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Journal of Modern Greek Studies, Supplement to Volume 28, Number 1, May 2010, pp. 241-262 (Article)
Published by The Johns Hopkins University Press DOI: 10.1353/mgs.0.0107
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The Misadventures of Kazantzakis’s Kapetan Michalis in Translation
It has long been known that Jonathan Griffin’s English translation of Nikos Kazantzakis’s Kapetan Michalis is plagued by omissions and inaccuracies. Previous investigations accounted for these in terms of an attempt to remove blatantly anti-Turkish sentiment (Vamvaka 1998) or to reduce the author’s tendency to digress or provoke (Beaton 2006), without investigating the possibility that Griffin was not translating from the original Greek text. Recently catalogued unpublished correspondence between translators, publishers, and Eleni and Nikos Kazantzakis reveals that Griffin based his version on Helmut von Steinen’s rendition of the novel in German, which was substantially altered by Walter Kahnert of Herbig Verlag before appearing in print. Moreover, it emerges that the English text is just one in a series of translations commissioned by the German-Jewish publisher Max Tau, who made use of an extensive network of contacts to promote Kazantzakis’s work on the international market, with what was often scant regard for the accuracy of foreign language editions. Based on this finding, a comparison of translations published in six Germanic languages (German, English, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, and Dutch) enables us to propose a stemma for Northern European versions of Kapetan Michalis.
To state that Nikos Kazantzakis is the most translated modern Greek prose author is something of a platitude. For decades now, the colorful dust jackets adorning foreign editions of his works have been on display at the Historical Museum of Crete and the Nikos Kazantzakis Museum in Varvari, Crete; since 1997 they have also been viewable online, thanks to the Historical Museum’s “Nikos Kazantzakis Files.”1 Yet beyond the admiration and pride justifiably felt in Greece at such a publishing feat, recent years have seen growing academic interest in the quality of the translations per se. In a 1997 paper given at the Eighth Congress of Cretan Studies, Stamatis Philippidis pointed out that a number of scenes were absent from the English translation of Kapetan Michalis (published in
Journal of Modern Greek Studies 28 (2010) 241–262 © 2010 by The Johns Hopkins University Press
4 So how did Kazantzakis’s works come to be translated so rapidly and into so many languages? Investigation reveals that the key figure in disseminating the novels abroad was the German author. were extremely rare. Kapetan Michalis. and even Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species.5 His role. This applies not only to English. Roderick Beaton examined numerous problems associated with the English translations of Zorba the Greek. Diether Roderich Reinsch’s important observation that the Norwegian text was based on the German translation led to the inclusion of Scandinavian and Dutch-language editions in this study. Kazantzakis. Danish. which is instantly apparent from relevant correspondence. Four principal threads guide us through this linguistic labyrinth: previous studies. abridgement. is stressed by Reinsch . At that time. at a conference in Rethymnon. Six years later. and publisher Max Tau. Norwegian. his wife Eleni. and later by Peter Bien.S. since his numerous Greek renditions of works by German authors. publication history. professional modern Greek scholars capable of producing renditions equal to those by Börje Knös. since they allow for comparison with problematic passages in the English translation by Jonathan Griffin (Reinsch forthcoming).3 With their eyes firmly fixed on the Nobel Prize for Literature. and Dutch—even extending to Swedish. Whatever our findings may be. as well as from multiple references to him by Pandelis Prevelakis (1965) and Helen Kazantzakis (1983).2 Due to the overall complexity of the issue. it is worth bearing in mind just how radically things have changed since the 1950s when Kazantzakis’s novels were written and first marketed abroad. and mistranslation. Aristea Vamavaka used information provided by Philippidis about these omissions to check the French edition. which fared worse than the other novels in terms of heavy-handed editing. were based on French editions rather than on original texts (Koutsourelis 2007.K. the present investigation is restricted to Kapetan Michalis. The following year. Kazantzaki 2007:93). to say nothing of financial gain. the texts themselves. of course. we know that the practice of indirect translation was far from unknown to Kazantzakis. note 7). and Christ Recrucified (2006). correspondence between the Kazantzakis couple and their editors and translators. as Freedom or Death and in the U.242 Ben Petre the in the U. Beyond this. but also to a series of editions commissioned in other Germanic languages—German. where it would appear that the accurate rendition by Börje Knös—a conscientious modern Greek scholar and close friend of Kazantzakis—was abridged before appearing in print. and their publishers would not unnaturally have been interested in establishing a worldwide readership as rapidly as possible. which she discovered was much closer to the Greek original (1998). editor. as Freedom and Death) (2000:213. and.
Photography by Ben Petre.The Misadventures of Kapetan Michalis in Translation 243 Figure 1. . Cover illustration for the first Greek Edition of Kapetan Michalis by Mavridis Press (1954).
Τούτο μεταξύ μας. then owned by Tau’s old friend. The Greek Passion) and Freedom and Death. κυρίως πραγματευτής» (“a very enthusiastic person and a highly skilled publisher-cum-dealer. This network also extended to Herbig Verlag in Germany. possibly following mediation by Tau. and to Tanum in Oslo. Dutch translations of Kazantzakis’s works were produced by De Fontein Press.S. ich werde nicht ruhen. bis ich diese Aufgabe erfüllt habe” (“Through your work you have set me a new task in life. This group of publishers produced two of the editions most plagued by mistranslations and omissions: Christ Recrucified 9 and Kapetan Michalis. please!”). Writing to Kazantzakis on 2 December 1951. and his wife.S. The publishers in question were Simon and Schuster in New York. και τούτο δεν μου αρέσει. The letter ends: «Είμαι σοβαρός φιλόλογος. The deal went ahead. whose editor-in-chief was none other than Tau himself. Prologues by den Doolard later appeared in the American editions of Christ Recrucified (original U. I shall not rest until I have accomplished that task”) (ΕΠΑΡΚ 1795). he commented: «είναι άνθρωπος πολύ ενθουσιώδης και πολύ επιτήδειος πραγματευτής-εκδότης. In a postscript. nonetheless. re-established in Oxford after Cassirer and his son-in-law Günther Hell (later known as George Hill) fled Germany in 1938. Walter Kahnert. without necessarily being accurate. Yet he had no doubt of «τη φήμη που έχει ο Tau στις σκανδιναβικές χώρες» (“the prestige Tau has in the Scandinavian countries”) (ΕΠΑΡΚ 196Α–196Β). Erie. Denmark. μα ούτε πολύ μορφομένος [sic]. and England (ΕΠΑΡΚ 674Α–Β). A.8 From 1952 onwards. he stated: “Sie haben durch Ihr Werk meinem Leben eine neue Aufgabe gegeben. and on 12 March 1952 the Kazantzakises informed Knös that Tau had signed contracts with publishers in America. he described the publisher as «υπερβολικό» (“over the top”) and claimed that it might be wise not to accept his opinion. neither illiterate nor highly educated—above all a dealer”) (ΕΠΑΡΚ 500).7 Kazantzakis did have some reservations about Tau. and do not like this. Σας παρακαλώ!» (“I am a serious philologist. Den Doolard (Cornelis Spoelstra). Matters were rather .6 Others assisting in the attempt to win over publishers were the Dutch left-wing author. In a letter to Eleni in June 1951. Much harsher judgment was passed by Knös. In a warm letter written in Oslo on 29 August of that year. and the press run by Tau’s former employer Bruno Cassirer. όχι αγραμματισμένος [sic]. title. Tau’s acquaintance with Kazantzakis dates to 1951. [Keep] this between us. Jespersen og Pios Forlag in Copenhagen. Knös expresses his indignation at the fact that Tau wanted the translation to be completed rapidly.244 Ben Petre (forthcoming). who lost no time in establishing contacts in the U. whose main concern as an academic was that the translations be of high quality.
