response analysis results. All 18 analyses for each profile were utilized to develop the design response spectrum for each event. The average spectral ordinates from all 18 runs for each of the four profiles are shown on Figures 6-6a and 6-6b, for DBE and MCE levels, respectively. As shown on the figures, at short periods, higher spectral accelerations are computed for the stiffer profiles (Profiles 1 and 3), whereas at long periods, higher values are computed from the relatively soft profiles (Profiles 2 and 4). Figures 6-6a and 6-6b also present the recommended smoothed design spectra for 5 percent damping, for the two design levels. The recommended design spectra envelop the mean spectral values from the four profiles. The spectral ordinates for the 5-percent damped horizontal design spectra are presented in Tables 6-2 and 6-3 for DBE and MCE, respectively. Based on IS-1893 Sections 7.5.1 and 7.5.2, structures in Category 1 should be designed for the MCE and structures in Categories 2, 3, and 4 should be designed for the DBE.

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Table 6-2. 5-Percent Damped Horizontal DBE Spectrum


Period (s) 0.01 0.03 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.23 0.39 1.00 1.26 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 Spectral Acceleration (g) 0.11 0.11 0.12 0.25 0.32 0.32 0.24 0.11 0.07 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

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Table 6-3. 5-Percent Damped Horizontal MCE Spectrum


Period (s) 0.01 0.03 0.06 0.10 0.16 0.31 0.39 1.0 1.26 2.00 2.5 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 Spectral Acceleration (g) 0.22 0.22 0.26 0.44 0.60 0.60 0.52 0.26 0.17 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00

6.5.4

Comparison with Indian Design Code and Phase 1 Results

The smoothed DBE and MCE response spectra are shown on Figures 6-7a and 6-7b, respectively. Also shown are the preliminary spectra from the preliminary (Phase 1) study, the generic spectra based on IS-1893 code, and the input base spectra applied at a depth of 65 meters. Because of the improved geotechnical data, and reduced uncertainty relative to site conditions, the new design ground motions are reduced relative to the values presented in the preliminary report. For example, at short structural periods, the spectral accelerations have reduced by approximately 20 percent while at longer periods the values have reduced by about 30 to 40 percent. As noted during our previous meetings, the IS-1893 code states that for important structures, a site specific study is preferred over the generic code values. 6.6 MODIFICATION FACTORS FOR OTHER DAMPING RATIOS

Foster Wheeler has requested the spectra for other damping ratios along with the 5percent damped spectra. The spectra for other damping ratios can be obtained using modification factors estimated using the procedures suggested by Idriss (1993). The factors recommended by Idriss (1993) for periods equal to or smaller than 5 seconds. To develop

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spectral values for periods longer than 5 seconds, the modification factors for the 5-second period are assumed. These factors are presented in Table 6-4. Table 6-4. Modification Factors to Obtain Spectra for Other Damping Ratios
Period (s) 0.5% 0.01 0.03 0.05 0.075 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.5 2 3 4 5 1.000 1.000 1.163 1.503 1.704 1.829 1.880 1.880 1.880 1.867 1.854 1.829 1.779 1.754 1.729 1.704 1.678 1.628 1.603 1.578 1.578 1.578 2% 1.000 1.000 1.065 1.200 1.280 1.330 1.350 1.350 1.350 1.345 1.340 1.330 1.310 1.300 1.290 1.280 1.270 1.250 1.240 1.230 1.230 1.230 Damping Ratio 3% 1.000 1.000 1.036 1.111 1.156 1.184 1.195 1.195 1.195 1.192 1.190 1.184 1.173 1.167 1.162 1.156 1.150 1.139 1.134 1.128 1.128 1.128 4% 1.000 1.000 1.016 1.049 1.068 1.080 1.085 1.085 1.085 1.084 1.083 1.080 1.076 1.073 1.071 1.068 1.066 1.061 1.059 1.056 1.056 1.056 7% 1.000 1.000 0.985 0.939 0.913 0.896 0.897 0.897 0.897 0.891 0.893 0.896 0.898 0.898 0.900 0.902 0.903 0.903 0.903 0.903 0.903 0.903 10% 1.000 1.000 0.967 0.875 0.820 0.785 0.779 0.779 0.779 0.775 0.780 0.785 0.790 0.790 0.795 0.798 0.800 0.800 0.800 0.800 0.800 0.800

6.7

EXAMPLE USE OF DESIGN SPECTRA

An example demonstrating the use of site specific spectra presented above to develop the seismic coefficient is presented in this section. Using IS-1893 (Part 4) Section 8.3.1 The seismic coefficient (Ah) should be calculated from site specific data using the following equation: Ah= [Sa/g] / [R/I] Where,

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Sa/g = Spectral acceleration coefficient corresponding to site specific spectra and appropriate damping ratio, R = response reduction factor to take into account the margins of safety, redundancy and ductility of the structure given in Table 3 - IS1893 (PART 4), and I = importance factor given in Table 2 IS 1893 (PART 4) is relative importance assigned to the structure to take into account consequences of its damage. e.g., importance factors for Category 1 and 2 structures are 2 and 1.75, respectively, as obtained from Table 2 of IS-1893. For this example, the following values are assumed. The actual values should be determined by the structural engineer: Design Category = 2 Importance factor, I = 1.75 R=5 Damping Ratio = 2% Structural period of vibration = 1.0s For this example: For Design Category 2, DBE spectrum should be used. From Table 1 of this memorandum, the DBE spectral acceleration at structural period of 1 second is 0.11g. The assumed damping ratio is 2 percent. From Table 3, the modification factor for 2% damping at period of 1s is 1.27. Therefore, the spectral acceleration at 1s for 2 percent damping is Sa = 0.11X1.27 = 0.14g The horizontal seismic coefficient is Ah = [0.14g/1g] / [5/1.75] = 0.049.

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Shear Wave Velocity, Vs (m/s) 0 0 Fill Unit 1a Mayne and Rix (1993) (Clayey Soil) Unit 1b Dickenson (1994) (Clayey Soil) 10 Jamiolowski et al. (Clayey Soil) Unit 2 Andrus et al. (2001) (Sandy Soil) Rix and Stokoe (1991) (Sandy Soil) Seed and Idriss (1970) (Sandy Soil) 20 Ohta and Gotto (1976) Imai and Tonouchi (1986) Best Estimate Upper and Lower Bound Vs 30 In-Situ Vs Measurement (Cross Hole CH01) Unit 5 Unit 4 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

Unit 3

Depth below Ground Surface (m)

40

50

60

Unit 6

70

Note : 1. Data for CPT Correlations based on CPT 44 2. Shear Wave Velocity Calculations for greater depths based on data from 3 deep boirngs, BH-1, BH-2 & BH-3 80

90

DEVELOPMENT OF IDEALIZED SHEAR WAVE VELOCITY PROFILE PROFILE 1 Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India FIGURE 6-1a

Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

Shear Wave Velocity, Vs (m/s) 0 0 Fill Mayne and Rix (1993) (Clayey Soil) Dickenson (1994) (Clayey Soil) Jamiolowski et al. (Clayey Soil) Andrus et al. (2001) (Sandy Soil) Rix and Stokoe (1991) (Sandy Soil) Seed and Idriss (1970) (Sandy Soil) 20 Ohta and Gotto (1976) Imai and Tonouchi (1986) Best Estimate Upper and Lower Bound Vs 30 In-Situ Vs Measurement (Cross Hole CH10) Unit 5 Unit 4 Unit 2 Unit 1b Unit 1a 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

10

Unit 3

Depth below Ground Surface (m)

40

50

60 Unit 6

70

Note : 1. Data for CPT Correlations based on CPT 62 2. Shear Wave Velocity Calculations for greater depths based on data from 3 deep boirngs, BH-1, BH-2 & BH-3 80

90

DEVELOPMENT OF IDEALIZED SHEAR WAVE VELOCITY PROFILE PROFILE 2 Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India FIGURE 6-1b

Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

Shear Wave Velocity, Vs (m/s) 0 0 Fill Mayne and Rix (1993) (Clayey Soil) Dickenson (1994) (Clayey Soil) 10 Jamiolowski et al. (Clayey Soil) Andrus et al. (2001) (Sandy Soil) Rix and Stokoe (1991) (Sandy Soil) Seed and Idriss (1970) (Sandy Soil) 20 Ohta and Gotto (1976) Imai and Tonouchi (1986) Best Estimate 30 Unit 4 Upper and Lower Bound Vs Unit 3 Unit 1a Unit 1b 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

Unit 2

Depth below Ground Surface (m)

Unit 5 40

50

60 Unit 6

70

Note : 1. Data for CPT Correlations based on CPT 70 2. Shear Wave Velocity Calculations for greater depths based on data from 3 deep boirngs, BH-1, BH-2 & BH-3 80

90

DEVELOPMENT OF IDEALIZED SHEAR WAVE VELOCITY PROFILE PROFILE 3 Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India FIGURE 6-1c

Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

Shear Wave Velocity, Vs (m/s) 0 0 Fill Mayne and Rix (1993) (Clayey Soil) Unit 1a Dickenson (1994) (Clayey Soil) Jamiolowski et al. (Clayey Soil) 10 Unit 1b Andrus et al. (2001) (Sandy Soil) Rix and Stokoe (1991) (Sandy Soil) Seed and Idriss (1970) (Sandy Soil) Ohta and Gotto (1976) 20 Imai and Tonouchi (1986) Best Estimate Upper and Lower Bound Vs In-Situ Vs Measurement (Cross Hole CH08) 30 Unit 4 Unit 2 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

Unit 3

Unit 5

Depth below Ground Surface (m)

40

50

Note : 1. Data for CPT Correlations based on CPT 90 2. Shear Wave Velocity Calculations for greater depths based on data from 3 deep boirngs, BH-1, BH-2 & BH-3

60 Unit 6

70

80

90

DEVELOPMENT OF IDEALIZED SHEAR WAVE VELOCITY PROFILE PROFILE 4 Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India FIGURE 6-1d

Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 G/Gmax 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0.0001
Pyke et al., 0 - 20 ft--FILL Vucetic & Dobry, PI = 30--UNIT 1A & UNIT 1B (Clay Sublayer) Pyke et al., 20 - 50 ft--UNIT 1B (Sand Sublayer) & UNIT 2 Vucetic & Dobry, PI = 15--UNIT 3, UNIT 5 & UNIT 6 (Clay Sublayer) Pyke et al., 50 - 120 ft--UNIT 4 & UNIT 6 (Sand Sublayer-Shallow) Pyke et al., 120 - 250 ft--UNIT 6 (Sand Sublayer-Deep)

0.001

0.01 Cyclic Shear Strain (%)

0.1

20

Pyke et al., 0 - 20 ft--FILL Vucetic & Dobry, PI = 30--UNIT 1A & UNIT 1B (Clay Sublayer) Pyke et al., 20 - 50 ft--UNIT 1B (Sand Sublayer) & UNIT 2

16 Damping Ratio (%)

12

Vucetic & Dobry, PI = 15--UNIT 3, UNIT 5 & UNIT 6 (Clay Sublayer) Pyke et al., 50 - 120 ft--UNIT 4 & UNIT 6 (Sand Sublayer-Shallow)

Pyke et al., 120 - 250 ft--UNIT 6 (Sand Sublayer-Deep)

0 0.0001

0.001

0.01 Cyclic Shear Strain (%)

0.1

STRAIN-DEPENDENT SHEAR MODULUS REDUCTION AND DAMPING RELATIONSHIPS FOR SITE RESPONSE ANALYSES Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India FIGURE 6-2

Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

0.40 Spectral Acceleration (g) 5 % Damping 0.30


Ground Surface Depth of 5 m Depth of ~30 m

0.20

Input Motion at 65.0 m - Bedrock Within Motion

Input Motion = N34E Bokajan Motion 0.10

0.00 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 Period (s) Acceleration (g) 0.2 0.1 0 -0.1 -0.2 0 Acceleration (g) 0.2 0.1 0 -0.1 -0.2 0 Acceleration (g) 0.2 0.1 0 -0.1 -0.2 0 Acceleration (g) 0.2 0.1 0 -0.1 -0.2 0 5 10 15 20 Time (s) 25 30 35 40 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

