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Code No.: ETEE 304

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Paper:Power System - II

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INSTRUCTIONS TO PAPER SETTERS:

Max. Marks-75

  • 1. Question No. 1 should be compulsory and cover the entire syllabus. This question should have objective or short answer type questions. It should be of 25 marks.

  • 2. Apart from Q. No.1 rest of the paper shall consist of four units as per the syllabus, every unit should have two questions. However, student may be asked to attempt only 1 question from each unit. Each question should be 12.5 marks.

Unit – I:

Fault Calculations: Per unit system, calculation of symmetrical and unsymmetrical fault currents in power system networks using the symmetrical components, use of current limiting reactors.

Unit – II:

[No. of Hrs.: 09]

Protective Relays and circuit Breakers; Basic operating principle, types of relays, distance and inverse definite minimum time relays, phase and amplitude comparators, development of static relays basic elements of a static relay.

Fuse: Introduction, Types & Applications. Circuit Breakers: Principle, Types, Ratings & Applications.

Unit – III:

Protective Scheme & Over Voltage Protection

[No. of Hrs.: 12]

Protection of feeders, merz-price and translays systems, protection of generators and transformers, carrier current

protection, protection against surges, surge diverters, surge absorbers, use of ground wires on transmission lines, methods of grounding method, insulation coordination.

[No. of Hrs.: 12]

Unit – IV:

Compensation in Power System

Introduction of compensation in power systems, characteristics of uncompensated and compensated lines, series

and shunt compensations elementary concept of FACTS.

Text Books:

[No. of Hrs.: 11]

  • 1. L Wadhva, “Electrical Power System” Wiley Eastern Ltd., 3 rd edition 2000

C

 
  • 2. M. L. Soni, P. V. Gupta and U.S. Bhatnagar, “A course in electrical power” Dhanpat Rai & Sons.

 

Reference Books:

  • 1. Narain G. Hingonani “Understanding FACTS” IEEE Press, year of publication 1999

 
  • 2. Paul M. Anderson “Power System Protection” IEEE Press.

 

POWER SYSTEM LAB

ITEM NO. 1

TO MEASURE NEGATIVE SEQUENCE AND ZERO SEQUENCE REACTANCE OF SYNCBRONOUS MACHINE

MACHINES REQUIRED

M G Set: D C SHUNT MOTOR/3 PHASE ALTERNATOR :

M

G Set: DC SHUNT MOTOR/3 PHASE ALTERNATOR SALIENT POLE TYPE (ROTATING FIELD) Alternator:

DC Motor

Type.

Type

Capacity

Capacity RPM Volts Insulation Frequency Power factor Connections

RPM

Volts

Excitor

Insulation

Shunt, all the terminals of Armature and field winding shall be brought over to a bakelite sheet

Cooling

fixed to C I terminal fix fitted on top of Motor.

Connections

INSTRUMENTS REQUIRED PORTABLE TYPE

S.NoItems

Qty.

  • 1. M.I. AMMETER PORTABLE 0-2.5/5 A

1

  • 2. M.I. VOLTMETER PORT 300/600V

1

  • 3. M.I. VOLTMETER PORT 75/1 5 0/3 OOV

1

  • 4. RHEOSTAT 1.4 AMP 230 OHMS

1

  • 5. RHEOSTAT 1.1 A 1800 OHMS

1

  • 6. M.C. VOLTMETER PORT 150/300 V

1

  • 7. M.C. AMMETER PORT 1/2 AMP

1

  • 8. UPF WATTMETER 2.5/5 AMP, 125/250/500 V

1

  • 9. SINGLE PHASE VARIAC 4 A

1

D.C Shunt Motor 3 HP/AC. Generator 2 KVA (Separately Excited) Salient Pole type

ALTERNATIVELY

TO MEASURE NEGATIVE SEQUENCE AND ZERO SEOUENCE REACTANCE OF SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE

M G Set: DC SHUNT MOTOR/3 PHASE ALTERNATOR SALIENT POLE TYPE (ROTATING FIELD)

DC Motor

Type.

Capacity

RPM

Volts Insulation

Cooling

Connections

Alternator:

Type

Capacity.

RPM

Volts Insulation

Frequency Power

factor

Connections

Excitor

Type Make

  • DC Shunt wound, screen protected. Horizontal foot mounted, with interpoles and 3 points

  • DC Starter, having No volt and overload release coils.

3HP

1500

(controlled variation) 230

Class 'B' Fan cooled Shunt, all the terminals of Armature and x field winding shall be brought over to a bakelite sheet fixed to C I terminal fix fitted on top of Motor.