we must turn to the translators and their texts. not from German. (ΕΠΑΡΚ 3436) I did what I could to render the wild freshness of your language into German. What were the consequences of this publishing network for the fate of Kapetan Michalis? To answer this question. ελπίζω. βέβαια. a German-Jewish (like Tau) Homeric scholar and friend of Kazantzakis. . που. Από μένα ήθελε μόνο να έχει γενική ιδέα για το έργο. And he cut out a great deal. but the Swedish translation of Kapetan Michalis did not appear in full. But that did not please your friend Mr. I have also written the same to Mr. where Knös collaborated with Ljus Förlag in producing accurate translations based on the original Greek manuscripts. τίποτε να κάνω. Αυτός.The Misadventures of Kapetan Michalis in Translation 245 different in Sweden. Εγώ φυσικά δεν έχω τίποτα στα χέρια μου. . . there was nothing I could do about it. Hill μου έγραψε πως θέλει να μεταφράσει τον ΚΜ κατ’ ευθείαν από τα Ελληνικά. Μα αυτό καθόλου δεν άρεσε στον φίλο Σας κ. γιατί δε μου έστειλε δοκίμια του αλλαγμένου κειμένου. Ο κ. όπως ξέρετε. Και έκοψε παρά πολύ. I’ve got nothing in my hands. because he has not sent me proofs of the altered text. Δε μπορούσα. he sent a series of letters from Cairo. since he knows the German public better than I. Mr. Here we are fortunate in having correspondence relating to the first translation to appear in a Germanic language. wild one . On 28 February 1954. Hill. I don’t know the details. Μου έκανε αυστηρές παρατηρήσεις για το undeutsche ύφος της μετάφρασής μου και την άλλαξε «σύσωμο». τι μπορούσα να ξαναδώσω την άγρια φερσκάδα της γλώσσας Σας στα Γερμανικά. Kahnert at Herbigverlag one bit. issued by Herbig Verlag as Freiheit oder Tot in 1954. όχι από τα Γερμανικά. Of course. Of course. σχετικά εύκολα εφαρμόζεται στην έκφραση ξένου ρυθμού. . From late 1953 onwards. where he was working from a Greek manuscript. θα δει. . The translation was entrusted to Helmut von der Steinen. All he wanted from me was a general idea of the work. Hill—I hope he will look at some chapters Herbig is sending him. He made stern remarks to me about the “undeutsche” style of my translation and changed it from top to toe. λοιπόν. beginning with Zorba the Greek in 1949. Kahnert του Herbigverlag. γιατί αυτός ξέρει καλύτερα από μένα το Γερμανικό κοινό και πιθανώς θα βρει περισσότερους αναγνώστες με την έκδοση τη banalisée παρά με την αυθεντική και άγρια . von den Steinen wrote to advise Kazantzakis of the following: Έκανα ό. Two of these letters unravel the mystery surrounding the omissions in so many editions of the novel. Hill wrote to me that he wants to translate KM directly from the Greek. Έγραψα αυτό και στον κ. Τις λεπτομέρειες δε ξέρω. which as you know is quite easily applied in foreign tones. and will probably get more readers with the banal edition than with the authentic. κάποια κεφάλαια που ο Herbig του στέλνει.
246 Ben Petre In August of the same year. Κάνερτ) undeutsch. such as Reinsch or Dimadis.” What we do know is that the abridgements were not the work of an English publisher. in a letter written some 24 years later. and I now have a good idea of how the book will be presented to the German public. it’s been two weeks since I finished the proofs of K. as hypothesized by Vamvaka (1998:55).Μ. Kahnert) my style is undeutsch.” All the same. Several episodes have been cut out.M. (ΕΠΑΡΚ 3437) Well. Elisabeth Stader. Πρέπει.10 Whatever the case may be. je le savais depuis fort longtemps que les traductions en allemand et malheureusement aussi en anglais des livres de mon mari sont très très . it has been mellowed and “ironed out. initially derived from his experiences as a member of the Commission for the Verification of German Atrocities on Crete (2001:392–393). Addressing concerns about the poor translations and the possibility of putting them aright. it is tempting to conjecture that a decade after the end of World War II. and since (according to Mr. και είναι πιθανώς πιο εύχρηστο για την πούληση. όμως. von den Steinen received the proofs at the State Hospital in Baden-Baden. best addressed by Kazantzakis scholars with a comprehensive knowledge of German reality at the time. these letters absolve von den Steinen of any responsibility—he delivered a full translation. είναι φτιαγμένο πιο γλυκύ και «ομαλό». To a great extent. Έτσι μπορείτε να είστε ικανοποιημένος από τον εκδότη Σας. να αναγνωρίζω πως το σύνολο κάνει καλήν εντύπωση. παρά η «μαλιαρή» ολάκαιρη μετάφραση. Valuable testimony on the matter of foreign editions is also provided by Eleni Kazantzakis. I must admit that the sum total makes a good impression. Germany where he was convalescing. It was then that he discovered precisely what had occurred: Τελείωσα λοιπόν εδώ και δυο εβδομάδες τα δοκίμια του Κ. motivated by political sensibilities aroused by tension on Cyprus. Kazantzakis drew extensively on an earlier text entitled Η Κρήτη (Crete). Angela Kastrinaki has shown how in writing the novel. Kahnert removed descriptions of Turkish atrocities—particularly from chapter XIII—because he knew or sensed that they were essentially a fictional reworking of similar crimes committed by German occupation forces on Crete. Precisely what is meant by undeutsch is another question. So you can be satisfied with your publisher. to a Ms. she notes: Oui. Πολλά επεισόδια είναι κομμένα και το ύφος μου εφ όσο είναι (κατά τον κ. in September 1978. and we have no way of knowing how many of the other inaccuracies in the published edition owe their existence to Kahnert’s attempts to render the style less “undeutsch. and is possibly easier to sell than the “unrefined” complete translation. και έχω τώρα σωστήν εντύπωση από το βιβλίο πως θα παρουσιάζεται στο Γερμανικό κοινό.