Ground Surface

Depth of 5 m

Depth of ~30 m

Input Motion at 65.0 m - Bedrock Within Motion

TIME HISTORIES FOR BEST-ESTIMATE SOIL PROPERTIES - N34E BOKAJAN RECORD DBE LEVEL Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India FIGURE 6-3a

Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

0.80 Spectral Acceleration (g) 5 % Damping 0.60


Ground Surface Depth of 5 m Depth of ~30 m

0.40

Input Motion at 65.0 m - Bedrock Within Motion

Input Motion = N34E Bokajan Motion 0.20

0.00 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 Period (s) Acceleration (g) 0.2 0.1 0 -0.1 -0.2 0 Acceleration (g) 0.2 0.1 0 -0.1 -0.2 0 Acceleration (g) 0.2 0.1 0 -0.1 -0.2 0 Acceleration (g) 0.2 0.1 0 -0.1 -0.2 0 5 10 15 20 Time (s) 25 30 35 40 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

Ground Surface

Depth of 5 m

Depth of ~30 m

Input Motion at 65.0 m - Bedrock Within Motion

TIME HISTORIES FOR BEST-ESTIMATE SOIL PROPERTIES - N34E BOKAJAN RECORD MCE LEVEL Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India FIGURE 6-3b

G/Gmax Damping (%) Max. Strain (%) 10 12 0.01 0


Fill Unit 1a Unit 1b STRATUM

amax (g) 1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3

0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.1 0 0.001 0

10 10 10

10

Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

Unit 2

20

20 20 20

Unit 3

Unit 4

30

30 30

30
Unit 5

Penetration Below Ground Surface (m)

40

40 40

40

50

50 50

50

Unit 6

60

60

60

60

Maximum Strain Envelope, Best-Estimate Properties Maximum and Minimum Envelopes, All Soil Properties

FIGURE 6-4a

PROFILES OF DYNAMIC PARAMETERS AND PEAK GROUND RESPONSE Profile 1: DBE Level Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India

G/Gmax Damping (%) Max. Strain (%) 10 12 0.01 0


Fill Unit 1a STRATUM

amax (g) 1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3

0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.1 0 0.001 0

10 10 10

10

Unit 1b

Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

Unit 2 Unit 3

20

20 20 20

Unit 4

30

30 30

30

Unit 5

Penetration Below Ground Surface (m)

40

40 40

40

Unit 6

50

50 50

50

60

60

60

60

Maximum Strain Envelope, Best-Estimate Properties Maximum and Minimum Envelopes, All Soil Properties

FIGURE 6-4b

PROFILES OF DYNAMIC PARAMETERS AND PEAK GROUND RESPONSE Profile 2: DBE Level Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India

G/Gmax Damping (%) Max. Strain (%) 10 12 0.01 0


Fill Unit 1a Unit 1b STRATUM

amax (g) 1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3

0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.1 0 0.001 0

10 10 10

10

Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

Unit 2

20

20 20 20

Unit 3

30

30 30

30

Unit 4

Unit 5

Penetration Below Ground Surface (m)

40

40 40

40

50

50 50

50
Unit 6

60

60

60

60

Maximum Strain Envelope, Best-Estimate Properties Maximum and Minimum Envelopes, All Soil Properties

FIGURE 6-4c

PROFILES OF DYNAMIC PARAMETERS AND PEAK GROUND RESPONSE Profile 3: DBE Level Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India

G/Gmax Damping (%) Max. Strain (%) 10 12 0.01 0


STRATUM

amax (g) 1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3

0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.1 0 0.001 0
Unit 1a

Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

10 10 10

10

Unit 1b

Unit 2

20

20 20 20

Unit 3

Unit 4

30

30 30

30
Unit 5

Penetration Below Ground Surface (m)

40

40 40

40

50

50 50

50
Unit 6

60

60

60

60

Maximum Strain Envelope, Best-Estimate Properties Maximum and Minimum Envelopes, All Soil Properties

FIGURE 6-4d

PROFILES OF DYNAMIC PARAMETERS AND PEAK GROUND RESPONSE Profile 4: DBE Level Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India

G/Gmax Damping (%) Max. Strain (%) 10 12 0.01 0


Fill Unit 1a Unit 1b STRATUM

amax (g) 1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3

0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.1 0 0.001 0

10 10 10

10

Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

Unit 2

20

20 20 20

Unit 3

Unit 4

30

30 30

30
Unit 5

Penetration Below Ground Surface (m)

40

40 40

40

50

50 50

Unit 6

50

60

60

60

60

Maximum Strain Envelope, Best-Estimate Properties Maximum and Minimum Envelopes, All Soil Properties

FIGURE 6-5a

PROFILES OF DYNAMIC PARAMETERS AND PEAK GROUND RESPONSE Profile 1: MCE Level Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India

G/Gmax Damping (%) Max. Strain (%) 10 12 0.01 0


Fill Unit 1a STRATUM

amax (g) 1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3

0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.1 0 0.001 0

10 10 10

10

Unit 1b

Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

Unit 2 Unit 3

20

20 20 20

Unit 4

30

30 30

30

Unit 5

Penetration Below Ground Surface (m)

40

40 40

40

50

50 50

50

Unit 6

60

60

60

60

Maximum Strain Envelope, Best-Estimate Properties Maximum and Minimum Envelopes, All Soil Properties

FIGURE 6-5b

PROFILES OF DYNAMIC PARAMETERS AND PEAK GROUND RESPONSE Profile 2: MCE Level Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India

G/Gmax Damping (%) Max. Strain (%) 10 12 0.01 0


Fill Unit 1a Unit 1b STRATUM

amax (g) 1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3

0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.1 0 0.001 0

10 10 10

10

Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

Unit 2

20

20 20 20

Unit 3

30

30 30

30

Unit 4

Unit 5

Penetration Below Ground Surface (m)

40

40 40

40

50

50 50

50
Unit 6

60

60

60

60

Maximum Strain Envelope, Best-Estimate Properties Maximum and Minimum Envelopes, All Soil Properties

FIGURE 6-5c

PROFILES OF DYNAMIC PARAMETERS AND PEAK GROUND RESPONSE Profile 3: DBE Level Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India

G/Gmax Damping (%) Max. Strain (%) 10 12 0.01 0


STRATUM

amax (g) 1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3

0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.1 0 0.001 0
Unit 1a

Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

10 10 10

10

Unit 1b

Unit 2

20

20 20 20

Unit 3

Unit 4

30

30 30

30
Unit 5

Penetration Below Ground Surface (m)

40

40 40

40

50

50 50

50

Unit 6

60

60

60

60

Maximum Strain Envelope, Best-Estimate Properties Maximum and Minimum Envelopes, All Soil Properties

FIGURE 6-5d

PROFILES OF DYNAMIC PARAMETERS AND PEAK GROUND RESPONSE Profile 4: MCE Level Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India

Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

5 percent damping

0.4

0.3 Spectral Acceleration (g)

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.0 0.01

0.1 Period (sec)


Profile 1_mean Profile 2_mean Profile 3_mean Profile 4_mean Smoothed Design Envelope Input Spectra

10

DEVELOPMENT OF GROUND SURFACE DBE SPECTRUM Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India FIGURE 6.6-a

Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 Spectral Acceleration (g) 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.01

5 percent damping

0.1 Period (s)


Profile 1_mean Profile 2_mean Profile 3_mean Profile 4_mean

10

Smoothed Design Envelope Input Spectra

DEVELOPMENT OF GROUND SURFACE MCE SPECTRUM Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India FIGURE 6.6-b

Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

5 percent damping

0.4

0.3 Spectral Acceleration (g)

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.0 0.01

0.10 Period (sec)

1.00

10.00

Smoothed Design Envelope Phase 2

Smoothed Design Envelope Phase 1

IS-1893-DBE

Input Spectra

COMPARISON OF GROUND SURFACE DBE SPECTRUM WITH CODE-BASED SPECTRUM AND PHASE-1 RESULTS Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India FIGURE 6.7-a

Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 Spectral Acceleration (g) 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.01

5 percent damping

0.10 Period (s)

1.00

10.00

Smoothed Design Envelope Phase 2

Smoothed Design Envelope Phase 1

IS-1893-MCE

Input Spectra

COMPARISON OF GROUND SURFACE MCE SPECTRUM WITH CODE-BASED SPECTRUM AND PHASE-1 RESULTS Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India FIGURE 6.7-b

Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

7.0 LIQUEFACTION POTENTIAL AND CYCLIC DEGRADATION 7.1 DEFINITION

Liquefaction is the loss of strength that can occur in a loose, saturated sand during (or immediately following) seismic shaking. As loose granular soils are shaken, their tendency to contract and compress leads to the development of positive pore pressures. If the intensity or duration of the shaking is great enough, the buildup in pore pressure can produce a significant loss of shear strength. If the shaking continues after the onset of liquefaction, liquefaction can produce a number of ground effects (e.g., sand boils, settlement, lurching, and lateral deflection). Liquefaction also can cause a loss of axial capacity of shallow or deep (due to downdrag) foundations, loss of lateral pile capacity, and lateral ground spreading. The susceptibility of a granular soil to liquefaction is a function of the gradation, density, and fines content of the soil. The susceptibility to lique-faction decreases with respective increases in: a) distribution of grain size, b) soil density, c) fines content, and d) clay-size fraction of the fines. The susceptibility to liquefaction also tends to decrease as a function of the age of the deposit. 7.2 METHOD OF EVALUATION

The evaluation of the liquefaction susceptibility of the coarse-grained layers and deposits was primarily based on the empirical procedure recommended by the Youd et al. (2001). In the Youd et al (2001) procedure, potentially liquefiable soil strata are identified as being those layers that are relatively loose, submerged granular sediments. Soil strata above the assumed groundwater level were considered not susceptible to liquefaction. The recommendations by Youd et al. (2001) were used to compute the liquefaction susceptibility using both boring SPT data and CPT data. The available cyclic shear resistance of potentially liquefiable strata encountered (based on the normalized SPT N-value or CPT tip resistance) was compared to the estimated cyclic shear stress that would be induced by a given earthquake. The estimated factor of safety against liquefaction is the ratio of the available cyclic shear resistance to the induced cyclic shear stress. The estimated factors of safety against liquefaction at various depths are a function of the estimated overburden pressure at that depth. In general, higher factors of safety against liquefaction are calculated for higher overburden pressures. 7.3 SUBSURFACE DATA

The liquefaction potential evaluations are based on: (1) the standard penetration test (SPT) blow counts and laboratory tests conducted by Fugro India, and (2) the cone penetration test (CPT) soundings.

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Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

7.3.1

Boring SPT Data.

For use with the Youd et al. (2001) procedure, sample depths, fines contents, soil unit weights, and field SPT N-values were interpreted and summarized from the borings. The SPT data were then normalized to an overburden pressure of 0.1 megapascal (MPa) and corrected for fines content. For this evaluation, sublayers were identified at each boring location. Typically, the overall stratigraphic description was obtained from the descriptions presented on the logs, and sublayers were created on the basis of SPT blow counts and fines contents. Usually, one sublayer was created for each sample obtained in the boring and that layer was assigned the blow count associated with the sample. A fines content value was assigned to each of those sublayers on the basis of either laboratory tests performed on the sample or on the basis of the nearest fines content measurement considered representative of the sublayer. Unless bounded by one of the stratigraphic layers shown on the boring logs or the estimated groundwater table, sublayer boundaries were selected midway between adjacent samples. 7.3.2 CPT Data.