Salient pole type (Rotating Field type), 3 ph 4 wire screen protected, horizontal foot mounted, fan cooled, separately excited

2KVA

1500

for max output and frequency of 50 Hz 415V

Class 'B'

50Hz

 

0.8 p.flagging 3 phase 4 wire

D.C Shunt Generator or Rectifier, 220V, DC through sliprings. Standard

2

CONTROL PANEL FOR ABOVE EXPERIMENT

Fitted on bakelite sheet 48" x 24" enclosed in almirah type ms box with lock & handle arrangement suitable for table mounting. For DC Motor

(i)

MC Voltmeter Flush mounted 96 x 96 mm, 0-300 V

(ii)

MC Ammeter Flush mounted 96 x 96 mm, 0-10 A or 20 Amp

(iii)

Starting Compensator, DC Starter faceplate type.

(iv)

Double Pole Iron clad cutout 32 A, 'HA YELL'S make.

(v)

Field Rheostat 1.4 A, 230 Ohms

For AC Generator

(i)

MI Voltmeter, Flush mounted, 96 x 96 mm, 0-500V

(ii)

MI Ammeter, Flush mounted, 96 x 96 mm, 0-10 A or 5 Amp

(iii)

MCB

(iv)

Indicating Light.

(v)

Shunt field Rheostat

For Excitor (i) (ii) MC Volt meter Flush mounted 96 x 96 mm, 0-300V MC Ammeter Flush mounted 96 x 96 mm, 0-5 A

D. C Shunt Motor 3 HP/ A. C. Generator 2 KV A (Separately Excited) Salient Pole type ADDITIONAL ACCESSORIES UPF Wattmeter 2.5/5 A, 125/250/500 V

ITEM NO. 2

TOMEASURE:

  • (a) DIRECT AXIS AND QUADRATURE AXIS REACTANCE OF SYNCHRONOUS

MACHINE

  • (b) DIRECT AXIS AND QUADRATURE AXIS SUBTRANSIENT REACTANCE OF

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE MACHINES REOUIRED M G Set: DC SHUNT MOTOR/3 PHASE ALTERNATOR SALIENT POLE TYPE (ROTATING FIELD)

DC Motor Type. Capacity. RPM Volts Insulation Cooling DC Shunt wound, screen protected. Horizontal foot mounted, with interpoles and 3 points DC Starter, having No volt and overload release coils.

3HP

1500 (controlled variation) 230 Class 'B' Fan cooled

Connections

Altemator:

Type

Capacity.

RPM

Volts

Insulation

Frequency

Power factor

Connections

Excitor Type

Make

Shunt, all the terminals of Armature and x field winding shall be brought over to a bakelite sheet fixed to C I terminal fix fitted on top of Motor.

Salient pole type (Rotating Field type), 3 ph 4 wire screen protected, horizontal foot mounted, fan cooled, separately excited

2KVA

1500 for max output and frequency of 50 Hz 415V Class 'B'

50Hz

0.8 p.flagging 3 phase 4 wire

D.C Shunt Generator or Rectifier, 220V, DC through sliprings. Standard

INSTRUMENTS REOUIRED PORTABLE TYPE

S.No.

Item

Qty.

  • 1. M.l. AMMETER POTABLE 0-2.5/5 A

1

  • 2. M.I. VOLTMETER PORT 300/600V

1

  • 3. M.I. VOLTMETER PORT 75/150/300V

1

  • 4. RHEOSTAT 5 AMP 45 OHMS

1

  • 5. RHEOSTAT 1.1 A 1800 OHMS

1

  • 6. THREE PHASE VARIAC 8 A,

1

  • 7. M.C. AMMETER PORTABLE 1/2 A,

1

D.C Shunt Motor 3 HP/A.C. Generator 2 KVA (Separately Excited) Salient Pole type

TOMEASURE:

ALTERNATIVELY

  • (a) DIRECT AXIS AND QUADRATURE AXIS REACTANCE OF SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE

  • (b) DIRECT AXIS AND QUADRATURE AXIS SUBTRANSIENT REACTANCE OF SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE

MACHINES REOUIRED

M G Set: DC SHUNT MOTOR/3 PHASE ALTERNATOR SALIENT POLE TYPE (ROTATING FIELD)

DC

screen protected, horizontal foot mounted, fan cooled, separately excited

 

Shunt

Capacity

2 KVA

wound,

RPM

1500 for max output and frequency of 50 Hz

screen

Volts

415 V

protect

Insulation

Class ‘B’

ed.

Frequency

50 Hz

Horizo

Power factor

0.8 p.f lagging

ntal

Connections

3 phase 4 wire

 

foot

mounte

Excitor

d,

with

interpo

Type

D.C. Shunt Generator or Rectifier, 220 V, DC through sliprings

les and

 

3

 

points

CONTROL PANEL FOR ABOVE EXPERIMENT

DC

Starter,

Fitted on bakelite sheet 48" x 24" enclosed in almirah type ms box with lock & handle arrangement

having

No volt

suitable for table mounting.

and

overloa

For DC Motor

d

  • 1. MC Voltmeter Flush mounted 96 x 96 rom, 0-300 V

release

 
  • 2. MC Ammeter Flush mounted 96 x 96 mm, 0-10 A or 20

 

coils.

Amp

Capacit

 
  • 3. Starting Compensator, DC Starter face plate type.

y.