The provenance of the Norwegian version cannot be doubted. Lastly. . was an altogether impossible man—he considered himself an author. under the slightly altered title Freedom and Death. Mais le propriétaire de Herbig Verlag. i. rather than in Greek. . Nous aurions pu avoir en allemande encore deux merveilleuses traductions.13 but in other respects follows the Swedish so closely that the two texts appear to be related. and he allowed himself to .i. . the translator was Jonathan Griffin—in 1955 his rendition was issued by Simon and Schuster in New York as Freedom or Death and the following year by Cassirer in Oxford. . corriger Kazantzaki.12 The Dutch version refers to the Greek original: “Titel van de oorspronkelijke Griekse uitgave: «ο Καπετάν Μιχάλης»” (“Title of the original Greek edition: ‘O Kapetan Michalis’”). we have already seen that the adulterated German translation was used as the basis for numerous other editions. Von den Steinen était venu en Suisse.11 As one would expect. . and unfortunately also into English. with a view to having it translated straight from the Greek. Just imagine that he had changed 200 adjectives in the novel Freedom or Death alone. Returning to the 1950s. celles qu’a fait Helmut von den Steinen. are extremely poor. Unfortunately. Figurez-vous qu’il avait change 200 adjectifs du seul roman La Liberté ou la Mort. With regard to English. Walter Kahnert. Griffin would not appear to . . . the Swedish edition clearly states that it is translated “från författarens manuskript av Börje Knös” (“from the author’s manuscript by Börje Knös”). Von den Steinen came to Switzerland and. Freiheit oder Tod et Le Pauvre d’Assise. and an excellent one at that. denounced Kahnert to us. était un homme absolument impossible. but told von den Steinen that he was only interested in gaining a general impression of the work. (ΕΠΑΡΕΚ 1846) Yes. . since the title of the original work is cited on the flyleaf in German (Freiheit oder Tod). Whatever the case may be. d. done by Helmut von den Steinen. The Danish edition clearly states that it is: “Med forfatterens tilladelse forkortet og oversat fra tysk efter ‘Freiheit oder Tod’” (“[a]bridged with the author’s permission and translated from German after Freiheit oder Tod ”).e. il se croyait écrivain et encore grand écrivain et se permettait de . . Walter Kahnert. with tears in his eyes. We could have had another two wonderful translations into German.The Misadventures of Kapetan Michalis in Translation 247 mauvaises. we have seen that George Hill at Cassirer obtained the German text from Kahnert. et c’est avec des larmes aux yeux qu’il nous a dénoncé Kahnert. . But the proprietor of Herbig Verlag. correct Kazantzakis. I have known for a very long time that the translations of my husband’s books into German. the English translation is devoid of any such reference other than the translator’s name. Freedom and Death and God’s Pauper. unlike other translators.
Δυο τρεις μεσοκαιρίτισες .248 Ben Petre have entered into direct correspondence with Nikos or Eleni Kazantzakis. Perhaps more importantly. as we now suspect? As it turns out. Norwegian. In the first few pages of most editions. There can thus be no doubt that he was capable of producing literary translations from German. the 1976 Manchester Royal Exchange production of Heinrich von Kleist’s Prince of Homburg was based on a translation by Griffin. in addition to serving as a diplomat and director of BBC European Intelligence during the war. there is a paragraph which contains several pronounced deviations from the Greek original. with the exception of the fainting episode involving Kapetan Polyxingis’s sister Chrysanthi in Chapter Three. he wrote poetry and produced translations from several languages. the gaps in the English translation are exactly the same as those in the German. Furthermore. yet only ten of these ever appeared in print. the Norwegian and Danish texts vary in what they omit. τη θάλασσα.16 Moving on to the texts. but the gaps they contain are different from those in the “German” group. The fact that the Dutch text includes the tale narrated by Barbayiannis. as we would expect. μαρινάροι. It depicts Kapetan Michalis looking out over the harbor at Megalokastro: Κοίταξε ζερβά του κατά το λιμάνι—τα καΐκια. yet. βλαστημούσαν. Ως πέρα ο μόλος βούϊζε· εμπόροι.15 Yet. is a point to which we will return later. which has been cut out of the English version. φόρτοναν. in the novel’s opening chapter there is a passage that will serve as an admirable litmus test. they do not contain any passages missing from the German translation on which they were based. At additional points. apart from turning up two “problematic” Kazantzakis novels—Kapetan Michalis and Christ Recrucified—a search of library databases fails to yield any other translations by him from modern Greek.14 From other sources we learn that. mainly from Portuguese and French. and Danish texts. What Table 1 reveals is that the 12 different episodes translated into six different languages should in theory have yielded 72 renditions. τις βάρκες. μύριζε το λιμάνι σαπημένα κίτρα. which is missing from the Swedish edition. να νετάρουν. Κουφόβραζε η θάλασσα. Could there be any other way to corroborate the claim that Griffin was working from the corrupt German translation. neither the Swedish nor the Dutch translation is complete. ξεφόρτοναν αραμπάδες· βιάζουνταν. it is immediately obvious that the passages missing from the German translation are almost identical to those already noted by Vamvaka and Beaton in the English editions (Table 1). χαμάληδες πηγαινόρχουνταν ανάμεσα σε λαδοβάρελα και κρασοβάρελα και σωρούς χαρούπια και φώναζαν. χαρούπι και κρασόλαδo. during his lifetime (1906–1990). At the above points in the novel. πριν τσακίσει ο ήλιος και σφαλήξει η καστρόπορτα. βαρκάρηδες.