Liquefaction susceptibility also was calculated using the Youd et al. (2001) procedure based on the CPT sounding data. For these analyses, the measured tip resistances were corrected for fines content using the procedures suggested in Youd et al. (2001) and normalized to an overburden pressure of 0.1 MPa. The liquefaction evaluation for borings and CPTs along the 9 cross-sections (A-A through D-D and 1-1 through 5-5) are shown on the lowest illustrations on Plates 2 through 11. 7.4 EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION ASSUMED FOR ANALYSES

The seismic hazard analyses and site response analyses for the project have defined near-surface ground motion criteria for a 475-year return period DBE and a 2,475-year return period MCE. The peak ground accelerations (PGAs) of 0.11 and 0.22 g for the DBE and MCE, respectively were obtained from the site response analyses described in Section 6.0. Based on the deaggregation results presented in Section 4.0, majority of the hazard for short periods comes from small to intermediate magnitude events (M 4.5 to 7). Therefore, a representative earthquake of M 6.5 was selected for liquefaction evaluation. 7.5 IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIALLY LIQUEFIABLE LAYERS

The generalized stratigraphy at the site is illustrated on the cross sections shown on Plates 3 through 11. As shown on those figures the native soils on the site are composed of the following primary units: Fill - As shown on the plates most of the fill (especially above approximately El. 1 m appears to be relatively dense. However, in a few instances the lower approximately 0.5 to 1.5 meters of fill (possibly granular native material prior to fill placement) appears to be characterized by lower tip resistances (e.g., CPT04, shown on Plate 4, 7-2

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Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

Cross-Section B-B). Those layers may be susceptible to liquefaction under the MCE if submerged under water. These looser sections appear to be sporadic and below about El. 0. Unit 1a A primarily soft clay layer which ranges in thickness from on the order of 1 meters to greater than 5 meters in some areas. Unit 1a is primarily clayey, with some sandy sublayers at a few locations. Since the unit is primarily clayey, relatively little liquefaction is anticipated to be limited to the thin sand layers within Unit 1a. Unit 1b Unit 1b is largely comprised of loose to medium dense sand and clayey sand layers. In some areas, Unit1b contained interlayered clay and sand. The relatively looser sands within Unit 1b appear to be susceptible to liquefaction and/or excess pore pressure generation during the MCE. Liquefaction potential appears to be relatively low during the DBE. As shown on the cross-sections, the areas with relatively high densities within the Unit 1b sands appear to have little or no liquefaction potential during either of the design earthquakes. Unit 2 Unit 2 consists of medium dense to dense sand and clayey sand layers. The CPT and boring data suggest that generally the sands within Unit 2 have sufficient density to preclude liquefaction during the DBE and MCE. However, some excess pore pressure generation may occur. Liquefaction can also occur within Unit 2 in localized areas, as shown on cross-sections presented on Plates 2 through 10. Units 3 through 6 Unit 3 is largely composed of relatively stiff sandy clay or fairly dense sandy clay layer, Unit 4 is a dense to very dense sand. In general these units are considered to be too dense or too plastic to liquefy. Layers deeper than Unit 4 are sufficiently deep and are not considered susceptible to liquefaction.

7.6

RESULTS

Using the Youd et al. (2001) procedure, liquefaction analyses were performed for the borings and CPTs and borings along the longitudinal cross sections A-A' through D-D and 1-1 through 5-5. The locations of the cross-sections are shown on Plate 1. The results of the analyses of a magnitude 6 earthquake producing PGA of 0.11 and 0.22g are shown on Plates 3through 11. A key to the symbols used on the liquefaction analyses cross sections is provided on Plate 2. On the liquefaction analyses cross sections, the tip resistance and SPT N-values are shown as yellow bars to the right of the axis for each boring and CPT location. Also shown on each plot are the estimated SPT blow count and CPT tip resistance (blue and red lines for the DBE and MCE, respectively) that would be required (based on Youd et al., 2001) to prevent the occurrence of liquefaction for the assumed earthquake magnitude and PGA. In general, layers and zones where the SPT or tip resistance required to preclude the occurrence of liquefaction is less than the normalized measured tip resistance are considered liquefiable. Where the resistance required to prevent liquefaction is less than the measured resistance, the zone that represents the deficiency is shaded blue. A lighter shade would imply liquefaction under the DBE, whereas a darker shade indicates liquefaction under the DBE and MCE. .

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Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

In general, the results shown on Plates 3 through 11 suggest that the following: Liquefaction can occur within the sand layers within Units 1a and 1b. The liquefaction predictions within Unit 2 appear to be limited to a few borings and CPT soundings. Relatively thin, loose sand layers within Unit 1a appear to be liquefiable for the MCE. The lateral continuity of those layers appears to be limited. Liquefiable soils within Unit 1b, however, appear to be continuous over relatively large distances across the site. Within Unit 1b, the predicted blow counts and tip resistances required to preclude the occurrence of liquefaction for the DBE are typically similar to the measured blow counts and tip resistances. Those data indicate that liquefaction triggering under the DBE is likely marginal within this unit. Liquefaction under the DBE is, however, predicted in a few borings. Those predictions are typically associated with individual low blow counts and may be either spurious or of limited spatial extent. Within Unit 2, the data indicate that liquefaction triggering under the design earthquakes is likely marginal within this unit and limited to a few localized areas.

7.7

GROUND SETTLEMENT DUE TO EARTHQUAKE SHAKING

Ground settlement (and other ground effects) during seismic shaking can occur due to: a) liquefaction, b) lateral spreading, and c) the compression of loose fill with rubble, voids, animal burrows, or other similar conditions. Settlements due to liquefaction and in loose, dry fill can be estimated using empirical procedures. Those estimates are based on level ground conditions and are described below. Due to the presence of continuous liquefiable zones beneath the margins of the filled areas, lateral spreading is a possibility during the MCE. If lateral spreading were to occur, the total ground settlements should be expected to be larger than estimated below for level ground conditions. Earthquake-induced settlement can cause downdrag on deep foundations, distress to pavements, gaps between ground support pavements and approach slab or bridge abutments, and structural damage to structures founded on shallow foundations. 7.7.1 Liquefaction-Induced Settlement

The liquefaction cross sections provided on Plates 3 through 11 show an estimate of vertical ground settlement that may occur due to liquefaction-induced settlement. These estimates are based on the measured SPT N-values and CPT tip resistances, factors of safety against liquefaction calculated using the Youd et al. (2001) procedure, and the methods presented in Ishihara and Yoshimine (1992). Using the Ishihara and Yoshimine (1992) method, we estimated volumetric strains that could occur within submerged layers due to dissipation of seismically-induced pore pressures were estimated. The estimated volumetric strains associated with liquefaction or significant pore-pressure generation are shown by the purple shading on the left of the line representing the boring and CPT locations on the liquefaction analyses cross sections. The lighter shades and lines are associated with the DBE, whereas the darker shades and lines are associated with the MCE.
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Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

The estimated volumetric strains were then used in conjunction with the corresponding layer thicknesses to evaluate the magnitude of seismically-induced settlements at the boring and CPT locations. On the liquefaction analyses cross sections, the cumulative settlements below any elevation are shown as a line to the left of the line representing the boring and CPT locations. This is also shown on the key to cross-sections (Plate 2). The thick black line shows the cumulative settlements for the MCE whereas the blue line shows the settlements for the DBE. The results shown on the cross sections suggest the following: For the DBE, settlements estimated from the CPT soundings are typically on the order of 1 cm. Larger settlement estimates up to 10 cm or more are predicted for some borings. However, these estimates are likely spurious due to the wide spacing of blow counts in the boring. Whenever volumetric strain is predicted it is attributed to a relatively thick layer, resulting in large settlement estimates. Larger settlements on the order of 5 to 10 cm are predicted from the CPT data for the MCE. Since liquefaction is predicted to be more widespread for the MCE, settlement may occur over wide areas. Differential settlements should be expected in areas where settlement is predicted to occur. Differential settlement may be as much as the predicted total settlement.

7.7.2

Seismically-Induced Settlement of Dry Fill

Earthquake shaking also can result in seismically-induced settlement of relatively loose, dry, granular materials. However, the upper fill is generally dense, and therefore settlement of the dry fill should be low and significantly less than any settlement due to liquefaction or pore pressure generation within loose basal fill layers or the underlying native soils.

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Indian Oil Corporation Limited Project No. 3193.026

8.0 REFERENCES Abrahamson, N.A. (2005). Manual for Hazard Code version 35. Abrahamson, N.A. (2003), Personal communication. Andrus, R.D., Pirapeethan, P., and Juang, C.H. (2001), "Shear Wave Velocity-Penetration Resistance Correlations for Ground Shaking and Liquefaction Hazards Assessment," USGS Grant 01HQGR0007, USGS Annual Project Summaries, Vol. 43. Atkinson, G.M. and Boore, D.M. (1997), Some Comparisons Between Recent Ground-Motion Relations. Seismological Research Letters, 68(1), p 24-40. Bergman, E.A., and Solomon, C.C., 1980, Oceanic Intraplate Earthquakes Implications for Local and Regional Intraplate Stress: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 85, pp. 53895410. Bilham, R., and N. Ambraseys (2005), Apparent Himalayan slip deficit from the summation of seismic moments for Himalayan earthquakes, 1500 2000, Curr. Sci., 88, 1658 1663. Consortium of Organizations for Strong Motion Observation Systems (COSMOS) website (http://www.cosmos-eq.org/). Cornell, C.A. (1968), "Engineering Seismic Risk Analysis," Seismological Society of America Bulletin, Vol. 58, No. 5. Dickenson, S. (1994), "Dynamic Response of Soft and Deep Cohesive Soils During the Loma Prieta Earthquake of October 17, 1989," doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), 1988, Seismic Hazard Methodology for the Central and Eastern United States: EPRI Report NP-4726, vols. 1-10, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA. Gangopadhyay, A., Talwani, P., (2003), Symptomatic Features of Intraplate Earthquakes. Seis. Res. Lett., 74, 863 - 883 Gutenberg, B. And C.F. Richter (1954) Earthquake Magnitude, Intensity, Energy and Acceleration, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 46, pp. 105-145. Idriss, I.M. (1993), Procedures for Selecting Earthquake Ground Motions at Rock Sites, Report No. GCR 93-625, U.S. Department of Commerce, March 1993. Idriss, I.M., and Sun, J. I. (1992), "User's Manual for SHAKE91," Center for Geotechnical Modeling, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis, California, p. 13 (plus Appendices). 8-1

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Imai, T. and Tonouchi, K. (1982), Correlation of N-value with s-wave velocity and shear modulus, Proc., 2nd European Symposium on Penetration Testing, Amsterdam, pp. 5772. Bureau of Indian Standards (2005), IS 1893 (Part 4) - Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, Part 4, Industrial Structures Including Stack-Like Structures. Ishihara K., and Yoshimine, M. (1992), Evaluation of Settlements in Sand Deposits following Liquefaction during Earthqua a kes, Soils and Foundations, 32(1): pp 173-188. Johnston, A.C., Coppersmith, K.J., Kanter, L.R., and Cornell, C.A., (1994), The Earthquakes of Stable Continental Regions - Assessment of Large Earthquake Potential: EPRI Report TR-102261, Schneider, J.F., editor, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA. Johnston, A.C., and Schweig, E.S., (1996), The enigma of the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-1812, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet Sci., 24, p. 339-384. Kreemer, C. and Holt, W.E., 2000, What Caused the March 25, 1998 Antarctic Plate Earthquake? Inferences from Regional Stress and Strain Rate Fields: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 27, no. 15, pp. 2297-2300. Kumar, S., S. G. Wesnousky, T. K. Rockwell, R. W. Briggs, V. C. Thakur, and R. Jayangondaperumal (2006), Paleoseismic evidence of great surface rupture earthquakes along the Indian Himalaya, J. Geophys. Res., 111, B03304, doi:10.1029/2004JB003309. Kvaerner Cementation India, Ltd. (2000), Report on Soil Surveys for Proposed Eastern India Refinery Project at Paradip Orissa, Volume-1, prepared for Indian Oil Corporation, Ltd. Lave, J., and J. P. Avouac (2000), Active folding of fluvial terraces across the Siwaliks Hills, Himalayas of central Nepal, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 57355770. Lilhanand, K., and Tseng, W.S. (1988). Development and Application of Realistic Earthquake Time Histories Compatible with Multiple Damping Response Spectra. 9th World Conf. Earthquake Engineering, Tokyo, Japan, Vol. II, p. 819-824. Mayne, P.W., and Rix, G.J. (1993), "Gmax-qc Relationships for Clays," Geotechnical Testing Journal, ASTM, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 54-60. NEHRP (2003), Chapter 3 Commentary Ground Motions. Ohta, Y. and Goto, N. (1976), Estimation of s-wave velocity in terms of characteristic indices of soil, Butsuri-tanko, Vol. 29, No. 4, pp. 34-41. Okal, E.A., 1983, Oceanic Intraplate Seismicity, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, v. 11, pp. 195-214.