  • 4. Double Pole Iron clad cutout 32 A, 'HA VELL'S make.

  • 5. Field Rheostat 1.4 A, 230 Ohms

 

3 HP

 

For AC Generator

 

RPM

1.

MI Voltmeter, Flush mounted, 96 x 96 mm, 0-500V

1500

2.

MI Ammeter, Flush mounted, 96 x 96 mm,O-1 0 A or 5 Amp

Volts

3.

Knife Switch. TPST.

 

4.

Fuses 15 A (Rewireable).

5.

Indicating Light.

 

230

6.

Shunt field Rheostat

Insulati

For Excitor

on

 
  • 1. MC Volt meter Flush mounted 96 x 96 mm, 0-300V

  • 2. MC Ammeter Flush mounted 96 x 96 mm, 0-5 A

 

Class

‘B’

Coolin

Additional Accessories

g

 

Fan

3 Ph Variac 8 Amp

Cooled

Shunt,

 

all the

termina

 
 

ls of

Armatu

 

re nad

x

field

windin

 

g shall

be

brough

 
 

t over

to a

bakelit

 

e sheet

fixed to

C

I

termina

 

l

fix

fitted

on top

 

of

Motor.

 

Salient

 

pole

type

(Rotati

 

ng

 

Field

type), 3

 
 

ph 4

wire

ITEM NO. 3 TO STUDY THE SINGLE LINE TO GROUND FAULT This comes under shunt type

ITEM NO. 3

TO STUDY THE SINGLE LINE TO GROUND FAULT

This comes under shunt type of fault. These are the fault, which are characterized by increase in current and fall in voltage. So for lab purpose, we will create the fault condition for our lab study purpose.

Powder Coated m. s. box having locking arrangement with following accessories :-

  • 1. Instantaneous Earth Fault (Electro Mechanical Type)

  • 2. Digital MI Voltmeter

  • 3. Neon Lamp

  • 4. DP Switch

  • 5. Insulating Terminals

  • 6. Transformers Single Phase

  • 7. Line Impedances

  • 8. Variable current Source

  • 9. Loading CT

    • 10. Digital Clamp on Meter

All the accessories will be fitted on Bakelite sheet fixed to M.S. box cabinet almirah type suitable for table mounting with provision for lock and key arrangement.

ITEM NO. 4

TO STUDY LINE TO LINE FAULT

This comes under Shunt type of fault. These are the faults which are characterized by increase in current and fall in voltage. So, for lab purpose, we will create the fault conditions in our lab.

Powder Coated m.s. box having locking arrangement with following accessories :-

  • 1. Three Phase Earth Fault Relay, Static Type

  • 2. Digital MI Voltmeter

  • 3. Neon Lamp

  • 4. TP Switch

  • 5. Insulating Terminals

  • 6. Transformers Three Phase

  • 7. Line Impedances

  • 8. Variable Current Source

  • 9. Loading CT

    • 10. Digital Clamp on Meter

All the accessories will be fitted on Bakelite sheet fixed to M.S. box cabinet almirah type suitable for table mounting with provision for lock and key arrangement.

The study will be conducted by giving & creating the Impedance by using the Inductor in our schematic diagram.

4.

5.

ITEM NO. 5

I.D.M. T. OVER CURRENT RELAY (ELECTRO MECHANICAL TYPE)

(a)

(b)

(c)

To study the construction of the Relay.

To find the operating characteristics of the Relay for two time and current settings.

To determine Reset ration.

APPARATUS REOUIRED

  • 1. Digital AC Voltmeter 0-300 V,

  • 2. Digital AC Ammeter 0-10 A Digital

  • 3. Time Totaliser

  • 4. IDMT Relay' ALSTOM (AREV A)' make Type CDG-ll Electro Mechanical Type (INVERSE)

  • 5. 1 Ph Variac

  • 6. Loading CT

  • 7. 8. Diode Type Rectifier Supply

  • 9. Multipoint Relay

    • 10. PushButton

    • 11. Indicating Light

    • 12. DP Isolator Rotary Switch

1

No. 1 No. 1 No. 1

No.

1

No. 1 No. 1 No. 1

No. 2 No.

All the accessories and Relays will be fitted on sheet fixed to M.8. box cabinet almirah type suitable for table mounting

with provision for lock and key arrangement.

ALTERNATIVELY

OVER CURRENT RELAY tELECTRONIC-STA TIC TYPE)

Experimental setup consisting of Digital AC Voltmeter, Digital AC Ammeter, Digital Time Totaliser, Over Current

Relay (Electronic-Static type), 1 Ph Variac, Loading CT, Push Button, Indicating Light, DP Isolator, Rotary Switch.

All the accessories and Relays will be fitted on sheet fixed to M.S. box cabinet almirah type suitable for table mounting

with provision for lock and key arrangement.

ITEM NO. 6

PERCENTAGE DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

  • (a) To study the construction of relay.

  • (b) To find the operating characteristics of the Relay.

  • (c) To calculate % bias and determine minimum operating current.

