Fuselage Arrangement

1. Niu, Airframe Structural Design
General configuration Fuselage = Semi-monocoque structure = ³thin-skinned shell stiffened by longitudinal stringers which, in turn, are supported by transverse frames´. High strength to weight ratio. Can withstand local failure without total failure (load redistribution). Thins sheets: efficient in resisting shear and tension loads in the plane of the sheet but need to be stiffened longitudinally and transversely to carry compression loads+loads normal to skin design of semi-monocoque system requires sheet stability+panel buckling + semi-diagonal tension field action. 2 major issues:
y y

Check that stress is correctly distributed in the structure, and how it is distributed Check that stresses are reasonable for the structure taken as a whole as well as its components taken alone Skin instability: because of their low thickness and their curvature, skin components tend to buckle easily (under low compressive or and shear stress). If no requirements thick panels, or high number or stringers, which triggers a low pitch between each of them = inefficient design But stringers are relatively efficient design, so buckling of the skin = not an important factor in limiting the ultimate strength of the structural system. Stress redistribution over the entire structure when buckling starts important to detect when buckling starts! ³In some cases, the design criteria will specify that buckling is not allowed below a certain percent of limit load or design load´. Panel instability: panel = parts of the fuselage (skin+stringers) separated by the frames. ³If these frames are sufficiently rigid, a semi-monocoque structure if subjected to bending will fail on the compression side. [«] Initial failure thus occurs in a single panel and is referred to as panel instability failure.´ Frames stiff because must carry various loads of the inside of the cabin (payload). Other load to be considered when designing stringers: shear forces transferred (³by semi diagonal tension field action´) by the skin panels when skins buckle under shear or compressive loads. General Instability: same as panel instability, but extended over several panels. Happens when frames are not stiff enough. Aim = ensure that failure through panel instability and not through general instability. Equation for frame stiffness (p.378):

3 types of instability failure of semi-monocoque structures:



E = Elasticity modulus I = Moment of inertia of frame

strong structures that are relatively easy to produce and maintain´ y Most efficient structure least number of joints or splices panels as large as possible. Weather radar antenna. pressure Secondary loads (from function or utility of the airplane) = loads from large equipment (galleys. passengers. stringers and longerons (longitudinal elements) Skin+stringers: y Stringers: stabilize the external skin + ³carry axial loads induced by the bending moment´ y ³carries the shear from the applied external transverse and torsional forces. seats«) Other important parameter: cross-section for passenger transport Fuselage = external skin + stiffening members Stiffening members = frames and bulkheads (transverse elements). . pitching moment (from wing). thrust. maneuvering tail loads (from empennage).036 in. and cabin pressure´ y ³It carries all of the primary loads due to fuselage bending. the load can be carried by adjacent parts´ 2) Use of a ³restrainer or a failsafe strap that will contain the failure within controllable limits´. y Stringer spacing varies between 6 to 10 inches. y Ideal shape for the fuselage cross section = true cylinder y Minimum thickness for the fuselage skin: 0. shear. y Fatigue = ³Primary design consideration´ ³repeated tension loading = critical fatigue condition´ ³it must have a fail-safe design where an individual part failure can be sustained or retained until it is found and repaired before it results in a catastrophic failure´ Failsafe design concepts: 1) ³break the component down into several small overlapping pieces´ ³if 1 fails. but panels limited by ³available mill sizes´ and stringer length limited by manufacturing technique y Skin and stringer spliced at the same location to maintain the relative stiffness of the skin/stringer combination. ³which is desirable from a fatigue standpoint´. large cavities for wings+landing gears Primary structural requirements: y y Primary flight loads (only flight and environment conditions) = lift.D = Diameter of stiffened fuselage L = Frame Spacing M = Bending moment of fuselage Configuration: 1) 2) 3) 4) Efficient pressure structure (cylindrical cross-section + spherical end caps). Compromises for passengers (cutouts for doors+windows). Compromises for better aerodynamics. torsion and cabin pressure´ y ³«lightweight.

p. ³redistribute shear around structural discontinuities.  Act as ³support shell (fuselage skin-stringer panel) compression/shear  ³Distribute concentrated loads´ onto the shell. At ³points of introduction of concentrated forces´ (wings. 2 Fail-safe strap located between skin and frame (Courtesy Niu. C-section for bulkhead . p. hoop tension low enough to Frames: y Functions:  Maintain the shape of the fuselage + ³reduce the column length of the stringers to prevent general instability of the structure´. landing gear) y Frame cap = usually Z-section. Fig. tail surface. Generally light parts because frame loads small and compensate each other.388) When skin thickness determined by bending loads consider that fatigue is not critical. 1 Data for fail-safe strap in fuselage sections (Courtesy Niu. and transfer loads at major points´  Act as crack stoppers  ³serve to distribute the applied loads into the fuselage skins´.383) Fig.3) Doublers bonded to the skin: ³acts as fail-safe strap in the station plane and a bearing plate for the rivets that attach the stringers´.