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Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research (PEER) Center strong motion database website (http://peer.berkeley.edu/smcat/) Pyke, R., Stokoe, K.H., Anderson, D.G., and Idriss, I.M. (1995), "Development of Generic Modulus Reduction and Damping Curves," Submitted to Earthquake Spectra, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. Reasenberg, P. (1985), "Second-Order Moment of Central California Seismicity, 1969-1982," Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 90, pp. 5,479-5,495. Schnabel, P.B., Lysmer, J., and Seed, H.B. (1972), "SHAKE: A Computer Program for Earthquake Response Analysis of Horizontally Layered Sites," Report No. EERC 72-12, University of California, Berkeley. Toro, G. R., Abrahamson, N. A., and Schneider, J. F., (1997), Model of Stronger Ground Motions from Earthquakes in Central and Eastern North America: Best Estimates and Uncertainties, Seismological Research Letters, Volume 68, No. 1, January / February. Vucetic, M. and Dobry, R. (1991), Effect of soil plasticity on cyclic response, Journal of geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 117, No. 1, pp. 89-107. Wells, D.L., and K.J. Coppersmith (1994). New Empirical Relationships among Magnitude, Rupture Length, Rupture Width, Rupture Area and Surface Displacement, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 84, No. 4, pp. 974-1,002. Wesnousky, S. G., et al. (1999), Uplift and convergence along the Himalayan Frontal Thrust of India, Tectonics, 18, 967 976. Yegian, M. K. (1979), State-of-the-Art for Assessing Earthquake Hazards in the United States, Report 13: Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS, Miscellaneous Paper S-73-1. Youngs, R.R. and Coppersmith, K.J. (1985). Implications of Fault Slip Rate and Earthquake Recurrence Models to Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessments, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 75, No. 4, pp. 939-964. Youd, T. L., Idriss, I. M., Andrus, R. D., Ignacio, A., Castro, G., Christiane, J. T., Dobry, R. T., Finn, W. D. L., Harder Jr., L..F., Hynes, M. E., Ishihara, K., Koester, J. P., Liao, S. S. C., Marcuson III, W. F., Martin, G. R., Mitchell, J. K., Moriwaki, Y., Power, M.S., Robertson, P. K., Seed, R. B., and Stokoe II, K. H., (2001), Liquefaction Resistance of Soils: Summary Report from the 1996 NCEER and 1998 NCEER/NSF Workshops on Evaluation of Liquefaction Resistance of Soils.

L:\JOBDOCS\3193\3193.026-PARADIP\REPORTS\FINALREPORT\RPT_26SEPT2008.DOC

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Indian Oil Corporation Project No. 3193.026

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CPT Locations Location of Cross Sections

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*All elevations are with respect to Mean sea Level (MSL) and all coordinates follow the Plant Coordinate System.

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Notes: This base map was obtained from Drawing No. 3210-8310-40-610-0001, provided by Foster Wheeler.

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SITE PLAN AND LOCATION OF CROSS SECTION LINES Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India
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PLATE 1

Indian Oil Corporation Project No. 3193.026

CPT-58 111 m, North

CPT-57 73 m, South

2-2' CPT-52a 37 m, South

CPT-51a 42 m, South

CPT-49 57 m, South

BH-40 23 m, North

BH-38 3-3' 3 m, North

BH-34 4 4-4' m, North

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500400300200100 0 10 20 30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa

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WITH CPT TIP RESISTANCE, SPT BLOW COUNTS AND INTERPRETED SHEAR STRENGTH

CPT-58 111 m, North

CPT-57 73 m, South

2-2' CPT-52a 37 m, South

CPT-51a 42 m, South

CPT-49 57 m, South

BH-40 23 m, North

BH-38 3-3' 3 m, North

BH-34 4 4-4' m, North

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WITH CPT FRICTION RATIO AND MEASURED FINES CONTENT

CPT-57 73 m, South

2-2' CPT-52a 37 m, South

CPT-51a 42 m, South

CPT-49 57 m, South

BH-40 23 m, North

BH-38 3-3' 3 m, North

BH-34 4 4-4' m, North

A N54W

A' S54E

FILL
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10 8 6 4 2 0 05620 40 60 Volumetric Strain Blow Counts (%) Settlement (cm)

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39 41 10 8 6 4 2 0 07820 40 60 Volumetric Strain Blow Counts (%) Settlement (cm)

UNIT 6

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10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

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WITH LIQUEFACTION POTENTIAL ANALYSIS RESULTS

2m 50 m Vertical Exaggeration = 25

Notes: 1) Stratigraphic contacts are approximate, simplified, and provided for regional illustrative purposes only. The stratigraphic contacts are interpreted from Fugro India Borings and CPT soundings. 2) Conditions vary both along and perpendicular to the section line. 3) Borings and CPT sounding logs are projected onto the lines of the cross sections. Therefore stratigraphic contacts may not exactly correspond to the contact indications (lithology, blow count etc.) on the logs. 4) Blow counts, lithology, fines content measurements are as reported by Fugro India. 5) Refer to Plate2 for key to data shown on Borings and CPT soundings. 6) Ground Surface profile is from available topographic survey data. Where no survey data are available, approximate ground surface is shown by dashed lines.

SUBSURFACE CROSS SECTION A-A' Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India PLATE 3

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Indian Oil Corporation Project No. 3193.026


BH-89 110 m, South BH-10 116 m, North

1-1' CPT-45 20 m, South

BH-93 51 m, South

CPT-81a 46 m, South

BH-19 83 m, North

CH-05 51 m, South

CPT-23 28 m, South

CPT-17 44 m, South

CPT-14 73 m, South

CPT-90 52 m, South

CPT-10 97 m, South

CPT-15 27 m, South

BH-91 30 m, South

CPT-62 30 m, South

BH-54 75 m, South

2-2'

BH-02 57 m, South

3-3'

4-4'

CPT-04 32 m, South

CPT-36 15 m, North

CPT-80a 83 m, North

CPT-21 52 m, North

CH-06 20 m, North

CPT-16 72 m, North

BH-46 45 m, North

CPT-46 5 m, South

BH-20 8 m, South

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

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500400300200100 0 10 20 30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

57 57 56 36 63

55

UNIT 4
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56 500400300200100 0 10 20 30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa

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76

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500400300200100 0 10 20 30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa

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! ! !

UNIT 5
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500400300200100 0 10 20 30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa

45 49 43

41

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500400300200100 0 10 20 30 qc, Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa

500400300200100 0 10 20 30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa

500400300200100 0 10 20 30 @ Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 500400300200100 0 10 20 30 , MPa Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa

500400300200100 0 10 20 30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, @ 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa

40

41

500400300200100 0 10 20 30 500400300200100Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa 0 10 20 30 qc, Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa , MPa
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

64
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

500400300200100 0 10 20 30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa

UNIT 6
500400300200100 0 10 20 30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa 500400300200100 0 10 20 30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa

!
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

-40

WITH CPT TIP RESISTANCE, SPT BLOW COUNTS AND INTERPRETED SHEAR STRENGTH

BH-89 110 m, South

1-1' CPT-45 20 m, South

BH-91 30 m, South 4-4'

2-2'

BH-02 57 m, South

BH-19 83 m, North

3-3'

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

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WITH CPT FRICTION RATIO AND MEASURED FINES CONTENT


1-1' CPT-45 20 m, South BH-10 116 m, North BH-93 51 m, South CPT-81a 46 m, South CH-05 51 m, South CPT-23 28 m, South CPT-17 44 m, South CPT-90 52 m, South BH-02 57 m, South CPT-10 97 m, South CPT-15 27 m, South BH-91 30 m, South CPT-62 30 m, South BH-54 75 m, South CPT-04 32 m, South BH-89 110 m, Sout CPT-36 15 m, North CPT-80a 83 m, North BH-19 83 m, North CPT-21 52 m, North CH-06 20 m, North CPT-16 72 m, North BH-46 45 m, North CPT-46 5 m, South BH-20 8 m, South

2-2'

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10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

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10 8 6 4 2 0 04320 40 60 Volumetric Strain (%) Counts Blow Settlement (cm)

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UNIT 6
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WITH LIQUEFACTION POTENTIAL ANALYSIS RESULTS

2m 50 m Vertical Exaggeration = 25

Notes: 1) Stratigraphic contacts are approximate, simplified, and provided for regional illustrative purposes only. The stratigraphic contacts are interpreted from Fugro India Borings and CPT soundings. 2) Conditions vary both along and perpendicular to the section line. 3) Borings and CPT sounding logs are projected onto the lines of the cross sections. Therefore stratigraphic contacts may not exactly correspond to the contact indications (lithology, blow count etc.) on the logs. 4) Blow counts, lithology, fines content measurements are as reported by Fugro India. 5) Refer to Plate2 for key to data shown on Borings and CPT soundings. 6) Ground Surface profile is from available topographic survey data. Where no survey data are available, approximate ground surface is shown by dashed lines.

SUBSURFACE CROSS SECTION B-B' Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India PLATE 4

ELEVATION (METERS)

13

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CPT-14 73 m, South

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CPT-10 97 m, South

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BH-54 75 m, South

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WITH CPT TIP RESISTANCE, SPT BLOW COUNTS AND INTERPRETED SHEAR STRENGTH
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@
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91

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7

UNIT 1A
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@

83

77

54
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13

84

70

16

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1

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11 30

32

@
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

UNIT 1B
@
@

@
4

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! !

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35 4

34

27

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14

18

@ @

! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

50

! ! !

29

22

25

38

! ! !

@ 46

41

@ 20
35

17

37

30

UNIT 2
-10

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

18

31

58

-10

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

37 1

27

34

24

42

32

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
@

47

! ! ! ! ! ! !

ELEVATION (METERS)

@
@
37

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

31

58

14

UNIT 3A
@ @ @ @

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! !

@ 13
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
11 32

@
@

@ @

@ 10
20

! ! ! !

15

UNIT 3B
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@ @

@
1

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
24

@
28

@
@
@
@

@
@

43
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

67

-20
10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

47

40

55

@ @

-20

69 1

32

57

UNIT 4

63

54

! ! !

69

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

52

70

90

12

! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

38

67

25

26

@
@

@
28

@
47

69

13

50 52

-30
@
37

@
51
! ! ! ! !

64 51 48

71
! !

UNIT 5
52 55 62

! ! ! !
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! !
! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! !

59

@
@
@
10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa 10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa 10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa

-30

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa

UNIT 6
10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa 10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa

-40

-40

WITH CPT FRICTION RATIO AND MEASURED FINES CONTENT

CPT-39 21 m, South

BH-11 83 m, South

CPT-65 24 m, South

BH-08 21 m, South

4-4' CH-10 53 m, South

CPT-63 10 m, South

BH-06 12 m, South

CPT-61 38 m, South

D-D' BH-05 37 m, South

CPT-32 13 m, North

CPT-70 20 m, North

BH-21 22 m, North

CPT-68 66 m, North

BH-12 69 m, North

2-2'

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! !

@
@

@
@

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@

@ @

! !

! ! ! ! ! !
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@ @
@

@ @

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@

! ! ! !
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
@

@
15
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
!

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7

UNIT 1A
@
@

16

@
11 30

UNIT 1B
32

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

!
! !

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19 19@

13

!
!

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

3
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
27

! ! !

34

! ! ! !