Kapetan Michalis’s dream VIII 4. How Kubelina’s son was executed TOTAL NUMBER OF EPISODES PER EDITION . Turks set out for Kapitan Michalis’s house 2. Thrasaki performs the “donkey liturgy” 6. How the old lady’s sons were executed XIII 2. Kapetan Michalis and the fear of death XI Thrasaki comes near to provoking a riot XII Kriaras the rhymester visits Kapetan Sifakas 1. Barbayiannis tells the Pasha a story 3. Kapetan Michalis stabs himself 5. Omissions identified by Vamvaka17 (1998) and Beaton (2006) in the English translation. and corresponding passages in other editions18 GK1 GK2 GER 117–118            12 12 1 1         — —           1               1         159  159–160 160    249–252   4       187 187–189 189        3   93–94 104–105   DAN NOR SWE NL 104–105 119–120 174–182 196–206 257 291 258–259 292–294 260 294 261 295 261–262 296–297 262 297 373–380 418–426 389–392 435–439 426–427 477–478 429–430 480–481 ENG1 ENG2 Chapter Passage III Chrysanthi and the fainting episode V Kapetan Polyxingis at the graveyard 1.Table 1.
loading and unloading carts. vol.250 Ben Petre μαλτέζες. which differs from later ones only with respect to the prologue— which was written some years later. Turning first to the German text. (ENG1:4. considerable quantities of carob were exported from Crete (Perakis 2005. carob. (GK1:10) The corresponding passage in the Griffin translation is as follows: He gazed leftwards at the harbor—at the steamers. and the harbor stank of rotten oranges. the sailing ships and the sea.” Quite apart from the marked inconsistency. the skiffs and the sea. shouting.and wine-casks and piles of rubbish. turnips. I:289–291). These substitutions may perhaps owe their existence to Kahnert’s efforts to render the text more comprehensible to the German reading public. Sounds came from up on the mole: dealers. wine and oil. Be that as it may. loading and unloading. wine and oil. Table 2 gives the renditions of the italicized words and phrases published in each language. ορθές στο μουράγιο. They were hurrying to be done with it before the sun went down and the fortress gate shut. which was coming in with a cargo of fish. βαμένες με το μυστρί. ENG2:8)19 At the very minimum. sailors. The sea poised sultrily. The sea poised sultrily. which is translated in the first instance as “rubbish” and in the second as “turnips. we note the removal of any reference to carob. which would obviously have been more familiar with rubbish and turnips than carob. this does away with an important historical detail. They were waving to a broad-beamed Maltese ketch. shouting. They were waving to a broad-beamed Maltese steamer. cursing. and the harbor stank of rotten citron. βραχνοκακάριζαν κ’ έκαναν νοήματα σε μιαν κοιλάρα μαλτέζικη ανεμότρατα που κατάφτανε φορτομένη ψαρι. and therefore never appeared in translation—and Kazantzakis’s somewhat idiosyncratic spelling. since at the time described by Kazantzakis. Sounds came up from the mole: dealers. boatmen and porters were swarming between oil.and wine-casks and piles of carob. Two or three middle-aged Maltese women sprinkled with spray stood on the wharf and chattered hoarsely. They were hurrying to be done with it by the time the sun went down and the fortress gate shut. sailors. The original Greek text is taken from the 1953 Greek edition by Mavridis. which was coming in with a cargo of bottles. cursing. this could be emended to read: He gazed leftwards towards the harbor—at the caiques. Two or three middle-aged Maltese women plastered in make-up stood on the wharf and chattered hoarsely. boatmen and porters were swarming between oil. Knös had no hesitation in choosing the correct word johannisbröd on both .
The Harbour at Megalokastro Edition GK1 GK2 GER Page 10 14 8 .The Misadventures of Kapetan Michalis in Translation Table 2. the German word Flaschen. it is instantly apparent that they passed into Griffin’s English text. “bottles” rather than “fish.” may have been due to an error on the typesetter’s part. i. The fact that both of them render «κίτρα» (“citrons”) simply as “fruit” may be taken as an indication that one is dependent on the other.” Lastly. Furthermore. σωρούς χαρούπια .. the meaning of the phrase «σοβαντισμένες με μακιγιάζ» (“plastered with make-up”) either escaped the translator or was purposely altered to “sprinkled with spray. as well as into the Norwegian and Danish editions.e. On the other hand. since it closely resembles the accurate rendition Fischen.. However the errors are accounted for.. particularly if a handwritten manuscript was the source. σωρούς χαρούπια … gehäuftem Abfall … piles of rubbish … piles of rubbish … hauger av sammenrasket boss affaldsdynger κίτρα κίτρα Orangen χαρούπι χαρούπι Rüben βαμένες με το μυστρί βαμμένες με το μυστρί vom Schaum bespritzt sprinkled with spray sprinkled with spray oversprøytet med sjøskum 251 φορτομένη ψάρι φορτωμένη ψάρι mit Flaschen beladen with a cargo of bottles with a cargo of bottles lastet med flasker ENG1 4 oranges turnips ENG2 8 oranges turnips NOR 6 appelsiner rotfrukter DAN 6 appelsiner roer mens vandet lastet med sprøjtede op på flasker dem tjockt målade som med murselv lastad med fisk SWE 8 höger av johannisbröd frukt johannisbröd Johannesbrood NL 6 hopen fruit Johannesbrood dik onder het volgeladen blanketsel. alsof met vis er een troffel aan te pas gekomen was occasions. And since we know that Knös was translating . the Swedish and Dutch texts follow the original more closely.