³acts as frame web panel stiffener´. It helps to keep the desired shape for the skin (especially when the contour is not circular).392) y Frame spacing influences weight of bulkheads and flooring and ³can have a substantial impact on compressive skin panel design´ . ³helps break up excessive column length of stringers´. 3 Clip arrangement Functions of the clip: ³transfers skin panel normal pressure loads to frame´. 4. ³provides some degree of compressive strength of frame inner chord (cap)´  Another possibility is the use of a shear tie Functions of the tie: shear load path between frame and fuselage skin. the frames hold the shear ties and the stringers in the desired shape.y Attachment frame/skin:  ³by means of an angle or clip´ Fig. Meanwhile.392 Shear tie design (Courtesy Niu. p. Fig.

Best shape = hemisphere because ³the membrane stresses for a given amount of material are the least´ with this configuration. Pressure bulkhead:  A dome is usually preferred to a flat bulkhead to close the rear fuselage. Aircraft Loading and structural layout Cross section shape y y Rectangular cross sections are efficient in terms of space. ³preferable to react as much of the loading as possible in the outer shell´. with a tie at the intersection between the latest.Fig.´ 2. the only function of the frame is to help stabilizing the shape of the skin and to prevent buckling from occurring (pressure loads are carried in hoop tension)  When the frame is located in a nonradial contour area. ³pressure loads combine with the stabilizing loads to produce large bending moments´. but are not often used (except in fighter aircraft) because they are ³not suitable when a substantial pressure differential is a requirement´ ³cross sections based on the use of circular arcs´ with ³as small as a radius as possible´ are more appropriate to limit the stresses. dome and aft body fuselage ± to form a single lap joint. In that case. Other possibility: cross section made of the combination of several circles.  Connection bulkhead/cabin shell : it is necessary to ³avoid any radial offset between the shell and the dome skins´. Howe. Usual ring or frame spacing : 20 inches for transport airplanes 2 types of frames: ³ordinary frames and frames (including bulkheads) specially stiffened for various purposes´ Two main situations:  When the contour is circular (round). ³The joint itself is made by sandwiching the three skins ± aft section fuselage. ³the structural layout is fundamentally unchanched when composites are used´. Structural layout ± Skin and longitudinal stringers y y y . ³large pressurized fuselage structures are less amenable to the application of composite materials than are lifting surface components´. 5 Influence of frame spacing on flooring and bulkhead weight y y y Bulkhead weight increases again from a particular spacing value because of the addition of some stoppers which prevent cracks from propagating.

Other possibility: ³floating frames´ which are attached only to the stringers (better from a manufacturing point of view) requires the introduction of bands to perform the function of crack stoppers Used to ³transmit shear loads and maintain torsional integrity where the cross section has major changes in shape´ React loads in bending Occur at the end of a pressure cabin of fuel tank Two main design philosophies: ³either curved. ³a conductive surface coating of flame-sprayed tin was selected to prevent lightning penetration´ Repair when forward fuselage is damaged: because it is a secondary type structure. so as to react the ³direct stresses due to both the vertical and lateral bending loads´. the use of four longitudinal booms (longerons) is recommended. Outer shell used to ³support the longerons against overall compression buckling and to provide shear carrying capacity´ Closely spaced frames stabilize the skins against shear buckling Used to ³transmit local shear loads into the structure´ + sometimes help to react the pressurization loads Continuous direct contact with the skin is required to ensure the function of crack stopper the stringers pass through and are ³cleated to it´. membrane type´ (lighter but connections with the rest of the fuselage are made more complicated) or flat FIGURE 14. Electromagnetic leakage: to ensure correct performance of the on-board avionics systems. both the pressurization (especially for large cross section) and the shear loading need to be taken into account.23 Frames y y y y Bulkhead y y y y 3. but the number of division needs to be minimized to save more weight (need for reinforcement) Skin joints = frame or longitudinal stringers When loading is low or when ³basic fuselage is extensively interrupted by cut-outs´. ³damage is greatly reduced by applying a thin metallic coating to spread and dissipate the lightning energy´ « ³five woven cloth plies (0.y y y y y y To determine fuselage skin thickness. AV-8B/GR Mk 5 airframe composite applications y y y Lightning protection: designed to withstand a 100 kA swept stroke lightning restrike. it can be done through the addition of local wet lay-up to re-establish the five-ply thickness.  ³Tests show little difference in shielding between carbon/epoxy and aluminum structures because of joint effects´. Loads more uniform in distribution the use of tapered thickness and integral machining is not as spread as for lifting surfaces Fuselage built in lengthwise sections. .070 in skin thickness) are required to prevent penetration´. tests were carried out for the choice of the material and following conclusions have been drawn:  ³Carbon/epoxy has the inherent shielding capability needed for fighter aircraft design´.

 ³Antennae for UHF and L-brand systems function properly when using carbon/epoxy ground planes´. . ³Designs such as finger doublers and/or tin plating are effective in reducing the electromagnetic field leakage through carbon/epoxy joints´.

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