@
35

@ @ @

14

18

@ @

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

50

29

22

25

17

37

30

UNIT 2

@ @ 20 @ 10 8 6 4 2 0 046 40 60 10 8 6 4 2 0 04120 40 60 10 8 6 4 2 0 03520 40 60 Volumetric Strain Blow Counts Volumetric Strain Blow Counts (%) Volumetric Strain Blow Counts (%) (%) Settlement (cm) Settlement (cm) Settlement (cm)

@ 20

10 8 6 4 2 0 01820 40 60 Volumetric Strain Blow Counts (%) Settlement (cm)


! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

18

31

58

-10

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

37

27

34

24

42

32

! ! !

@
@

47

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

ELEVATION (METERS)

! !

31

14

UNIT 3A
@ @ @ @

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@ 13
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
@

@ @

@
11 32

@ @

10

UNIT 3B
20

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

15

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
24

@
@ @ @
@ @

@
@
@

43
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

67

-20
10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm) 10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

47

40

55

@ @

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

-20

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

69

32

57

UNIT 4

63

54

69

52

70

90

38

67

25

26

@
@

@
47

69

UNIT 5
@
@
@

50

-30
@@
@

@
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

64
!

! ! ! !
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! !
! ! ! ! ! ! !

52 55

52 10 8 6 @4 2 0 05920 40 60 Volumetric Strain Blow Counts (%) Settlement (cm)

51

-30

10 8 6 4 2 0 06220 40 60 10 8 6 4 2 0 04820 40 60 (%) Volumetric Strain Blow Counts Volumetric Strain Blow Counts (%) Settlement (cm) Settlement (cm)
! !

@
@
10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm) 10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

UNIT 6
10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm) 10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm) 10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

-40

-40

WITH LIQUEFACTION POTENTIAL ANALYSIS RESULTS Notes: 1) Stratigraphic contacts are approximate, simplified, and provided for regional illustrative purposes only. The stratigraphic contacts are interpreted from Fugro India Borings and CPT soundings. 2) Conditions vary both along and perpendicular to the section line. 3) Borings and CPT sounding logs are projected onto the lines of the cross sections. Therefore stratigraphic contacts may not exactly correspond to the contact indications (lithology, blow count etc.) on the logs. 4) Blow counts, lithology, fines content measurements are as reported by Fugro India. 5) Refer to Plate2 for key to data shown on Borings and CPT soundings. 6) Ground Surface profile is from available topographic survey data. Where no survey data are available, approximate ground surface is shown by dashed lines.

2m 50 m Vertical Exaggeration = 25

SUBSURFACE CROSS SECTION C-C' Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India PLATE 5

ELEVATION (METERS)

16

38

8 0

23

29

27

15

20

8 0

8 0

FILL

15

21

8 0

8 8 0 0

8 0

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

32

! ! ! ! ! !

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! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

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5

!
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

!
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
! ! ! !

17

8 0

8 0

8 0

8 0

8 0

8 0

8 0

8 0

C N61W

3-3'

C' S61E

CPT-05 12 m, North

CPT-19 6 m, North

0
@

-10

ELEVATION (METERS)

@ 16

! !

38

8 0

23

29

27

! !

! !

15

20

8 0

8 0

FILL

15

21

8 0

8 8 0 0

8 0

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

32

@
5

!
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

!
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
! ! ! !

17 18

8 0

8 0

8 0

8 0

8 0

8 0

8 0

8 0

C N61W

3-3'

C' S61E

0
@

ELEVATION (METERS)

@ 16

! !

38

8 0

23

29

27

15

20

8 0

8 0

FILL

15

21

8 0

8 8 0 0

8 0

32

! ! !

! ! !

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@
5

!
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!
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@
! ! ! !

17 18

8 0

8 0

8 0

8 0

0
@

8 0

8 0

@@

8 0

@
@

8 0

C N61W

3-3'

BH-08 21 m, South

C' S61E

CPT-05 12 m, North

CPT-19 6 m, North

8 0

8 0 8 0

@
@

Indian Oil Corporation Project No. 3193.026

CPT-89 12 m, South

BH-03 16 m, South

CPT-09 25 m, South

3-3' BH-13 29 m, South

CPT-66 20 m, South

CPT-30 49 m, South

CPT-64 4-4' m, North 10

BH-07 22 m, South

BH-55 10 m, North

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

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! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

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! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

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17

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17@

UNIT1A
@
@

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27

UNIT1B
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15

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18

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13

! ! !

15

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! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

15

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@

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11

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@

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@
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@
21 23 13

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

21

27

14

23 36

! ! ! !

31

25

38

UNIT 2
23 40

29

41

-10

32

44

37

41
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

53

@
@

39

@
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34

19

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36

UNIT 3A
@

35

19

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@
9

@
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@

UNIT 3B
@ @

24

@ @
@

17

11

@
@

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@

14
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
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! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

41

38

11

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@
@
@

42

52

22

UNIT 4
50 38 68 75

-20

52

65

87 0

82

64

@
! ! ! !

@
61

81 @

@
37

29

@ @

79

33

34

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61 67

UNIT 5

88 66 58

@
@

@
@

30

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42

500400300200100 0 10 20 30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, @ @ 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa

39 0 500400300200100 0 10 20 30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa

500400300200100 0 10 20 30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa

UNIT 6

500400300200100 0 10 20 30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa

70

UNIT 7

42

500400300200100 0 10 20 30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa

500400300200100 0 10 20 30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa

500400300200100 0 10500400300200100 0 10 20 30 20 30 qc, Undrained Shear (kPa) Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, MPa 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa , MPa

-40

40

-40

WITH CPT TIP RESISTANCE, SPT BLOW COUNTS AND INTERPRETED SHEAR STRENGTH
CPT-89 12 m, South BH-03 16 m, South CPT-09 25 m, South 3-3' BH-13 29 m, South CPT-66 20 m, South CPT-30 49 m, South BH-07 22 m, South CPT-64 4-4' m, North 10 BH-55 10 m, North BH-14 4 m, South CPT-05 22 m, South BH-05 10 m, North CPT-61 10 m, North CPT-79a 4 m, South

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

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86 81 56

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17

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60

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UNIT1A
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@

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! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

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70

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15

99

44

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! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

15

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! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

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27

26

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31

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38

60

23

UNIT 2

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

29

41

-10
0

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32 5
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

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19

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35

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32

19

36

@
9

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@

UNIT 3B
24

29
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
41

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34 21

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@

! ! !

17

11

@
@

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@

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! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

38

11

@
@

-20
5

42

23

@
@
@

52

22

UNIT 4
50 68

-20

15

38

52

75

65

27

87 0

22

82 81 @
! ! ! !

64

@
44

@
61

29

45

@
37

@ @

79

94

33 61 67

84

34

-30

UNIT 5

88 66 58

51

@
@

81

@
@

30

@
10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa

-30

63 10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa 57

42

39 0 10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa 10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa Fr, % qc, MPa

UNIT 6
10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa

50

71

70

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa

90

42

95

-40

40

-40

WITH CPT FRICTION RATIO AND MEASURED FINES CONTENT


CPT-89 12 m, South BH-03 16 m, South CPT-09 25 m, South 3-3' BH-13 29 m, South CPT-66 20 m, South BH-07 22 m, South CPT-30 49 m, South CPT-05 22 m, South

CPT-64 4-4' m, North 10

BH-55 10 m, North

BH-05 10 m, North

CPT-61 10 m, North

CPT-79a 4 m, South

BH-14 4 m, South

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! !

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! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

17

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17 @

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

!
!

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UNIT1B
15

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13

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! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
21 31

15

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! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

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! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

27

14

! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! !

25

38

10 8 6 4 2 0 03620 40 60 Volumetric Strain Blow Counts (%) Settlement (cm)


!

23

UNIT 2

10 8 6 4 2 0 01320 40 60 @ 20 Volumetric Strain Blow Counts 10 8 6 4 2 0 018 40 60 @ (%) @(%) Volumetric Strain Blow Counts @Settlement (cm) Settlement (cm)
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

29

41

-10

40

32

44

37

41
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

53

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39

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34

19

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36

UNIT 3A
@

35

19

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9

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@

24

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41
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

UNIT 3B
@

@
38

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@

17

11

@
@

@
@

14
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

11

@
@

-20

@
@
@

42

52

22

50

UNIT 4

-20

38

52

68

75

65

87 0

82

64

@
61

@
@
! ! ! !

81

29

37

@ @

79

33

34

-30

61

UNIT 5

88 66

@
@

@
@

30

@
10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

-30

20 10 8 6 4 2 0 067 40 60 Volumetric Strain Blow Counts (%) Settlement (cm) 10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm) @

42

10 8 6 4 2 0 05820 40 60 Volumetric Strain Blow Counts (%) Settlement (cm)


! !

39 0

UNIT 6
10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm) 70 42

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 qc, Vol. Strain (%) MPa Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm) Settlement (cm)

-40

40 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 20 40 60 Volumetric Strain Blow Counts (%) Settlement (cm)

-40

WITH LIQUEFACTION POTENTIAL ANALYSIS RESULTS

2m 50 m Vertical Exaggeration = 25

Notes: 1) Stratigraphic contacts are approximate, simplified, and provided for regional illustrative purposes only. The stratigraphic contacts are interpreted from Fugro India Borings and CPT soundings. 2) Conditions vary both along and perpendicular to the section line. 3) Borings and CPT sounding logs are projected onto the lines of the cross sections. Therefore stratigraphic contacts may not exactly correspond to the contact indications (lithology, blow count etc.) on the logs. 4) Blow counts, lithology, fines content measurements are as reported by Fugro India. 5) Refer to Plate2 for key to data shown on Borings and CPT soundings. 6) Ground Surface profile is from available topographic survey data. Where no survey data are available, approximate ground surface is shown by dashed lines.

SUBSURFACE CROSS SECTION D-D' Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India PLATE 6

ELEVATION (METERS)

@ @

8 0

8 0

8 0

18

22

20

8 0

FILL

8 0

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

16

22

32

! ! ! ! !

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! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

!
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

!
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
5

17

8 8 0 0

8 0

0 12

@
@

@ @
@

8 0

8 0

8 0

8 0

8 0

8 0

D S89W !

C-C'

1-1' 2-2'

D' N89E

-10

ELEVATION (METERS)

@ @

8 0

8 0

8 0

18

22

20

8 0

FILL

8 0

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! !

16

22

4
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

32

!
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

!
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
5

17 18

8 8 0 0

8 0

0 12

@
@

@ @
@

8 0

8 0

8 0

1 1
!

! ! ! !

8 0

8 0

8 0

D S89W !

C-C'

1-1' 2-2'

D' N89E

-10

ELEVATION (METERS)

! !

@ @

8 0

8 0

8 0

18

22

20

8 0

FILL

8 0

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

16

22

32

! ! ! !

! ! ! !

! ! !

! ! ! !

! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

!
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

!
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
5

17 18

8 8 0 0

8 0

0 12

@
@

@
@
@

8 0

8 0

8 0

8 0

8 0

8 0

D S89W !

C-C'

1-1' 2-2'

CPT-05 22 m, South

BH-05 10 m, North

CPT-61 10 m, North

CPT-79a 4 m, South

BH-14 4 m, South

D' N89E

-10

Indian Oil Corporation Project No. 3193.026

B-B' CPT-45 10 m, West

CPT-40 110 m, West

CPT-82 52 m, West

CPT-44 41 m, West

BH-23 55 m, West

CPT-42 34 m, West

BH-15 44 m, West

CPT-83 14 m, West

BH-88 16 m, West

CPT-84 14 m, West

CPT-34 16 m, West

BH-87 11 m, West

CPT-39 26 m, East

CPT-43 11 m, East

CPT-33a 11 m, East

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

0
@

! !

! !

@
@
@ @

@
@
@

@
@

@
@

@
@
@

@
@
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

!
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
19

@
@

!
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

27

! ! ! ! !

59

12 57

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

34 30

-10

ELEVATION (METERS)

! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
@

@
@ @

@
@

@
@ @

! ! ! ! ! !

! ! !

13

! ! ! !