The same spirit of bowdlerism may account for the alteration of the phrase «με σένα τα ’χω θεέ μου. not with people”) uttered by Kapetan Michalis towards the end of Chapter Four... One striking inaccuracy examined in some detail by Beaton concerns the phrase «δυο φρύδια κερκέζικα» (“two Circassian eyebrows”). whereas Greek φρύδια (eyebrows) bears absolutely no resemblance to γυναίκες (women). nicht mit Table 3. but leaves two of them out (see also Vamvaka 1998:56). who is the object of Kapetan Michalis’s desire. As Beaton points out. but with an altered rhyme scheme. In this particular case. ‚mit dir.252 Ben Petre from Greek. von den Steinen is entirely accurate in choosing the word Brauen (eyebrows). There is. my God. “Two Circassian eyebrows” Edition GK1 GK2 GER ENG1 ENG2 NOR DAN SWE NL Page 87 101 98 84 93 87 77 59 72 Translation δυό φρύδια κερκέζικα δυό φρύδια κερκέζικα Zwei tscherkessische Brauen — two Circassian women To tsjerkessiske øyenbryn To tjerkessiske øjenbryn två cirkassiska ögonbryn… Twee Cirkassische ogen. Table 3 clearly shows that the error cannot have originated in any of the other languages under examination. at least some evidence that Griffin may occasionally have consulted the Greek text. Referent eyebrows eyebrows women eyebrows eyebrows eyebrows eyes “Women” γυναίκες Frauen – (Weiber) women kvinner kvinder kvinnor vrouwen .21 In Chapter 13. which return to haunt Kapetan Michalis in a nightmare he has in Chapter Three. Griffin constructs rhyming couplets in tune with the Greek. the published English rendition—“two Circassian women”—fails to establish the obvious connection with Emine. it is not unreasonable to surmise that the Dutch was based on the Swedish. the ribald ditty about Aunt Thodora is rendered fully and reasonably faithfully in German. and instead depicts the protagonist as lusting after Circassian women in general (2006:114). Furthermore.20 Furthermore. On the other hand.‘ murmelte er. όχι με τους ανθρώπους» (“It’s you I’m at odds with. What appears to have happened is that Griffin misread this word as Frauen (women). This is faithfully translated into German („‚Mit dir bin ich zerworfen. mein Gott. however. in German the two words differ only by one letter. it emerges that the German text may well shed light on other errors in the English version.
and have your way. if you were some other girl! Άχου θειά μου. τη δουλειά σου Κι ύστερά ’μαι πάλι θειά σου! Tu deine Pflicht. . ach. Child.e. ENG2:147). not with men’” (ENG1:134.’ he muttered. GK2 195–196. At this point the Greek text consists of five distinct paragraphs (see GK1 173. 429) GK2 (p. ENG1 165–166. in the German group Manolis is taken to mean Crete itself. θειά μου. τ’ ανάσκελα μπροστά μου -Άχου. γιέ μου.” but simply alive. 381) ENG2 (p. as we saw in Table 1. Ah. Christ. The above phrase appears on the last page of Chapter Five in all of the translations examined here. Und ich griff auch an ihre Brust. 415) 253 Mit meiner Tante Theodora I took my Aunt Thodora down Ging ich zur Stadt in froher One summer evening to the Lust town Wir sprachen viel—sie griff an meine. which is not “liberated. as Beaton showed. The Ditty about Aunt Thodora (Chapter XIII) GK1 (p. we find that they can be grouped according to specific phrases and sub-sections. 480) Με τη θειά μου τη Θοδώρα επηγαίναμε στη χώρα Κ’ έλεγέ μου κ’ έλεγά της Κι άγγιζέ μου κι άγγιζά της. some day den Menschen. τέτοια κάλλη! Wie bist du schön. The resurrection of Christ is thus dissociated from the notion of national rebirth once the Ottoman yoke has been cast off. GER (p. i. in English it becomes “‘With Thee I can endure life. be a man..‘“ GER:155) but. GER 189–190. I’ll be your aunt again. since the episode involving Kapetan Polyxingis’s visit to the graveyard is omitted. meine Your beauty’s set me in a whirl Tante. Yet for some unknown reason.The Misadventures of Kapetan Michalis in Translation Table 4. mein Sohn! Hernieder! Und deine Tante werd ich später wieder. ‘with Thee. Είδε ο Θιός και πέφτει η θειά μου ωχ. 426) ENG1 (p. νά ’σουν άλλη! Ach. Gott ließ es zu.—und hingebreitet Lag dann die Tante dicht vor mir. my God. perhaps indicating that Griffin could not bring himself to accept such hubris (2006:114). Yet once again there are differences which clearly separate the various editions into groups. the message rung out by the bells of Saint Minas at Easter—toward the end of Chapter Five—is rendered in one of three distinct ways: The Swedish and Dutch versions are accurate but interpretive: Kapetan Manolis is Emmanuel. On the phrase level. Returning to all six translations. wärst du eine andre hier! Κάμε.
(att) Kristos inte var död. (datt) Christus niet dood was. datt Kreta vrij was! NOR ENG2 180–181. it attracted the attention of previous researchers precisely because several passages are absent from the translations (Vamvaka 1998:54. It is somewhat surprising to see that the Dutch translation yet again includes a passage on how Sifakas abducted his bride. C.. δεν πέθανε ο καπετάν Μανόλης. Crete lives! … Kreta er ikke død! Kreta lever! . Lastly. The message rung out by the bells (Chapter V) Edition GK1 GK2 GER ENG1 ENG DAN SWE NL 2 Page 173 195 189 165 180 167 144 109 126 Απόδοση . and that once again the omissions in the English edition are identical to those in the German one. This hypothesis is entirely credible if one considers that other novels by Kazantzakis were translated from Swedish into Dutch. The most likely explanation is that H. λεφτερώθηκε η Κρήτη! … Kreta ist nicht tot. Kreta lever! . end with the pealing of the bells. δεν πεθαίνει ο καπετάν Μανόλης. Edelman— who does not appear to have translated any other works from modern Greek—had the entire unpublished Swedish text by Knös at his disposal. δεν πεθαίνει ο καπετάν Μανόλης. Crete lives! … Crete is not dead. absent from the Swedish edition. three. NOR 167... This contains a series of digressions concerning the people and places the two young men encounter. NL 126). but include two and four.254 Ben Petre Table 5.. but that different choices regarding abridgement were made before the two translations went to press. Kreta er ikke død. similar findings emerge from a closer look at subsections of the novel that run to several pages. and five.. att Kreta var fritt! . SWE 109.. but include one. Table 6 shows that the Norwegian text is the most heavily abridged. The journey made by Kosmas and Kostandis to the village where Kapetan Sifakas lies on his deathbed is a good example (Chapter 13). whereas the Swedish and Dutch translations leave out paragraphs one. The Norwegian and Swedish versions. four. and five. Kreta lebt! … Crete is not dead. DAN 144... δεν πέθανε ο καπετάν Μανόλης. which are the shortest of all.24 . M. Beaton 2006:113). λεφτερόθηκε η Κρήτη! . the German and English editions omit paragraphs two and three.