Apparatus Required

  • 1. Percentage Differential Relays ‘Alstom (AREVA) make Type DDT

:

1 No.

  • 2. Digital Time Totaliser

:

1 No.

  • 3. Digital AC Ammeter 0-10 A

:

2 No.

  • 4. DP Isolator

  • 5. Push Button

:

2 No.

  • 6. Loading CT

:

1 No.

  • 7. Multipoint Relay with Transformer & Rectifier Supply

:

1 No.

  • 8. Rotary Switch

  • 9. Isolation Transformer

:

1 No.

  • 10. Tubular Rheostat for Differential Current & Through Current

All the accessories and Relays will be fitted on sheet fixed to M.S. box cabinet almirah type suitable for table mounting with

provision of lock and key arrangement.

6.

ITEMNQ.7

TO STUDY THE INSTANTANEOUS RELAY AND DETERMINE THE PICK UP AND RESET VALUES.

APPARATUS REQUIRED

  • 1. Instantaneous Relay single phase Type CAG ALSTOM (AREVA) MAKE. Electromechanical type

  • 2. Digital MI Ammeter, 0-10 A.

  • 3. Digital MI Voltmeter 0-300 V

  • 4. Loading C.T.

  • 5. Timer

  • 6. Auto transformer Variac, 0-270V

  • 7. Indicating Light

  • 8. DP Isolator

All the accessories and Relays will be fitted on sheet fixed to M.S. box cabinet almirah type suitable for table mounting

with provision for lock and key arrangement.

ITEM NO. 8

THERMAL RELAY & FUSE CHARACTERISTICS

(a)

(i)

To study the construction of the Relay.

(ii)

To find the operating characteristics of the Relay.

  • (b) To study the time-current characteristics of the given fuse.

APPARATUS REQUIRED

  • 1. Thermal Relay

:

1 No.

  • 2. Digital AC Voltmeter 0-300 V,

:

1 No.

  • 3. Digital AC Ammeter 0-10 A

:

1 No.

  • 4. Push Button

:

2 No.

  • 5. Rotary Switch

  • 6. DP Isolator

  • 7. Multipoint Relay with transformer & rectifier supply

:

1 No

  • 8. 1 Ph Variac

:

1 No

  • 9. Loading CT

:

1 No.

  • 10. Digital Time Totaliser

:

2 No.

  • 11. Indicating Light

:

one each

  • 12. Fuse Holder

:

2 No.

All the accessories and Relays will be fitted on sheet fixed to M.S. box cabinet almirah type suitable for table

mounting with provision for lock and key arrangement.

ITEM NO. 9

TO STUDY THE EARTH FAULT RELAY OR OVER CURRENT RELAY DETERMINE THE

CHARACTERISTICS.

APPARA TUS REQUIRED

  • 1. Earth Fault or Over Current Relay single phase Type COO (ALSTOM AREV A). Electromechanical type

  • 2. Digital MI Ammeter, 0-10 A.

  • 3. Digital MI Voltmeter 0-300 V

  • 4. Loading C.T.

  • 5. Timer

  • 6. Variable Current Source

  • 7. Neon lamp, 230 V.

All the accessories and Relays will be fitted on sheet fixed to M.S. box cabinet a1mirah type suitable for table mounting

with provision for lock and key arrangement.

ITEM NO. 10

  • (A) STUDY OF OVER VOLTAGE RELAY

Electro Mechanical, inverse time over voltage protection of AC circuits, capacitors and machines such as generator and

synchronous motors.

APPARATUS REQUIRED

(i)

Model VDG-II Over voltage relay' ALSTOM AREV A'

(ii)

Digital MI Voltmeter

(iii)

Variable Current Source

(iv)

Neon Lamp

(v)

Digital Timer

All the accessories and Relays will be fitted on sheet fixed to M.S. Box cabinet almirah type suitable for table mounting

with provision for lock and key arrangement.

  • (B) STUDY OF UNDER VOLTAGE RELAY

Electro Mechanical, inverse time under voltage protection of AC circuits, capacitors, rectifiers and machines such as

Induction motors.

APPARATUS REQUIRED

  • 1. Model VDG-13 Under voltage relay' ALSTOM AREV A'

  • 2. Digital MI Voltmeter

  • 3. Variable Current Source

  • 4. Neon Lamp

All the accessories and Relays will be fitted on sheet fixed to M.S. Box cabinet almirah type suitable for table mounting

with provision for lock and key arrangement.

ITEM NO. 11

  • (a) STUDY OF UNDER VOLTAGE RELAY (ELECTRONICS-STATIC TYPE)

Experimental setup consisting of under voltage relay with internal schematic diagram engraved on front panel

board with necessary set points, Digital MI voltmeter, single phase variac, Neon Lamp, Loading CT.

All the accessories and Relays will be fitted on sheet fixed to M.S. Box cabinet almirah type suitable for table mounting

with provision for lock and key arrangement.