13

@
@
@

@
@
@

@
@
@

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

70

@ 14
@ 40
18

@
@

@
@

@
@

UNIT 3A
@

UNIT 3B
@

46

-20
500400300200100 0 10 20 30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa

67

80

500400300200100 0 10 20 30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa

48

-20

66

UNIT 4

53

71 0

500400300200100 0 10 20 30 @ Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa

60

37

99

43

! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

41 43 39

45 63 29

-30
500400300200100 0 10 20 30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa

500400300200100 0 10 20 30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, @ 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa

! !

UNIT 5
@

500400300200100 0 10 20 30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa 500400300200100 0 10 20 30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa 500400300200100 0 10 20 30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa 500400300200100 0 10 20 30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa 500400300200100 0 10 20 30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa

UNIT 6

-40

WITH CPT TIP RESISTANCE, SPT BLOW COUNTS AND INTERPRETED SHEAR STRENGTH

B-B' CPT-45 10 m, West

CPT-40 110 m, West

CPT-83 14 m, West

BH-88 16 m, West

CPT-84 14 m, West

CPT-44 41 m, West

CPT-42 34 m, West

BH-15 44 m, West

CPT-82 52 m, West

BH-23 55 m, West

CPT-34 16 m, West

BH-87 11 m, West

CPT-39 26 m, East

CPT-43 11 m, East

CPT-33a 11 m, East

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

0
@

@
@
@

@
@

@
@

60

@
@ @

@
60
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

!
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! !

@
19

@
@

77

6 30

! ! ! !

@
@
@

!
! ! !

!
!

27
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

59

@
1

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

12 57

34 30 3

! ! !

! ! ! ! ! !

-10

ELEVATION (METERS)

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
@
@

@
@
@

@
@

73

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
@

@ @ @

13

65@

! ! ! !

13

@
@

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

70

@
@

@
39

@ 14
@ 40
18

@
@

@
@

@
@

@
@

@
@

UNIT 3A
@ @

UNIT 3B
@

46

-20
10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa 17

67

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa

48

-20

80

66

UNIT 4

53 2

71 0 25

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 @ Fr, % qc, MPa

60

37

99

43 42

72 @

! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

41 43 39

45 63 29

-30
10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa

66

! ! !

UNIT 5
@

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa

-40

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 qc, MPa Fr, %

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa

UNIT 6

WITH CPT FRICTION RATIO AND MEASURED FINES CONTENT


B-B' CPT-45 10 m, West CPT-40 110 m, West CPT-83 14 m, West BH-88 16 m, West CPT-84 14 m, West CPT-44 41 m, West CPT-82 52 m, West BH-23 55 m, West CPT-42 34 m, West BH-15 44 m, West CPT-34 16 m, West BH-87 11 m, West CPT-39 26 m, East CPT-43 11 m, East CPT-33a 11 m, East

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

0
@

@
@
@

@
@

@
@

! !

! !

! !

! !

! !

! !

! !

@
@ @

!
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! !

@
19

@
@

! ! ! !

@
@
@

!
! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

!
!

27
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

59

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

12

34

10 8 6@ 4 2 0 05720 40 60 @ Volumetric Strain Blow Counts (%) Settlement (cm)


! ! !

10 8 6 4 2 0 03020 40 60 Volumetric Strain Blow Counts (%) Settlement (cm)


! ! ! !

-10

ELEVATION (METERS)

! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
@
@

@
@

@
@

@ @ @

@
@
@

@
@

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

13

! ! ! !

13

@
@

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

70

@
@

14

@
@

@
@

@
@

@
@

@
@

UNIT 3A
@ @

@ 40
18

UNIT 3B
@

46

-20
10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

67

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

48

-20

80

66

UNIT 4

53

71 0

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 @ Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

60

37

99

43

! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

41 43

45 63 10 8 6 4 2 0 02920 40 60 Volumetric Strain Blow Counts (%) Settlement (cm)

-30
10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

10 8 6 4 2 0 03920 40 60 Volumetric Strain Blow Counts (%) Settlement (cm)


!

UNIT 5
@

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm) 10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm) 10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm) 10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm) 10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

UNIT 6

-40

WITH LIQUEFACTION POTENTIAL ANALYSIS RESULTS

2m 50 m Vertical Exaggeration = 25

Notes: 1) Stratigraphic contacts are approximate, simplified, and provided for regional illustrative purposes only. The stratigraphic contacts are interpreted from Fugro India Borings and CPT soundings. 2) Conditions vary both along and perpendicular to the section line. 3) Borings and CPT sounding logs are projected onto the lines of the cross sections. Therefore stratigraphic contacts may not exactly correspond to the contact indications (lithology, blow count etc.) on the logs. 4) Blow counts, lithology, fines content measurements are as reported by Fugro India. 5) Refer to Plate2 for key to data shown on Borings and CPT soundings. 6) Ground Surface profile is from available topographic survey data. Where no survey data are available, approximate ground surface is shown by dashed lines.

SUBSURFACE CROSS SECTION 1-1' Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India PLATE 7

@ @

@ @

@ @

@ @

74

@ @

@ @

@ @

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

-30

-40

ELEVATION (METERS)

8 0

8 0

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@ 35
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@ @
@

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

29

@32
22

19

13

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

44

30

! ! ! ! ! ! !

27

8
! !

8 0

20

17

41

@
@

@
@

@ @

@ @
@

@ @

@
@

@
@

8 0

8 0

8 0

8 0

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

8 0

8 0

8 0

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

52

12

@
1

2
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
22

@
! ! ! !

18

40

36

81

30

8 0

8 0

8 0

8 0

1 N23W

1' S23E

FILL
@

D-D'

UNIT 1A
@ @ @
@

UNIT 1B
@ @ @

UNIT 2

@ @

@ @

@ @

@ @

@ @

@ @

74

@ @

@ @

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa

-30

-40

-10

ELEVATION (METERS)

18

8 0

8 0

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! !

! ! ! !

35

@ @
@

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

29

32

@
22

19

13

44

30

27

8
! !

8 0

20

! ! ! ! ! !

! !

17

41

@
@

@
@

@ @

@ @
@

76

@ @

@
@

@
@

8 0

8 0

8 0

! !

8 0

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! !

8 0

8 0

8 0

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

52

12

@
1 2

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
22

@
! ! ! !

18

40

36

81

30

8 0

8 0

8 0

8 0

1 N23W

1' S23E FILL


@

D-D'

UNIT 1A
@ @ @
@

UNIT 1B
@

UNIT 2

@ @

@ @

@ @

@@

@ @

@ @

74

@ @

@ @

500400300200100 0 10 20 30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa

-30

-40

-10

ELEVATION (METERS)

8 0

8 0

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

35

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

29

@
@

32

@
22

19

13

44

30

27

8
! !

8 0

20

17

41

@
@

@ @

@
@
@

@
@

@
@

@
@

@ @

@
@

@
@

8 0

8 0

8 0

8 0

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! !

8 0

8 0

8 0

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

52

12

@
1

2
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
22

@
! ! ! !

18

40

36

81

30

8 0
@
@

8 0

8 0

8 0

FILL
@ @
@ @ @

1 N23W

1' S23E

D-D'

8 0

8 0

8 0

UNIT 1A
@ @ @
@

UNIT 1B
@

UNIT 2

-10

Indian Oil Corporation Project No. 3193.026

CPT-52a 12 m, West

CPT-23 B-B' m, West 58

CPT-24 53 m, West

CPT-25 59 m, West

CPT-28 12 m, West

CPT-76a 20 m, East

CPT-54 35 m, East

C-C' BH-83 10 m, East

BH-28 22 m, East

CPT-77 40 m, East

BH-84 40 m, East

CPT-91 80 m, East

BH-01 80 m, East

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! !

33

0
@ @
@

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

22

@
@

13

53

65

32

-10
@

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

30

@ @

25

! ! !

@
@

@ 26

@
@

ELEVATION (METERS)

@
@
29

@
@ @

15

@
@

15

27

@
@

@
@

UNIT 3A
@ @

500400300200100 0 10 20 30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa

@
@

UNIT 3B
@
@
@
@

@
@

20

17

58

@
@

@
60
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

44

@
@

22

26

! !

!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

54
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! !

-20

58 41 53 37 59 42

39

! ! ! ! ! ! !

50

-20

38

! ! ! ! ! ! !

67

39

! ! ! ! ! ! !

58

UNIT 4
39

46

30

! ! !

95

@
@

47

38

@
500400300200100 0 10 20 30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa

@
42 34
! !

-30

10 @500400300200@100 0 qc, 20 @30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa

54

33

! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

109 48

@
@

38

! ! ! ! ! ! !

42
! !

34 32 32 500400300200100 0 10 20 30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa

34 52 49

24 34

-30

38 500400300200100 0 10 20 30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa

38 500400300200100 0 10 20 30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa

-40

39

WITH CPT TIP RESISTANCE, SPT BLOW COUNTS AND INTERPRETED SHEAR STRENGTH

CPT-52a CPT-52 12 m, West

CPT-23 B-B' m, West 58

CPT-24 53 m, West

CPT-25 59 m, West

C-C' BH-83 10 m, East

CPT-28 12 m, West

CPT-54 35 m, East

CPT-76a 20 m, East

CPT-77 40 m, East

BH-01 80 m, East

CPT-91 80 m, East

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! !

! ! !

33

56

0
@ @
@
@

!
!

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! !

22

@
@
@

28

! !

13

49

! !

@ @
@
@

! !

53

! ! !

65

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

32

-10
@

! ! ! ! ! ! !

30

! ! !

@ @

25

! ! !

@ 26

@ @
@

@
@

ELEVATION (METERS)

92

@
@

@
@ @

@
38

15

38

@
37 34 29

@
@

15

27

UNIT 3A
@ @ @ @ @ @

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa

@
@
@

UNIT 3B
@ @ @
@ @

@
@

20

@
23

17

@
@
@

58

42

@
60 6
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@ 44
54
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
@

@
@

22

26

@
2

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

-20

23

58 41 10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa 17

39

50

-20

26

53

38 4

67

37 59 42

1
! ! !

25

39

58

32

UNIT 4
39

46 15

30

95

@
@

47

47

2
! ! ! !

38

@
10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 qc, MPa Fr, %

90

42

94
! !

-30

34
!

10 8 6 @ 4 2 0 10 20 @30 Fr, % qc, MPa

@
1
! !

54

33

32

109 48

@
@

38 97

42 24 34

26

34 32

34 52

-30

70

38

58 10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 qc, MPa Fr, %

28

32

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 3096 Fr, % qc, MPa

49

35

38 10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa

79

-40

39

WITH CPT FRICTION RATIO AND MEASURED FINES CONTENT


CPT-52a 12 m, West CPT-23 B-B' 58 m, West CPT-24 53 m, West CPT-25 59 m, West C-C' BH-83 10 m, East CPT-28 12 m, West CPT-54 35 m, East BH-01 80 m, East CPT-91 CH-04 80 m, East BH-28 22 m, East CPT-76a 20 m, East CPT-77 40 m, East BH-84 40 m, East CPT-29 89 m, East CPT-75 11 m, East CPT-53 4 m, East CPT-26 2 m, East

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! !

33

0
@ @
@
@

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

22

@
@
@

13

@ @
@
@

53

65

32

-10
@

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

30

@ @

25

! ! ! ! !

26

@
@

@
@

@
@

ELEVATION (METERS)

@
@

@
@ @

15

@
29

@
@

15

27

UNIT 3A
@ @ @ @ @

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

@
@
@

UNIT 3B
@ @ @
@ @

@
@

20

17

@
@
@

58

@
60
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

44

@
@

@
@

22

26

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

54

-20

58 41 53 37 59 42

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

39

50

-20

38

67

39

58

UNIT 4
39

46

30

95

@
@

47

38

@
42 34
! !

-30

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

10 8 6@ 4 2 0 10 20 @30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

54

33

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

109 48

@
@

38

42
! !