5     377 411 316  278 279 279–280      280 280 6 375–376 409–410 314–315   313 344 277 305 306–307 307 307–308 308       308 6 422–423 472–473 423–424 474–475 424–425 475–476 425 476 426 477 426–427 477–478 427–429 478–480 429 481 430 481 430 482 430 482 374 408 GER ENG1 ENG2 DAN NOR SWE NL 1 Introduction 2 How Sifakas abducted his bride 3 The murder of Hussein–Arnaoutis22 4 Description of the mass execution ordered by Hussein 5 With the old people at the village where the execution took place 6 On the plain—the meeting with the «χατζίνα» (rendered as“old woman”) 7 How the old women’s sons were executed 8 At Kubelina’s village—the meal—the ditty 9 How Kubelina’s son was executed 10 Kubelina’s gift to Kosmas 11 Kosmas reflects on Crete and her children 12 Arrival at the village—the hot south wind TOTAL NUMBER OF PASSAGES .Table 6. The journey to Kapetan Sifakas’s village (Chapter XIII) GK1 GK2 421 471 419 420–422 422  423 424  425–426  427 427 427 12 9 379–381 413–415   381 415 381 415–416 381 416 9    318–320  320 321 321 9 378–379 412–413 317–318 377–378 411–412 316–317    [345–347]  34723 347 347 4.
2) Edelman (NL) . von den Steinen (German) Greek editions (GK1. Postulated stemma for Germanic-language translations of Kapetan Michalis Kapetan Michalis manuscript(s).2) Knös (Swedish) Interventions and abridgements by Kahnert Abridgements 2A German edition (GER) Swedish edition (SWE) Abridgements 1A Abridgements 1B Abridgements 1C Abridgements 2B Hornelund (DAN) Kristiansen (NOR) Griffin (ENG 1.Table 7.
the time is ripe for a new series of full translations. a different set of passages was removed from Knös’s accurate Swedish translation before it appeared in print (2A). Danish. offering valuable insight into the misadventures of an important novel on the international market UNIVERSITY OF CRETE NOTES Acknowledgements. on the basis of the similarities and differences between editions in the Germanic languages. It is clear that two translations were based on the original Greek text—those by von den Steinen (German) and Knös (Swedish). and English editions all derive from von den Steinen’s text after the heavy-handed interventions made by Kahnert. The obvious conclusion is that Kapetan Michalis was never published in full in any of the Germanic languages. On the other hand. Reinsch forthcoming). the existing foreign-language editions provide fertile ground for research into publishing history.html. The Swedish and Dutch renditions of the novel are more accurate. The Norwegian. Danish. 1 See http://www. originally appeared in Αριάδνη (Ariadne). and English we have only Kahnert’s interpretation of Kazantzakis. 2007:127–146. they may well be attributable to the editorial policy practiced by Tau. who established contacts in Sweden while living in exile during the war. academic journal of the School of Letters at the University of Crete. Although we do not know precisely why these abridgements were deemed necessary. over half a century after Kapetan Michalis first appeared in print. 13.26 As others have stressed. each was further abridged according to the preferences of the publisher concerned (1A. A Greek version of this paper. even if the abridgements do an injustice to the serious efforts undertaken by Knös. Norwegian. Table 7 proposes a stemma for the translations discussed. His text appears to have been used in its entirety for the Dutch version. entitled «Ποιος έκανε το ψάρι μπουκάλι.25 In German.gr/kazantzakis/en/index. all of which should be based on the original modern Greek text (Beaton 2004:115.historical-museum. Πιάνοντας τον μίτο της μεταφραστικής κακοδαιμονίας του Καπετάν Μιχάλη». 1B. Cover illustrations . and 1C). which was abridged in yet another way prior to publication (2B). vol.The Misadventures of Kapetan Michalis in Translation 257 To sum up. Yet beyond any such exhortations.
να μεταφράσει απο την πρωτότυπη γλώσα του βιβλίου και όχι απο δέφτερη μετάφραση. 9 Originally published in English as The Greek Passion (1953).gr/).boersenverein. Following extensive renovations to the entire building in progress at the time of writing. In true life. translating everything from French. there is evidence that later in life Kazantzakis was not in favor of indirect translation. as our scholars do to make things easy. On Kazantzakis and the Alexiou family. 6 ΕΠΑΡΚ (Nikos) and ΕΠΑΡΕΚ (Eleni) code numbers are given as used in the database for the Nikos and Eleni Kazantzakis Correspondence Archives established and maintained by the Nikos Kazantzakis Museum in Varvari. Ironically. Professor Stylianos Alexiou has informed me that the French edition of Darwin used by Kazantzakis was later given to his father Lefteris Alexiou.kazantzakis-museum.S. where he worked extensively for reconciliation between Christians and Jews. see ENG1. he wrote: «Και να μπει μια απαράβατη γενικη αρχη. Kazantzakis’s Greek translation of the work was published by Fexis Editions in 1915. German translator of Christ Recrucified. now held in the Kazantzakis Museum correspondence archives. όποιος αναλάβει να μεταφράσει. The ill-fitting opening reference to Kazantzakis’s following in Holland is due to the fact that the text is an English translation of the prologue written by den Doolard for the Dutch edition by Uitgeverij Bosch and Keuning (Baarn. For comments on Werner Kerbs. undated:5–7). 4 In Galatea Kazantzaki’s novel Άνθρωποι και υπεράνθρωπο (Men and Supermen) (2007). After the war Tau returned to Norway. Historical Museum of Crete). 7 See the numerous letters from the den Doolards to Nikos and Eleni Kazantzakis.258 Ben Petre now also appear in the website recently created by the Nikos Kazantzakis Museum. . see note 21 below. Hell is referred to by the anglicized name Dr. In a letter to Stamos Diamantaras regarding a series of mass-market translations into Greek. For the prologue to the U.”) (manuscript KΑΖ.kazantzakismuseum. edition of Kapetan Michalis. όπως κάνουν για ευκολίατους οι λόγιοι μας.gr). which involved him fleeing from Germany to Norway and then to Sweden. 5 Details of Tau’s biography are from the website of the Friedenspreis des deutschen Buchhandels: http://www. Crete.de/de/96671?pid=110657 (accessed 8 December 2008). however. 2 Interest in the subject shows no sign of abating: in March 2007 the Institut Français d’Athènes joined with other institutes in organizing a conference entitled «Ο Νίκος Καζαντζάκης μεταφραστής και μεταφραζόμενος» (“Nikos Kazantzakis as a Translator and in Translation”). in line with the German title Griechische Passion (1951). μεταφράζοντας τα πάντα απο τα γαλικα» [author’s stress and original orthography retained] (“Let there be an inviolable general rule: whoever undertakes a translation must do so from the book’s original language and not from a secondary translation. along with a comprehensive bibliography of works in translation (http://www. George Hill. the young Alexandros Artakis—a fictional mask for Kazantzakis—is depicted as translating Darwin’s On the Origin of Species from the French. Δ/25. 3 The scarcity of qualified translators in the 1950s is also mentioned by Reinsch (forthcoming). 8 In later correspondence with the Kazantzakis couple. and has since been donated to the Vikelaia Library in Heraklion. v–viii. I wish to thank Professor Diether Roderich Reinsch of the Freie Universität Berlin for kindly agreeing to send me a copy of his paper (Reinsch forthcoming). The network of contacts he established in Scandinavia was partly a consequence of the exile forced upon him by Nazi anti-Semitism. dated 7 February 1942. see Stylianos Alexiou (2004). summaries and full images of the original letters will be accessible via the digital library on the museum website (http:// www. Many thanks to Professor Peter Bien (his translation) for this recently discovered reference.