  • (b) STUDY OF OVER VOLTAGE RELAY (ELECTRONICS – STATIC TYPE)

Experimental setup consisting of Over voltage relay with internal schematic diagram engraved on front panel

board with necessary set points, Digital MI voltmeter, single phase variac, Neon Lamp, Loading CT.

All the accessories and Relays will be fitted on sheet fixed to M.S. Box cabinet almirah type suitable for table mounting

with provision for lock and key arrangement.

ITEM No. 12

EXPERIMENT KIT TO FIND OUT A, B, C, D, PARAMETER, HYBRID PARAMETER AND IMAGE

PARAMETER OF GIVEN TRANSMISSION MODEL.

Transmission line model consisting of four action of transmission on line operatable at 220 V with current rating at 2-A

connected in network, A continues variable power supply with two digital voltmeter & two digital ammeter, mounted

on front panel fitted in m.s. sheet box complete with patch cords for inter connection & Manual. Detailed calculation

supplied alongwith the setup.

ITEM No. 13

EXPERIMENT SETUP TO STUDY THE PERFORMANCE OF A LONG TRANSMISSION LINE UNDER NO

LOAD AND UNDER LIGHT LOAD CONDITION

Transmission line model consisting of four action of transmission on line operatable at 220 V with current rating at 2 A

connected in network, A continues variable power supply with two digital voltmeter & two digital ammeter, mounted

on front panel with resistive, inductive, capacitive load fitted in m.s. sheet box complete with patch cords for inter

connection & Manual.

ITEM No. 14

EXPERIMENT KIT TO STUDY THE PERFORMANCE OF A LONG TRANSMISSION LINE UNDER LOAD

AT DIFFERENT POWER FACTORS

Transmission line model consisting of four action of transmission on line operatable at 220 V with current rating at 2 A

connected in network, A continues variable power supply with two digital voltmeter & two digital ammeter, mounted

on front panel with resistive, inductive, capacitive load fitted in m.s. sheet box complete with patch cords for inter

connection & Manual.

ITEM No. 15

EXPERIMENT KIT TO STUDY THE PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF A TYPICAL DC

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM (RADIAL CONFIGURATION)

DC Distribution network is operatable at 110 V with current rating at 2 A and is consisting of 5 radial distribution with 5

digital ammeter and one voltmeter with variable power supply (0-100V, 2A)

List of Experiments

POWER SYSTEM LAB

  • 1. To measure negative sequence and zero sequence reactance of syncbronous machine

  • 2. Tomeasure:

    • (a) DIRECT AXIS AND QUADRATURE AXIS REACTANCE OF SYNCHRONOUS

MACHINE

  • (b) DIRECT AXIS AND QUADRATURE AXIS SUBTRANSIENT REACTANCE OF

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE

  • 3. To Study The Single Line To Ground Fault

  • 4. To Study Line To Line Fault

  • 5. To study I.D.M. T. Over current relay (electro mechanical type)

  • 6. To study Percentage Differential Relay

  • 7. To study the instantaneous relay and determine the pick up and reset values.

  • 8. To study Thermal Relay & Fuse Characteristics

  • 9. To study the earth fault relay or over current relay determine the characteristics.

10.

  • (A) Study Of Over Voltage Relay

 
  • (B) Study Of Under Voltage Relay

11.

  • (a) Study Of Under Voltage Relay (Electronics-Static Type)

  • (b) Study Of Over Voltage Relay (Electronics – Static Type)

12.

Experiment

kit

to

find

out

a,

b,

c,

d, parameter,

hybrid parameter and image parameter of given

transmission model.

 

13.

Experiment Setup To Study The Performance Of A Long Transmission Line Under No Load And Under

Light Load Condition

 

14.

Experiment Kit To Study The Performance Of A Long Transmission Line Under Load At Different Power

Factors

15.

Experiment Kit To Study The Performance Characteristics Of A Typical Dc Distribution System (Radial

Configuration)

 

Transmission And Distribution

  • 1. Witch is usually not the generating voltage ?

(a)

11 KV (b) 6.6 KV (c) 7.7 KV (d) 13.2 KV

  • 2. Highest transmission voltage in India is

 

(a)

400 Kv (b) 550 KV (c) 700 KV (d) 753 KV

  • 3. Extra high voltage range is

 

(a)

11KV and above

(b)

100 KV and above

(c)

132 Kv and above

(d)

220 KV and above

4. As overhead conductor, hard drawn copper has the advantage of

(a)

high conductivity

(b)

high conductivity and high tensile strength

(c)

high resistivity

(d)

(a) and (b) both

  • 5. Shunt conductance in transmission lines is caused by the

 

(a)

lecage currant (b) capacitance

(c)

shunt inductance (d) series resistance loss

  • 6. with increase of line conductor cross-section and system frequency, the skin effect

a) decreases (b) remains independent

 

(c)

increases (d) changes exponentially

  • 7. The of bundle conductor increases

 

(a)

GMR (b) GMD

(c)

potential gradient (d) radius of the conductor

  • 8. The inductance of a bundle conductor line is

than

that of the line with one

conductor per

 
 