34 32 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 20 40 60 32 Volumetric Strain Blow Counts (%) Settlement (cm)

34 52 10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 qc, 10 Vol. Strain (%) MPa 8 6 4 2 0 0 20 40 60 49 Blow Settlement (cm) Volumetric Strain (%) Counts Settlement (cm)

24

-30

38

38 10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

-40

39 10 8 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 20 40 606 4 2 0 0 20 40 60 (%) Volumetric Strain Blow Counts Strain Blow Counts (%) Volumetric Settlement (cm) Settlement (cm)

WITH LIQUEFACTION POTENTIAL ANALYSIS RESULTS

2m 50 m Vertical Exaggeration = 25

Notes: 1) Stratigraphic contacts are approximate, simplified, and provided for regional illustrative purposes only. The stratigraphic contacts are interpreted from Fugro India Borings and CPT soundings. 2) Conditions vary both along and perpendicular to the section line. 3) Borings and CPT sounding logs are projected onto the lines of the cross sections. Therefore stratigraphic contacts may not exactly correspond to the contact indications (lithology, blow count etc.) on the logs. 4) Blow counts, lithology, fines content measurements are as reported by Fugro India. 5) Refer to Plate2 for key to data shown on Borings and CPT soundings. 6) Ground Surface profile is from available topographic survey data. Where no survey data are available, approximate ground surface is shown by dashed lines.

SUBSURFACE CROSS SECTION 2-2' Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India PLATE 8

@ @

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm) Settlement (cm)

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

UNIT 6

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

34

@ @

@ @

@ @

@ @

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

40

@ @

@ @

@@

@ @

30

@ @

@@

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

@ @

@ @

UNIT 5
@ @

34 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 20 40 60 Blow Volumetric Strain (%) Counts Settlement (cm)


! !

-40

ELEVATION (METERS)

8 0

@
@

UNIT 1A
@
@

@ @

@
@ @

@ @

@
@

@
@

UNIT 1B
@

@
@

@
@

@
@

UNIT 2
@
@

@
@

@ @

@ @

8 0

8 0

! !

@
@

!
!

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
! ! ! !

! !

16
! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

24
! !

@
22 21

17
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@ 41
! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

75

48
! ! !

76

21
! !

83

53
! !

43

0
! !

55

28
! !

49

8 0

36
!

8 0

8 0

18

FILL

! !

! !

25

20

@
@

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

18

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

22

21

23

30

! !

27

! !

43

! !

55

! !

56

8 0

8 0

8 0

8 0

8 0

8 0

8 0

8 0

8 0

! !

! !

! ! ! ! ! !

2 N1W

APPROXIMATE LIMITS OF SANTRA CREEK

2' S1E

@
@

D-D'

A-A'

@@

@ @

@ @

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa

@@

@ @

UNIT 6

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa

@ @

28

34

@ @

@ @

@ @

@ @

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa

@@

@ @

@ @

40

@ @

73

@@

@ @

@@

62

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 qc, MPa Fr, % 30

@ @

@ @

@ @

UNIT 5
@ @
@ @

-40

-10

ELEVATION (METERS)

8 0

@
@

UNIT 1A
@
@

@ @

@
@ @

@ @

@
@

@
@

UNIT 1B
@

@
@

@
@

@
@

UNIT 2
@
@

@
@

@
@

@ @

@ @

8 0

! !

67 62

@
@

@ 59

! !

! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

16

24 20

@
22 21

@
3

17

@ 41
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

75

48

@
2

76

21

! ! ! ! ! ! !

83

53 0

4
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

43 1

55

28

! ! ! ! !

49

38

@
59

8 0

36

8 0

8 8 0 0

18

@ @

8 0

8 0

21 3

FILL

! !

! !

25

20

@
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58

-10

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

29

32

UNIT 2

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

34

36

28

32
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

38 0

44

ELEVATION (METERS)

50

! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@ 19
21

@
@

@
@

! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

14

UNIT 3B
@ @ @ @ @ @
@

17

10

@ @ 11
14

! ! ! ! ! !

! ! !

17

48

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

20

@
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

30

-20
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
58

67

11

92
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

UNIT 4

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

55

22

-20

64

60

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

57

52

47

44

! ! ! ! ! ! !

69

65

31
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

41

95

@
! !

! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! !

@ @

90

64

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

39

25

61

77

33

UNIT 5

47

79

82

43 10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! !

! ! ! !
! ! ! ! ! !

@ 52
55

-30

! ! !
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

88 66

! ! ! ! !

-30

95

42

40 41

@
@

54 46

62 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 20 40 60 Volumetric Strain Blow Counts (%) Settlement (cm)


!

58 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 20 40 60 Volumetric Strain Blow Counts (%) Settlement (cm)


!

! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! !

46 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 20 40 60 Volumetric Strain Blow Counts (%) Settlement (cm)


!

10 8 6 4 2 0 0 20 40 60 39 Volumetric Strain Blow Counts (%) Settlement (cm) 10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

UNIT 6
-40

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

-40

WITH LIQUEFACTION POTENTIAL ANALYSIS RESULTS

2m 50 m Vertical Exaggeration = 25

Notes: 1) Stratigraphic contacts are approximate, simplified, and provided for regional illustrative purposes only. The stratigraphic contacts are interpreted from Fugro India Borings and CPT soundings. 2) Conditions vary both along and perpendicular to the section line. 3) Borings and CPT sounding logs are projected onto the lines of the cross sections. Therefore stratigraphic contacts may not exactly correspond to the contact indications (lithology, blow count etc.) on the logs. 4) Blow counts, lithology, fines content measurements are as reported by Fugro India. 5) Refer to Plate2 for key to data shown on Borings and CPT soundings. 6) Ground Surface profile is from available topographic survey data. Where no survey data are available, approximate ground surface is shown by dashed lines.

SUBSURFACE CROSS SECTION 3-3' Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India PLATE 9

ELEVATION (METERS)

@ @

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

38

8 0

8 0

FILL

27

8 0

8 0

8 0

APPROXIMATE LIMITS OF SANTRA CREEK

!
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

BH-13 7 m, East

3' S1E

20

17

0
@
18

15

14

38

41

44

-10

53

19

! ! !

ELEVATION (METERS)

8 0

UNIT 1A
@ @
@

91

@
@

@
@

@
@

@ @

94 @ 88

UNIT 1B
@
@
@ @
@

@
3

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
27

16
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
27

29

26

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

30

24

58

32

UNIT 2

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

34 5 32
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

28

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

44

@
@

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

38

UNIT 3A

8 0

8 0

FILL

27

8 0

8 0

8 0

APPROXIMATE LIMITS OF SANTRA CREEK

3' S1E !
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

20

17

0
@
18

15

14

38

41

44

-10

53

! ! ! !

19

ELEVATION (METERS)

@ @

@
@

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

38

UNIT 3A

8 0

8 0

FILL

27

8 0

8 0

8 0

APPROXIMATE LIMITS OF SANTRA CREEK

!
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

BH-13 7 m, East

3' S1E

20

8 0

8 0
@@ @@

8 0

8 0

8 0

17

0
@
18

@@

@@

15

14

38

41

44

-10

53

! ! ! !

19

@@ @@

Indian Oil Corporation Project No. 3193.026

BH-34 A-A' m, West 14

CPT-06 35 m, West

CH-10 25 m, West

4 N1W

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

15 20

!
0

31

37

@
@
73 51

@
@

@
@

-10
47

73

@ @ @

@ @

@
@

@
@

ELEVATION (METERS)

12

14

10

14

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
46

@
22

@
@

@
@ @

@
@
@

-20

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

57

34

UNIT 4

-20

52

64

55

41

27

54

29

52

! ! !

26

@19
53

UNIT 5
@ @ @ @ @ @ @ @

31

-30

45

53 52 42

54

@
@

-30

39 41 78

UNIT 6

10 20 30 qc, Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa

@ @ 500400300200100 0

500400300200100 0 10 20 30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa

500400300200100 0 10 20 30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa

500400300200100 0 10 20 30 qc, Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa

-40

-40

WITH CPT TIP RESISTANCE, SPT BLOW COUNTS AND INTERPRETED SHEAR STRENGTH

BH-34 A-A' m, West 14

CPT-06 35 m, West

BH-55 11 m, West

4 N1W

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

21

48

61

31 2

37

93

@
1

@
@
73

27

@
22 51

-10
47 3

73

@
@ @

@
@ @

@
@

@
@

@
@
@

@
@

@
@

ELEVATION (METERS)

@
30

12

14

UNIT 3B
@ @ @ @ @
@ @ @ @

@
@

10

14

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
46

@
22

@
@ @

@
@

-20
3

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

57

34

UNIT 4

-20

52

64

55

41

27

27

54

29

! ! ! ! !

52

! ! !

26

67

@19
53

UNIT 5
@ @ @ @ @ @ @ @

79

31

-30

71

45

53 52 42

54

@
@
@

-30

39 32 41 78

@
@

66

UNIT 6

@
10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa 10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa 10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa

-40

-40

WITH CPT FRICTION RATIO AND MEASURED FINES CONTENT


BH-34 A-A' m, West 14 CPT-06 35 m, West CH-10 25 m, West CPT-64 D-D' m, West 15 BH-91 40 m, East B-B' BH-55 11 m, West CPT-62 37 m, East BH-06 34 m, East CPT-63 34 m, East BH-33 6 m, West

4 N1W

C-C'

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

15 20

!
0

31

37

@
@
73 51

@
@

@
@

-10
47

73

@ @ @

@ @

@
@

@
@

ELEVATION (METERS)

12

14

UNIT 3B
@ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @

10

14

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
46

@
22

@
@

@
@ @

@
@
@

-20

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

57

34

UNIT 4

-20

52

64

55

41

27

54

29

52

! ! !

26

@19
53

UNIT 5
@ @ @ @ @ @ @ @

31

-30

45

53 52

54

@
@

-30

39 41 10 8 6 4 2 0 07820 40 60 Volumetric Strain Blow Counts (%) Settlement (cm)

UNIT 6

@
10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

10 8 6 4 2 0 04220 40 60 Volumetric Strain Blow Counts (%) Settlement (cm)


!

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

-40

-40

WITH LIQUEFACTION POTENTIAL ANALYSIS RESULTS

2m 50 m Vertical Exaggeration = 25

Notes: 1) Stratigraphic contacts are approximate, simplified, and provided for regional illustrative purposes only. The stratigraphic contacts are interpreted from Fugro India Borings and CPT soundings. 2) Conditions vary both along and perpendicular to the section line. 3) Borings and CPT sounding logs are projected onto the lines of the cross sections. Therefore stratigraphic contacts may not exactly correspond to the contact indications (lithology, blow count etc.) on the logs. 4) Blow counts, lithology, fines content measurements are as reported by Fugro India. 5) Refer to Plate2 for key to data shown on Borings and CPT soundings. 6) Ground Surface profile is from available topographic survey data. Where no survey data are available, approximate ground surface is shown by dashed lines.

SUBSURFACE CROSS SECTION 4-4' Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India PLATE 10

ELEVATION (METERS)

8 0

8 0

@
3

FILL
@
@ @ @
@@

17

21

@3

@
! ! ! ! ! !

UNIT 1A
@
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

13

@3
8

@
15 20

UNIT 1B
@ @

!
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

35

18

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

19

@
31 20

36

20

10 8 6 4 2 0 02620 40 60 Volumetric Strain Blow Counts (%) Settlement (cm)


!

@10 8 6 4 2 0 (%) 40 60 Volumetric Strain Blow Counts Settlement (cm)

@ 03520

@ 10 8 6 4 210 804120 240 60 20 40 60 0 6 4 0 013 VolumetricVolumetric Strain Blow Counts Strain Blow Counts (%) (%) Settlement (cm) Settlement (cm)
! ! ! !

25

85

UNIT 2
@ @
@

79

17

@
@

@
@

@
@

UNIT 3A @

@ @

8 0

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

22

17

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
! ! ! !

15

21

23

8 0

8 0

8 0

8 0

8 0

8 0

APPROXIMATE LIMITS OF SANTRA CREEK

!!

4' S1E !
@

-10

ELEVATION (METERS)

8 0

8 0

8 0

@
3

@
@ @ @
@

@3

77

UNIT 1A
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

!
!