correspondence by Knös indicates that foreign-language editions of previous novels were based on his Swedish text (ΕΠΑΡΚ 531—see note 11 above). To Knös’s disappointment.uk/page. Professor Stamatis Philippidis has informed me that Vamvaka based her comparative examination of the Greek original and the English and French translations on the omissions that he had observed in English editions. M. and does not omit the passages removed by Kahnert (see Vamvaka 1998:53). 18 Page numbers where omissions occur are given in square brackets. it is not unreasonable to assume that other translators would likewise have drawn on their . 17 In a personal communication. 20 I have been unable to locate any evidence that H.uk/magazine/record. museum collections on Crete only have letters from Knös and von den Steinen (written in Greek in both cases).poetrymagazines.co. one cannot rule out the possibility that Knös worked from a different. In order to establish this. Beyond the slightly altered title and page numbering. one which first appeared the following year (ENG2).aspx?page=474. Furthermore.royalexchangetheatre.asp?id=12679. two years before the first Greek edition appeared in print and three years before the German one. it was not to be published until 1955. 19 There are minor differences between the British and American versions here. it did not serve as the basis for the German translation. 16 Information on the Royal Exchange production is taken from the theater’s website (http://www. While working from Knös’s Swedish text. edition (ENG1) is almost identical to the U. 21 As in the case of Werner Kerbs. 13 Reverse side of title page (NL). ever produced any other translations of works in modern Greek. For abbreviations of editions. which was based on the Swedish edition. Minor differences in punctuation and spelling may have allowed interested parties to determine the origin of pirate editions. see works cited. 15 Brief biographical information on Griffin appears on the Poetry Library website maintained by the Southbank Centre. the 1955 U. accessed 4 December 2008). London England (http://www.The Misadventures of Kapetan Michalis in Translation 10 259 See Reinsch (forthcoming) and also Dimadis (2002) who analyzes the impact of politics on Kazantzakis’s travel writing. 12 Title page (SWE). since Gisele Prassinos’s and Pierre Fridas’s French version appeared one year after the English version (in 1956). but they concern his translation of Christ Recrucified.S. Griffin is highly unlikely to have translated the Kazantzakis novel from the French. he believed that his high school lessons in the ancient tongue and a modern Greek dictionary would assist him in getting the main gist of the original. German translator of Christ Recrucified..org . 14 Regarding translators of Kapetan Michalis. i. he had come up against a number of difficulties and apparent inconsistencies. Indeed. There are also a few from Kerbs (in German). 11 Reverse side of title page (DAN). the Dutch translator. though not with regard to the mistranslated words and phrases examined here. Indeed. C. he wrote to Kazantzakis (in German) to request a copy of the original Greek text (ΕΠΑΡΚ 3118). While he had no knowledge of modern Greek. further efforts must be made to locate the manuscript or manuscripts in question. which are not among the holdings at the Historical Museum of Crete in Heraklion or the Nikos Kazantzakis Museum in Varvari.K. and the British-German cultural rivalry on the eve of World War II. accessed 7 December 2008). It is worth noting that though the completed Swedish translation was handed over to the publisher in 1951 (ΕΠΑΡΚ 501). as had been the case with previously published novels by Kazantzakis (ΕΠΑΡΚ 531). On 25 April 1951. Edelman. shorter manuscript than that used for the first Greek edition by Mavridis.e.
suggests that it belongs to what I have termed the “German” group of translations. Γάλλος. 25 It was not possible to obtain a copy of the Icelandic translation by Skúli Bjarkan for inclusion in the original study (Kazantzakis 1957). note 5 above. A recent preliminary examination. 23–25 April 2004). 23–25 Απριλίο 2004 (Nikos Kazantzakis: His Oeuvre and its Reception. In Annäherungen an Griechenland. Stylianos 2004 Στυλιανός Αλεξίου. Gallos. 7–15. and Danish versions retain this remark. English. edited by Horst-Dieter Blume and Cay Lienau. In Νίκος Καζαντζάκης: το έργο και η πρόσληψή του.260 Ben Petre familiarity with the classical language. which he attributed to Tau’s negative stance toward the novel (see ΕΠΑΡΚ 531). which lay at the core of European school curricula in the early twentieth century. Dimadis. Πεπραγμένα διεθνούς επιστημονικού συνεδρίου: Πανεπιστημιούπολη Ρεθύμνου. Heraklion: Center for Cretan Literature. his thought and his work”). 23 At this point. 24 See letter from Knös to Kazantzakis dated 30 July 1953 (ΕΠΑΡΚ 531). In Νίκος Καζαντζάκης: το έργο και η πρόσληψή του.” (“Art and Power: Observations on Three Travel Books by Nikos Kazantzakis”). Münster. despite having removed the previous reference to the son’s existence and the circumstances surrounding his gruesome death. Konstantinos 2002 “Kunst und Macht: Bemerkungen zu drei Reisebüchern von Nikos Kazantzakis. 28–42. the Norwegian text is consistent with regard to editing. τη σκέψη και το έργο του» (“Nikos Kazantzakis: From his life. Γάλλος. 23–25 Απριλίου 2004 (Nikos Kazantzakis: His Oeuvre and its Reception. edited by Kostis Psychogios. 109–115. Proceedings of the International Conference at the University of Crete Rethymnon Campus. Proceedings of the International Conference at the University of Crete Rethymnon Campus. . «Νίκος Καζαντζάκης: Από τη ζωή. 23–25 April 2004). Roderick 2006 «Οι τύχες του Νίκου Καζαντζάκη σε αγγλική μετάφραση: Οι περιπτώσεις του Ζορμπά και του Καπετάν Μιχάλη» (“The Fortunes of Nikos Kazantzakis in English Translation: The Cases of Zorba and Kapetan Michalis”). On the other hand. edited by Kostis Psychogios. Alterations to the Swedish translation may have been associated with the delays and difficulties Knös encountered in finding a Swedish publisher for Kapetan Michalis. Kubelina does not say that the dark red stains on the stone were formed by her son’s blood. Heraklion: Center for Cretan Literature. Festschrift für Anastasios Katsanakis zum 65. mainly on the basis of the “litmus test” in Chapter I described above. Beaton. Gallos. Heft 1. the German. REFERENCES CITED Alexiou. Πεπραγμένα διεθνούς επιστημονικού συνεδρίου: Πανεπιστημιούπολη Ρεθύμνου. 22 Vamvaka erroneously claims that reference to the murder is missing from the English translation (1998:54). A Festschrift for Anastasios Katsanakis on His 65th Birthday). 26 See biographical information on Tau. Münstersche Griechenland-Studien. Geburtstag (Approaches to Greece. Choregia.