Phase

(a)

less (b) greter (c) same

  • 9. Transmission voltage can be regulated by

 

(a)

use of tap changing transformers

(b)

use of series capacitors to neutralise the effect of series reactence

(c)

switching in shunt capacitor at the reaceiving and during heavy loads

(d)

any of the above methods

  • 10. The most economic voltage for transmitting power over a distance by transmission

 

lines is

approximately

 

(a)

0.6 KV/KM (b) 1.6 KV/KM (c) 2.6 KV/KM

(d)

3.6 KV/KM

  • 11. Which type of copperright will have higest tensile strengh

 

(a)

soft drawn (b) medium drawn (c) hard drawn

(d)

non of the above

  • 12. Witch of the following is not normally used at 11KV distribution system

(a)

single phese-3 wire (b) single phase 4- wire

(c)

three phase 4- wire (d) three phase 3- wire

  • 13. High voltage transmission line conductor are suspended from towers

(a)

to reduce wind and snow loda

(b)

to reduce clearence from ground

(c)

to increase clearence from ground

(d)

to take care extention in length during summer

 

14.

power loss in transmission line is mainly due to its

(a)

(d)

inductance

(a)

(d)

non of these

(a)

(c)

remain same

(d)

none of these

EHV

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(a)

(c)

(a)

(c)

system

Must be

(a)

streets is

(a)

8 fee

t (b) 12 feet

(c)

19 feet

(d)

30 feet

(a)

(a) and (b) both

impedence (b) cpacitance (c) remain same

  • 15. if the lentgh of the transmitting tower is reduced the inductance of the line will

increase (b) decrase (c) remain same

  • 16. the total induntance of two wire overhead line is

where, D= spacing between conductor

r= radious of any of the conductor

  • 17. The capacitance of a two wire line is given by

where, D= spacing between conductor

r= radious of any of the conductor

  • 18. Capacitance between two conductors of a there-phase line being 2 the capacitance

of each

condoctor to becomes

(a) 3 μF (b) 6μF (c) 9μF (d) 12 μF

  • 19. If the length of the transmission line is is increased its capacitance will

increase (b) decrease

20. The overall dia meter (D) of stranded conductor is given by

(a) D = (2n – 1. d (b) D =(n – 1. d

(c) D = 2 (n – 1. d (d) D = (2n – 1 /d

  • 21. ‘Hessian’ is placed between various layers of strands in stranded conductor used in

transmission in order to

increase the overall conductor diameter

reduce the electrical stress at conductor surface

none of the above

  • 22. A.C. resistance of a line conductor is more then its d.c. resistance beacuse of

skin effect (b) proximity effect

(a) and (b) (d) none of these

  • 23. skin effect of the line conductor increase the effective velue of

reactance of the conductor (b) capacitance of conductor

resistance of the conductor (d) none of these

  • 24. The minimun vertical clearence from the roof of the building to the live wire in 66 Kv

8 feet (b) 12 feet (c) 13 feet (d) 16 feet

is

  • 25. for the samr resistance of line the ratio

weight of copper conductor

___

weight of eluminium conductors

(a) 0.50 (b) 0.75 (c) 1.50 (d) 2.0

  • 26. The minimum clearence of low and midium voltage lines from ground accross

  • 27. When the system frequencey increase, the skin effect is

increased (b) decrease (c) remain same

  • (d) none of these

  • 28. When the spacing between the conductors is decreased, the inductance of the line

    • (a) increase (b) decrease (c) remain same (d) none of thease

  • 29. The skin effect of conductor does not depend on

    • (a) size of wire (b) supply frequency (c) ambient temreture

    • (d) nature of material

  • 30. With reduction in effective diameter of line conductor, the inductance of the line

    • (a) increase (b) decrease (c) remain same

    • (d) none of thease

  • 31. Under no load conditionas the current in atransmission line is due to

    • (a) spining reserve (b) corona effects

    • (c) back flow from earth (d) cpacitance of the line

  • 32. ACSR conductor having 7 steel strands surrounded by 25 eluminium conductor will

  • be specified as

    • (a) 5/25 (b) 7/32 (c) 25/7 (d)25/32

    • 33. Which of the following not a standerd transmission voltage

      • (a) 132KV (b) 222KV (c) 400KV (d) 750KV

    • 34. If the hight of transmission tower is increase

    (a)

    the line capacitance and inductance will not change

    (b)

    the line capacitance will increase but the line inductance will decrease

    (c)

    the line capacitance will decrease and line inductance will increase

    (d)

    the line capacitance will decrase but line inductance will remain unchanged

    • 35. In a7/6 A.C.S.R. conductor these are

    (a)

    35 aluminium conductor and 3 steel conductors

    (b)

    70 aluminium conductor and 6 steel conductors

    (c)