84

13

@3
8

@
15 20

!
!

UNIT 1B
@
@

@
4

7 4

!
! ! !

21

! !

35

18

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

19

@
31 20

! ! ! !

36 26

20

! ! !

@35

25 41

60@
!

85

UNIT 2
@

79

17

@
@

@
@

@
@

@
@

@
@

UNIT 3A @

@ @

8 0

!
@ @

FILL

17

8 0

8 0

8 0

8 0

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

15 20

22

17

@
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

15

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

21

23 13

8 0

8 0

APPROXIMATE LIMITS OF SANTRA CREEK

!!

4' S1E !
@

CPT-64 D-D' m, West 15

BH-91 40 m, East

BH-06 34 m, East

C-C'

B-B'

CH-10 25 m, West

CPT-62 37 m, East

CPT-63 34 m, East

BH-33 6 m, West

-10

ELEVATION (METERS)

8 0

8 0

8 0

@
3

@
@ @ @
@@

FILL
@ @ @

17

21

@3

UNIT 1A
@
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

!
!

13

@3
8

@
15 20

UNIT 1B
@ @

!
! ! !

35

18

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

19

@
31 20

36 26

20

@35

25 41

85

UNIT 2
@ @
@

79

17

@
@

@
@

@
@

UNIT 3A @ @ UNIT 3B

@ @

8 0

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

22

17

! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
! ! ! !

15

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

21

23 13

@
! !

8 0

8 0

8 0

8 0

8 0

8 0

APPROXIMATE LIMITS OF SANTRA CREEK

!!

4' S1E !
@

CPT-64 D-D' m, West 15

BH-91 40 m, East B-B'

C-C'

BH-55 11 m, West

CPT-62 37 m, East

BH-06 34 m, East

CPT-63 34 m, East

BH-33 6 m, West

8 0

@ @ @ @ @ @ @ @

-10

Indian Oil Corporation Project No. 3193.026

BH-29 16 m, West

A-A'

! !

! !

! !

! !

! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

11

27

0
@

10

@
28 44

@
! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
9

@
@

! ! ! !

41

36

24

61

26

41

27

70

-10
@
33

23

53

43

ELEVATION (METERS)

@
13

@
@

@
@

@
@

@ @

@
@

@
@

@
@

UNIT 3B
@

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@14 @
30

@ @

UNIT 3A
@
@

@
@
@ @

@
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

14

64

26

@
@
@
@

-20

44

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

57

51

-20

46

28

63

34

41

76

UNIT 4
@
@

48

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

28

58

48

@
@
@

44

49

27

45

50

42 36 28

-30

@
@

47
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

48

68 0 42 52

33

@
! ! !

46 44 40

@ @

@ @

@
@
@

UNIT 5
@

-30

UNIT 6
500400300200100 0 10 20 30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa 500400300200100 0 10 20 30 Undrained Shear (kPa) MPa qc, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 , MPa

-40

-40

WITH CPT TIP RESISTANCE, SPT BLOW COUNTS AND INTERPRETED SHEAR STRENGTH

BH-29 16 m, West

A-A'

! !

! !

! !

! !

! !

! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

11

27

! !

0
@

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

94

10

@
28 44

! !

@
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
9

! !

! !

! ! ! ! ! !

41

4
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

36

24

61

1
! !

26 2 27

4
!

41

70

-10
27

23 16 53

33

2 33

80

43

@
92

ELEVATION (METERS)

31

@
13 25

@
@

@ @

@
@

@
@

14
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

UNIT 3B
@

36

@14 @
30

@
@

@
@

@
@

UNIT 3A
@
@
@

4
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

64 3 57

26

@
@
@

-20

! ! ! ! ! !

44

51

-20

2
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

46

28 2 41

63

34

12

! ! ! ! ! ! !

76

UNIT 4
@
@

2
! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

48

! ! ! ! !

28

58

! !

48

44

49

68

27

@
@
37

45 15 47
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

50

42 36 28

48

-30

@
@

67

68 0 42 52

33

@
! !

@53
71

46 44 40

@
@

@
@

@
@

@
@

UNIT 5
@

-30

78

UNIT 6
10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa 10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Fr, % qc, MPa

-40

-40

WITH CPT FRICTION RATIO AND MEASURED FINES CONTENT

BH-29 16 m, West

A-A'

! !

! !

! !

! !

! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

11

! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! !

27

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

0
@

10

@
28 44

! !

@
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

@
9

@
@

! !

! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

41

36

24

61

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

26

41

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

27

70

! ! ! ! ! ! !

-10
@
33

23

53

43

ELEVATION (METERS)

@
13

@
@

@
@

@
@

@ @

@
@

@
@

@
@

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

UNIT 3B @

@14 @
30

@ @

UNIT 3A
@
@

@
@

14

@
@ @

64

26

@
@
@
@

-20

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

44

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

57

51

-20

46

28

63

34

! ! ! ! ! ! !

41

76

UNIT 4
58

48

! ! ! ! !

28

@
49

! !

48

@
@
@

44

27

45

50

42 36

-30

@
@

47
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

48

10 8 6 4 2 0 02820 40 60 Volumetric Strain Blow Counts (%) Settlement (cm)


! !

68 0 42

33

@
!

! !

46 44

@ @

@ @

@
@
@

UNIT 5
@

-30

20 10 8 6 4 2 0 052 40 60 Volumetric Strain Blow Counts (%) Settlement (cm)

10 8 6 4 2 0 04020 40 60 Volumetric Strain Blow Counts (%) Settlement (cm)


! !

UNIT 6
10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm) 10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30 Vol. Strain (%) MPa qc, Settlement (cm)

-40

-40

WITH LIQUEFACTION POTENTIAL ANALYSIS RESULTS Notes: 1) Stratigraphic contacts are approximate, simplified, and provided for regional illustrative purposes only. The stratigraphic contacts are interpreted from Fugro India Borings and CPT soundings. 2) Conditions vary both along and perpendicular to the section line. 3) Borings and CPT sounding logs are projected onto the lines of the cross sections. Therefore stratigraphic contacts may not exactly correspond to the contact indications (lithology, blow count etc.) on the logs. 4) Blow counts, lithology, fines content measurements are as reported by Fugro India. 5) Refer to Plate2 for key to data shown on Borings and CPT soundings. 6) Ground Surface profile is from available topographic survey data. Where no survey data are available, approximate ground surface is shown by dashed lines.

2m 50 m Vertical Exaggeration = 25

SUBSURFACE CROSS SECTION 5-5' Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India PLATE 11

ELEVATION (METERS)

8 0

8 0

13

@ @ @

!
@
1

@
@

FILL
@

@
@ @

@
@

@
@ @

@
@

@
@

@
@

@
@
@

@
@

@
@

UNIT 1A @ UNIT 1B

11

13

21

@
@ @ @

23

UNIT 2
39

51

48

10

8 0

8 0

5 N1E ! @

B-B'

APPROXIMATE LIMITS OF SANTRA CREEK


@ @

CPT-05 41 m, West

CPT-35 16 m, East

BH-30 2 m, East

BH-31 6 m, East

5' S1W

@
@

-10

ELEVATION (METERS)

74

8 0

@ 2

8 0

13

@ @ @

!
@
1

@
@

FILL
@

@
@ @

@
@

@
@ @

@
@

@
@

@
@

@
@

UNIT 1A
@

@
@

11

UNIT 1B
@
@

13

21

@
@
@

23

UNIT 2
39

51

48

10

8 0

8 0

8 0

8 0

5 N1E ! @
@ @

B-B'

APPROXIMATE LIMITS OF SANTRA CREEK

CPT-05 41 m, West

CPT-35 16 m, East

BH-30 2 m, East

BH-31 6 m, East

5' S1W

@
@

-10

ELEVATION (METERS)

8 0

8 0

13

@ @ @

!
@
1

@
@

FILL
@

@
@ @

@
@

@
@ @

@
@

@
@

@
@

UNIT 1A
@ @

@
@
@

@
@

@
@

11

UNIT 1B
@
@

13

21

@
@ @

23

UNIT 2
39

51

48

10

8 0

8 0

@
@

5 N1E ! @

B-B'

APPROXIMATE LIMITS OF SANTRA CREEK


@

CPT-05 41 m, West

CPT-35 16 m, East

BH-30 2 m, East

BH-31 6 m, East

5' S1W

8 0

@ @ @

-10

Indian Oil Corporation Project No. 3193.026

D-D' BH-03 26 m, West

BH-01 11 m, East

BH-02 0 m, East

2000

E N17W
@ @

C-C'

A-A'

B-B'

1000

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! !

18 33

FILL UNIT 1A UNIT 1B

@ @

!
! ! !

! ! !

! ! !

! ! !

! ! !

22 13 9 53 65 32 30 25 26

@ @

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

UNIT 2
@

0 14 0 @ 21
! ! !

! ! !

25 29 32 41 34 @ 35 9

BH-03
-10
-1000

! !

! ! ! !

-10
@ @

BH-01
-1000
Scale 1:50,000

! ! ! !

@ @

UNIT 2 UNIT 3A UNIT 3B UNIT 4

UNIT 2
@

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! !

! ! ! !

!
! !

UNIT 3A UNIT 3B

@ @ @

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

31

! ! ! !

@ 38 @
6 12 83 77

29

UNIT 3A UNIT 3B UNIT 4

@
@

! !

-20

26 41 37 42 39

38 52 38 75

-20

UNIT 4
@
@

48 57 36 42 45 42

-1000

-2000

-3000

-4000

-5000

38 42

@
! ! ! !

@81
! !

82

37 34 30 42 39 0 70 42

-30
@

34
! ! ! !

38 30 40 34 38

UNIT 5
@

39 41 40 41 64
! ! !

UNIT 5
@ @

UNIT 5
@ @
@ @ @
@ @

-30
@

!
! ! ! ! ! ! !

!
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

-40

39

! ! ! ! !

40 43

-40

68 0

31

39 66

!
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

!
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

ELEVATION (METERS)

81 46

ELEVATION (METERS)

71

62

74 0
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

88 0 67 56 53 41

-50
0 43 144

-50

Notes: 1) Stratigraphic contacts are approximate, simplified, and provided for regional illustrative purposes only. The stratigraphic contacts are interpreted from Fugro India Borings and CPT soundings. 2) Conditions vary both along and perpendicular to the section line. 3) Borings and CPT sounding logs are projected onto the lines of the cross sections. Therefore stratigraphic contacts may not exactly correspond to the contact indications (lithology, blow count etc.) on the logs. 4) Blow counts, lithology, fines content measurements are as reported by Fugro India. 5) Refer to Plate2 for key to data shown on Borings and CPT soundings.

! ! !

95

41 48

-60

! !

41

81

54 68

-60

39
! !

80

96 65

85

78

96

-70
0 55

UNIT 6 UNIT 6
! !

84
! ! ! !

64 58 63 65 0 0

-70

!
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

73

80

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

!
!

! !

! ! !

-80

! ! ! !

!
!

-80
73

81

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

6) Ground Surface profile is from another topographic survey data. Where no survey data are available, approximate ground surface is shown by dashed lines. 7) The purpose of this cross-section is to illustrate the stratigraphy from the 3 deep boreholes. Due to relatively large distances between the three deep boreholes, Unit 6 has not been subdivided into smaller units.

56

! ! ! ! !

-90
72 64 52

-90

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

102

72

-100

-100

-110

-110

4m 100 m Vertical Exaggeration = 25

SUBUSRFACE CROSS SECTION E-E' Paradip Refinery Project Orissa, India PLATE 12

8 0

@ @

! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! !

! ! ! !

! ! ! !

! ! ! !

21 14 8

@ @

! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! !

FILL UNIT 1A UNIT 1B

FILL UNIT 1A UNIT 1B

@
@ @

22 2

@
8 13

@ @ 27
6

BH-02

1000

8 0

"

"

"

E' S14W

@0 12

2000

-1000

-2000

-3000

-4000

-5000

8 0