Kazantzakis”). Stamatis 2000 Σταμάτης Φιλιππίδης. Athens: Eleni N. Aristea 1998 Αριστέα Βαμβακά. Καζαντζάκη» (“Folk elements in N. Ellis Creative Arts Book Co. Athens: Kastaniotis. In Πεπραγαμένα Διεθνούς Συνεδρίου «Ο Καζαντζάκης μεταφραστής και μεταφραζόμενος» (Proceedings of the International Congress on “Katzantzakis as translator and in translation”). Kazantzakis. «Νίκος Καζαντζάκης: Ο Καπετάν Μιχάλης και οι γαλλικές και αγγλικές μεταφράσεις» (“Nikos Kazantzakis: Kapetan Michalis and its French and English translations”). Manos 2005 Μάνος Περάκης. Heraklion: Society of Cretan Historical Studies. Translated by Skúli Bjarkan. Kazantzaki Editions. Translated by Jonathan Griffin. Nikos 1951 Griechische Passion. 389–397. Πεπραγμένα Η’ Διεθνούς Κρητολογικού Συνεδρίου (Proceedings of the 8th International Cretan Studies Association). «Λαϊκότροπα στοιχεία στον Ν. Kalokerinos.The Misadventures of Kapetan Michalis in Translation 261 Kastrinaki. Vamvaka. μεταφραστής επαγγελματίας και μεταφραστής προγραμματικός» (“Nikos Kazantzakis: Professional translator and translator by conviction”). 1953 The Greek Passion. Berlin-Grunewald: Herbig. Galatea 2007 Γαλάτεια Καζαντζάκη. CA: Donald S. Reinsch. Τετρακόσια γράμματα του Καζαντζάκη στον Πρεβελάκη (Four hundred letters from Kazantzakis to Prevelakis). Nea Estia 1806 (December):1101–1106. Reykjavík: Almenna Bókafélagid Koutsourelis. New York: Simon and Schuster 1957 Frelsið eða dauðann (Freedom or Death). 2:203–219. Anazitiseis. «Νίκος Καζαντζάκης. «Η εμπειρία της νίκης και η μυθοποίηση της ήττας. Έρευνες για την οικονομία και την κοινωνία της Κρήτης του 19ου αιώνα (Researches into the economy and society of 19th century Crete). Berkeley. Εικόνες του Τούρκου στο έργο του Καζαντζάκη» (“The experience of victory and the mythologizing of defeat. Prevelakis. Translated by Werner Kerbs. Kazantzakis. Άνθρωποι και υπεράνθρωποι (Men and Supermen). 13–15 March 2007. Helen 1983 Nikos Kazantzakis. Detorakis and A. Heraklion: Society of Cretan Historical Studies. Pandelis 1965 Παντελής Πρεβελάκης. In Η τελευταία φάση του Κρητικού Ζητήματος (The Last Phase of the Cretan Question). Kostas 2007 Κώστας Κουτσουρέλης. Kazantzaki. Herakleion: University of Crete Philippidis. Diether Roderich forthcoming «Ο Καζαντζάκης μεταφραζόμενος στα γερμανικά» (“Kazantzakis in German translation”). A Biography Based on his Letters. Perakis. Doctoral dissertation (2 volumes). . Images of the Turk in the work of Kazantzakis”). Angela 2001 Αγγέλα Καστρινάκη. 6:53–56. Athens. Γ. edited by Th.
Nikos 1954 Freiheit oder Tod. Stockholm: Ljus Förlag. Norwegian (NOR): Kazantzakis.262 Ben Petre Editions and translations of Kapetan Michalis (cited in the order given in tables) Greek (GK1): Καζαντζάκης. den Doolard. . Edelman. English (ENG2): Kazantzakis. Översättning från författarens manuscript av Börje Knös. M. Berlin–Grunewald: Herbig Verlagsbuchhandlung. Athens: Kazantzakis Editions. Vertaling: Mr. Oversatt av Leif Kristiansen. Deutsch von Helmut von den Steinen. German (GER): Kazantzakis. preface by A. København: Jespersen og Pios Forlag. Νίκος 1981: Ο Καπετάν Μιχάλης. På Dansk ved Karl Hornelund. H. English (ENG1): Kazantzakis. Niko 1955: Frihed eller Død. English Translation by Jonathan Griffin. Oslo: Johan Grundt Tanum. Translated by Jonathan Griffin. Νίκος 1953: Ο Καπετάν Μιχάλης. Niko 1955: Kapitein Michalis. Swedish (SWE): Kazantzakis. Greek (GK2): Καζαντζάκης. Baarn: Uitgeverij De Fontein. Athens: Mavridis. Niko 1955: Freihet eller död. Niko 1955: Frihet eller død. Dutch (NL): Kazantzakis. C. Oxford: Bruno Cassirer. Nikos 1955 Freedom or Death. Danish (DAN): Kazantzakis. New York: Simon and Schuster. Nikos 1956 Freedom and Death.
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