    70 steel conductor and 6 aluminium conductors

    (d)

    none of above

    • 36. A gay wire

    (a)

    supports of pole

    (b)

    protects conductor against short-circuiting

    (c)

    provide emergency earth route

    (d)

    provides protection against surges

    • 37. The steel used in ACSR conductors is usually

    (a)

    stainless steel (b) mild steel

    (c)

    alloy steel (d) none of above

    • 38. Line supports for transmission linesshould be of

    (a)

    low cost (b) longer life

    (c)

    high mechenical strangth (d) all of the above

    • 39. Skin effect in a conductor of diameter d can is proportional to

    (a)

    • 40. In A.C.S.R. conductprs, the insulation and steel conductors is

    (a)

    bitumen (b) increase thr tensile strangth

    (c)

    insulin (d) no insulation is required

    • 41. In ACSR conductor, steel code provided to

      • (a) reduce line inductance

      • (b) increase the tensile strangth

      • (c) compensate for skin effect

      • (d) neutralise proximity effect

  • 42. Skin effect depend on

    • (a) size of the conductor (b) frequency of current

    • (c) resistivity of the conductor metrial (d) all of the above

  • 43. Line conductor carries more corrent of the surface as compared to core due to

    • (a) corona (b) skin effect (c) unsymmetrical fault

    • (d) permeability variation

  • 44. skin effect depends on

    • (a) frequency of the current

    • (b) resitivity of the conductor metirial

    • (c) size of the conductor

    • (d) all of the above

  • 45 The skin effect of a conductor reduces if

    • (a) frequency increases

    • (b) diameter increases

    • (c) resistivity of conductor metirial increases

    • (d) permeability of conductor metirial increases

    • 46. Transmission efficiency increases as

      • (a) voltage increase but power factor decrease

      • (b) voltage decrease but power factor increase

      • (c) voltage and power factor both increase

      • (d) voltage and power factor both decrease

    • 47. The fact that a conductor carries more current on the surface as compeard to core,

    is known as

    • (a) corona (b) permeability

    • (c) unsymmetricalfault (d) skin effect

    • 48. The disadvantage of transmission line as compared to cable is

      • (a) exposure of lighting

      • (b) inductive interference between power and communication circuits

      • (c) exposure of atmospheric hazards like smoke,ice,etc.

      • (d) all of the above

  • 49. ACSR conductors name

    • (a) anode current sinsusoidally run

    • (b) anodised core smooth run

    • (c) all conductors surfacetreted and realigned

    • (d) aluminium conductor steel reinforced

  • 50. When the power is to be transmitted overa distance of three hundred KM, the

  • transmission voltage

    Should be in the range

    • (a) 33KV (b) 66KV (c) 132KV (d) 220/400KV

    Switchgear and Protection (DPG-301) Assignment No. I (2009-10)

    Note: Attempt All Questions MM.=25

    • 1. (a) What are the materials used for making the fuse wires? 5

      • (b) What is the difference between Circuit breaker and the isolator?

      • (c) Define the terms "fuse rating" and "prospective current" of a fuse.

      • (d) How does an HRC fuse work?

        • 2. (a) Explain the arc phenomenon in circuit breakers. 10

          • (b) Classify the circuit breakers on the basis of arc-quenching medium.

          • (c) Explain low resistance method of arc quenching in circuit breakers.

            • 3. (a) Describe the SF6 circuit breaker with the help of a neat diagram. 10

              • (b) Explain the construction and working of Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker.

              • (c) How is a circuit breaker specified

    Assignment No. II (2009-10)

    Note: Attempt All Questions M.M.=25

    • 1. Define the following terms: 5

      • i) Switchgear

    ii) Protective Relay

    iii) Pick-up value of relay iv) Relay Reach

    • v) Reset value

    vi) Plug Setting Multiplier

    vii) Time Setting Multiplier viii) Reinforcing Relay ix) Secondary Relay

    • x) Reset Time

      • 2. (a) What are the fundamental requirements of protective systems? 10

        • (b) Describe Directional over-current relay with the help of a neat diagram.

        • (c) What do you understand by symmetrical and asymmetrical faults?

        • (d) What is the difference between earth fault relay and the over-current relay?

          • 3. (a) Classify the protective relays on the basis of function they perform in the

    10

    protection of power system.

    • (b) What do you mean by a short circuit fault?

    • (c) What is the purpose of current limiting reactors in the power system?

    Assignment No. I (2009-10)

    4

    Note: Attempt All Questions M.M.=25

    • 1. (a) Draw the typical single line diagram for the power system. 5

      • (b) List the various advantages of using high voltage for transmission line and

    give its limitations.

    • 2. (a) Mention the commonly used voltages in India for generation, transmission

    & 10

    Distribution.

    • (b) State the factors affecting capacitance of time.

      • 3. (a) A 10 km., 3-ph transmission line delivers 8 MW at a p.f. of 0.8 lagging at a

    line 10 voltage of 11 KV. The impedance of single conductor is (0.1 + j 0.2) ohm/Km. Find sending end voltage, transmission efficiency & regulation of line.

    • (b) Explain how the effect of corona can be minimized.

    Assignment No. II (2009-10)

    Note: Attempt All Questions M.M.=25

    • 1. (a) State the advantages and disadvantages of out door sub stations over

    indoor sub 10 stations.

    • (b) Describe briefly the equipments with their specifications needed for an 11

    KV pole mounted sub station.

    • (c) Explain any one method in detail for locating fault in the underground cable.

    • (d) In a test for a fault on a 500 m length of cable having a resistance of 1.0

    ohm/km. faulty cable is looped with a sound cable of the same length but having a resistance of 2.25 ohms/km. The resistances of the other two arms of the testing network, at balance, are in the ratio of 2.75:1. Calculate the distance of the fault

    from the testing end of the cable.

    • 2. (a) What are the advantages of 3 wire d.c. distribution over two wire

    distribution? 5

    (b)

    Mention advantages of ring main system over the radial system of

    distribution.

    (c)

    State the properties that the insulation used in under ground cable should

    have.

    • 3. (a) Three loads, A, B and C are connected to 250 volts supply points through

    10

    separate cables having resistance of 0.08, 0.1 and 0.12 Ω respectively. A is joined with B through 0.06 ohm connector and B is joined with C through a

    connector of resistance 0.04 Q. If the loads of 40, 60 and 30A are connected at points A & B and C respectively, determine the voltage at these load points.

    • (b) A d.c. two wire distributor AB 600 m long is fed with 440 V at point A and

    230

    V at point B, the distributor is loaded as: lOOAatC, 150m from A;

    Electrical Machines II (DPG-302

    Assignment No. I (2009-10) Note: Attempt All Questions M.M.-25

    • 1. (a) Obtain the speed-frequency relationship of synchronous generator. 9

      • (b) Derive the expression of coil spanfactor and distribution factor

    (c) How is armature reaction compensated in synchronous generators?

    • 2. (a) What are the conditions for parallel operation of 3-phase synchronous

    generators. 9

    • (b) A 1000 KVA, 6.6 KV, 3-phase, 50 Hz star connected synchronous generator

    has a synchronous reactance of 25Ω per phase. It supplies full load current at 0.8 lagging p.f. and rated terminal voltage. Compute the terminal

    voltage for the same excitation when the generator supplies full load current at

    0.8

     

    leading p.f.

    (c)

    Explain the dark lamp method of synchronization of synchronous

    generators.

    3.

    (a) What are the effects of change of prime mover input on the synchronous

    7

     

    generator?

    • (b) Draw and explain the curves between power developed and the power angle

    for salient-pole and non-salient pole synchronous generators.

    • (c) A 2500 V, 3-phase star connected motor has a synchronous reactance of 5Ω

    per phase. The motor input is 1000 KW at rated voltage and an excitation emf of 3600 V (line). Calculate the line current and power factor.

    POWER SYSTEM –II

    Sub. Code: E-401

    UNIT I

    Faults in power systems, single line diagram, equivalent impedance diagram, per unit

    reactances. Analysis (using matrices) of power systems by symmetrical components

    under:

    (a) Three phase short circuit (b) Line to line fault (c) Line to ground fault (d) Double line

    to ground fault.

    Sequence networks and their inter connections for different types of faults, effects of fault

    impedance.Current Limiting Reactors: Applications, types, construction and location of

    current limiting reactors, short circuit calculation using reactors.

    UNIT II

    Introduction, Bus Admittance Matrix, Formation of Ybus & Zbus, Load flow equation &

    solution, iterative methods, Gauss-Seidel and Newton-Raphson methods, Jacobian

    Matrix, Fast Decoupled load flow.

    UNIT III

    Philosophy of protective relaying system, construction and realization of characteristics

    of different protective relays. Components of Protection System

    Conventional and Static relays – advantages and limitations, static amplitude and phase

    comparators, level detectors, logic and training circuits, static over current, directional,

    distance relays. Numerical over current and distance protection.

    UNIT IV

    Types & detection of faults and their effects, alternator protection scheme (stator, rotor,

    reverse power protection etc.). Power transformer protection (external and internal faults

    protection), bus bar protection. Transmission line protection (current/time grading,

    distance, carrier aided protection).

    UNIT V

    Theory of current interruption- energy balance and recovery rate theory, arc quenching,

    recovery and restriking voltages. Types of circuit breakers. bulk oil and minimum oil, air

    break and air blast, sulphur hexa floride (SF6) and vacuum circuit breakers. Rating

    selection and testing of circuit breakers/operating mechanisms. LT switchgear, HRC

    fuses, types construction and applications.

    Reference Books :

    • - Electrical Power Systems - C.L.Wadhwa

    • - Modern Power System Analysis - Nagrath & Kothari

    • - Fundamentals of power system protection - Y.G.Paithankar & S.R.Bhinde

    • - Power System Protection - Badriram & Vishwakarma

    • - Power System Protection & Switchgear - Ravindranath & Chander

    CONTROL SYSTEM –II

    Sub. Code: